WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanostructured solar cell

  1. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  2. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  3. Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The experimental work in this thesis is focused on the fabrication of nanostructures that can be implemented in organic solar cell (OSC) architecture for enhancement of the device performance. Solar devices made from organic material are gaining increased attention, compared to their inorganic...... counterparts, due to the promising advantages, such as transparency, flexibility, ease of processing etc. But their efficiencies cannot be compared to the inorganic ones. Boosting the efficiency of OSCs by nanopatterning has thus been puzzling many researchers within the past years. Therefore various methods...... have been proposed to be used for developing efficient nanostructures for OSC devices such as, plasmonic structures, nanowires (NWs), gratings, nanorods etc. The nanostructuring methods applied though, do not offer the possibility of a cheap, rapid, reproducible and scalable fabrication. It is the aim...

  4. Fullerenes and nanostructured plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Hummelen, Jan C.; Kuzmany, H; Fink, J; Mehring, M; Roth, S

    1998-01-01

    We report on the present on the present status of the plastic solar cell and on the design of fullerene derivatives and pi-conjugated donor molecules that can function as acceptor-donor pairs and (supra-) molecular building blocks in organized, nanostructured interpenetrating networks, forming a

  5. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  6. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Té treault, Nicolas; Grä tzel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D

  7. Novel nanostructures for next generation dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tétreault, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we review our latest advancements in nanostructured photoanodes for next generation photovoltaics in general and dye-sensitized solar cells in particular. Bottom-up self-assembly techniques are developed to fabricate large-area 3D nanostructures that enable enhanced charge extraction and light harvesting through optical scattering or photonic crystal effects to improve photocurrent, photovoltage and fill factor. Using generalized techniques to fabricate specialized nanostructures enables specific optoelectronic and physical characteristics like conduction, charge extraction, injection, recombination and light harvesting but also helps improve mechanical flexibility and long-term stability in low cost materials. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. The generalized Shockley-Queisser limit for nanostructured solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunlu; Gong, Tao; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2015-09-01

    The Shockley-Queisser limit describes the maximum solar energy conversion efficiency achievable for a particular material and is the standard by which new photovoltaic technologies are compared. This limit is based on the principle of detailed balance, which equates the photon flux into a device to the particle flux (photons or electrons) out of that device. Nanostructured solar cells represent a novel class of photovoltaic devices, and questions have been raised about whether or not they can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here we show that single-junction nanostructured solar cells have a theoretical maximum efficiency of ˜42% under AM 1.5 solar illumination. While this exceeds the efficiency of a non-concentrating planar device, it does not exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit for a planar device with optical concentration. We consider the effect of diffuse illumination and find that with optical concentration from the nanostructures of only × 1,000, an efficiency of 35.5% is achievable even with 25% diffuse illumination. We conclude that nanostructured solar cells offer an important route towards higher efficiency photovoltaic devices through a built-in optical concentration.

  9. Nanostructured dye-sensitized solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Giuseppina

    2014-01-01

    2012/2013 Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) represent a promising alternative to silicon-based technology. From the first publications about DSSCs in the 90s, they are considered an important breakthrough for achieving high efficiency by using relatively inexpensive and abundant materials. Stability and efficiency are two crucial points in the development of this new class of hybrid photovoltaic devices. Most of the DSSC studies carried out over the past twenty years are based on the o...

  10. Modeling nanostructure-enhanced light trapping in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, Jost

    A promising approach for improving the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells (OSCs) is by incorporating nanostructures in their thin film architecture to improve the light absorption in the device’s active polymer layers. Here, we present a modelling framework for the prediction...... of optical and plasmonic field enhancement by nanostructures in (or close to) the active layers and electrodes in OSCs. We incorporate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations alongside semi- analytical approaches, as the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) and mode-coupling theory. Our simulation...

  11. Photon absorption models in nanostructured semiconductor solar cells and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended to be used by materials and device physicists and also solar cells researchers. It models the performance characteristics of nanostructured solar cells and resolves the dynamics of transitions between several levels of these devices. An outstanding insight into the physical behaviour of these devices is provided, which complements experimental work. This therefore allows a better understanding of the results, enabling the development of new experiments and optimization of new devices. It is intended to be accessible to researchers, but also to provide engineering tools w

  12. Photonic Nanostructures Design and Optimization for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a semiconducting photonic nanostructure capable of wide range absorption and tunable optical resonance has been designed with a proposed theoretical optimization model. The design consists of ZnO/CdS core-shell nanowire arrays as well as multilayer thin films that act to absorb incident electromagnetic (EM waves over a broad frequency range. Theoretical, as well as numerical, studies of the nanostructure inside a solar cell plate have been conducted in order to validate the proposed microstructural design. Excellent energy absorption rates of EM waves have been achieved in the high frequency range by using the optical resonance of the nanowire array. By combining multilayer thin film with the core-shell nanowire in the unit cell of a photonic solar cell, a broadband high absorption has been achieved. Moreover, the geometry of the proposed photonic nanostructure is obtained through the implementation of a genetic algorithm. This avoids local minima and an optimized absorption rate of ~90% over the frequency range of 300 to 750 THz has been obtained in the solar cell.

  13. Contribution of Nanostructures in High Performance Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Abouelmaaty M.; Ebrahim, Essamudin A.; Sweelem, Emad

    2017-11-01

    Nanotechnology has great contributions in various fields, especially in solar energy conversion through solar cells (SCs). Nanostructured SCs can provide high performance with lower fabrication costs. The transition from fossil fuel energy to renewable sustainable energy represents a major technological challenge for the world. In the last years, the industry of SCs has grown rapidly due to strong attention in renewable energy in order to handle the problem of global climate change that is now believed to occur due to use of the fossil fuels. Cost is an influential factor in the eventual success of any solar technology, since inexpensive SCs are needed to produce electricity, especially for rural areas and for third world countries. Therefore, new developments in nanotechnology may open the door for the production of inexpensive and more efficient SCs by reducing the manufacturing costs of SCs. Utilizing nanotechnology in cheaper SCs will help maintain the environment. This article covers a review of the progress that has been made to-date to enhance efficiencies of various nanostructures used in SCs, including utilizations of all the wavelengths present in of the solar spectrum.

  14. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics

  15. Facile Hydrothermal Synthesis of Tellurium Nanostructures for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Panahi-Kalamuei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tellurium (Te nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal methodfrom the reaction of a TeCl4 aqueous solution with thioglycolic acid (TGA as a reductant. TGA can be easily oxidized to the corresponding disulfide [SCH2CO2H]2, which in turn can reduce TeCl4 to Te. The obtained Te was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, and DRS. The effect of reducing agent on morphology and size of the products were also studied. Additionally, Te thin film was deposited on the FTO-TiO2 by Dr- blading then employed to solar cell application and measured open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current (Isc, and fill factor (FF were determined as well. The studies showed that particle morphology and sizes play crucial role on solar cell efficiencies.

  16. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath

    2011-09-15

    Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next-generation photovoltaic systems. However, carrier extraction limitations necessitate thin active layers that sacrifice absorption for internal quantum efficiency or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D and multi-level ITO-air gratings lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model organic solar cell where PCDTBT:PC71BM is the organic semiconductor. Specific to this approach, the active layer itself remains untouched yet receives the benefit of light trapping by nanostructuring the top surface below which it lies. The techniques developed here are broadly applicable to organic semiconductors in general, and enable partial decoupling between active layer thickness and photocurrent generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

  17. Enhanced light absorption of silicon solar cells with dielectric nanostructured back reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rui; Zhong, Zheng

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the light absorption property of nanostructured dielectric reflectors in silicon thin film solar cells using numerical simulation. Flat thin film solar cell with ZnO nanostructured back reflector can produce comparable photocurrent to the control model with Ag nanostructured back reflector. Furthermore, when it is integrated with nano-pillar surface decoration, a photocurrent density of 29.5 mA/cm2 can be achieved, demonstrating a photocurrent enhancement of 5% as compared to the model with Ag nanostructured back reflector.

  18. Angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Ormstrup, Jeppe; Ommen, Martin Lind

    2015-01-01

    current, open circuit voltage, fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency are each measured as function of the relative incident angle between the solar cell and the light source. The relative incident angle is varied from 0° to 90° in steps of 10° in orthogonal axes, such that each solar cell......We report angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells. The nanostructured solar cells are realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing of the surface. Photovoltaic properties including short circuit...

  19. Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin; Corkish, Richard; Cho, Young; Cho, Eun-Chel; Jiang, Chu-Wei; Fangsuwannarak, Thipwan; Pink, Edwin; Huang, Yidan; Puzzer, Tom; Trupke, Thorsten; Richards, Bryce; Shalav, Avi; Lin, Kuo-lung

    2006-01-01

    The concept of third generation photovoltaics is to significantly increase device efficiencies whilst still using thin film processes and abundant non-toxic materials. This can be achieved by circumventing the Shockley-Queisser limit for single band gap devices, using multiple energy threshold approaches. At University of NSW, as part of our work on Third Generation devices, we are using the energy confinement of silicon based quantum dot nanostructures to engineer wide band gap materials to be used as upper cell elements in Si based tandem cells. HRTEM data shows Si nanocrystal formation in oxide and nitride matrixes with a controlled nanocrystal size, grown by layered reactive sputtering and layered PECVD. Photoluminescence evidence for quantum confinement in the Si quantum dots in oxide agrees with the calculated increase in PL energy with reduction in dot size. Resistivity measurements with temperature give tentative proof of conduction and we are investigating junction formation in these materials. We are also using similar Si quantum dot structures in double barrier resonant tunneling structures for use in hot carrier solar cell contacts. These must collect carriers over a limited energy range. Negative differential resistance has been observed in room temperature I-V on these samples, a necessary proof of concept for selective energy filter contacts

  20. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin-Ping

    2017-07-11

    Recent technological advances in conventional planar and microstructured solar cell architectures have significantly boosted the efficiencies of these devices near the corresponding theoretical values. Nanomaterials and nanostructures have promising potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However, at present the efficiency of nanostructured solar cells remains lower than that of conventional solar devices due to the accompanying losses associated with the employment of nanomaterials. The concurrent design of both optical and electrical components will presumably be an imperative route toward breaking the present-day limit of nanostructured solar cells. This review summarizes the losses in traditional solar cells, and then discusses recent advances in applications of nanotechnology to solar devices from both optical and electrical perspectives. Finally, a rule for nanostructured solar cells by concurrently engineering the optical and electrical design is devised. Following these guidelines should allow for exceeding the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency soon.

  1. Nanostructured Semiconductor Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cavallo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since O’Regan and Grätzel’s first report in 1991, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs appeared immediately as a promising low-cost photovoltaic technology. In fact, though being far less efficient than conventional silicon-based photovoltaics (being the maximum, lab scale prototype reported efficiency around 13%, the simple design of the device and the absence of the strict and expensive manufacturing processes needed for conventional photovoltaics make them attractive in small-power applications especially in low-light conditions, where they outperform their silicon counterparts. Nanomaterials are at the very heart of DSSC, as the success of its design is due to the use of nanostructures at both the anode and the cathode. In this review, we present the state of the art for both n-type and p-type semiconductors used in the photoelectrodes of DSSCs, showing the evolution of the materials during the 25 years of history of this kind of devices. In the case of p-type semiconductors, also some other energy conversion applications are touched upon.

  2. Printable nanostructured silicon solar cells for high-performance, large-area flexible photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Biswas, Roshni; Li, Weigu; Kang, Dongseok; Chan, Lesley; Yoon, Jongseung

    2014-10-28

    Nanostructured forms of crystalline silicon represent an attractive materials building block for photovoltaics due to their potential benefits to significantly reduce the consumption of active materials, relax the requirement of materials purity for high performance, and hence achieve greatly improved levelized cost of energy. Despite successful demonstrations for their concepts over the past decade, however, the practical application of nanostructured silicon solar cells for large-scale implementation has been hampered by many existing challenges associated with the consumption of the entire wafer or expensive source materials, difficulties to precisely control materials properties and doping characteristics, or restrictions on substrate materials and scalability. Here we present a highly integrable materials platform of nanostructured silicon solar cells that can overcome these limitations. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells integrated with engineered photonic nanostructures are fabricated directly from wafer-based source materials in configurations that can lower the materials cost and can be compatible with deterministic assembly procedures to allow programmable, large-scale distribution, unlimited choices of module substrates, as well as lightweight, mechanically compliant constructions. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties, photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling elucidate important design rules for nanoscale photon management with ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells and their interconnected, mechanically flexible modules, where we demonstrate 12.4% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency for printed ultrathin (∼ 8 μm) nanostructured silicon solar cells when configured with near-optimal designs of rear-surface nanoposts, antireflection coating, and back-surface reflector.

  3. Increased Efficiency of Solar Cells Protected by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Anti-Reflecting Nanostructured Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Estela; Torné, Lorena; Caño, Pablo; Postigo, Pablo A

    2017-12-14

    We investigated the fabrication of large-area (cm²) nanostructured glasses for solar cell modules with hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties using soft lithography and colloidal lithography. Both of these techniques entail low-cost and ease of nanofabrication. We explored the use of simple 1D and 2D nanopatterns (nanowires and nanocones) and the effect of introducing disorder in the nanostructures. We observed an increase in the transmitted light for ordered nanostructures with a maximum value of 99% for wavelengths >600 nm when ordered nanocones are fabricated on the two sides of the solar glass. They produced an increment in the efficiency of the packaged solar cell with respect to the glass without nanostructures. On the one hand, the wettability properties showed that the ordering of the nanostructures improved the hydrophobicity of the solar glasses and increased their self-cleaning capacity. On the other hand, the disordered nanostructures improved the hydrophilic properties of solar glasses, increasing their anti-fogging capacity. The results show that by selecting the appropriate nanopattern, the wettability properties (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) can be easily improved without decreasing the efficiency of the solar cell underneath.

  4. Enhanced blue responses in nanostructured Si solar cells by shallow doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sieun; Jeong, Doo Seok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, Taek Sung; Lee, Heon; Kim, Inho

    2018-03-01

    Optimally designed Si nanostructures are very effective for light trapping in crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. However, when the lateral feature size of Si nanostructures is comparable to the junction depth of the emitter, dopant diffusion in the lateral direction leads to excessive doping in the nanostructured emitter whereby poor blue responses arise in the external quantum efficiency (EQE). The primary goal of this study is to find the correlation of emitter junction depth and carrier collection efficiency in nanostructured c-Si solar cells in order to enhance the blue responses. We prepared Si nanostructures of nanocone shape by colloidal lithography, with silica beads of 520 nm in diameter, followed by a reactive ion etching process. c-Si solar cells with a standard cell architecture of an Al back surface field were fabricated varying the emitter junction depth. We varied the emitter junction depth by adjusting the doping level from heavy doping to moderate doping to light doping and achieved greatly enhanced blue responses in EQE from 47%-92% at a wavelength of 400 nm. The junction depth analysis by secondary ion mass-spectroscopy profiling and the scanning electron microscopy measurements provided us with the design guide of the doping level depending on the nanostructure feature size for high efficiency nanostructured c-Si solar cells. Optical simulations showed us that Si nanostructures can serve as an optical resonator to amplify the incident light field, which needs to be considered in the design of nanostructured c-Si solar cells.

  5. Nanostructured InGaP Solar Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The operating conditions of conventional multijunction solar cells are severely limited by the current matching requirements of serially connected devices. The goal...

  6. A Review on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Methods for Fabrication of Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of nanostructures into the organic solar cell (OSC) architecture has great influence on the device performance. Nanostructuring the active layer increases the interfacial area between donor and acceptor, which enhances the probability of exciton dissociation. Introduction of nanost......Implementation of nanostructures into the organic solar cell (OSC) architecture has great influence on the device performance. Nanostructuring the active layer increases the interfacial area between donor and acceptor, which enhances the probability of exciton dissociation. Introduction......, low fabrication cost and easy control over its nano-scale morphology, make AAO patterning methods an intriguing candidate for nanopatterning. Hence, in this work, we present a review on the fabrication techniques and on nanostructures from Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) for OSC applications...

  7. Photoelectrode nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cell | Kimpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used carica papaya (pawpaw leaf) extracts as natural organic dye for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Pawpaw leaf extract is rich in chlorophyll and was extracted using ethanol as the extracting solvent and serve as the sensitizer for DSSC. The specialty of the DSSC relative to other types of solar cells is the use ...

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradt, Jonas; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Sartor, Janos; Fallert, Johannes [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Szmytkowski, Jedrzej; Kalt, Heinz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinhard, Manuel; Colsmann, Alexander [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemmer, Uli [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Balaban, Teodor Silviu [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells represent a promising (cost-efficient) alternative to pure inorganic solar cells. We present dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) which are based on a zinc oxide (ZnO) electrode covered with a ruthenium dye. Our work focuses on the morphology of the ZnO electrode and its impact on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. Nanocrystalline ZnO powder layers and arrays of nanorods are incorporated into the DSSCs. The ZnO nanorods are grown by vapor transport deposition. The morphology and doping concentration of the rods can be controlled by the choice of substrate material, growth condition and catalytic metal layers. The nanorod arrays are expected to fasten the electron transport towards the anode and thereby improve the solar cell efficiency. In addition, novel self-assembling (porphyrin) dyes are tested as sensitizer within a DSSC.

  9. One-dimensional titania nanostructures: Synthesis and applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Shimin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Liu, Weimin [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-02

    One-dimensional (1D) titania (TiO{sub 2}) in the form of nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts and nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their unique physical, chemical and optical properties enabling extraordinary performance in biomedicine, sensors, energy storage, solar cells and photocatalysis. In this review, we mainly focus on synthetic methods for 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures and the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Traditional nanoparticle-based DSCs have numerous grain boundaries and surface defects, which increase the charge recombination from photoanode to electrolyte. 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures can provide direct and rapid electron transport to the electron collecting electrode, indicating a promising choice for DSCs. We divide the applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs into four parts, that is, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures only, 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructure/nanoparticle composites, branched 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures combined with other materials. This work will provide guidance for preparing 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures, and using them as photoanodes in efficient DSCs. - Graphical abstract: 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures which can provide direct and rapid pathways for electron transport have promising applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The synthetic methods and applications of 1D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures in DSCs are summarized in this review article.

  10. SiNx layers on nanostructured Si solar cells: Effective for optical absorption and carrier collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yunae; Kim, Eunah; Gwon, Minji; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kim, Joondong

    2015-01-01

    We compared nanopatterned Si solar cells with and without SiN x layers. The SiN x layer coating significantly improved the internal quantum efficiency of the nanopatterned cells at long wavelengths as well as short wavelengths, whereas the surface passivation helped carrier collection of flat cells mainly at short wavelengths. The surface nanostructured array enhanced the optical absorption and also concentrated incoming light near the surface in broad wavelength range. Resulting high density of the photo-excited carriers near the surface could lead to significant recombination loss and the SiN x layer played a crucial role in the improved carrier collection of the nanostructured solar cells

  11. The interplay of nanostructure and efficiency of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunhong, Yin

    2008-12-04

    The aim of this thesis is to achieve a deep understanding of the working mechanism of polymer based solar cells and to improve the device performance. Two types of the polymer based solar cells are studied here: the polymer-polymer solar cells, and the polymer-small molecule solar cell which has polymer as electron donor incorporating with organic small molecule as electron acceptor. For the polymer-polymer devices, I compared the photocurrent characteristics of bilayer and blend devices as well as the blend devices with different nano-morphology, which is fine tuned by applying solvents with different boiling points. The main conclusion based on the complementary measurements is that the performance-limiting step is the field-dependent generation of free charge carriers, while bimolecular recombination and charge extraction do not compromise device performance. Regarding polymer-small molecular hybrid solar cells I combined the hole-transporting polymer M3EH-PPV with a novel small molecule electron acceptor vinazene. This molecule can be either deposited from solution or by thermal evaporation, allowing for a large variety of layer architectures to be realized. I then demonstrated that the layer architecture has a large influence on the photovoltaic properties. Solar cells with very high fill factors of up to 57 % and an open circuit voltage of 1V without thermal treatment of the devices were achieved. In the past, fill factors of solar cells exceeding 50 % have only been observed when using fullerene-derivatives as the electron-acceptor. The finding that proper processing of polymer-vinazene devices leads to similar high values is a major step towards the design of efficient polymer-based solar cells. (orig.)

  12. Light-trapping in solar cells by photonic nanostructures. The need for benchmarking and fabrication assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzmann, F.O.; Salpakari, J.; Weeber, A.W.; Olson, C.L. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    Light-trapping in solar cells by photonic nanostructures, e.g., nano-textured surfaces or metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles is a research area of great promise. A large multitude of configurations is being explored and there is a rising need for (a set of) assessment elements that help to narrow in on the most viable ones. This paper discusses two examples: benchmark devices and the assessment of fabrication aspects for the nanostructures.

  13. Nanostructured thin films for multibandgap silicon triple junction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, R.E.I.; Li, H. B. T.; Franken, R.H.; Rath, J.K.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schuttauf, J.A.; Stolk, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable improvement in performance has been achieved for multibandgap proto-Si/proto-SiGe/nc-Si:H triple junction n–i–p solar cells in which hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) is used to obtain the absorber layers of the bottom and the top cell. To achieve this, optimized Ag/ZnO

  14. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels A.

    2012-10-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar cells is generally limited by poor light absorption. We propose an ultrathin-film silicon solar cell configuration based on SOI structure, where the light absorption is enhanced by use of plasmonic nanostructures. By placing a one-dimensional plasmonic nanograting on the bottom of the solar cell, the generated photocurrent for a 200 nm-thickness crystalline silicon solar cell can be enhanced by 90% in the considered wavelength range. These results are paving a promising way for the realization of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  15. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Nanostructure Graphene Electron Transfer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructure graphene thin films as electron transfer layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was demonstrated. The effect of a nanostructure graphene thin film in DSSC structure was examined. The nanostructure graphene thin films provides a great electron transfer channel for the photogenerated electrons from TiO2 to indium tin oxide (ITO glass. Obvious improvements in short-circuit current density of the DSSCs were observed by using the graphene electron transport layer modified photoelectrode. The graphene electron transport layer reduces effectively the back reaction in the interface between the ITO transparent conductive film and the electrolyte in the DSSC.

  16. Periodic nanostructures on unpolished substrates and their integration in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornago, I; Dominguez, S; Bravo, J; Ezquer, M; Rodríguez, M J; Lagunas, A R; Pérez-Conde, J; Rodriguez, R

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel fabrication process based on laser interference lithography, lift-off and reactive ion etching, which allows us to fabricate periodic nanostructures on photovoltaic substrates with an average root mean square (RMS) roughness of 750 nm. We fabricate nanostructures on unpolished crystalline silicon substrates, which reduces their reflectance 30% as fabricated. When an additional passivation layer is deposited, the light trapping grows, achieving a reflectance reduction of 60%. In addition, we have successfully integrated the nanostructured substrates in silicon wafer–based solar cells following standard processes, achieving a final efficiency of 15.56%. (paper)

  17. Synergistically Enhanced Performance of Ultrathin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Plasmonically Assisted, Multispectral Luminescent Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Dhar, Purnim; Chen, Huandong; Montenegro, Angelo; Liaw, Lauren; Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Benderskii, Alexander V.; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-04-12

    Ultrathin silicon solar cells fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of single-crystalline wafer materials represent an attractive materials platform that could provide many advantages for realizing high-performance, low-cost photovoltaics. However, their intrinsically limited photovoltaic performance arising from insufficient absorption of low-energy photons demands careful design of light management to maximize the efficiency and preserve the cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Herein we present an integrated flexible solar module of ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells capable of simultaneously exploiting spectral upconversion and downshifting in conjunction with multispectral luminescent waveguides and a nanostructured plasmonic reflector to compensate for their weak optical absorption and enhance their performance. The 8 μm-thick silicon solar cells incorporating a hexagonally periodic nanostructured surface relief are surface-embedded in layered multispectral luminescent media containing organic dyes and NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals as downshifting and upconverting luminophores, respectively, via printing-enabled deterministic materials assembly. The ultrathin nanostructured silicon microcells in the composite luminescent waveguide exhibit strongly augmented photocurrent (~40.1 mA/cm2) and energy conversion efficiency (~12.8%) than devices with only a single type of luminescent species, owing to the synergistic contributions from optical downshifting, plasmonically enhanced upconversion, and waveguided photon flux for optical concentration, where the short-circuit current density increased by ~13.6 mA/cm2 compared with microcells in a nonluminescent medium on a plain silver reflector under a confined illumination.

  18. Photosynthetic solar cell using nanostructured proton exchange membrane for microbial biofilm prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Oh, Hwa Jin; Bai, Seoung Jae; Song, Young Seok

    2014-06-24

    Unwanted biofilm formation has a detrimental effect on bioelectrical energy harvesting in microbial cells. This issue still needs to be solved for higher power and longer durability and could be resolved with the help of nanoengineering in designing and manufacturing. Here, we demonstrate a photosynthetic solar cell (PSC) that contains a nanostructure to prevent the formation of biofilm by micro-organisms. Nanostructures were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography, where a film heater array system was introduced to precisely control the local wall temperature. To understand the heat and mass transfer phenomena behind the manufacturing and energy harvesting processes of PSC, we carried out a numerical simulation and experimental measurements. It revealed that the nanostructures developed on the proton exchange membrane enable PSC to produce enhanced output power due to the retarded microbial attachment on the Nafion membrane. We anticipate that this strategy can provide a pathway where PSC can ensure more renewable, sustainable, and efficient energy harvesting performance.

  19. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Reyes, M. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)], E-mail: reyesm@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Lopez-Sandoval, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Garibay-Alonso, R. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, CP 78216. San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Carroll, D.L. [Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, Department of Physics. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem NC 27109 (United States); Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-11-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam.

  20. Methanofullerene elongated nanostructure formation for enhanced organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Reyes, M.; Lopez-Sandoval, R.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Garibay-Alonso, R.; Carroll, D.L.; Lastras-Martinez, A.

    2007-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Z-contrast imaging we have demonstrated elongated nanostructure formation of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) within an organic host through annealing. The annealing provides an enhanced mobility of the PCBM molecules and, with good initial dispersion, allows for the formation of exaggerated grain growth within the polymer host. We have assembled these nanostructures within the regioregular conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). This PCBM elongated nanostructure formation maybe responsible for the very high efficiencies observed, at very low loadings of PCBM (1:0.6, polymer to PCBM), in annealed photovoltaics. Moreover, our high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy studies clearly show that the PCBM crystals remain crystalline and are unaffected by the 200-keV electron beam

  1. Hybrid resonant organic-inorganic nanostructures for novel light emitting devices and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovich, Vladimir M. [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Texas (United States); Rupasov, Valery I. [ANTEOS, Inc., Shrewsbury, Massachusetts 01545 (United States); Silvestri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    The energy transfer from an inorganic layer to an organic component of resonant hybrid organic/inorganic nanos-tructures can be used for creation of new type of LED. We mentioned the problem of electrical pumping which has to be solved. As was first suggested in 1979 by Dexter the transfer energy in opposite direction from organic part of nanostructure to semiconductor layer can be used for the creation of new type of solar cells. In this note we stress the importance of the idea by Dexter for photovoltaics and solar cells. We argue that the organic part in such hybrid structures can play a role of an effective organic collector of the light energy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Materials for Cathode Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the most advanced methods for the fabrication of cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanostructured materials. The attention is focused on metal nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon, among which nanotubes and graphene, whose good catalytic properties make them ideal for the development of counter electrode substrates, transparent conducting oxide, and advanced catalyst materials.

  3. Photovoltaic Performance of a Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Nanostructure Array Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-02-23

    An innovative solar cell based on a nanowire/quantum dot hybrid nanostructure array is designed and analyzed. By growing multilayer InAs quantum dots on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires, not only the absorption spectrum of GaAs nanowires is extended by quantum dots but also the light absorption of quantum dots is dramatically enhanced due to the light-trapping effect of the nanowire array. By incorporating five layers of InAs quantum dots into a 500-nm high-GaAs nanowire array, the power conversion efficiency enhancement induced by the quantum dots is six times higher than the power conversion efficiency enhancement in thin-film solar cells which contain the same amount of quantum dots, indicating that the nanowire array structure can benefit the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot solar cells.

  4. Plasmonic Nanostructure for Enhanced Light Absorption in Ultrathin Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinna He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of thin film solar cells are considerably limited by the low light absorption. Plasmonic nanostructures have been introduced in the thin film solar cells as a possible solution around this issue in recent years. Here, we propose a solar cell design, in which an ultrathin Si film covered by a periodic array of Ag strips is placed on a metallic nanograting substrate. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed structure gives rise to 170% light absorption enhancement over the full solar spectrum with respect to the bared Si thin film. The excited multiple resonant modes, including optical waveguide modes within the Si layer, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR of Ag stripes, and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP arising from the bottom grating, and the coupling effect between LSPR and SPP modes through an optimization of the array periods are considered to contribute to the significant absorption enhancement. This plasmonic solar cell design paves a promising way to increase light absorption for thin film solar cell applications.

  5. Fabrication of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with a 3D Nanostructured Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC scheme for better solar conversion efficiency is proposed. The distinctive characteristic of this novel scheme is that the conventional thin film electrode is replaced by a 3D nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO electrode, which was fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. The template was prepared by immersing the barrier-layer side of an AAO film into a 30 wt% phosphoric acid solution to produce a contrasting surface. RF magnetron sputtering was then used to deposit a 3D nanostructured ITO thin film on the template. The crystallinity and conductivity of the 3D ITO films were further enhanced by annealing. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were electrophoretically deposited on the 3D ITO film after which the proposed DSSC was formed by filling vacant spaces in the 3D nanostructured ITO electrode with dye. The measured solar conversion efficiency of the device was 0.125%. It presents a 5-fold improvement over that of conventional spin-coated TiO2 film electrode DSSCs.

  6. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Raman, Aaswath; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui

    2011-01-01

    or vice versa. Motivated by recent theoretical developments, we show that dielectric wavelength-scale grating structures can produce significant absorption resonances in a realistic organic cell architecture. We numerically demonstrate that 1D, 2D

  7. Design and optimization of Ag-dielectric core-shell nanostructures for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xiang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal-dielectric core-shell nanostructures have been proposed as a light trapping scheme for enhancing the optical absorption of silicon solar cells. As a potential application of such enhanced effects, the scattering efficiencies of three core-shell structures (Ag@SiO2, Ag@TiO2, and Ag@ZrO2 are discussed using the Mie Scattering theory. For compatibility with experiment results, the core diameter and shell thickness are limited to 100 and 30 nm, respectively, and a weighted scattering efficiency is introduced to evaluate the scattering abilities of different nanoparticles under the solar spectrum AM 1.5. The simulated results indicate that the shell material and thickness are two key parameters affecting the weighted scattering efficiency. The SiO2 is found to be an unsuitable shell medium because of its low refractive index. However, using the high refractive index mediumTiO2 in Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles, only the thicker shell (30 nm is more beneficial for light scattering. The ZrO2 is an intermediate refractive index material, so Ag@ZrO2 nanoparticles are the most effective core-shell nanostructures in these silicon solar cells applications.

  8. An effective medium model versus a network model for nano-structured solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnaert, B.; Grasso, C.; Burgelman, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, two methods are compared to model the I-V curves of nano-structured solar cells. These cells consist of an interpenetrating network of an n-type transparent semiconductor oxide (e.g. TiO 2 ) and a p-type semiconductor absorber (e.g. CdTe, CuInS 2 ), deposited on TCO covered glass. The methods are also applicable when a dye and an electrolyte replace the p-semiconductor, and even to organic bulk heterojunction cells. A network model (NM) with resistors and diodes has been published by us before. Another method which has been proposed in the literature is an effective medium model (EMM). In this model, the whole p-n nano-structure is represented by one single effective semiconductor layer, which then is fed into a standard solar cell device simulator, e.g. SCAPS. In this work, it is shown that the NM and the EMM can describe the same physical structure, when they are set up properly. As an illustration, some problems are described both by EMM and NM, and the results are compared. The EMM in this work confirms the results obtained earlier with a simplified NM (constant R n , R p ): when illuminating the n-side, the structure is tolerant to R n but not to R p ; the interpenetrating geometry is disadvantageous for V oc . (authors)

  9. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  10. Trade-off between Photon Management Efficacy and Material Quality in Thin-Film Solar Cells on Nanostructured Substrates of High Aspect Ratio Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Chin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although texturing of the transparent electrode of thin-film solar cells has long been used to enhance light absorption via light trapping, such texturing has involved low aspect ratio features. With the recent development of nanotechnology, nanostructured substrates enable improved light trapping and enhanced optical absorption via resonances, a process known as photon management, in thin-film solar cells. Despite the progress made in the development of photon management in thin-film solar cells using nanostructures substrates, the structural integrity of the thin-film solar cells deposited onto such nanostructured substrates is rarely considered. Here, we report the observation of the reduction in the open circuit voltage of amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto a nanostructured substrate with increasing areal number density of high aspect ratio structures. For a nanostructured substrate with the areal number density of such nanostructures increasing in correlation with the distance from one edge of the substrate, a correlation between the open circuit voltage reduction and the increase of the areal number density of high aspect ratio nanostructures of the front electrode of the small-size amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto different regions of the substrate with graded nanostructure density indicates the effect of the surface morphology on the material quality, i.e., a trade-off between photon management efficacy and material quality. This observed trade-off highlights the importance of optimizing the morphology of the nanostructured substrate to ensure conformal deposition of the thin-film solar cell.

  11. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Meier, Matthias, E-mail: ma.meier@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Moulin, Etienne, E-mail: e.moulin@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Smirnov, Vladimir, E-mail: v.smirnov@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Pieters, Bart E., E-mail: b.pieters@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Rau, Uwe, E-mail: u.rau@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Carius, Reinhard, E-mail: r.carius@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells.

  12. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W.; Meier, Matthias; Moulin, Etienne; Smirnov, Vladimir; Pieters, Bart E.; Rau, Uwe; Carius, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells

  13. Photovoltaic reciprocity and quasi-Fermi level splitting in nanostructure-based solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2017-04-01

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions [1]. So far, the theory has been verified for a wide range of devices and material systems and forms the basis of a growing number of luminesecence imaging techniques used in the characterization of photovoltaic materials, cells and modules [2-5]. However, there are also some examples where the theory fails, such as in the case of amorphous silicon. In our contribution, we critically assess the assumptions made in the derivation of the theory and compare its predictions with rigorous formal relations as well as numerical computations in the framework of a comprehensive quantum-kinetic theory of photovoltaics [6] as applied to ultra-thin absorber architectures [7]. One of the main applications of the photovoltaic reciprocity relation is the determination of quasi-Fermi level splittings (QFLS) in solar cells from the measurement of luminescence. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic architectures, the determination of QFLS is challenging, but instrumental to assess the performance potential of the concepts. Here, we use our quasi-Fermi level-free theory to investigate existence and size of QFLS in quantum well and quantum dot solar cells. [1] Uwe Rau. Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electrolumines- cent emission of solar cells. Phys. Rev. B, 76(8):085303, 2007. [2] Thomas Kirchartz and Uwe Rau. Electroluminescence analysis of high efficiency cu(in,ga)se2 solar cells. J. Appl. Phys., 102(10), 2007. [3] Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau, Martin Hermle, Andreas W. Bett, Anke Helbig, and Jrgen H. Werner. Internal voltages in GaInP-GaInAs-Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electro- luminescence measurements. Appl. Phys. Lett., 92(12), 2008. [4] Thomas Kirchartz, Anke Helbig, Wilfried Reetz, Michael Reuter, Jürgen H. Werner, and

  14. Hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Ghods, Farbod; Docampo, Pablo; Abrusci, Agnese; Martí-Rujas, Javier; Ghidelli, Matteo; Divitini, Giorgio; Ducati, Caterina; Binda, Maddalena; Guarnera, Simone; Li Bassi, Andrea; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Snaith, Henry J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2013-11-26

    In this work we demonstrate hyperbranched nanostructures, grown by pulsed laser deposition, composed of one-dimensional anatase single crystals assembled in arrays of high aspect ratio hierarchical mesostructures. The proposed growth mechanism relies on a two-step process: self-assembly from the gas phase of amorphous TiO2 clusters in a forest of tree-shaped hierarchical mesostructures with high aspect ratio; oriented crystallization of the branches upon thermal treatment. Structural and morphological characteristics can be optimized to achieve both high specific surface area for optimal dye uptake and broadband light scattering thanks to the microscopic feature size. Solid-state dye sensitized solar cells fabricated with arrays of hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures on FTO-glass sensitized with D102 dye showed a significant 66% increase in efficiency with respect to a reference mesoporous photoanode and reached a maximum efficiency of 3.96% (among the highest reported for this system). This result was achieved mainly thanks to an increase in photogenerated current directly resulting from improved light harvesting efficiency of the hierarchical photoanode. The proposed photoanode overcomes typical limitations of 1D TiO2 nanostructures applied to ss-DSC and emerges as a promising foundation for next-generation high-efficiency solid-state devices comprosed of dyes, polymers, or quantum dots as sensitizers.

  15. Using silicon nanostructures for the improvement of silicon solar cells' efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, J. de la; Bremond, G.; Lemiti, M.; Guillot, G.; Mur, P.; Buffet, N.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nanostructures (ns-Si) show interesting optical and electrical properties as a result of the band gap widening caused by quantum confinement effects. Along with their potential utilization for silicon-based light emitters' fabrication, they could also represent an appealing option for the improvement of energy conversion efficiency in silicon-based solar cells whether by using their luminescence properties (photon down-conversion) or the excess photocurrent produced by an improved high-energy photon's absorption. In this work, we report on the morphological and optical studies of non-stoichiometric silica (SiO x ) and silicon nitride (SiN x ) layers containing silicon nanostructures (ns-Si) in view of their application for solar cell's efficiency improvement. The morphological studies of the samples performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) unambiguously show the presence of ns-Si in a crystalline form for high temperature-annealed SiO x layers and for low temperature deposition of SiN x layers. The photoluminescence emission (PL) shows a rather high efficiency in both kind of layers with an intensity of only a factor ∼ 100 lower than that of porous silicon (pi-Si). The photocurrent spectroscopy (PC) shows a significant increase of absorption at high photon energy excitation most probably related to photon absorption within ns-Si quantized states. Moreover, the absorption characteristics obtained from PC spectra show a good agreement with the PL emission states unambiguously demonstrating a same origin, related to Q-confined excitons within ns-Si. Finally, the major asset of this material is the possibility to incorporate it to solar cells manufacturing processing for an insignificant cost

  16. Thin nanostructured crystalline TiO{sub 2} films and their applications in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yajun

    2007-06-15

    Research on thin nanostructured crystalline TiO{sub 2} films has attracted considerable interests because of their intriguing physical properties and potential applications in photovoltaics. Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} film plays an important role in the TiO{sub 2} based dye-sensitized solar cells because they act as a substrate for the adsorption of dye molecules and a matrix for the transportation of electrons as well. Thus they can influence the solar cell performance significantly. Consequently, the control of the morphology including the shape, size and size distribution of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures is critical to tune and optimize the performance of the solar cells. To control the TiO{sub 2} morphology, a strategy using amphiphilic block copolymer as templating agent coupled with sol-gel chemistry has been applied. Especially, a good-poor solvent pair induced phase separation process has been developed to guide the microphase separation behavior of the block copolymers. The amphiphilic block copolymers used include polystyrene-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO), poly (methyl methacrylate)-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PMMA-b-PEO), and poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-b-PS-b-PEO). The block copolymer undergoes a good-poor-solvent pair induced phase separation in a mixed solution of 1, 4-dioxane or N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) and Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). Specifically, in the system of PS-b-PEO, a morphology phase diagram of the inorganic-copolymer composite films was mapped by adjusting the weight fractions among 1, 4-dioxane, HCl, and TTIP in solution. The amorphous TiO{sub 2} within the titania-block copolymer composite films was crystallized by calcination at temperatures above 400 C, where the organic block copolymer was simultaneously burned away. This strategy is further extended to other amphiphilic block copolymers of PMMA-b-PEO and PEO-b-PS-b-PEO, where the

  17. The influence of electrical effects on device performance of organic solar cells with nano-structured electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Hossein Fallahpour, Amir; Lugli, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Integration of light-trapping features and exploitation of metal nanostructure plasmonic effects are promising approaches for enhancing the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. These approaches’ effects on the light absorption enhancement have been widely studied, especially in ino...

  18. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Nanostructured Electrodes for Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiawei

    Among various photovoltaic technologies available in the emerging market, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are deemed as an effective, competitive solution to the increasing demand for high-efficiency PV devices. To move towards full commercialization, challenges remain in further improvement of device stability as well as reduction of material and manufacturing costs. This study aims at rational synthesis and photovoltaic characterization of two nanostructured electrode materials (i.e. SnO2 nanofibers and activated graphene nanoplatelets) for use as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The main objective is to explore the favorable charge transport features of SnO2 nanofiber network and simultaneously replace the high-priced conventional electrocatalytic nanomaterials (e.g. Pt nanoparticles) used in existing counter electrode of DSSCs. To achieve this objective, a multiphysics model of electrode kinetics was developed to optimize various design parameters and cell configurations. The porous hollow SnO2 nanofibers were successfully synthesized via a facile route consisting of electrospinning precursor polymer nanofibers, followed by controlled carbonization. The novel SnO2/TiO2 composite photoanode materials carry advantages of SnO2 nanofiber network (e.g. nanostructural continuity, high electron mobility) and TiO2 nanoparticles (e.g. high specific area), and therefore show excellent photovoltaic properties including improved short-circuit current and fill factors. In addition, hydrothermally activated graphene nanoplatelets (aGNP) were used as a catalytic counter electrode material to substitute for conventionally used platinum nanoparticles. Improved catalytic performance of aGNP electrode was achieved through increased surface area and better control of morphology. Dye-sensitized solar cells using these aGNP electrodes had power conversion efficiencies comparable to those using platinum nanoparticles with I-/I3- redox mediators

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical WO3 nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, M.M.; Shalan, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO 3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO 3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO 3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm 2 , 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of hierarchical WO{sub 3} nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, M.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Shalan, A.E. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, P.O. Box 87, Cairo (Egypt); Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (i-MEET), Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO{sub 3} micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO{sub 3} photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO{sub 3} showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively. (orig.)

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of 1D TiO2 nanostructures for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacchini, I.; Ansón-Casaos, A.; Yu, Youhai; Martínez, M.T.; Lira-Cantu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrothermal synthesis allows the preparation of different 1D TiO 2 nanostructures easily. ► Nanotubular morphology demonstrates the highest photovoltaic efficiencies in dye sensitized cells (DSCs). ► Morphology at the nanoscale level is as decisive for DSC efficiency as it is TiO 2 crystal structure and surface area. - Abstract: Mono-dimensional titanium oxide nanostructures (multi-walled nanotubes and nanorods) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and applied to the construction of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). First, nanotubes (TiNTs) and nanotubes loaded with titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiNT/NPs) were synthesized with specific surface areas of 253 m 2 /g and 304 m 2 /g, respectively. After that, thermal treatment of the nanotubes at 500 °C resulted in their transformation into the corresponding anatase nanorods (TiNT-Δ and TiNT/NPs-Δ samples). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy data indicated that titanium oxide in the pristine TiNT and TiNT/NP samples was converted into anatase phase TiO 2 during the heating. Additionally, specific surface areas and water adsorption capacities decreased after the heat treatment due to the sample agglomeration and the collapse of the inner nanotube channels. DSCs were fabricated with the nanotube TiNT and TiNT/NP samples and with the anatase nanorod TiNT-Δ and TiNT/NPs-Δ samples as well. The highest power conversion efficiency of η = 3.12% was obtained for the TiNT sample, despite its lower specific surface compared with the corresponding nanoparticle-loaded sample (TiNT/NP).

  3. Broadband light absorption enhancement in moth’s eye nanostructured organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixia Lan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on inverted organic solar cells (OSCs with a moth’s eye nanostructured (MEN active layer was carried out. Performance of the MEN-based OSCs and the corresponding control planar cells, fabricated with blend of poly[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-bA] dithiophene-2, 6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2- ethylhexyl carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]-thiophenediyl] (PTB7:[6,6]- phenyl-C70- butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PC70BM was analyzed. The efficiency of the MEN-based OSCs was optimized by adjusting the height of MEN pattern in the active layer. Our experimental and theoretical results reveal that the MEN pattern enhances light absorption in the PTB7:PC70BM active layer, especially over the long wavelength region. This leads to a 7.8% increase in short circuit current density and a 6.1% increase in power conversion efficiency over those of the control planar cell.

  4. Preorganization of Nanostructured Inks for Roll-to-Roll-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Senkovskyy, Volodymyr; Kiriy, Anton

    2010-01-01

    , a preorganized ink was obtained that was used to make polymer solar cell modules in a full roll-to-roll coating and printing process operating in ambient air. The polymer solar cells were thus prepared by a mixture of slot die and flat-bed screen printing. Various polymer solar cell modules were prepared ranging...

  5. Application of Nanostructured Materials and Multi-junction Structure in Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2015-12-09

    With power conversion efficiency surpassing the 10% milestone for commercialization, photovoltaic technology based on solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs) provides a promising route towards a cost-efficient strategy to address the ever-increasing worldwide energy demands. However, to make PSCs successful, challenges such as insufficient light absorption, high maintenance costs, and relatively high production costs must be addressed. As solutions to some of these problems, the unique properties of nanostructured materials and complimentary light absorption in multi-junction device structure could prove to be highly beneficial. As a starting point, integrating nanostructure-based transparent self-cleaning surfaces in PSCs was investigated first. By controlling the length of the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorods and covering their surface with a thin layer of chemical vapor-deposited SiO2, a highly transparent and UV-resistant superhydrophobic surface was constructed. Integrating the transparent superhydrophobic surface in a PSC shows minimal impact on the figure of merit of the PSC. To address the low mechanical durability of the transparent superhydrophobic surface based on SiO2-coated ZnO nanorods, a novel method inspired by the water condensation process was developed. This method involved directly growing hollow silica half-nanospheres on the substrate through the condensation of water in the presence of a silica precursor. Benefit from the decreased back scattering efficiency and increased light transport mean free path arise from the hollow nature, a transparent superhydrophobic surface was realized using submicrometer sized silica half-nanospheres. The decent mechanical property of silica and the “direct-grown” protocol are expected to impart improved mechanical durability to the transparent superhydrophobic surface. Regarding the application of multi-junction device structure in PSCs, homo multi-junction PSCs were constructed from an identical

  6. Synthesis of nanostructured CuInS{sub 2} thin films and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhuang, Mixue; Liu, Zhen; Wei, Aixiang [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); Luo, Fazhi [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); The Fifth Electronics Research Institute of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Jun [Guangdong University of Technology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, School of Material and Energy, Guangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-03-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanostructure thin films were successfully synthesized on FTO conductive glass substrates by solvothermal method. It is found that the surface morphology and microstructure of CIS thin films can be tailored by simply adjusting the concentration of oxalic acid. CIS nanostructure films with texture of ''nanosheet array'' and ''flower-like microsphere'' were obtained and used as Pt-free counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The nanosheet array CIS was found to have a better electrocatalytic activity than the flower-like microsphere one. DSSCs based on nanosheet array CIS thin film counter electrode show conversion efficiency of 3.33 %, which is comparable to the Pt-catalyzed DSSCs. The easy synthesis, low cost, morphology tunable and excellent electrocatalytic property may make the CuInS{sub 2} nanostructure competitive as counter electrode in DSSCs. (orig.)

  7. Resolving the nanostructure of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline SiOx layers for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsporn, M.; Kirner, S.; Villringer, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Costina, I.; Lehmann, M.; Stannowski, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon suboxides (nc-SiOx) have attracted attention during the past years for the use in thin-film silicon solar cells. We investigated the relationships between the nanostructure as well as the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of phosphorous, doped, nc-SiO0.8:H fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure was varied through the sample series by changing the deposition pressure from 533 to 1067 Pa. The samples were then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and a specialized plasmon imaging method. We found that the material changed with increasing pressure from predominantly amorphous silicon monoxide to silicon dioxide containing nanocrystalline silicon. The nanostructure changed from amorphous silicon filaments to nanocrystalline silicon filaments, which were found to cause anisotropic electron transport.

  8. Interfacial engineering of CuO nanorod/ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructure photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Baran, Sümeyra Seniha; Asgin, Mansur; Gur, Emre; Kocak, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    Developing efficient and cost-effective photoanode plays a vital role determining the photocurrent and photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we demonstrate DSSCs that achieve relatively high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) by using one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanorods hybrid nanostructures. CuO nanorod-based thin films were prepared by hydrothermal method and used as a blocking layer on top of the ZnO nanowires' layer. The use of 1D ZnO nanowire/CuO nanorod hybrid nanostructures led to an exceptionally high photovoltaic performance of DSSCs with a remarkably high open-circuit voltage (0.764 V), short current density (14.76 mA/cm2 under AM1.5G conditions), and relatively high solar to power conversion efficiency (6.18%) . The enhancement of the solar to power conversion efficiency can be explained in terms of the lag effect of the interfacial recombination dynamics of CuO nanorod-blocking layer on ZnO nanowires. This work shows more economically feasible method to bring down the cost of the nano-hybrid cells and promises for the growth of other important materials to further enhance the solar to power conversion efficiency.

  9. Mechanisms of electron transport and recombination in ZnO nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Poot, Alberto G; Macías-Montero, Manuel; Idígoras, Jesus; Borrás, Ana; Barranco, Angel; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustín R; Lizama-Tzec, Francisco I; Oskam, Gerko; Anta, Juan A

    2014-04-14

    ZnO is an attractive material for applications in dye-sensitized solar cells and related devices. This material has excellent electron-transport properties in the bulk but its electron diffusion coefficient is much smaller in mesoporous films. In this work the electron-transport properties of two different kinds of dye-sensitized ZnO nanostructures are investigated by small-perturbation electrochemical techniques. For nanoparticulate ZnO photoanodes prepared via a wet-chemistry technique, the diffusion coefficient is found to reproduce the typical behavior predicted by the multiple-trapping and the hopping models, with an exponential increase with respect to the applied bias. In contrast, in ZnO nanostructured thin films of controlled texture and crystallinity prepared via a plasma chemical vapor deposition method, the diffusion coefficient is found to be independent of the electrochemical bias. This observation suggests a different transport mechanism not controlled by trapping and electron accumulation. In spite of the quite different transport features, the recombination kinetics, the electron-collection efficiency and the photoconversion efficiency are very similar for both kinds of photoanodes, an observation that indicates that surface properties rather than electron transport is the main efficiency-determining factor in solar cells based on ZnO nanostructured photoanodes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ultrathin silicon solar cells with enhanced photocurrents assisted by plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Stassen, Erik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar cells is limited by poor light absorption. We have devised an ultra-thin-film silicon solar cell configuration assisted by plasmonic nan...

  11. Plasma treatment of ITO films for the formation of nanoparticles toward scalable production of novel nanostructure-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Cigang; Bailey, Louise R.; Proudfoot, Gary; Cooke, Mike [Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Bristol (United Kingdom); Eisenhawer, Bjoern; Jia, Guobin; Bergmann, Joachim; Falk, Fritz [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Ulyashin, Alexander [Department of Industrial Processes, SINTEF, Oslo (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Plasma treatment of indium tin oxide (ITO) has been studied to form metallic nanoparticles (NPs) for nanostructure-based solar cells. It is demonstrated that NPs can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 C, and the size of NPs increases with temperature. An ITO layer treated at 100 C has higher transmission than that treated at 200 C for the same time. It is suggested that such NPs can be used for the conversion efficiency enhancement of ITO/Si heterojunction solar cells. It is also shown that NPs can be produced on different substrates covered by an ITO layer, such as ITO/Al foil, ITO/glass, ITO/stainless steel, and ITO/Si, where the resulting NPs were used for catalytic growth of Si nanowires (NWs). The morphology and density of Si NWs depend on a substrate. It is established that p-doped Si NWs show larger diameters, and n-doped Si NWs do not show obvious change of diameters compared to undoped Si NWs. New types of solar cell structures with combined radial and axial junctions have been proposed. As an example, p-n junction-based 3D structures using the NPs obtained from treatment of ITO film are presented. Finally, a potentially scalable process flow for fabrication of nanostructure-based solar cells is discussed. Schematic illustration of fabrication steps to produce the proposed novel solar cell with combined radial and axial junctions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chin An

    2015-12-01

    Fused-silica packaging glass fabricated with a hierarchical structure by integrating small (ultrathin nanorods) and large (honeycomb nanowalls) structures was demonstrated with exceptional light-harvesting solar performance, which is attributed to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence, and the enhancement went up to 46% at the incident angle of 60°. The hierarchical structured packaging glass shows excellent self-cleaning characteristics: 98.8% of the efficiency is maintained after 6 weeks of outdoor exposure, indicating that the nanostructured surface effectively repels polluting dust/particles. The presented self-cleaning omnidirectional light-harvesting design using the hierarchical structured packaging glass is a potential universal scheme for practical solar applications.

  13. Hybrid nanostructure heterojunction solar cells fabricated using vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes grown on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaikun; Xu, Congkang; Huang, Liwei; Zou, Lianfeng; Wang, Howard

    2011-10-07

    Using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films as the transparent conductive coating, inorganic/organic hybrid nanostructure heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been fabricated through hydrothermal synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and nanotubes (ZnO-NTs) on rGO films followed by the spin casting of a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) film. The data show that larger interfacial area in ZnO-NT/P3HT composites improves the exciton dissociation and the higher electrode conductance of rGO films helps the power output. This study offers an alternative to manufacturing nanostructure heterojunction solar cells at low temperatures using potentially low cost materials.

  14. Effect of halogen-terminated additives on the performance and the nanostructure of all-polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyeong; Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Jeong, Jaehoon; Lee, Sooyong; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report the influence of halogen-terminated additives on the performance and the nanostructure of all-polymer solar cells that are made with bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) (as an electron donor) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) (as an electron acceptor). Diiodooctane (DIO) and dibromooctane (DBO) were employed as additives in order to compare the effect of different halogen groups (bromine and iodine). Results showed that the power conversion efficiency of devices was slightly (˜15%) improved by using additives due to the increased open-circuit voltage and fill factor. The synchrotron radiation grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) measurements disclosed that the performance improvement was closely related to the relatively well-evolved nanostructures in the P3HT:F8BT films caused by the additives.

  15. One pot synthesis of multi-functional tin oxide nanostructures for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wali, Qamar; Fakharuddin, Azhar; Yasin, Amina; Ab Rahim, Mohd Hasbi; Ismail, Jamil; Jose, Rajan, E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my

    2015-10-15

    Photoanode plays a key role in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a scaffold for dye molecules, transport medium for photogenerated electrons, and scatters light for improved absorption. Herein, tin oxide nanostructures unifying the above three characteristics were optimized by a hydrothermal process and used as photoanode in DSSCs. The optimized morphology is a combination of hollow porous nanoparticles of size ∼50 nm and micron sized spheres with BET surface area (up to 29 m{sup 2}/g) to allow large dye-loading and light scattering as well as high crystallinity to support efficient charge transport. The optimized morphology gave the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency (∼7.5%), so far achieved in DSSCs with high open circuit voltage (∼700 mV) and short circuit current density (∼21 mA/cm{sup 2}) employing conventional N3 dye and iodide/triiodide electrolyte. The best performing device achieved an incident photon to current conversion efficiency of ∼90%. The performance of the optimized tin oxide nanostructures was comparable to that of conventional titanium based DSSCs fabricated at similar conditions. - Graphical abstract: Tin oxide hollow nanostructure simultaneously supporting improved light scattering, dye-loading, and charge transport yielded high photovoltaic conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • Uniformly and bimodelly distributed tin oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) are synthesized. • Uniform HNS are of size ∼10 nm; bimodel HNS has additional size up to ∼800 nm. • They are evaluated as photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The uniform HNS increase dye-loading and the larger increase light scattering in DSSCs. • Photo conversion efficiency ∼7.5% is achieved using bimodel HNS.

  16. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yamin, E-mail: yaminfengccnuphy@outlook.com; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm{sup −2} illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes.

  17. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yamin; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm −2 illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes

  18. Nanostructured Conjugated Polymers for Energy-Related Applications beyond Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Zhao, Cui-E; Lin, Zong-Qiong; Gu, Pei-Yang; Zhang, Qichun

    2016-05-20

    To meet the ever-increasing requirements for the next generation of sustainable and versatile energy-related devices, conjugated polymers, which have potential advantages over small molecules and inorganic materials, are among the most promising types of green candidates. The properties of conjugated polymers can be tuned through modification of the structure and incorporation of different functional moieties. In addition, superior performances can be achieved as a result of the advantages of nanostructures, such as their large surface areas and the shortened pathways for charge transfer. Therefore, nanostructured conjugated polymers with different properties can be obtained to be applied in different energy-related organic devices. This review focuses on the application and performance of the recently reported nanostructured conjugated polymers for high-performance devices, including rechargeable lithium batteries, microbial fuel cells (MFCs), thermoelectric generators, and photocatalytic systems. The design strategies, reaction mechanisms, advantages, and limitations of nanostructured conjugated polymers are further discussed in each section. Finally, possible routes to improve the performances of the current systems are also included in the conclusion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar...

  20. Effects of anodic aluminum oxide membrane on performance of nanostructured solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Three nanowire solar cell device configurations have been fabricated to demonstrate the effects of the host anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on device performance. The three configurations show similar transmittance spectra, indicating that AAO membrane has negligible optical absorption. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is studied as a function of the carrier transport and collection in cell structures with and without AAO membrane. Free standing nanowire solar cells exhibit PCE of 9.9%. Through inclusion of AAO in solar cell structure, interface defects and traps caused by humidity and oxygen are reduced, and direct contact of CdTe tentacles with SnO 2 and formation of micro shunt shorts are prevented; hence PCE is improved to 11.1%–11.3%. Partially embedded nanowire solar cells further reduce influence of non-ideal and non-uniform nanowire growth and generate a large amount of carriers in axial direction and also a small quantity of carriers in lateral direction, thus becoming a promising solar cell structure. Thus, including AAO membrane in solar cell structure provides favorable electro-optical properties as well as mechanical advantages. (paper)

  1. Effects of anodic aluminum oxide membrane on performance of nanostructured solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-05-01

    Three nanowire solar cell device configurations have been fabricated to demonstrate the effects of the host anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane on device performance. The three configurations show similar transmittance spectra, indicating that AAO membrane has negligible optical absorption. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device is studied as a function of the carrier transport and collection in cell structures with and without AAO membrane. Free standing nanowire solar cells exhibit PCE of 9.9%. Through inclusion of AAO in solar cell structure, interface defects and traps caused by humidity and oxygen are reduced, and direct contact of CdTe tentacles with SnO2 and formation of micro shunt shorts are prevented; hence PCE is improved to 11.1%-11.3%. Partially embedded nanowire solar cells further reduce influence of non-ideal and non-uniform nanowire growth and generate a large amount of carriers in axial direction and also a small quantity of carriers in lateral direction, thus becoming a promising solar cell structure. Thus, including AAO membrane in solar cell structure provides favorable electro-optical properties as well as mechanical advantages.

  2. Toward Highly Efficient Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Concurrent Electrical and Optical Design

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hsin-Ping; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    potential to push the theoretical limits of solar cell efficiency even higher using the intrinsic advantages associated with these materials, including efficient photon management, rapid charge transfer, and short charge collection distances. However

  3. A hybrid nanostructure of platinum-nanoparticles/graphitic-nanofibers as a three-dimensional counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chien-Kuo; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Su, Ching-Yuan; Wei, Sung-Yen; Yen, Ming-Yu; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Chen, Fu-Rong; Tsai, Chuen-Horng

    2011-11-07

    We directly synthesized a platinum-nanoparticles/graphitic-nanofibers (PtNPs/GNFs) hybrid nanostructure on FTO glass. We applied this structure as a three-dimensional counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and investigated the cells' photoconversion performance. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  4. Controlled alpha-sexithiophene nanostructure formation in standard and inverted configuration organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis

    -type domains in the active organic layer. The molecular packing in these is of same importance, as it strongly affects the carrier transport in the cells. In this work, we present the study of alpha-sexithiophene (α 6T) temperature dependent growth for standard, on gold anodes, and inverted, on electron...... accepting C60 layers, solar cell configurations. Furthermore, a comparative study of the correlation between the α-6T morphology and device performance parameters for standard and inverted solar cell configurations is presented. The morphology of the α 6T layer is controlled by means of the substrate...

  5. Eosin Y-sensitized nanostructured SnO{sup 2}/TiO{sup 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Weon-Pil [Institute of Advanced Materials, Inha University, Yonghyun-dong, Nam-ku, Inchon 402-751 (South Korea); Inoue, Kozo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    The photoelectrochemical behaviors of eosin Y (organic dye)-sensitized nanostructured SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coupled and SnO{sub 2}+TiO{sub 2} composite solar cells were studied. The value of incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) in the coupled system was higher than the composite system. A maximum IPCE value, 63%, was reached at 525 nm wavelength in the coupled cell with 3.5-{mu}m-thick SnO{sub 2} and 7-{mu}m-thick TiO{sub 2}. The IPCE difference in the coupled and composite cells sensitized by eosin Y dye is discussed.

  6. Optimization of imprintable nanostructured a-Si solar cells: FDTD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Christian; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2013-03-11

    We present a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) study of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cell, with nano scale patterns on the substrate surface. The patterns, based on the geometry of anisotropically etched silicon gratings, are optimized with respect to the period and anti-reflection (AR) coating thickness for maximal absorption in the range of the solar spectrum. The structure is shown to increase the cell efficiency by 10.2% compared to a similar flat solar cell with an optimized AR coating thickness. An increased back reflection can be obtained with a 50 nm zinc oxide layer on the back reflector, which gives an additional efficiency increase, leading to a total of 14.9%. In addition, the patterned cells are shown to be up to 3.8% more efficient than an optimized textured reference cell based on the Asahi U-type glass surface. The effects of variations of the optimized solar cell structure due to the manufacturing process are investigated, and shown to be negligible for variations below ±10%.

  7. A simple nanostructured polymer/ZnO hybrid solar cell - preparation and operation in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Thomann, Yi; Thomann, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    without notable loss in efficiency. The devices do not require any form of encapsulation to gain stability, while a barrier for mechanical protection may be useful. The devices are based on soluble zinc oxide nanoparticles mixed with the thermocleavable conjugated polymer poly-(3-(2-methylhexan-2-yl......A detailed description is given of the preparation of a polymer solar cell and its characterization. The solar cell can be prepared entirely in the ambient atmosphere by solution processing without the use of vacuum coating steps, and it can be operated in the ambient atmosphere with good...

  8. Effect of nanostructured electrode architecture and semiconductor deposition strategy on the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadpour, Mahmoud; Giménez, Sixto; Boix, Pablo P.; Shen, Qing; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Taghavinia, Nima; Azam Iraji zad; Toyoda, Taro; Míguez, Hernán

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrode nanostructure and quantum dot growth method have a clear influence in the final quantum dot solar cell performance. ► Higher V oc values are systematically obtained for TiO 2 morphologies with decreasing surface area. ► Higher V oc values are systematically obtained for cells using CBD growth method in comparison with SILAR method. - Abstract: Here we analyze the effect of two relevant aspects related to cell preparation on quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) performance: the architecture of the TiO 2 nanostructured electrode and the growth method of quantum dots (QD). Particular attention is given to the effect on the photovoltage, V oc , since this parameter conveys the main current limitation of QDSCs. We have analyzed electrodes directly sensitized with CdSe QDs grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). We have carried out a systematic study comprising structural, optical, photophysical and photoelectrochemical characterization in order to correlate the material properties of the photoanodes with the functional performance of the manufactured QDSCs. The results show that the correspondence between photovoltaic conversion efficiency and the surface area of TiO 2 depends on the QDs deposition method. Higher V oc values are systematically obtained for TiO 2 morphologies with decreasing surface area and for cells using CBD growth method. This is systematically correlated to a higher recombination resistance of CBD sensitized electrodes. Electron injection kinetics from QDs into TiO 2 also depends on both the TiO 2 structure and the QDs deposition method, being systematically faster for CBD. Only for electrodes prepared with small TiO 2 nanoparticles SILAR method presents better performance than CBD, indicating that the small pore size disturb the CBD growth method. These results have important implications for the optimization of QDSCs.

  9. Highly efficient perovskite solar cells based on a nanostructured WO3-TiO2 core-shell electron transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; Swain, Bhabani Sankar; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, only mesoporous TiO2 and ZnO were successfully demonstrated as electron transport layers (ETL) alongside the reports of ZrO2 and Al2O3 as scaffold materials in organometal halide perovskite solar cells, largely owing to ease of processing and to high power conversion efficiency. In this article, we explore tungsten trioxide (WO3)-based nanostructured and porous ETL materials directly grown hydrothermally with different morphologies such as nanoparticles, nanorods and nanosheet arrays. The nanostructure morphology strongly influences the photocurrent and efficiency in organometal halide perovskite solar cells. We find that the perovskite solar cells based on WO3 nanosheet arrays yield significantly enhanced photovoltaic performance as compared to nanoparticles and nanorod arrays due to good perovskite absorber infiltration in the porous scaffold and more rapid carrier transport. We further demonstrate that treating the WO3 nanostructures with an aqueous solution of TiCl4 reduces charge recombination at the perovskite/WO3 interface, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency of 11.24% for devices based on WO3 nanosheet arrays. The successful demonstration of alternative ETL materials and nanostructures based on WO3 will open up new opportunities in the development of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  10. Fabrication of antireflective nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells by reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Wen-Hua; Wang, Chi-Jen; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) subwavelength antireflection structure on poly-Si substrates to reduce their solar reflectivity. A reactive ion etching system was used to fabricate nanostructures on the poly-silicon surface. Reactive gases, composed of chlorine (Cl 2 ), sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and oxygen (O 2 ), were activated to fabricate nanoscale pyramids by RF plasma. The poly-Si substrates were etched in various gas compositions for 6–10 min to form nano-pyramids. The sizes of pyramids were about 200–300 nm in heights and about 100 nm in width. Besides the nanoscale features, the high pyramid density on the poly-Si surface is another important factor to reduce the reflectivity. Low-reflectivity surface was fabricated with reflectivity significantly reduced down to < 2% for photons in a wavelength range of 500–900 nm. - Highlights: ► Large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) antireflection structures fabricated on poly-Si substrates ► Si nano-pyramids produced by utilizing self-masked reactive ion etching process ► High density of nanoscale pyramids was formed on the entire substrate surface. ► Surface reflectivity below 2% was achieved in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm

  11. Application of graphene-based nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 250, č. 12 (2013), s. 2643-2648 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA ČR GA13-31783S Grant - others:European Commission CORDIS(XE) FP7-ENERGY-2010-FET, projekt 256617 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : counter electrode * dye-sensitized solar cells * electrocatalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013

  12. Nanostructural optimization of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells for performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanzhou; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Yali; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inverted silicon (Si) nanopyramid (iSiNP) surface structure with low aspect ratio and remarkable antireflection is developed through sequential treatments of NaOH and HF/CH 3 COOH/HNO 3 solutions to Si nanowire (SiNW)-textured Si wafers, which are prepared by traditional electroless chemical etching. The iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell is fabricated through conformally spin-coating poly(3.4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto the iSiNPs; it exhibits enhanced device performance owing to the improved junction and contact quality as compared to the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS counterpart. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.6% mainly contributed from an increased fill factor (FF) of 0.61 and improved open circuit voltage ( V oc ) of 0.53 V is delivered by the iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS solar cell. As a comparison, the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS structure delivers a 7.1% PCE with a FF of 0.45 and V oc of 0.46 V. Considering the submicro-scale characteristic dimensions, iSiNPs are expected to be applicable to highly efficient thin film Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  13. Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Nanostructured TiO2 Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Erten-Ela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free organic sensitizer consisting of donor, electron conducting, and anchoring anhydride groups was engineered at molecular level and synthesized. Dye sensitized solar cells based on conjugated naphthalene dye were fabricated using nanoporous electrode. Photoelectrodes with a 7 μm thick nanoporous layer and a 5 μm thick light-scattering layer were used to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells. DSSCs were fabricated in a FTO/nc-TiO2/organic dye/I-/I3-/Pt/FTO device geometry. Dye sensitized solar cell was characterized by current density-voltage (J-V measurement. All current-voltage (I-V measurements were done under 100 mW/cm2 light intensity and AM 1.5 conditions. The photovoltaic data revealed a short circuit photocurrent density of 1.86 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of 430 mV, and a fill factor of 0.63, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 0.53%.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and nano-structuration of poly-thiophene derivatives for organic photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berson, S.

    2007-10-01

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of poly-thiophene derivatives with low bandgap and preserving high oxidation potential. Disubstituted thiophenes and 'Donor-Acceptor' bi-thiophenes were synthesized and then polymerized. The side chains of these polymers, donor or acceptor, were modified in order to tune the properties of material as well from the optical point of view as electrochemical. These polymers were also tested in blend with PCBM in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Voc delivered by the devices showed a linear dependence according to the potential of oxidation of the polymers. Copolymers containing cyano-thiophene and alkyl- or alkoxy-thiophene showed values of 0.8 V. However, in spite of power conversion efficiency of 1 %, these performances remain lower than the one obtained with the P3HT. Optimizations in terms of morphology are certainly necessary. Indeed, the morphology of the active layer plays a key role in obtaining high power conversion efficiency. An original technique of nano-structuration of the polymer on a nano-metric scale was developed during this work, leading to the development of fibrillar P3HT. These nano-structures, presenting an important degree of order, are formed spontaneously in solution. Their rate compared to amorphous material is perfectly controllable and adjustable in solution and in solid state. Measurements of mobilities show a strong improvement of the transport of load within these fibrillar layers compared to a traditional film of P3HT obtained without annealing. Power conversion efficiencies of 3.6% on glass and 3.3 % on plastic were reached without annealing. (author)

  15. Synthesis, characterization and nano-structuration of poly-thiophene derivatives for organic photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berson, S.

    2007-10-01

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of poly-thiophene derivatives with low bandgap and preserving high oxidation potential. Di-substituted thiophenes and 'Donor-Acceptor' bi-thiophenes were synthesized and then polymerized. The side chains of these polymers, donor or acceptor, were modified in order to tune the properties of material as well from the optical point of view as electrochemical. These polymers were also tested in blend with PCBM in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Voc delivered by the devices showed a linear dependence according to the potential of oxidation of the polymers. Copolymers containing cyano-thiophene and alkyl- or alkoxy-thiophene showed values of 0.8 V. However, in spite of power conversion efficiency of 1 %, these performances remain lower than the one obtained with the P3HT. Optimizations in terms of morphology are certainly necessary. Indeed, the morphology of the active layer plays a key role in obtaining high power conversion efficiency. An original technique of nano-structuration of the polymer on a nano-metric scale was developed during this work, leading to the development of fibrillary P3HT. These nano-structures, presenting an important degree of order, are formed spontaneously in solution. Their rate compared to amorphous material is perfectly controllable and adjustable in solution and in solid state. Measurements of mobilities show a strong improvement of the transport of load within these fibrillary layers compared to a traditional film of P3HT obtained without annealing. Power conversion efficiencies of 3.6 % on glass and 3.3 % on plastic were reached without annealing. (author)

  16. Efficient dye-sensitized solar cells from mesoporous zinc oxide nanostructures sensitized by N719 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, G. R. A.; Deshapriya, U.; Ranasinghe, C. S. K.; Jayaweera, E. N.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.

    2018-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to their low-cost and high power conversion efficiencies. They usually utilize an interconnected nanoparticle layer of TiO2 as the electron transport medium. From the fundamental point of view, faster mobility of electrons in ZnO is expected to contribute to better performance in DSCs than TiO2, though the actual practical situation is quite the opposite. In this research, we addressed this problem by first applying a dense layer of ZnO on FTO followed by a mesoporous layer of interconnected ZnO nanoparticle layer, both were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The best cell shows a power conversion efficiency of 5.2% when the mesoporous layer thickness is 14 μm and the concentration of the N719 dye in dye coating solution is 0.3 mM, while a cell without a dense layer shows 4.2% under identical conditions. The surface concentration of dye adsorbed in the cell with a dense layer and that without a dense layer are 5.00 × 10‑7 and 3.34 × 10‑7 mol/cm2, respectively. The cell with the dense layer has an electron lifetime of 54.81 ms whereas that without the dense layer is 11.08 ms. As such, the presence of the dense layer improves DSC characteristics of ZnO-based DSCs.

  17. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitola, Kerttu; Halme, Janne; Halonen, Niina; Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G.; Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Lund, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  18. Comparison of dye solar cell counter electrodes based on different carbon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitola, Kerttu, E-mail: kerttu.aitola@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halme, Janne [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Halonen, Niina [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kaskela, Antti; Toivola, Minna; Nasibulin, Albert G. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Kordas, Krisztian; Toth, Geza [Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Kauppinen, Esko I. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); VTT Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Lund, Peter D. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 15100, 00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-09-01

    Three characteristically different carbon nanomaterials were compared and analyzed as platinum-free counter electrodes for dye solar cells: 1) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network films on glass, 2) aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest films on Inconel steel and quartz, and 3) pressed carbon nanoparticle composite films on indium tin oxide-polyethylene terephtalate plastic. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and electron microscopy were discussed in terms of the catalytic activity, conductivity, thickness, transparency and flexibility of the electrode films. The SWCNT films showed reasonable catalytic performance at similar series resistance compared to platinized fluorine doped tin oxide-coated glass. The MWCNTs had similar catalytic activity, but the electrochemical performance of the films was limited by their high porosity. Carbon nanoparticle films had the lowest charge transfer resistance resulting from a combination of high catalytic activity and dense packing of the material.

  19. Growth of Comb-like ZnO Nanostructures for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated by using well-crystallized ZnO nanocombs directly grown onto the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO via noncatalytic thermal evaporation process. The thin films of as-grown ZnO nanocombs were used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs, which exhibited an overall light to electricity conversion efficiency of 0.68% with a fill factor of 34%, short-circuit current of 3.14 mA/cm2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.671 V. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report in which thin film of ZnO nanocombs was used as photoanode materials to fabricate the DSSCs.

  20. One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanostructures as Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is star materials due to its remarkable optical and electronic properties, resulting in various applications, especially in the fields of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Photoanode is the most important part of the DSSCs, which help to adsorb dye molecules and transport the injected electrons. The size, structure, and morphology of TiO2 photoanode have been found to show significant influence on the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we briefly summarize the synthesis and properties of one-dimensional (1D TiO2 nanomaterials (bare 1D TiO2 nanomaterial and 1D hierarchical TiO2 and their photovoltaic performance in DSSCs.

  1. Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Adachi, Michael M; Labelle, André J; Thon, Susanna M; Lan, Xinzheng; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great potential for large area low-cost photovoltaics. However, light utilization remains low mainly due to the tradeoff between small carrier transport lengths and longer infrared photon absorption lengths. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption without compromising charge extraction efficiency of the device. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to study the nanostructure for implementation in a realistic device and then build proof-of-concept nanostructured solar cells, which exhibit a broadband absorption enhancement over the wavelength range of λ = 600 to 1,100 nm, leading to a 31% improvement in overall short-circuit current density compared to a planar device containing an approximately equal volume of active material. Remarkably, the improved current density is achieved using a light-absorber volume less than half that typically used in the best planar devices.

  2. Broadband solar absorption enhancement via periodic nanostructuring of electrodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Adachi, Michael M

    2013-10-14

    Solution processed colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have great potential for large area low-cost photovoltaics. However, light utilization remains low mainly due to the tradeoff between small carrier transport lengths and longer infrared photon absorption lengths. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-illuminated periodic nanostructured CQD solar cell that enhances broadband absorption without compromising charge extraction efficiency of the device. We use finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations to study the nanostructure for implementation in a realistic device and then build proof-of-concept nanostructured solar cells, which exhibit a broadband absorption enhancement over the wavelength range of λ = 600 to 1,100 nm, leading to a 31% improvement in overall short-circuit current density compared to a planar device containing an approximately equal volume of active material. Remarkably, the improved current density is achieved using a light-absorber volume less than half that typically used in the best planar devices.

  3. Nanostructured zinc oxide photoelectrodes by green routes M-SILAR and electrodeposition for dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, M. A.; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Maldar, P. S.; Dongale, T. D.; Moholkar, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    Surfactant-free, ultrasound assisted modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (M-SILAR) method and home-made microcontroller based low-cost potentiostat system are employed to prepare zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure based thin films. The comparison between physicochemical as well as photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the nanostructures prepared via two different template free, simplistic and cost-effective green routes have been discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis confirm the formation of phase pure ZnO with the hexagonal crystal structure. Surface morphology significantly affects the physicochemical as well as PEC properties of ZnO thin films. Nanorods (NRs) and nanosheets (NSs) based ZnO thin films sensitized with N3 dye have been directly used as photoelectrodes in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.59% is achieved with Jsc of 4.04 mA/cm2 and Voc of 0.44 V for the DSSC in which the M-SILAR deposited 1-D ZnO NRs based thin film is used as the photoanode. While relatively less PCE of 0.29% with Jsc of 2.53 mA/cm2 and Voc of 0.36 V is obtained for DSSC prepared using electrodeposited 2-D ZnO NSs. In the NSs like 2-D surface morphology, the presence of multiple grain boundaries are acted as traps for the diffusing electrons, which reduces the electron mobility through it.

  4. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  5. The green hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured Cu2ZnSnSe4 as solar cell material and study of their structural, optical and morphological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanalakar, S. A.; Agawane, G. L.; Kamble, A. S.; Patil, P. S.; Kim, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) has attracted intensive attention as an absorber material for the thin-film solar cells due to its high absorption coefficient, direct band gap, low toxicity, and abundance of its constituent elements. In this study nanostructured CZTSe nanoparticles are prepared via green hydrothermal synthesis without using toxic solvents, organic amines, catalysts or noxious chemicals. The structural, optical, and morphological properties of CZTSe nanostructured powder were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques. Raman peaks at 170, 195, and 232 cm-1 confirm the formation of pure phase CZTSe nanostructured particles. In addition, the EDS and XPS results confirm the appropriate chemical purity of the annealed CZTSe nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the TEM analysis showed the presence of phase pure oval like CZTSe particle with size of about 80-140 nm. The UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectra analysis showed that the optical band gap of CZTSe nanostructured particles is about 1.14 eV. This band gap energy is close to the optimum value of a photovoltaic solar cell absorber material.

  6. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  7. Achieving copper sulfide leaf like nanostructure electrode for high performance supercapacitor and quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga, Ikkurthi Kanaka; Rao, S. Srinivasa; Reddy, Araveeti Eswar; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Kim, Hee-Je

    2018-03-01

    Copper sulfide is an important multifunctional semiconductor that has attracted considerable attention owing to its outstanding properties and multiple applications, such as energy storage and electrochemical energy conversion. This paper describes a cost-effective and simple low-temperature solution approach to the preparation of copper sulfide for supercapacitors (SCs) and quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the nickel foam with a coriander leaf like nanostructure had been coated successfully with copper sulfide. As an electrode material for SCs, the CC-3 h showed excellent specific capacitance (5029.28 at 4 A g-1), energy density (169.73 W h kg-1), and superior cycling durability with 107% retention after 2000 cycles. Interestingly, the QDSSCs equipped with CC-2 h and CC-3 h counter electrodes (CEs) exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.52% and 3.48%, respectively. The improved performance of the CC-3 h electrode was attributed mainly to the large surface area (which could contribute sufficient electroactive species), good conductivity, and high electrocatalytic activity. Overall, this work delivers novel insights into the use of copper sulfide and offers an important guidelines for the fabrication of next level energy storage and conversion devices.

  8. Eosin Yellowish Dye-Sensitized ZnO Nanostructure-Based Solar Cells Employing Solid PEO Redox Couple Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kanmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures are synthesized by low-temperature methods, and they possess polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential c-axial growth. Morphological study by SEM shows the presence of ~30 nm sized spherical-shaped ZnO nanoparticle, the branched flower-like ZnO composed of many nanorods (length: 1.2 to 4.2 μm and diameter: 0.3 to 0.4 μm, and ~50 nm diameter of individual ZnO nanorods. Reduction in photoemission intensity of nanorods infers the decrease in electron-hole recombination rate, which offers better photovoltaic performance. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC based on ZnO nanorods sensitized with Eosin yellowish dye exhibits a maximum optimal energy conversion efficiency of 0.163% compared to that of nanoparticles and nanoflowers, due to better dye loading and direct conduction pathway for electron transport.

  9. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra, E-mail: lokendrakr@allduniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211 002 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Embedded vertically aligned cadmium telluride nanorod arrays grown by one-step electrodeposition for enhanced energy conversion efficiency in three-dimensional nanostructured solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Shurong; Mu, Yannan; Liu, Li; A, Runa; Yang, Jiandong; Zhu, Guijie; Meng, Xianwei; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2017-11-01

    Vertically aligned CdTe nanorods (NRs) arrays are successfully grown by a simple one-step and template-free electrodeposition method, and then embedded in the CdS window layer to form a novel three-dimensional (3D) heterostructure on flexible substrates. The parameters of electrodeposition such as deposition potential and pH of the solution are varied to analyze their important role in the formation of high quality CdTe NRs arrays. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the solar cell based on the 3D heterojunction structure is studied in detail. In comparison with the standard planar heterojunction solar cell, the 3D heterojunction solar cell exhibits better photovoltaic performance, which can be attributed to its enhanced optical absorption ability, increased heterojunction area and improved charge carrier transport. The better photoelectric property of the 3D heterojunction solar cell suggests great application potential in thin film solar cells, and the simple electrodeposition process represents a promising technique for large-scale fabrication of other nanostructured solar energy conversion devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon solar cells passivated by an atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-10-07

    Inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon (BS) solar cells with an Al2O3 passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been demonstrated. A multi-scale textured BS surface combining silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and inverted pyramids was obtained for the first time by lithography and metal catalyzed wet etching. The reflectance of the as-prepared BS surface was about 2% lower than that of the more commonly reported upright pyramid-based SiNW BS surface over the whole of the visible light spectrum, which led to a 1.7 mA cm(-2) increase in short circuit current density. Moreover, the as-prepared solar cells were further passivated by an ALD-Al2O3 layer. The effect of annealing temperature on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was investigated. It was found that the values of all solar cell parameters including short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor exhibit a further increase under an optimized annealing temperature. Minority carrier lifetime measurements indicate that the enhanced cell performance is due to the improved passivation quality of the Al2O3 layer after thermal annealing treatments. By combining these two refinements, the optimized SiNW BS solar cells achieved a maximum conversion efficiency enhancement of 7.6% compared to the cells with an upright pyramid-based SiNWs surface and conventional SiNx passivation.

  12. Development of nanostructured porous TiO2 thick film with uniform spherical particles by a new polymeric gel process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshayesh, A.M.; Mohammadi, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    A novel simple synthetic procedure for fabrication of high surface area nanostructured TiO 2 electrode with uniform particles for photovoltaic application is reported. Modifying the TiO 2 particulate sol by pH adjustment together with employment of a polymeric agent, so-called polymeric gel process, was developed. The polymeric gel process was used to deposit nanostructured thick electrode by dip coating incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that deposited film was composed of primary nanoparticles with average crystallite size in the range 21-39 nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images showed that deposited film had nanostructured and porous morphology containing uniform spherical particles with diameter about 2.5 μm. The spherical particles were made of small nanoparticles with average grain size of 60 nm improving light scattering and dye loading of the DSSC. Moreover, atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis verified that the roughness mean square of prepared electrode was low, enhancing electron transport to the counter electrode. Photovoltaic measurements showed that solar cell made of polymeric gel process had higher photovoltaic performance than that made of conventional paste. An enhancement of power conversion efficiency from 4.54%, for conventional paste, to 6.21%, for polymeric gel process, was achieved. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study showed that the recombination process in solar cell made of polymeric gel process was slower than that in solar cell made of conventional paste. The presented strategy would open up new insight into fabrication of low-cost TiO 2 DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency

  13. Stain-etched porous silicon nanostructures for multicrystalline silicon-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabha, M.; Hajji, M.; Belhadj Mohamed, S.; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bessais, B.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study the optical, optoelectronic and photoluminescence properties of stain-etched porous silicon nanostructures obtained with different etching times. Special attention is given to the use of the stain-etched PS as an antireflection coating as well as for surface passivating capabilities. The surface morphology has been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of the Si-O and Si-H absorption bands was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry before and after PS treatment. Results show that stain etching of the silicon surface drops the total reflectivity to about 7% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and the minority carrier lifetime enhances to about 48 μs.

  14. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  15. Highly Efficient and Stable Organic Solar Cells via Interface Engineering with a Nanostructured ITR-GO/PFN Bilayer Cathode Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An innovative bilayer cathode interlayer (CIL with a nanostructure consisting of in situ thermal reduced graphene oxide (ITR-GO and poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamionpropyl-2,7-fluorene-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl fluorene] (PFN has been fabricated for inverted organic solar cells (OSCs. An approach to prepare a CIL of high electronic quality by using ITR-GO as a template to modulate the morphology of the interface between the active layer and electrode and to further reduce the work function of the electrode has also been realized. This bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is processed by a spray-coating method with facile in situ thermal reduction. Meanwhile, the CIL shows a good charge transport efficiency and less charge recombination, which leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency from 6.47% to 8.34% for Poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexylcarbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl} (PTB7:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM-based OSCs. In addition, the long-term stability of the OSC is improved by using the ITR-GO/PFN CIL when compared with the pristine device. These results indicate that the bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is a promising way to realize high-efficiency and stable OSCs by using water-soluble conjugated polymer electrolytes such as PFN.

  16. Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.) as a photosensitizer on nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rosyida, N. A.; Supriyanto, E.; Saputro, S.; Hanif, Q. A.; Rinawati, L.

    2016-02-01

    Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) as a photosensitizer in nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated. Ultravisible visible absorption spectra of anthocyanin show an ability absorbing light in the visible region. While the nanostructed-TiO2 powder in this research was prepared by sol-gel method following annealled at a temperature of 600°C. Subsequently, the TiO2 nanostructures were characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. The difractogram X-ray results shown that TiO2 was built from f anatase and rutile phase. Element analysis of synthesized TiO2 by X-ray Fluorecence (XRF) shown the TiO2 content of 98,67 wt%. TiO2 layer prepared at different thickness showed the average size of cavity about 0.83 µm. These several thickness of solar cells were fabricated and were immersed into anthocyanin for 24 hours to gain sensitized TiO2 photoanode for Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). These DSSCS performance were measured using I-V Keithley 2602A. The results exhibited that the sample with a TiO2 layer thickness of 4.75 ± 0.8 µm has the highest efficiency.

  17. Wide angle light collection with ultralow reflection and super scattering by silicon micro-nanostructures for thin crystalline silicon solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K

    2016-01-01

    Conventional c-Si solar cells employ micron-sized pyramids for achieving reduced reflection (∼10%) and enhanced light trapping by multiple bounces (maximum 3) of the incident light. Alternatively, bio-mimetic, moth-eye sub-wavelength nanostructures offer broadband antireflection properties (∼3%) suitable for solar cell applications in the optical regime. However, such structures do not provide any advantage in the charge carrier extraction process as radial junctions cannot be formed in such sub-wavelength dimensions and they have high surface area causing increased charged carrier recombination. The choice of the geometry for achieving optimum photon–electron harvesting for solar applications is therefore very critical. Cross-fertilization of the conventional solar cell light-trapping techniques and the sub-wavelength nanostructures results in unique micro-nanostructures (structures having sub-wavelength dimensions as well as dimensions of the order of few microns) which provide advanced light management capabilities along with the ability of realizing radial junctions. It is seen that an ultralow reflection along with wide angle light collection is obtained which enables such structures to overcome the morning, evening and winter light losses in solar cells. Further, super-scattering in the structures offer enhanced light trapping not only in the structure itself but also in the substrate housing the structure. Ray and wave optics have been used to understand the optical benefits of the structures. It is seen that the aspect ratio of the structures plays the most significant role for achieving such light management capabilities, and efficiencies as high as 12% can be attained. Experiments have been carried out to fabricate a unique micro-nanomaze-like structure instead of a periodic array of micro-nanostructures with the help of nanosphere lithography and the MacEtch technique. It is seen that randomized micro-nanomaze geometry offers very good

  18. Low-Temperature Preparation of Amorphous-Shell/Nanocrystalline-Core Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshe Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An amorphous shell/nanocrystalline core nanostructured TiO2 electrode was prepared at low temperature, in which the mixture of TiO2 powder and TiCl4 aqueous solution was used as the paste for coating a film and in this film amorphous TiO2 resulted from direct hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 100∘C sintering was produced to connect the particles forming a thick crack-free uniform nanostructured TiO2 film (12 μm, and on which a photoelectrochemical solar cell-based was fabricated, generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.58 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.647 V, and an overall 4.48% light-to-electricity conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  19. The preparation and characterization of nanostructured TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitiyanan, Athapol; Ngamsinlapasathian, Supachai; Pavasupree, Soropong; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of nanostructured mixed metal oxide based on a sol-gel method with surfactant-assisted mechanism, and its application for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) are reported. The mixed zirconia (ZrO 2 ) and titania (TiO 2 ) mesoporous powder possessed larger surface area than the corresponding titania. For the UV action spectra of unsensitized photochemical cell, the mixed zirconia/titania electrode can absorb UV light below 380nm, corresponding to band gap (E g ) around 3.27eV, which is higher than that of pure component of titania (E g =3.2eV). Both of these improved properties, i.e., BET surface area and band gap, contributed to the improvement on a short-circuit photocurrent up to 11%, an open-circuit voltage up to 4%, and a solar energy conversion efficiency up to 17%, for the DSSC fabricated by mesoporous zirconia/titania mixed system when compared to the cell that was fabricated only by nanostructured TiO 2 . The cell fabricated by 5μm thick mixed TiO 2 -ZrO 2 electrode gave the short-circuit photocurrent about 13mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage about 600 mV and the conversion efficiency 5.4%

  20. Packaging Glass with a Hierarchically Nanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to Achieve Self-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Chin An; Tsai, Meng Lin; Wei, Wan-Rou; Lai, Kun Yu; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    to the subwavelength feature of the nanorods and an efficient scattering ability of the honeycomb nanowalls. Si solar cells covered with the hierarchically structured packaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by 5.2% at normal incidence

  1. Design of Novel Metal Nanostructures for Broadband Solar Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine A. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar power holds great potential as an alternative energy source, but current photovoltaic cells have much room for improvement in cost and efficiency. Our objective was to develop metal nanostructures whose surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectra closely match the solar spectrum to enhance light absorption and scattering. We employed the finite-difference time-domain simulation method to evaluate the effect of varying key parameters. A novel nanostructure with SPR absorption matching a region of the solar spectrum (300 to 1500 nm that contains 90% of solar energy was successfully designed. This structure consists of a large gold-silica core-shell structure with smaller gold nanoparticles and nanorods on its surface. Such complex nanostructures are promising for broad and tunable absorption spectra. In addition, we investigated the SPR of silver nanoparticle arrays, which can achieve scattering close to the solar spectrum. We demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of over 30% with optimal nanoparticle radius and periods of 75 nm and 325 nm, respectively. In combination, our studies enable high-efficiency, tunable, and cost-effective enhancement of both light absorption and scattering, which has potential applications in solar energy conversion as well as biomedical imaging.

  2. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  3. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  4. Recent improvements on TiO2 and ZnO nanostructure photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamalullail Nurnaeimah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a promising candidate for a low cost solar harvesting technology as it promised a low manufacturing cost, ease of fabrication and reasonable conversion efficiency. Basic structure of DSSC consists of photoanode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. Photoanode plays an important role for a DSSC as it supports the dye molecules and helps in the electron transfer that will determine the energy conversion efficiency. This paper emphasizes the various improvements that had been done on the TiO2 and ZnO photoanode nanostructures synthesized through thermal method. For overall comparisons, ZnO nanoflowers photoanode had achieved the highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.7% due to its ability of internal light scattering that had increased the electron transportation rate. This has made ZnO as a potential candidate to replace TiO2 as a photoanode material in DSSC.

  5. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholizadeh, A; Reyhani, A; Mortazavi, S Z; Parvin, P

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O 2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV–visible (UV–vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ∼100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc , reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV–blue spectral range. (paper)

  6. Efficiency enhancement of ZnO nanostructure assisted Si solar cell based on fill factor enlargement and UV-blue spectral down-shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO nanostructures (including nano-plates and nano-rods (NRs)) are grown in various temperatures and Ar/O2 flow rates using thermal chemical vapor deposition, which affect the structure, nano-plate/NR population, and the quality of ZnO nanostructures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) attests that the peak intensity of the crystallographic plane (1 0 0) is correlated to nano-plate abundance. Moreover, optical properties elucidate that the population of nano-plates in samples strongly affect the band gap, binding energy of the exciton, and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption and spectral luminescence emissions. In fact, the exciton binding energy reduces from ~100 to 80 meV when the population of nano-plates increases in samples. Photovoltaic characteristics based on the drop-casting on Si solar cells reveals three dominant factors, namely, the equivalent series resistance, decreasing reflectance, and down-shifting, in order to scale up the absolute efficiency by 3%. As a consequence, the oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanostructures give rise to the down-shifting and increase of free-carriers, leading to a reduction in the equivalent series resistance and an enlargement of fill factor. To obtain a larger I sc, reduction of spectral reflectance is essential; however, the down-shifting process is shown to be dominant by lessening the surface electron-hole recombination rate over the UV-blue spectral range.

  7. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enables studies of more complex nanostructured solar cells with higher conversion efficiency and lower production cost. The fundamental principles and important features of these advanced solar cell designs are systematically reviewed and summarized in this paper, with a focus on the function and role of nanostructures and the key factors affecting device performance. Among various nanostructures, special attention is given to those relying on quantum effect.

  8. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  9. Our Expedition in Linear Neutral Platinum-Acetylide Complexes: The Preparation of Micro/nanostructure Materials, Complicated Topologies, and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2016-06-01

    During the past few decades, the construction of various kinds of platinum-acetylide complexes has attracted considerable attention, because of their wide applications in photovoltaic cells, non-linear optics, and bio-imaging materials. Among these platinum-acetylide complexes, the linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes, due to their attractive properties, such as well-defined linear geometry, synthetic accessibility, and intriguing photoproperties, have emerged as a rising star in this field. In this personal account, we will discuss how we entered the field of linear neutral platinum-acetylide chemistry and what we found in this field. The preparation of various types of linear neutral platinum-acetylide complexes and their applications in the areas of micro/nanostructure materials, complicated topologies, and dye-sensitized solar cells will be summarized in this account. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, Mohamed M; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V; Yang Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  11. Effect of different photoanode nanostructures on the initial charge separation and electron injection process in dye sensitized solar cells: A photophysical study with indoline dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idígoras, Jesús [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Sobuś, Jan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Jancelewicz, Mariusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Azaceta, Eneko; Tena-Zaera, Ramon [Materials Division, IK4-CIDETEC, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Paseo Miramón 196, Donostia-San Sebastián, 20009 (Spain); Anta, Juan A. [Nanostructured Solar Cells Group, Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera, km 1, ES-41013 Seville (Spain); Ziółek, Marcin, E-mail: marziol@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    Ultrafast and fast charge separation processes were investigated for complete cells based on several ZnO-based photoanode nanostructures and standard TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers sensitized with the indoline dye coded D358. Different ZnO morphologies (nanoparticles, nanowires, mesoporous), synthesis methods (hydrothermal, gas-phase, electrodeposition in aqueous media and ionic liquid media) and coatings (ZnO–ZnO core–shell, ZnO–TiO{sub 2} core–shell) were measured by transient absorption techniques in the time scale from 100 fs to 100 μs and in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. All of ZnO cells show worse electron injection yields with respect to those with standard TiO{sub 2} material. Lower refractive index of ZnO than that of TiO{sub 2} is suggested to be an additional factor, not considered so far, that can decrease the performance of ZnO-based solar cells. Evidence of the participation of the excited charge transfer state of the dye in the charge separation process is provided here. The lifetime of this state in fully working devices extends from several ps to several tens of ps, which is much longer than the typically postulated electron injection times in all-organic dye-sensitized solar cells. The results here provided, comprising a wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods, point to the universality of the poor performance of ZnO as photoanode material with respect to standard TiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Wide variety of morphologies and preparation methods has been checked for ZnO cells. • All ZnO cells work worse than TiO{sub 2} ones. • Effective refractive index might be an additional factor in solar cell performance. • Excited charge transfer state of indoline dyes participates in the charge separation.

  12. Morphologically controlled ZnO nanostructures as electron transport materials in polymer-based organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyu-Chae; Lee, Eun-Jin; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Lim, Dong-Chan; Kang, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Yang-Do; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jae Pil; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced efficiency of solar cells using ZnO nanocrystals for charge transport. • Morphology of the charge transport layer is controlled. • Mixture of nanoparticles and nanorods are advantageous for cell efficiency. - ABSTRACT: The morphology of ZnO electron transport layers based on ZnO nanoparticles were modified with incorporation of ZnO nanorods via their co-deposition from mixed colloidal solution of nanoparticles and nanorods. In particular, the short circuit current density and the fill factor of the constructed photovoltaic device were simultaneously improved by applying mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods. As a result, a large improvement of power conversion efficiency up to 9% for the inverted organic solar cells having a blend of low band gap polymers and fullerene derivative as an active layer was demonstrated with the morphologically controlled ZnO electron transport layer.

  13. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  14. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  15. Graphene-based copper oxide thin film nanostructures as high-efficiency photocathode for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Baran, Sümeyra Seniha; Asgin, Mansur; Cebeci, Hulya; Urk, Deniz

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) have been proposed and fabricated using copper oxide urchin-like nanostructures (COUN) as photocathode with an FeS2 counter electrode (CE). COUN composed of Cu2O core sphere and CuO shell nanorods with overall diameters of 2 to 4 μm were grown by a simple hydrothermal method with self-assemble nucleation. It was figured out that the formation of copper oxide core/shell structures could be adjusted by an ammonia additive leading to pH change of the precursor solution. In addition to a photocathode, we also demonstrated FeS2 thin films as an efficient CE material alternative to the conventional Pt CEs in DSSCs. FeS2 nanostructures, with diameters of 50 to 80 nm, were synthesized by a similar hydrothermal approach. FeS2 nanostructures are demonstrated to be an outstanding CE material in p-DSSCs. We report graphene/COUN as photocathode and Pt/FeS2 as CE in p-DSSCs, and results show that the synergetic combination of electrodes in each side (increased interconnectivity between COUN and graphene layer, high surface area, and high catalytic activity of FeS2) increased the power conversion efficiency from 1.56% to 3.14%. The excellent performances of COUN and FeS2 thin film in working and CEs, respectively, make them unique choices among the various photocathode and CE materials studied.

  16. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Wenxu; Xiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enab...

  17. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  18. Hydrothermal growth of double-layer TiO{sub 2} nanostructure film for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Shuanglong; Yang Junyou, E-mail: jyyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu Ming; Zhu Hu; Zhang Jiansheng; Li Gen; Peng Jiangying; Liu Qiongzhen

    2012-01-31

    A double-layer (DL) film with a TiO{sub 2} nanosheet-layer on a layer of TiO{sub 2} nanorod-array, was synthesized on a transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by a two-step hydrothermal method. Starting from the precursors of NaSeSO{sub 3}, CdSO{sub 4} and the complex of N(CH{sub 2}COOK){sub 3}, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were grown on the DL-TiO{sub 2} substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Energy dispersion spectroscopy, and their optical scattering property was measured by light reflection spectrometry. Some CdSe QDs sensitized DL-TiO{sub 2} films serve as the photoanodes, were assembled into solar cell devices and their photovoltaic performance were also characterized. The short circuit current and open-circuit voltage of the solar cells range from 0.75 to 4.05 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.20 - 0.42 V under the illumination of one sun (AM1.5, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}), respectively. The photocurrent density of the DL-TiO{sub 2} film is five times higher than that of a bare TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoelectrode cell. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step hydrothermal deposition method was used to deposit TiO{sub 2} films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double-layer TiO{sub 2} films were synthesized on transparent FTO substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bi-functional character of the electrode were confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocurrent density of DL-film electrode was enhanced 5 times than a single film.

  19. Nanostructured TiO2 microspheres for dye-sensitized solar cells employing a solid state polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Nagarajan, Srinivasan; Kang, Yong Soo; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Bimodal mesoporous, anatase TiO 2 microspheres with particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2 μm were synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. The photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 microspheres in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using a solid state electrolyte was investigated. The solid state electrolyte DSSC device based on the TiO 2 microspheres exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.2%, which is greater than that of commercial P25 TiO 2 (3.6%). The higher photocurrent density was primarily achieved as a result of the greater specific surface area and pore size, which resulted in an increase in the dye uptake of the TiO 2 microspheres and easy transport of solid electrolyte through mesopores. In addition, the greater electron lifetime and superior light scattering ability also enhanced the photovoltaic performance of the TiO 2 microsphere-based, solid state DSSCs

  20. P3HT:PCBM-based organic solar cells : Optimisation of active layer nanostructure and interface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadem, Burak Yahya

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted a significant attention during the last decade due to their simple processability on a flexible substrate as well as scope for large-scale production using role to role technique. Improving the performance of the organic solar cells and their lifetime stability are one of the main challenges faced by researchers in this field. In this thesis, work has been carried out using a blend of Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C[61] butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as an active layer in the ratio of (1:1) (P3HT:PCBM). The efficiency and stability of P3HT:PCBM-based solar cells have been examined using different methods and employing novel materials such as1-[N-(2-ethoxyethyl) pent-4-ynamide] -8 (11), 15 (18), 22 (25) -tris-{2-[2-(2-ethoxyethoxy) ethoxy]-1-[2-((2- ethoxyethoxy) - ethoxy) methyl] ethyloxy} phthalocyaninato zinc (II) (ZnPc) to construct a ternary hybrid as the active layer. Controlling the morphology and crystallinity of P3HT:PCBM active layer was carried out using different solvents including chloroform (CF), chlorobenzene (CB) and dichlorobenzene (DCB) and their co-solvents in the ratio of (1:1) to dissolve the P3HT:PCBM blend. Optimum morphology and crystallinity were achieved using a co-solvent made of CB:CF with the obtained solar cell exhibiting the highest performance with PCE reaching 2.73% among other devices prepared using different solvents. Further device performance improvement was observed through optimization of active layer thickness with studied thickness falling in range 65-266 nm. Measurements of the PV characteristics of the investigated OSC devices have revealed optimum performance when active layer thickness was 95 nm with PCE=3.846%. The stability of the P3HT:PCBM-based devices on optimisation of the active layer thickness has shown a decrease in PCE of about 71% over a period of 41 days. Furthermore, P3HT has been blended with different fullerene derivatives (PC[60]BM, PC

  1. Enhanced interfacial contact between PbS and TiO2 layers in quantum dot solar cells using 2D-arrayed TiO2 hemisphere nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseok; Ryu, Ilhwan; Lee, Haein; Yim, Sanggyu

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensionally (2D) arrayed hemispherical nanostructures of TiO2 thin films were successfully fabricated using a simple procedure of spin-coating or dip-coating TiO2 nanoparticles onto 2D close-packed polystyrene (PS) nanospheres, followed by PS extraction. The nanostructured TiO2 film was then used as an n-type layer in a lead sulfide (PbS) colloidal quantum dot solar cell. The TiO2 nanostructure could provide significantly increased contacts with subsequently deposited PbS quantum dot layer. In addition, the periodically arrayed nanostructure could enhance optical absorption of the cell by redirecting the path of the incident light and increasing the path length passing though the active layer. As a result, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 5.13%, which is approximately a 1.7-fold increase over that of the control cell without nanostructuring, 3.02%. This PCE enhancement can mainly be attributed to the increase of the short-circuit current density from 19.6 mA/cm2 to 30.6 mA/cm2, whereas the open-circuit voltage and fill factor values did not vary significantly.

  2. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  4. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  5. Investigation of Electrochemically Deposited and Chemically Reduced Platinum Nanostructured Thin Films as Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrated that platinum (Pt counter electrodes (CEs fabricated using electrochemical deposition and chemical reduction can replace conventional high-temperature thermally decomposed Pt electrodes. In this study, Pt electrodes were fabricated using thermal decomposition, electrochemical deposition, and chemical reduction, and the influence of the different Pt counter electrodes on the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was analyzed. The properties of the various Pt CEs were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. DSSCs with various Pt CEs were characterized using current density-voltage (J-V, incident photo-current conversion efficiency (IPCE, and EIS measurements. The results show that the power conversion efficiencies of these three types of DSSC devices were between 7.43% and 7.72%. The DSSCs based on the Pt electrode fabricated through electrochemical deposition exhibited the optimal power conversion efficiency. Because the processes of electrochemical deposition and chemical reduction do not require high-temperature sintering, these two methods are suitable for the fabrication of Pt on flexible plastic substrates.

  6. Improving Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency Using Graded-Refractive-Index SiON/ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of silicon oxynitride (SiON/ZnO nanotube (NT arrays and their application in improving the energy conversion efficiency (η of crystalline Si-based solar cells (SCs are reported. The SiON/ZnO NT arrays have a graded-refractive-index that varies from 3.5 (Si to 1.9~2.0 (Si3N4 and ZnO to 1.72~1.75 (SiON to 1 (air. Experimental results show that the use of 0.4 μm long ZnO NT arrays coated with a 150 nm thick SiON film increases Δη/η by 39.2% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination as compared to that of regular SCs with a Si3N4/micropyramid surface. This enhancement can be attributed to SiON/ZnO NT arrays effectively releasing surface reflection and minimizing Fresnel loss.

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid nanostructured materials as quantum-dots sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Mendez, Jose R.; Matos, Juan; Cházaro-Ruiz, Luis F.; González-Castillo, Ana C.; Barrios-Yáñez, Guillermo

    2018-03-01

    The microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid materials was performed. Saccharose, titanium isopropoxide and zinc acetate were used as organic and inorganic sources for the synthesis. The influence of temperature and reaction time on the textural and optoelectronic properties of the hybrid materials was verified. Carbon quantum-dots of TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured spheres were obtained in a second pot by controlled calcination steps of the precursor hybrid materials. A carefully characterization by adsorption-desorption N2 isotherms, XRD, XPS, SEM, UV-vis/DR and electro- and photo-electrochemistry properties of the carbon quantum-dots TiO2 and ZnO spheres was performed. The photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2-C and ZnO-C films proved to be dependent on the conditions of synthesis. It was found a red-shift in the energy band gap of the semiconductors with values of 3.02 eV and 3.13 eV for the TiO2-C and ZnO-C, respectively, clearly lower than those on bare semiconductors, which is associated with the C-doping effect. From the photo-electrochemistry characterization of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO films can be concluded that the present materials have potential applications as photoelectrodes for quantum-dots sensitized solar cells.

  8. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nano-technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; HueyLiang Hwang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light, have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  9. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  11. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  12. Magnetron sputtering in the creation of photonic nanostructures derived from Sasakia Charonda Formosana-butterfly wings for applied in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haihong; Zhou, Ru; Cheng, Cong; Zhang, Gonghai; Hu, Yu; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Shouwei; Shang, Xin; Xia, Mei; Xu, Jinzhang

    2016-09-01

    Creating new functional materials derived from the structures seen on butterfly wings has achieved interest in a variety of research topics. However, there need a concision approach could result in a high-quality, precise, and convenient process for the fabrication of complex nanostructures replication with unique functionalities based on the butterfly wings. Here we developed a pithy approach based on a magnetron sputtering metal Ti process for biotemplating used to refine hierarchically porous titanium dioxide photonic crystal nanostructures (TiO2sbnd PCN), themselves derived from nanostructures present on the wings of Sasakia Charonda Formosana (S. Charonda) butterflies. For the first time, the TiO2sbnd PCN were deposited on the top of the P25 active layer and were used to fabricate DSSCs as the light-scattering layers of photoanodes with power conversion efficiencies of up to 8.7%. Remarkably, a much enhanced photocurrent density and a prominent photoelectrochemical conversion capability have been achieved, which are exceeding most of the previously reported photoanodes as well as a similar butterflies replication-based device structure. Our study suggests many exciting opportunities of developing artificially engineered butterfly wing-based solar-to-fuel conversion.

  13. Upconversion in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Modification of the spectrum requires down- and/or upconversion or downshifting of the spectrum, meaning that the energy of photons is modified to either lower (down) or higher (up) energy. Nanostructures such as quantum dots, luminescent dye molecules, and lanthanide-doped glasses are capable of absorbing photons at a certain wavelength and emitting photons at a different (shorter or longer) wavelength. We will discuss upconversion by lanthanide compounds in various host materials and will further demonstrate upconversion to work for thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:23413889

  14. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of

  15. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  16. Introduction to solar cell production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Hae; Lee, Jun Sin

    2009-08-01

    This book introduces solar cell production. It is made up eight chapters, which are summary of solar cell with structure and prospect of the business, special variable of solar cell on light of the sun and factor causing variable of solar cell, production of solar cell with surface texturing, diffusion, metal printing dry and firing and edge isolation, process of solar cell on silicone wafer for solar cell, forming of electrodes, introduction of thin film solar cell on operating of solar cell, process of production and high efficiency of thin film solar cell, sorting of solar cell and production with background of silicone solar cell and thin film solar cell, structure and production of thin film solar cell and compound solar cell, introduction of solar cell module and the Industrial condition and prospect of solar cell.

  17. Novel silicon phases and nanostructures for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wippermann, Stefan; He, Yuping; Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Silicon exhibits a large variety of different bulk phases, allotropes, and composite structures, such as, e.g., clathrates or nanostructures, at both higher and lower densities compared with diamond-like Si-I. New Si structures continue to be discovered. These novel forms of Si offer exciting prospects to create Si based materials, which are non-toxic and earth-abundant, with properties tailored precisely towards specific applications. We illustrate how such novel Si based materials either in the bulk or as nanostructures may be used to significantly improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion devices.

  18. InN-Based Quantum Dot Solar Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this STTR program is to employ nanostructured materials in an advanced device design to enhance the tolerance of solar cells to extreme environments...

  19. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  20. Thermal engineering of lead-free nanostructured CH3NH3SnCl3 perovskite material for thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyez, Sk Abdul; Roy, Subhasis

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite solar cell is a kind of revolutionary investigation in the field of renewable energy which is capable of mitigates the deficiencies of silicon solar cell and its uprising efficiency can bring blessing to society. The presence of lead (Pb) in perovskite solar cell can make worst and negative impact on environment and is not desirable for our society. In this paper, general plans are anticipated by replacement of Pb with tin (Sn) in open atmosphere to fabricate the CH3NH3SnCl3 photovoltaic cells in chlorine (Cl)-rich environment. Excess uses of Cl has positive influences on morphological growth of the film and it also suppresses the oxidation tendency of tin (Sn) with existing oxygen in atmosphere and maintains same chemical atmosphere as bulk. Various characterization tools like X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to study the effect of annealing temperature on crystal stricture, phase formation, impurities, and morphologies of the film. Finally, photovoltaic performance was reported using the solar simulator under 1.5 sun illumination.

  1. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong; Jeon, Nam Joong; Choi, Yong Chan; Nazeeruddin, Md. K.; Grä tzel, Michael; Seok, Sang Il

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim

  2. Electron Microscopy of Nanostructures in Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købler, Carsten

    with cells is therefore increasingly more relevant from both an engineering and a toxicological viewpoint. My work involves developing and exploring electron microscopy (EM) for imaging nanostructures in cells, for the purpose of understanding nanostructure-cell interactions in terms of their possibilities...... in science and concerns in toxicology. In the present work, EM methods for imaging nanostructure-cell interactions have been explored, and the complex interactions documented and ordered. In particular the usability of the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) was explored. Using EM...... in literature. Furthermore, EM proved valuable as it revealed an unnoticed CNT effect. FIB-SEM helped establish that the effect was linked to eosionophilic crystalline pneumonia (ECP)....

  3. Nanostructured TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells employing spiro-OMeTAD/Co-complex as hole-transporting material

    KAUST Repository

    Noh, Jun Hong

    2013-01-01

    For using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p- methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as a hole conductor in solar cells, it is necessary to improve its charge-transport properties through electrochemical doping. With the aim of fabricating efficient mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cells, we used tris[2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-4-tert- butylpyridine)cobalt(iii) tris(bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide)] (FK209) as a p-dopant for spiro-OMeTAD. The mixture of spiro-OMeTAD, FK209, lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Li-TFSI), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) exhibited significantly higher performance than mixtures of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, spiro-OMeTAD, and FK209, and spiro-OMeTAD, Li-TFSI, and TBP. Such a synergistic effect between the Co-complex and Li-TFSI in conjunction with spiro-OMeTAD effectively improved the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the fabricated solar cells. As a result, we achieved PCE of 10.4%, measured under standard solar conditions (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm-2). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  5. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  6. Titanium dioxide nanostructure synthesized by sol-gel for organic solar cells using natural dyes extracted from black and red sticky rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Harjana, H.; Sakti, L. S.

    2012-06-01

    Nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxides have achieved a great importance in our industrial world today. They may be defined as metal oxides with crystal size between 1 and 100 nm. TiO2 nanosize particles have attracted significant interest of materials scientists and physicists due to their special properties and have attained a great importance in several technological applications such as photocatalysis, sensors, solar cells and memory devices. TiO2 nanoparticles can be produced by a variety of techniques ranging from simple chemical to mechanical to vacuum methods, including many variants of physical and chemical vapour deposition techniques. In the present research work we report the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by Sol-Gel technique. The characterization of particles was carried out by XRD and XRF techniques. The importance and applications of these nanoparticles for solar cells are also discussed in this work.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and nano-structuration of poly-thiophene derivatives for organic photovoltaic solar cells; Synthese, caracterisation et nanostructuration de derives du polythiophene pour des applications en cellules photovoltaiques organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, S

    2007-10-15

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of poly-thiophene derivatives with low bandgap and preserving high oxidation potential. Disubstituted thiophenes and 'Donor-Acceptor' bi-thiophenes were synthesized and then polymerized. The side chains of these polymers, donor or acceptor, were modified in order to tune the properties of material as well from the optical point of view as electrochemical. These polymers were also tested in blend with PCBM in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Voc delivered by the devices showed a linear dependence according to the potential of oxidation of the polymers. Copolymers containing cyano-thiophene and alkyl- or alkoxy-thiophene showed values of 0.8 V. However, in spite of power conversion efficiency of 1 %, these performances remain lower than the one obtained with the P3HT. Optimizations in terms of morphology are certainly necessary. Indeed, the morphology of the active layer plays a key role in obtaining high power conversion efficiency. An original technique of nano-structuration of the polymer on a nano-metric scale was developed during this work, leading to the development of fibrillar P3HT. These nano-structures, presenting an important degree of order, are formed spontaneously in solution. Their rate compared to amorphous material is perfectly controllable and adjustable in solution and in solid state. Measurements of mobilities show a strong improvement of the transport of load within these fibrillar layers compared to a traditional film of P3HT obtained without annealing. Power conversion efficiencies of 3.6% on glass and 3.3 % on plastic were reached without annealing. (author)

  8. Plasma texturing on large-area industrial grade CZ silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Nordseth, Ørnulf; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of nanostructuring of silicon solar cells using reactive ion etching (RIE). A simple mask-less, scalable RIE nanostructuring of the solar cell surface is shown to reduce the AM1.5-weighted average reflectance to a level below 1 % in a fully optimized RIE texturi...

  9. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    , such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption......In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques...

  10. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez‐Solano, Alberto; Delgado‐Sánchez, José‐Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miranda‐Muñoz, José M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez‐Cortezón, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one‐dimensional photonic crystals and in‐plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide‐area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost‐efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large‐scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in‐plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long‐term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27656090

  11. Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Solano, Alberto; Delgado-Sánchez, José-Maria; Calvo, Mauricio E; Miranda-Muñoz, José M; Lozano, Gabriel; Sancho, Diego; Sánchez-Cortezón, Emilio; Míguez, Hernán

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe 2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved. © 2015 The Authors. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various

  13. Controlled synthesis of various ZnO nanostructured materials by capping agents-assisted hydrothermal method for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, M. Shaheer; Khan, M. Alam; Yang, O-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, Jeon-Ju (Korea); New and Renewable Energy Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeon-Ju (Korea); Jeon, Myung Seok [Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemistry Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejon 305-343 (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO materials could be controlled by changing the capping agent at constant alkali solution in hydrothermal process. ZnO nanomaterials with the structure of flowers, sheet-spheres and plates were obtained with the capping agent of ammonia, citric acid and oxalic acid, respectively. Thus prepared ZnO nanomaterials were characterized and applied as the photo-anode materials for dye-sensitized solar cell. All synthesized ZnO nanomaterials possessed high crystalline wurtzite structures grown in the (001) direction with the size of 2-4{mu}m, which consist of ZnO units around 20-400 nm. Among them, Sheet-sphere ZnO showed the highest crystallinity, surface area and uniform film morphology, resulting in the significantly improved PV performance with the overall conversion efficiency of 2.61% in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated with sheet-sphere ZnO. It is notable that the ZnO materials with sphere structure may be the optimal photo-anode material among various ZnO nanomaterials for DSSC. (author)

  14. Black silicon laser-doped selective emitter solar cell with 18.1% efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Li, Hongzhao; To, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report fabrication of nanostructured, laser-doped selective emitter (LDSE) silicon solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and a fill factor (FF) of 80.1%. The nanostructured solar cells were realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing......-texturing as well as the LDSE process, we consider this specific combination a promising candidate for a cost-efficient process for future Si solar cells....

  15. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  16. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  17. Functionalized nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic performance under solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liejin Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water has been considered to be one of the most promising solar-to-hydrogen conversion technologies. In the last decade, various functionalized nanostructures were designed to address the primary requirements for an efficient photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by using solar energy: visible-light activity, chemical stability, appropriate band-edge characteristics, and potential for low-cost fabrication. Our aim is to present a short review of our recent attempts that center on the above requirements. We begin with a brief introduction of photocatalysts coupling two or more semiconductors, followed by a further discussion of the heterostructures with improved matching of both band structures and crystal lattices. We then elaborate on the heterostructure design of the targeted materials from macroscopic regulation of compositions and phases, to the more precise control at the nanoscale, i.e., materials with the same compositions but different phases with certain band alignment. We conclude this review with perspectives on nanostructure design that might direct future research of this technology.

  18. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  19. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  20. Polymer tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.

    2010-01-01

    Solar cells convert solar energy directly into electricity and are attractive contribute to the increasing energy demand of modern society. Commercial mono-crystalline silicon based devices are infiltrating the energy market but their expensive, time and energy consuming production process

  1. Deliberate Design of TiO2 Nanostructures towards Superior Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziqi; Liao, Ting; Sheng, Liyuan; Kou, Liangzhi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 nanostructures are being sought after as flexibly utilizable building blocks for the fabrication of the mesoporous thin-film photoelectrodes that are the heart of the third-generation photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and the recently promoted perovskite-type solar cells. Here, we report deliberate tailoring of TiO2 nanostructures for superior photovoltaic cells. Morphology engineering of TiO2 nanostructures is realized by designing synthetic protocols in which the precursor hydrolysis, crystal growth, and oligomer self-organization are precisely controlled. TiO2 nanostructures in forms varying from isolated nanocubes, nanorods, and cross-linked nanorods to complex hierarchical structures and shape-defined mesoporous micro-/nanostructures were successfully synthesized. The photoanodes made from the shape-defined mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and nanospindles presented superior performances, owing to the well-defined overall shapes and the inner ordered nanochannels, which allow not only a high amount of dye uptake, but also improved visible-light absorption. This study provides a new way to seek an optimal synthetic protocol to meet the required functionality of the nanomaterials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. CuO-PANI nanostructure with tunable spectral selectivity for solar selective coating application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindrella, L., E-mail: cind@nitt.edu; Prabhu, S., E-mail: sprabhuk@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • CuO-PANI nanostructure has been reported as the solar selective absorber coating. • Solar selectivity and efficiency of the coatings have been evaluated. • PANI provides a surface texture favourable for multiple reflection. - Abstract: CuO-PANI nanostructure has been demonstrated as the solar selective absorber coating for the first time. The effortless chemical methods and easily scalable techniques such as precipitation, in-situ polymerization and spray coating were adopted for the fabrication of CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructures for solar application. The synthesis was carried out without using any template. The morphology and phase structure of fabricated CuO nanorods and CuO-PANI nanostructure coatings were studied by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra and elemental mapping confirm the presence of the chosen elements in the nanostructure. The solar absorptance (α{sub s}), thermal emittance (ε{sub t}) and selectivity (ξ) of the nanostructure coatings on glass substrate were optimized to 0.94, 0.01 and 94 respectively by changing the polyaniline content on the surface of the CuO nanorods. The efficiency of the solar selective coatings were evaluated. The optimized solar absorber coating of CuO-PANI nanostructure is highly promising for its selective optical properties.

  3. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  4. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  5. Investigation of advanced nanostructured multijunction photoanodes for enhanced solar hydrogen generation via water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hidetaka

    As the worldwide demand for fossil-based fuel increases every day and the fossil reserve continues to be depleted, the need for alternative/renewable energy sources has gained momentum. Electric, hybrid, and hydrogen cars have been at the center of discussion lately among consumers, automobile manufacturers, and politicians, alike. The development of a fuel-cell based engine using hydrogen has been an ambitious research area over the last few decades-ever since Fujishima showed that hydrogen can be generated via the solar-energy driven photo-electrolytic splitting of water. Such solar cells are known as Photo-Electro-Chemical (PEC) solar cells. In order to commercialize this technology, various challenges associated with photo-conversion efficiency, chemical corrosion resistance, and longevity need to be overcome. In general, metal oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO 2, titania) are excellent candidates for PEC solar cells. Titania nanotubes have several advantages, including biocompatibility and higher chemical stability. Nevertheless, they can absorb only 5-7% of the solar spectrum which makes it difficult to achieve the higher photo-conversion efficiency required for successful commercial applications. A two-prong approach was employed to enhance photo-conversion efficiency: 1) surface modification of titania nanotubes using plasma treatment and 2) nano-capping of the titania nanotubes using titanium disilicide. The plasma surface treatment with N2 was found to improve the photo-current efficiency of titania nanotubes by 55%. Similarly, a facile, novel approach of nano-capping titania nanotubes to enhance their photocurrent response was also investigated. Electrochemically anodized titania nanotubes were capped by coating a 25 nm layer of titanium disilicide using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The optical properties of titania nanotubes were not found to change due to the capping; however, a considerable increase (40%) in the photocurrent

  6. High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Seth

    2012-09-12

    The High Efficiency Nanostructured III-V Photovoltaics for Solar Concentrators project seeks to provide new photovoltaic cells for Concentrator Photovoltaics (CPV) Systems with higher cell efficiency, more favorable temperature coefficients and less sensitivity to changes in spectral distribution. The main objective of this project is to provide high efficiency III-V solar cells that will reduce the overall cost per Watt for power generation using CPV systems.This work is focused both on a potential near term application, namely the use of indium arsenide (InAs) QDs to spectrally "tune" the middle (GaAs) cell of a SOA triple junction device to a more favorable effective bandgap, as well as the long term goal of demonstrating intermediate band solar cell effects. The QDs are confined within a high electric field i-region of a standard GaAs solar cell. The extended absorption spectrum (and thus enhanced short circuit current) of the QD solar cell results from the increase in the sub GaAs bandgap spectral response that is achievable as quantum dot layers are introduced into the i-region. We have grown InAs quantum dots by OMVPE technique and optimized the QD growth conditions. Arrays of up to 40 layers of strain balanced quantum dots have been experimentally demonstrated with good material quality, low residual stain and high PL intensity. Quantum dot enhanced solar cells were grown and tested under simulated one sun AM1.5 conditions. Concentrator solar cells have been grown and fabricated with 5-40 layers of QDs. Testing of these devices show the QD cells have improved efficiency compared to baseline devices without QDs. Device modeling and measurement of thermal properties were performed using Crosslight APSYS. Improvements in a triple junction solar cell with the insertion of QDs into the middle current limiting junction was shown to be as high as 29% under one sun illumination for a 10 layer stack QD enhanced triple junction solar cell. QD devices have strong

  7. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  8. Iron sulphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1984-12-01

    The abundant, naturally occurring natural compound pyrite (FeS2) can be used as a semiconducting material for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic solar cells. Unlike most of the intensively studied photoactive materials, pyrite solar cell production would never be limited by the availability of the elements or by their compatibility with the environment. An energy gap of 0.95 eV has been determined for pyrite, and it is noted that the theoretical efficiency limit for solar energy conversion in this material is of the order of 15-20 percent.

  9. Nanostructures for Enhanced Light Absorption in Solar Energy Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Edman Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fascinating optical properties of nanostructured materials find important applications in a number of solar energy utilization schemes and devices. Nanotechnology provides methods for fabrication and use of structures and systems with size corresponding to the wavelength of visible light. This opens a wealth of possibilities to explore the new, often of resonance character, phenomena observed when the object size and the electromagnetic field periodicity (light wavelength λ match. Here we briefly review the effects and concepts of enhanced light absorption in nanostructures and illustrate them with specific examples from recent literature and from our studies. These include enhanced optical absorption of composite photocatalytically active TiO2/graphitic carbon films, systems with enhanced surface plasmon resonance, field-enhanced absorption in nanofabricated carbon structures with geometrical optical resonances and excitation of waveguiding modes in supported nanoparticle assembles. The case of Ag particles plasmon-mediated chemistry of NO on graphite surface is highlighted to illustrate the principle of plasmon-electron coupling in adsorbate systems.

  10. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanostructures on copper substrate as selective solar absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick Kumar, S.; Murugesan, S.; Suresh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Selective solar absorber coatings of copper oxide (CuO) on copper substrates are prepared by room temperature oxidation of copper at different alkaline conditions. The surface morphology and structural analyses of the CuO coatings are carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD and Raman studies indicated the single phase nature and high crystallinity of the prepared CuO nanostructures. Different CuO nanostructures, viz., nanoneedles, nanofibers and nanoparticles are formed at different alkaline conditions. The influence of reaction time on morphology of the CuO nanostructures is also studied. The thermal emittance values of these nanostructured CuO samples are found to be in the range of 6–7% and their solar absorptances are ranged between 84 and 90%. The observed high solar selectivity values (>12.7) suggest that these coatings can be used as selective absorbers in solar thermal gadgets. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CuO thin films on Cu substrate have been prepared by a facile method. • Morphology of the CuO nanostructures varies with reaction pH. • The thin films show high absorptance in the visible region and low thermal emittance. • Multiple absorption in the porous structure leads to high solar absorptance. • Nanostructures posses solar selectivity values >12

  11. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu, E-mail: sylin@rpi.edu [The Future Chips Constellation and the Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Hsieh, Mei-Li [Department of Photonics, National Chia-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  12. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  13. Quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamefula, U.C.; Sulaiman, M.Y.; Sopian, K.; Ibarahim, Z.; Ibrahim, N.; Alghoul, M.A.; Haw, L.C.; Yahya, M.; Amin, N.; Mat, S.; Ruslan, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The much awaited desire of replacing fossil fuel with photovoltaic will remain a fairy tale if the myriad of issues facing solar cell development are marginalized. Foremost in the list is the issue of cost. Silicon has reached a stage where its use on large scale can no longer be lavishly depended upon. The demand for high grade silicon from the microelectronics and solar industries has soared leading to scarcity. New approach has to be sought. Notable is the increased attention on thin films such as cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium diselenide, amorphous silicon, and the not so thin non-crystalline family of silicon. While efforts to address the issues of stability, toxicity and efficiency of these systems are ongoing, another novel approach is quietly making its appearance - quantum dots. Quantum dots seem to be promising candidates for solar cells because of the opportunity to manipulate their energy levels allowing absorption of a wider solar spectrum. Utilization of minute quantity of these nano structures is enough to bring the cost of solar cell down and to ascertain sustainable supply of useful material. The paper outlines the progress that has been made on quantum dot solar cells. (author)

  14. Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  15. Flexible organic solar cells including efficiency enhancing grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina; Liu Yinghui; Madsen, Morten; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new method for the fabrication of organic solar cells containing functional light-trapping nanostructures on flexible substrates is presented. Polyimide is spin-coated on silicon support substrates, enabling standard micro- and nanotechnology fabrication techniques, such as photolithography and electron-beam lithography, besides the steps required for the bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell fabrication. After the production steps, the solar cells on polyimide are peeled off the silicon support substrates, resulting in flexible devices containing nanostructures for light absorption enhancement. Since the solar cells avoid using brittle electrodes, the performance of the flexible devices is not affected by the peeling process. We have investigated three different nanostructured grating designs and conclude that gratings with a 500 nm pitch distance have the highest light-trapping efficiency for the selected active layer material (P3HT:PCBM), resulting in an enhancement of about 34% on the solar cell efficiency. The presented method can be applied to a large variety of flexible nanostructured devices in future applications. (paper)

  16. NANOSTRUCTURED TiO2 SENSITIZED WITH PORPHYRINS FOR SOLAR WATER-SPLITTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA-CORINA ROŞU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured TiO2 sensitized with porphyrins for Solar water-splitting.The production of hydrogen from water using solar light is very promising for generations of an ecologically pure carrier contributing to a clean, sustainable and renewable energy system. The selection of specific photocatalyst material for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs is based on some important characteristics of semiconductor, such as photo-corrosion and chemical corrosion stability, photocatalytic potential, high sensitivity for UV-visible light. In the present paper, different nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes have been prepared via wet-chemical techniques followed by annealing treatment and sensitized with porphyrins and supramolecular complexes of porphyrins. The so obtained photocatalysts were characterized with UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The purpose of these experiments is to show if the prepared materials possess the necessary photocatalytic characteristics and if they can be used with success in H2 production from water decomposition in PECs.

  17. Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholklapper, Tal Zvi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

  18. Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Doo-Hyun; Tumbleston, John R; Zhang, Lei; Williams, Stuart; DeSimone, Joseph M; Lopez, Rene; Samulski, Edward T

    2009-07-01

    We report organic solar cells with a photonic crystal nanostructure embossed in the photoactive bulk heterojunction layer, a topography that exhibits a 3-fold enhancement of the absorption in specific regions of the solar spectrum in part through multiple excitation resonances. The photonic crystal geometry is fabricated using a materials-agnostic process called PRINT wherein highly ordered arrays of nanoscale features are readily made in a single processing step over wide areas (approximately 4 cm(2)) that is scalable. We show efficiency improvements of approximately 70% that result not only from greater absorption, but also from electrical enhancements. The methodology is generally applicable to organic solar cells and the experimental findings reported in our manuscript corroborate theoretical expectations.

  19. Recent advancements in plasmon-enhanced promising third-generation solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrithamarassery Gangadharan Deepak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique optical properties possessed by plasmonic noble metal nanostructures in consequence of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR are useful in diverse applications like photovoltaics, sensing, non-linear optics, hydrogen generation, and photocatalytic pollutant degradation. The incorporation of plasmonic metal nanostructures into solar cells provides enhancement in light absorption and scattering cross-section (via LSPR, tunability of light absorption profile especially in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and more efficient charge carrier separation, hence maximizing the photovoltaic efficiency. This review discusses about the recent development of different plasmonic metal nanostructures, mainly based on Au or Ag, and their applications in promising third-generation solar cells such as dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum dot-based solar cells, and perovskite solar cells.

  20. Nanoimprint-Transfer-Patterned Solids Enhance Light Absorption in Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younghoon

    2017-03-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) materials are of interest in thin-film solar cells due to their size-tunable bandgap and low-cost solution-processing. However, CQD solar cells suffer from inefficient charge extraction over the film thicknesses required for complete absorption of solar light. Here we show a new strategy to enhance light absorption in CQD solar cells by nanostructuring the CQD film itself at the back interface. We use two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to study quantitatively the light absorption enhancement in nanostructured back interfaces in CQD solar cells. We implement this experimentally by demonstrating a nanoimprint-transfer-patterning (NTP) process for the fabrication of nanostructured CQD solids with highly ordered patterns. We show that this approach enables a boost in the power conversion efficiency in CQD solar cells primarily due to an increase in short-circuit current density as a result of enhanced absorption through light-trapping.

  1. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Photovoltaic research in the Electron Physics Laboratory started in 1993, when laboratory joined the national TEKES/NEMO 2 research program. Since the beginning of the project, characterization as well as experimentally orientated development of the fabrication process of the solar cells were carried out parallery. The process development research started by the initiatives of the Finnish industry. At the moment a large amount of the laboratory personnel works on solar cell research and the financing comes mainly from external projects. The funding for the research has come from TEKES, Ministry of Education, Finnish Academy, GETA graduate school, special equipment grants of the university, and from the laboratory

  2. Flexible Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Solar cell "modules" are plastic strips coated with thin films of photovoltaic silicon that collect solar energy for instant conversion into electricity. Lasers divide the thin film coating into smaller cells to build up voltage. Developed by Iowa Thin Film Technologies under NASA and DOE grants, the modules are used as electrical supply for advertising displays, battery rechargers for recreational vehicles, and to power model airplanes. The company is planning other applications both in consumer goods and as a power source in underdeveloped countries.

  3. Silicon nanostructures-induced photoelectrochemical solar water splitting for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadwal, U.; Singh, R. [Nanoscale Research Facility (NRF), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Ranjan, Neha [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We study the photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting assisted with synthesized nanostructures. Si nanowires decorated with silver dendrite nanostructures have been synthesized using metal assisted wet chemical etching of (100) Si wafer. Etching has been carried out in an aqueous solution consisting of 5M HF and 0.02M AgNO{sub 3}. Investigations showed that such type of semiconductor nanostructures act as efficient working electrodes for the splitting of normal water in PEC method. An enhancement in the photon-to-current conversion efficiency and solar-to-hydrogen evolution was observed for obtaining a practical source of clean and renewable fuel.

  4. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Guo Du

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH3NH3PbI3 and CH(NH22PbI3-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD reaches 25.1 mA/cm2, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm2 and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH22PbI3 based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm2, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH22PbI3 based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  5. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Qing Guo, E-mail: duqi0001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Institute of High Performance Computing, A* STAR, Singapore, 138632 (Singapore); Shen, Guansheng [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Department of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} and CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3}-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) reaches 25.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm{sup 2}) and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  6. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  7. Flexible Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing of organic and perovskite solar cells (PSCs), as these emerging photovoltaic (PV) technologies can be fabricated using well-known R2R printing and coating processes that are widely used in the industry. The manufacturing of PV devices starts

  8. Degradation of CIGS solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film CIGS solar cells and individual layers within these solar cells have been tested in order to assess their long term stability. Alongside with the execution of standard tests, in which elevated temperatures and humidity levels are used, the solar cells have also been exposed to a

  9. World's Most Efficient Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    World's Most Efficient Solar Cell National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Spectrolab Set Record For , 1999 - A solar cell that can convert sunlight to electricity at a record-setting 32 percent efficiency on Earth. Spectrolab of Sylmar, Calif., "grew" the record-setting solar cell. After

  10. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic research began at the Electron Physics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Tehnology in 1993, when the laboratory joined the national NEMO 2 research program. During the early stages of the photovoltaic research the main objective was to establish necessary measurement and characterisation routines, as well as to develop the fabrication process. The fabrication process development work has been supported by characterisation and theoretical modelling of the solar cells. Theoretical investigations have been concerned with systematic studies of solar cell parameters, such as diffusion lengths, surface recombination velocities and junction depths. The main result of the modelling and characterisation work is a method which is based on a Laplace transform of the so-called spatial collection efficiency function of the cell. The basic objective of the research has been to develop a fabrication process cheap enough to be suitable for commercial production

  11. 3D morphology of photoactive layers of polymer solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured polymer solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a promising low-cost alternative to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices. Since PSCs can be fabricated by processing polymers, eventually together with other organic materials, from solution and depositing them onto different types

  12. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and Nanoscale Engineering of High Efficiency Excitonic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ginger, David S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cao, Guozhong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We combined the synthesis of new polymers and organic-inorganic hybrid materials with new experimental characterization tools to investigate bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells and hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells during the 2007-2010 period (phase I) of this project. We showed that the bulk morphology of polymer/fullerene blend solar cells could be controlled by using either self-assembled polymer semiconductor nanowires or diblock poly(3-alkylthiophenes) as the light-absorbing and hole transport component. We developed new characterization tools in-house, including photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy, time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy (TR-EFM) and conductive and photoconductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM and pc-AFM), and used them to investigate charge transfer and recombination dynamics in polymer/fullerene BHJ solar cells, hybrid polymer-nanocrystal (PbSe) devices, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs); we thus showed in detail how the bulk photovoltaic properties are connected to the nanoscale structure of the BHJ polymer solar cells. We created various oxide semiconductor (ZnO, TiO2) nanostructures by solution processing routes, including hierarchical aggregates and nanorods/nanotubes, and showed that the nanostructured photoanodes resulted in substantially enhanced light-harvesting and charge transport, leading to enhanced power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. Thin film solar cells grown by organic vapor phase deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan

    Organic solar cells have the potential to provide low-cost photovoltaic devices as a clean and renewable energy resource. In this thesis, we focus on understanding the energy conversion process in organic solar cells, and improving the power conversion efficiencies via controlled growth of organic nanostructures. First, we explain the unique optical and electrical properties of organic materials used for photovoltaics, and the excitonic energy conversion process in donor-acceptor heterojunction solar cells that place several limiting factors of their power conversion efficiency. Then, strategies for improving exciton diffusion and carrier collection are analyzed using dynamical Monte Carlo models for several nanostructure morphologies. Organic vapor phase deposition is used for controlling materials crystallization and film morphology. We improve the exciton diffusion efficiency while maintaining good carrier conduction in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Further efficiency improvement is obtained in a novel nanocrystalline network structure with a thick absorbing layer, leading to the demonstration of an organic solar cell with 4.6% efficiency. In addition, solar cells using simultaneously active heterojunctions with broad spectral response are presented. We also analyze the efficiency limits of single and multiple junction organic solar cells, and discuss the challenges facing their practical implementations.

  15. Neutral- and Multi-Colored Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Guo, L Jay; Park, Hui Joon

    2016-04-11

    In this review, we summarize recent works on perovskite solar cells with neutral- and multi-colored semitransparency for building-integrated photovoltaics and tandem solar cells. The perovskite solar cells exploiting microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands" and transparent electrodes-the latter of which include thin metallic films, metal nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, and transparent conductive oxides for achieving optical transparency-are investigated. Moreover, the perovskite solar cells with distinctive color generation, which are enabled by engineering the band gap of the perovskite light-harvesting semiconductors with chemical management and integrating with photonic nanostructures, including microcavity, are discussed. We conclude by providing future research directions toward further performance improvements of the semitransparent perovskite solar cells.

  16. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamihara, T; Kondo, S; Mori, K [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1990-10-23

    This invention provides a solar cell having high resistance to strong incident light and high temperature preservability. Reason of performance degradation of the solar cell in high temperature atmosphere thermally diffuses at the boundary surface of the silicon with metal particles. The method of blocking this thermal diffusion is that the film thickness is of the level that the electrons can pass through the film by a quantum dynamical tunnel effect. In this invention, the construction is that a transparent substrate, a transparent electrode, a P-type amorphous silicon, an I-type amorphous silicon, silica and a collector electrode are sequentially laminated and receives the incident light, thus generating a voltage between the two electrodes. Thickness of silica film is 10-100 microns. Materials of the collector electrode are either single element or alloys of Cs, K, Na, Li, Ba, Mg, Cd, Ta, Al, Mo, Zr, Co, Fe, Cu, Ag, W, Cr, Au and Ni. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  18. BM Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar

    2018-05-02

    Fullerene‐based materials are widely used as electron acceptors in organic bulk‐heterojunction solar cells; yet, they have rarely been used as the only photoactive component due to their low absorbance and limited charge generation efficiency. However, blending the wide‐bandgap p‐type material copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) with [6,6]‐phenyl‐C71‐butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) leads to the formation of a unique mesostructured p‐n like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC70BM and solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 5.4%. Here, we examine in detail the reasons for the surprisingly good device performance and elucidate the charge photogeneration and recombination mechanisms in CuSCN‐based devices with PC70BM as the exclusive light‐absorbing material. Our studies clearly demonstrate that a substantial fraction of the photocurrent in the CuSCN‐based devices results from improved dissociation of fullerene excitons and efficient charge transfer at the CuSCN:PC70BM interface combined with reduced geminate and nongeminate charge recombination losses. Our results have implications beyond the fullerene‐based devices studied here, as they demonstrate that careful selection of a mesostructured p‐type transparent semiconductor paves the path to a new type of efficient single photoactive material solar cells.

  19. BM Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Firdaus, Yuliar; Seitkhan, Akmaral; Eisner, Flurin; Sit, Wai-Yu; Kan, Zhipeng; Wehbe, Nimer; Balawi, Ahmed H.; Yengel, Emre; Karuthedath, Safakath; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2018-01-01

    Fullerene‐based materials are widely used as electron acceptors in organic bulk‐heterojunction solar cells; yet, they have rarely been used as the only photoactive component due to their low absorbance and limited charge generation efficiency. However, blending the wide‐bandgap p‐type material copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) with [6,6]‐phenyl‐C71‐butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) leads to the formation of a unique mesostructured p‐n like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC70BM and solar cells with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 5.4%. Here, we examine in detail the reasons for the surprisingly good device performance and elucidate the charge photogeneration and recombination mechanisms in CuSCN‐based devices with PC70BM as the exclusive light‐absorbing material. Our studies clearly demonstrate that a substantial fraction of the photocurrent in the CuSCN‐based devices results from improved dissociation of fullerene excitons and efficient charge transfer at the CuSCN:PC70BM interface combined with reduced geminate and nongeminate charge recombination losses. Our results have implications beyond the fullerene‐based devices studied here, as they demonstrate that careful selection of a mesostructured p‐type transparent semiconductor paves the path to a new type of efficient single photoactive material solar cells.

  20. Solar cell. Taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, S.; Hashimoto, Y. (Canon Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-17

    This invention provides a cheap solar cell having a transparent surface protective layer which satisfies both controversial properties such as high electroconductivity and high water repellency and also abated the reduction of photoelectric conversion. In other words, this invention provides a solar cell having a surface-protective layer prepared by lamination of a mixture of a transparent water-repelling resin and a transparent electroconductive oxide powder; said protective layer is grounded at the surface resistance of 1 {times} 10 {sup 10} ohm or less and the contact angle of water on said protective layer is 90 degrees or more. The transparent water-repelling resin used is a fliorine resin such as PTFE and a silicone resin such as organopolysiloxane. The transparent electrodonductive oxide powder used is tin oxide, indium oxide or a complex compound of ton oxide and antimony oxide. The solar cell of this invention can be used for a long time because the adhesion of the dusts and the contamination by dirty water are restricted. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  2. Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, W R; Neitzert, H C

    2006-01-01

    The world of today must face up to two contradictory energy problems: on the one hand, there is the sharply growing consumer demand in countries such as China and India. On the other hand, natural resources are dwindling. Moreover, many of those countries which still possess substantial gas and oil supplies are politically unstable. As a result, renewable natural energy sources have received great attention. Among these, solar-cell technology is one of the most promising candidates. However, there still remains the problem of the manufacturing costs of such cells. Many attempts have been made

  3. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  4. Application of porous silicon in solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Ashokan, Jibinlal; Srivastava, Divesh N.

    2018-05-01

    Silicon is widely used in solar cell applications with over 95% of all solar cells produced worldwide composed of silicon. Nanostructured thin porous silicon (PSi) layer acting as anti-reflecting coating is used in photovoltaic solar cells due to its advantages including simple and low cost fabrication, highly textured surfaces enabling lowering of reflectance, controllability of thickness and porosity of layer, and high surface area. PSi layers have previously been reported to reduce the reflection of light and replaced the conventional anti-reflective coating layers on solar cells. This can essentially improve the efficiency and decrease the cost of silicon solar cells. Here, we investigate the reflectance of different PSi layers formed by varying current density and etching time. PSi layers were formed by a combination of current density including 60 and 80 mA/cm2 and time for fabrication as 2, 4, 6, and 8 seconds. The fabricated PSi layers were characterized using reflectance spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thickness and pore size of PSi layer were increased with increase in etching time and current density, respectively. The reflectance of PSi layers was decreased with increase in etching time until 6 seconds and increased again after 6 seconds, which was observed across both the current density. Reduction in reflectance indicates the increase of absorption of light by silicon due to the thin PSi layer. In comparison with the reflectance of silicon wafer, PSi layer fabricated at 80 mA/cm2 for 6 seconds gave the best result with reduction in reflectance up to 57%. Thus, the application of PSi layer as an effective anti-reflecting coating for the fabrication of solar cell has been demonstrated.

  5. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  6. Recent advances in plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Won-Yeop; Song, Da Hyun; Yang, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ho-Sub; Son, Byung Sung; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are among the best devices in generating electrons from solar light energy due to their high efficiency, low-cost in processing and transparency in building integrated photovoltaics. There are several ways to improve their energy-conversion efficiency, such as increasing light harvesting and electron transport, of which plasmon and 3-dimensional nanostructures are greatly capable. We review recent advances in plasmonic effects which depend on optimizing sizes, shapes, alloy compositions and integration of metal nanoparticles. Different methods to integrate metal nanoparticles into 3-dimensional nanostructures are also discussed. This review presents a guideline for enhancing the energy-conversion efficiency of DSSCs by utilizing metal nanoparticles that are incorporated into 3-dimensional nanostructures.

  7. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.; Barlier, Vincent S.; Chin, Stephanie W.; Whited, Matthew T.; McAnally, R. Eric; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, Dirk-Holger; Münzer, Adolf

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future e...

  10. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  11. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  12. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  13. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    energy technologies and ... cost-effective and feasible non-silicon solar cell technologies. ..... storing in the air for long periods, and the stability reached up to .... [12] Y Liu, L A Renna, M Bag, Z A Page, P Kim, J Choi, T Emrick, D Venkatara-.

  15. photoelectrode nanostructure dye-sensitized solar cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kimpa et al.

    screen printing procedure, forming a TiO2 thin film of 12 μm thicknesses. ... The FTO glass (40 mm thick and surface resistivity of about 20Ω) was cut into ... Characterization. The. UV–Vis ... (2016), “Plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles.

  16. Semi-automated quantification of living cells with internalized nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.

    2016-01-15

    Background Nanostructures fabricated by different methods have become increasingly important for various applications in biology and medicine, such as agents for medical imaging or cancer therapy. In order to understand their interaction with living cells and their internalization kinetics, several attempts have been made in tagging them. Although methods have been developed to measure the number of nanostructures internalized by the cells, there are only few approaches aimed to measure the number of cells that internalize the nanostructures, and they are usually limited to fixed-cell studies. Flow cytometry can be used for live-cell assays on large populations of cells, however it is a single time point measurement, and does not include any information about cell morphology. To date many of the observations made on internalization events are limited to few time points and cells. Results In this study, we present a method for quantifying cells with internalized magnetic nanowires (NWs). A machine learning-based computational framework, CellCognition, is adapted and used to classify cells with internalized and no internalized NWs, labeled with the fluorogenic pH-dependent dye pHrodo™ Red, and subsequently to determine the percentage of cells with internalized NWs at different time points. In a “proof-of-concept”, we performed a study on human colon carcinoma HCT 116 cells and human epithelial cervical cancer HeLa cells interacting with iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) NWs. Conclusions This study reports a novel method for the quantification of cells that internalize a specific type of nanostructures. This approach is suitable for high-throughput and real-time data analysis and has the potential to be used to study the interaction of different types of nanostructures in live-cell assays.

  17. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  18. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  19. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Solar cell reloaded; Solarzelle reloaded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, Joern

    2013-06-06

    Who comes up with something special, he may also compete with Chinese. The German-Scandinavian company Innotech Solar extends its solar module production capacity even in the midst of the crisis. Innotech Solar restores damaged cells. For this, the damaged areas are isolated and inactivated. [German] Wer sich etwas Besonderes einfallen laesst, kann auch mit chinesischer Konkurrenz bestehen. Das deutsch-skandinavische Unternehmen Innotech Solar erweitert seine Kapazitaet zur Modulherstellung sogar mitten in der Krise. Das Geschaeftsmodell der Innotech Solar sieht vor, vorgeschaedigte Solarzellen wiederherzustellen. Dafuer werden die schadhaften Stellen isoliert und stillgelegt.

  1. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  2. Photon management in solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Uwe; Gombert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, appl...

  3. Supramolecular Approaches to Nanoscale Morphological Control in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Haruk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Having recently surpassed 10% efficiency, solar cells based on organic molecules are poised to become a viable low-cost clean energy source with the added advantages of mechanical flexibility and light weight. The best-performing organic solar cells rely on a nanostructured active layer morphology consisting of a complex organization of electron donating and electron accepting molecules. Although much progress has been made in designing new donor and acceptor molecules, rational control over active layer morphology remains a central challenge. Long-term device stability is another important consideration that needs to be addressed. This review highlights supramolecular strategies for generating highly stable nanostructured organic photovoltaic active materials by design.

  4. Recent Advances in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Lenzmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. After a brief discussion of the general operation principles and a presentation of record efficiencies, stability data and key technology drivers, current trends will be reviewed. The focus of this review is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte, but commercialization aspects will also be briefly addressed. The review describes the most relevant characteristics and major trends in a compact way.

  5. Dust Removal from Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

  6. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  7. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Holger Neuhaus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future efficiency potential of this technology. In research and development, more various advanced solar cell concepts have demonstrated higher efficiencies. The question which arises is “why are new solar cell concepts not transferred into industrial production more frequently?”. We look into the requirements a new solar cell technology has to fulfill to have an advantage over the current approach. Finally, we give an overview of high-efficiency concepts which have already been transferred into industrial production.

  8. Semi-automated quantification of living cells with internalized nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Margineanu, Michael B.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Sommer, Christoph; Perez, Jose E.; Contreras, Maria F.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    novel method for the quantification of cells that internalize a specific type of nanostructures. This approach is suitable for high-throughput and real-time data analysis and has the potential to be used to study the interaction of different types

  9. Radiation hard solar cell and array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A power generating solar cell for a spacecraft solar array is hardened against transient response to nuclear radiation while permitting normal operation of the cell in a solar radiation environment by shunting the cell with a second solar cell whose contacts are reversed relative to the power cell to form a cell module, exposing the power cell only to the solar radiation in a solar radiation environment to produce an electrical output at the module terminals, and exposing both cells to the nuclear radiation in a nuclear radiation environment so that the radiation induced currents generated by the cells suppress one another

  10. Optical enhancement effects of plasmonic nanostructures on organic photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hui Joon

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Hui Joon Park and L. Jay Guo. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society and Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. In this article, the optical enhancement effects of plasmonic nanostructures on OPV cells were reviewed as an effective way to resolve the mismatch problems between the short exciton diffusion length in organic semiconductors (around 10 nm) and the large thickness required to fully absorb sunlight (e.g. hundreds of nanometers). Especially, the performances of OPVs with plasmonic nanoparticles in photoactive and buffer layers and with periodic nanostructures were investigated. Furthermore, nanoimprint lithography-based nanofabrication processes that can easily control the dimension and uniformity of structures for large-area and uniform plasmonic nanostructures were demonstrated.

  11. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  12. Solar cell device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fonash, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    The new edition of Dr. Stephen Fonash's definitive text points the way toward greater efficiency and cheaper production by adding coverage of cutting-edge topics in plasmonics, multi-exiton generation processes, nanostructures and nanomaterials such as quantum dots. The book's new structure improves readability by shifting many detailed equations to appendices, and balances the first edition's semiconductor coverage with an emphasis on thin-films. Further, it now demonstrates physical principles with simulations in the well-known AMPS computer code developed by the author.

  13. The Impact of parasitic loss on solar cells with plasmonic nano-textured rear reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Claire E R; Pillai, Supriya; Green, Martin A

    2017-10-09

    Significant photocurrent enhancement has been demonstrated using plasmonic light-trapping structures comprising nanostructured metallic features at the rear of the cell. These structures have conversely been identified as suffering heightened parasitic absorption into the metal at certain resonant wavelengths severely mitigating benefits of light trapping. In this study, we undertook simulations exploring the relationship between enhanced absorption into the solar cell, and parasitic losses in the metal. These simulations reveal that resonant wavelengths associated with high parasitic losses in the metal could also be associated with high absorption enhancement in the solar cell. We identify mechanisms linking these parasitic losses and absorption enhancements, but found that by ensuring correct design, the light trapping structures will have a positive impact on the overall solar cell performance. Our results clearly show that the large angle scattering provided by the plasmonic nanostructures is the reason for the enhanced absorption observed in the solar cells.

  14. Separation and recombinatiuon of charge carriers in solar cells with a nanostructured ZnO electrode; Trennung und Rekombination von Ladungstraegern in Solarzellen mit nanostrukturierter ZnO-Elektrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, Julian

    2010-03-02

    The publication investigates electrodes consisting of ZnO nanorods deposited hydrothermally on conductive glass substrate (conductive glass). The electrodes are transparent to visible light and are sensitized for solar cell applications by a light-absorbing layer which in this case consists either of organometallic dye molecules (N3) or of an indium sulfide layer with a thickness of only a few nanometers. Electric contacts for the sensitized electrode are either made of a liquid electrolyte or of a perforated solid electrolyte. Methods of analysis were impedance spectroscopy, time-resolved photocurrent measurements, and time-resolved microwave photoconductivity. A high concentration of up to 10{sup 20} was found in the ZnO nanorods. The dye-sensitized solar cell showed exessively fast recombination with the oxydized dye molecules (sub-{mu}s) but a slow recombination rate with the oxydized redox ions of the electrolyte (ms). In the indium sulfide solar cells, the charges are separated at the contact with the ZnO nanorods while contact with the perforated CuSCN conductor is not charge-separating. Recombination takes place in indium sulfide, directly between the perforated conductor and ZnO, and also via the charge-separating contact with decreasing rates.

  15. Concentrator-solar-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L.

    1982-07-01

    A program is described which is a continuation of earlier programs for the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, silicon concentrator solar cells. The base-line process steps and process sequences identified in these earlier contracts were evaluated and specific processes reviewed. In particular, emphasis on the use of Czochralski-grown silicon wafers rather than float-zone wafers were examined. Additionally, a study of the trade-offs between textured and nontextured cells was initiated, and the limits within which the low-cost plated nickel copper metallization can be used in concentrator solar cell applications was identified.

  16. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  17. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  18. Nanostructured Semiconductor Electrodes for Solar Energy Conversion and Innovations in Undergraduate Chemical Lab Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sudarat

    This dissertation presents the methodology and discussion of preparing nanostructured, high aspect ratio p-type phosphide-based binary and ternary semiconductors via "top-down" anodic etching, a process which creates nanostructures from a large parent entity, and "bottom-up" vapor-liquid-solid growth, a mechanism which builds up small clusters of molecules block-by-block. Such architecture is particularly useful for semiconducting materials with incompatible optical absorption depth and charge carrier diffusion length, as it not only relaxes the requirement for high-grade crystalline materials, but also increases the carrier collection efficiencies for photons with energy greater than or equal to the band gap. The main focus of this dissertation is to obtain nanostructured p-type phosphide semiconductors for photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell applications. Chapter II in the thesis describes a methodology for creating high-aspect ratio p-GaP that function as a photocathode under white light illumination. Gallium phosphide (GaP, band gap: 2.26 eV) is a suitable candidate for solar conversion and energy storage due to its ability to generate large photocurrent and photovoltage to drive fuel-forming reactions. Furthermore, the band edge positions of GaP can provide sufficient kinetics for the reduction of protons and carbon dioxide. The structure is prepared by anodic etching, and the resulting macroporous structures are subsequently doped with Zn by thermally driving in Zn from conformal ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The key finding of this work is a viable doping strategy involving ALD ZnO films for making functioning p-type GaP nanostructures. Chapter III compares the GaP nanowires grown from gold (Au) and tin (Sn) VLS catalysts in a benign solid sublimation growth scheme in terms of crystal structure and photoactivity. Sn is less noble than Au, allowing complete removal of Sn metal catalysts from the nanowires through wet chemical etching which

  19. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  20. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  1. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording from electrogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, D; Wolfrum, B; Maybeck, V; Mourzina, Y; Jansen, M; Offenhaeusser, A, E-mail: a.offenhaeusser@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Complex Systems and Peter Gruenberg Institute: Bioelectronics (ICS8/PGI8), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance-Fundamental of Future Information Technology (JARA-FIT) (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We present a new biocompatible nanostructured microelectrode array for extracellular signal recording from electrogenic cells. Microfabrication techniques were combined with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminum oxide to develop gold nanopillar electrodes. The nanopillars were approximately 300-400 nm high and had a diameter of 60 nm. Thus, they yielded a higher surface area of the electrodes resulting in a decreased impedance compared to planar electrodes. The interaction between the large-scale gold nanopillar arrays and cardiac muscle cells (HL-1) was investigated via focused ion beam milling. In the resulting cross-sections we observed a tight coupling between the HL-1 cells and the gold nanostructures. However, the cell membranes did not bend into the cleft between adjacent nanopillars due to the high pillar density. We performed extracellular potential recordings from HL-1 cells with the nanostructured microelectrode arrays. The maximal amplitudes recorded with the nanopillar electrodes were up to 100% higher than those recorded with planar gold electrodes. Increasing the aspect ratio of the gold nanopillars and changing the geometrical layout can further enhance the signal quality in the future.

  2. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording from electrogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, D; Wolfrum, B; Maybeck, V; Mourzina, Y; Jansen, M; Offenhäusser, A

    2011-07-01

    We present a new biocompatible nanostructured microelectrode array for extracellular signal recording from electrogenic cells. Microfabrication techniques were combined with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminum oxide to develop gold nanopillar electrodes. The nanopillars were approximately 300-400 nm high and had a diameter of 60 nm. Thus, they yielded a higher surface area of the electrodes resulting in a decreased impedance compared to planar electrodes. The interaction between the large-scale gold nanopillar arrays and cardiac muscle cells (HL-1) was investigated via focused ion beam milling. In the resulting cross-sections we observed a tight coupling between the HL-1 cells and the gold nanostructures. However, the cell membranes did not bend into the cleft between adjacent nanopillars due to the high pillar density. We performed extracellular potential recordings from HL-1 cells with the nanostructured microelectrode arrays. The maximal amplitudes recorded with the nanopillar electrodes were up to 100% higher than those recorded with planar gold electrodes. Increasing the aspect ratio of the gold nanopillars and changing the geometrical layout can further enhance the signal quality in the future.

  3. Enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells performances by improving electron density in conduction band of nanostructure TiO2 electrode with using a metalloporphyrin as additional dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojiri-Foroushani, M.; Dehghani, H.; Salehi-Vanani, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► N719 and ZnTCPP dyes were used in a sequential adsorption process. ► By using two dyes, improved the performance of the cell. ► Density of electrons in the conduction band of TiO 2 electrodes improved. -- Abstract: A zinc(II)-porphyrin dye with four carboxyphenyl moiety of ancillary (ZnTCPP) was studied as a sensitizer in combination with a ruthenium complex (N719) in co-sensitized solar cells. The high molar extinction coefficient (ε) of porphyrin dyes leads to high light absorption in the dye-sensitized TiO 2 electrode. In spite of the high ε of porphyrin dyes, they usually have a narrow absorption band and also to suffer from dye aggregation due to their planar structural nature. This causes lower efficiencies of the DSSCs for the porphyrins than the ruthenium complexes. Co-sensitization of two or more dyes with complementary absorption spectra on TiO 2 film is an important method to further enhance the IPCE response and energy conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Interestingly, when the ZnTCPP electrode was used to assemble a co-sensitized solar cell by additional adsorption of N719 dye, the efficiency improved to 6.35% (in comparison to N719 that the efficiency was 4.74%). The results indicated that the co-sensitized device shows enhancements of photovoltaic performance not only in short-circuit current density (J SC ) but also in open-circuit voltage (V OC ). In the present study we have been shown that co-sensitization of a zinc(II)-porphyrin with N719 dye changes the energy levels of the TiO 2 electrode and in result produces further improvement for its device performance

  4. Rehydrating dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are silicon free, simply producible solar cells. Longevity, however, is a longstanding problem for DSSCs. Due to liquid electrolytes being commonly used, evaporation of the electrolyte causes a dramatic drop in electric output as cells continue to be used unmaintained. Stopping evaporation has been tried in different ways in the past, albeit with differing degrees of success. In a recent project, a different route was chosen, exploring ways of revitalizing DSSCs after varying periods of usage. For this, we focused on rehydration of the cells using distilled water as well as the electrolyte contained in the cells. The results show a significant influence of these rehydration procedures on the solar cell efficiency. In possible applications of DSSCs in tents etc., morning dew may thus be used for rehydration of solar cells. Refillable DSSCs can also be used in tropical climates or specific types of farms and greenhouses where high humidity serves the purpose of rehydrating DSSCs.

  5. Plastic solar cells : understanding the special additive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Franeker, H.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Solar cells use freely available sunlight to make electricity. At the present time, solar electricity does not come cheap, because solar panels are rather expensive. Now imagine that we could reduce costs by printing solar panels like we print newspapers! We can do just that with plastic solar

  6. Lifetime of Nano-Structured Black Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping pro......, respectively. This is promising for use of black silicon RIE nano-structuring in a solar cell process flow......In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping...

  7. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  8. Characterization of multicrystalline solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.Q.; Chong Chew Hah; Chan Siang Khwang; Tan Kha Sheng; Lim Chee Ming

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation and assessment of the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells in terms of measurable parameters requires the measurement of the current as a function of voltage, temperature, intensity, wind speed and spectrum. Most noticeable of all these parameters in the PV conversion efficiency η, defined as the maximum electrical power P max produced by the PV cell divided by the incident photon power P in which is measured with respect to standard test conditions (Sc). These conditions refer to the spectrum (AM 1.5), solar radiation intensity (1000 Wm -2 ), cell temperature (25 ± 2 degree C) and wind speed (2 mph). Tests under STC are carried out in the laboratory at a controlled environment. There have been several studies that analyze uncertainties in the laboratory measurement of solar cell efficiencies using different solar simulators and their transference to operational situations. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the short circuit current (I SC ) of the solar cell decreases when irradiance is less than 1000 Wm -2 irrespective of the working temperature of the cell

  9. Characterisation of multicrystalline solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation and assessment of the performance of photovoltaic (PV cells in terms of measurable parameters requires the measurement of the current as a function of voltage, temperature, intensity, wind speed and spectrum. Mo st noticeable of all these parameters is the PV conversion efficiency η, defined as the maximum electrical power Pmax produced by the PV cell divided by the incident photon power P in which is measured with respect to standard test conditions (STC. These conditions refer to the spectrum (AM 1.5, solar radiation intensity (1000 Wm-2, cell temperature (25 ±2oC and wind speed (2 mph. Tests under STC are carried out in the laboratory at a controlled environment. There have been several studies that analyze uncertainties in the laboratory measurement of solar cell efficiencies using different solar simulators and their transference to operational situations. Our preliminary results demonstratethat the short circuit current (ISC of the solar cell decreases when irradiance is less than 1000 Wm-2 irrespective of the working temperature of the cell.

  10. Plasmonic Solar Cells: From Rational Design to Mechanism Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Seokhyoung; Quan, Li Na; Chung, Kyungwha; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-12-28

    Plasmonic effects have been proposed as a solution to overcome the limited light absorption in thin-film photovoltaic devices, and various types of plasmonic solar cells have been developed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art progress on the design and fabrication of plasmonic solar cells and their enhancement mechanism. The working principle is first addressed in terms of the combined effects of plasmon decay, scattering, near-field enhancement, and plasmonic energy transfer, including direct hot electron transfer and resonant energy transfer. Then, we summarize recent developments for various types of plasmonic solar cells based on silicon, dye-sensitized, organic photovoltaic, and other types of solar cells, including quantum dot and perovskite variants. We also address several issues regarding the limitations of plasmonic nanostructures, including their electrical, chemical, and physical stability, charge recombination, narrowband absorption, and high cost. Next, we propose a few potentially useful approaches that can improve the performance of plasmonic cells, such as the inclusion of graphene plasmonics, plasmon-upconversion coupling, and coupling between fluorescence resonance energy transfer and plasmon resonance energy transfer. This review is concluded with remarks on future prospects for plasmonic solar cell use.

  11. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo; Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin; Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line

  12. Toxicity evaluation of ZnO nanostructures on L929 fibroblast cell line using MTS assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ann, Ling Chuo [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory (NOR.), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, USM, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Azman Seeni; Saifuddin, Siti Nazmin [Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bandar Putra Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Masudi, Sam’an Malik; Mohamad, Dasmawati [Craniofacial Science Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    ZnO has wide applications in medical and dentistry apart from being used as optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, photodetectors, sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Therefore, the toxicity evaluation is important to know the toxicity level on normal cell line. The toxicity of two grades ZnO nanostructures, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 have been carried out using cytotoxicity test of MTS assay on L929 rat fibroblast cell line. Prior to that, ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 were characterized for its morphology, structure and optical properties using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, and Photoluminescence respectively. The two groups revealed difference in morphology and exhibit slightly shifted of near band edge emission of Photoluminescence other than having a similar calculated crystallite size of nanostructures. The viability of cells after 72h were obtained and the statistical significance value was calculated using SPSS v20. The p value is more than 0.05 between untreated and treated cell with ZnO. This insignificant value of p>0.05 can be summarized as a non-toxic level of ZnO-4 and ZnO-8 on the L929 cell line.

  13. New mounting improves solar-cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Method boosts output by about 20 percent by trapping and redirecting solar radiation without increasing module depth. Mounted solar-cell array is covered with internally reflecting plate. Plate is attached to each cell by transparent adhesive, and space between cells is covered with layer of diffusely reflecting material. Solar energy falling on space between cells is diffused and reflected internally by plate until it is reflected onto solar cell.

  14. Ab initio design of nanostructures for solar energy conversion: a case study on silicon nitride nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting.

  15. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form

  16. Semi-transparent solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Jasieniak, J J

    2017-01-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies. (topical review)

  17. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  18. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  19. Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, A.; Lopez, N.; Antolin, E.; Canovas, E.; Stanley, C.; Farmer, C.; Cuadra, L.; Luque, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cell (QD-IBSC) has been proposed for studying experimentally the operating principles of a generic class of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). The performance of an IBSC is based on the properties of a semiconductor-like material which is characterised by the existence of an intermediate band (IB) located within what would otherwise be its conventional bandgap. The improvement in efficiency of the cell arises from its potential (i) to absorb below bandgap energy photons and thus produce additional photocurrent, and (ii) to inject this enhanced photocurrent without degrading its output photo-voltage. The implementation of the IBSC using quantum dots (QDs) takes advantage of the discrete nature of the carrier density of states in a 0-dimensional nano-structure, an essential property for realising the IB concept. In the QD-IBSC, the IB arises from the confined electron states in an array of quantum dots. This paper reviews the operation of the first prototype QD-IBSCs and discusses some of the lessons learnt from their characterisation

  20. Novel semiconductor solar cell structures: The quantum dot intermediate band solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: amarti@etsit.upm.es; Lopez, N. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Antolin, E. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Canovas, E. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Stanley, C. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Farmer, C. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Cuadra, L. [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones- Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona, km. 33600, 28805-Alcala de Henares (Madrid) (Spain); Luque, A. [Instituto de Energia Solar-UPM, ETSIT de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria sn, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-26

    The Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cell (QD-IBSC) has been proposed for studying experimentally the operating principles of a generic class of photovoltaic devices, the intermediate band solar cells (IBSC). The performance of an IBSC is based on the properties of a semiconductor-like material which is characterised by the existence of an intermediate band (IB) located within what would otherwise be its conventional bandgap. The improvement in efficiency of the cell arises from its potential (i) to absorb below bandgap energy photons and thus produce additional photocurrent, and (ii) to inject this enhanced photocurrent without degrading its output photo-voltage. The implementation of the IBSC using quantum dots (QDs) takes advantage of the discrete nature of the carrier density of states in a 0-dimensional nano-structure, an essential property for realising the IB concept. In the QD-IBSC, the IB arises from the confined electron states in an array of quantum dots. This paper reviews the operation of the first prototype QD-IBSCs and discusses some of the lessons learnt from their characterisation.

  1. Light trapping with plasmonic back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2013-02-08

    Trapping light in silicon solar cells is essential as it allows an increase in the absorption of incident sunlight in optically thin silicon absorber layers. This way, the costs of the solar cells can be reduced by lowering the material consumption and decreasing the physical constraints on the material quality. In this work, plasmonic light trapping with Ag back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells is studied. Solar cell prototypes with plasmonic back contacts are presented along with optical simulations of these devices and general design considerations of plasmonic back contacts. Based on three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations, the conceptual design of plasmonic nanostructures on Ag back contacts in thin-film silicon solar cells is studied in this work. Optimizations of the nanostructures regarding their ability to scatter incident light at low optical losses into large angles in the silicon absorber layers of the thin-film silicon solar cells are presented. Geometrical parameters as well as the embedding dielectric layer stack of the nanostructures on Ag layers are varied. Periodic as well as isolated hemispherical Ag nanostructures of dimensions above 200 nm are found to scatter incident light at high efficiencies and low optical losses. Hence, these nanostructures are of interest for light trapping in solar cells. In contrast, small Ag nanostructures of dimension below 100 nm are found to induce optical losses. At the surface of randomly textured Ag back contacts small Ag nanostructures exist which induce optical losses. In this work, the relevance of these localized plasmon induced optical losses as well as optical losses caused by propagating plasmons are investigated with regard to the reflectance of the textured back contacts. In state-of-the-art solar cells, the plasmon-induced optical losses are shifted out of the relevant wavelength range by incorporating a ZnO:Al interlayer of low refractive index at the back contact. The additional but

  2. Plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, C.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in conjugated-polymer-based photovoltaic elements are reviewed. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photo-induced charge transfer from donor-type semiconducting conjugated polymers to acceptor-type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 60 . This photo-induced charge transfer is reversible, ultrafast (within 100 fs) with a quantum efficiency approaching unity, and the charge-separated state is metastable (up to milliseconds at 80 K). Being similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photo-induced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications, which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are presented and their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion discussed. Recent progress in the realization of improved photovoltaic elements with 3% power conversion efficiency is reported. (orig.)

  3. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  4. Challenges in amorphous silicon solar cell technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaaij, van R.A.C.M.M.; Zeman, M.; Korevaar, B.A.; Smit, C.; Metselaar, J.W.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon is nowadays extensively used for a range of devices, amongst others solar cells, Solar cell technology has matured over the last two decades and resulted in conversion efficiencies in excess of 15%. In this paper the operation of amorphous silicon solar cells is

  5. Three-dimensional observation of TiO2 nanostructures by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Suh, Young Joon; Lu, Ning; Park, Seong Yong; Lee, Tae Hun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Cha, Dong Kyu; Lee, Min Gun; Huang, Jie; Kim, Sung Soo; Sohn, Byeong Hyeok; Kim, Geung Ho; Ko, Min Jae; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructures of TiO2 related materials including nanotubes, electron acceptor materials in hybrid polymer solar cells, and working electrodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were visualized by electron tomography as well

  6. Engineered Nanostructured MEA Technology for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yimin

    2009-07-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel catalyst support technology based on unique engineered nanostructures for low temperature fuel cells which: (1) Achieves high catalyst activity and performance; (2) Improves catalyst durability over current technologies; and (3) Reduces catalyst cost. This project is directed at the development of durable catalysts supported by novel support that improves the catalyst utilization and hence reduce the catalyst loading. This project will develop a solid fundamental knowledge base necessary for the synthetic effort while at the same time demonstrating the catalyst advantages in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs).

  7. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  8. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-12-07

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH(-) which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  9. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH − which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied. (paper)

  10. Exploiting quantum interference in dye sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggio, Emanuele; Solomon, Gemma C.; Troisi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    A strategy to hinder the charge recombination process in dye sensitized solar cells is developed in analogy with similar approaches to modulate charge transport across nanostructures. The system studied is a TiO2 (anatase)-chromophore interface, with an unsaturated carbon bridge connecting the two...... of the possible tunnelling path. Calculations carried out on realistic molecules at the DFT level of theory show how the recombination lifetime can be modulated by changes in the electron-withdrawing (donating) character of the groups connected to the cross-conjugated bridge. Tight binding calculations...

  11. Fabrication and Photovoltaic Characteristics of Coaxial Silicon Nanowire Solar Cells Prepared by Wet Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Wei Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured solar cells with coaxial p-n junction structures have strong potential to enhance the performances of the silicon-based solar cells. This study demonstrates a radial junction silicon nanowire (RJSNW solar cell that was fabricated simply and at low cost using wet chemical etching. Experimental results reveal that the reflectance of the silicon nanowires (SNWs declines as their length increases. The excellent light trapping was mainly associated with high aspect ratio of the SNW arrays. A conversion efficiency of ∼7.1% and an external quantum efficiency of ∼64.6% at 700 nm were demonstrated. Control of etching time and diffusion conditions holds great promise for the development of future RJSNW solar cells. Improving the electrode/RJSNW contact will promote the collection of carries in coaxial core-shell SNW array solar cells.

  12. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  13. Phosphorous gettering in acidic textured multicrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables. Poligono Industrial de Granadilla s/n, 38600 San Isidro-Granadilla de Abona, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Rinio, M.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Guerrero-Lemus, R. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Catedra Focus-Abengoa, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The influence of phosphorus gettering is studied in this work applied to an acidic textured multicrystalline silicon substrate. The texturization was achieved with an HF/HNO{sub 3} solution leading to nanostructures on the silicon surface. It has been demonstrated in previous works that this textured surface decreases the reflectance on the solar cell and increases the surface area improving the photon collection and enhancing the short circuit current. The present study investigates the effect on the minority carrier lifetime of the phosphorous diffusion when it is carried out on this textured surface. The lifetime is measured by means microwave photoconductance decay and quasi steady state phototoconductance devices. The diffused textured wafers are used to fabricate solar cells and their electrical parameters are analyzed. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Nanotetrapods: quantum dot hybrid for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid thin film solar cell based on all-inorganic nanoparticles is a new member in the family of photovoltaic devices. In this work, a novel and performance-efficient inorganic hybrid nanostructure with continuous charge transportation and collection channels is demonstrated by introducing CdTe nanotetropods (NTs) and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Hybrid morphology is characterized, demonstrating an interpenetration and compacted contact of NTs and QDs. Electrical measurements show enhanced charge transfer at the hybrid bulk heterojunction interface of NTs and QDs after ligand exchange which accordingly improves the performance of solar cells. Photovoltaic and light response tests exhibit a combined optic-electric contribution from both CdTe NTs and CdSe QDs through a formation of interpercolation in morphology as well as a type II energy level distribution. The NT and QD hybrid bulk heterojunction is applicable and promising in other highly efficient photovoltaic materials such as PbS QDs. PMID:24139059

  15. Nanoscale Analysis of a Hierarchical Hybrid Solar Cell in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divitini, Giorgio; Stenzel, Ole; Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Guarnera, Simone; Russo, Valeria; Casari, Carlo S; Bassi, Andrea Li; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio; Schmidt, Volker; Ducati, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    A quantitative method for the characterization of nanoscale 3D morphology is applied to the investigation of a hybrid solar cell based on a novel hierarchical nanostructured photoanode. A cross section of the solar cell device is prepared by focused ion beam milling in a micropillar geometry, which allows a detailed 3D reconstruction of the titania photoanode by electron tomography. It is found that the hierarchical titania nanostructure facilitates polymer infiltration, thus favoring intermixing of the two semiconducting phases, essential for charge separation. The 3D nanoparticle network is analyzed with tools from stochastic geometry to extract information related to the charge transport in the hierarchical solar cell. In particular, the experimental dataset allows direct visualization of the percolation pathways that contribute to the photocurrent.

  16. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  17. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  18. InGaP Heterojunction Barrier Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Roger E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A new solar cell structure called a heterojunction barrier solar cell is described. As with previously reported quantum-well and quantum-dot solar cell structures, a layer of narrow band-gap material, such as GaAs or indium-rich InGaP, is inserted into the depletion region of a wide band-gap PN junction. Rather than being thin, however, the layer of narrow band-gap material is about 400-430 nm wide and forms a single, ultrawide well in the depletion region. Thin (e.g., 20-50 nm), wide band-gap InGaP barrier layers in the depletion region reduce the diode dark current. Engineering the electric field and barrier profile of the absorber layer, barrier layer, and p-type layer of the PN junction maximizes photogenerated carrier escape. This new twist on nanostructured solar cell design allows the separate optimization of current and voltage to maximize conversion efficiency.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes as Counter Electrodes for Gratzel Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodive, Hasan; Aliev, Ali; Zhang, Mei; Lee, Sergey; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2006-03-01

    The role of interfaces is very critical for solar cell devices which use nanostructured materials. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) are devices which parts are interfacial in character and physico --chemical processes occur at the interface of two distinct media. DSSC are of great interest due to combination of their high efficiency and relatively low cost. An effective counterelectrode with high electrochemical activity is an important component of DSSC to enhance its practical utility. Presently used Pt coated ITO counterelectrode can not be applied in flexible DSSC architectures, while there is a growing need for flexible anodes which are transparent and have desired interface characteristics. In this work in order to search for such materials for counter electrode in dye sensitized solar cells, newly developed strong and transparent and modified carbon nanotube sheets [1] are used in interfacial counter electrode. To increase the electrochemical activity of the anode the CNT sheets are coated with highly conductive SWCNT and compared with pure multiwall CNT sheets. We show that the transparent sheets of SWCNT/MWCNT perform as a flexible anode and as electrochemical catalyst and also can be used in tandems of dye sensitized solar cells as transparent charge recombination or interconnect layers. [1] M. Zhang, S.Fang, A.Zakhidov, S.B.Lee, A.Aliev et.al., Science, 309,(2005) 1215

  20. Phycocyanin assemblies onto nanostructured TiO2 for photovoltaic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Enciso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energies is of increasing importance due to depletion of fossil fuel sources and environmental damages caused by their utilization. The energy available from the sun is clean and widely distributed. Solar cells are devices used to convert solar energy into electricity. Among them, dye sensitized solar cells are an interesting alternative to conventional silicon ones, because of their low cost and simple assembly process. They are made of a semiconductor with colored dyes adsorbed onto the surface that work as antennas to catch energy in the visible range of the spectra. In this work, nanostructured TiO2 was synthesized and the protein phycocyanin was used as dye. TiO2 was characterized by electron microscopy, X ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Phycocyanin was extracted from commercial Spirulina spp. capsules. The assembly process of the electrode covered with TiO2 and phycocyanin was controlled by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR. Results were in accordance with the assembling of an electrode sensitized with phycocyanin.

  1. Work Station For Inverting Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Final work station along walking-beam conveyor of solar-array assembly line turns each pretabbed solar cell over, depositing it back-side-up onto landing pad, which centers cell without engaging collector surface. Solar cell arrives at inverting work station collector-side-up with two interconnect tabs attached to collector side. Cells are inverted so that second soldering operation takes place in plain view of operator. Inversion protects collector from damage when handled at later stages of assembly.

  2. Extended Temperature Solar Cell Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, David; Rafaelle, Ryne

    2004-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require solar cells to operate both in regimes closer to the sun, and farther from the sun, where the operating temperatures will be higher and lower than standard operational conditions. NASA Glenn is engaged in testing solar cells under extended temperature ranges, developing theoretical models of cell operation as a function of temperature, and in developing technology for improving the performance of solar cells for both high and low temperature operation.

  3. Hybrid Perovskites: Prospects for Concentrator Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Wang, Zhiping; Snaith, Henry J; Johnston, Michael B; Herz, Laura M

    2018-04-01

    Perovskite solar cells have shown a meteoric rise of power conversion efficiency and a steady pace of improvements in their stability of operation. Such rapid progress has triggered research into approaches that can boost efficiencies beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit stipulated for a single-junction cell under normal solar illumination conditions. The tandem solar cell architecture is one concept here that has recently been successfully implemented. However, the approach of solar concentration has not been sufficiently explored so far for perovskite photovoltaics, despite its frequent use in the area of inorganic semiconductor solar cells. Here, the prospects of hybrid perovskites are assessed for use in concentrator solar cells. Solar cell performance parameters are theoretically predicted as a function of solar concentration levels, based on representative assumptions of charge-carrier recombination and extraction rates in the device. It is demonstrated that perovskite solar cells can fundamentally exhibit appreciably higher energy-conversion efficiencies under solar concentration, where they are able to exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit and exhibit strongly elevated open-circuit voltages. It is therefore concluded that sufficient material and device stability under increased illumination levels will be the only significant challenge to perovskite concentrator solar cell applications.

  4. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S.; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A.; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Limmer, David T.; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  5. Thermochromic halide perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia; Lai, Minliang; Dou, Letian; Kley, Christopher S; Chen, Hong; Peng, Fei; Sun, Junliang; Lu, Dylan; Hawks, Steven A; Xie, Chenlu; Cui, Fan; Alivisatos, A Paul; Limmer, David T; Yang, Peidong

    2018-03-01

    Smart photovoltaic windows represent a promising green technology featuring tunable transparency and electrical power generation under external stimuli to control the light transmission and manage the solar energy. Here, we demonstrate a thermochromic solar cell for smart photovoltaic window applications utilizing the structural phase transitions in inorganic halide perovskite caesium lead iodide/bromide. The solar cells undergo thermally-driven, moisture-mediated reversible transitions between a transparent non-perovskite phase (81.7% visible transparency) with low power output and a deeply coloured perovskite phase (35.4% visible transparency) with high power output. The inorganic perovskites exhibit tunable colours and transparencies, a peak device efficiency above 7%, and a phase transition temperature as low as 105 °C. We demonstrate excellent device stability over repeated phase transition cycles without colour fade or performance degradation. The photovoltaic windows showing both photoactivity and thermochromic features represent key stepping-stones for integration with buildings, automobiles, information displays, and potentially many other technologies.

  6. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  7. Role of ZnO photoanode nanostructures and sensitizer deposition approaches on the photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şişman, İlkay; Tekir, Oktay; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-02-01

    Hierarchical bundle-like ZnO nanorod arrays (BNRs) were synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method based on two consecutive temperature steps for cascade CdS/CdSe and ternary CdS1-xSex alloy quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) as photoanode. The CdS/CdSe and CdS1-xSex QDs were deposited on the surface of the ZnO BNRs by conventional and modified successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods, respectively. Using the ZnO BNRs/CdS/CdSe photoanode, the power conversion efficiency reaches 2.08%, which is 1.8 times higher than that of pristine ZnO nanorods/CdS/CdSe photoanode, while by applying ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex, the power conversion efficiency improves 2.52%. The remarkably improved photovoltaic performance is mainly derived from the bundle-like nanorod arrays structure, which increases the QDs loading amount and the scattering effect for light absorption, and the appropriate conduction band energy, sufficient Se amount and well coverage of the ternary CdS1-xSex QDs result in enhanced photogenerated electron injection, high light absorption and reduced recombination, respectively. As a result, ZnO BNRs/CdS1-xSex combination can significantly improve performance of QDSSCs.

  8. Simple down conversion nano-crystal coatings for enhancing Silicon-solar cells efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gur Mittelman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing self-assembled nano-structured coatings on top of existing solar cells has thepotential to increase the total quantum efficiency of the cell using a simple and cheap process. In ourwork we have exploited the controlled absorption of nano-crystal with different band gaps to realizedown conversion artificial antennas that self-assembled on the device surface. The UV sun light isconverted to the visible light enhancing the solar cell performance in two complementary routes; a.protecting the solar cell and coatings from the UV illumination and therefore reducing the UVradiation damage. b. enhancing the total external quantum efficiency of the cell by one percent. Thisis achieved using a simple cheap process that can be adjusted to many different solar cells.

  9. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  10. Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma

    Solar energy has been anticipated as the most important and reliable source of renewable energy to address the ever-increasing energy demand. To harvest solar energy efficiently, diverse kinds of solar cells have been studied. Among these, quantum dot sensitized solar cells have been an interesting group of solar cells mainly due to tunable, size-dependent electronic and optical properties of quantum dots. Moreover, doping these quantum dots with transition metal elements such as Mn opens avenue for improved performance of solar cells as well as for spin based technologies. In this dissertation, Mn-doped CdSe QDs (Mn-CdSe) have been synthesized by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. They are used in solar cells to study the effect of Mn doping in the performance of solar cells. Incident photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) is used to record the effect of Mn-doping. Intensity modulated photovoltage and photocurrent spectroscopy (IMVS/PS) has been used to study the carrier dynamics in these solar cells. Additionally, the magnetic properties of Mn-CdSe QDs is studied and its possible origin is discussed. Moreover, CdS/CdSe QDs have been used to study the effect of liquid, gel and solid electrolyte in the performance and stability of the solar cells. Using IPCE spectra, the time decay measurements are presented and the possible reactions between the QD and the electrolytes are explained.

  11. nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    In this method no special electrolytes, chemicals and surfactants are needed. ... tures collected from the bottom of the cell are either nanothreads embodying beads of different diameters,. ~10–40 nm or .... when copious oxygen produced through electrolysis at- ... corresponding bandgap calculations of the as synthesized.

  12. Unconventional device concepts for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, S.C.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Cobussen-Pool, E.M.; Lenzmann, F.O.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Sessolo, M.; Bolink, H.J. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The inclusion of metal-oxide layers in polymer solar cells enables the fabrication of a series of unconventional device architectures. These devices include: semi-transparent polymer solar cells, devices with inverted polarity, as well as devices with air stable electrodes. A proof-of-principle of these devices is presented. The anticipated benefits of these novel device structures over conventional polymer solar cells are discussed.

  13. Device operation of organic tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, A.; de Boer, B.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    A generalized methodology is developed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of polymer tandem solar cells by knowing the electrical performance of both sub cells. We demonstrate that the electrical characteristics of polymer tandem solar cells are correctly predicted for both the series and

  14. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, C P; Sevcencu, C; Yoshida, K [Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Larsen, A Nylandsted; Besenbacher, F [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hansen, J Lundsgaard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Zachar, V, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.d [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University (Denmark)

    2009-09-23

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  15. Solar Cells Using Quantum Funnels

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots offer broad tuning of semiconductor bandstructure via the quantum size effect. Devices involving a sequence of layers comprised of quantum dots selected to have different diameters, and therefore bandgaps, offer the possibility of funneling energy toward an acceptor. Here we report a quantum funnel that efficiently conveys photoelectrons from their point of generation toward an intended electron acceptor. Using this concept we build a solar cell that benefits from enhanced fill factor as a result of this quantum funnel. This concept addresses limitations on transport in soft condensed matter systems and leverages their advantages in large-area optoelectronic devices and systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  17. Machine for welding solar cell connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorans, D.Y.

    1977-08-09

    A machine for welding a connection wire over a solar cell electrode is described which comprises a base, a welding mount for the solar cell which is supported on the base, means for holding the solar cell on the welding mount, welding electrodes, means to lower the welding electrodes over the solar cell and the connection wire superimposed thereon, means for applying electric current pulses to said welding electrodes. It is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means for imparting to said mount an alternating transverse movement in relation to said base before and during the welding operation.

  18. Theoretical investigation on heterojunction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prema, K.; Geetha, K.

    1986-11-01

    The study of thin film solar cells has proved that the surface is rough. A two-dimensional method based on the integral equation technique to analyse thin film solar cells has been developed by DeMey et al. In this paper we present our analysis of a thin film solar cell using the above techniques. Variation of the minority carrier concentration, the saturation current and the junction current of the solar cell with surface roughness is presented. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs

  19. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  20. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  1. Self-organized broadband light trapping in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, C; Chiappe, D; Delli Veneri, P; Mercaldo, L V; Usatii, I; Buatier de Mongeot, F

    2013-06-07

    Nanostructured glass substrates endowed with high aspect ratio one-dimensional corrugations are prepared by defocused ion beam erosion through a self-organized gold (Au) stencil mask. The shielding action of the stencil mask is amplified by co-deposition of gold atoms during ion bombardment. The resulting glass nanostructures enable broadband anti-reflection functionality and at the same time ensure a high efficiency for diffuse light scattering (Haze). It is demonstrated that the patterned glass substrates exhibit a better photon harvesting than the flat glass substrate in p-i-n type thin film a-Si:H solar cells.

  2. Scaling up ITO-Free solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E.W.C.; Zimmermann, B.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Jørgensen, M.; Krebs, F.C.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm and

  3. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel system that harnesses solar energy is the nano-crystalline TiO dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using...

  4. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish; Bakr, Osman; Ramasamy, Karthik; Malik, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance

  5. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  6. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  7. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  8. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  9. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  10. Bonder for Solar-Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, G.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    String bonder for solar-cell arrays eliminates tedious manual assembly procedure that could damage cell face. Vacuum arm picks up face-down cell from cell-inverting work station and transfers it to string conveyor without changing cell orientation. Arm is activated by signal from microprocessor.

  11. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  12. Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating Au Nanorods into Active Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yeyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-07-29

    This Research Article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of organic solar cells. When Au nanorods(NRs) are incorporated into the active layers, the designed project shows superior enhanced light absorption behavior comparing with control devices, which leads to the realization of organic solar cell with power conversion efficiency of 6.83%, accounting for 18.9% improvement. Further investigations unravel the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on light trapping, exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside the thin films devices. Moreover, the introduction of high-conductivity Au NRs improves electrical conductivity of the whole device, which contributes to the enhanced fill factor.

  13. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  14. Industrial n-type solar cells with >20% cell efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, I.G.; Anker, J.; Burgers, A.R.; Gutjahr, A.; Koppes, M.; Kossen, E.J.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Heurtault, Benoit; Saynova-Oosterling, D.S.; Tool, C.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    To realize high efficiencies at low costs, ECN has developed the n-Pasha solar cell concept. The n-Pasha cell concept is a bifacial solar cell concept on n-Cz base material, with which average efficiencies of above 20% have been demonstrated. In this paper recent developments at ECN to improve the cost of ownership (lower Euro/Wp) of the n-Pasha cell concept are discussed. Two main drivers for the manufacturing costs of n-type solar cells are addressed: the n-type Cz silicon material and the silver consumption. We show that a large resistivity range between 2 and 8 cm can be tolerated for high cell efficiency, and that the costs due to the silver metallization can be significantly reduced while increasing the solar cell efficiency. Combining the improved efficiency and cost reduction makes the n-Pasha cell concept a very cost effective solution to manufacture high efficient solar cells and modules.

  15. Recent Advances in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kietzke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells based on organic semiconductors have attracted much attention. The thickness of the active layer of organic solar cells is typically only 100 nm thin, which is about 1000 times thinner than for crystalline silicon solar cells and still 10 times thinner than for current inorganic thin film cells. The low material consumption per area and the easy processing of organic semiconductors offer a huge potential for low cost large area solar cells. However, to compete with inorganic solar cells the efficiency of organic solar cells has to be improved by a factor of 2-3. Several organic semiconducting materials have been investigated so far, but the optimum material still has to be designed. Similar as for organic light emitting devices (OLED small molecules are competing with polymers to become the material of choice. After a general introduction into the device structures and operational principles of organic solar cells the three different basic types (all polymer based, all small molecules based and small molecules mixed with polymers are described in detail in this review. For each kind the current state of research is described and the best of class reported efficiencies are listed.

  16. ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles and their solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerli, S., E-mail: suleymankerli@ksu.edu.tr [Department of EnergySystemsEngineering, Faculty of Elbistan Technology, Kahramanmaras SutcuImamUniversity, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Akgül, Ö., E-mail: omeraakgul@gmail.com [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Dept. of Physics, 46100 K.Maras-Turkey (Turkey); Alver, Ü., E-mail: ualver@ktu.edu.tr [Karadeniz Technical University, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Eng. 61080, Trabzon-Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    ZnO/TiO{sub 2} particles were investigated for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Nano-structured ZnO particles were produced by the hydrothermal method. TiO{sub 2} (P25) nanoparticles, was bought from the company of Degussa. Crystal structures and morphological properties of particles were examined by XRD and SEM. As an application, dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated from nano-structured produced metal oxide particles. The working electrodes of the DSSCs were obtained by mixture of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} powders. I-V characteristics of the cells were measured by using a solar simulator and the efficiency of the solar cells were obtained by using I-V graphs. ZnO cells sensitized with Ruthenium 535-bisTBA (N719) dyes yield higher efficiencies than corresponding TiO{sub 2} cells. By increasing TiO{sub 2} amount in the mixture of ZnO/TiO{sub 2}, it was observed that efficiencies of cells are getting lower.

  17. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-31

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future.

  18. Passivation of ZnO Nanowire Guests and 3D Inverse Opal Host Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Labouchere, Philippe; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Moehl, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Chavhan, Sudam; Tena-Zaera, Ramon; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Graetzel, Michael; Tetreault, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    A hierarchical host-guest nanostructured photoanode is reported for dye-sensitized solar cells. It is composed of ZnO nanowires grown in situ into the macropores of a 3D ZnO inverse opal structure, which acts both as a seed layer and as a conductive

  19. NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In

    Science.gov (United States)

    measured in operating quantum dot solar cells at low light intensity; these cells showed significant power Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell | News | NREL NREL Scientists Report First Solar Cell Producing More Electrons In Photocurrent Than Solar Photons Entering Cell News Release: NREL

  20. Assessment of market possibilities for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, S. [Advanced School of Business Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-07-01

    Global heating increases profitability of solar energy application in the Balkans. The most important market segments for wider solar cells utilization in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) are solar pumps for irrigation in agriculture, traffic lights, lighting of weekend houses, air-conditioning, telecommunications, electric vehicles, solar hydro-electric power plants, sports centers and schools and orthodox monasteries. In addition to these applications of solar modules of relatively high capacity, a wide scope of applications of mini solar modules in consumer goods is given serious consideration (flashlights, bicycle lights, fan caps, beach hats, solar parasols, toys for children, solar watches, minicomputers, walkmans and alike). In this paper is projected gradually increase of solar cells applications in Yugoslavia, from 772 kW in 2006., to 3,901 kW installed photovoltaic power in 2010. year. The largest parts of this projected 3.9 MW in 2010., ought to be solar pumps (498 kW), telecommunications (470 kW) and traffic lights (468 kW). (orig.)

  1. Three-dimensional amorphous silicon solar cells on periodically ordered ZnO nanocolumns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neykova, Neda; Moulin, E.; Campa, A.; Hruška, Karel; Poruba, Aleš; Stückelberger, M.; Haug, F.J.; Topič, M.; Ballif, C.; Vaněček, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 8 (2015), s. 1823-1829 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12029; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283501 - FAST TRACK Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : amorphous materials * hydrothermal growth * nanostructures * silicon * solar cells * ZnO Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  2. Scaling Up ITO-free solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galagan, Yulia; Coenen, Erica W. C.; Zimmermann, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm...... resistances. The performance of ITO-free organic solar cells with different dimensions and different electrode resistances are evaluated for different light intensities. The current generation and electric potential distribution are found to not be uniformly distributed in large-area devices at simulated 1...

  3. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  4. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.stelzner@ipht-jena.de

    2008-07-23

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm{sup 2} open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained.

  5. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm 2 open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm -2 were obtained

  6. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  7. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  8. Minority carrier blockade in MIND model solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, M.; Kuznicki, Z.T.; Ballutaud, D.

    2003-01-01

    A continuous amorphized a-Si nanostructure with sharp a-Si/c-Si heterointerfaces is inserted in a c-Si wafer by medium-energy P ion implantation followed by a thermal treatment at 500 deg. C. New photovoltaic phenomena in the mesoscopically transformed material are expected and were presented recently. The simulation of the band structure taking into account the differences between the two Si phases of the MIND (multi-interface novel device) model solar cell indicates the presence of a high barrier blocking the minority carriers, which are photogenerated in the bulk superficial region of the wafer. Consequently, the collection efficiency (i.e. collected carriers versus penetrating photons) is deteriorated in UV. Collection efficiency and EBIC measurements were used to give a theoretical and experimental analysis of the causes and the consequences of such a deterioration on the photocurrent

  9. Dielectric Scattering Patterns for Efficient Light Trapping in Thin-Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lare, Claire; Lenzmann, Frank; Verschuuren, Marc A; Polman, Albert

    2015-08-12

    We demonstrate an effective light trapping geometry for thin-film solar cells that is composed of dielectric light scattering nanocavities at the interface between the metal back contact and the semiconductor absorber layer. The geometry is based on resonant Mie scattering. It avoids the Ohmic losses found in metallic (plasmonic) nanopatterns, and the dielectric scatterers are well compatible with nearly all types of thin-film solar cells, including cells produced using high temperature processes. The external quantum efficiency of thin-film a-Si:H solar cells grown on top of a nanopatterned Al-doped ZnO, made using soft imprint lithography, is strongly enhanced in the 550-800 nm spectral band by the dielectric nanoscatterers. Numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental data and show that resonant light scattering from both the AZO nanostructures and the embedded Si nanostructures are important. The results are generic and can be applied on nearly all thin-film solar cells.

  10. Study of different nanostructured carbon supports for fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Antisari, Marco Vittori; Giorgi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Renzo; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Montone, Amelia; Bellitto, Serafina; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico

    Pt clusters were deposited by an impregnation process on three carbon supports: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNT), single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), and Vulcan XC-72 carbon black to investigate the effect of the carbon support structure on the possibility of reducing Pt loading on electrodes for direct methanol (DMFC) fuel cells without impairing performance. MWNT and SWNH were in-house synthesised by a DC and an AC arc discharge process between pure graphite electrodes, respectively. UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry measurements were used to characterize the Pt particles deposited on the three carbon supports. A differential yield for Pt deposition, not strictly related to the surface area of the carbon support, was observed. SWNH showed the highest surface chemical activity toward Pt deposition. Pt deposited in different forms depending on the carbon support. Electrochemical characterizations showed that the Pt nanostructures deposited on MWNT are particularly efficient in the methanol oxidation reaction.

  11. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Lim, Yee-Fun; Santiago-Berrios, Mitk’ El B.; Oh, Matthew; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Sun, Liangfeng; Bartnik, Adam C.; Goedhart, Augusta; Malliaras, George G.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun

  12. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  13. Diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers for organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wei Wei; Hendriks, K.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a

  14. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A single crystal SiGe has enormous potentials for high performance chips and solar cells. This project seeks to fabricate a rudimentary but 1st cut quantum-well...

  15. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.; Kamperman, Marleen; Nedelcu, Mihaela; Ducati, Caterina; Wiesner, Ulrich; Smilgies, Detlef -M.; Toombes, Gilman E. S.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Steiner, Ullrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided

  16. Optical enhancement effects of plasmonic nanostructures on organic photovoltaic cells

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Hui Joon; Guo, L. Jay

    2015-01-01

    .g. hundreds of nanometers). Especially, the performances of OPVs with plasmonic nanoparticles in photoactive and buffer layers and with periodic nanostructures were investigated. Furthermore, nanoimprint lithography-based nanofabrication processes that can

  17. Effect of solar-terrestrial phenomena on solar cell's efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahee, K. B.; Ansari, W.A.; Raza, S.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that the solar cell efficiency of PV device is closely related to the solar irradiance, consider the solar parameter Global Solar Irradiance (G) and the meteorological parameters like daily data of Earth Skin Temperature (E), Average Temperature (T), Relative Humidity (H) and Dew Frost Point (D), for the coastal city Karachi and a non-coastal city Jacobabad, K and J is used as a subscripts for parameters of Karachi and Jacobabad respectively. All variables used here are dependent on the location (latitude and longitude) of our stations except G. To employ ARIMA modeling, the first eighteen years data is used for modeling and forecast is done for the last five years data. In most cases results show good correlation among monthly actual and monthly forecasted values of all the predictors. Next, multiple linear regression is employed to the data obtained by ARIMA modeling and models for mean monthly observed G values are constructed. For each station, two equations are constructed, the R values are above 93% for each model, showing adequacy of the fit. Our computations show that solar cell efficiency can be increased if better modeling for meteorological predictors governs the process. (author)

  18. Perovskite Solar Cells: Progress and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Elumalai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs have emerged as a new class of optoelectronic semiconductors that revolutionized the photovoltaic research in the recent years. The perovskite solar cells present numerous advantages include unique electronic structure, bandgap tunability, superior charge transport properties, facile processing, and low cost. Perovskite solar cells have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency and its architecture evolved over the period of the last 5–6 years, achieving a high power conversion efficiency of about 22% in 2016, serving as a promising candidate with the potential to replace the existing commercial PV technologies. This review discusses the progress of perovskite solar cells focusing on aspects such as superior electronic properties and unique features of halide perovskite materials compared to that of conventional light absorbing semiconductors. The review also presents a brief overview of device architectures, fabrication methods, and interface engineering of perovskite solar cells. The last part of the review elaborates on the major challenges such as hysteresis and stability issues in perovskite solar cells that serve as a bottleneck for successful commercialization of this promising PV technology.

  19. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...... were degraded resulting in acceleration factors in the range of 19-55. This shows that concentrated sunlight can be used as qualitatively to determine the lifetime of polymers under highly accelerated conditions....

  20. Efficient low bandgap polymer solar cell with ordered heterojunction defined by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Mielczarek, Kamil; Zakhidov, Anvar; Hu, Walter

    2014-11-12

    In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) to make efficient low bandgap polymer solar cells with well-ordered heterojunction. High quality low bandgap conjugated polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) nanogratings are fabricated using this technique for the first time. The geometry effect of PCPDTBT nanostructures on the solar cell performance is investigated by making PCPDTBT/C70 solar cells with different feature sizes of PCPDTBT nanogratings. It is found that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increases with increasing nanograting height, PCPDTBT/C70 junction area, and decreasing nanograting width. We also find that NIL makes PCPDTBT chains interact more strongly and form an improved structural ordering. Solar cells made on the highest aspect ratio PCPDTBT nanostructures are among the best reported devices using the same material with a PCE of 5.5%.

  1. General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pedro, Victoria; Juarez-Perez, Emilio J; Arsyad, Waode-Sukmawati; Barea, Eva M; Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Mora-Sero, Ivan; Bisquert, Juan

    2014-02-12

    Organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells have recently realized large conversion efficiency over 15% showing great promise for a new large scale cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. Using impedance spectroscopy measurements we are able to separate the physical parameters of carrier transport and recombination in working devices of the two principal morphologies and compositions of perovskite solar cells, viz. compact thin films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx and CH3NH3PbI3 infiltrated on nanostructured TiO2. The results show nearly identical spectral characteristics indicating a unique photovoltaic operating mechanism that provides long diffusion lengths (1 μm). Carrier conductivity in both devices is closely matched, so that the most significant differences in performance are attributed to recombination rates. These results highlight the central role of the CH3NH3PbX3 semiconductor absorber in carrier collection and provide a new tool for improved optimization of perovskite solar cells. We report for the first time a measurement of the diffusion length in a nanostructured perovskite solar cell.

  2. Method to manufacture solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanschmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to outwit physics and to improve the solar energy utilization in households and space ships by means of power storers, gravitational drive and other futuristic means. (DG) [de

  3. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  4. An SU-8-based microprobe with a nanostructured surface enhances neuronal cell attachment and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Jin-Young; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-12-01

    Microprobes are used to repair neuronal injury by recording electrical signals from neuronal cells around the surface of the device. Following implantation into the brain, the immune response results in formation of scar tissue around the microprobe. However, neurons must be in close proximity to the microprobe to enable signal recording. A common reason for failure of microprobes is impaired signal recording due to scar tissue, which is not related to the microprobe itself. Therefore, the device-cell interface must be improved to increase the number of neurons in contact with the surface. In this study, we developed nanostructured SU-8 microprobes to support neuronal growth. Nanostructures of 200 nm diameter and depth were applied to the surface of microprobes, and the attachment and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells on the microprobes were evaluated. Neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes were significantly greater than those on non-nanostructured microprobes. The enhanced neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth on the nanostructured microprobes occurred in the absence of an adhesive coating, such as poly- l-lysine, and so may be useful for implantable devices for long-term use. Therefore, nanostructured microprobes can be implanted without adhesive coating, which can cause problems in vivo over the long term.

  5. The surface nanostructures of titanium alloy regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of surface nanostructures on the behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, surface nanostructured titanium alloy (Ti-3Zr2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM was fabricated by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were employed to characterize the surface nanostructures of the TLM, respectively. The results demonstrated that nano-crystalline structures with several tens of nanometers were formed on the surface of TLM substrates. The HUVECs grown onto the surface nanostructured TLM spread well and expressed more vinculin around the edges of cells. More importantly, HUVECs grown onto the surface nanostructured TLM displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 cell adhesion and viabilities than those of native titanium alloy. HUVECs cultured on the surface nanostructured titanium alloy displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 productions of nitric oxide (NO and prostacyclin (PGI2 than those of native titanium alloy, respectively. This study provides an alternative for the development of titanium alloy based vascular stents.

  6. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  8. Enhancing dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency by anode surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chao-Hsuan; Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Chin-Cheng; Hong, Franklin C.-N.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, titanium substrates treated with HF solution and KOH solution sequentially forming micro- and nano-structures were used for the fabrication of flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After wet etching treatments, the titanium substrates were then exposed to the O 2 plasma treatment and further immersed in titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) solution. The process conditions for producing a very thin TiO 2 blocking layer were studied, in order to avoid solar cell current leakage for increasing the solar cell efficiency. Subsequently, TiO 2 nanoparticles were spin-coated on Ti substrates with varied thickness. The dye-sensitized solar cells on the titanium substrates were subjected to simulate AM 1.5 G irradiation of 100 mW/cm 2 using backside illumination mode. Surface treatments of Ti substrate and TiO 2 anode were found to play a significant role in improving the efficiency of DSSC. The efficiencies of the backside illumination solar cells were raised from 4.6% to 7.8% by integrating these surface treatments. - Highlights: • The flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) device can be fabricated. • Many effective surface treatment methods to improve DSSC efficiency are elucidated. • The efficiency is dramatically enhanced by integrating surface treatment methods. • The back-illuminated DSSC efficiency was raised from 4.6% to 7.8%

  9. 24% efficient PERL structure silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Green, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the performance of silicon solar cells have been significantly improved using an improved PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally-diffused) cell structure. This structure overcomes deficiencies in an earlier PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) cell structure by locally diffusing boron into contact areas at the rear of the cells. Terrestrial energy conversion efficiencies up to 24% are reported for silicon cells for the first time. Air Mass O efficiencies approach 21%. The first batches of concentrator cells using the new structure have demonstrated significant improvement with 29% efficient concentrator silicon cells expected in the near future

  10. Morphology control and device optimization for efficient organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevaerts, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy is paramount for a sustainable global future. Solar cells convert solar light directly into electricity and are therefore of great interest in meeting the world’s energy demand. Currently crystalline silicon solar cells dominate the market. Solution processed organic solar cells can

  11. Investigation of solar cell radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Reulet, R.; Arndt, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Development of communications satellites has led to the requirement for a greater and longer lived solar cell power source. Accordingly, studies have been undertaken with the aim of determining which solar cell array provides the greatest power at end of life and the amount of degradation. Investigation of the damage done to thin silicon and thin film CdS solar cells is being carried out in two steps. First, irradiations were performed singly with 0.15, 1.0 and 2.0MeV electrons and 0.7, 2.5 and 22MeV proton. Solar cells and their cover materials were irradiated separately in order to locate the sites of the damage. Diffusion length and I.V. characteristics of the cells and transmission properties of the cover materials were measured. All neasurements were made in vacuum immediately after irradiation. In the second part it is intended to study the effect of various combinations of proton, electron and photon irradiation both with and without an electrical load. The results of this part show whether synergism is involved in solar cell damage and the relative importance of each of three radiation sources if synergism is found [fr

  12. Silver decorated titanate/titania nanostructures for efficient solar driven photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Dangguo; Ho, Weng Chye Jeffrey; Tang Yuxin; Tay Qiuling; Lai Yuekun; Highfield, James George; Chen Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalysis has attracted significant interest to solve both the energy crisis and effectively combat environmental contamination. However, as the most widely used photocatalyst, titania (TiO 2 ) suffers from inefficient utilization of solar energy due to its wide band gap. In the present paper, we describe a method to extend the absorption edge of photocatalyst to visible region by the surface plasmon effect of silver. Silver ions are photo-reduced onto the surface of titanate nanotubes, which are synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized Ag/titanate composite is transformed into Ag/titania nanoparticles by annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the supports (titanate/titania) plays a key role for the visible light activity. The samples annealed at low temperature (<350 °C) do not show significant activity under our conditions, while the one annealed at 450 °C shows fast-degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The detailed mechanisms are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles decorated titanate/titania as visible light active photocatalysts: silver nanoparticles could be excited by visible light due to its surface plasmon effect and excited electrons could be transferred to the conduction band of the semiconductor, where the reduction process occurs. Highlights: ► Uniform Ag nanoparticles are photo-reduced onto titanate and titania nanostructures. ► Titania crystal is formed by annealing hydrogen titanate at different temperatures. ► Best visible-light activity is achieved by Ag-loaded titania annealed at 450 °C. ► The visible light activity is attributed to the surface plasmonic resonance effect.

  13. Solution-Processed hybrid Sb2 S3 planar heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenxiao; Borazan, Ismail; Carroll, David

    Thin-film solar cells based on inorganic absorbers permit a high efficiency and stability. Among or those absorber candidates, recently Sb2S3 has attracted extensive attention because of its suitable band gap (1.5eV ~1.7 eV) , strong optical absorption, low-cost and earth-abundant constituents. Currently high-efficiency Sb2S3 solar cells have absorber layer deposited on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes in combination with organic hole transport material (HTM) on top. However it's challenging to fill the nanostructured TiO2 layer with Sb2S3 and subsequently by HTM, this leads to uncovered surface permits charge recombination. And the existing of Sb2S3/TiO2/HTM triple interface will enhance the recombination due to the surface trap state. Therefore, a planar junction cell would not only have simpler structure with less steps to fabricate but also ideally also have a higher open circuit voltage because of less interface carrier recombination. By far there is limited research focusing on planar Sb2S3 solar cell, so the feasibility is still unclear. Here, we developed a low-toxic solution method to fabricate Sb2S3 thin film solar cell, then we studied the morphology of the Sb2S3 layer and its impact to the device performance. The best device with a structure of FTO/TiO2/Sb2S3/P3HT/Ag has PCE over 5% which is similar or higher than yet the best nanostructure devices with the same HTM. Furthermore, based on solution engineering and surface modification, we improved the Sb2S3 film quality and achieved a record PCE. .

  14. Microscopic optoelectronic defectoscopy of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallaeva D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopes are powerful tool for micro- or nanoscale diagnostics of defects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Solar cell is a large p-n junction semiconductor device. Its quality is strongly damaged by the presence of defects. If the cell works under low reverse-biased voltage, defects emit a light in visible range. The suggested method combines three different measurements: electric noise measurement, local topography and near-field optical beam induced current and thus provides more complex information. To prove its feasibility, we have selected one defect (truncated pyramid in the sample, which emitted light under low reverse-biased voltage.

  15. Organic solar cells fundamentals, devices, and upscaling

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    Solution-Processed DonorsB. Burkhart, B. C. ThompsonSmall-Molecule and Vapor-Deposited Organic Photovoltaics R. R. Lunt, R. J. HolmesAcceptor Materials for Solution-Processed Solar Cells Y. HeInterfacial Layers R. Po, C. Carbonera, A. BernardiElectrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Cells S. Yoo, J.-Y. Lee, H. Kim, J. LeeTandem and Multi-Junction Organic Solar Cells J. Gilot, R. A. J. JanssenBulk Heterojunction Morphology Control and Characterization T. Wang, D. G. LidzeyOptical Modeling and Light Management

  16. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  17. Solar Cell Calibration and Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Brinker, Dave; Curtis, Henry; Jenkins, Phillip; Scheiman, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space solar cells and the increasing international markets for both cells and arrays has resulted in workshops jointly sponsored by NASDA, ESA and NASA. These workshops are designed to obtain international agreement on standardized values for the AMO spectrum and constant, recommend laboratory measurement practices and establish a set of protocols for international comparison of laboratory measurements. A working draft of an ISO standard, WD15387, "Requirements for Measurement and Calibration Procedures for Space Solar Cells" was discussed with a focus on the scope of the document, a definition of primary standard cell, and required error analysis for all measurement techniques. Working groups addressed the issues of Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar constant and spectrum, laboratory measurement techniques, and te international round robin methodology. A summary is presented of the current state of each area and the formulation of the ISO document.

  18. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available is the nano- crystalline TiO2dye- sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using simple materials. The production process generates...

  19. Walking-Beam Solar-Cell Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled walking-beam conveyor moves cells between work stations in automated assembly line. Conveyor has arm at each work station. In unison arms pick up all solar cells and advance them one station; then beam retracks to be in position for next step. Microprocessor sets beam stroke, speed, and position.

  20. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  1. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  2. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  3. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  4. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Quantum-Tuned Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleilat, Ghada I.

    Multijunction solar cells made from a combination of CQDs of differing sizes and thus bandgaps are a promising means by which to increase the energy harvested from the Sun's broad spectrum. In this dissertation, we first report the systematic engineering of 1.6 eV PbS CQD solar cells, optimal as the front cell responsible for visible wavelength harvesting in tandem photovoltaics. We rationally optimize each of the device's collecting electrodes---the heterointerface with electron accepting TiO2 and the deep-work-function hole-collecting MoO3 for ohmic contact---for maximum efficiency. Room-temperature processing enables flexible substrates, and permits tandem solar cells that integrate a small-bandgap back cell atop a low thermal-budget larger-bandgap front cell. We report an electrode strategy that enables a depleted heterojunction CQD PV device to be fabricated entirely at room temperature. We develop a two-layer donor-supply electrode (DSE) in which a highly doped, shallow work function layer supplies a high density of free electrons to an ultrathin TiO2 layer via charge-transfer doping. Using the DSE we build all-room-temperature-processed small-bandgap (1 eV) colloidal quantum dot solar cells suitable for use as the back junction in tandem solar cells. We further report in this work the first efficient CQD tandem solar cells. We use a graded recombination layer (GRL) to provide a progression of work functions from the hole-accepting electrode in the bottom cell to the electron-accepting electrode in the top cell. The recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We conclude our dissertation by presenting the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the

  6. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar...

  7. Stability Issues on Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Organo lead halide perovskite materials like methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3 and formamidinium lead iodide (HC(NH22PbI3 show superb opto-electronic properties. Based on these perovskite light absorbers, power conversion efficiencies of the perovskite solar cells employing hole transporting layers have increased from 9.7% to 20.1% within just three years. Thus, it is apparent that perovskite solar cell is a promising next generation photovoltaic technology. However, the unstable nature of perovskite was observed when exposing it to continuous illumination, moisture and high temperature, impeding the commercial development in the long run and thus becoming the main issue that needs to be solved urgently. Here, we discuss the factors affecting instability of perovskite and give some perspectives about further enhancement of stability of perovskite solar cell.

  8. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  9. A special issue on solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Bing CHENG

    2011-01-01

    @@ The increasing demand for renewable energy has made the solar cell technology as one of the most significantresearch and development areas of today.Silicon based solar cells are the dominant photovoltaic products at the present time, but the relatively high costs are barriers for their broad applications.Research has been active worldwide in developing other photovoltaic technologies that use cheap materials and can be easily manufactured.Organic solar cells have attracted a lot of interests recently due to their potential to be low cost photovoltaic technologies.This special issue of the Frontiers of Optoelectronics in China has collected research articles by a number of Chinese and international experts.It is aimed to broaden the readers' view about some of the recent developments and challenges in this important R&D field.Thirteen excellent papers are in this special issue including 4 review articles and 9 research articles.

  10. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  11. Perovskite Solar Cells: Potentials, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heralded as a major scientific breakthrough of 2013, organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have ushered in a new era of renewed efforts at increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of solar energy. As a potential game changer in the mix of technologies for alternate energy, it has emerged from a modest beginning in 2012 to efficiencies being claimed at 20.1% in a span of just two years. This remarkable progress, encouraging at one end, also points to the possibility that the potential may still be far from being fully realized. With greater insight into the photophysics involved and optimization of materials and methods, this technology stands to match or even exceed the efficiencies for single crystal silicon solar cells. With thin film solution processability, applicability to flexible substrates, and being free of liquid electrolyte, this technology combines the benefits of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs, Organic Photovoltaics (OPVs, and thin film solar cells. In this review we present a brief historic perspective to this development, take a cognizance of the current state of the art, and highlight challenges and the opportunities.

  12. Questionable effects of antireflective coatings on inefficiently cooled solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Galster, Georg; Larsen, Esben

    1998-01-01

    of the output power and efficiency curves throughout the day the coherence between technical parameters of the solar cells and the climate in the operation region is observed and examined. It is shown how the drop in output power around noon can be avoided by fitting technical parameters of the solar cells......A model for temperature effects in p-n junction solar cells is introduced. The temperature of solar cells and the losses in the solar cell junction region caused by elevating temperature are discussed. The model developed is examined for low-cost silicon solar cells. In order to improve the shape...

  13. Light trapping in solar cells using resonant nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinelli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaics is a sustainable and environmentally clean source of energy that has the potential to become a major source of energy for our society. In order for this to happen, photovoltaics needs to be economically competitive with other conventional energy sources. This can be achieved by

  14. Transparent sculptured titania films for enhanced light absorption in thin-film Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Kai-Hsiang, E-mail: khhung@itri.org.tw [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Guan-Di; Wong, Ming-Show [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yu-Chih [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chung, I-Shan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-12-30

    This study presents a description of the enhancement of light absorption in thin-film silicon (Si) solar cells by using sculptured titania (TiO{sub 2}) films. We used an electron-beam evaporation system with a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method to deposit porous TiO{sub 2} films on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) substrates. The GLAD TiO{sub 2}/FTO films were used as conductive electrodes in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) solar cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the GLAD TiO{sub 2} films are composed of sculptured nano-pillars on an FTO surface, and this nanostructure provides a synergistic route for light scattering enhancement. The GLAD TiO{sub 2}/FTO exhibited a 68% improvement of optical haze (at {lambda} = 600 nm). The {mu}c-Si:H solar cells consisting of the GLAD-nanostructured TiO{sub 2} resulted in a 5% improvement of short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) and yielded a cell efficiency of 6.6%.

  15. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  16. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  17. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  18. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  19. Design issues for optimum solar cell configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    A computer based simulation of solar cell structure is performed to study the optimization of pn junction configuration for photovoltaic action. The fundamental aspects of photovoltaic action viz, absorption, separation collection, and their dependence on material properties and deatails of device structures is discussed. Using SCAPS 1D we have simulated the ideal pn junction and shown the effect of band offset and carrier densities on solar cell performance. The optimum configuration can be achieved by optimizing transport of carriers in pn junction under effect of field dependent recombination (tunneling) and density dependent recombination (SRH, Auger) mechanisms.

  20. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  1. Effects of Au nanoparticle addition to hole transfer layer in organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine and fullerene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Nagata; Takeo Okun; Tsuyoshi Akiyaman; Atsushi Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine (CuNc) and fullerene (C60) were fabricated, and their photovoltaic properties were investigated. C60 and CuNc were used as n-type and p-type semiconductors, respectively. In addition, the effect of Au nanoparticle addition on a hole transfer layer was investigated, and the power conversion efficiency of the devices was improved after blending the Au nanoparticles into the hole transport layer. Nanostructures of Au nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Energy levels of molecules were calculated by molecular orbital calculations, and the nanostructure and electronic properties were discussed.

  2. Potential development in dye-sensitized solar cells for renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pandikumar, Alagarsamy

    2013-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic technology is expected to solve problems related to energy shortages and environmental pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels. Dye-sensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs) are promising next-generation alternatives to conventional silicon-based photovoltaic devices owing to their low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. This special topic volume addresses recent advances in the research on dye-sensitized solar cells. The focus of this special topic volume is on materials development (sensitizers, nanostructured oxide films, and electrolyte),

  3. Advances in solar cell welding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, L.G.; Lott, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    In addition to developing the rigid substrate welded conventional cell panels for an earlier U.S. flight program, LMSC recently demonstrated a welded lightweight array system using both 2 x 4 and 5.9 x 5.9 cm wraparound solar cells. This weld system uses infrared sensing of weld joint temperature at the cell contact metalization interface to precisely control weld energy on each joint. Modules fabricated using this weld control system survived lowearth-orbit simulated 5-year tests (over 30,000 cycles) without joint failure. The data from these specifically configured modules, printed circuit substrate with copper interconnect and dielectric wraparound solar cells, can be used as a basis for developing weld schedules for additional cell array panel types.

  4. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  5. Heteroepitaxially grown InP solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C.K.; Brinker, D.J.; Wilt, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Although they are significantly more radiation resistant than either Si or GaAs solar cells, their high wafer cost presents a barrier to the widespread use of InP solar cells in space. For this reason, the authors have initiated a program aimed at producing high efficiency, radiation resistant solar cells processed from InP heteroepitaxially grown on cheaper substrates. The authors' objective is to present the most recent results emanating from this program together with the results of their initial proton irradiations on these cells. This paper reports that InP cells were processed from a 4 micron layer of InP, grown by OMCVD on a silicon substrate, with a 0.5 micron buffer layer between the InP directly grown on a GaAs substrate. Initial feasibility studies, in a Lewis sponsored program at the Spire corporation, resulted in air mass zero efficiencies of 7.1% for the former cells and 9.1% for the latter. These initial low efficiencies are attributed to the high dislocation densities caused by lattice mismatch. The authors' preirradiation analysis indicates extremely low minority carrier diffusion lengths, in both cell base and emitter, and high values of both the diffusion and recombination components of the diode reverse saturation currents. Irradiation by 10 MeV protons, to a fluence of 10 13 cm -2 , resulted in relatively low degradation in cell efficiency, short circuit current and open circuit voltage

  6. Full space device optimization for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Ahmer A B; Aly, Shahzada P; Hossain, Mohammad I; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Tabet, Nouar; Alharbi, Fahhad H

    2017-09-20

    Advances in computational materials have paved a way to design efficient solar cells by identifying the optimal properties of the device layers. Conventionally, the device optimization has been governed by single or double descriptors for an individual layer; mostly the absorbing layer. However, the performance of the device depends collectively on all the properties of the material and the geometry of each layer in the cell. To address this issue of multi-property optimization and to avoid the paradigm of reoccurring materials in the solar cell field, a full space material-independent optimization approach is developed and presented in this paper. The method is employed to obtain an optimized material data set for maximum efficiency and for targeted functionality for each layer. To ensure the robustness of the method, two cases are studied; namely perovskite solar cells device optimization and cadmium-free CIGS solar cell. The implementation determines the desirable optoelectronic properties of transport mediums and contacts that can maximize the efficiency for both cases. The resulted data sets of material properties can be matched with those in materials databases or by further microscopic material design. Moreover, the presented multi-property optimization framework can be extended to design any solid-state device.

  7. Broadband absorption enhancement in amorphous Si solar cells using metal gratings and surface texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdi, Sara; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2017-02-01

    The efficiencies of thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells are restricted by the small thickness required for efficient carrier collection. This thickness limitations result in poor light absorption. In this work, broadband absorption enhancement is theoretically achieved in a-Si solar cells by using nanostructured back electrode along with surface texturing. The back electrode is formed of Au nanogratings and the surface texturing consists of Si nanocones. The results were then compared to random texturing surfaces. Three dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are used to design and optimize the structure. The Au nanogratings achieved absorption enhancement in the long wavelengths due to sunlight coupling to surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) modes. High absorption enhancement was achieved at short wavelengths due to the decreased reflection and enhanced scattering inside the a-Si absorbing layer. Optimizations have been performed to obtain the optimal geometrical parameters for both the nanogratings and the periodic texturing. In addition, an enhancement factor (i.e. absorbed power in nanostructured device/absorbed power in reference device) was calculated to evaluate the enhancement obtained due to the incorporation of each nanostructure.

  8. Nanostructure-based proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junsheng; Wang, Zhengbang; Li, Junrui; Pan, Mu; Tang, Haolin

    2014-02-01

    As a clean and highly efficient energy source, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been considered an ideal alternative to traditional fossil energy sources. Great efforts have been devoted to realizing the commercialization of the PEMFC in the past decade. To eliminate some technical problems that are associated with the low-temperature operation (such as catalyst poisoning and poor water management), PEMFCs are usually operated at elevated temperatures (e.g., > 100 degrees C). However, traditional proton exchange membrane (PEM) shows poor performance at elevated temperature. To achieve a high-performance PEM for high temperature fuel cell applications, novel PEMs, which are based on nanostructures, have been developed recently. In this review, we discuss and summarize the methods for fabricating the nanostructure-based PEMs for PEMFC operated at elevated temperatures and the high temperature performance of these PEMs. We also give an outlook on the rational design and development of the nanostructure-based PEMs.

  9. Geometric photovoltaics applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Timothy

    Geometrically generalized analytical expressions for device transport are derived from first principles for a photovoltaic junction. Subsequently, conventional planar and unconventional coaxial and hemispherical photovoltaic architectures are applied to detail the device physics of the junction based on their respective geometry. For the conventional planar cell, the one-dimensional transport equations governing carrier dynamics are recovered. For the unconventional coaxial and hemispherical junction designs, new multi-dimensional transport equations are revealed. Physical effects such as carrier generation and recombination are compared for each cell architecture, providing insight as to how non-planar junctions may potentially enable greater energy conversion efficiencies. Numerical simulations are performed for arrays of vertically aligned, nanostructured coaxial and hemispherical amorphous silicon solar cells and results are compared to those from simulations performed for the standard planar junction. Results indicate that fundamental physical changes in the spatial dependence of the energy band profile across the intrinsic region of an amorphous silicon p-i-n junction manifest as an increase in recombination current for non-planar photovoltaic architectures. Despite an increase in recombination current, however, the coaxial architecture still appears to be able to surpass the efficiency predicted for the planar geometry, due to the geometry of the junction leading to a decoupling of optics and electronics.

  10. Surface plasma resonance enhanced photocurrent generation in NiO photoanode based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong; Cui, Jin [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Li, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Cao, Kun; Yuan, Shuai [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Cheng, Yibing [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wang, Mingkui, E-mail: mingkui.wang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SPR effect from Au-nanostructures was first investigated in NiO-based solar cells. • Enhanced photocurrent generation was observed in p-DSC and perovskite solar cell. • Au-nanorods SPR effect induced charge kinetics were investigated. - Abstract: Surface plasma resonance (SPR) effect has been demonstrated to improve solar cell performance. This work reports on the SPR effect from Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} on p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} works as an antenna to transform photons with long wavelength into electric field followed by an enhanced excitation of dye. The devices using the NiO electrode containing Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} shows overall power conversion efficiencies of about 0.2% in combination with I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} electrolyte, and 0.29% with T{sup −}/T{sub 2} electrolyte, which are superior to those without adding Au nanorods. Detailed investigation including spectroscopy and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveals that plasma effect of Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} contribute to charge injection efficiency, and thus on the photocurrent. The effect of Au NRs can be further extended to the inverted planar perovskite solar cells, showing obviously improvement in photocurrent.

  11. Core/shell structured NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+/Gd+3 nanorods with Au nanoparticles or shells for flexible amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z Q; Li, X D; Liu, Q Q; Chen, X H; Sun, Z; Huang, S M; Liu, C; Ye, X J

    2012-01-01

    A simple approach for preparing near-infrared (NIR) to visible upconversion (UC) NaYF 4 :Yb/Er/Gd nanorods in combination with gold nanostructures has been reported. The grown UC nanomaterials with Au nanostructures have been applied to flexible amorphous silicon solar cells on the steel substrates to investigate their responses to sub-bandgap infrared irradiation. Photocurrent–voltage measurements were performed on the solar cells. It was demonstrated that UC of NIR light led to a 16-fold to 72-fold improvement of the short-circuit current under 980 nm illumination compared to a cell without upconverters. A maximum current of 1.16 mA was obtained for the cell using UC nanorods coated with Au nanoparticles under 980 nm laser illumination. This result corresponds to an external quantum efficiency of 0.14% of the solar cell. Mechanisms of erbium luminescence in the grown UC nanorods were analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  12. Coupling molecular catalysts with nanostructured surfaces for efficient solar fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tong

    Solar fuel generation via carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction is a promising approach to meet the increasing global demand for energy and to minimize the impact of energy consumption on climate change. However, CO2 is thermodynamically stable; its activation often requires the use of appropriate catalysts. In particular, molecular catalysts with well-defined structures and tunability have shown excellent activity in photochemical CO2 reduction. These homogenous catalysts, however, suffer from poor stability under photochemical conditions and difficulty in recycling from the reaction media. Heterogenized molecular catalysts, particularly those prepared by coupling molecular catalysts with solid-state surfaces, have attracted more attention in recent years as potential solutions to address the issues associated with molecular catalysts. In this work, solar CO2 reduction is investigated using systems coupling molecular catalysts with robust nanostructured surfaces. In Chapter 2, heterogenization of macrocyclic cobalt(III) and nickel (II) complexes on mesoporous silica surface was achieved by different methods. Direct ligand derivatization significantly lowered the catalytic activity of Co(III) complex, while grafting the Co(III) complex onto silica surface through Si-O-Co linkage resulted in hybrid catalysts with excellent activity in CO2 reduction in the presence of p-terphenyl as a molecular photosensitizer. An interesting loading effect was observed, in which the optimal activity was achieved at a medium Co(III) surface density. Heterogenization of the Ni(II) complex on silica surface has also been implemented, the poor photocatalytic activity of the hybrid catalyst can be attributed to the intrinsic nature of the homogeneous analogue. This study highlighted the importance of appropriate linking strategies in preparing functional heterogenized molecular catalysts. Coupling molecular complexes with light-harvesting surfaces could avoid the use of expensive molecular

  13. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells exploiting hierarchical structuring

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, André J.; Thon, Susanna; Masala, Silvia; Adachi, Michael M.; Dong, Haopeng; Farahani, Maryam; Ip, Alexander H.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Sargent, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Extremely thin-absorber solar cells offer low materials utilization and simplified manufacture but require improved means to enhance photon absorption in the active layer. Here, we report enhanced-absorption colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells

  14. Generalized detailed balance theory of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2009-12-12

    The principle of detailed balance is the requirement that every microscopic process in a system must be in equilibrium with its inverse process, when the system itself is in thermodynamic equilibrium. This detailed balance principle has been of special importance for photovoltaics, since it allows the calculation of the limiting efficiency of a given solar cell by defining the only fundamental loss process as the radiative recombination of electron/hole pairs followed by the emission of a photon. In equilibrium, i.e. in the dark and without applied voltage, the absorbed and emitted photon flux must be equal due to detailed balance. This equality determines the radiative recombination from absorption and vice versa. While the classical theory of photovoltaic efficiency limits by Shockley and Queisser considers only one detailed balance pair, namely photogeneration and radiative recombination, the present work extends the detailed balance principle to any given process in the solar cell. Applying the detailed balance principle to the whole device leads to two major results, namely (i) a model that is compatible with the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for efficient particle transport, while still being able to describe non-ideal and non-linear solar cells, and (ii) an analytical relation between electroluminescent emission and photovoltaic action of a diode that is applied to a variety of different solar cells. This thesis presents several variations of a detailed balance model that are applicable to different types of solar cells. Any typical inorganic solar cell is a mainly bipolar device, meaning that the current is carried by electrons and holes. The detailed balance model for pn-type and pin-type bipolar solar cells is therefore the most basic incorporation of a detailed balance model. The only addition compared to the classical diode theory or compared to standard one-dimensional device simulators is the incorporation of photon recycling, making the model

  15. Nanostructured surfaces for analysis of anticancer drug and cell diagnosis based on electrochemical and SERS tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Waleed A.; Yoon, Jinho; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2018-04-01

    Discovering new anticancer drugs and screening their efficacy requires a huge amount of resources and time-consuming processes. The development of fast, sensitive, and nondestructive methods for the in vitro and in vivo detection of anticancer drugs' effects and action mechanisms have been done to reduce the time and resources required to discover new anticancer drugs. For the in vitro and in vivo detection of the efficiency, distribution, and action mechanism of anticancer drugs, the applications of electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical cell chips and optical techniques such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) have been developed based on the nanostructured surface. Research focused on electrochemical cell chips and the SERS technique have been reviewed here; electrochemical cell chips based on nanostructured surfaces have been developed for the in vitro detection of cell viability and the evaluation of the effects of anticancer drugs, which showed the high capability to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of several chemicals at low concentrations. SERS technique based on the nanostructured surface have been used as label-free, simple, and nondestructive techniques for the in vitro and in vivo monitoring of the distribution, mechanism, and metabolism of different anticancer drugs at the cellular level. The use of electrochemical cell chips and the SERS technique based on the nanostructured surface should be good tools to detect the effects and action mechanisms of anticancer drugs.

  16. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Kim, Jong H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure

  17. Baselines for Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Ciammaruchi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The process of accurately gauging lifetime improvements in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) or other similar emerging technologies, such as perovskites solar cells is still a major challenge. The presented work is part of a larger effort of developing a worldwide database of lifetimes that can help...

  18. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells. A R M YUSOFF*, M N SYAHRUL and K HENKEL. Malaysia Energy Centre, 8th Floor, North Wing, Sapura @ Mines, 7, Jalan Tasik, The Mines Resort City,. 43300 Seri Kembangan, Selangor Darul Ehsan. MS received 11 April 2007. Abstract. A major issue encountered ...

  19. Electrical Characterization of HIT type solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The silicon heterojunction solar cell (SHJ) has made rapid progress in reaching high efficiency and it is already developed as an industrially viable product. However, much of its progress has come through process development while there is scarce knowledge on the microscopic nature of the

  20. Characterization of HIT type solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The silicon heterojunction solar cell (SHJ) has made rapid progress in reaching high efficiency and it is already developed as an industrially viable product. However, much of its progress has come through process development while there is scarce knowledge on the microscopic nature of the

  1. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  2. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 51)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Dean H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Martin A. [University of New South Wales; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Dunlop, Ewan D. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems; Ho-Baillie, Anita W. Y. [University of New South Wales

    2017-12-14

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2017 are reviewed, together with progress over the last 25 years. Appendices are included documenting area definitions and also listing recognised test centres.

  4. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance...

  5. Hybrid solar cells : Perovskites under the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loi, Maria Antonietta; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed-halide organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites are reported to display electron–hole diffusion lengths over 1 μm. This observation provides important insight into the charge-carrier dynamics of this class of semiconductors and increases the expectations for highly efficient and cheap solar cells.

  6. Energy. From firewood to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2006-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of energy and the options to secure the energy supply for the future. Much information is given about energy efficiency, the exploitation of tar sands, reopening of the coal mines in the Netherlands, nuclear fusion and fission, wave energy and solar cells, etc [nl

  7. Fuel Cell / electrolyser, Solar Photovoltaic Powered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chioncel Cristian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental obtained results in the operation ofelectrolyzer powered by solar photovoltaic modules, for the waterelectrolysis and with the obtained hydrogen and oxygen proceeds tothe operation in fuel cell mode, type PEM. The main operatingparameters and conditions to optimize the energy conversion on thesolar-hydrogen-electricity cycle are highlighted, so that those arecomparable or superior to conventional cycles.

  8. Numerical simulation model of multijunction solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babar, M.; Al-Ammar, E.A.; Malik, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-junction solar cells play an important and significant role in the Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems. Recent developments in Concentrated Photovoltaic concerning high power production and cost effective- ness along with better efficiency are due to the advancements in multi-junction

  9. Solar cells for space applications (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture focusses on qualification and verification tests and procedures on solar cells designed for space applications. The series of tests should produce orbital performance under determined illumination, temperature and irradiance. Tests are divided in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Environmental tests include durability, qualification (mechanical and electrical), I-V curves, Spectral response

  10. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo; Garnett, Erik C.; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Brongersma, Mark L.; McGehee, Michael D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  12. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Polymers for Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Hendriks, Koen H; Wienk, Martijn M; Janssen, René A J

    2016-01-19

    Conjugated polymers have been extensively studied for application in organic solar cells. In designing new polymers, particular attention has been given to tuning the absorption spectrum, molecular energy levels, crystallinity, and charge carrier mobility to enhance performance. As a result, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of solar cells based on conjugated polymers as electron donor and fullerene derivatives as electron acceptor have exceeded 10% in single-junction and 11% in multijunction devices. Despite these efforts, it is notoriously difficult to establish thorough structure-property relationships that will be required to further optimize existing high-performance polymers to their intrinsic limits. In this Account, we highlight progress on the development and our understanding of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) based conjugated polymers for polymer solar cells. The DPP moiety is strongly electron withdrawing and its polar nature enhances the tendency of DPP-based polymers to crystallize. As a result, DPP-based conjugated polymers often exhibit an advantageously broad and tunable optical absorption, up to 1000 nm, and high mobilities for holes and electrons, which can result in high photocurrents and good fill factors in solar cells. Here we focus on the structural modifications applied to DPP polymers and rationalize and explain the relationships between chemical structure and organic photovoltaic performance. The DPP polymers can be tuned via their aromatic substituents, their alkyl side chains, and the nature of the π-conjugated segment linking the units along the polymer chain. We show that these building blocks work together in determining the molecular conformation, the optical properties, the charge carrier mobility, and the solubility of the polymer. We identify the latter as a decisive parameter for DPP-based organic solar cells because it regulates the diameter of the semicrystalline DPP polymer fibers that form in the photovoltaic blends with

  13. Realization of Quasi-Omnidirectional Solar Cells with Superior Electrical Performance by All-Solution-Processed Si Nanopyramids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Tan, Miao; Zhuang, Yufeng; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale (156 mm × 156 mm) quasi-omnidirectional solar cells are successfully realized and featured by keeping high cell performance over broad incident angles (θ), via employing Si nanopyramids (SiNPs) as surface texture. SiNPs are produced by the proposed metal-assisted alkaline etching method, which is an all-solution-processed method and highly simple together with cost-effective. Interestingly, compared to the conventional Si micropyramids (SiMPs)-textured solar cells, the SiNPs-textured solar cells possess lower carrier recombination and thus superior electrical performances, showing notable distinctions from other Si nanostructures-textured solar cells. Furthermore, SiNPs-textured solar cells have very little drop of quantum efficiency with increasing θ, demonstrating the quasi-omnidirectional characteristic. As an overall result, both the SiNPs-textured homojunction and heterojunction solar cells possess higher daily electric energy production with a maximum relative enhancement approaching 2.5%, when compared to their SiMPs-textured counterparts. The quasi-omnidirectional solar cell opens a new opportunity for photovoltaics to produce more electric energy with a low cost.

  14. How the relative permittivity of solar cell materials influences solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    of the materials permittivity on the physics and performance of the solar cell by means of numerical simulation supported by analytical relations. We demonstrate that, depending on the specific solar cell configuration and materials properties, there are scenarios where the relative permittivity has a major......The relative permittivity of the materials constituting heterojunction solar cells is usually not considered as a design parameter when searching for novel combinations of heterojunction materials. In this work, we investigate the validity of such an approach. Specifically, we show the effect...... the heterojunction partner has a high permittivity, solar cells are consistently more robust against several non-idealities that are especially likely to occur in early-stage development, when the device is not yet optimized....

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cell architecture based on indium-tin oxide nanowires coated with titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanni, Ednan; Savu, Raluca; Sousa Goes, Marcio de; Bueno, Paulo Roberto; Nei de Freitas, Jilian; Nogueira, Ana Flavia; Longo, Elson; Varela, Jose Arana

    2007-01-01

    A new architecture for dye-sensitized solar cells is employed, based on a nanostructured transparent conducting oxide protruding from the substrate, covered with a separate active oxide layer. The objective is to decrease electron-hole recombination. The concept was tested by growing branched indium-tin oxide nanowires on glass using pulsed laser deposition followed by deposition of a sputtered titanium dioxide layer covering the wires. The separation of charge generation and charge transport functions opens many possibilities for dye-sensitized solar cell optimization

  16. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Dosari, Haila M.; Ayesh, Ahmad I.

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) nanoclusters that might be used for solar cell applications. Silver and silicon nanoclusters have been synthesized by means of dc magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation inside an ultra-high vacuum compatible system. We have found that nanocluster size distributions can be tuned by various source parameters, such as the sputtering discharge power, flow rate of argon inert gas, and aggregation length. Quadrupole mass filter and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the size distribution of Ag and Si nanoclusters. Ag nanoclusters with average size in the range of 3.6–8.3 nm were synthesized (herein size refers to the nanocluster diameter), whereas Si nanoclusters' average size was controlled to range between 2.9 and 7.4 nm by controlling the source parameters. This work illustrates the ability of controlling the Si and Ag nanoclusters' sizes by proper optimization of the operation conditions. By controlling nanoclusters' sizes, one can alter their surface properties to suit the need to enhance solar cell efficiency. Herein, Ag nanoclusters were deposited on commercial polycrystalline solar cells. Short circuit current (I SC ), open circuit voltage (V OC ), fill factor, and efficiency (η) were obtained under light source with an intensity of 30 mW/cm 2 . A 22.7% enhancement in solar cell efficiency could be measured after deposition of Ag nanoclusters, which demonstrates that Ag nanoclusters generated in this work are useful to enhance solar cell efficiency

  17. Extraordinary Light-Trapping Enhancement in Silicon Solar Cell Patterned with Graded Photonic Super-Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Light-trapping enhancement in newly discovered graded photonic super-crystals (GPSCs with dual periodicity and dual basis is herein explored for the first time. Broadband, wide-incident-angle, and polarization-independent light-trapping enhancement was achieved in silicon solar cells patterned with these GPSCs. These super-crystals were designed by multi-beam interference, rendering them flexible and efficient. The optical response of the patterned silicon solar cell retained Bloch-mode resonance; however, light absorption was greatly enhanced in broadband wavelengths due to the graded, complex unit super-cell nanostructures, leading to the overlap of Bloch-mode resonances. The broadband, wide-angle light coupling and trapping enhancement mechanism are understood to be due to the spatial variance of the index of refraction, and this spatial variance is due to the varying filling fraction, the dual basis, and the varying lattice constants in different directions.

  18. Solar cell radiation handbook. Addendum 1: 1982-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, B.E.

    1989-02-01

    The Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL Publication 82-69) is updated. In order to maintain currency of solar cell radiation data, recent solar cell designs have been acquired, irradiated with 1 MeV electrons, and measured. The results of these radiation experiments are reported

  19. NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize News Release: NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize

  20. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Peter H [Glendale, CA; Brandt, Randolph J [Palmdale, CA

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  1. A cost roadmap for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Faaij, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  2. A Cost Roadmap for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, A.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, Ruud; Faaij, A.

    Research and development of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells has seen a marked increase since the recent expiry of core patents describing SHJ technology. SHJ solar cells are expected to offer various cost benefits compared to conventional crystalline silicon solar cells. This paper analyses

  3. High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migunova, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)

  4. Direct covalent coupling of proteins to nanostructured plasma polymers: a route to tunable cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnichuk, Iurii; Choukourov, Andrei; Bilek, Marcela; Weiss, Anthony; Vandrovcová, Marta; Bačáková, Lucie; Hanuš, Jan; Kousal, Jaroslav; Shelemin, Artem; Solař, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flat and nanostructured interfaces were overcoated by hydrocarbon plasma polymer. • Linker-free covalent attachment of proteins to resultant surfaces was validated. • Ultra-thin hydrocarbon overcoat (<2 nm) secured prolonged effective binding. • Pre-adsorbed tropoelastin promoted proliferation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. • Nanostructured films were multi-affine and impeded cell adhesion. - Abstract: Flat and nanostructured thin films were fabricated by deposition of ultra-thin (<2 nm) layer of hydrocarbon plasma polymer over polished silicon and over a pattern of 8 nm-thick poly(ethylene) islands on silicon. Linker-free radical-based covalent binding of bovine serum albumin and tropoelastin was confirmed for both types of films. The binding capability of albumin was found to be stable over many days of ambient air storage time. Tropoelastin-mediated flat plasma polymers favored adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Nanostructured plasma polymers were multi-affine and their hierarchical surface represented an additional barrier for cell attachment

  5. C-Si solar cell modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the rapidly growing demand for solar power photovoltaic systems which is based on public consciousness of global environmental issues, SHARP has increased the production of solar cells and modules over 10-fold in the last 5 years. Silicon-based technologies are expected to be dominant in the coming decade. In the course of an increase of the annual production scale to 1000 MW, the efficiency of modules will be improved and the thickness of wafers will be decreased and all this will lead to a drastic price reduction of PV systems. (Author)

  6. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  7. Photovoltaic and impedance characteristics of modified SILAR grown CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatehmulla, Amanullah; Farooq, W. A.; Aslam, M.; Atif, M.; Ali, S.M.; Al-Dhafir, A. M.; Yakuphanoglu, F.; Yahia, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on nanostructured TiO 2 film using a modified Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Nanostructured TiO 2 on FTO glass and Platinum on FTO are used as photoelectrode and Counter electrode respectively. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRT EM) image revealed CdS QDs adsorbed on nanostructured TiO 2 . The photovoltaic characteristics and impedance spectroscopy properties of CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) were analyzed under air mass 1.5 illuminations. At the SILAR adsorption time of 2 min (10 cycles), the QDSSC measured a short circuit current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under air mass 1.5. In a widespread frequency range, the capacitance – voltage, the conductance – voltage, the series resistance - voltage measurements were carried out for the QDSSC applications. A conduct of positive to negative capacitance was observed from the measured characteristics of capacitance - voltage which is attributed to the injection of electrons from FTO electrode into TiO 2 . Key words: Nanostructured TiO 2 , CdS QDSSC, SILAR method, photovoltaic measurements, impedance characteristic

  8. Characterisation of multicrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    A.Q. Malik; Chong Chew Hah; Chan Siang Khwang; Lim Chee Ming; Tan Kha Sheng

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation and assessment of the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells in terms of measurable parameters requires the measurement of the current as a function of voltage, temperature, intensity, wind speed and spectrum. Mo st noticeable of all these parameters is the PV conversion efficiency η, defined as the maximum electrical power Pmax produced by the PV cell divided by the incident photon power P in which is measured with respect to standard test conditions (STC). These conditions re...

  9. Highly efficient betanin dye based ZnO and ZnO/Au Schottky barrier solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thankappan, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.subhash@gmail.com [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Inter University Centre for Nanomaterials and Devices (IUCND), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India); Divya, S.; Augustine, Anju K.; Girijavallaban, C.P.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V.P.N. [International School of Photonics (ISP), Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi (India)

    2015-05-29

    Performance of dye sensitized solar cells based on betanin natural dye from red beets with various nanostructured photoanodes on transparent conducting glass has been investigated. In four different electrolyte systems cell efficiency of 2.99% and overall photon to current conversion efficiency of 20% were achieved using ZnO nanosheet electrode with iodide based electrolyte in acetonitrile solution. To enhance solar harvesting in organic solar cells, uniform sized metal nanoparticles (gold (Au) of ~ 8 nm) synthesized via microwave irradiation method were incorporated into the device consisting of ZnO. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 1.71% was achieved with ZnO/Au nanocomposite compared to the 0.868% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanosheet cell with ferrocene based electrolyte. - Highlights: • The influence of electrolytes has been studied. • Cell efficiency of 2.99% was achieved by ZnO. • Enhancement of efficiency with incorporation of Au nano.

  10. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Alex M; Santhakumaran, Latha M; Nair, Sandhya K; Amenta, Peter S; Thomas, Thresia; He, Huixin; Thomas, T J

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN

  11. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Alex M [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Santhakumaran, Latha M [Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Nair, Sandhya K [Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Amenta, Peter S [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Thomas, Thresia [Department of Environmental and Health Sciences Institute, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); He, Huixin [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Thomas, T J [Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)

    2006-11-14

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN.

  12. Oligodeoxynucleotide nanostructure formation in the presence of polypropyleneimine dendrimers and their uptake in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alex M.; Santhakumaran, Latha M.; Nair, Sandhya K.; Amenta, Peter S.; Thomas, Thresia; He, Huixin; Thomas, T. J.

    2006-11-01

    We studied the efficacy of five generations of polypropyleneimine (PPI) dendrimer to provoke nanostructure formation from a 21-nucleotide antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). Nanostructure formation was observed with all generations of dendrimer by light scattering and microscopic techniques. The efficacy of the dendrimers increased with generation number. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology of the structures at different condensation stages. Based on the observed nanostructures, we propose a zipping condensation mechanism, which is very different from the condensation pathways of high molecular weight DNA polymers. Electron microscopy showed the presence of toroidal nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that the nanostructures formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers could undergo facile cellular uptake in a breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, whereas nanostructures formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers lacked this ability. Nanoparticles formed with G-1 to G-3 dendrimers showed significantly lower zeta potential (5.2-6.5 mV) than those (12-18 mV) of particles formed with G-4 and G-5 dendrimers. These results show that the structure and charge density of the dendrimers are important in ODN nanoparticle formation and cellular transport and that G-4 and G-5 dendrimers are useful in cellular delivery of antisense ODN.

  13. Laser scanning of experimental solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, B. C.; Lasswell, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a laser scanning instrument which makes it possible to display and measure the spatial response of a solar cell. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of generated micrographs in the isolation of flaws and features of the cell. The laser scanner system uses a 4 mW, CW helium-neon laser, operating a wavelength of 0.633 micrometers. The beam is deflected by two mirror galvanometers arranged to scan in orthogonal directions. After being focused on the solar cell by the beam focusing lens, the moving light spot raster scans the specimen. The current output of the photovoltaic device under test, as a function of the scan dot position, can be displayed in several modes. The laser scanner has proved to be a very useful diagnostic tool in optimizing the process design of transparent metal film photovoltaic devices on Zn3P2, a relatively new photovoltaic material.

  14. Study of hybrid solar cells made of multilayer nanocrystalline titania and poly(3-octylthiophene) or poly-(3-(2-methylhex-2-yl)-oxy-carbonyldithiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniadou, Maria; Stathatos, Elias; Boukos, Nikolaos

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid solar cells have been constructed by using nanocrystalline titania and hole-transporting polymers. Titania was deposited on fluorine-doped tin-oxide transparent electrodes in three layers: a blocking layer and two nanostructured layers, giving densely packed or open structures. Open...

  15. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  16. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıç, Bayram, E-mail: bkilic@yalova.edu.tr, E-mail: kbayramkilic@gmail.com [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yalova University, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Telli, Hakan; Başaran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev [Turkish Air Force Academy, Institute of Aeronautics and Space Technologies, Istanbul (Turkey); Tüzemen, Sebahattin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2015-04-07

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO{sub 2} nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO{sub 2} owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8 wt. % TiO{sub 2} showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99 wt. % TiO{sub 2}, pure TiO{sub 2}, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  17. BODIPYs for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klfout, Hafsah; Stewart, Adam; Elkhalifa, Mahmoud; He, Hongshan

    2017-11-22

    BODIPY, abbreviation of boron-dipyrromethene, is one class of robust organic molecules that has been used widely in bioimaging, sensing, and logic gate design. Recently, BODIPY dyes have been explored for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Studies demonstrate their potential as light absorbers for the conversion of solar energy to electricity. However, their photovoltaic performance is inferior to many other dyes, including porphyrin dyes. In this review, several synthetic strategies of BODIPY dyes for DSCs and their further functionalization are described. The photophysical properties of dye molecules and their photovoltaic performances in DSCs are summarized. We aim to provide readers a clear picture of the field and expect to shed light on the next generation of BODIPY dyes for their applications in solar energy conversion.

  18. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  19. Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasasi, A. Y.; Siyanbola, W.O.; Ibitoye, F. I.; Pelemo, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

  20. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioz Etgar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered.

  1. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz

    2013-02-04

    Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG) capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered.

  2. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG) capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered. PMID:28809318

  3. National solar technology roadmap: Organic PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses all forms of solar cells that use organic molecules—including polymers, dendrimers, small molecules, and dyes—as absorbers or transporters, either in fully organic devices or in devices that also contain inorganic nanostructures.

  4. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  5. TiO2 Nanowire Networks Prepared by Titanium Corrosion and Their Application to Bendable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saera Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared, using the corrosion of Ti foils in alkaline (potassium hydroxide, KOH solution at different temperatures, and then a further ion-exchange process. The prepared nanostructures were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wet corroded foils were utilized as the photoanodes of bendable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.11% under back illumination.

  6. TiO₂ Nanowire Networks Prepared by Titanium Corrosion and Their Application to Bendable Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Saera; Shin, Eunhye; Hong, Jongin

    2017-10-12

    TiO₂ nanowire networks were prepared, using the corrosion of Ti foils in alkaline (potassium hydroxide, KOH) solution at different temperatures, and then a further ion-exchange process. The prepared nanostructures were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wet corroded foils were utilized as the photoanodes of bendable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 1.11% under back illumination.

  7. Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jangwon; Noh, Jun Hong; Seok, Sang Il

    2016-03-15

    A long-standing dream in the large scale application of solar energy conversion is the fabrication of solar cells with high-efficiency and long-term stability at low cost. The realization of such practical goals depends on the architecture, process and key materials because solar cells are typically constructed from multilayer heterostructures of light harvesters, with electron and hole transporting layers as a major component. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrid lead halide perovskites have attracted significant attention as light absorbers for the fabrication of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells via a solution process. This mainly stems from long-range ambipolar charge transport properties, low exciton binding energies, and suitable band gap tuning by managing the chemical composition. In our pioneering work, a new photovoltaic platform for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was proposed, which yielded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. The platform consisted of a pillared architecture of a three-dimensional nanocomposite of perovskites fully infiltrating mesoporous TiO2, resulting in the formation of continuous phases and perovskite domains overlaid with a polymeric hole conductor. Since then, the PCE of our PSCs has been rapidly increased from 3% to over 20% certified efficiency. The unprecedented increase in the PCE can be attributed to the effective integration of the advantageous attributes of the refined bicontinuous architecture, deposition process, and composition of perovskite materials. Specifically, the bicontinuous architectures used in the high efficiency comprise a layer of perovskite sandwiched between mesoporous metal-oxide layer, which is a very thinner than that of used in conventional dye-sensitized solar cells, and hole-conducting contact materials with a metal back contact. The mesoporous scaffold can affect the hysteresis under different scan direction in measurements of PSCs. The hysteresis also greatly depends on

  8. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF A SOLAR CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ; and estimating variations in the solar cell, thereby electrically characterizing the solar cell. The disclosure further relates to a solar cell characterization apparatus for characterization of a solar cell, comprising: a light source for generating an optical probe light; a modulation unit, configured...... to produce modulated probe light by modulating the optical probe light with a modulation frequency of between 100 kHz and 0 MHz; a light scanning unit for scanning the modulated probe light such that said modulated probe light is incident on at least a part of the surface of the solar cell; and a 1 signal...

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed FATHALLAH; Ahmed TORCHANI; Rached GHARBI

    2014-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) constitutes a real revolution in the conversion of solar energy into electricity after 40 years of the invention of silicon solar cells. The working mechanism is based on a photoelectrochemical system, similar to the photosynthesis in plant leaves. The efficiencies of the DSSC are high as those obtained from amorphous silicon solar cells (10-11 %) and intensive efforts are done in different directions to improve this efficiency.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FATHALLAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC constitutes a real revolution in the conversion of solar energy into electricity after 40 years of the invention of silicon solar cells. The working mechanism is based on a photoelectrochemical system, similar to the photosynthesis in plant leaves. The efficiencies of the DSSC are high as those obtained from amorphous silicon solar cells (10-11 % and intensive efforts are done in different directions to improve this efficiency.

  11. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  12. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premnath, Priyatha, E-mail: priyatha.premnath@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tavangar, Amirhossein, E-mail: atavanga@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tan, Bo, E-mail: tanbo@ryerson.ca [Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan, E-mail: venkat@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2015-09-10

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  13. Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2009-11-17

    Perhaps the largest challenge for our global society is to find ways to replace the slowly but inevitably vanishing fossil fuel supplies by renewable resources and, at the same time, avoid negative effects from the current energy system on climate, environment, and health. The quality of human life to a large degree depends upon the availability of clean energy sources. The worldwide power consumption is expected to double in the next 3 decades because of the increase in world population and the rising demand of energy in the developing countries. This implies enhanced depletion of fossil fuel reserves, leading to further aggravation of the environmental pollution. As a consequence of dwindling resources, a huge power supply gap of 14 terawatts is expected to open up by year 2050 equaling today's entire consumption, thus threatening to create a planetary emergency of gigantic dimensions. Solar energy is expected to play a crucial role as a future energy source. The sun provides about 120,000 terawatts to the earth's surface, which amounts to 6000 times the present rate of the world's energy consumption. However, capturing solar energy and converting it to electricity or chemical fuels, such as hydrogen, at low cost and using abundantly available raw materials remains a huge challenge. Chemistry is expected to make pivotal contributions to identify environmentally friendly solutions to this energy problem. One area of great promise is that of solar converters generally referred to as "organic photovoltaic cells" (OPV) that employ organic constituents for light harvesting or charge carrier transport. While this field is still in its infancy, it is receiving enormous research attention, with the number of publications growing exponentially over the past decade. The advantage of this new generation of solar cells is that they can be produced at low cost, i.e., potentially less than 1 U.S. $/peak watt. Some but not all OPV embodiments can avoid the expensive and energy

  14. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Three-dimensional atomic mapping of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanghua, E-mail: wanghua.chen@polytechnique.edu; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [LPICM, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pareige, Philippe [GPM, CNRS, Université et INSA de Rouen, Normandie Université, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2016-06-20

    Hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) is a nanostructured material consisting of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. Its use as the intrinsic layer in thin film p-i-n solar cells has led to good cell properties in terms of stability and efficiency. Here, we have been able to assess directly the concentration and distribution of nanocrystals and impurities (dopants) in p-i-n solar cells, by using femtosecond laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). An effective sample preparation method for APT characterization is developed. Based on the difference in atomic density between hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon, we are able to distinguish the nanocrystals from the amorphous matrix by using APT. Moreover, thanks to the three-dimensional reconstruction, we demonstrate that Si nanocrystals are homogeneously distributed in the entire intrinsic layer of the solar cell. The influence of the process pressure on the incorporation of nanocrystals and their distribution is also investigated. Thanks to APT we could determine crystalline fractions as low as 4.2% in the pm-Si:H films, which is very difficult to determine by standard techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Moreover, we also demonstrate a sharp p/i interface in our solar cells.

  16. Preparation and immobilization of noble metal nanoparticles for plasmonic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruoli; Pitzer, Martin; Hu, DongZhi; Schaadt, Daniel M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Centrum fuer Funktionelle Nanostrukturen (CFN), KIT (Germany); Fruk, Ljiljana [DFG Centrum fuer Funktionelle Nanostrukturen (CFN), KIT (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Thin-film solar cells are of high interest due to good electrical properties and low material consumption. Traditional thin-film cells, however, have considerable transmission losses because of the reduced absorption volume. A promising way to enhance absorption in the active layer is the light-trapping by plasmonic nanostructures. Metallic nanoparticles have in particular shown large enhancement of the photocurrent in thin-film devices. In this poster, we present preparation of Au,Ag and Pt nanoparticles by polyol method and seed mediated methods for use in plasmonic solar cells. Polyol method typically uses ethylene glycol as the solvent and reducing agent,and in seed-mediated synthesis small nanoparticle seeds are first prepared and then used to promote the growth of different shapes of nanoparticles. We particularly focus on the use of nanocubes and nanospheres for solar cell design. Following the nanoparticle preparation, a new method to immobilize particles on GaAs surfaces via covalent chemical bonds has been developed which prevents agglomerations and allows control of the surface density. Photocurrent spectra of GaAs pin solar cells with and without particles have been recorded. These measurements show the dependence of the photocurrent enhancement on particle material, shape and density.

  17. Impedance spectroscopy study of N719-sensitized ZnO-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauporté, Th., E-mail: thierry-pauporte@chimie-paristech.fr [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modélisation pour l' Energie, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Magne, C. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modélisation pour l' Energie, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Saint-Gobain Recherche, 39 quai Lucien Lefranc, 93303 Aubervilliers Cedex (France)

    2014-06-02

    ZnO porous films prepared by electrodeposition and by sol–gel techniques have been sensitized by the N719 dye and used as photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Similar stationary current–voltage characteristics have been measured for films having two drastically different morphologies and nanostructures. The solar cells have been studied by impedance spectroscopy over large frequency and applied voltage ranges in order to elucidate the inherent correlation between the photoelectrode structure and properties. The electrical response has been analyzed using an ad-hoc electrical model to extrapolate the electronic structure and charge carrier kinetic properties of the photoelectrodes. The two films exhibit very different density distributions of their trap states below the conduction band edge. Moreover, their electron lifetimes and transport times vary differently with the DOS due to different surface and conduction properties. The charge collection efficiency has been calculated by two different approaches, one being derived from first principles. Very high values are reported in all cases. Globally, the limitation of N719/ZnO solar cell performances is related to their open circuit voltage and their short circuit current. The latter point is discussed in the light of our impedance results and photoelectrode light absorption data. - Highlights: • Exponential trap state distribution • Electron transport and recombination depend on oxide preparation route. • Charge collection efficiency modeling • Very high charge collection efficiency in N719/ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells • ZnO cell performance limitations.

  18. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  19. Recent progress in Si thin film technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yukinori; Nakano, Shoichi; Tsuda, Shinya

    1991-11-01

    Progress in Si thin film technology 'specifically amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film' for solar cells is summarized here from fabrication method, material, and structural viewpoints. In addition to a-Si, primary results on poly-Si thin film research are discussed. Various applications for a-Si solar cells are mentioned, and consumer applications and a-Si solar cell photovoltaic systems are introduced. New product developments include see-through solar cells, solar cell roofing tiles, and ultra-light flexible solar cells. As for new systems, air conditioning equipment powered by solar cells is described. Looking to the future, the proposed GENESIS project is discussed.

  20. Carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure as a high-efficiency solar fuel catalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Samireddi, Satyanarayana; Chang, Yu-Chung; Putikam, Raghunath; Chang, Po-Han; Sabbah, Amr; Fu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Fu; Wu, Chih-I; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Chung, Po-Wen; Lin, M C; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2018-01-12

    Photocatalytic formation of hydrocarbons using solar energy via artificial photosynthesis is a highly desirable renewable-energy source for replacing conventional fossil fuels. Using an L-cysteine-based hydrothermal process, here we synthesize a carbon-doped SnS 2 (SnS 2 -C) metal dichalcogenide nanostructure, which exhibits a highly active and selective photocatalytic conversion of CO 2 to hydrocarbons under visible-light. The interstitial carbon doping induced microstrain in the SnS 2 lattice, resulting in different photophysical properties as compared with undoped SnS 2 . This SnS 2 -C photocatalyst significantly enhances the CO 2 reduction activity under visible light, attaining a photochemical quantum efficiency of above 0.7%. The SnS 2 -C photocatalyst represents an important contribution towards high quantum efficiency artificial photosynthesis based on gas phase photocatalytic CO 2 reduction under visible light, where the in situ carbon-doped SnS 2 nanostructure improves the stability and the light harvesting and charge separation efficiency, and significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  1. Application of Localized Surface Plasmons for the Enhancement of Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Chanse D.

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a rapidly growing electricity source and new PV technologies are continually being developed. Increasing the efficiency of PV will continue to drive down the costs of solar installations. One area of research that is necessary for increasing PV performance is light management. This is especially true for thin-film devices that are unable to maximize absorption of the solar spectrum in a single pass. Methods for light trapping include texturing, high index nanostructures, nanophotonic structures, and plasmonics. This research focus on the use of plasmonic structures, in this case metallic nanoparticles, to increase the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. Three different designs are investigated. First was an a-Si:H solar cell, approximately 300nm thick, with a rear reflector consisting of metallic nanoparticles and a mirror. This structure is referred to as a plasmonic back reflector. Simulations indicate that a maximum absorption increase of 7.2% in the 500nm to 800nm wavelength range is possible versus a flat reference. Experiments did not show enhancement, likely due to absorption in the transparent conducting oxide and the parasitic absorption in the small metallic nanoparticles. The second design was an a-Si:H solar cell with embedded metal nanoparticles. Experimental devices were successfully fabricated by breaking the i-layer deposition into two steps and introducing colloidal nanoparticles between the two depositions. These devices performed worse than the controls, but the results provide proof that fabrication of such a device is possible and may be improved in the future. Suggestions for improvements are discussed. The final device investigated was an ultra-thin, undoped solar cell. The device used an absorber layer solar cells. This is likely due to fabrication issues that can be solved and suggestions are discussed.

  2. Carrier transport dynamics in Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Uma; Maloney, Francis S.; Sapkota, Keshab; Wang, Wenyong

    2017-10-01

    In this work quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated with CdSe and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using the SILAR method. QDSSCs based on Mn-doped CdSe QDs exhibited improved incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. Carrier transport dynamics in the QDSSCs were studied using the intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy technique, from which transport and recombination time constants could be derived. Compared to CdSe QDSSCs, Mn-CdSe QDSSCs exhibited shorter transport time constant, longer recombination time constant, longer diffusion length, and higher charge collection efficiency. These observations suggested that Mn doping in CdSe QDs could benefit the performance of solar cells based on such nanostructures.

  3. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  4. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis and Its Influence on the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kexiang; Ding, Enjie; Wangyang, Peihua; Wang, Qingkang

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the silicon hexagonal nanoconical hole (SiHNH) arrays based solar cells is systematically analyzed according to Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Modal Transmission Line (MTL) theory. An ultimate efficiency of the optimized SiHNH arrays based solar cell is up to 31.92% in consideration of the absorption spectrum, 4.52% higher than that of silicon hexagonal nanoconical frustum (SiHNF) arrays. The absorption enhancement of the SiHNH arrays is due to its lower reflectance and more supported guided-mode resonances, and the enhanced ultimate efficiency is insensitive to bottom diameter (D(bot)) of nanoconical hole and the incident angle. The result provides an additional guideline for the nanostructure surface texturing fabrication design for photovoltaic applications.

  5. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure, and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.

  6. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

    1980-08-01

    Thirty-four new solar cells were fabricated on Wacker Sislo substrates and the AM-1 parameters were measured. A detailed comparison was made between the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length by the OE method and the penetrating light laser scan grain boundary photoresponse linewidth method. The laser scan method has more experimental uncertainty and agrees within 10 to 50% with the QE method. It allows determination of L over a large area. Atomic hydrogen passivation studies continued on Wacker material by three techniques. A method of determining surface recombination velocity, s, from laser scan data was developed. No change in s in completed solar cells after H-plasma treatment was observed within experimental error. H-passivation of bare silicon cars as measured by the new laser scan photoconductivity technique showed very large effects.

  7. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  8. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Design Principles in Polymer-Fullerene BHJ Solar Cells: PBDTTPD as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre

    2015-06-29

    Among Organic Electronics, solution-processable π-conjugated polymers are proving particularly promising in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with fullerene acceptors such as PCBM.[1] In recent years, great headway has been made in the development of efficient polymer donors across the community, with published power conversion efficiencies (PCE) >8% in single cells and >10% in tandems. In most reports, these systems involve elaborate repeat unit and side chain patterns, and deviating from those patterns induces substantial drops in device PCE. While the range of polymer design parameters that impact BHJ solar cell performance remains a matter of some debate, our recent developments indicate that the combination of side-chain substituents appended to the main chain critically impacts polymer performance. For example, in poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene–thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD), side-chain substituents of various size and branching impart distinct molecular packing distances (i.e., π–π stacking and lamellar spacing), varying degrees of nanostructural order in thin films, and preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate.[2-5] While these structural variations seem to correlate with BHJ solar cell performance, with power conversion efficiencies ranging from 4% to 8.5%,[2,3] we believe that other contributing parameters – such as the local conformations between the polymer and the fullerene, and the domain distribution/composition across the BHJ (i.e., pure/mixed phases) – should also be taken into account.[6,7] Other discrete modifications of PBDTTPD’s molecular structure affect polymer performance in BHJ solar cells with PCBM, and our recent developments emphasize how systematic structure-property relationship studies impact the design of efficient polymer donors for BHJ solar cell applications.[8-10] It is important to further our understanding of these effects as we look to continue improving BHJ solar

  10. Nanostructured electrocatalyst for fuel cells : silica templated synthesis of Pt/C composites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Switzer, Elise E.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov; Cornelius, Christopher James; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    Platinum-based electrocatalysts are currently required for state-of-the-art fuel cells and represent a significant portion of the overall fuel cell cost. If fuel cell technology is to become competitive with other energy conversion technologies, improve the utilization of precious metal catalysts is essential. A primary focus of this work is on creating enhanced nanostructured materials which improve precious-metal utilization. The goal is to engineer superior electrocatalytic materials through the synthesis, development and investigation of novel templated open frame structures synthesized in an aerosol-based approach. Bulk templating methods for both Pt/C and Pt-Ru composites are evaluated in this study and are found to be limited due to the fact that the nanostructure is not maintained throughout the entire sample. Therefore, an accurate examination of structural effects was previously impossible. An aerosol-based templating method of synthesizing nanostructured Pt-Ru electrocatalysts has been developed wherein the effects of structure can be related to electrocatalytic performance. The aerosol-based templating method developed in this work is extremely versatile as it can be conveniently modified to synthesize alternative materials for other systems. The synthesis method was able to be extended to nanostructured Pt-Sn for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were evaluated in a unique approach tailored to electrocatalytic studies in alkaline media. At low temperatures, nanostructured Pt-Sn electrocatalysts were found to have significantly higher ethanol oxidation activity than a comparable nanostructured Pt catalyst. At higher temperatures, the oxygen-containing species contribution likely provided by Sn is insignificant due to a more oxidized Pt surface. The importance of the surface coverage of oxygen-containing species in the reaction mechanism is established in these studies. The investigations in this work present

  11. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  12. Milestones Toward 50% Efficient Solar Cell Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    efficiency, both at solar cells and module level. The optical system consists of a tiled nonimaging concentrating system, coupled with a spectral...which combines a nonimaging optical concentrator (which does not require tracking and is called a static concentrator) with spectral splitting...DESIGN AND RESULTS The optical design is based on non-symmetric, nonimaging optics, tiled into an array. The central issues in the optical system

  13. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  14. Crossed BiOI flake array solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kewei; Jia, Falong; Zhang, Lizhi [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Zheng, Zhi [Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University (China)

    2010-12-15

    We report a new kind of solar cell based on crossed flake-like BiOI arrays for the first time. The BiOI flake arrays were fabricated on an FTO glass with a TiO{sub 2} block layer at room temperature by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The resulting BiOI flake array solar cell exhibited enhanced photovoltaic performance under solar illumination. This work provides an attractive and new solar cell system and a facile route to fabricate low cost and non-toxic solar cell. (author)

  15. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2017-07-10

    Over the past few years, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as a highly promising class of materials for photovoltaic technology, and the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has accelerated at an unprecedented pace, reaching a record value of over 22%. In the context of PSC research, wide-bandgap semiconducting metal oxides have been extensively studied because of their exceptional performance for injection and extraction of photo-generated carriers. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment with halide perovskites, in the form of nanostructured layers and compact thin films, can not only assist with charge transport but also improve the stability of PSCs under ambient conditions. Strategies for the implementation of metal oxides with tailored compositions and structures, and for the engineering of their interfaces with perovskites will be critical for the future development and commercialization of PSCs.

  16. Charge transport in nanostructured materials for solar energy conversion studied by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Hynek; Kužel, Petr; Sundström, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 215, 2-3 (2010), s. 123-139 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P099; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100902; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy * ultrafast dynamics * bulk heterojunction * semiconductor nanostructures * transport * mobility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2010

  17. Alloyed Aluminum Contacts for Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin Tin Aye

    2010-12-01

    Aluminium is usually deposited and alloyed at the back of p-p silicon solar cell for making a good ohmic contact and establishing a back electric field which avoids carrier recombination of the back surface. It was the deposition of aluminum on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrate at various annealing temperature. Physical and elemental analysis was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). The electrical (I-V) characteristic of the photovoltaic cell was also measured.

  18. Recent Advances in High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio; Ohshita; Hidetoshi; Suzuki; Kenichi; Nishimura; Masafumi; Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity is limited around 25%,when we use single junction solar cells. In the single junction cells,the major energy losses arise from the spectrum mismatching. When the photons excite carriers with energy well in excess of the bandgap,these excess energies were converted to heat by the rapid thermalization. On the other hand,the light with lower energy than that of the bandgap cannot be absorbed by the semiconductor,resulting in the losses. One way...

  19. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  20. Interactive Visual Analysis for Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Abouelhassan, Amal A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells provide a promising alternative for harnessing solar energy. However, the efficient design of OPV materials that achieve better performance requires support by better-tailored visualization tools than