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Sample records for nanostructured al-powder alloys

  1. The formation mechanism of mechanically alloyed Fe-20 at% Al powder

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    Hadef, F., E-mail: hadef77@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Universite 20 Aout 1955, BP 26, Route d' El-Hadaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Otmani, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur la Physico-Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, LRPCSI, Universite 20 Aout 1955, BP 26, Route d' El-Hadaiek, Skikda 21000 (Algeria); Djekoun, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12 Annaba 23000 (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [LUNAM, Universite du Maine, Institut des Molecules et Materiaux du Mans, UMR CNRS 6283, 72085 Le Mans (France)

    2013-01-15

    The formation mechanism of the mechanically alloyed Fe-20 at% Al, from elemental Fe and Al powders, has been investigated. The experimental results indicate the formation of a nanocrystalline bcc {alpha}-Fe(Al) solid solution with a lattice parameter close to a{sub {alpha}-Fe(Al)}=0.2890 nm, where each Fe atom is surrounded by (6Fe+2Al) in the first coordination sphere. The reaction mechanism of MA process seems to be controlled by a diffusion phenomenon. Aluminum particles undergo an important refinement to the nanometer scale and then they stick on Fe particles of large sizes. A large number of clear Al/Fe interface areas were generated. The short diffusion path and the presence of high concentration of defects accelerated the solid state reaction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nanocrystalline bcc {alpha}-Fe(Al) solid solution is formed from elemental Fe and Al powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction mechanism of MA process seems to be controlled by a diffusion phenomenon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each Fe atom is surrounded by (6Fe+2Al) in the first coordination sphere.

  2. Structural evolution of Fe-50 at.% Al powders during mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Sh. Ehtemam; Janghorban, K.; Izadi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Iron aluminides, despite having desirable properties like excellent corrosion resistance, present low room-temperature ductility and low strength at high temperatures. Mechanical alloying as a capable process to synthesize nanocrystalline materials is under consideration to modify these drawbacks. In this study, the microstructure of iron aluminide powders synthesized by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing was investigated. Elemental Fe and Al powders with the same atomic percent were milled in a planetary ball mill for 15 min to 100 h. The powder milled for 80 h was annealed at temperatures of 300, 500 and 700 o C for 1 h. The alloyed powders were disordered Fe(Al) solid solutions which were transformed to FeAl intermetallic after annealing. The effect of the milling time and annealing treatment on structural parameters, such as crystallite size, lattice parameter and lattice strain was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. Typically, these values were 15 nm, 2.92 A and 3.1% for the disordered Fe(Al) solid solution milled for 80 h and were 38.5 nm, 2.896 A and 1.2% for the FeAl intermetallic annealed at 700 o C, respectively.

  3. Self-Consolidation and Surface Modification of Mechanical Alloyed Ti-25.0 at.% Al Powder Mixture by Using an Electro-Discharge Technique

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    Chang S.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharges using a capacitance of 450 μF at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kJ input energies were applied in a N2 atmosphere to obtain the mechanical alloyed Ti3Al powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti3Al was obtained as short as 160 μsec by the Electrical discharge. At the same time, the surface has been modified into the form of Ti and Al nitrides due to the diffusion process of nitrogen to the surface. The input energy was found to be the most important parameter to affect the formation of a solid core and surface chemistry of the compact.

  4. Spark-plasma sintering and mechanical property of mechanically alloyed NiAl powder compact and ball-milled (Ni+Al) mixed powder compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Jang, Y.I.; Kwon, Y.S.; Kim, Y.D.; Ahn, I.S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanically-alloyed NiAl powder and (Ni+Al) powder mixture prepared by ball-milling were sintered by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) process. Densification behavior and mechanical property were determined from the experimental results and analysis such as changes in linear shrinkage, shrinkage rate, microstructure, and phase during sintering process, Vicker's hardness and transverse rupture strength tests. Densification mechanisms for MA-NiAl powder compact and (Ni+Al) powder mixture were different from each other. While the former showed a rapid increase in densification rate only at higher temperature region of 800-900 o C, the latter revealed firstly a rapid increase in densification rate even at low temperature of 300 o C and a subsequent increase up to 500 o C. Densities of both powder compact (MA and mixture) sintered at 1150 o C for 5 min were 98 and above 99 %, respectively. Sintered bodies were composed mainly of NiAl phase with Ni 3 Al as secondary phase for both powders. Sintered body of MA-NiAl powder showed a very fine grain structure. Crystallite size determined by XRD result and the Sherrer's equation was approximately 80 nm. Vicker's hardness for the sintered bodies of (Ni+Al) powder mixture and MA-NiAl powder were 410±12 H v and 555±10 H v , respectively, whereas TRS values 1097±48 MPa and 1393±75 MPa. (author)

  5. Applicability of Al-powder-alloy coating to corrosion barriers of 316SS in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Sato, Hidetomo; Yokota, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    A new Al-alloy coating method using Al, Ti and Fe powders has been applied to 316SS in order to develop corrosion resistant coating in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The 316SS plates with coating layers of different Al concentrations were exposed to liquid LBE with controlled oxygen concentrations of 10 -6 to 10 -4 mass% at 823 K for 3600 ks. While surface oxidation and grain boundary corrosion accompanied by liquid LBE penetration are observed in 316SS without Al-alloy coating, the Al-alloy coating is effective to protect such severe corrosion attacks in liquid LBE. Although the coating layer containing 2.8 mass% Al does not always keep sufficient corrosion resistance, good corrosion resistance is obtained through the Al-oxide film formed in liquid LBE in the coating layer where the average Al concentration is 4.2 mass%. Cracks are formed in the coating layer containing 17.8 mass% Al during the coating process. The Al-powder-alloy coating applied to 316SS is promising as a corrosion resistant coating method in liquid LBE environment. (author)

  6. In situ synthesis of Ti{sub 2}AlC–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiAl composite by vacuum sintering mechanically alloyed TiAl powder coated with CNTs

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    Wang, Jian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering of Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Naiqin, E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering of Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Nash, Philip [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Institute of Technology, IL (United States); Liu, Enzuo; He, Chunnian; Shi, Chunsheng; Li, Jiajun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering of Tianjin University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Using zwitterionic surfactant to enhance the dispersion of the CNTs on the powder surface. •CNTs as carbon source decreased the formation temperature of Ti{sub 2}AlC. •Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was generated in situ from the oxygen atoms introduced in the drying procedure. •Nanosized Ti{sub 3}Al was precipitated at 1250 °C and distribute in the TiAl matrix homogeneously. •Ti{sub 2}AlC–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiAl composite was synthesized in situ by sintering pre-alloy Ti–Al coated with CNTs. -- Abstract: Bulk Ti{sub 2}AlC–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiAl composites were in situ synthesized by vacuum sintering mechanically alloyed Ti–50 at.% Al powders coated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The pre-alloyed Ti–50 at.% Al powder was obtained by ball milling Ti and Al powders. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the carbon resource were covered on the surface of the pre-alloyed powders by immersing them into a water solution containing the CNTs. A zwitterionic surfactant was used to enhance the dispersion of the CNTs on the powder surface. The samples were cold pressed and sintered in vacuum at temperatures from 950 to 1250 °C, respectively. The results show that the reaction of forming Ti{sub 2}AlC can be achieved below 950 °C, which is 150 °C lower than in the Ti–Al–TiC system and 250 °C lower than for the Ti–Al–C system due to the addition of CNTs. Additionally, the reinforcement of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles was introduced in situ in Ti{sub 2}AlC/TiAl by the drying process and subsequent sintering of the composite powders. Dense Ti{sub 2}AlC–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiAl composites were obtained by sintering at 1250 °C and exhibited a homogeneous distribution of Ti{sub 2}AlC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitated Ti{sub 3}Al particles and a resulting high hardness.

  7. TEM of nanostructured metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnthaler, H.P.; Waitz, T.; Rentenberger, C.; Mingler, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructuring has been used to improve the mechanical properties of bulk metals and alloys. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including atomic resolution is therefore appropriate to study these nanostructures; four examples are given as follows. (1) The early stages of precipitation at RT were investigated in an Al-Mg-Si alloy. By high resolution TEM it is shown that the precipitates lie on (0 0 1) planes having an ordered structure. (2) In Co alloys the fronts of martensitic phase transformations were analysed showing that the transformation strains are very small thus causing no surface relief. (3) Re-ordering and recrystallization were studied by in situ TEM of an Ni 3 Al alloy being nanocrystalline after severe plastic deformation. (4) In NiTi severe plastic deformation is leading to the formation of amorphous shear bands. From the TEM analysis it is concluded that the amorphization is caused by plastic shear instability starting in the shear bands

  8. Phase evolution during early stages of mechanical alloying of Cu–13 wt.% Al powder mixtures in a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudina, Dina V.; Lomovsky, Oleg I.; Valeev, Konstantin R.; Tikhov, Serguey F.; Boldyreva, Natalya N.; Salanov, Aleksey N.; Cherepanova, Svetlana V.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Lapina, Olga B.; Sadykov, Vladislav A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase formation during early stages of Cu–Al mechanical alloying was studied. • The products of mechanical alloying are of highly non-equilibrium character. • X-ray amorphous phases are present in the products of mechanical alloying. • An Al-rich X-ray amorphous phase is distributed between the crystallites. - Abstract: We report the phase and microstructure evolution of the Cu–13 wt.% Al mixture during treatment in a high-energy planetary ball mill with a particular focus on the early stages of mechanical alloying. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction phase analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential dissolution, thermal analysis, and electron microscopy/elemental analysis, have been combined to study the evolution of the phase composition of the mechanically alloyed powders and describe the microstructure of the multi-phase products of mechanical alloying at different length scales. The following reaction sequence has been confirmed: Cu + Al → CuAl 2 (+Cu) → Cu 9 Al 4 + (Cu) → Cu(Al). The phase evolution was accompanied by the microstructure changes, the layered structure of the powder agglomerates disappearing with milling time. This scheme is further complicated by the processes of copper oxidation, reduction of copper oxides by metallic aluminum, and by variation of the stoichiometry of Cu(Al) solid solutions with milling time. Substantial amounts of X-ray amorphous phases were detected as well. Differential dissolution technique has revealed that a high content of aluminum in the Cu(Al) solid solution-based powders is due to the presence of Al-rich phases distributed between the Cu(Al) crystallites

  9. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  10. Positron annihilation characterization of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinger, M.J.; Glade, S.C.; Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) were produced by mechanically alloying Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti and 0.25Y 2 O 3 (wt%) powders followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation at 850, 1000 and 1150 deg. C. Positron annihilation lifetime and orbital momentum spectroscopy measurements are in qualitative agreement with small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography observations, indicating that up to 50% of the annihilations occur at high densities of Y-Ti-O enriched nm-scale features (NFs). Some annihilations may also occur in small cavities. In Y-free control alloys, that do not contain NFs, positrons primarily annihilate in the Fe-Cr matrix and at features such as dislocations, while a small fraction annihilate in large cavities or Ar bubbles.

  11. Diffusion slowdown in the nanostructured liquid Ga-Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhkin, Dmitri Y.; Charnaya, Elena V.; Lee, Min Kai; Chang, Lieh-Jeng; Haase, Juergen; Michel, Dieter; Kumzerov, Yurii A.; Fokin, Alexsandr V.

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion of gallium in liquid Ga-Sn alloy embedded into different porous silica matrices was studied by NMR. Spin relaxation was measured for two gallium isotopes, 71 Ga and 69 Ga, at two magnetic fields. Pronounced rise of quadrupole contribution to relaxation was observed for the nanostructured alloy which increased with decreasing the pore size. The correlation time of atomic mobility was evaluated and found to be much larger than in the relevant bulk melt which evidenced a pronounced diffusion slowdown in the Ga-Sn alloy under nanoconfinement. It is shown that the diffusion was slower by a factor of 30 for the alloy within 7 nm pores. The spectral densities of electric field gradients at zero frequency were found to double for the finest pores. The Knight shift was found to decrease but slightly for the nanostructured alloy. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Nanostructural hierarchy increases the strength of aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Peter V; Liao, Xiao-Zhou; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian; Murashkin, Maxim Y; Lavernia, Enrique J; Valiev, Ruslan Z; Ringer, Simon P

    2010-09-07

    Increasing the strength of metallic alloys while maintaining formability is an interesting challenge for enabling new generations of lightweight structures and technologies. In this paper, we engineer aluminium alloys to contain a hierarchy of nanostructures and possess mechanical properties that expand known performance boundaries-an aerospace-grade 7075 alloy exhibits a yield strength and uniform elongation approaching 1 GPa and 5%, respectively. The nanostructural architecture was observed using novel high-resolution microscopy techniques and comprises a solid solution, free of precipitation, featuring (i) a high density of dislocations, (ii) subnanometre intragranular solute clusters, (iii) two geometries of nanometre-scale intergranular solute structures and (iv) grain sizes tens of nanometres in diameter. Our results demonstrate that this novel architecture offers a design pathway towards a new generation of super-strong materials with new regimes of property-performance space.

  13. Mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured chemical hydrides in hydrogen alloying mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, Z.; Varin, R.A.; Chiu, C.; Czujko, T.; Calka, A.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical alloying of magnesium metal powders with hydrogen in specialized hydrogen ball mills can be used as a direct route for mechanochemical synthesis of emerging chemical hydrides and hydride mixtures for advanced solid-state hydrogen storage. In the 2Mg-Fe system, we have successfully synthesized the ternary complex hydride Mg 2 FeH 6 in a mixture with nanometric Fe particles. The mixture of complex magnesium-iron hydride and nano-iron released 3-4 wt.%H 2 in a thermally programmed desorption experiment at the range 285-295 o C. Milling of the Mg-2Al powder mixture revealed a strong competition between formation of the Al(Mg) solid solution and the β-MgH 2 hydride. The former decomposes upon longer milling as the Mg atoms react with hydrogen to form the hydride phase, and drive the Al out of the solid solution. The mixture of magnesium dihydride and nano-aluminum released 2.1 wt.%H 2 in the temperature range 329-340 o C in the differential scanning calorimetry experiment. The formation of MgH 2 was suppressed in the Mg-B system; instead, a hydrogenated amorphous phase (Mg,B)H x , was formed in a mixture with nanometric MgB 2 . Annealing of the hydrogen-stabilized amorphous mixture produced crystalline MgB 2

  14. Diffusion and surface alloying of gradient nanostructured metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbo Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gradient nanostructures (GNSs have been optimized in recent years for desired performance. The diffusion behavior in GNS metals is crucial for understanding the diffusion mechanism and relative characteristics of different interfaces that provide fundamental understanding for advancing the traditional surface alloying processes. In this paper, atomic diffusion, reactive diffusion, and surface alloying processes are reviewed for various metals with a preformed GNS surface layer. We emphasize the promoted atomic diffusion and reactive diffusion in the GNS surface layer that are related to a higher interfacial energy state with respect to those in relaxed coarse-grained samples. Accordingly, different surface alloying processes, such as nitriding and chromizing, have been modified significantly, and some diffusion-related properties have been enhanced. Finally, the perspectives on current research in this field are discussed.

  15. Nanostructured Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Zr alloy prepared by mechanical alloying followed by hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, Amin; Shokuhfar, Ali; Zolriasatein, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured Al–7.8 wt% Zn–2.6 wt% Mg–2 wt% Cu–0.1 wt% Zr alloy was mechanically alloyed (MA) from elemental powders and consolidated by hot press technique. The effect of the milling time and hot pressing process on microstructure was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) and analytical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore mechanical properties of samples with different MA time as well as pure aluminum were investigated by microhardness and compression tests. The results show that an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Zr homogenous supersaturated solid solution with a crystallite size of 27 nm was obtained after 40 h of milling time. Microstructure refinement and morphological changes of powders from flake to spherical shape were observed by increasing milling time. Phase and microstructural characterization of high density bulk nanostructured samples revealed that increasing milling time up to 40 h leads to formation of MgZn 2 precipitation in the alloy matrix. With increasing milling time, density of the samples and crystalline size decrease. Significant enhancement of hardness and compressive strength is observed in the aluminum alloy by increasing milling time up to 40 h which is much higher than pure aluminum. Crystallite size refinement in pure aluminum samples from micro- to nanoscales resulted in 107% and 100% improvement in compressive strength and hardness, respectively. Furthermore the compressive strength and hardness of Al–Zn–Mg–Cu–Zr alloy nanostructured samples increased to 179% and 172%, respectively, compared to nanostructured pure Al, which was produced as reference specimen. 40 h of MA was the optimum case for preparing such an Al alloy and more milling up to 50 h led to deterioration of mechanical properties

  16. Microstructural evolution in friction stir welding of nanostructured ODS alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-L.; Tatlock, G.J.; Jones, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-based alloys manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) are generally considered to be promising candidate materials for high-temperature applications up to at least 1100 o C because of their excellent creep strength and good oxidation resistance. However, a key issue with these alloys is the difficulty in using fusion welding techniques to join components due to oxide particle agglomeration and loss in the weld zone and the disruption and discontinuity in the grain structure introduced at the bond. In this study, the evolution of microstructure has been comprehensively studied in friction stir welds in a ferritic ODS alloy. Initially, electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the grain orientation, the grain boundary geometries and recrystallization behaviour. It suggested that deformation heterogeneities were introduced during the friction stirring process which facilitated the onset of recrystallization. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to observe the effects of the friction stir welding (FSW) process on the grain structure and the distribution of Y 2 O 3 and other particles in the metal substrates in the FSW and adjacent regions, after the alloys had been recrystallized at temperatures up to 1380 o C for 1 h in air. The results show that fine-equiaxed grains and a uniform distribution of oxide particles were present in the friction stirred region but that the grain boundaries in the parent metal were pinned by particles. Friction stirring appeared to release these boundaries and allowed secondary recrystallization to occur after further heat treatment. The FSW process appears to be a promising technique for joining ferritic ODS alloys in the form of sheet and tube.

  17. Preparation of Iron-nickel Alloy Nanostructures via Two Cationic Pyridinium Derivatives as Soft Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, crystalline iron-nickel alloy nanostructures were successfully prepared from two cationic pyridinium derivatives as soft templates in solution. The crystal structure and micrograph of FeNi alloy nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the content was confirmed by energy-dispersive spectrometry. The results indicated that the as-prepared nanostructures showed slightly different diameter ranges with the change of cationic pyridinium derivatives on the surface. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption of cationic pyridinium compounds on the surface of particles reduces the surface charge, leading to an isotropic distribution of the residual surface charges. The magnetic behaviours of as-prepared FeNi alloy nanostructures exhibited disparate behaviours, which could be attributed to their grain sizes and distinctive structures. The present work may give some insight into the synthesis and character of new alloy nanomaterials with special nanostructures using new soft templates.

  18. Nanostructured Fe-Cr Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scattergood, Ronald O. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-04-26

    We have completed research on the grain-size stabilization of model nanostructured Fe14Cr base alloys at high temperatures by the addition of non-equilibrium solutes. Fe14Cr base alloys are representative for nuclear reactor applications. The neutron flux in a nuclear reactor will generate He atoms that coalesce to form He bubbles. These can lead to premature failure of the reactor components, limiting their lifetime and increasing the cost and capacity for power generation. In order to mitigate such failures, Fe14Cr base alloys have been processed to contain very small nano-size oxide particles (less than 10 nm in size) that trap He atoms and reduce bubble formation. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the grain boundaries can also be very effective traps for He atoms and bubble formation. An optimum grain size will be less than 100 nm, ie., nanocrystalline alloys must be used. Powder metallurgy methods based on high-energy ball milling can produce Fe-Cr base nanocrystalline alloys that are suitable for nuclear energy applications. The problem with nanocrystalline alloys is that excess grain-boundary energy will cause grains to grow at higher temperatures and their propensity for He trapping will be lost. The nano-size oxide particles in current generation nuclear alloys provide some grain size stabilization by reducing grain-boundary mobility (Zener pinning – a kinetic effect). However the current mitigation strategy minimizing bubble formation is based primarily on He trapping by nano-size oxide particles. An alternate approach to nanoscale grain size stabilization has been proposed. This is based on the addition of small amounts of atoms that are large compared to the base alloy. At higher temperatures these will diffuse to the grain boundaries and will produce an equilibrium state for the grain size at higher temperatures (thermodynamic stabilization – an equilibrium effect). This would be preferred compared to a kinetic effect, which is not

  19. Effect of Second Phase Particles on the Tensile Instability of a Nanostructured Al-1%Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tian Lin; Wu, Gui Lin; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1%Si alloy containing dispersed Si particles was produced by heavily cold-rolling to study the effect of second phase particles on the tensile instability of nanostructured metals. Tensile tests were conducted on the as-deformed sample and the samples after recovery annealing ...

  20. Particle stabilization of plastic flow in nanostructured Al-1 %Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tianlin; Li, Chao; Wu, Guilin

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1 %Si alloy containing a dispersion of Si particles in ultrapure aluminum (99.9996 %) was produced by heavy cold rolling to study the effect of second-phase particles on the occurrence of plastic instability during tensile testing of a nanostructured metal. Tensile tests were...

  1. The surface nanostructures of titanium alloy regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of surface nanostructures on the behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, surface nanostructured titanium alloy (Ti-3Zr2Sn-3Mo-25Nb, TLM was fabricated by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT technique. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were employed to characterize the surface nanostructures of the TLM, respectively. The results demonstrated that nano-crystalline structures with several tens of nanometers were formed on the surface of TLM substrates. The HUVECs grown onto the surface nanostructured TLM spread well and expressed more vinculin around the edges of cells. More importantly, HUVECs grown onto the surface nanostructured TLM displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 cell adhesion and viabilities than those of native titanium alloy. HUVECs cultured on the surface nanostructured titanium alloy displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05 productions of nitric oxide (NO and prostacyclin (PGI2 than those of native titanium alloy, respectively. This study provides an alternative for the development of titanium alloy based vascular stents.

  2. In vitro study of nanostructured diopside coating on Mg alloy orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    The high corrosion rate of Mg alloys has hindered their application in various areas, particularly for orthopedic applications. In order to decrease the corrosion rate and to improve the bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy, nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) has been coated on AZ91 Mg alloy using a combined micro arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The crystalline structure, the morphology and the composition of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, and compression test were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, the in vitro bioactivity and the mechanical stability of the samples, respectively. The cytocompatibility of the samples was tested by the cell viability and the cell attachment of L-929 cells. The results confirmed that the diopside coating not only slows down the corrosion rate, but also enhances the in vitro bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of AZ91 Mg alloy. Therefore, Mg alloy coated with nanostructured diopside offers a promising approach for biodegradable bone implants. - Highlights: • The diopside coating was applied on Mg alloy using the combined MAO and EPD methods. • The corrosion resistance of the diopside coated Mg alloy was noticeably improved. • The in vitro bioactivity of the diopside coated Mg alloy was considerably increased. • The mechanical stability of biodegradable Mg alloy was enhanced by diopside coating. • The cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy was improved employing diopside coating

  3. Effect of Ni content on microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen-zhong; Lin, Pei-hao, E-mail: gllph2002@163.com; Huang, Wei-chao; Pan, Shun-kang; Liu, Ye; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    MnAlNi powder was prepared by the process of vacuum levitation melting and high-energy ball milling, The morphology and phase structure of the powder were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and the effect of the Ni content on microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder was investigated by an vector network analyzer. The addition of Ni, which improved the microwave absorbing properties of MnAl powder but not changed the composition of Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} alloy. The minimum reflectivity of (Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5}){sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05} powder with a coating thickness (d) of 1.8 mm was about −40.8 dB and has better bandwidth effect, the absorbing mechanism of AlMnNi powders on the electromagnetic was related to the electromagnetic loss within the absorbing coatings and the effect of coating thickness on the interference loss of electromagnetic wave. - Highlights: • The grain size and cell volume of Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} alloy phase were decreased with the increasing of Ni. • ε″ and μ″ of powder moves toward low frequency region at the beginning then moves high. • The minimum reflectivity of (Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5}){sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05} powder was −40.8 dB with 1.8 mm thickness. • The lowest reflection loss peak of (Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5}){sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05} was −46.3 dB with 2.2 mm thickness.

  4. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu; Liu, Huinan

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium–yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed usin...

  5. Nanostructured Platinum Alloys for Use as Catalyst Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A series of binary and ternary Pt-alloys, that promote the important reactions for catalysis at an alloy surface; oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and hydrogen and oxygen evolution. The first two of these reactions are essential when applying the alloy for use in a PEMFC.

  6. ZnO-based semiconductors studied by Raman spectroscopy. Semimagnetic alloying, doping, and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumm, Marcel

    2009-07-01

    ZnO-based semiconductors were studied by Raman spectroscopy and complementary methods (e.g. XRD, EPS) with focus on semimagnetic alloying with transition metal ions, doping (especially p-type doping with nitrogen as acceptor), and nanostructures (especially wet-chemically synthesized nanoparticles). (orig.)

  7. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason A.; Fultz, Brent T.; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0electrodes made from graphite. These electrodes are useful as anodes for secondary electrochemical cells, for example, batteries and electrochemical supercapacitors.

  8. Nanostructure, Composition, and Magnetic Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Fe-Mo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Turek, Ilja

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1717-1721 ISSN 1557-1939. [ICSM 2012 /3./. Istanbul, 29.04.2012-04.05.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Keywords : Nanostructured material * Mechanical alloying * Magnetic properties * Grain core * Defects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  9. From Porous to Dense Nanostructured β-Ti alloys through High-Pressure Torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Conrado R M; Amigó, Angelica; Stolyarov, Vladimir; Gunderov, Dmitri; Amigó, Vicente

    2017-10-19

    β-Ti alloys have low elastic modulus, good specific strength and high corrosion resistance for biomaterial applications. Noble elements, such as Nb, Ta and Mo, are used to obtain β-Ti due to their chemical biocompatibility. However, due to their refractory nature, β-Ti requires specific processing routes. Powder metallurgy (P/M) allows for the development of new β-Ti alloys with decreasing costs, but dealing with high-elemental-content alloys can lead to a lack of diffusion and grain growth. One method to refine the structure and improve mechanical properties is a severe plastic deformation technique through high-pressure torsion (HPT). The aim of this work was to evaluate the conversion of P/M porous β-Ti-35Nb-10Ta-xFe alloys to dense nanostructures through high-pressure torsion in one deformation step and the influence of the structure variation on the properties and microstructure. TEM analysis and ASTAR crystallographic mapping was utilized to characterize the nanostructures, and the properties of P/M β Ti-35Nb-10Ta-xFe alloys processed by HPT were compared. The initial microstructure consisted mainly by the β-Ti phase with some α-Ti phase at the grain boundaries. The HPT process refined the microstructure from 50 µm (P/M) down to nanostructured grains of approximately 50 nm.

  10. In vitro study of nanostructured diopside coating on Mg alloy orthopedic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.razavi@okstate.edu [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savabi, Omid [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, Daryoosh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@okstate.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The high corrosion rate of Mg alloys has hindered their application in various areas, particularly for orthopedic applications. In order to decrease the corrosion rate and to improve the bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy, nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) has been coated on AZ91 Mg alloy using a combined micro arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The crystalline structure, the morphology and the composition of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, and compression test were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance, the in vitro bioactivity and the mechanical stability of the samples, respectively. The cytocompatibility of the samples was tested by the cell viability and the cell attachment of L-929 cells. The results confirmed that the diopside coating not only slows down the corrosion rate, but also enhances the in vitro bioactivity, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of AZ91 Mg alloy. Therefore, Mg alloy coated with nanostructured diopside offers a promising approach for biodegradable bone implants. - Highlights: • The diopside coating was applied on Mg alloy using the combined MAO and EPD methods. • The corrosion resistance of the diopside coated Mg alloy was noticeably improved. • The in vitro bioactivity of the diopside coated Mg alloy was considerably increased. • The mechanical stability of biodegradable Mg alloy was enhanced by diopside coating. • The cytocompatibility of the Mg alloy was improved employing diopside coating.

  11. Helium sequestration at nanoparticle-matrix interfaces in helium + heavy ion irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, C.M., E-mail: parishcm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Unocic, K.A.; Tan, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Kondo, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan); Snead, L.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hoelzer, D.T.; Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    We irradiated four ferritic alloys with energetic Fe and He ions: one castable nanostructured alloy (CNA) containing Ti-W-Ta-carbides, and three nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The NFAs were: 9Cr containing Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, and two Fe-12Cr-5Al NFAs containing Y-Zr-O or Y-Hf-O clusters. All four were subjected to simultaneous dual-beam Fe + He ion implantation (650 °C, ∼50 dpa, ∼15 appm He/dpa), simulating fusion-reactor conditions. Examination using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) revealed high-number-density helium bubbles of ∼8 nm, ∼10{sup 21} m{sup −3} (CNA), and of ∼3 nm, 10{sup 23} m{sup −3} (NFAs). STEM combined with multivariate statistical analysis data mining suggests that the precipitate-matrix interfaces in all alloys survived ∼50 dpa at 650 °C and serve as effective helium trapping sites. All alloys appear viable structural material candidates for fusion or advanced fission energy systems. Among these developmental alloys the NFAs appear to sequester the helium into smaller bubbles and away from the grain boundaries more effectively than the early-generation CNA.

  12. Biological Properties of Ti-Nb-Zr-O Nanostructures Grown on Ti35Nb5Zr Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of low modulus implant alloys with oxide nanostructures is one of the important ways to achieve favorable biological behaviors. In the present work, amorphous Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanostructures were grown on a peak-aged Ti35Nb5Zr alloy through anodization. Biological properties of the Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanostructures were investigated through in vitro bioactivity testings, stem cell interactions, and drug release experiments. The Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanostructures demonstrated a good capability of inducing apatite formation after immersion in simulated body fluids (SBFs. Drug delivery experiment based on gentamicin and the Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanostructures indicated that a high drug loading content could result in a prolonged release process and a higher quantity of drug residues in the oxide nanostructures after drug release. Quick stem cell adhesion and spreading, as well as fast formation of extracellular matrix materials on the surfaces of the Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanostructures, were found. These findings make it possible to further explore the biomedical applications of the Ti-Nb-Zr-O nanostructure modified alloys especially clinical operation of orthopaedics by utilizing the nanostructures-based drug-release system.

  13. Effects of consolidation temperature, strength and microstructure on fracture toughness of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, P.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.; Alinger, M.; Hoelzer, D.; Gragg, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fully consolidated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) were prepared by attritor milling pre-alloyed Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti and 0.3 wt% Y 2 O 3 powders, followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) at 1000 o C or 1150 o C at 200 MPa for 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed similar bimodal distributions of fine and coarse ferrite grains in both cases. However, as expected, the alloy microhardness decreased with increasing in HIPing temperature. Three point bend tests on single edge notched specimens, with a nominal root radius ρ = 0.15 mm, were used to measure the notch fracture toughness, K ρ , as a function of test temperature. The K ρ curves were found to be similar for both processing conditions. It appears that the coarser ferrite grains control cleavage fracture, in a way that is independent of alloy strength and HIPing temperature

  14. High-capacity nanostructured germanium-containing materials and lithium alloys thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, Jason A. (Upton, NY); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Ahn, Channing (Pasadena, CA); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA)

    2010-08-24

    Electrodes comprising an alkali metal, for example, lithium, alloyed with nanostructured materials of formula Si.sub.zGe.sub.(z-1), where 0

  15. Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free Process Control Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free Process Control Agent by Frank Kellogg , Clara Hofmeister...Process Control Agent Frank Kellogg Bowhead Science and Technology Clara Hofmeister Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Frank Kellogg , Clara Hofmeister, Anit Giri, and Kyu Cho 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  16. The Synthesis of Nanostructured WC-Based Hardmetals Using Mechanical Alloying and Their Direct Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Al-Aqeeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide- (WC- based hardmetals or cemented carbides represent an important class of materials used in a wide range of industrial applications which primarily include cutting/drilling tools and wear resistant components. The introduction and processing of nanostructured WC-based cemented carbides and their subsequent consolidation to produce dense components have been the subject of several investigations. One of the attractive means of producing this class of materials is by mechanical alloying technique. However, one of the challenging issues in obtaining the right end-product is the possible loss of the nanocrystallite sizes due to the undesirable grain growth during powder sintering step. Many research groups have engaged in multiple projects aiming at exploring the right path of consolidating the nanostructured WC-based powders without substantially loosing the attained nanostructure. The present paper highlights some key issues related to powder synthesis and sintering of WC-based nanostructured materials using mechanical alloying. The path of directly consolidating the powders using nonconventional consolidation techniques will be addressed and some light will be shed on the advantageous use of such techniques. Cobalt-bonded hardmetals will be principally covered in this work along with an additional exposure of the use of other binders in the WC-based hardmetals.

  17. Solute nanostructures and their strengthening effects in Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloy F357

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sha, G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The solute nanostructures formed in the primary a-Al grains of a semi-solid metal cast Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloy (F357) during ageing at 180°C, and the age-hardening response of the alloy, have been systematically investigated by transmission electron...

  18. The role of processing route on the microstructure of 14YWT nanostructured ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, B., E-mail: mazumderb@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Parish, C.M.; Bei, H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Miller, M.K. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys have outstanding high temperature creep properties and enhanced tolerance to radiation damage over conventional ferritic alloys. To achieve these properties, NFAs are fabricated by mechanical alloying of metallic and yttria powders. Atom probe tomography has demonstrated that milling times of at least 40 h are required to produce a uniform distribution of solutes in the flakes. After milling and hot extrusion, the microstructure consists of α-Fe, high number densities of Ti–Y–O-vacancy-enriched nanoclusters, and coarse Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Ti(O,C,N) precipitates on the grain boundaries. In contrast, the as-cast condition consists of α-Fe with 50–100 μm irregularly-shaped Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore precipitates with smaller embedded precipitates with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (yttrium–aluminum garnet) crystal structure indicating that this traditional processing route is not a viable approach to achieve the desired microstructure. The nano-hardnesses were also substantially different, i.e., 4 and 8 GPa for the as-cast and as-extruded conditions, respectively. These variances can be explained by the microstructural differences and the effects of the high vacancy content introduced by mechanical alloying, and the strong binding energy of vacancies with O, Ti, and Y atoms that retard diffusion. - Highlights: • Mechanical alloying produces nanostructured ferritic alloy with excellent properties. • Short milling time wastes solutes in low number densities of coarse precipitates. • Milling for 40 h yields UFG alloy with optimum distribution of ultrafine precipitates. • Longer milling times increase cost and increases impurities from attritor mill. • Casting produces undesirable course grain microstructure of α-Fe, YAG and pyrochlore.

  19. Magnetization jumps in nanostructured Nd–Fe–B alloy at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznakhin, D.S.; Bolyachkin, A.S.; Volegov, A.S.; Markin, P.E.; Andreev, S.V.; Kudrevatykh, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the nanostructured isotropic alloy on the base of Nd 2 Fe 14 B type phase were investigated at low temperatures. The evaluated average grain size of this phase was much smaller than its critical single domain diameter. Hence the magnetization and demagnetization processes were expected to be performed by coherent magnetization rotation. For such coercivity type system magnetization jumps were revealed on the demagnetization hysteresis loop branch in the vicinity of the coercive force at temperatures below 4 K. It was shown that magnetization jumps have a stochastic behavior and their number strongly depends on the temperature and the mass of measured samples. High temperature spikes corresponding to magnetization discontinuities were observed. All these results allowed to propose that magnetization jumps in nanostructured magnetics with magnetization rotation reversal processes comply with the local heating model. - Highlights: • Magnetization reversals of the nanostructured Nd–Fe–B-type alloy were obtained below 4 K. • Magnetization jumps were first observed for magnetization rotation coercivity type magnets. • Staircase magnetization reversal was explained within the framework of the local heating model

  20. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  1. Nano-structureal and nano-chemical analysis of Ni-based alloy/low alloy steel dissimilar metal weld interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung Joon; Shin, Sang Hun; Kim, Jong Jin; Jung, Ju Ang; Kim, Ji Hyun [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The dissimilar metal joints welded between Ni-based alloy, Alloy 690 and low alloy steel, A533 Gr. B with Alloy 152 filler metal were characterized by using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectrometry and 3-dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found that in the weld root region, the weld was divided into several regions including unmixed zone in Ni-base alloy, fusion boundary, and heat-affected zone in the low alloy steel. The result of nanostructural and nanochemical analyses in this study showed the non-homogeneous distribution of elements with higher Fe but lower Mn, Ni and Cr in A533 Gr. B compared with Alloy 152, and the precipitation of carbides near the fusion boundary.

  2. Influence of the milling time in the microstructural parameters of TA2O5-Al powder refined by Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, R.A.; Mendes, M.W.D.; Alves Junior, C.; Costa, F.A. da; Gomes, U.U.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical alloying (MA) is a solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated welding, fracturing, and re-welding of powder particles in a high energy mill. This process is used for producing of fine powders containing unique microstructures. The process starts with mixing of the powders in the desired proportion. Then, the mixture is milled using the established time in the high-energy mill. The powder particles are submitted to repeated cycles of cold working and fracture, and the final product correspond to a composite powder, containing characteristics different of the initial constituents. Ta 2 O 5 -Al powders were milled in a planetary ball mill for different times in order to evaluate the influence of the milling time in their microstructural parameters like crystallite size and micro deformation. The microstructural parameters were obtained by the Rietveld Method. The results showed that the microstructural parameters were influenced by the increase of the milling time. (author)

  3. TEM examination of microstructural evolution during processing of 14CrYWTi nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, H.; Alinger, M.J.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was carried out on the co-evolution of the coarser-scale microstructural features in mechanically alloyed (MA) powders and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidated Fe-14Cr-3W-0 and 0.4Ti-0.25Y 2 O 3 nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). The pancake shaped nanoscale grains in the as-MA powders are textured and elongated parallel to the particle surface. Powder annealing results in re-crystallization at 850 deg. C and grain growth at 1150 deg. C. The grains also recrystallize and may grow in the alloys HIPed at 850 deg. C, but appear to retain a polygonized sub-grain structure. The grains are larger and more distinct in the alloys HIPed at 1000 and 1150 deg. C. However, annealing resulted in bi-modal grain size distribution. Finer grains retained a significant dislocation density and populations of small precipitates with crystal structures distinct form the matrix. The grains and precipitates were much larger in alloys without Ti

  4. Nanostructure of aluminium alloy 2024: Segregation, clustering and precipitation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, G.; Marceau, R.K.W.; Gao, X.; Muddle, B.C.; Ringer, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in solute element distribution occurring in a commercial 2024 aluminium alloy during isothermal ageing treatments at 170 deg. C for up to 120 h have been characterized using atom probe tomography. An early (0.5 h at 170 deg. C) rapid increase in hardness was correlated with the formation of fine scale (average 24 atom) solute clusters, comprising principally Mg and Cu, but with minor concentrations of Si and Zn. There was, in addition, evidence of significant segregation of Mg, Cu and Si to at least some fraction of grain boundaries and existing matrix dislocations. At peak hardness (80 h at 170 deg. C) the microstructure comprised coarse precipitates of S phase, with a composition approaching stoichiometric Al 2 CuMg, a dense distribution of Guinier-Preston-Bagaryatsky zones elongated parallel to in a matrix of α-Al and a residual distribution of smaller equiaxed solute clusters. Both the clusters and zones contained predominantly Mg and Cu, with minor concentrations of Si and Zn. The S phase contained small but significant (0.5-1.8 at.%) concentrations of Si, which was non-uniformly distributed in elongated domains within the laths of the S phase. In overaged samples (114 h at 170 deg. C) the microstructure comprised almost exclusively coarse S phase, Al 2 Mg(Cu,Si), in assemblies suggestive of a combination of precipitate coarsening and coalescence.

  5. Microstructural and magnetic behavior of nanostructured soft alloys prepared by mechanical grinding and gas atomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, P.; Lopez, M.; Garcia-Escorial, A.; Lieblich, M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline powder of Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb has been obtained by means of mechanical milling of the corresponding nanocrystalline ribbons. Gas atomization technique has been used to minimize the magnetic hardening due to stress effects observed in ball-milled samples. Fe-Si-B-Cu-Nb and Fe-Si nanocrystalline samples have been prepared by gas atomization. The aim of our work is to analyse the particle size dependence of coercivity in this nanostructured alloys and to show the analogies and differences between ball-milled and gas atomized samples

  6. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti2Ni phase region, and Ti5Si3 phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm2 at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  7. Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Properties of Ti-Ni-Si-O Nanostructures on Ti-Ni-Si Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Ding, Dongyan; Dong, Zhenbiao; Ning, Congqin

    2017-10-31

    Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were successfully prepared on Ti-1Ni-5Si alloy foils via electrochemical anodization in ethylene glycol/glycerol solutions containing a small amount of water. The Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance absorption spectra. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure films were investigated. It was found that, after anodization, three different kinds of Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructures formed in the α-Ti phase region, Ti₂Ni phase region, and Ti₅Si₃ phase region of the alloy surface. Both the anatase and rutile phases of Ti-Ni-Si-O oxide appeared after annealing at 500 °C for 2 h. The photocurrent density obtained from the Ti-Ni-Si-O nanostructure photoanodes was 0.45 mA/cm² at 0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 1 M KOH solution. The above findings make it feasible to further explore excellent photoelectrochemical properties of the nanostructure-modified surface of Ti-Ni-Si ternary alloys.

  8. Composition and Performance of Nanostructured Zirconium Titanium Conversion Coating on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-xue Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured conversion coating of Al-Mg alloy was obtained via the surface treatment with zirconium titanium salt solution at 25°C for 10 min. The zirconium titanium salt solution is composed of tannic acid 1.00 g·L−1, K2ZrF6 0.75 g·L−1, NaF 1.25 g·L−1, MgSO4 1.0 g/L, and tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBT 0.08 g·L−1. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR were used to characterize the composition and structure of the obtained conversion coating. The morphology of the conversion coating was obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results exhibit that the zirconium titanium salt conversion coating of Al-Mg alloy contains Ti, Zr, Al, F, O, Mg, C, Na, and so on. The conversion coating with nm level thickness is smooth, uniform, and compact. Corrosion resistance of conversion coating was evaluated in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl electrolyte through polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS. Self-corrosion current density on the nanostructured conversion coating of Al-Mg alloy is 9.7×10-8A·cm-2, which is only 2% of that on the untreated aluminum-magnesium alloy. This result indicates that the corrosion resistance of the conversion coating is improved markedly after chemical conversion treatment.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF{sub 2} conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF 2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy implants with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-11-01

    Bio-absorbable magnesium (Mg) based alloys have been introduced as innovative orthopedic implants during recent years. It has been specified that rapid degradation of Mg based alloys in physiological environment should be restrained in order to be utilized in orthopedic trauma fixation and vascular intervention. In this developing field of healthcare materials, micro-arc oxidation (MAO), and MgF2 conversion coating were exploited as surface pre-treatment of AZ91 magnesium alloy to generate a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the obtained powder and coatings. The potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the coated and uncoated specimens, and in vitro bioactivity evaluation were performed in simulated body fluid. Results revealed that the MAO/n-HAp coated AZ91 Mg alloy samples with a rough topography and lower corrosion current density leads to a lower Mg degradation rate accompanied by high bioactivity.

  14. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus growth on Ti alloy nanostructured surfaces through the addition of Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo, Nathália C; Geilich, Benjamin M; Oliveira, Haroldo G; Caram, Rubens; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    β-type Ti alloys containing Nb are exciting materials for numerous orthopedic and dental applications due to their exceptional mechanical properties. To improve their cytocompatibility properties (such as increasing bone growth and decreasing infection), the surfaces of such materials can be optimized by adding elements and/or nanotexturing through anodization. Because of the increasing prevalence of orthopedic implant infections, the objective of this in vitro study was to add Sn and create unique nanoscale surface features on β-type Ti alloys. Nanotubes and nanofeatures on Ti-35Nb and Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloys were created by anodization in a HF-based electrolyte and then heat treated in a furnace to promote amorphous structures and phases such as anatase, a mixture of anatase-rutile, and rutile. Samples were characterized by SEM, which indicated different morphologies dependent on the oxide content and method of modification. XPS experiments identified the oxide content which resulted in a phase transformation in the oxide layer formed onto Ti-35Nb and Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloys. Most importantly, regardless of the resulting nanostructures (nanotubes or nanofeatures) and crystalline phase, this study showed for the first time that adding Sn to β-type Ti alloys strongly decreased the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; a bacteria which commonly infects orthopedic implants leading to their failure). Thus, this study demonstrated that β-type Ti alloys with Nb and Sn have great promise to improve numerous orthopedic applications where infection may be a concern. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Annealing of Co-Cr dental alloy: effects on nanostructure and Rockwell hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyıldız, Simel; Soylu, Elif Hilal; Ide, Semra; Kılıç, Selim; Sipahi, Cumhur; Pişkin, Bulent; Gökçe, Hasan Suat

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of annealing on the nanostructure and hardness of Co-Cr metal ceramic samples that were fabricated with a direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Five groups of Co-Cr dental alloy samples were manufactured in a rectangular form measuring 4 × 2 × 2 mm. Samples fabricated by a conventional casting technique (Group I) and prefabricated milling blanks (Group II) were examined as conventional technique groups. The DMLS samples were randomly divided into three groups as not annealed (Group III), annealed in argon atmosphere (Group IV), or annealed in oxygen atmosphere (Group V). The nanostructure was examined with the small-angle X-ray scattering method. The Rockwell hardness test was used to measure the hardness changes in each group, and the means and standard deviations were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA for comparison of continuous variables and Tukey's HSD test was used for post hoc analysis. P values of directly affected both the nanostructure and hardness of the Co-Cr alloy. Group III exhibited a non-homogeneous structure and increased hardness (48.16 ± 3.02 HRC) because the annealing process was incomplete and the inner stress was not relieved. Annealing in argon atmosphere of Group IV not only relieved the inner stresses but also decreased the hardness (27.40 ± 3.98 HRC). The results of fitting function presented that Group IV was the most homogeneous product as the minimum bilayer thickness was measured (7.11 Å). After the manufacturing with DMLS technique, annealing in argon atmosphere is an essential process for Co-Cr metal ceramic substructures. The dentists should be familiar with the materials that are used in clinic for prosthodontics treatments.

  16. Detection and quantification of solute clusters in a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.K., E-mail: millermk@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6139 (United States); Reinhard, D., E-mail: David.Reinhard@ametek.com [CAMECA Instruments, Inc., 5500 Nobel Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Larson, D.J., E-mail: David.Larson@ametek.com [CAMECA Instruments, Inc., 5500 Nobel Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simulated APT data indicate that solute clusters can be resolved at 80% detection efficiency. • Solute clusters containing 2–9 atoms were detected in a prototype ∼80% detection efficiency LEAP. • High densities, 1.8 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −3}, of solute clusters were detected in as-milled flakes of 14YWT. • Lower densities, 1.2 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −3}, were detected in the stir zone of a FSW. • Vacancies stabilize the clusters, which retard diffusion and confers excellent stability. - Abstract: A series of simulated atom probe datasets were examined with a friends-of-friends method to establish the detection efficiency required to resolve solute clusters in the ferrite phase of a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic alloy. The size and number densities of solute clusters in the ferrite of the as-milled mechanically-alloyed condition and the stir zone of a friction stir weld were estimated with a prototype high-detection-efficiency (∼80%) local electrode atom probe. High number densities, 1.8 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −3} and 1.2 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −3}, respectively of solute clusters containing between 2 and 9 solute atoms of Ti, Y and O and were detected for these two conditions. These results support first principle calculations that predicted that vacancies stabilize these Ti–Y–O– clusters, which retard diffusion and contribute to the excellent high temperature stability of the microstructure and radiation tolerance of nanostructured ferritic alloys.

  17. Plasma boriding of a cobalt–chromium alloy as an interlayer for nanostructured diamond growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Jubinsky, Matthew; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal-boride layer creates a compatible surface for NSD deposition. • PECVD boriding on CoCrMo produces robust metal-boride layer. • Deposition temperature comparison shows 750 °C boriding masks surface cobalt. • EDS shows boron diffusion as well as deposition. • Nanoindentation hardness of CoCrMo substantially increases after boriding. - Abstract: Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond coatings can potentially improve the wear resistance of cobalt–chromium medical implant surfaces, but the high cobalt content in these alloys acts as a catalyst to form graphitic carbon. Boriding by high temperature liquid baths and powder packing has been shown to improve CVD diamond compatibility with cobalt alloys. We use the microwave plasma-enhanced (PE) CVD process to deposit interlayers composed primarily of the borides of cobalt and chromium. The use of diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) in the plasma feedgas allows for the formation of a robust boride interlayer for suppressing graphitic carbon during subsequent CVD of nano-structured diamond (NSD). This metal–boride interlayer is shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt for improving nucleation and adhesion of NSD coatings on a CoCrMo alloy. Migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer is significantly reduced and undetectable on the surface of the subsequently-grown NSD coating. The effects of PECVD boriding are compared for a range of substrate temperatures and deposition times and are evaluated using glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Boriding of CoCrMo results in adhered nanostructured diamond coatings with low surface roughness.

  18. Nanostructured thin film formation on femtosecond laser-textured Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials and Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative and Prosthetic Dentistry and Primary Care, College of Dentistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2011-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nanostructured thin film formation on femtosecond (FS) laser-textured Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy for biomedical applications. The initial surface roughening treatment involved irradiation with the FS laser in ambient air. After FS laser texturing, nanotubes were formed on the alloy surface using a potentiostat and a 1 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution containing 0.8 wt.% NaF with an applied cell voltage of 10 V for 2 h. The surface phenomena were investigated by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and a cell proliferation test. It was found that nanostructured Ti-35Nb-xZr alloys after FS laser texturing had a hybrid surface topography with micro and nano scale structures, which should provide very effective osseointegration.

  19. Nanostructured thin film formation on femtosecond laser-textured Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nanostructured thin film formation on femtosecond (FS) laser-textured Ti-35Nb-xZr alloy for biomedical applications. The initial surface roughening treatment involved irradiation with the FS laser in ambient air. After FS laser texturing, nanotubes were formed on the alloy surface using a potentiostat and a 1 M H 3 PO 4 solution containing 0.8 wt.% NaF with an applied cell voltage of 10 V for 2 h. The surface phenomena were investigated by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and a cell proliferation test. It was found that nanostructured Ti-35Nb-xZr alloys after FS laser texturing had a hybrid surface topography with micro and nano scale structures, which should provide very effective osseointegration.

  20. The precipitation in annealing and its effect on permittivity of Fe–Si–Al powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gang; Cui, Yin; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Xin; Xie, Jian Liang

    2016-01-01

    SEM images show that some precipitates distributed on the surface of as-annealed Fe–Si–Al powders. Subsequent experimental results indicate that both morphology and microstructure of as-annealed Fe–Si–Al powders change with increasing annealing temperature. Meanwhile, dielectric properties analysis suggesting that both real part ε′ and imaginary part ε″ of the Fe–Si–Al powders decrease significantly after annealed at 450 °C or higher temperature. We assume that it’s the precipitates with low electrical conductivity developed on the surface of powders that increase the surface resistivity of as-annealed powders and leading to a lower imagine part of permittivity. The drop of real part ε′ ascribed to the weakened interfacial polarization which resulted from the decrease of structural defects such as grain boundaries and interfaces during annealing process. - Highlights: • As-milled Fe–Si–Al powders were annealed at various temperature. • The change of morphology and microstructure of as-annealed Fe–Si–Al was examined. • Complex permittivity decrease significantly after annealed over 400 °C and permeability increase as annealing temperature rises. • The precipitation process in annealing and its effect on permittivity were analyzed.

  1. Nanocrystalline TiAl powders synthesized by high-energy ball milling: effects of milling parameters on yield and contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Prajina; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.; Hales, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy ball milling was employed to produce nanocrystalline Ti-Al powders. As sticking of the powders can be sufficiently severe to result in a near zero yield, emphasis was placed on varying milling conditions so as to increase the yield, while avoiding contamination of the powders. The effects of milling parameters such as milling tools, initial state of the powders and addition of process control agents (PCA's) were investigated. Cyclohexane, stearic acid and titanium hydride were used as PCA's. Milling was conducted either in a Cr-steel vial with C-steel balls, or in a tungsten carbide (WC) vial with WC balls, using either elemental or pre-alloyed powders. Powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of PCA's mechanical alloying in a WC vial and attrition milling in a Cr-steel vial were shown to lead to satisfactory yields, about 65-80%, without inducing any significant contamination of the powders. The results suggest that sticking of the powders on to the milling tools is correlated with the phase evolution occurring in these powders during milling

  2. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  3. Influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.; Marin, P.; Kulik, T.; Hernando, A.

    2005-01-01

    An increase of coercive field with decreasing particle size has been observed in ball milled nanocomposite of Fe-rich nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Previous works (J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1998) 6044) have concluded that for high lattice strain, , the increase of coercivity is due to the magnetoelastic anisotropy generated by . Even though other effects can also be involved, the experimental results seem to indicate that the influence of the particle size on the average structural anisotropy noticeably contributes to the hardening observed for low . The influence of measuring temperature in size dependence of coercivity in nanostructured alloys has been analyzed. Some analogies and differences in respect of that observed in partially nanocrystallized samples have been found

  4. Study of structural, optical and thermal properties of nanostructured SnSe{sub 2} prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Z.V. [Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Poffo, C.M., E-mail: claudio.poffo@ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus de Araranguá, 88900-000, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, J.C. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Souza, S.M. de; Trichês, D.M.; Nogueira, T.P.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Manzato, L. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Amazonas, 1672, 69075-351 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Biasi, R.S. de [Seção de Engenharia Mecânica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    A nanostructured SnSe{sub 2} phase was successfully produced by mechanical alloying. The influence of defect centers on the structural, optical and photoacoustic properties of the alloy was investigated by annealing the as-milled SnSe{sub 2} powder. From optical absorbance and photoacoustic absorption measurements, the energy band gap, E{sub g}, and the thermal diffusivity, α, values were determined for as-milled and annealed samples. The thermal conductivity values for the as-milled and annealed samples were estimated by using the α values obtained from the photoacoustic measurements, the density values obtained from the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns and the specific heat value for the bulk SnSe{sub 2} phase. These values were used to estimate the dimensionless figure of merit ZT. It was evidenced that the ZT parameter of the as-milled nanostructured SnSe{sub 2} sample is almost twice larger than the ZT of the annealed sample. - Highlights: • Nanostructured SnSe{sub 2} was produced using Mechanical Alloying technique. • As milled sample has a high fraction of interfacial component (80%). • Thermal diffusivity value for nanostructured SnSe{sub 2} was a new report in literature.

  5. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfoori, A., E-mail: klm.1985@yahoo.com [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); National Cell Bank, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 13164 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliofkhazraei, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115-143 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained.

  6. Synthesis of biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films by micro arc oxidation on magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfoori, A.; Mirdamadi, Sh.; Seyedraoufi, Z.S.; Khavandi, A.; Aliofkhazraei, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present research reports the synthesis of an innovative nanostructured composite film containing biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) by the micro arc oxidation (MAO) method on AZ31 magnesium alloy. Nanometric structure of the used hydroxyapatite powder and the coatings were characterized by means of transmission and field-emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. Electrochemical behaviors of the pure MAO and nanocomposite films were also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The results showed higher corrosion resistance of nanocomposite film compared to pure MAO coating, which was related to the blocking feature of the nanoparticles from the diffusing of the corrosive medium through the substrate. In addition, by immersing the specimens in simulated body fluid, greater apatite forming ability of the nanocomposite coating was proved. - Highlights: • Synthesis of innovative biphasic calcium phosphate containing nanostructured films via micro arc oxidation. • Nanocomposite film has lower degradation rate than pure MAO film. • Greater apatite forming ability for nanocomposite coating compared with pure MAO film is obtained

  7. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  8. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  9. Surface composite nanostructures of AZ91 magnesium alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.C.; Hao, S.Z.; Wen, H.; Huang, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment was conducted on an AZ91 cast magnesium alloy with accelerating voltage 27 kV, energy density 3 J/cm 2 and pulse duration 2.5 μs. The surface microstructure was characterized by optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The surface corrosion property was tested with electrochemical method in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. It is found that after 1 pulse of HCPEB treatment, the initial eutectic α phase and Mg 17 Al 12 particles started to dissolve in the surface modified layer of depth ∼15 μm. When using 15 HCPEB pulses, the Al content in surface layer increased noticeably, and the phase structure was modified as composite nanostructures consisted of nano-grained Mg 3.1 Al 0.9 domains surrounded by network of Mg 17 Al 12 phase. The HCPEB treated samples showed an improved corrosion resistance with cathodic current density decreased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the initial AZ91 alloy.

  10. A biodegradable AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with a thin nanostructured hydroxyapatite for improving the corrosion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T M; Surmeneva, M A; Vladescu, A; Cotrut, C M; Braic, M; Dinu, M; Vranceanu, M D; Pana, I; Mueller, M; Surmenev, R A

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the properties of an AZ91 alloy coated with nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The bioactivity and biomineralization of the AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with HA were investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) via an in vitro test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed. The samples were immersed in SBF to study the ability of the surface to promote the formation of an apatite layer as well as corrosion resistance and mass change of the HA-coated AZ91 alloy. Electrochemical tests were performed to estimate the corrosion behaviour of HA-coated and uncoated samples. The results revealed the capability of the HA coating to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the uncoated AZ91 alloy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.razavi@okstate.edu [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savabi, Omid [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beni, Batoul Hashemi [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, Seyed Mohammad [School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, Daryoosh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  12. A biodegradable AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with a thin nanostructured hydroxyapatite for improving the corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T.M.; Surmeneva, M.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Lenin Avenue 43, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Vladescu, A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Lenin Avenue 43, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., RO77125 Magurele (Romania); Cotrut, C.M. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Lenin Avenue 43, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Politehnica University of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest (Romania); Braic, M.; Dinu, M. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., RO77125 Magurele (Romania); Vranceanu, M.D. [Politehnica University of Bucharest, 313 Spl. Independentei, Bucharest (Romania); Pana, I. [National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor St., RO77125 Magurele (Romania); Faculty of Physics, Bucharest University, 405 Atomistilor St., RO77125 Magurele (Romania); Mueller, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Surmenev, R.A., E-mail: rsurmenev@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050, Lenin Avenue 43, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the properties of an AZ91 alloy coated with nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The bioactivity and biomineralization of the AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with HA were investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) via an in vitro test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed. The samples were immersed in SBF to study the ability of the surface to promote the formation of an apatite layer as well as corrosion resistance and mass change of the HA-coated AZ91 alloy. Electrochemical tests were performed to estimate the corrosion behaviour of HA-coated and uncoated samples. The results revealed the capability of the HA coating to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the uncoated AZ91 alloy. - Highlights: • The nanostructured HA layer allows to control the degradation rate of the AZ91 alloy. • The HA coating significantly reduces the corrosion current density. • The HA coating significantly improves the polarization resistance in vitro. • The RF magnetron deposited HA coating promotes calcium-phosphate precipitation in SBF.

  13. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Beni, Batoul Hashemi; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  14. Coating of biodegradable magnesium alloy bone implants using nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Beni, Batoul Hashemi; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys with their biodegradable characteristic can be a very good candidate to be used in orthopedic implants. However, magnesium alloys may corrode and degrade too fast for applications in the bone healing procedure. In order to enhance the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of a magnesium alloy, a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) film was coated on AZ91 magnesium alloy through combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) methods. The crystalline structures, morphologies and compositions of the coated and uncoated substrates were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) were employed to evaluate the corrosion resistance and the in vitro bioactivity of the samples. The results of our investigation showed that the nanostructured diopside coating deposited on the MAO layer increases the corrosion resistance and improves the in vitro bioactivity of the biodegradable magnesium alloy.

  15. A biodegradable AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with a thin nanostructured hydroxyapatite for improving the corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhametkaliyev, T.M.; Surmeneva, M.A.; Vladescu, A.; Cotrut, C.M.; Braic, M.; Dinu, M.; Vranceanu, M.D.; Pana, I.; Mueller, M.; Surmenev, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the properties of an AZ91 alloy coated with nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The bioactivity and biomineralization of the AZ91 magnesium alloy coated with HA were investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) via an in vitro test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were performed. The samples were immersed in SBF to study the ability of the surface to promote the formation of an apatite layer as well as corrosion resistance and mass change of the HA-coated AZ91 alloy. Electrochemical tests were performed to estimate the corrosion behaviour of HA-coated and uncoated samples. The results revealed the capability of the HA coating to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the uncoated AZ91 alloy. - Highlights: • The nanostructured HA layer allows to control the degradation rate of the AZ91 alloy. • The HA coating significantly reduces the corrosion current density. • The HA coating significantly improves the polarization resistance in vitro. • The RF magnetron deposited HA coating promotes calcium-phosphate precipitation in SBF.

  16. Optical analysis of lens-like Cu{sub 2}CdSnS{sub 4} quaternary alloy nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Ali Abu; Ayub, R.M. [University Malaysia Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Al-Douri, Y. [University Malaysia Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); University of Sidi-Bel-Abbes, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Ameri, M. [Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel- Abbes, Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Avances (LPCMA), Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [University of Setif 1, Laboratory for Developing New Materials and Their Characterization, Setif (Algeria); Prakash, Deo [SMVD University, Faculty of Engineering, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kakryal, Katra, J and K (India); Verma, K.D. [S.V. College, Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Aligarh, U.P. (India)

    2016-10-15

    Cu{sub 2}CdSnS{sub 4} quaternary alloy nanostructures with different copper concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 M) were successfully synthesized on n-type silicon substrates using spin coating technique with annealing temperature at 300 C. Optical properties were analyzed through UV-Vis and Photoluminescence spectroscopies, and thus, there is a change in energy band gap with increasing Cu concentration from 0.2 to 1.0 M. The structural properties of Cu{sub 2}CdSnS{sub 4} quaternary alloy nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The particles size and shape have a direct relationship with copper concentration. Morphological and topographical studies were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The obtained results are investigated to be available in the literature for future studies. (orig.)

  17. Three dimensional PtRh alloy porous nanostructures: tuning the atomic composition and controlling the morphology for the application of direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuan [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Janyasupab, Metini; Liu, Chung-Chiun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Liu, Chen-Wei [Institute of Material Sciences and Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li 320 (China); Li, Xinxin [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu, Jiaqiang [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2012-09-11

    A strategy for the synthesis of PtRh alloy 3D porous nanostructures by controlled aggregation of nanoparticles in oleylamine is presented. The atomic ratio between the two components (Pt and Rh) is tuned by varying the concentration of precursor salts accommodating the oxidation of methanol. The morphology of PtRh alloy nanostructure is controlled by elevating the temperature of the reaction system to 240 C. The prepared 3D porous nanostructures provide a high degree of electrochemical activity and good durability toward the methanol oxidation reaction compared to those of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK) and PtRh nanoparticles. Therefore, the 3D alloy porous nanostructures provide a good opportunity to explore their catalytic properties for methanol oxidation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. The role of minor alloying elements on the stability and dispersion of yttria nanoclusters in nanostructured ferritic alloys: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, D.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Valsakumar, M.C.; Chandra, Sharat; Sundar, C.S.; Raj, Baldev

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys derive their strength from the dispersion of oxide nanoclusters in the ferritic matrix. We have explored the relative role of minor alloying elements like Ti and Zr on the stability of nanoclusters of vacancy-Y-Ti-O by density functional theory calculations and shown that the binding energy of these clusters increases when we replace Ti with Zr. This could imply faster nucleation of the nanoclusters which, in turn, may lead to finer dispersion of nanoclusters resulting in improved performance of ferritic alloys. Further, we show a core/shell structure for these nanoclusters in which the core is enriched in Y, O, Ti while the shell is enriched in Cr.

  19. Process development for 9Cr nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) with high fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Hoelzer, David T.; Lee, Yong Bok; Kang, Suk Hoon; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    This article is to summarize the process development and key characterization results for the newly-developed Fe–9Cr based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) with high fracture toughness. One of the major drawbacks from pursuing ultra-high strength in the past development of NFAs is poor fracture toughness at high temperatures although a high fracture toughness is essential to prevent cracking during manufacturing and to mitigate or delay irradiation-induced embrittlement in irradiation environments. A study on fracture mechanism using the NFA 14YWT found that the low-energy grain boundary decohesion in fracture process at a high temperature (>200 °C) resulted in low fracture toughness. Lately, efforts have been devoted to explore an integrated process to enhance grain bonding. Two base materials were produced through mechanical milling and hot extrusion and designated as 9YWTV-PM1 and 9YWTV-PM2. Isothermal annealing (IA) and controlled rolling (CR) treatments in two phase region were used to enhance diffusion across the interfaces and boundaries. The PM2 alloy after CR treatments showed high fracture toughness (K JQ ) at represented temperatures: 240–280 MPa √m at room temperature and 160–220 MPa √m at 500 °C, which indicates that the goal of 100 MPa √m over possible nuclear application temperature range has been well achieved. Furthermore, it is also confirmed by comparison that the CR treatments on 9YWTV-PM2 result in high fracture toughness similar to or higher than those of the conventional ferritic–martensitic steels such as HT9 and NF616

  20. Nanostructured calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys: characterization and cytocompatibility with mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Maria Emil; Aslani, Arash; Tian, Qiaomu; Liu, Huinan

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the deposition and characterization of nanostructured calcium phosphate (nCaP) on magnesium-yttrium alloy substrates and their cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The nCaP coatings were deposited on magnesium and magnesium-yttrium alloy substrates using proprietary transonic particle acceleration process for the dual purposes of modulating substrate degradation and BMSC adhesion. Surface morphology and feature size were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis tools. Surface elemental compositions and phases were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The deposited nCaP coatings showed a homogeneous particulate surface with the dominant feature size of 200-500 nm in the long axis and 100-300 nm in the short axis, and a Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.5-1.6. Hydroxyapatite was the major phase identified in the nCaP coatings. The modulatory effects of nCaP coatings on the sample degradation and BMSC behaviors were dependent on the substrate composition and surface conditions. The direct culture of BMSCs in vitro indicated that multiple factors, including surface composition and topography, and the degradation-induced changes in media composition, influenced cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, and indirect adhesion surrounding the sample in the same culture. The alkaline pH, the indicator of Mg degradation, played a role in BMSC adhesion and morphology, but not the sole factor. Additional studies are necessary to elucidate BMSC responses to each contributing factor.

  1. Microstructural evolution and surface properties of nanostructured Cu-based alloy by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanov, Auezhan, E-mail: amanov_a@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In-Sik [R& D Group, Mbrosia Co., Ltd., Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Young-Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A nanostructured surface was produced by UNSM technique. • Porosities were eliminated from the surface by UNSM technique. • Extremely high hardness obtained at the top surface after UNSM treatment. • Friction and wear behavior was improved by UNSM technique. • Resistance to scratch behavior was improved by UNSM technique. - Abstract: A nanostructured surface layer with a thickness of about 180 μm was successfully produced in Cu-based alloy using an ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) technique. Cu-based alloy was sintered onto low carbon steel using a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization revealed that the severe plastic deformation introduced by UNSM technique resulted in nano-sized grains in the topmost surface layer and deformation twins. It was also found by atomic force microscope (AFM) observations that the UNSM technique provides a significant reduction in number of interconnected pores. The effectiveness of nanostructured surface layer on the tribological and micro-scratch properties of Cu-based alloy specimens was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribometer and micro-scratch tester, respectively. Results exhibited that the UNSM-treated specimen led to an improvement in tribological and micro-scratch properties compared to that of the sintered specimen, which may be attributed to the presence of nanostructured surface layer having an increase in surface hardness and reduction in surface roughness. The findings from this study are expected to be implemented to the automotive industry, in particular connected rod bearings and bushings in order to increase the efficiency and performance of internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  2. Lowering coefficient of friction in Cu alloys with stable gradient nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Han, Zhong; Li, Xiuyan; Lu, K

    2016-12-01

    The coefficient of friction (COF) of metals is usually high, primarily because frictional contacts induce plastic deformation underneath the wear surface, resulting in surface roughening and formation of delaminating tribolayers. Lowering the COF of metals is crucial for improving the reliability and efficiency of metal contacts in engineering applications but is technically challenging. Refining the metals' grains to nanoscale cannot reduce dry-sliding COFs, although their hardness may be elevated many times. We report that a submillimeter-thick stable gradient nanograined surface layer enables a significant reduction in the COF of a Cu alloy under high-load dry sliding, from 0.64 (coarse-grained samples) to 0.29, which is smaller than the COFs of many ceramics. The unprecedented stable low COF stems from effective suppression of sliding-induced surface roughening and formation of delaminating tribolayer, owing to the stable gradient nanostructures that can accommodate large plastic strains under repeated sliding for more than 30,000 cycles.

  3. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructure multilayer CrN/Cr coatings on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecinski, Piotr; Smolik, Jerzy; Garbacz, Halina; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J.

    2011-01-01

    Five different nanostructured, multilayer coatings (CrN/Cr)x8 with different thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers were deposited by PAPVD (Plasma Assisted Physical Vapour Deposition) vacuum arc method on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the CrN and Cr sub-layers were characterized by SEM with EDX and Cs-corrected dedicated STEM on cross-sections prepared by focus ion beam. Besides, hardness and Young's modulus of the (Cr/CrN)x8 coatings has been measured. The adhesion has been tested by scratch test method. The obtained (CrN/Cr) multilayer coatings, 5-6 μm in thickness, have homogeneous and nanocrystalline structure, free of pores and cracks. The microstructures of Cr and CrN layers consist of columnar grains below 100 nm in diameter. The hardness and Young's modulus of these coatings depend linearly on thickness ratio of Cr and CrN layers. The decrease of the thickness ratio Cr/CrN 0.81 to 0.15 results in the increase of hardness from 1275 HV to 1710 HV and Young's modulus from 260 GPa to 271 GPa.

  5. Tensile deformation and fracture properties of a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M.E., E-mail: alam@engineering.ucsb.edu [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Pal, S.; Fields, K. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Maloy, S.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hoelzer, D.T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Odette, G.R. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    A new larger heat of a 14YWT nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA), FCRD NFA-1, was synthesized by ball milling FeO and argon atomized Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti-0.2Y (wt%) powders, followed by hot extrusion, annealing and cross rolling to produce an ≈10 mm-thick plate. NFA-1 contains a bimodal size distribution of pancake-shaped, mostly very fine scale, grains. The as-processed plate also contains a large population of microcracks running parallel to its broad surfaces. The small grains and large concentration of Y–Ti–O nano-oxides (NOs) result in high strength up to 800 °C. The uniform and total elongations range from ≈1–8%, and ≈10–24%, respectively. The strength decreases more rapidly above ≈400 °C and deformation transitions to largely viscoplastic creep by ≈600 °C. While the local fracture mechanism is generally ductile-dimple microvoid nucleation, growth and coalescence, perhaps the most notable feature of tensile deformation behavior of NFA-1 is the occurrence of periodic delamination, manifested as fissures on the fracture surfaces.

  6. Effect of friction stir welding and post-weld heat treatment on a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, B.; Yu, X.; Edmondson, P.D.; Parish, C.M.; Miller, M.K.; Meyer, H.M.; Feng, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are new generation materials for use in high temperature energy systems, such as nuclear fission or fusion reactors. However, joining these materials is a concern, as their unique microstructure is destroyed by traditional liquid-state welding methods. The microstructural evolution of a friction stir welded 14YWT NFA was investigated by atom probe tomography, before and after a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1123K. The particle size, number density, elemental composition, and morphology of the titanium-yttrium-oxygen-enriched nanoclusters (NCs) in the stir and thermally-affected zones were studied and compared with the base metal. No statistical difference in the size of the NCs was observed in any of these conditions. After the PWHT, increases in the number density and the oxygen enrichment in the NCs were observed. Therefore, these new results provide additional supporting evidence that friction stir welding appears to be a viable joining technique for NFAs, as the microstructural parameters of the NCs are not strongly affected, in contrast to traditional welding techniques.

  7. Mechanical alloying and sintering of nanostructured tungsten carbide-reinforced copper composite and its characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusoff, Mahani; Othman, Radzali; Hussain, Zuhailawati

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → W 2 C phase was formed at short milling time while WC only appears after longer milling time. → Cu crystallite size decreased but internal strain increased with increasing milling time. → Increasing milling time induced more WC formation, thus improving the hardness of the composite. → Electrical conductivity is reduced due to powder refinement and the presence of carbide phases. -- Abstract: Elemental powders of copper (Cu), tungsten (W) and graphite (C) were mechanically alloyed in a planetary ball mill with different milling durations (0-60 h), compacted and sintered in order to precipitate hard tungsten carbide particles into a copper matrix. Both powder and sintered composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and assessed for hardness and electrical conductivity to investigate the effects of milling time on formation of nanostructured Cu-WC composite and its properties. No carbide peak was detected in the powder mixtures after milling. Carbide WC and W 2 C phases were precipitated only in the sintered composite. The formation of WC began with longer milling times, after W 2 C formation. Prolonged milling time decreased the crystallite size as well as the internal strain of Cu. Hardness of the composite was enhanced but electrical conductivity reduced with increasing milling time.

  8. Effect of friction stir welding and post-weld heat treatment on a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, B., E-mail: mazumderb@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Yu, X.; Edmondson, P.D.; Parish, C.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Miller, M.K. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Meyer, H.M.; Feng, Z. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are new generation materials for use in high temperature energy systems, such as nuclear fission or fusion reactors. However, joining these materials is a concern, as their unique microstructure is destroyed by traditional liquid-state welding methods. The microstructural evolution of a friction stir welded 14YWT NFA was investigated by atom probe tomography, before and after a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1123K. The particle size, number density, elemental composition, and morphology of the titanium-yttrium-oxygen-enriched nanoclusters (NCs) in the stir and thermally-affected zones were studied and compared with the base metal. No statistical difference in the size of the NCs was observed in any of these conditions. After the PWHT, increases in the number density and the oxygen enrichment in the NCs were observed. Therefore, these new results provide additional supporting evidence that friction stir welding appears to be a viable joining technique for NFAs, as the microstructural parameters of the NCs are not strongly affected, in contrast to traditional welding techniques.

  9. Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Nanostructured Al-Mg Alloys in Natural and Artificial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mala M.; Ziemian, Constance W.

    2008-12-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of two developmental nanocrystalline 5083 alloys with varied composition and processing conditions was studied. The results were compared to a commercial aluminum AA 5083 (H111) alloy. The pitting densities, size and depths, and residual tensile strengths were measured after alternate immersion in artificial seawater and atmospheric exposure under different loading conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDX was used to analyze the fracture surfaces of failed specimen after removal at selected intervals and tensile testing. One of the nanostructured Al-Mg alloys exhibited significantly superior pitting resistance when compared to conventional microstructured AA 5083. Under conditions where pitting corrosion showed up as local tunnels toward phase inclusions, transgranular cracking was observed, whereas under conditions when pitting corrosion evolved along grain boundaries, intergranular cracking inside the pit was observed. Pit initiation resistance of the nano alloys appears to be better than that of the conventional alloys. However, long-term pit propagation is a concern and warrants further study. The objective of this investigation was to obtain information regarding the role that ultra-fine microstructures play in their degradation in marine environments and to provide insight into the corrosion mechanisms and damage processes of these alloys.

  10. Controlling the degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojaee, Ramin, E-mail: raminrojaee@aim.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been introduced as new generation of biodegradable orthopedic materials in recent years since it has been proved that Mg is one of the main minerals required for osseous tissue revival. The main goal of the present study was to establish a desired harmony between the necessities of orthopedic patient body to Mg{sup 2+} ions and degradation rate of the Mg based implants as a new class of biodegradable/bioresorbable materials. This prospect was followed by providing a sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating on AZ91 alloy using dip coating technique. Phase structural analysis, morphology study, microstructure characterization, and functional group identification were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared samples were immersed in simulated body fluid in order to study the formation of apatite-like precipitations, barricade properties of the n-HAp coating, and to estimate the dosage of released Mg{sup 2+} ions within a specified and limited time of implantation. Electrochemical polarization tests were carried out to evaluate and compare the corrosion behavior of the n-HAp coated and uncoated samples. The changes of the in vitro pH values were also evaluated. Results posed the noticeable capability of n-HAp coating on stabilizing alkalization behavior and improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy. It was concluded that n-HAp coated AZ91 alloy could be a good candidate as a type of biodegradable implant material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coatings were applied on Mg based alloy. • The whole corrosion process of Mg based alloy was controlled in body fluid. • This coating was able to act as a barrier against further release of Mg{sup 2+} ions. • The coating improved the stabilization of Mg alkalization behavior.

  11. Controlling the degradation rate of AZ91 magnesium alloy via sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been introduced as new generation of biodegradable orthopedic materials in recent years since it has been proved that Mg is one of the main minerals required for osseous tissue revival. The main goal of the present study was to establish a desired harmony between the necessities of orthopedic patient body to Mg 2+ ions and degradation rate of the Mg based implants as a new class of biodegradable/bioresorbable materials. This prospect was followed by providing a sol–gel derived nanostructured hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) coating on AZ91 alloy using dip coating technique. Phase structural analysis, morphology study, microstructure characterization, and functional group identification were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared samples were immersed in simulated body fluid in order to study the formation of apatite-like precipitations, barricade properties of the n-HAp coating, and to estimate the dosage of released Mg 2+ ions within a specified and limited time of implantation. Electrochemical polarization tests were carried out to evaluate and compare the corrosion behavior of the n-HAp coated and uncoated samples. The changes of the in vitro pH values were also evaluated. Results posed the noticeable capability of n-HAp coating on stabilizing alkalization behavior and improving the corrosion resistance of AZ91 alloy. It was concluded that n-HAp coated AZ91 alloy could be a good candidate as a type of biodegradable implant material for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite coatings were applied on Mg based alloy. • The whole corrosion process of Mg based alloy was controlled in body fluid. • This coating was able to act as a barrier against further release of Mg 2+ ions. • The coating improved the stabilization of Mg alkalization behavior

  12. Multifunctional substrate of Al alloy based on general hierarchical micro/nanostructures: superamphiphobicity and enhanced corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuewu; Shi, Tian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum alloys are vulnerable to penetrating and peeling failures in seawater and preparing a barrier coating to isolate the substrate from corrosive medium is an effective anticorrosion method. Inspired by the lotus leaves effect, a wetting alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared via etch, deposition, and low-surface-energy modification. Results indicate that excellent superamphiphobicity has been achieved after the modification of the constructed hierarchical labyrinth-like microstructures and dendritic nanostructures. The as-prepared surface is also found with good chemical stability and mechanical durability. Furthermore, superior anticorrosion behaviors of the resultant samples in seawater are investigated by electrochemical measurements. Due to trapped air in micro/nanostructures, the newly presented solid-air-liquid contacting interface can help to resist the seawater penetration by greatly reducing the interface interaction between corrosive ions and the superamphiphobic surface. Finally, an optimized two-layer perceptron artificial neural network is set up to model and predict the cause-and-effect relationship between preparation conditions and the anticorrosion parameters. This work provides a great potential to extend the applications of aluminum alloys especially in marine engineering fields.

  13. TEM studies of nanostructure in melt-spun Mg-Ni-La alloy manifesting enhanced hydrogen desorbing kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Miwa, T.; Sasaki, K.; Kuroda, K.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen storage properties of a magnesium-rich Mg-Ni-La alloy prepared by melt-spinning are significantly improved by nanostructure formation during crystallization and activation. It can absorb and desorb ∼5 wt% hydrogen at temperatures as low as 200 deg. C in moderate time periods. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies on this alloy indicate that the nanostructure, consisting of LaH 3 and Mg 2 NiH 4 nano-particles dispersed homogeneously in MgH 2 matrices after hydrogenation, is rather stable at temperatures below 300 deg. C but undergoes coarsening and segregation of these particles and matrices above ∼400 deg. C. These structural changes have been confirmed by electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) imaging as well as high-resolution TEM techniques. A new EELS peak associated with a plasmon excitation in the MgH 2 phase (H-plasmon) is found for the first time in this study. By imaging the H-plasmon peak, the hydrogen distribution in the alloy has been clearly visualized. We have succeeded in observing the hydrogen desorption process at ∼400 deg. C in-situ in the microscope using this EELS imaging technique.

  14. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd–Fe–B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoya; Hu, Lianxi; Wang, Erde

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase in the starting Nd–Fe–B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH 2.7 , Fe 2 B, and α-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density–pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: ► Nano-structured disproportionated Nd–Fe–B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. ► Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd–Fe–B alloy powders. ► Density–pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. ► As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. ► The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd 16 Fe 76 B 8 (atomic ratio) alloy powders, which were prepared by three different processing routes including melt spinning, mechanical milling in argon, and mechanically activated disproportionation by milling in

  15. Cold compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd-Fe-B alloy powders prepared by different processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Hu, Lianxi, E-mail: hulx@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Erde [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-25

    Graphical abstract: Relative density enhancement and nanocrystallization of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase are two major effective means to improve magnetic properties. Since the matrix Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase in the starting Nd-Fe-B alloy can be disproportionated into a nano-structured mixture of NdH{sub 2.7}, Fe{sub 2}B, and {alpha}-Fe phases during mechanical milling in hydrogen. It is thus important to study the densification behavior of nanocrystalline powders to evaluate and predict the cold compactibility of powders. By comparison with the as milled as well as melt-spun Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powders, we find that the as-disproportionated Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} alloy powder exhibits the best cold compactibility. As evident from the illustration presented below, compaction parameters (representing the powder compactibility) have been determined by fitting density-pressure data with double logarithm compaction equation. Densification mechanisms involved during cold compaction process are clarified in our work by referring to microstructure observation of samples prepared by various methods. As a result, highly densified green magnet compact can be obtained by cold pressing of as-disproportionated NdFeB alloy powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-structured disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders by mechanical milling in hydrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly densified green magnet compact by cold pressing of as-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B alloy powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density-pressure data fitted well by an empirical powder compaction model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As-disproportionated powder showed better compactibility than as milled and melt-spun counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of physical properties on powder compactibility and densification mechanisms are clarified. - Abstract: The compaction behavior of nano-structured Nd{sub 16}Fe{sub 76}B{sub 8} (atomic ratio) alloy

  16. A comparative assessment of the fracture toughness behavior of ferritic-martensitic steels and nanostructured ferritic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang, E-mail: thaksang.byun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kim, Jeoung Han [Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    The Fe-Cr alloys with ultrafine microstructures are primary candidate materials for advanced nuclear reactor components because of their excellent high temperature strength and high resistance to radiation-induced damage such as embrittlement and swelling. Mainly two types of Fe-Cr alloys have been developed for the high temperature reactor applications: the quenched and tempered ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels hardened primarily by ultrafine laths and carbonitrides and the powder metallurgy-based nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) by nanograin structure and nanoclusters. This study aims at elucidating the differences and similarities in the temperature and strength dependences of fracture toughness in the Fe-Cr alloys to provide a comparative assessment of their high-temperature structural performance. The K{sub JQ} versus yield stress plots confirmed that the fracture toughness was inversely proportional to yield strength. It was found, however, that the toughness data for some NFAs were outside the band of the integrated dataset at given strength level, which indicates either a significant improvement or deterioration in mechanical properties due to fundamental changes in deformation and fracture mechanisms. When compared to the behavior of NFAs, the FM steels have shown much less strength dependence and formed narrow fracture toughness data bands at a significantly lower strength region. It appeared that at high temperatures ≥600 °C the NFAs cannot retain the nanostructure advantage of high strength and high toughness either by high-temperature embrittlement or by excessive loss of strength. Irradiation studies have revealed, however, that the NFAs have much stronger radiation resistance than tempered martensitic steels, such as lower radiation-induced swelling, finer helium bubble formation, lower irradiation creep rate and reduced low temperature embrittlement.

  17. The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured Fe60Al40 alloys produced by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M M; Alcázar, G A Pérez; Zamora, L E; González, C; Greneche, J M

    2008-06-01

    The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured samples of the Fe60Al40 system, prepared by mechanical alloying, was studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In the case of the Fe(60-x)Mn(x)Al40 system, 24 h milling time is required to achieve the BCC ternary phase. Different magnetic structures are observed according to the temperature and the Mn content for alloys milled during 48 h: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spin-glass, reentrant spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior. They result from the bond randomness behaviour induced by the atomic disorder introduced by the MA process and from the competitive interactions of the Fe-Fe ferromagnetic interactions and the Mn-Mn and Fe-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions and finally the presence of Al atoms acting as dilutors. When B is added in the Fe60Al40 alloy and milled for 12 and 24 hours, two crystalline phases were found: a prevailing FeAl BCC phase and a Fe2B phase type. In addition, one observes an additional contribution attributed to grain boundaries which increases when both milling time and boron composition increase. Finally Mn and B were added to samples of the Fe60Al40 system prepared by mechanical alloying during 12 and 24 hours. Mn content was fixed to 10 at.% and B content varied between 0 and 20 at.%, substituting Al. X-ray patterns show two crystalline phases, the ternary FeMnAl BCC phase, and a (Fe,Mn)2B phase type. The relative proportion of the last phase increases when the B content increases, in addition to changes of the grain size and the lattice parameter. Such behavior was observed for both milling periods. On the other hand, the magnetic hyperfine field distributions show that both phases exhibit chemical disorder, and that the contribution attributed to the grain boundaries is less important when the B content increases. Coercive field values of about 10(2) Oe slightly increase with boron content

  18. Nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe(C)MnNi model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiapetto, M., E-mail: mchiapet@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Becquart, C.S. [Unité Matériaux Et Transformations (UMET), UMR 8207, Université de Lille 1, ENSCL, F-59600 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Domain, C. [EDF R& D, Département Matériaux et Mécanique des Composants, Les Renardières, F-77250 Moret sur Loing (France); Laboratoire commun EDF-CNRS Etude et Modélisation des Microstructures pour le Vieillissement des Matériaux (EM2VM) (France); Malerba, L. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced embrittlement of bainitic steels is one of the most important lifetime limiting factors of existing nuclear light water reactor pressure vessels. The primary mechanism of embrittlement is the obstruction of dislocation motion produced by nanometric defect structures that develop in the bulk of the material due to irradiation. The development of models that describe, based on physical mechanisms, the nanostructural changes in these types of materials due to neutron irradiation are expected to help to better understand which features are mainly responsible for embrittlement. The chemical elements that are thought to influence most the response under irradiation of low-Cu RPV steels, especially at high fluence, are Ni and Mn, hence there is an interest in modelling the nanostructure evolution in irradiated FeMnNi alloys. As a first step in this direction, we developed sets of parameters for object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) simulations that allow this to be done, under simplifying assumptions, using a “grey alloy” approach that extends the already existing OKMC model for neutron irradiated Fe–C binary alloys [1]. Our model proved to be able to describe the trend in the buildup of irradiation defect populations at the operational temperature of LWR (∼300 °C), in terms of both density and size distribution of the defect cluster populations, in FeMnNi model alloys as compared to Fe–C. In particular, the reduction of the mobility of point-defect clusters as a consequence of the presence of solutes proves to be key to explain the experimentally observed disappearance of detectable point-defect clusters with increasing solute content.

  19. Comparing nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on AZ91 alloy samples via sol-gel and electrophoretic deposition for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojaee, Ramin; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Raeissi, Keyvan

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium is one of the most critical elements in hard tissues regeneration and therefore causes speeding up the restoration of harmed bones, while high deterioration rate of magnesium in body fluid restricts it to be used as biodegradable implants. Alloying magnesium with some relatively nobler metals such as aluminium, zinc, rare earth elements, magnesium-bioceramics composites, and surface modification techniques are some of the routes to control magnesium corrosion rate. In this study AZ91 magnesium alloy had been coated by nanostructured hydroxyapatite via sol-gel dip coating and electrophoretical methods to survey the final barricade properties of the obtained coatings. In order to perform electrophoretic coating, powders were prepared by sol-gel method, and then the powders deposited on substrates utilizing direct current electricity. Zeta potentials of the electrophoresis suspensions were measured to determine a best mode for good quality coatings. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to confirm nanoscale dimension, and the uniformity of the nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating, respectively. Fourier Transform-Infrared and X-ray diffraction analysis were utilized for functional group and phase structure evaluation of the prepared coatings, correspondingly. Electrochemical corrosion tests were performed in SBF at 37±1 (°)C which revealed considerable increase in corrosion protection resistivity and corrosion current density for electrophoretic coated specimens versus sol-gel coated specimens. Results showed that both sol-gel and electrophoretical techniques seem to be suitable to coat magnesium alloys for biomedical applications but electrophoretic coating technique is a better choice due to the more homogeneity and more crystalline structure of the coating.

  20. Nanostructural evolution of Cr-rich precipitates in a Cu-Cr-Zr alloy during heat treatment studied by 3 dimensional atom probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatakeyama, Masahiko; Toyama, Takeshi; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructural evolution of Cr (Cr-rich) precipitates in a Cu-0.78%Cr-0.13%Zr alloy has been studied after aging and overaging (reaging) by laser assisted local electrode 3 dimensional atom probe (Laser-LEAP). This material is a candidate for the first wall and divertor components of future fusion...

  1. Unexpected Au Alloying in Tailoring In-Doped SnTe Nanostructures with Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Atherton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials with strong spin-orbit interaction and superconductivity are candidates for topological superconductors that may host Majorana fermions (MFs at the edges/surfaces/vortex cores. Bulk-superconducting carrier-doped topological crystalline insulator, indium-doped tin telluride (In-SnTe is one of the promising materials. Robust superconductivity of In-SnTe nanostructures has been demonstrated recently. Intriguingly, not only 3-dimensional (3D nanostructures but also ultra-thin quasi-2D and quasi-1D systems can be grown by the vapor transport method. In particular, nanostructures with a controlled dimension will give us a chance to understand the dimensionality and the quantum confinement effects on the superconductivity of the In-SnTe and may help us work on braiding MFs in various dimensional systems for future topological quantum computation technology. With this in mind, we employed gold nanoparticles (GNPs with well-identified sizes to tailor In-SnTe nanostructures grown by vapor transport. However, we could not see clear evidence that the presence of the GNPs is necessary or sufficient to control the size of the nanostructures. Nevertheless, it should be noted that a weak correlation between the diameter of GNPs and the dimensions of the smallest nanostructures has been found so far. To our surprise, the ones grown under the vapor–liquid–solid mechanism, with the use of the GNPs, contained gold that is widely and inhomogeneously distributed over the whole body.

  2. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of Nanostructural Features in Irradiated Fe-Cu-Mn Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Howell, R H; Odette, G R; Sterne, P A

    2001-01-01

    Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from a high number density of nanometer sized Cu-Mn-Ni rich precipitates (CRPs) and sub-nanometer matrix features, thought to be vacancy-solute cluster complexes (VSC). However, questions exist regarding both the composition of the precipitates and the defect character and composition of the matrix features. We present results of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) characterization of irradiated and thermally aged Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Mn alloys. These complementary techniques provide insight into the composition and character of both types of nanoscale features. The SANS measurements indicate populations of CRPs and VSCs in both alloys. The CRPs are coarser in the Fe-Cu alloy and the number densities of CRP and VSC increase with the addition of Mn. The PAS involved measuring both the positron lifetimes and the Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in the high momentum region to provide elemental sensitivity at the annihilation site. The spectra in Fe-Cu-Mn specimens thermally aged to peak hardness at 450 C and irradiated at 288 C are nearly identical to elemental Cu. Positron lifetime and spectrum measurements in Fe-Cu specimens irradiated at 288 C clearly show the existence of long lifetime (∼500 ps) open volume defects, which also contain Cu. Thus the SANS and PAS provide a self-consistent picture of nanostructures composed of CRPs and VSCs and tend to discount high Fe concentrations in the CRPs

  3. Mechanical and corrosion resistance of a new nanostructured Ti-Zr-Ta-Nb alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raducanu, D; Vasilescu, E; Cojocaru, V D; Cinca, I; Drob, P; Vasilescu, C; Drob, S I

    2011-10-01

    In this work, a multi-elementary Ti-10Zr-5Nb-5Ta alloy, with non-toxic alloying elements, was used to develop an accumulative roll bonding, ARB-type procedure in order to improve its structural and mechanical properties. The alloy was obtained by cold crucible semi-levitation melting technique and then was ARB deformed following a special route. After three ARB cycles, the total deformation degree per layer is about 86%; the calculated medium layer thickness is about 13 μm. The ARB processed alloy has a low Young's modulus of 46 GPa, a value very close to the value of the natural cortical bone (about 20 GPa). Data concerning ultimate tensile strength obtained for ARB processed alloy is rather high, suitable to be used as a material for bone substitute. Hardness of the ARB processed alloy is higher than that of the as-cast alloy, ensuring a better behaviour as a implant material. The tensile curve for the as-cast alloy shows an elastoplastic behaviour with a quite linear elastic behaviour and the tensile curve for the ARB processed alloy is quite similar with a strain-hardening elastoplastic body. Corrosion behaviour of the studied alloy revealed the improvement of the main electrochemical parameters, as a result of the positive influence of ARB processing. Lower corrosion and ion release rates for the ARB processed alloy than for the as-cast alloy, due to the favourable effect of ARB thermo-mechanical processing were obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Structure and magnetic properties of nanostructured MnNi alloys fabricated by mechanical alloying and annealing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, T.; Hossein Nedjad, S.; Khalili Molan, S.

    2013-05-01

    A nearly equiatomic MnNi alloy was fabricated from the elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball milling apparatus. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and measurements of magnetization were conducted to identify the structural states and properties of the prepared alloys. After ball milling for 20 h, a disordered face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) solid solution was formed which increased in lattice parameter by further milling up to 50 h. An exothermic reaction took place at around 300-400°C during continuous heating of the disordered f.c.c. solid solution. This reaction is attributed to a structural ordering leading to the formation of a face-centered tetragonal (f.c.t.) phase with L10 type ordering. Examination of the magnetic properties indicated that the structural ordering increases remnant magnetization and decreases coerecivity.

  6. The W alloying effect on thermal stability and hardening of nanostructured Cu–W alloyed thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, Z. Q.; Wu, K.; Feng, X. B.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2018-05-01

    In order to achieve desired mechanical properties of alloys by manipulating grain boundaries (GBs) via solute decoration, it is of great significance to understand the underlying mechanisms of microstructural evolution and plastic deformation. In this work, nanocrystalline (NC) Cu–W alloyed films with W concentrations spanning from 0 to 40 at% were prepared by using magnetron sputtering. Thermal stability (within the temperature range of 200 °C–600 °C) and hardness of the films were investigated by using the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoindentation, respectively. The NC pure Cu film exhibited substantial grain growth upon all annealing temperatures. The Cu–W alloyed films, however, displayed distinct microstructural evolution that depended not only on the W concentration but also on the annealing temperature. At a low temperature of 200 °C, all the Cu–W alloyed films were highly stable, with unconspicuous change in grain sizes. At high temperatures of 400 °C and 600 °C, the microstructural evolution was greatly controlled by the W concentrations. The Cu–W films with low W concentration manifested abnormal grain growth (AGG), while the ones with high W concentrations showed phase separation. TEM observations unveiled that the AGG in the Cu–W alloyed thin films was rationalized by GB migration. Nanoindentation results showed that, although the hardness of both the as-deposited and annealed Cu–W alloyed thin films monotonically increased with W concentrations, a transition from annealing hardening to annealing softening was interestingly observed at the critical W addition of ∼25 at%. It was further revealed that an enhanced GB segregation associated with detwinning was responsible for the annealing hardening, while a reduced solid solution hardening for the annealing softening.

  7. The W alloying effect on thermal stability and hardening of nanostructured Cu-W alloyed thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J T; Zhang, J Y; Hou, Z Q; Wu, K; Feng, X B; Liu, G; Sun, J

    2018-05-11

    In order to achieve desired mechanical properties of alloys by manipulating grain boundaries (GBs) via solute decoration, it is of great significance to understand the underlying mechanisms of microstructural evolution and plastic deformation. In this work, nanocrystalline (NC) Cu-W alloyed films with W concentrations spanning from 0 to 40 at% were prepared by using magnetron sputtering. Thermal stability (within the temperature range of 200 °C-600 °C) and hardness of the films were investigated by using the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoindentation, respectively. The NC pure Cu film exhibited substantial grain growth upon all annealing temperatures. The Cu-W alloyed films, however, displayed distinct microstructural evolution that depended not only on the W concentration but also on the annealing temperature. At a low temperature of 200 °C, all the Cu-W alloyed films were highly stable, with unconspicuous change in grain sizes. At high temperatures of 400 °C and 600 °C, the microstructural evolution was greatly controlled by the W concentrations. The Cu-W films with low W concentration manifested abnormal grain growth (AGG), while the ones with high W concentrations showed phase separation. TEM observations unveiled that the AGG in the Cu-W alloyed thin films was rationalized by GB migration. Nanoindentation results showed that, although the hardness of both the as-deposited and annealed Cu-W alloyed thin films monotonically increased with W concentrations, a transition from annealing hardening to annealing softening was interestingly observed at the critical W addition of ∼25 at%. It was further revealed that an enhanced GB segregation associated with detwinning was responsible for the annealing hardening, while a reduced solid solution hardening for the annealing softening.

  8. Optimized Compositional Design and Processing-Fabrication Paths for Larger Heats of Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G. Robert [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The objective of this work was to characterize the alloy 14YWT-PM2, which is an extruded and cross-rolled precursor alloy to a large heat of 14YWT being produced using an alternative processing path that incorporates Y during gas atomization process.

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al-0.3%Cu alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeel, Aneela; Huang, Tianlin; Wu, Guilin

    2014-01-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy has been produced using extremely high purity (99.9996%) Al and OFHC Cu.The alloy was cold rolled to 98% thickness reduction, forming a stable lamellar structure that has a lamellar boundary spacing of about 200nm and a tensile strength of 225MPa. During recovery annealing at t...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured mechanically alloyed Pt-Co catalyst for oxygen gas-diffusion-electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharkya, P.; Farhat, Z.; Czech, E.; Hawthorne, H.; Alfantazi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of PEM fuel cells depends largely upon the cost of materials, processing and fabrication. The cost of Pt catalyst is a significant cost of a fuel cell. Alternative low cost catalyst that promotes high rate of oxygen reduction is needed. To achieve this, a mechanochemical technique was employed to refine the catalyst layer structure (i.e. increasing the effective catalyst surface area) and reducing the amount of Pt used, by alloying with a cheaper element. An investigation is carried out to study the relationship between the new catalyst structure refinement, morphology, microstructure and its electrocatalytic behaviour. Nanostructured Pt, Co and Pt 0.2 5 Co 0.75 alloy was fabricated from high purity Pt (99.9%) and Co (99.5%) powders using a Laboratory Planetary Ball Mill 'Pulverisette 6'. Optimum milling conditions, that produce fine, uniform and mechanically alloyed microstructure, were determined during fabrication, by varying process parameters (i.e., rpm, milling time, ball to powder ratio, milling atmosphere, surface-agents and milling/cooling cycle). Mechanically induced chemical and physical reactions and thermal effects were monitored 'in-situ' using a GTM system, which recorded temperature and pressure changes during milling. The alloy catalysts were characterized using TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD and BET techniques. Electrochemical tests were carried out on prepared powders. Exchange currents were determined from a potentiodynamic polarization tests and used to compare relative electrocatalytic behaviour of the new catalyst. Structure/property relationships were discussed and conclusions were drawn on the production of improved low cost catalyst. (author)

  11. Phase structuring in metal alloys: Ultrasound-assisted top-down approach to engineering of nanostructured catalytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, Pavel V; Andreeva, Daria V

    2017-03-01

    High intensity ultrasound (HIUS) is a novel and efficient tool for top-down nanostructuring of multi-phase metal systems. Ultrasound-assisted structuring of the phase in metal alloys relies on two main mechanisms including interfacial red/ox reactions and temperature driven solid state phase transformations which affect surface composition and morphology of metals. Physical and chemical properties of sonication medium strongly affects the structuring pathways as well as morphology and composition of catalysts. HIUS can serve as a simple, fast, and effective approach for the tuning of structure and surface properties of metal particles, opening the new perspectives in design of robust and efficient catalysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dilution rate and microstructure of TIG arc Ni-Al powder surfacing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jiguo; DONG Wei; TAN Wenda; ZHANG Di; PEN Jialie

    2007-01-01

    Surfacing beads are prepared by a direct current tungsten inert gas arc nickel-aluminum (Ni-Al) powder surfacing process. With the aim of controlling the dilution rate and obtaining surfacing beads rich in intermetallic compounds, the effects of surfacing parameters on geometric parameters, dilution rate, composition, and microstructure of the bead are investigated. An assistant cooler, which can potentially reduce the temperature of the base metal, is used in the surfacing process and its effect on dilution rate and microstructure is studied. The result indicates that with the surfacing parameter combination of low current and speed, the width and penetration of the bead decrease, reinforcement increases, and dilution rate drops markedly. With the reduc- tion of the parameter combination, the intergranular phase T-(Fe, Ni) is formed in the grain boundaries of Ni-Al interme- tallic matrix instead of the intergranular phase α-Fe, and large amount of intermetallics are obtained. With the use of an assistant cooler on a selected operation condition during the surfacing process, the reinforcement of the bead increases, penetration decreases, and dilution rate declines. The use of an assistant cooler helps obtain a surfacing bead composed of only intermetallics.

  13. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in bulk and nanostructured Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Amir; Hosseinnia, Marjan; Bennett, Lawrence H.; Della Torre, Edward

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study of the magnetocaloric effect of a Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 Heusler alloy converted to nanoparticles via high energy ball-milling technique in the temperature range of 270 to 310 K has been performed. The properties of the particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and magnetometer techniques. Isothermal magnetic field variation of magnetization exhibits field hysteresis in bulk Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 alloy across the martensitic transition which significantly lessened in the nanoparticles. The magnetocaloric effects of the bulk and nanoparticle samples were measured both with direct method, through our state of the art direct test bed apparatus with controllability over the applied fields and temperatures, as well as an indirect method through Maxwell and thermodynamic equations. In direct measurements, nanoparticle sample's critical temperature decreased by 6 K, but its magnetocaloric effect enhanced by 17% over the bulk counterpart. Additionally, when comparing the direct and indirect magnetocaloric curves, the direct method showed 14% less adiabatic temperature change in the bulk and 5% less adiabatic temperature change in the nanostructured sample.

  14. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study on the development of nanostructured precipitates in Al-Cu obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Villalba, L.S., E-mail: luzgomez@geo.ucm.es [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Geociencias-(CSIC-UCM), Madrid (Spain); Delgado, M.L.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of defect structures and nanoprecipitates after 10 h of mechanical alloying in Al-Cu system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defects act as nucleation sites of the {epsilon}Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incoherent and semicoherent precipitates are identified by TEM-HRTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Moire patterns are associated to the {epsilon}Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} phase. - Abstract: Aluminum alloy 2014 is used to obtain nanostructured powders via mechanical alloying. The evolution of the diffusion processes is observed by the development of defect structures and nanoprecipitates after 10 h of milling. The characterization includes analytical and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Dislocations associated with different Al/Cu ratio affect the material. These defects act as nucleation sites where precipitates of the {epsilon}Al{sub 2}Cu{sub 3} hexagonal phase have been identified. Moire fringes show the interference of {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}{sub Al} with {l_brace}10{sup -}10{r_brace}{sub {epsilon}Al{sub 2Cu{sub 3}}} glide planes and locally small shifts of 1/3{l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}{sub Al} and 1/3{l_brace}10{sup -}10{r_brace}{sub {epsilon}Al{sub 2Cu{sub 3}}}. Changes in the Al/Cu ratio lead to the formation of other solid solutions identified in the Cu rich area and could correspond to transition phases.

  15. The effect of native Al2O3 skin disruption on properties of fine Al powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, Martin; Poletti, Cecilia; Simancik, Frantisek; Walcher, Martin; Rajner, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The effect of various powder metallurgy compaction routes on the microstructures and properties of ultra-fine atomized Al powder compacts. → Applied compaction route affects the deformation and fracture of native Al 2 O 3 layer present on the surface of as-atomized powder. → Distribution, morphology and interconnectivity of in situ introduced Al 2 O 3 dispersoids distinctly determine the compacts properties. - Abstract: In the presented study we characterize how various powder metallurgical routes (extrusion, forging, and HIP/sintering) affect the fracture of native Al 2 O 3 layer present on the surface of ultra-fine atomized Al powders. It is shown that the different distribution, morphology and interconnectivity of in situ introduced Al 2 O 3 dispersoids strongly affect the thermal stability and mechanical and thermal properties of subsequent powder compacts.

  16. Surface functionalized Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}SnS{sub 4} quinternary alloyed nanostructure for DNA sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheam, A.S.; Voon, C.H.; Foo, K.L.; Azizah, N. [University Malaysia Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Al-Douri, Y. [University of Sidi-Bel-Abbes, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Gopinath, S.C.B. [University Malaysia Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Universiti Malaysia Perlis, School of Bioprocess Engineering, Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ameri, M. [Universite Djilali Liabes de Sidi Bel-Abbes, Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Avances (LPCMA), Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Ibrahim, Sattar S. [University of Anbar, Chemisty Department, College of Science, Al Rumadi (Iraq)

    2017-03-15

    A sensing plate of extended Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}SnS{sub 4} quinternary alloy nanostructures, fabricated on an oxidized silicon substrate by the sol-gel method, is reported in this paper. The fabricated device was characterized and analyzed via field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD peaks shifted towards the lower angle side alongside increasing concentration of cadmium. The average diameter of the Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}SnS{sub 4} quinternary alloy nanostructures falls between 21.55 and 43.12 nm, while the shift of the PL bandgap was from 1.81 eV (x = 0) to 1.72 eV (x = 1). The resulting Cu{sub 2}Zn{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}SnS{sub 4} quinternary alloy nanostructures components were functionalized with oligonucleotides probe DNA molecules and interacted with the target, exhibiting good sensing capabilities due to its large surface-to-volume ratio. The fabrication, immobilization, and hybridization processes were analyzed via representative current-voltage (I-V) plots. Its electrical profile shows that the device is capable to distinguish biomolecules. Its high performance was evident from the linear relationship between the probe DNA from cervical cancer and the target DNA, showing its applicability for medical applications. (orig.)

  17. Real-Time Atomic Scale Imaging of Nanostructural Evolution in Aluminum Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malladi, S.K.; Xu, X.; van Huis, M.A.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Batenburg, K.J.; Yücelen, E.; Dubiel, B.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new approach to study the three- dimensional compositional and structural evolution of metal alloys during heat treatments such as commonly used for improving overall material properties. It relies on in situ heating in a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).

  18. Studies on the formation of aluminides in heated Nb–Al powder mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sina, H.; Iyengar, S.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Combustion initiates with NbAl{sub 3} formation above the melting point of aluminum. • Nb + 3Al samples yield almost 100% NbAl{sub 3} after combustion. • Nb-rich samples yield multi-phase products after heating to 1000 °C. • Reacted Nb-rich samples yield stable phases on reheating. • For NbAl{sub 3}, calculations show ΔH{sub formation} = −153 ± 15, E{sub activation} = 255 ± 26 kJ mol{sup −1}. - Abstract: The formation of aluminides during the heating of Nb–Al powder mixtures with different initial compositions (25, 33.3 and 75 at.% Al) has been studied using a differential scanning calorimeter. The effect of parameters like particle size, compaction and heating rate on the onset temperature of reaction has been determined. The results show that an increase in heating rate leads to an increase in onset temperature for compacted as well as loose powder samples in the particle size range considered. For Al-rich mixtures, compaction increases the onset temperature irrespective of particle size. For all samples, finer aluminum particles and slower heating rates resulted in a decrease in onset temperature while higher aluminum contents in the mixture led to a higher reaction temperature. In Nb-rich samples, compaction led to a decrease in the onset temperatures. NbAl{sub 3} was the first compound to form in all the mixtures, irrespective of the initial composition. After heating to 1000 °C, EDS and XRD analyses confirmed the formation of only NbAl{sub 3} in Al-rich samples and a mixture of NbAl{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}Al along with unreacted niobium particles in Nb-rich samples. A subsequent heat treatment was necessary to obtain a single aluminide corresponding to the initial composition. These observations can be explained on the basis of niobium dissolution in molten aluminum and subsequent precipitation of NbAl{sub 3} in Al-rich samples and solid state diffusion through Nb{sub 3}Al and Nb{sub 2}Al phases in Nb-rich samples. For Nb

  19. Surface microstructure and in vitro analysis of nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) coating on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Hashemi Beni, Batoul; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys, owing to their biodegradability and good mechanical properties, have potential applications as biodegradable orthopedic implants. However, several poor properties including low corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility have prevented their clinical application, as these properties may result in the sudden failure of the implants during the bone healing. In this research, nanostructured akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) powder was coated on the AZ91 Mg alloy through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) assisted micro arc oxidation (MAO) method to modify the properties of the alloy. The surface microstructure of coating, corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the samples were characterized with different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical corrosion test, immersion test, compression test and cell culture test. The results showed that the nanostructured akermanite coating can improve the corrosion resistance, mechanical stability and cytocompatibility of the biodegradable Mg alloy making it a promising material to be used as biodegradable bone implants for orthopedic applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nanostructuring of Ti-alloys by SPD processing to achieve superior fatigue properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, Irina P.; Yakushina, Evgeniya B.; Nurgaleeva, Veronika V.; Valiev, Ruslan Z. [Ufa State Aviation Technical Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physics of Advanced Materials

    2009-12-15

    This work is related to the enhancement of the fatigue properties in ultrafine-grained Ti alloys produced by severe plastic deformation techniques (SPD). To process commercially pure Ti Grade 4 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys, combined severe plastic deformation techniques that include equal channel angular pressing and additional thermal and deformation treatments were used. As a result we could produce ultrafine-grained Ti materials with a similar grain size of less than 300-400 nm but different in their shape and grain boundary structure (both low- and high-angle, equilibrium and non-equilibrium grain boundaries). It is shown that tailoring grain boundaries by severe plastic deformation techniques makes it possible to considerably enhance the strength of Ti materials while preserving high ductility. In turn, ultrafine-grained materials with enhanced strength and ductility demonstrate superior fatigue endurance and life.

  1. Coercivity and nanostructure of melt-spun Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys, prepared by melt spinning and subsequent annealing, have been characterized structurally and magnetically. X-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements show that the ribbons consist of tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, FeCo-rich bcc, and NiAl-rich L21 phases; Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, is a new substitutional alloy series whose end members Ti3Co5B2 and Ti3Fe5B2 have never been investigated magnetically and may not even exist, respectively. Two compositions are considered, namely Ti11+xFe37.5-0.5xCo37.5−0.5xB14 (x = 0, 4 and alnico-like Ti11Fe26Co26Ni10Al11Cu2B14, the latter also containing an L21-type alloy. The volume fraction of the Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase increases with x, which leads to a coercivity increase from 221 Oe for x = 0 to 452 Oe for x = 4. Since the grains are nearly equiaxed, there is little or no shape anisotropy, and the coercivity is largely due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase. The alloy containing Ni, Al, and Cu exhibits a magnetization of 10.6 kG and a remanence ratio of 0.59. Our results indicate that magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be introduced in alnico-like magnets, adding to shape anisotropy that may be induced by field annealing.

  2. Production of ruthenium aluminide by reaction sintering of Ru and Al powder mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarova, K.B.; Kazanskaya, N.K.; Drozdov, A.A.; Skachkov, O.A.; Levin, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    The physicochemical processes, taking place by the RuAl alloy formation from the ruthenium and aluminium powder mixture within the temperature range of 250-1400 deg C in the vacuum from 10 -2 up to 10 -5 mm mercury column are studied on the alloys of the Ru 50 Al 50 stoichiometric and Ru 52 Al 48 hyperstoichiometric composition. The Ru + Al → RuAl interaction with the exothermal effect begins in the solid phase at the temperatures below the aluminium t melt . The Ru 2 Al 3 , RuAl 2 and RuAl traces rich in aluminium are formed already at 600 deg C; at 1000-1400 deg C the RuAl becomes the basic phase; the precipitates of the ruthenium-based solid solution are additionally present in the hyperstoichiometric Ru 52 Al 48 alloy. The Ru 52 Al 48 crystalline lattice period increases with the growth of the caking temperature from 0.29906 (660 deg C) up to 0.22955 nm (1400 deg C). The Al 2 O 3 inclusions up to 1 μm in diameter are identified in the caked alloys in vacuum after the reaction caking [ru

  3. Nanostructure and magnetic properties of CoNi-alloy-based nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Lo Russo, S.; D'Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; De, G.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic behavior of FCC alloy CoNi (1:1) nanoparticles, embedded in a silica matrix and prepared by the ion implantation and sol-gel techniques, is presented. The blocking temperature is related to the size distribution, and, at least for the ion-implanted samples, only an enhanced effective anisotropy explains the experimental results. The hysteretic behavior is explained in terms of the temperature dependence of the anisotropy and of the particle volume fraction that determines the dipolar interactions

  4. Nanostructure and magnetic properties of CoNi-alloy-based nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Lo Russo, S.; D' Orazio, F.; Lucari, F.; De, G.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P

    2001-05-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic behavior of FCC alloy CoNi (1:1) nanoparticles, embedded in a silica matrix and prepared by the ion implantation and sol-gel techniques, is presented. The blocking temperature is related to the size distribution, and, at least for the ion-implanted samples, only an enhanced effective anisotropy explains the experimental results. The hysteretic behavior is explained in terms of the temperature dependence of the anisotropy and of the particle volume fraction that determines the dipolar interactions.

  5. Nanostructures obtained from a mechanically alloyed and heat treated molybdenum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barriga Arceo, L.; Orozco, E.; Mendoza-Leon, H.; Palacios Gonzalez, E.; Leyte Guerrero, F.; Garibay Febles, V.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare molybdenum carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Molybdenum carbide was heated at 800 o C for 15 min in order to produce carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of about 50-140 nm in diameter and nanotubes with diameters of about 70-260 nm and 0.18-0.3 μm in length were obtained after heating at 800 o C, by means of this process

  6. Nanostructures obtained from a mechanically alloyed and heat treated molybdenum carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barriga Arceo, L. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico) and ESIQIE-UPALM, IPN Apdo Postal 118-395, C.P. 07051 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: luchell@yahoo.com; Orozco, E. [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-364, C.P. 01000 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: eorozco@fisica.unam.mx; Mendoza-Leon, H. [ESIQIE-UPALM, IPN Apdo Postal 118-395, C.P. 07051 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: luchell@yahoo.com; Palacios Gonzalez, E. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: epalacio@imp.mx; Leyte Guerrero, F. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: fleyte@imp.mx; Garibay Febles, V. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, I.M.P. Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 D.F. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: vgaribay@imp.mx

    2007-05-31

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare molybdenum carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Molybdenum carbide was heated at 800 {sup o}C for 15 min in order to produce carbon nanotubes. Nanoparticles of about 50-140 nm in diameter and nanotubes with diameters of about 70-260 nm and 0.18-0.3 {mu}m in length were obtained after heating at 800 {sup o}C, by means of this process.

  7. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenov, V. A., E-mail: klimenov@tpu.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kurgan, K. A., E-mail: kirill-k2.777@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Chumaevskii, A. V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gnyusov, S. F., E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  8. Interface Promoted Reversible Mg Insertion in Nanostructured Tin-Antimony Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Parent, Lucas R.; Sushko, Maria L.; Li, Guosheng; Sushko, Petr; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.; Liu, Jun

    2015-11-11

    This paper demonstrates intermetallic compounds SnSb are highly active materials for reversibly hosting Mg ions. Compared with monometallic Sn and Sb, SnSb alloy exhibited exceptionally high reversible capacity (420 mAh/g), excellent rate capability and good cyclic stability. Mg insertion into pristine SnSb involves an activation process to complete, which induces particle breakdown and results in phase segregation to Sn-rich and Sb-rich phases. Both experimental analysis and DFT simulation suggest that the Sn-rich phase is particularly active and provides most of the capacity whereas the Sb-rich phase is not as active, and the interface between these two phases play a key role in promoting the formation and stabilization of the cubic Sn phase that is more favorable for fast and reversible Mg insertion. We further show that activated SnSb alloy has good compatibility with simple Mg electrolytes. Overall, this work could provide new approaches for designing materials capable of reversible Mg ion insertion and new opportunities for understanding Mg electrochemistry.

  9. Probing the nanostructural evolution of age-hardenable Al alloys with atom-probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    Atom Probe Tomographic (APT) Microscope is a lens-less point-projection 3-D analytical microscope that has the unique capability of (i) three-dimensional imaging at the atomic scale and (ii) compositional analysis with sub-nanometre spatial resolution and single-atom sensitivity. Modern 3-D APT microscope offers the highest the spatial resolution among all the available analytical techniques. It can simultaneously achieve a spatial resolution better than 0.3 nm in all three directions of a three-dimensional analysis-volume. As a result, 3-D APT microscopy, especially as practiced by the high speed, large field of view instruments is the most appropriate tool for studying nano-scale precipitates and their heterophase interfaces. This talk will introduce the technique, discuss its brief historical background and use examples from age-hardenable Al-alloys. The results include a detailed APT study of the compositional evolution of the nano-scale precipitates: θ and Q present in commercial age hardenable aluminium alloy, W319

  10. High strength nanostructured Al-based alloys through optimized processing of rapidly quenched amorphous precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Gwang-Yeob; Park, Gyu-Hyeon; Kim, Hyeon-Ah; Lee, A-Young; Scudino, Sergio; Prashanth, Konda Gokuldoss; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2018-01-18

    We report the methods increasing both strength and ductility of aluminum alloys transformed from amorphous precursor. The mechanical properties of bulk samples produced by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) of amorphous Al-Ni-Co-Dy powders at temperatures above 673 K are significantly enhanced by in-situ crystallization of nano-scale intermetallic compounds during the SPS process. The spark plasma sintered Al 84 Ni 7 Co 3 Dy 6 bulk specimens exhibit 1433 MPa compressive yield strength and 1773 MPa maximum strength together with 5.6% plastic strain, respectively. The addition of Dy enhances the thermal stability of primary fcc Al in the amorphous Al-TM -RE alloy. The precipitation of intermetallic phases by crystallization of the remaining amorphous matrix plays important role to restrict the growth of the fcc Al phase and contributes to the improvement of the mechanical properties. Such fully crystalline nano- or ultrafine-scale Al-Ni-Co-Dy systems are considered promising for industrial application because their superior mechanical properties in terms of a combination of very high room temperature strength combined with good ductility.

  11. On the use of accumulative roll bonding process to develop nanostructured aluminum alloy 5083

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza Toroghinejad, Mohammad; Ashrafizadeh, Fakhreddin [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamaati, Roohollah, E-mail: r.jamaatikenari@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers Club, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-20

    In the present study, the effect of accumulative roll bonding (ARB) process at room temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA5083 strip was investigated. Microstructural observations were done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, mechanical properties were performed by tensile, hardness, and microhardness tests. It was observed that accumulative roll bonding is a promising process for production of nanostructured (80 nm) AA5083 strips. Nano shear bands were formed in the microstructure after the fourth cycles. When the number of cycles increased, the tensile strength and hardness of the accumulatively roll bonded strips increased. However, by increasing the number of cycles, the elongation value decreased except for the last (sixth) cycle. It was found that when the number of cycles increased, the distribution of microhardness values became more uniform. After the tensile test, debonding can be observed especially in the interface formed in the last cycle. Observations revealed that the failure mode in the accumulatively roll bonded AA5083 strip was a shear ductile rupture with elongated shallow shear dimples.

  12. LDRD final report on synthesis of shape-and size-controlled platinum and platinum alloy nanostructures on carbon with improved durability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; Garcia, Robert M.; Song, Yujiang; Moreno, Andres M.; Stanis, Ronald J.

    2008-10-01

    This project is aimed to gain added durability by supporting ripening-resistant dendritic platinum and/or platinum-based alloy nanostructures on carbon. We have developed a new synthetic approach suitable for directly supporting dendritic nanostructures on VXC-72 carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The key of the synthesis is to creating a unique supporting/confining reaction environment by incorporating carbon within lipid bilayer relying on a hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction. In order to realize size uniformity control over the supported dendritic nanostructures, a fast photocatalytic seeding method based on tin(IV) porphyrins (SnP) developed at Sandia was applied to the synthesis by using SnP-containing liposomes under tungsten light irradiation. For concept approval, one created dendritic platinum nanostructure supported on CB was fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for durability examination via potential cycling. It appears that carbon supporting is essentially beneficial to an enhanced durability according to our preliminary results.

  13. Formation and properties of composite nanostructured PEO-coatings on metals and alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashtalyar Dmitry V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigation of the incorporation of zirconia and titanium nitride nanoparticles into the coatings formed on magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation are presented. Comprehensive research of electrochemical and mechanical properties of obtained coatings was carried out. It was established that the polarization resistance of the samples with a coating containing zirconia nanoparticles is in two fold higher than for the sample with base PEO-coating. One of the important reasons for improving the protective properties of coatings formed in electrolytes containing nanoparticles consists in enhanced morphological characteristics, in particular, the porosity decrease and increase of thickness and resistivity of porousless sublayer in comparison with base PEO-layer. Incorporation of zirconia and titanium nitride particles into the coating increases the mechanical performances. The coating containing nanoparticles have greater hardness and are more wear resistant in comparison with the coatings formed in the electrolyte without nanoparticle.

  14. Annealing behaviour of a nanostructured Cu–45 at.%Ni alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Hui; Suo, H. L.; Mishin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallographic texture have been investigated in a Cu–45 at.%Ni alloy after heavy rolling and subsequent annealing at different temperatures. Cold-rolling to a von Mises strain of 5.7 produced a sample with an average boundary spacing along the normal direction of ~70 nm...... and a large fraction of high-angle boundaries (HABs), ~70 %. Annealing of this sample for 1 h at temperatures ≤450 °C causes structural coarsening, during which the fraction of HABs decreases. Annealing at higher temperatures results in pronounced discontinuous recrystallization accompanied by twinning. Large...... frequencies of twin boundaries contribute to high HAB fractions measured in the as-recrystallized condition. Cube-oriented grains demonstrate a size advantage compared to grains of other orientations, thus creating a strong cube texture in the recrystallized material. Further annealing of the recrystallized...

  15. Characterisation of phases in nanostructured, multilayered titanium alloys by analytical and high-resolution electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A; Buffat, P A

    2009-01-01

    Surface processing of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy led to a complex multilayered microstructure containing several phases of the Ni-Ti-P-Al-O system, which improves the mechanical and tribological surface properties. The microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the hard layer formed on the surface were investigated by LM, XRD, SEM as well as analytical/high-resolution TEM, STEM, EDS, electron diffraction and FIB. Phase identification based on electron diffraction, HRTEM and EDS microanalysis revealed the presence of several binary and ternary phases in the system Ti-Ni-P, sometimes with partial substitution of Ti by Al. However some phases, mainly nanoparticles, still remain not identified satisfactorily. Electron microscopy techniques used for identification of phases present in surface multilayers and some practical limits to their routine application are reminded here.

  16. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  17. In vivo study of nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) coating on magnesium alloy as biodegradable orthopedic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, Mehdi, E-mail: mrzavi2659@gmail.com [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Savabi, Omid [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, Seyed Mohammad [School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidari, Fariba; Manshaei, Maziar [Torabinejad Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, Daryoosh [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@okstate.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • In vitro biocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloy was improved by diopside coating. • In vivo biocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloy was improved by diopside coating. • Degradation behavior of biodegradable Mg alloy was improved by diopside coating. - Abstract: In order to improve the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, we have recently prepared a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy through a combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method (reported elsewhere). In this work, we performed a detailed biocompatibility analysis of the implants made by this material and compared their performance with those of the uncoated and micro arc oxidized magnesium implants. The biocompatibility evaluation of samples was performed by culturing L-929 cells and in vivo animal study, including implantation of samples in greater trochanter of rabbits, radiography and histological examinations. The results from both the in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the diopside/MAO coated magnesium implant significantly enhanced cell viability, biodegradation resistance and new bone formation compared with both the uncoated and the micro-arc oxidized magnesium implants. Our data provides an example of how the proper surface treatment of magnesium implants can overcome their drawbacks in terms of high degradation rate and gas bubble formation under physiological conditions.

  18. In vivo study of nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi2O6) coating on magnesium alloy as biodegradable orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Heidari, Fariba; Manshaei, Maziar; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In vitro biocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloy was improved by diopside coating. • In vivo biocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloy was improved by diopside coating. • Degradation behavior of biodegradable Mg alloy was improved by diopside coating. - Abstract: In order to improve the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of a biodegradable magnesium alloy, we have recently prepared a nanostructured diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) coating on AZ91 magnesium alloy through a combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method (reported elsewhere). In this work, we performed a detailed biocompatibility analysis of the implants made by this material and compared their performance with those of the uncoated and micro arc oxidized magnesium implants. The biocompatibility evaluation of samples was performed by culturing L-929 cells and in vivo animal study, including implantation of samples in greater trochanter of rabbits, radiography and histological examinations. The results from both the in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the diopside/MAO coated magnesium implant significantly enhanced cell viability, biodegradation resistance and new bone formation compared with both the uncoated and the micro-arc oxidized magnesium implants. Our data provides an example of how the proper surface treatment of magnesium implants can overcome their drawbacks in terms of high degradation rate and gas bubble formation under physiological conditions

  19. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO thin films surfaces by electrophoretic deposition process on aluminum substrates. • Effect of bath temperature on the physical and superhydrophobic properties of thin films. • The water contact angle of 155° ± 3 with roll off property has been observed on the film that was grown at bath temperatures of 50 °C. • The activation energy for electrophoretic deposition of SA-functionalized ZnO nanoparticle is calculated to be 0.50 eV. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 μm, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  20. Surface analysis and biocorrosion properties of nanostructured surface sol-gel coatings on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula, Maria C; Petersen, Don; Rahemtulla, Firoz; Advincula, Rigoberto; Lemons, Jack E

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of biocompatible alloys used as implants play a significant role in their osseointegration. Surface sol-gel processing (SSP), a variant of the bulk sol-gel technique, is a relatively new process to prepare bioreactive nanostructured titanium oxide for thin film coatings. The surface topography, roughness, and composition of sol-gel processed Ti6Al4V titanium alloy coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). This was correlated with corrosion properties, adhesive strength, and bioreactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). Electroimpedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization studies indicated similar advantageous corrosion properties between sol-gel coated and uncoated Ti6Al4V, which was attributed to the stable TiO2 composition, topography, and adhesive strength of the sol-gel coating. In addition, inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis of substrates immersed in SBF revealed higher deposition of calcium and phosphate and low release rates of alloying elements from the sol-gel modified alloys. The equivalent corrosion behavior and the definite increase in nucleation of calcium apatite indicate the potential of the sol-gel coating for enhanced bioimplant applications. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Use of Amino‐Functionalized CNTs and CVD Grown CNTs for Better Dispersion in Al Powder in the Fabrication of Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S. K.; Mathur, R. B. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi‐1100 12 (India); Mamta,; Teotia, Satish [Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar (India); Chahal, Rajiv [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2011-12-12

    We report an improved process for the better dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in Al powder used for the fabrication of Al‐matrix composites employing powder metallurgy process. For obtaining a better dispersion of MWCNTs in Al, we used two types of MWCNTs. In the first type, the MWCNTs were firstly functionalized by using ammonium bi‐carbonate and mix with Al powder using a high energy ball mill in the presence of a process control agent. In the second type we grew MWCNTs directly on Al powder using CVD. Various mechanical properties of the composites including micro hardness, compressive strength etc. were determined. It has been observed that using functionalized MWCNTs (fCNTs) and CVD grown MWCNTs, these properties were found to enhance significantly. The dispersion of functionalized CNTs was studied by SEM and the interfacial bonding between functionalized CNTs and Al matrix using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM).

  2. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, Ganesh, E-mail: ghegde@purdue.edu; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard, E-mail: gekco@purdue.edu [Network for Computational Nanotechnology (NCN), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Boykin, Timothy [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  3. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Boykin, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales

  4. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  5. Nano crystalline high energy milled 5083 Al powder deposited using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokni, M.R., E-mail: mohammadreza.rokni@mines.sdsmt.edu [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Widener, C.A. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Advanced Materials Processing Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM and T), SD (United States); Nardi, A.T. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Champagne, V.K. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Electron microscopy and nanoindentation are used to investigate the relationship between microstructure and nanohardness of a non-cryomilled, nanocrystalline 5083 Al alloy powder before and after being deposited by cold spray. Microstructural investigations observed the presence of nano grains in the powder microstructure, ranging from 20 to 80 nm and with a typical grain size of 40–50 nm. It was also revealed that the nanocrystalline structure of the powder is retained after cold spraying. As a result, almost no change in nanohardness was indicated between the powder and the particles interior in the cold sprayed layer. However, hardness was substantially higher in some regions in the cold sprayed layer, which was attributed to the particle–particle interfaces or other areas with very small nano grain size. The presence of some un-joined particle remnant lines was also found in the deposition and explained through Critical Velocity Ratio (CVR) of powder particles. Although cold spray is a high deformation process, there is little evidence of dislocations within the nanograins of the cold sprayed layer. The latter observation is rationalized through intragranular dislocation slip and recovery mechanisms.

  6. Characterization of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained by a chemical route. Influence of the complexing agent content in the starting solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Alejo C., E-mail: acarreras@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba—CONICET, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Cangiano, María de los A.; Ojeda, Manuel W.; Ruiz, María del C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Qumica (INTEQUI), Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis—CONICET, Chacabuco y Pedernera, 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-03-15

    The influence of the amount of complexing agent added to the starting solution on the physicochemical properties of Cu–Ni nanostructured alloys obtained through a chemical route, was studied. For this purpose, three Cu–Ni nanoalloy samples were synthesized by a previously developed procedure, starting from solutions with citric acid to metal molar ratios (C/Me) of 0.73, 1.00 and 1.50. The synthesis technique consisted in preparing a precursor via the citrate-gel method, and carrying out subsequent thermal treatments in controlled atmospheres. Sample characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray nanoanalysis and electron diffraction. In the three cases, copper and nickel formed a solid solution with a Cu/Ni atomic ratio close to 50/50, and free of impurities inside the crystal structure. The citric acid content of the starting solution proved to have an important influence on the morphology, size distribution, porosity, and crystallinity of the Cu–Ni alloy microparticles obtained, but a lesser influence on their chemical composition. The molar ratio C/Me = 1.00 resulted in the alloy with the Cu/Ni atomic ratio closest to 50/50. - Highlights: • We synthesize Cu–Ni nanoalloys by a chemical route based on the citrate-gel method. • We study the influence of the complexing agent content of the starting solution. • We characterize the samples by electron microscopy and X-ray techniques. • Citric acid influences the shape, size, porosity and crystallinity of the alloys.

  7. A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.S. Dilip

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the feasibility of fabricating porous 3D parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy directly from Ti–6Al–4V and Al powders. This approach uses a binder jetting additive manufacturing process followed by reactive sintering. The results demonstrate that the present approach is successful for realizing parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy.

  8. Simulation of nanostructural evolution under irradiation in Fe-9%CrC alloys: An object kinetic Monte Carlo study of the effect of temperature and dose-rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chiapetto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the effects of both temperature and dose-rate on the nanostructural evolution under irradiation of the Fe-9%CrC alloy, model material for high-Cr ferritic/martensitic steels. Starting from an object kinetic Monte Carlo model validated at 563K, we investigate here the accumulation of radiation damage as a function of temperature and dose-rate, attempting to highlight its connection with low-temperature radiation-induced hardening. The results show that the defect cluster mobility becomes high enough to partially counteract the material hardening process only above ∼290°C, while high fluxes are responsible for higher densities of defects, so that an increase of the hardening process with increasing dose-rates may be expected.

  9. Manufacturing And High Temperature Oxidation Properties Of Electro-Sprayed Fe-24.5% Cr-5%Al Powder Porous Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kee-Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Al based Powder porous metals were manufactured using a new electro-spray process, and the microstructures and high-temperature oxidation properties were examined. The porous materials were obtained at different sintering temperatures (1350°C, 1400°C, 1450°C, and 1500°C and with different pore sizes (500 μm, 450 μm, and 200 μm. High-temperature oxidation experiments (TGA, Thermal Gravimetry Analysis were conducted for 24 hours at 1000°C in a 79% N2+ 21% O2, 100 mL/min. atmosphere. The Fe-Cr-Al powder porous metals manufactured through the electro-spray process showed more-excellent oxidation resistance as sintering temperature and pore size increased. In addition, the fact that the densities and surface areas of the abovementioned powder porous metals had the largest effects on the metal’s oxidation properties could be identified.

  10. Effects of sintering time and temperature to the characteristics of FeCrAl powder compacts formed at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Rahman, H. Y.; Awang, M. A. A.; Sopyan, I.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental investigation on the effect of sintering schedule, i.e., holding time and temperature to the final properties of FeCrAl powder compacts prepared through uniaxial die compaction process at above room temperature. The feedstock was prepared by mechanically mixing iron powder ASC 100.29 with chromium (22 wt%) and aluminium (11 wt%) for 30 min at room temperature. A cylindrical shape die was filled with the powder mass and heated for one hour for uniform heating of the die assembly together with the powder mass. Once the temperature reached to the setup temperature, i.e., 150°C, the powder mass was formed by applying an axial pressure of 425 MPa simultaneously from upward and downward directions. The as-pressed green compacts were then cooled to room temperature and subsequently sintered in argon gas fired furnace at a rate of 5°C/min for three different holding times, i.e., 30, 60, and 90 min at three different sintering temperatures, i.e., 800, 900, and 1000°C. The sintered samples were characterized for their density, electrical resistivity, bending strength, and microstructure. The results revealed that the sample sintered at 1000°C for 90 min achieved the better characteristics.

  11. Catalytic activity of bimetallic AuPd alloys supported MgO and MnO2 nanostructures and their role in selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alshammari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of metal oxides as supports for gold and palladium (Au-Pd nano alloys constitutes new horizons to improve catalysts materials for very important reactions. From the literatures, Pd-based bimetallic nanostructures have great properties and active catalytic performance. In this study, nanostructures of magnesium oxide (MgO and manganese dioxide (MnO₂ were synthesised and utilized as supports for Au-Pd nanoparticle catalysts. Gold and palladium were deposited on these supports using sol-immobilisation method. The MgO and MnO2 supported Au-Pd catalysts were evaluated for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and 1-octanol, respectively. These catalysts were found to be more selective, active and reusable than the corresponding monometallic Au and Pd catalysts. The effect of base supports on the disproportionation reaction during the oxidation process was investigated. The results show that MgO stopped the disproportionation reaction for both aromatic and aliphatic alcohols while MnO₂ stopped it in the case of benzyl alcohol only. The outcomes of this work shed light on the selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols using bimetallic Au-Pd nanoalloys and pave the way to a complete investigation of more basic metal oxides for various aliphatic alcohols.

  12. Surface Morphology Study of Nanostructured Lead-Free Solder Alloy Sn-Ag-Cu Developed by Electrodeposition: Effect of Current Density Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakinah Mohd Yusof

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Nanostructured lead-free solder Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC was developed by electrodeposition method at room temperature. Electrolite bath which comprised of the predetermined quantity of tin methane sulfonate, copper sulfate and silver sulfate were added sequentially to MSA solution. The methane sulphonic acid (MSA based ternary Sn-Ag-Cu bath was developed by using tin methane sulfonate as a source of Sn ions while the Cu+ and Ag+ ions were obtained from their respective sulfate salts. The rate of the electrodeposition was controlled by variation of current density. The addition of the buffer, comprising of sodium and ammonium acetate helped in raising the pH solution. During the experimental procedure, the pH of solution, composition of the electrolite bath, and the electrodeposition time were kept constant. The electrodeposited rate, deposit composition and microstructure were investigated as the effect of current density. The electrodeposited solder alloy was characterized for their morphology using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM. In conclusion, vary of current density will play significant role in the surface morphology of nanostructured lead-free solder SAC developed. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  13. Multifunctional substrate of Al alloy based on general hierarchical micro/nanostructures: superamphiphobicity and enhanced corrosion resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xuewu; Shi, Tian; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Qiaoxin; Huang, Xingjiu

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are vulnerable to penetrating and peeling failures in seawater and preparing a barrier coating to isolate the substrate from corrosive medium is an effective anticorrosion method. Inspired by the lotus leaves effect, a wetting alloy surface with enhanced anticorrosion behavior has been prepared via etch, deposition, and low-surface-energy modification. Results indicate that excellent superamphiphobicity has been achieved after the modification of the constructed hierarchical l...

  14. Strengthening mechanisms in a high-strength bulk nanostructured Cu–Zn–Al alloy processed via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Haiming; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    A bulk nanostructured alloy with the nominal composition Cu–30Zn–0.8Al wt.% (commercial designation brass 260) was fabricated by cryomilling of brass powders and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the cryomilled powders, yielding a compressive yield strength of 950 MPa, which is significantly higher than the yield strength of commercial brass 260 alloys (∼200–400 MPa). Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that cryomilling results in an average grain diameter of 26 nm and a high density of deformation twins. Nearly fully dense bulk samples were obtained after SPS of cryomilled powders, with average grain diameter 110 nm. After SPS, 10 vol.% of twins is retained with average twin thickness 30 nm. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography studies demonstrate that the distribution of Al is highly inhomogeneous in the sintered bulk samples, and Al-containing precipitates including Al(Cu,Zn)–O–N, Al–O–N and Al–N are distributed in the matrix. The precipitates have an average diameter of 1.7 nm and a volume fraction of 0.39%. Quantitative calculations were performed for different strengthening contributions in the sintered bulk samples, including grain boundary, twin boundary, precipitate, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening. Results from the analyses demonstrate that precipitate and grain boundary strengthening are the dominant strengthening mechanisms, and the calculated overall yield strength is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally determined compressive yield strength

  15. The investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of ordered alominide-iron (boron) nanostructures produced by mechanical alloying and sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, S.; Akbari, Gh.; Janghorban, K.; Ghaffari, M.

    In this study, mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-50Al, Fe-49.5Al-1B, and Fe-47.5Al-5B (at.%) alloy powders and mechanical properties of sintered products of the as-milled powders were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the addition of B caused more crystallite refinement compared to the B-free powders. To consider the sintering and ordering behaviors of the parts produced from cold compaction of the powders milled for 80 h, sintering was conducted at various temperatures. It was found that the sintering temperature has no meaningful effect on the long-range order parameter. The transformation of the disordered solid solution developed by MA to ordered Fe-Al- (B) intermetallics was a consequence of sintering. Also, the nano-scale structure of the samples was retained even after sintering. The microhardness of pore-free zones of the nanostructured specimens decreased by increasing the sintering temperature. Moreover, the sintering temperature has no effect on the compressive yield stress. However, the fracture strain increased by increasing the sintering temperature. The samples containing 1 at.% B showed more strain to fracture compared with the B-free and 5 at.% B samples.

  16. Study on the nanostructure formation mechanism of hypereutectic Al–17.5Si alloy induced by high current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaob@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hu, Liang [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Li, Shi-wei [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Hao, Yi [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Yu-dong [Laboratoire d’Etude des Textures et Applications aux Matériaux (LETAM, UMR-CNRS 7078), Université Paul Verlaine de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, Metz 57012 (France); Tu, Gan-feng [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Grosdidier, Thierry [Laboratoire d’Etude des Textures et Applications aux Matériaux (LETAM, UMR-CNRS 7078), Université Paul Verlaine de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, Metz 57012 (France)

    2015-08-15

    This work investigates the nanostructure forming mechanism of hypereutectic Al–17.5Si alloy associated with the high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment with increasing number of pulses by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and SEM. The surface layers were melted and resolidified rapidly. The treated surfaces show different structural characteristics in different compositions and distribution zones. The top melted-layer zone can be divided into three zones: Si-rich, Ai-rich, and intermediate zone. The Al-rich zone has a nano-cellular microstructure with a diameter of ∼100 nm. The microstructure in the Si-rich zone consists of fine, dispersive, and spherical nano-sized Si crystals surrounded by α(Al) cells. Some superfine eutectic structures form in the boundary of the two zones. With the increase of number of pulses, the proportion of Si-rich zone to the whole top surface increases, and more cellular substructures are transformed to fine equiaxed grain. In other words, with increasing number of pulses, more Si elements diffuse to the Al-rich zone and provide heterogeneous nucleation sites, and Al grains are refined dramatically. Moreover, the relationship between the substrate Si phase and crystalline phase is determined by EBSD; that is, (1 1 1){sub Al}//(0 0 1){sub Si} with a value of disregistry δ at approximately 5%. The HCPEB technique is a versatile technique for refining the surface microstructure of hypereutectic Al–Si alloys.

  17. The kinetics of hydrogen absorption/desorption within nanostructured composite Ni79.1Co18.6Cu2.3 alloy using resistometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojević, M.; Maričić, A.; Ribić Zelenović, L.; Krstajić, N.; Spasojević, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructured Ni 79.1 Co 18.6 Cu 2.3 powder was obtained by electrochemical deposition. ► Correlation observed between electrical conductivity and absorbed hydrogen amount. ► Hydrogen absorption/desorption mechanism was determined. - Abstract: Ni 79.1 Co 18.6 Cu 2.3 powder was obtained by electrochemical deposition from an ammonium sulfate bath. The structure and surface morphology of the powder were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemically obtained Ni 79.1 Co 18.6 Cu 2.3 alloy contained an amorphous phase and nanocrystals with an average size of 6.8 nm of FCC phase of the solid solution of cobalt and copper in nickel. Nanocrystals were characterized by a high average microstrain value and high minimum density of chaotically distributed dislocations. X-ray analysis also showed that powder hydrogenation at an elevated temperature of up to 200 °C did not change unit cell parameters and mean crystallite size value. SEM images show the formation of two shapes of powder particles: large cauliflower-like particles and small dendritic ones. Powder pressing at 10 MPa and at 25 °C gave samples that were analyzed for hydrogen absorption/desorption within the temperature range of 160–200 °C. Changes in electrical resistivity during absorption/desorption were monitored. The reciprocal value of resistivity (electrical conductivity) was found to increase linearly with increasing amount of absorbed hydrogen. The experimental results were used to propose an absorption/desorption mechanism. The adsorbed hydrogen molecule dissociates on alloy surface, forming adsorbed atoms. Adatoms penetrate and diffuse into the bulk of the alloy, simultaneously donating their electrons to the conduction band of the alloy. The increase in the concentration of free electrons induces a decrease in electrical resistivity. The overall absorption rate during initial absorption is determined by the

  18. Phase transformation and magnetic properties of MnAl powders prepared by elemental-doping and salt-assisted ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui-Dong; Si, Ping-Zhan; Choi, Chul-Jin; Park, Jihoon; Cho, Kyung Mox

    2018-05-01

    The effects of elemental doping of Si and Fe on the ɛ→τ phase transformation and the magnetic properties of MnAl were studied. The magnetic powders of Si- and Fe-doped MnAl were prepared by using induction melting followed by water-quenching, annealing, and salt-assisted ball-milling. The Fe-doped MnAl powders are mainly composed of the L10-structured τ-phase, while the Si-doped MnAl are composed of τ-phase and a small fraction of γ2- and β-phases. A unique thin leaves-like morphology with thickness of several tens of nanometers and diameter size up to 500 nm were observed in the Si-doped MnAl powders. The Fe-doped MnAl powders show irregular shape with much larger dimensions in the range from several to 10 μm. The morphology difference of the samples was ascribed to the variation of the mechanical properties affected by different doping elements. The phase transformation temperatures of the ɛ-phase of the samples were measured. The doping of Fe decreases the onset temperature of the massive phase transformation in MnAl, while the Si-doping increases the massive phase transformation temperature. Both Fe and Si increase the Curie temperature of MnAl. A substantially enhanced coercivity up to 0.45 T and 0.42 T were observed in the ball-milled MnAl powders doped with Si and Fe, respectively.

  19. Establishing a Scientific Basis for Optimizing Compositions, Process Paths and Fabrication Methods for Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys for Use in Advanced Fission Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odette, G Robert; Cunningham, Nicholas J., Wu, Yuan; Etienne, Auriane; Stergar, Erich; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2012-02-21

    The broad objective of this NEUP was to further develop a class of 12-15Cr ferritic alloys that are dispersion strengthened and made radiation tolerant by an ultrahigh density of Y-Ti-O nanofeatures (NFs) in the size range of less than 5 nm. We call these potentially transformable materials nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). NFAs are typically processed by ball milling pre-alloyed rapidly solidified powders and yttria (Y2O3) powders. Proper milling effectively dissolves the Ti, Y and O solutes that precipitate as NFs during hot consolidation. The tasks in the present study included examining alternative processing paths, characterizing and optimizing the NFs and investigating solid state joining. Alternative processing paths involved rapid solidification by gas atomization of Fe, 14% Cr, 3% W, and 0.4% Ti powders that are also pre-alloyed with 0.2% Y (14YWT), where the compositions are in wt.%. The focus is on exploring the possibility of minimizing, or even eliminating, the milling time, as well as producing alloys with more homogeneous distributions of NFs and a more uniform, fine grain size. Three atomization environments were explored: Ar, Ar plus O (Ar/O) and He. The characterization of powders and alloys occurred through each processing step: powder production by gas atomization; powder milling; and powder annealing or hot consolidation by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) or hot extrusion. The characterization studies of the materials described here include various combinations of: a) bulk chemistry; b) electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); c) atom probe tomography (APT); d) small angle neutron scattering (SANS); e) various types of scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM); and f) microhardness testing. The bulk chemistry measurements show that preliminary batches of gas-atomized powders could be produced within specified composition ranges. However, EPMA and TEM showed that the Y is heterogeneously distributed and phase separated, but

  20. Size effect of primary Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions on the characteristics of the nanostructured ferritic ODS alloys: Comparing as-milled and as-milled/annealed alloys using S/TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Mostafa, E-mail: msaber@ncsu.edu; Xu, Weizong; Li, Lulu; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2014-09-15

    The need for providing S/TEM evidence to clarify the mechanisms of nano-scale precipitate formation was the motivation of this investigation. In this study, an Fe–14Cr–0.4Ti alloy was ball-milled with different amounts of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} content up to 10 wt.%, and then annealed at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Micron-size Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles were substituted for the nano-size counterpart to elucidate the mechanism of oxide precipitate formation. The S/TEM studies revealed that the microstructure of the alloy with 10 wt.% yttria contained amorphous undissolved Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} after ball milling, while a small part of the initial oxide particles were dissolved into the solid solution. Consequently, when the amount of yttria was reduced to 1 wt.%, the amorphous phase of the yttria vanished and the whole content of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was dissolved into the BCC solid solution. Defect analysis of precipitates on the annealed samples via S/TEM and micro-hardness studies revealed that the use of micron-size primary oxide particles can produce nano-size precipitates, stable up to temperatures as high as 1100 °C, and uniformly distributed throughout the microstructure. This study indicates that the use of high energy ball milling along with micron-size primary oxide particles can lead to nanostructured ferritic ODS alloys without the use of nano-size primary oxide additions.

  1. Effects of coexisting spin disorder and antiferromagnetism on the magnetic behavior of nanostructured (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 1−x}Cu{sub x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, M., E-mail: mizrahi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [INIFTA-CCT- La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, C. C. 67, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Cabrera, A. F., E-mail: mizrahi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: cabrera@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Desimoni, J. [IFLP-CCT-La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas C.C. 67, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Stewart, S. J. [IFLP-CCT-La Plata-CONICET and Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas C.C. 67, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Nacional Arturo Jauretche, Av. Calchaquí No. 6200, Florencio Varela (Argentina)

    2014-06-07

    We report a magnetic study on nanostructured (Fe{sub 79}Mn{sub 21}){sub 1−x}Cu{sub x} (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) alloys using static magnetic measurements. The alloys are mainly composed by an antiferromagnetic fcc phase and a disordered region that displays a spin-glass-like behavior. The interplay between the antiferromagnetic and magnetically disordered phases establishes an exchange anisotropy that gives rise to a loop shift at temperatures below the freezing temperature of moments belonging to the disordered region. The loop shift is more noticeable as the Cu content increases, which also enhances the spin-glass-like features. Further, in the x = 0.30 alloy the alignment imposed by applied magnetic fields higher than 4 kOe prevail over the configuration determined by the frustration mechanism that characterizes the spin glass-like phase.

  2. Effects of combined organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors on the nanostructure cerium based conversion coating performance on AZ31 magnesium alloy: Morphological and corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saei, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Amini, R.; Kalajahi, M. Salami

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cn-Mn-polyvinyl alcohol conversion coating led to more uniform and crack free film deposition. •The corrosion resistance of Ce film was noticeably improved by using combination of polyvinyl alchol and Mn2+ cations. •A synergistic effect between polyvinyl alchol-Mn2+ resulted in Ce film with enhanced morphology and corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) AZ31 samples were chemically treated by a series of room temperature nanostructure cerium based conversion coatings containing Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, Co(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The microstructure and corrosion protection properties of different samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Results demonstrated that the AZ31 Mg alloy sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA showed the highest corrosion resistance. A denser Ce film with lower crack was precipitated on the sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA conversion coating.

  3. Characterizing the nano-structure and defect structure of nano-scaled non-ferrous structural alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamarian, Iman, E-mail: imanghamarian@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Samimi, Peyman; Liu, Yue [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Center for Advanced Non-Ferrous Structural Alloys, an NSF-I/UCRC between the University of North Texas (Denton, TX, 76203) and the Colorado School of Mines (Golden, CO, 80401) (United States); Poorganji, Behrang; Vasudevan, Vijay K. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Collins, Peter C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Center for Advanced Non-Ferrous Structural Alloys, an NSF-I/UCRC between the University of North Texas (Denton, TX, 76203) and the Colorado School of Mines (Golden, CO, 80401) (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The presence and interaction of nanotwins, geometrically necessary dislocations, and grain boundaries play a key role in the mechanical properties of nanostructured crystalline materials. Therefore, it is vital to determine the orientation, width and distance of nanotwins, the angle and axis of grain boundary misorientations as well as the type and the distributions of dislocations in an automatic and statistically meaningful fashion in a relatively large area. In this paper, such details are provided using a transmission electron microscope-based orientation microscopy technique called ASTAR™/precession electron diffraction. The remarkable spatial resolution of this technique (~ 2 nm) enables highly detailed characterization of nanotwins, grain boundaries and the configuration of dislocations. This orientation microscopy technique provides the raw data required for the determination of these parameters. The procedures to post-process the ASTAR™/PED datasets in order to obtain the important (and currently largely hidden) details of nanotwins as well as quantifications of dislocation density distributions are described in this study. - Highlights: • EBSD cannot characterize defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries and nanotwins in severely deformed metals. • TEM based orientation microscopy technique called ASTAR™/PED was used to resolve the problem. • Locations and orientations of nanotwins, dislocation density distribution and grain boundary characters can be resolved. • This work provides the bases for further studies on the interactions between dislocations, grain boundaries and nanotwins. • The computation part is explained sufficiently which helps the readers to post process their own data.

  4. Morphologies of nanostructured TiO{sub 2} doped with F on Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matykina, E.; Hernandez-Lopez, J.M.; Conde, A. [Departamento de Corrosion y Proteccion, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domingo, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Damborenea, J.J. de [Departamento de Corrosion y Proteccion, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arenas, M.A., E-mail: geles@cenim.csic.e [Departamento de Corrosion y Proteccion, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-01

    The formation of nanotubes in sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid electrolyte at controlled voltage is investigated on Ti-6Al-4V alloy used for load-bearing prosthetic applications. The effects of anodizing time and voltage on film morphology, composition and microstructure are studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and Raman spectroscopy. Fluorine content in the films was of a particular interest for enhancement of antibacterial properties of the surface. The efficiencies of film formation are determined as about 40% and 80% for anodizing at 20 V and 60 V respectively for shorter anodizing time and as about 1 and 5% for longer anodizing time. For 5 min of anodizing, higher voltage conditions results in a thicker barrier layer. At extended anodizing time a further disruption of the nanotubular morphology and formation of approximately 1.5 {mu}m-thick nanoporous film is promoted. The films grown at 20 V contain from 4 at.% to 6 at.% of fluorine. RBS detects about 13 at.% of fluorine incorporated in the film formed at 60 V for 60 min, possibly associated with a greater film thickness. The oxide film material consists of amorphous titania matrix doped with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. Nanotechnologies. Properties and applications of nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, A A

    2007-01-01

    The review summarises the main methods for the preparation of nanostructured metals, alloys, semiconductors and ceramics. The formation mechanisms of nanostructures based on two different principles, viz. the assembly principle (bottom-up) and the disintegration principle (top-down), are analysed. Isolated nanoparticles, nanopowders and compact nanomaterials produced by these methods possess different properties. The scope of application of various classes of nanostructured materials is considered and the topicality of the development of nanoindustry is emphasised.

  6. Effects of forming temperature and sintering rate to the final properties of FeCuAl powder compacts formed through uniaxial die compaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Rahman, H. Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental investigation on the effects of forming temperature and sintering schedule to the final characteristics of FeCuAl powder mass formed at different temperature and sintered at different schedule. A lab-scale uni-axial die compaction rig was designed and fabricated which enabled the compaction of powder mass at room temperature as well as elevated temperature. Iron (Fe) powder ASC 100.29 was mechanically mixed with other elemental powders, namely copper (Cu), and aluminum (Al) for 60 minutes and compacted at three different temperature, i.e., 30°C, 150°C, and 200°C by applying 425 MPa of simultaneous downward and upward axial loading to generate green compacts. The as-pressed samples were inspected visually and the defect-free green compacts were subsequently sintered in an argon gas fired furnace at 800°C for 60 min at three different heating/cooling rates, i.e., 5, 10, and 15°C/min, respectively. The sintered samples were then characterised for their physical, electrical, and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the sintered samples were also analysed. The results revealed that a forming temperature of 150°C and a sintering rate of 10°C/min could produce a product with better characteristics.

  7. Characteristics of mechanical alloying of Zn-Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Hong Kong Polytechnic; Perez Hernandez, A.; Lee, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Three pure elemental powder mixtures of Zn-22%Al-18%Cu, Zn-5%Al-11%Cu, and Zn-27%Al-3%Cu (in wt.%) were mechanically alloyed by steel-ball milling processing. The mechanical alloying characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. It was explored that mechanical alloying started with the formation of phases from pure elemental powders, and this was followed by mechanical milling-induced phase transformation. During mechanical alloying, phases stable at the higher temperatures formed at the near room temperature of milling. Nano-structure Zn-Al-based alloys were produced by mechanical alloying. (orig.)

  8. The kinetics of hydrogen absorption/desorption within nanostructured composite Ni{sub 79.1}Co{sub 18.6}Cu{sub 2.3} alloy using resistometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasojevic, M., E-mail: ljiljana.spasojevic51@yahoo.com [Joint Laboratory for Advanced Materials of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Section for Amorphous Systems, Svetog Save 65, 32000 Cacak, Republic of Serbia (Serbia); Faculty of Agronomy Cacak, University of Kragujevac, Cara Dusana 34, 32000 Cacak, Republic of Serbia (Serbia); Maricic, A. [Joint Laboratory for Advanced Materials of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Section for Amorphous Systems, Svetog Save 65, 32000 Cacak, Republic of Serbia (Serbia); Ribic Zelenovic, L. [Joint Laboratory for Advanced Materials of the Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, Section for Amorphous Systems, Svetog Save 65, 32000 Cacak, Republic of Serbia (Serbia); Faculty of Agronomy Cacak, University of Kragujevac, Cara Dusana 34, 32000 Cacak, Republic of Serbia (Serbia); Krstajic, N.; Spasojevic, P. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia (Serbia)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured Ni{sub 79.1}Co{sub 18.6}Cu{sub 2.3} powder was obtained by electrochemical deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation observed between electrical conductivity and absorbed hydrogen amount. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen absorption/desorption mechanism was determined. - Abstract: Ni{sub 79.1}Co{sub 18.6}Cu{sub 2.3} powder was obtained by electrochemical deposition from an ammonium sulfate bath. The structure and surface morphology of the powder were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemically obtained Ni{sub 79.1}Co{sub 18.6}Cu{sub 2.3} alloy contained an amorphous phase and nanocrystals with an average size of 6.8 nm of FCC phase of the solid solution of cobalt and copper in nickel. Nanocrystals were characterized by a high average microstrain value and high minimum density of chaotically distributed dislocations. X-ray analysis also showed that powder hydrogenation at an elevated temperature of up to 200 Degree-Sign C did not change unit cell parameters and mean crystallite size value. SEM images show the formation of two shapes of powder particles: large cauliflower-like particles and small dendritic ones. Powder pressing at 10 MPa and at 25 Degree-Sign C gave samples that were analyzed for hydrogen absorption/desorption within the temperature range of 160-200 Degree-Sign C. Changes in electrical resistivity during absorption/desorption were monitored. The reciprocal value of resistivity (electrical conductivity) was found to increase linearly with increasing amount of absorbed hydrogen. The experimental results were used to propose an absorption/desorption mechanism. The adsorbed hydrogen molecule dissociates on alloy surface, forming adsorbed atoms. Adatoms penetrate and diffuse into the bulk of the alloy, simultaneously donating their electrons to the conduction band of the alloy. The increase in the concentration of free

  9. Effects of TiN coating on the corrosion of nanostructured Ti-30Ta-xZr alloys for dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Gi; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a titanium nitride (TiN)-coated/nanotube-formed Ti-Ta-Zr alloy for biomaterials have been researched by using the magnetic sputter and electrochemical methods. Ti-30Ta-xZr (x = 3, 7 and 15 wt%) alloys were prepared by arc melting and heat treated for 24 h at 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere and then water quenching. The formation of oxide nanotubes was achieved by anodizing a Ti-30Ta-xZr alloy in H3PO4 electrolytes containing small amounts of fluoride ions at room temperature. Anodization was carried out using a scanning potentiostat, and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. The microstructure and morphology of nanotube arrays were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The TiN coatings were obtained by the radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. The depositions were performed from pure Ti targets on Ti-30Ta-xZr alloys substrates. The corrosion properties of the specimens were examined using potentiodynamic test in a 0.9% NaCl solution by using potentiostat. The microstructures of Ti-30Ta-xZr alloys were changed from an equiaxed to a needle-like structure with increasing Zr content. The interspace between the nanotubes was approximately 20, 80 and 200 nm for Zr contents of 3, 7 and 15 wt%, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the TiN-coated on the anodized Ti-30Ta-xZr alloys was higher than that of the untreated Ti alloys, indicating a better protective effect.

  10. Characterization of geopolymer fly-ash based foams obtained with the addition of Al powder or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as foaming agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducman, V., E-mail: vilma.ducman@zag.si; Korat, L.

    2016-03-15

    Recent innovations in geopolymer technology have led to the development of various different types of geopolymeric products, including highly porous geopolymer-based foams, which are formed by the addition of foaming agents to a geopolymer fly-ash based matrix. These agents decompose, or react with the liquid matrix or oxygen in the matrix, resulting in the release of gases which form pores prior to the hardening of the gel. The hardened structure has good mechanical and thermal properties, and can therefore be used for applications in acoustic panels and in lightweight pre-fabricated components for thermal insulation purposes. This study presents the results of the pore-forming process in the case when two different foaming agents, i.e. aluminium powder amounting to 0.07, 0.13 and 0.20 mass. % and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amounting to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mass. %, were added to a fly-ash geopolymer matrix. The physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties of the thus obtained foams, and the effects of the type and amount of the added foaming agent, are presented and discussed. Highly porous structures were obtained in the case of both of the investigated foaming agents, with overall porosities up to 59% when aluminium powder was added, and of up 48% when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was added. In the latter case, when 2% of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} foaming agent was added, finer pores (with diameters up to 500 μm) occurred in the structure, whereas somewhat larger pores (some had diameters greater than 1 mm) occurred when the same amount of aluminium powder was added. The mechanical properties of the investigated foams depended on their porosity. In the case of highly porous structures a compressive strength of 3.3 MPa was nevertheless achieved for the samples containing 0.2% of aluminium powder, and 3.7 MPa for those containing 2.0% of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Preparation of geopolymer foams based on fly ash with the addition of Al powder or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as

  11. Structural and magnetic evolution of nanostructured Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 10}Zr{sub 10}B{sub 40} prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raanaei, Hossein, E-mail: hraanaei@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi, Sadeq [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behaein, Saeed [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline alloy powder Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 10}Zr{sub 10}B{sub 40} prepared by mechanical alloying have been characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It is shown that the crystallite size has been decreased significantly to about 15 nm after 8 h milling time. On continuing the milling time mechanical crystallization and subsequently the alloying process were noticed up to 190 h. Saturation magnetization decreased during the whole process while coercivity achieved the highest value at the crystallization stage. Post treatment of milled powder at 190 h revealed crystalline constituent elements. - Highlights: • This article focuses on mechanical alloying of Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 10}Zr{sub 10}B{sub 40} system. • Mechanical crystallization is observed. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • The heat treatment revealed the crystalline phases of constituent elements.

  12. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  13. Study on the sintered characteristics and properties of nanostructured WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co hard metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shih-Hsien, E-mail: changsh@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Tsung [Department of Auto-Mechanics, National Kangshan Agricultural Industrial Senior High School, Kaohsiung 82049, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, four different vacuum sintering temperatures (1250 °C, 1300 °C, 1350 °C and 1400 °C) were studied to determine the optimal process parameters of nano WC–15 wt% (Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–15 wt% Co sintered hard metal alloys. Experimental results showed that the optimal sintering temperatures for nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co alloys were 1300 °C and 1350 °C for 1 h, respectively. The sintered nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co hard metal alloys showed a good contiguity of 0.44 and 0.42; hardness was enhanced to HRA 90.83 and 90.92; the transverse rupture strength (TRS) increased to 2567.97 and 2860.08 MPa; and K{sub IC} was 16.23 and 12.33 MPa√m, respectively. Although the nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys possessed a slightly lower TRS value, they exhibited superior fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and hardness similar to that of the nano WC–Co material. Significantly, nano WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) alloys could be sintered at a lower temperature and still retained their excellent mechanical properties. - Graphical abstract: The following figure shows the fracture morphology of the WC–(Fe–Ni–Co) and WC–Co specimens by means of high-magnification SEM after the K{sub IC} tests. Fig. a shows that numerous binder phases (Fe–Ni–Co) existed in the crack areas, which resisted the penetration and extension of the cracks. Due to the bridging effect of the binder phase, the stress concentration of the crack tip will be resolved through plastic deformation; thus, the cracks did not continue to extend. Once the deformation reaches a critical value, the crack propagation occurs. Meanwhile, the binder phase can link together the two crack faces through the bridging process. Although parts of the cracked areas also showed the bridging effect in the WC–Co specimens, as shown by the arrows (Fig. b), the crack propagation path was not obviously affected. This result corresponds to the tortuosity phenomenon. Consequently, the bridging process

  14. The electrolytic plating of compositionally modulated alloys and laminated metal nano-structures based on an automated computer-controlled dual-bath system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NabiRahni, D.M.A.; Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter

    1996-01-01

    -controlled plating system for producing large-scale CMA coatings and laminated nano-structures of metals. Electroplating bath constituent concentrations, pH, temperature, mode of agitation, etc, as well as galvanostatic modes, e.g. direct current (d.c.) versus pulsed and/or pulse reversal currents, were optimized......). Effort was also expended in the generation of CMA structures from single electroplating baths where the two metals of interest were present. The characterization results, as elucidated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction methods...

  15. Tensile and fracture toughness properties of the nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselt, Ch.Ch.; Klimenkov, M.; Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.; Gragg, D.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of fusion power as an attractive energy source requires advanced structural materials that can cope with ultra-severe thermo-mechanical loads and high neutron fluxes experienced by fusion power plant components, such as the first wall, divertor and blanket structures. Towards this end, two variants of a 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 reduced activation ferritic (RAF-) ODS steel were produced by ball milling phase blended Fe-13Cr-1W, 0.3Y 2 0 3 and 0.3Ti powders in both argon and hydrogen atmospheres. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The as-HIPed alloys were then hot rolled into 6 mm plates. Microstructural, tensile and fracture toughness characterization of the hot rolled alloys are summarized here and compared to results previously reported for the as-HIPed condition.

  16. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  17. The effect of structural changes during sintering on the electric and magnetic traits of the Ni96.7Mo3.3 alloy nanostructured powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribić-Zelenović L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni96.7Mo3.3 powder was electrochemically obtained. An X-ray diffraction analysis determined that the powder consisted of a 20% amorphous and 80% crystalline phase. The crystalline phase consisted of a nanocrystalline solid nickel and molybdenum solution with a face-centred cubic (FCC lattice with a high density of chaotically distributed dislocations and high microstrain value. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM showed that two particle structures were formed: larger cauliflower-like particles and smaller dendriteshaped ones. The thermal stability of the alloy was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and by measuring the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and magnetic permeability. Structural powder relaxation was carried out in the temperature range of 450 K to 560 K causing considerable changes in the electrical resistivity and magnetic permeability. Upon structural relaxation, the magnetic permeability of the cooled alloy was about 80% higher than the magnetic permeability of the fresh powder. The crystallisation of the amorphous portion of the powder and crystalline grain increase occurred in the 630 K to 900 K temperature interval. Upon crystallisation of the amorphous phase and crystalline grain increase, the powder had about 50% lower magnetic permeability than the fresh powder and 3.6 times lower permeability than the powder where only structural relaxation took place.

  18. Microstructure and magnetic properties of nanostructured (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukherroub, N. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Laggoun, A. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes 35000 (Algeria); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Martínez-Blanco, D. [SCTs, University of Oviedo, EPM, 33600 Mieres (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo St., 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Souami, N. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02 Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399 Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Gorria, P. [Department of Physics and IUTA, EPI, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijón (Spain); Bourzami, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes des Surfaces et Interfaces des Matériaux Solides (LESIMS), Université Sétif1, 19000 Sétif (Algeria); Lenoble, O. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Boulevard des aiguillettes, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (France)

    2015-07-01

    We report on how the microstructure and the silicon content of nanocrystalline ternary (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} powders (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 at%) elaborated by high energy ball milling affect the magnetic properties of these alloys. The formation of a single-phase alloy with body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure is completed after 72 h of milling time for all the compositions. This bcc phase is in fact a disordered Fe(Al,Si) solid solution with a lattice parameter that reduces its value almost linearly as the Si content is increased, from about 2.9 Å in the binary Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20} alloy to 2.85 Å in the powder with x=20. The average nanocrystalline grain size also decreases linearly down to 10 nm for x=20, being roughly half of the value for the binary alloy, while the microstrain is somewhat enlarged. Mössbauer spectra show a sextet thus suggesting that the disordered Fe(Al,Si) solid solution is ferromagnetic at room temperature. However, the average hyperfine field diminishes from 27 T (x=0) to 16 T (x=20), and a paramagnetic doublet is observed for the powders with higher Si content. These results together with the evolution of both the saturation magnetization and the coercive field are discussed in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic properties. - Highlights: • Single-phase nanocrystalline (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 at%) powders were successfully fabricated by mechanical alloying for a milling time of 72 h. • The insertion of Si atoms leads to a unit-cell contraction and a decrease in the average crystallite size. • The hyperfine and magnetic properties of (Fe{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}){sub 100–x}Si{sub x} were influenced by the Si content.

  19. Three-dimensional atom-probe microscopy investigation of the temporal evolution of the nanostructure of a model Ni-Al-Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudbrack, C.K.; Noebe, R.D.; Seidman, D.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Due to complex interactions in multi-component multi-phase metallic alloys, as well as experimental limitations, insight into the decomposition pathways of isothermal precipitation from a supersaturated solid-solution is limited. Experimentally, the direct, spatial characterization of the chemical composition on a sub-nano- and nanometer scale of small features is challenging, but necessary to understand solid-solid phase-transformation phenomena. The power and capacity of three-dimensional atom-probe (3DAP) microscopy to characterize an ordering precipitation reaction, gamma (fcc) → gamma (fcc) + gamma-prime (L1 2 structure) in Ni-5.2 Al-14.2 Cr at. % aged isothermally at 600 o C, was first demonstrated by Schmuck et al., and is examined in great detail here. Complementary transmission electron microscopy experiments are utilized to study the temporal evolution. For the decomposition stages investigated (2 minutes to 1024 hours aging), this alloy exhibits a high number density (3.2 x 10 24 m -3 maximum) of spheroidal precipitates, 0.5-10 nm in radius. The average composition of the γ'-precipitates is shown to evolve temporally, such that solute concentrations decrease toward their equilibrium values. Sub-nanometer scale compositional profiles across the interface are obtained by the proximity histogram method, or 'proxigram' for short. In agreement with the theory of diffusion-limited growth, chemical gradients of the Al (depletion) and Cr (enrichment) that extend approximately 3 nm from the interface into the matrix are observed in the 0.25 h aging state. As the alloy is aged, these gradients decay, and completely disappear between 4 and 16 h of aging. The interfacial widths of the proxigram composition profiles are found to be component dependent, such that, the widths of the Ni, Al, and Cr profiles are 0.78 ± 0.09, 1.24 ± 0.11, and 1.84 ± 0.13 nm, respectively. Precipitates interconnected by necks are observed, and their implication on the

  20. Lower Length Scale Characterization and Validation of Formation and Stability of Helium Bubbles in Nano-structured Ferritic Alloys under Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huijuan [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Yun, Di [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoelzer, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). BioEnergy Science Center (BESC)

    2018-01-30

    In order to extend the operating license of current light water reactors (LWRs) in the United States and other countries to as many as 80 years or longer, it is demanding to identify potential materials for many of the internal structural components and fasteners. We proposed that 14YWT iron alloy can be adopted in such applications with its excellent material properties, such as high-temperature strength, low creep rate, and high irradiation resistance. Application with 14YWT would improve the void/helium swelling characteristics of the LWR fuels, extend the burn-up limits with the tolerant temperature up to 800oC and reduce the hydrogen production. One key feature of 14YWT material property enhancement is the ultrafine high density of 2-4nm Y-Ti-O enriched nanoclusters (NCs) within the 14YWT iron matrix. The NCs can effectively pin the ultra-fine grain boundaries and dislocations, which significantly enhance mechanical properties of the alloy. Moreover, these nanoclusters remain stable with no coarsening after a large dose of ion irradiation. After ion irradiation, the helium bubbles are observed extremely uniform in size (1nm) and quite homogeneously distributed within the 14YWT matrix, which indicates that the microstructure of 14YWT remains remarkably tolerance to radiation damage. However, there is a lack of understanding of 14YWT both theoretically and experimentally in order to understand the mechanism behind the material property enhancement and to further develop and design a new generation of advanced structural material for current LWR applications and future fusion applications.

  1. Layered surface structure of gas-atomized high Nb-containing TiAl powder and its impact on laser energy absorption for selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Lin, S. F.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, D. W.; Zhou, P.; Han, P. L.; Li, Y. L.; Yan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Ti45Al8Nb alloy (in at.%) is designed to be an important high-temperature material. However, its fabrication through laser-based additive manufacturing is difficult to achieve. We present here that a good understanding of the surface structure of raw material (i.e. Ti45Al8Nb powder) is important for optimizing its process by selective laser melting (SLM). Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to determine the surface structure of Ti45Al8Nb powder. An envelope structure (∼54.0 nm in thickness) was revealed for the powder, consisting of TiO2 + Nb2O5 (as the outer surface layer)/Al2O3 + Nb2O5 (as the intermediate layer)/Al2O3 (as the inner surface layer)/Ti45Al8Nb (as the matrix). During SLM, this layered surface structure interacted with the incident laser beam and improved the laser absorptivity of Ti45Al8Nb powder by ∼32.21%. SLM experiments demonstrate that the relative density of the as-printed parts can be realized to a high degree (∼98.70%), which confirms good laser energy absorption. Such layered surface structure with appropriate phase constitution is essential for promoting SLM of the Ti45Al8Nb alloy.

  2. Study of the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured powders of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B mechanically alloyed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L.E.; Perez Alcazar, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia); Rojas, Y.A.; Bustos, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tolima, A.A. 546, Ibague (Colombia); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS6087, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Oyola Lozano, D.

    2007-07-01

    In this work we report the magnetic and structural properties obtained by Moessbauer spectrometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometry and X-ray diffraction, of powder of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B prepared by mechanical alloying. The mixtures were ball milled during 48 hours and submitted to heat treatments between 500 and 900 C under an argon atmosphere. Structural parameters were derived from high statistics X-ray patterns. The Moessbauer spectra registered at 300 K for samples without heat treatment were fitted by means of a sextet and a hyperfine field distribution, associated to a residual pure iron phase ({alpha}-Fe) and a disordered iron-based phase, respectively. From the spectra at 300 K the formation of the Fe{sub 3}C phase is observed for samples heat treated at 900 C. A quenching above 900 C accelerates the formation of the Fe{sub 3}C phase. The hysteresis loops allow to conclude that these samples behave as soft ferromagnets. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Nanocoatings size effect in nanostructured films

    CERN Document Server

    Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Size effect in structures has been taken into consideration over the last years. In comparison with coatings with micrometer-ranged thickness, nanostructured coatings usually enjoy better and appropriate properties, such as strength and resistance. These coatings enjoy unique magnetic properties and are used with the aim of producing surfaces resistant against erosion, lubricant system, cutting tools, manufacturing hardened sporadic alloys, being resistant against oxidation and corrosion. This book reviews researches on fabrication and classification of nanostructured coatings with focus on size effect in nanometric scale. Size effect on electrochemical, mechanical and physical properties of nanocoatings are presented.

  4. Silicon-germanium (Sige) nanostructures production, properties and applications in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Usami, N

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) provides the prospect of novel and enhanced electronic device performance. This book reviews the materials science and technology of SiGe nanostructures, including crystal growth, fabrication of nanostructures, material properties and applications in electronics.$bNanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices. The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and mo...

  5. Characterization of Dispersion Strengthened Copper Alloy Prepared by Internal Oxidation Combined with Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziqian; Xiao, Zhu; Li, Zhou; Zhu, Mengnan; Yang, Ziqi

    2017-11-01

    Cu-3.6 vol.% Al2O3 dispersion strengthened alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) of internal oxidation Cu-Al powders. The lattice parameter of Cu matrix decreased with milling time for powders milled in argon, while the abnormal increase of lattice parameter occurred in the air resulting from mechanochemical reactions. With a quantitative analysis, the combined method makes residual aluminum oxidized completely within 10-20 h while mechanical alloying method alone needs longer than 40 h. Lamellar structure formed and the thickness of lamellar structure decreased with milling time. The size of Al2O3 particles decreased from 46 to 22 nm after 40 h milling. After reduction, core-shell structure was found in MAed powders milled in the air. The compacted alloy produced by MAed powders milled in the argon had an average hardness and electrical conductivity of 172.2 HV and 82.1% IACS while the unmilled alloy's were 119.8 HV and 74.1% IACS due to the Al2O3 particles refinement and residual aluminum in situ oxidization.

  6. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Fucheng; Yang, Zhinan; Lv, Bo; Zheng, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plat...

  7. Nanostructured titanium-based materials for medical implants: Modeling and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny; Valiev, Ruslan Z.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of titanium-based implantable devices can provide them with superior mechanical properties and enhanced biocompatibity. An overview of advanced fabrication technologies of nanostructured, high strength, biocompatible Ti and shape memory Ni-Ti alloy for medical implants is given. C...

  8. INFLUENCE OF MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND LEAD CONTENT ON MICROSTRUCTURE, HARDNESS AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paidpilli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, one batch of prealloyed 6061Al powder was processed by mixing and another one was ball milled with varying amount of lead content (0-15 vol. %. These powders were compacted at 300MPa and sintered at 590˚C under N2. The instrumented hardness and the young’s modulus of as-sintered 6061Al-Pb alloys were examined as a function of lead content and processing route. The wear test under dry sliding condition has been performed at varying loads (10-40 N using pin-on-disc tribometer. The microstructure and worn surfaces have been investigated using SEM to evaluate the change in topographical features due to mechanical alloying and lead content. The mechanically alloyed materials showed improved wear characteristics as compared to as-mixed counterpart alloys. Delamination of 6061Al-Pb alloys decreases up to an optimum lead composition in both as-mixed and ball-milled 6061Al-Pb alloys. The results indicated minimum wear rate for as-mixed and ball-milled 6061Al alloy at 5 and 10 vol. % Pb, respectively.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures on noble-metal coated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikovska, A.Og. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, G.B. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Avdeev, G.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on Au–Ag alloy coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. • Morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy content in the catalyst layer. • Increasing the Ag content in Au–Ag catalyst layer changes the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanobelts. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on noble-metal (Au, Ag and Au–Ag alloys) coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared at a substrate temperature of 550 °C, an oxygen pressure of 5 Pa, and a laser fluence of 2 J cm{sup −2} – process parameters usually used for deposition of smooth and dense thin films. The metal layer's role is substantial for the preparation of nanostructures. Heating of the substrate changed the morphology of the metal layer and, subsequently, nanoparticles were formed. The use of different metal particles resulted in different morphologies and properties of the ZnO nanostructures synthesized. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy's content of the catalyst layer. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to nanobelts as the ratio of Au/Ag in the alloy catalyst was varied. The use of a small quantity of Ag in the Au–Ag catalyst (Au{sub 3}Ag) layer resulted predominantly in the deposition of ZnO nanorods. A higher Ag content in the catalyst alloy (AuAg{sub 2}) layer resulted in the growth of a dense structure of ZnO nanobelts.

  10. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  11. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  12. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  13. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  14. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  15. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Trizio, Luca; Manna, Liberato

    2016-09-28

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field.

  16. semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1- x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  17. Forging Colloidal Nanostructures via Cation Exchange Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Among the various postsynthesis treatments of colloidal nanocrystals that have been developed to date, transformations by cation exchange have recently emerged as an extremely versatile tool that has given access to a wide variety of materials and nanostructures. One notable example in this direction is represented by partial cation exchange, by which preformed nanocrystals can be either transformed to alloy nanocrystals or to various types of nanoheterostructures possessing core/shell, segmented, or striped architectures. In this review, we provide an up to date overview of the complex colloidal nanostructures that could be prepared so far by cation exchange. At the same time, the review gives an account of the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing these types of reactions, as they are currently understood, and outlines the main open issues and possible future developments in the field. PMID:26891471

  18. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  19. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  20. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  1. Grain size stability and hardness in nanocrystalline Cu–Al–Zr and Cu–Al–Y alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D., E-mail: droy2k6@gmail.com [Material Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, NIFFT, Ranchi 834003 (India); Mahesh, B.V. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University (Australia); Atwater, M.A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, RDRL-WMM-F, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Chan, T.E.; Scattergood, R.O.; Koch, C.C. [Material Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Cryogenic high energy ball milling has been used to synthesize nanocrystalline Cu–14Al, Cu–12Al–2Zr and Cu–12Al–2Y alloys by mechanical alloying. The alloys were studied with the aim of comparing the effect of substituting Y and Zr in place of Al, in Cu–Al alloys, on the grain size stability at elevated temperatures. The as-milled alloys were subjected to annealing at various temperatures between 200 and 900 °C and the resulting grain morphology has been studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The addition of Y results in significantly reduced susceptibility to grain growth whereas in case of CuAl and CuAlZr alloys, the susceptibility to grain growth was much higher. The hardness is substantially increased due to Zr and Y addition in the as-milled CuAl powders. However, the hardness of Cu–12Al–2Zr gradually decreases and approaches that of Cu–14Al alloy after the annealing treatment whereas in case of Cu–12Al–2Y alloy, the relative drop in the hardness is much lower after annealing. Accordingly, the efficacy of grain size stabilization by Y addition at high homologous temperatures has been explained on the basis of a recent thermodynamic stabilization models.

  2. Grain size stability and hardness in nanocrystalline Cu–Al–Zr and Cu–Al–Y alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.; Mahesh, B.V.; Atwater, M.A.; Chan, T.E.; Scattergood, R.O.; Koch, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic high energy ball milling has been used to synthesize nanocrystalline Cu–14Al, Cu–12Al–2Zr and Cu–12Al–2Y alloys by mechanical alloying. The alloys were studied with the aim of comparing the effect of substituting Y and Zr in place of Al, in Cu–Al alloys, on the grain size stability at elevated temperatures. The as-milled alloys were subjected to annealing at various temperatures between 200 and 900 °C and the resulting grain morphology has been studied using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The addition of Y results in significantly reduced susceptibility to grain growth whereas in case of CuAl and CuAlZr alloys, the susceptibility to grain growth was much higher. The hardness is substantially increased due to Zr and Y addition in the as-milled CuAl powders. However, the hardness of Cu–12Al–2Zr gradually decreases and approaches that of Cu–14Al alloy after the annealing treatment whereas in case of Cu–12Al–2Y alloy, the relative drop in the hardness is much lower after annealing. Accordingly, the efficacy of grain size stabilization by Y addition at high homologous temperatures has been explained on the basis of a recent thermodynamic stabilization models

  3. On the increasing of adhesive strength of nanotube layers on beta titanium alloys for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fojt, Jaroslav, E-mail: fojtj@vscht.cz; Filip, Vladimir; Joska, Ludek

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanostructured surface on Ti–36Nb–6Ta alloy was prepared by anodic oxidation. • The nanotubes properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. • The composition and mechanical properties of the anodized surface were investigated. • The adhesive strength of the nanostructures was over 30 MPa. - Abstract: The nanostructuring of titanium and its alloys surfaces is used inter alia for increasing the medical implants osseointegration. Many papers about this topic were published. However, in most cases there were no informations about nanostructures adhesion to the surface, which is crucial from the application point of view. The aim of this study was to prepare nanostructures on titanium beta alloy and optimized its adhesion to the alloy surface. Nanotubes were formed by anodic polarization in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. The composition of the nanotubes was described by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nanostructures adhesion was tested by pull-of method. The nanotubes on the Ti–36Nb–6Ta beta alloy surface were prepared by anodization. The nanostructures properties were modified by electrochemical process parameters. The adhesion of the nanotubes prepared in this work was satisfactory for implantological applications.

  4. Charge separation sensitized by advanced II-VI semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, David F. [Univ.of California, Merced, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This proposal focuses on how the composition and morphology of pure and alloyed II-VI semiconductor heterostructures control their spectroscopic and dynamical properties. The proposed research will use a combination of synthesis development, electron microscopy, time-resolved electronic spectroscopy and modeling calculations to study these nanostructures. The proposed research will examine the extent to which morphology, compression due to lattice mismatch and alloy effects can be used to tune the electron and hole energies and the spectroscopic properties of II-VI heterojunctions. It will also use synthesis, optical spectroscopy and HRTEM to examine the role of lattice mismatch and hence lattice strain in producing interfacial defects, and the extent to which defect formation can be prevented by controlling the composition profile through the particles and across the interfaces. Finally, we will study the magnitude of the surface roughness in core/shell nanostructures and the role of shell thickness variability on the inhomogeneity of interfacial charge transfer rates.

  5. Present and future applications of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teresa, J.M. de [CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (ICMA), Saragossa (Spain); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Saragossa (Spain); Fernandez-Pacheco, A. [University of Cambridge, TFM Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Currently, magnetic nanostructures are routinely grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). In the present article, we review the milestones produced in the topic in the past as well as the future applications of this technology. Regarding past milestones, we highlight the achievement of high-purity cobalt and iron deposits, the high lateral resolution obtained, the growth of 3D magnetic deposits, the exploration of magnetic alloys and the application of magnetic deposits for Hall sensing and in domain-wall conduit and magnetologic devices. With respect to future perspectives of the topic, we emphasize the potential role of magnetic nanostructures grown by FEBID for applications related to highly integrated 2D arrays, 3D nanowires devices, fabrication of advanced scanning-probe systems, basic studies of magnetic structures and their dynamics, small sensors (including biosensors) and new applications brought by magnetic alloys and even exchange biased systems. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis of Pt–Pd Bimetallic Porous Nanostructures as Electrocatalysts for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pt-based bimetallic nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique nanostructures and excellent catalytic properties. In this study, we prepared porous Pt–Pd nanoparticles using an efficient, one-pot co-reduction process without using any templates or toxic reactants. In this process, Pt–Pd nanoparticles with different nanostructures were obtained by adjusting the temperature and ratio of the two precursors; and their catalytic properties for the oxidation of methanol were studied. The porous Pt–Pd nanostructures showed better electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol with a higher current density (0.67 mA/cm2, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.31 mA/cm2. This method provides one easy pathway to economically prepare different alloy nanostructures for various applications.

  7. Synthesis of cadmium oxide doped ZnO nanostructures using electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Trilok; Pandya, D.K.; Singh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. → X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. → The cut-off wavelength shifted from blue to red on account of the Cd incorporation in the ZnO and the average transmittance decreased by ∼31%. → The bandgap tuning for 4-16 at% Cd in the initial solution was achieved in the range of 3.08-3.32 eV (up to 0.24 eV). - Abstract: Ternary ZnCdO alloy semiconductor nanostructures were grown using electrochemical deposition. Crystalline nanostructures/nanorods with cadmium concentration ranging from 4 to 16 at% in the initial solution were electrodeposited on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) conducting glass substrates at a constant cathodic potential -0.9 V and subsequently annealed in air at 300 deg. C. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the nanostructures were of wurtzite structure and possessed a compressive stress along the c-axis direction. The elemental composition of nanostructures was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ZnO nanostructures were found to be highly transparent and had an average transmittance of 85% in the visible range of the spectrum. After the incorporation of Cd content into ZnO the average transmittance decreased and the bandgap tuning was also achieved.

  8. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  9. Nanostructures from nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Paula M; Chen Yu; Palmer, Richard E; Nikitin, Kirill; Fitzmaurice, Donald; Preece, Jon A

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent experimental approaches to the development of surface nanostructures from nanoparticles. The formation of nanowires by electron beam writing in films of gold nanoparticles passivated with a specially designed class of ligand molecules (dialkyl sulfides) is presented, together with illustrations of practical nanostructures. Potential applications of this methodology are discussed. Another alternative to the controlled fabrication of arrays of nanoparticles, based on nanocrystals which contain molecular recognition elements in the ligand shell, is also surveyed. These particles aggregate in the presence of specifically designed molecular dications which act as a molecular binder. Finally, recent work on the formation of nanoscale surface architectures using x-ray patterning of self-assembled monolayers is introduced. Current and potential future applications of these surface nanostructures are discussed

  10. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  11. Mechanical properties of nanostructured nickel based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhtarov, Sh; Ermachenko, A, E-mail: shamil@anrb.r [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems RAS, 39, Khalturina, Ufa, 450001 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This paper will describe the investigations of a nanostructured (NS) state of nickel based INCONEL alloy 718. This structure was generated in bulk semiproducts by severe plastic deformation (SPD) via multiple isothermal forging (MIF) of a coarse-grained alloy. The initial structure consisted of {gamma}-phase grains with disperse precipitations of {gamma}{sup -}phase in the forms of discs, 50-75 nm in diameter and 20 nm in thickness. The MIF generated structures possess a large quantity of non-coherent plates and rounded precipitations of {delta}-phase, primarily along grain boundaries. In the duplex ({gamma}+{delta}) structure the grains have high dislocation density and a large number of nonequilibrium boundaries. Investigations to determine mechanical properties of the alloy in a nanostructured state were carried out. Nanocrystalline Inconel 718 (80 nm) possesses a very high room-temperature strength after SPD. Microcrystalline (MC) and NS states of the alloy were subjected to strengthening thermal treatment, and the obtained results were compared in order to determine their mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures.

  12. Large adiabatic temperature change in magnetoelastic transition in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}Cr{sub 2}Sn{sub 13} Heusler alloy of granular nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, H. R.; Sharma, S. K.; Ram, S., E-mail: prakashhr73@gmail.com [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Chatterjee, S. [High Magnetic Field Lab, UGC-DAE Consortium of Scientific Research, Kolkata-700098 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Ni-Mn-Sn alloys are a pioneering series of magnetocaloric materials of a huge heat-energy exchanger in the martensite transition. A small additive of nearly 2 at% Cr effectively tunes the valence electron density of 8.090 electrons per atom and a large change in the entropy ΔS{sub M←A} = 4.428 J/kg-K (ΔS{sub M→A} = 3.695 J/kg-K in the recycle) at the martensite ← austenite phase transition as it is useful for the magnetic refrigeration and other cooling devices. The Cr additive tempers the tetragonality with the aspect ratio c/a = 0.903 of the martensite phase and exhibits an adiabatic temperature change of 10 K. At room temperature, a hysteresis loop exhibits 48.91 emu/g saturation magnetization and 82.1 Oe coercivity.

  13. Nanostructures of Boron, Carbon and Magnesium Diboride for High Temperature Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Fang, Fang [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Iyyamperumal, Eswarmoorthi [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Keskar, Gayatri [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-12-23

    Direct fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures is achieved by employing metal (Ni,Mg) incorporated MCM-41 in the Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition (HPCVD) reaction. Different reaction conditions are tested to optimize the fabrication process. TEM analysis shows the fabrication of MgxBy nanostructures starting at the reaction temperature of 600oC, with the yield of the nanostructures increasing with increasing reaction temperature. The as-synthesized MgxBy nanostructures have the diameters in the range of 3-5nm, which do not increase with the reaction temperature consistent with templated synthesis. EELS analysis of the template removed nanostructures confirms the existence of B and Mg with possible contamination of Si and O. NEXAFS and Raman spectroscopy analysis suggested a concentric layer-by-layer MgxBy nanowire/nanotube growth model for our as-synthesized nanostructures. Ni k-edge XAS indicates that the formation of MgNi alloy particles is important for the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth of MgxBy nanostructures with fine diameters, and the presence of Mg vapor not just Mg in the catalyst is crucial for the formation of Ni-Mg clusters. Physical templating by the MCM-41 pores was shown to confine the diameter of the nanostructures. DC magnetization measurements indicate possible superconductive behaviors in the as-synthesized samples.

  14. Powder metallurgy preparation of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystals using mechanical alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Vystrčil, J.; Hendrych, R.; Kříž, J.; Mlynár, J.; Vojtěch, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, September (2014), s. 131-137 ISSN 0966-9795 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nanostructure intermetallics * Ternary alloys systems * Mechanical alloying and milling * Sintering * Diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0966979514001198#

  15. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  16. Nanostructures-History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Nanostructures-History. Inspiration to Nanotechnology-. The Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi of the Tokyo University of Science was used the term "nano-technology" in a 1974 conference, to describe semiconductor processes such as thin film His definition was, ...

  17. Spectral and Spatial Coherent Emission of Thermal Radiation from Metal-Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    in hand, the pattern would be imprinted into a slave medium such as a thermoplastic, like poly(methyl methacrylate) or PMMA for short. Thermoset ...Chong, "Fabrication of nanostructures with laser interference lithography," Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 449, pp. 261-264, 2008. [68] D

  18. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  19. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Zirconium Alloy with Nano structured Oxide Layer in Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, J. W.; Cho, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    If the temperature of the cladding materials increases above 1000 .deg. C, which can be caused by a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), Zr becomes an auto-oxidation catalyst and hence produces a huge amount of hydrogen gas from water. Therefore, many investigations are being carried out to prevent (or reduce) the hydrogen production from Zr-based cladding materials in the nuclear reactors. Our team has developed an anodization technique by which nanostructured oxide can be formed on various flat metallic elements such as Al, Ti, and Zr-based alloy. Anodization is a simple electrochemical technique and requires only a power supply and an electrolyte. In this study, Zr-based alloys with nanostructured oxide layers were oxidized by using Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and compared with the pristine one. It reveals that the nanostructured oxide layer can prevent oxidation of substrate metal in air. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA). In comparison with the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy, weight gain of the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer is lower than 10% even for 12 hours oxidation in air.

  20. Fabrication and structure of bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, Jerzy; Cieslak, Grzegorz; Kulik, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Al-based alloys of structure consisting of nanosized Al crystals, embedded in an amorphous matrix, are interesting for their excellent mechanical properties, exceeding those of the commercial crystalline Al-based alloys. Recently discovered nanocrystalline Al alloys containing silicon (Si), rare earth metal (RE) and late transition metal (Ni), combine high tensile strength and good wear resistance. The aim of this work was to manufacture bulk nanocrystalline alloys from Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal (Mm) system. Bulk nanostructured Al 91-x Si x Ni 7 Mm 2 (x = 10, 11.6, 13 at.%) alloys were produced by ball milling of nanocrystalline ribbons followed by high pressure hot isostating compaction

  1. Manganese Nanostructures and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simov, Kirie Rangelov

    The primary goal of this study is to incorporate adatoms with large magnetic moment, such as Mn, into two technologically significant group IV semiconductor (SC) matrices, e.g. Si and Ge. For the first time in the world, we experimentally demonstrate Mn doping by embedding nanostructured thin layers, i.e. delta-doping. The growth is observed by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which combines topographic and electronic information in a single image. We investigate the initial stages of Mn monolayer growth on a Si(100)(2x1) surface reconstruction, develop methods for classification of nanostructure types for a range of surface defect concentrations (1.0 to 18.2%), and subsequently encapsulate the thin Mn layer in a SC matrix. These experiments are instrumental in generating a surface processing diagram for self-assembly of monoatomic Mn-wires. The role of surface vacancies has also been studied by kinetic Monte Carlo modeling and the experimental observations are compared with the simulation results, leading to the conclusion that Si(100)(2x1) vacancies serve as nucleation centers in the Mn-Si system. Oxide formation, which happens readily in air, is detrimental to ferromagnetism and lessens the magnetic properties of the nanostructures. Therefore, the protective SC cap, composed of either Si or Ge, serves a dual purpose: it is both the embedding matrix for the Mn nanostructured thin film and a protective agent for oxidation. STM observations of partially deposited caps ensure that the nanostructures remain intact during growth. Lastly, the relationship between magnetism and nanostructure types is established by an in-depth study using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). This sensitive method detects signals even at coverages less than one atomic layer of Mn. XMCD is capable of discerning which chemical compounds contribute to the magnetic moment of the system, and provides a ratio between the orbital and spin contributions. Depending on the amount

  2. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  3. Characterization of ion beam induced nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satpati, B.; Umananda, M.; Kabiraj, D.; Som, T.; Dev, B.N.; Akimoto, K.; Ito, K.; Emoto, T.; Satyam, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring of nanostructures with energetic ion beams has become an active area of research leading to the fundamental understanding of ion-solid interactions at nanoscale regime and with possible applications in the near future. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and asymmetric X-ray Bragg-rocking curve experimental methods have been used to characterize ion-induced effects in nanostructures. The possibility of surface and sub-surface/interface alloying at nano-scale regime, ion-beam induced embedding, crater formation, sputtering yield variations for systems with isolated nanoislands, semi-continuous and continuous films of noble metals (Au, Ag) deposited on single crystalline silicon will be reviewed. MeV-ion induced changes in specified Au-nanoislands on silicon substrate are tracked as a function of ion fluence using ex situ TEM. Strain induced in the bulk silicon substrate surface due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ and C 2+ ion beam irradiation is determined by using HRTEM and asymmetric Bragg X-ray rocking curve methods. Preliminary results on 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion-induced effects in nanoislands of Co deposited on silicon substrate will be discussed

  4. SrZnO nanostructures grown on templated Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labis, Joselito P.; Alanazi, Anwar Q.; Albrithen, Hamad A.; El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed; Hezam, Mahmoud; Elafifi, Hussein Elsayed; Abaza, Osama M.

    2017-09-01

    The parameters of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been optimized to design different nanostructures of Strontium-alloyed zinc oxide (SrZnO). In this work, SrZnO nanostructures are grown on Al2O3 substrates via two-step templating/seeding approach. In the temperature range between 300 - 750 oC and O2 background pressures between 0.01 and 10 Torr, the growth conditions have been tailored to grow unique pointed leaf-like- and pitted olive-like nanostructures. Prior to the growth of the nanostructures, a thin SrZnO layer that serves as seed layer/template is first deposited on the Al2O3 substrates at ˜300oC and background oxygen pressure of 10 mTorr. The optical properties of the nanostructures were examined by UV/Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL), while the structures/morphologies were examined by SEM, TEM, and XRD. The alloyed SrZnO nanostructures, grown by ablating ZnO targets with 5, 10, 25% SrO contents, have in common a single-crystal hexagonal nanostructure with (0002) preferential orientation and have shown remarkable changes in the morphological and optical properties of the materials. To date, this is the only reported work on optimization of laser ablation parameters to design novel SrZnO nanostructures in the 5-25% alloying range, as most related Sr-doped ZnO studies were done below 7% doping. Although the physical properties of ZnO are modified via Sr doping, the mechanism remains unclear. The PLD-grown SrZnO nanostructures were directly grown onto the Al2O3 substrates; thus making these nanomaterials very promising for potential applications in biosensors, love-wave filters, solar cells, and ultrasonic oscillators.

  5. SrZnO nanostructures grown on templated Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito P. Labis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of pulsed laser deposition (PLD have been optimized to design different nanostructures of Strontium-alloyed zinc oxide (SrZnO. In this work, SrZnO nanostructures are grown on Al2O3 substrates via two-step templating/seeding approach. In the temperature range between 300 - 750 oC and O2 background pressures between 0.01 and 10 Torr, the growth conditions have been tailored to grow unique pointed leaf-like- and pitted olive-like nanostructures. Prior to the growth of the nanostructures, a thin SrZnO layer that serves as seed layer/template is first deposited on the Al2O3 substrates at ∼300oC and background oxygen pressure of 10 mTorr. The optical properties of the nanostructures were examined by UV/Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL, while the structures/morphologies were examined by SEM, TEM, and XRD. The alloyed SrZnO nanostructures, grown by ablating ZnO targets with 5, 10, 25% SrO contents, have in common a single-crystal hexagonal nanostructure with (0002 preferential orientation and have shown remarkable changes in the morphological and optical properties of the materials. To date, this is the only reported work on optimization of laser ablation parameters to design novel SrZnO nanostructures in the 5-25% alloying range, as most related Sr-doped ZnO studies were done below 7% doping. Although the physical properties of ZnO are modified via Sr doping, the mechanism remains unclear. The PLD-grown SrZnO nanostructures were directly grown onto the Al2O3 substrates; thus making these nanomaterials very promising for potential applications in biosensors, love-wave filters, solar cells, and ultrasonic oscillators.

  6. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  7. Nonswelling alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  8. Nonswelling alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses

  9. Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility.

  10. Vortices and nanostructured superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides expert coverage of modern and novel aspects of the study of vortex matter, dynamics, and pinning in nanostructured and multi-component superconductors. Vortex matter in superconducting materials is a field of enormous beauty and intellectual challenge, which began with the theoretical prediction of vortices by A. Abrikosov (Nobel Laureate). Vortices, vortex dynamics, and pinning are key features in many of today’s human endeavors: from the huge superconducting accelerating magnets and detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which opened new windows of knowledge on the universe, to the tiny superconducting transceivers using Rapid Single Flux Quanta, which have opened a revolutionary means of communication. In recent years, two new features have added to the intrinsic beauty and complexity of the subject: nanostructured/nanoengineered superconductors, and the discovery of a range of new materials showing multi-component (multi-gap) superconductivity. In this book, leading researche...

  11. Hybrid phonons in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces ...

  12. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  14. PREFACE: Nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Richard E.

    2003-10-01

    We can define nanostructured surfaces as well-defined surfaces which contain lateral features of size 1-100 nm. This length range lies well below the micron regime but equally above the Ångstrom regime, which corresponds to the interatomic distances on single-crystal surfaces. This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter presents a collection of twelve papers which together address the fabrication, characterization, properties and applications of such nanostructured surfaces. Taken together they represent, in effect, a status report on the rapid progress taking place in this burgeoning area. The first four papers in this special issue have been contributed by members of the European Research Training Network ‘NanoCluster’, which is concerned with the deposition, growth and characterization of nanometre-scale clusters on solid surfaces—prototypical examples of nanoscale surface features. The paper by Vandamme is concerned with the fundamentals of the cluster-surface interaction; the papers by Gonzalo and Moisala address, respectively, the optical and catalytic properties of deposited clusters; and the paper by van Tendeloo reports the application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate the surface structure of spherical particles in a catalyst support. The fifth paper, by Mendes, is also the fruit of a European Research Training Network (‘Micro-Nano’) and is jointly contributed by three research groups; it reviews the creation of nanostructured surface architectures from chemically-synthesized nanoparticles. The next five papers in this special issue are all concerned with the characterization of nanostructured surfaces with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The papers by Bolotov, Hamilton and Dunstan demonstrate that the STM can be employed for local electrical measurements as well as imaging, as illustrated by the examples of deposited clusters, model semiconductor structures and real

  15. Fabrication of Ti–Nb–Ag alloy via powder metallurgy for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Ming; Wen, Cuie; Hodgson, Peter; Li, Yuncang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti–26Nb–5Ag alloy sintered by SPS showed a dense structure without any pores. • Nanostructure Ag was distributed in the Ti–26Nb–5Ag alloy sintered by SPS. • The SPS sample displayed higher strength than that of traditional sintered sample. - Abstract: Ti and some of its alloys are widely used as orthopedic implants. In the present study, Ti–26Nb–5Ag alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying followed by vacuum furnace sintering or spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the Ti–Nb–Ag alloys were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), compressive and micro-hardness tests. The effect of different sintering methods on the microstructure and properties of Ti–Nb–Ag alloy was discussed. The results showed that the titanium alloy sintered by vacuum furnace exhibited a microstructure consisting of α, β and a small amount of α″ martensite phase; whilst the SPS sintered alloy exhibited a microstructure consisting of α, β and a small amount of α″ martensite phase, as well as a nanostructured Ag homogeneously distributed at the boundaries of the β phases. The Ti–Nb–Ag alloy sintered by SPS possessed fracture strength nearly 3 times of the alloy sintered by vacuum furnace

  16. A study of stability of MgH{sub 2} in Mg-8at%Al alloy powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanniru, Mahesh; Ebrahimi, Fereshteh [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Slattery, Darlene K. [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2010-04-15

    To investigate the effect of Al addition on the stability of magnesium hydride, the hydrogenation characteristics of a Mg-8at%Al alloy powder synthesized using the electrodeposition technique were evaluated. The characterization of the hydrogenation behavior within the 180 C-280 C temperature range and the subsequent microstructural analysis elucidated that the amount of Al present in the hydride decreased with increasing temperature. This observation suggests that Al has very low solubility in magnesium hydride but Al can be accommodated in MgH{sub 2} by processing under non-equilibrium conditions. Pressure-composition isotherms were developed at different temperatures for the Mg-Al powder as well as pure Mg powder. The results indicate that the enthalpy of formation was slightly lower for the Mg-8at%Al powder while the enthalpy of dissociation did not change. The absence of noticeable influence of Al addition on the stability of magnesium hydride is attributed to its lack of solubility. (author)

  17. Vacuum Pressureless Sintering of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with Full Densification and Forged-Like Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ce; Lu, Boxin; Wang, Haiying; Guo, Zhimeng; Paley, Vladislav; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2018-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V ingots with a nearly 100% density, fine and homogeneous basket-weave microstructure, and better comprehensive mechanical properties (UTS = 935 MPa, Y.S. = 865 MPa, El. = 15.8%), have been manufactured by vacuum pressureless sintering of blended elemental powders. Coarse TiH2 powder, Al powder (2, 20 μm), V powder, and Al-V master alloy powder were used as raw materials to produce different powder mixtures ( D 50 = 10 μm). Then, the compacts made by cold isostatic pressing were consolidated by different sintering curves. A detailed investigation of different as-sintered samples revealed that a higher density can be obtained by generating transient molten Al in the sintering process. Coarse Al powder and a rapid heating rate under the melting point of Al contribute to molten Al formation. The presence of temporary liquid phase changes the sintering mechanism, accelerating the sintering neck formation, improving sinterability of the powder mixtures. Density of 99.5% was achieved at 1150 °C, which is markedly lower than the sintering temperatures reported for conventional blended elemental powder metallurgy routes. In addition, low interstitial content, especially for oxygen (0.17 wt.%), is obtained by strict process control.

  18. Supper strong nanostructured TWIP steels for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Yuan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A ductile and super strong nanostructured twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP steels were fabricated by cold rolling and recovery treatment. This strong and ductile nanostructured alloy can be used for the anti-intrusion part of body-in-white. Cold rolling was used to produce intensive nano-twins so that the microstructure was greatly refined. Recovery is employed to anneal dislocations for improving the ductility. A physical model is proposed to describe the relationship between the yield stress and the twin density. Furthermore, the present work also found that the activation energy for recovery is ~160 J/mol, which implies that the recovery mechanism is governed by dislocation core diffusion.

  19. Electrical Resistance Alloys and Low-Expansion Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of electrical resistance alloys and alloys with low thermal expansion. The electrical resistance alloys comprise resistance alloys, heating alloys and thermostat alloys. The low expansion alloys comprise alloys with very low expansion coefficients, alloys with very low...... thermoelastic coefficients and age hardenable low expansion alloys....

  20. Radiation damage in nanostructured metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    High energy neutron and charged particle radiation cause microstructural and mechanical degradation in structural metals and alloys, such as phase segregation, void swelling, embrittlement and creep. Radiation induced damages typically limit nuclear materials to a lifetime of about 40 years. Next generation nuclear reactors require materials that can sustain over 60 - 80 years. Therefore it is of great significance to explore new materials with better radiation resistance, to design metals with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe. Such systems obtain high volume fraction of boundaries, which are considered sinks to radiation induced defects. From the viewpoint of nanomechanics, it is of interest to investigate the plastic deformation mechanisms of nanostructured films, which typically show strong size dependence. By controlling the feature size (layer thickness, twin spacing and grain size), it is applicable to picture a deformation mechanism map which also provides prerequisite information for subsequent radiation hardening study. And from the viewpoint of radiation effects, it is of interest to explore the fundamentals of radiation response, to examine the microstructural and mechanical variations of irradiated nanometals and to enrich the design database. More importantly, with the assistance of in situ techniques, it is appealing to examine the defect generation, evolution, annihilation, absorption and interaction with internal interfaces (layer interfaces, twin boundaries and grain boundaries). Moreover, well-designed nanostructures can also verify the speculation that radiation induced defect density and hardening show clear size dependence. The focus of this thesis lies in the radiation response of Ag/Ni multilayers and nanotwinned Ag

  1. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  2. Semiconductors and semimetals nanostructured systems

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Beer, Albert C; Reed, Mark A

    1992-01-01

    This is the first available volume to consolidate prominent topics in the emerging field of nanostructured systems. Recent technological advancements have led to a new era of nanostructure physics, allowing for the fabrication of nanostructures whose behavior is dominated by quantum interference effects. This new capability has enthused the experimentalist and theorist alike. Innumerable possibilities have now opened up for physical exploration and device technology on the nanoscale. This book, with contributions from five pioneering researchers, will allow the expert and novice alike to explore a fascinating new field.Provides a state-of-the-art review of quantum-scale artificially nanostructured electronic systemsIncludes contributions by world-known experts in the fieldOpens the field to the non-expert with a concise introductionFeatures discussions of:Low-dimensional condensed matter physicsProperties of nanostructured, ultrasmall electronic systemsMesoscopic physics and quantum transportPhysics of 2D ele...

  3. Peroxidases in nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria eCarmona-Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidases are enzymes catalyzing redox reactions that cleave peroxides. Their active redox centers have heme, cysteine thiols, selenium, manganese and other chemical moieties. Peroxidases and their mimetic systems have several technological and biomedical applications such as environment protection, energy production, bioremediation, sensors and immunoassays design and drug delivery devices. The combination of peroxidases or systems with peroxidase-like activity with nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, thin films, liposomes, micelles, nanoflowers, nanorods and others is often an efficient strategy to improve catalytic activity, targeting and reusability.

  4. Chiral silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.; Fahlteich, J.; Hoeche, Th.; Wagner, G.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2006-01-01

    Glancing angle ion beam assisted deposition is used for the growth of amorphous silicon nanospirals onto [0 0 1] silicon substrates in a temperature range from room temperature to 475 deg. C. The nanostructures are post-growth annealed in an argon atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. Recrystallization of silicon within the persisting nanospiral configuration is demonstrated for annealing temperatures above 800 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the silicon samples prior and after temperature treatment

  5. Effect of reversible hydrogen alloying and plastic deformation on microstructure development in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzinova, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    hydrogen content and deformation conditions in order to obtain nanostructured titanium alloys with enhanced mechanical properties. New combined method for formation of nanostructure in titanium alloys was developed. It includes multistep isothermal forging and reversible hydrogen alloying. Preforms produced by the proposed technique are characterized by high room temperature strength and improved workability at lowered temperatures

  6. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  7. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  8. Heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous alloys on catalytic nanoparticles to produce 2D patterned nanocrystal arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, A K [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Krishna, H [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Miller, C [Center for Materials Innovation, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Templates are widely used to produce artificial nanostructures. Here, laser-assisted self-organization has been used to form one- and two-dimensional (D) nanoarrays of Cu nanocrystals. Using these nanoarrays as a template, a 2D patterned ferromagnetic nanostructure of FeCrSi nanocrystals has been produced by heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nanocrystals by partial devitrification from an amorphous Fe{sub 64.5}Cr{sub 10}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3} alloy with the Cu nanoparticles acting as catalytic nucleation sites. The interaction among the ferromagnetic nanocrystals via the residual amorphous matrix can be controlled by suitable choice of the amorphous alloy composition. Although demonstrated for a ferromagnetic system, the processing method may have much wider applicability for producing artificial nanostructures of a wide variety of materials when materials-specific catalysts and amorphous alloy compositions are judiciously chosen.

  9. Heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous alloys on catalytic nanoparticles to produce 2D patterned nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A K; Krishna, H; Favazza, C; Miller, C; Kalyanaraman, R

    2007-01-01

    Templates are widely used to produce artificial nanostructures. Here, laser-assisted self-organization has been used to form one- and two-dimensional (D) nanoarrays of Cu nanocrystals. Using these nanoarrays as a template, a 2D patterned ferromagnetic nanostructure of FeCrSi nanocrystals has been produced by heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nanocrystals by partial devitrification from an amorphous Fe 64.5 Cr 10 Si 13.5 B 9 Nb 3 alloy with the Cu nanoparticles acting as catalytic nucleation sites. The interaction among the ferromagnetic nanocrystals via the residual amorphous matrix can be controlled by suitable choice of the amorphous alloy composition. Although demonstrated for a ferromagnetic system, the processing method may have much wider applicability for producing artificial nanostructures of a wide variety of materials when materials-specific catalysts and amorphous alloy compositions are judiciously chosen

  10. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...

  11. Leading research on super metal. 3. Amorphous and nanostructured metallic materials; Super metal no sendo kenkyu. 3. Kogata buzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Very fine structure control technique for amorphous and nanostructured metallic materials was reviewed to exceed the marginal performance of small metallic member materials. In Japan, high strength alloys and anticorrosion alloys are currently developed as an amorphous structure control technique, and ultra fine powder production and nano-compaction molding are studied for nanostructured materials. Fabrication of amorphous alloy wire materials and metal glass in USA are also introduced. Fabrication of metallic nanocrystals deposited within gas phase in Germany are attracting attention. The strength and abrasion resistance are remarkably enhanced by making nanostructured crystals and dispersing them. It may be most suitable to utilize amorphous and nanostructured metallic materials for earth-friendly materials having anticorrosion, and catalyst and biomaterial affinities, and also for magnetic materials. It is important for controlling micro-structures to clarify the formation mechanism of structures. For their processing techniques, the diversity and possibility are suggested, as to the condensation and solidification of gaseous and liquid phase metals, the molding and processing of very fine solid phase alloys, and the manufacturing members by heat treatment. 324 refs., 109 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to superconductors having high critical currents. The superconductor described comprises an alloy consisting of a matrix of a Type II superconductor which is a homogeneous mixture of 50 to 95 at.% Pb and 5 to 40 at.%Bi and/or 10 to 50 at.%In. Dispersed in the matrix is a material to provide pinning centres comprising from 0.01% to 20% by volume of the alloy; this material is a stable discontinuous phase of discrete crystalline particles of Cu, Mn, Te, Se, Ni, Ca, Cr, Ce, Ge or La, either in the form of the element or a compound with a component of the matrix. These particles should have an average diameter of not more than 2μ. A method for making this alloy is described. (U.K.)

  13. Development of Nanostructured Austempered Ductile Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneerselvam, Saranya

    Austempered Ductile Cast Iron is emerging as an important engineering materials in recent years because of its excellent combination of mechanical properties such as high strength with good ductility, good fatigue strength and fracture toughness together with excellent wear resistance. These combinations of properties are achieved by the microstructure consisting of acicular ferrite and high carbon austenite. Refining of the ausferritic microstructure will further enhance the mechanical properties of ADI and the presence of proeutectoid ferrite in the microstructure will considerably improve the ductility of the material. Thus, the focus of this investigation was to develop nanostructured austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) consisting of proeutectoid ferrite, bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite and to determine its microstructure-property relationships. Compact tension and cylindrical tensile test samples were prepared as per ASTM standards, subjected to various heat treatments and the mechanical tests including the tensile tests, plane strain fracture toughness tests, hardness tests were performed as per ASTM standards. Microstructures were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM. Nanostructured ADI was achieved by a unique heat treatment consisting of austenitization at a high temperature and subsequent plastic deformation at the same austenitizing temperature followed by austempering. The investigation also examined the effect of cryogenic treatment, effect of intercritical austenitizing followed by single and two step austempering, effect of high temperature plastic deformation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the low alloyed ductile cast iron. The mechanical and thermal stability of the austenite was also investigated. An analytical model has been developed to understand the crack growth process associated with the stress induced transformation of retained austenite to martensite.

  14. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    in the possibilities o®ered by the quantum mechanical behavior of electrons when it comes to informa- tion processing. This branch of research is also concerned with fundamental questions in physics. Besides an introduction to the above-mentioned subjects, the thesis con- tains a number of contributions to the ¯elds...... of coherent electron manip- ulation and the statistical description of electron transport through nano- devices. The physics of the electrons are described with a combination of numerical methods, developed and applied in the thesis, and more analytical approaches, which are also discussed. The thesis......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method...

  15. Magnetism in carbon nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelberg, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism in carbon nanostructures is a rapidly expanding field of current materials science. Its progress is driven by the wide range of applications for magnetic carbon nanosystems, including transmission elements in spintronics, building blocks of cutting-edge nanobiotechnology, and qubits in quantum computing. These systems also provide novel paradigms for basic phenomena of quantum physics, and are thus of great interest for fundamental research. This comprehensive survey emphasizes both the fundamental nature of the field, and its groundbreaking nanotechnological applications, providing a one-stop reference for both the principles and the practice of this emerging area. With equal relevance to physics, chemistry, engineering and materials science, senior undergraduate and graduate students in any of these subjects, as well as all those interested in novel nanomaterials, will gain an in-depth understanding of the field from this concise and self-contained volume.

  16. Self-assembly of bimetallic AuxPd1-x alloy nanoparticles via dewetting of bilayers through the systematic control of temperature, thickness, composition and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Bastola, Sushil; Lee, Jihoon

    2018-03-01

    Bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are attractive materials for various applications with their morphology and elemental composition dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties. This work demonstrates the evolution of AuxPd1-x alloy nanostructures by the solid-state dewetting of sequentially deposited bilayers of Au and Pd on sapphire (0001). Various shape, size and configuration of AuxPd1‑x alloy NPs are fabricated by the systematic control of annealing temperature, deposition thickness, composition as well as stacking sequence. The evolution of alloy nanostructures is attributed to the surface diffusion, interface diffusion between bilayers, surface and interface energy minimization, Volmer-Weber growth model and equilibrium configuration. Depending upon the temperature, the surface morphologies evolve with the formation of pits, grains and voids and gradually develop into isolated semi-spherical alloy NPs by the expansion of voids and agglomeration of Au and Pd adatoms. On the other hand, small isolated to enlarged elongated and over-grown layer-like alloy nanostructures are fabricated due to the coalescence, partial diffusion and inter-diffusion with the increased bilayer thickness. In addition, the composition and stacking sequence of bilayers remarkably affect the final geometry of AuxPd1‑x nanostructures due to the variation in the dewetting process. The optical analysis based on the UV–vis-NIR reflectance spectra reveals the surface morphology dependent plasmonic resonance, scattering, reflection and absorption properties of AuxPd1‑x alloy nanostructures.

  17. Reduction reactions applied for synthesizing different nano-structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo de; Correia de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Marcelo Senna [Basck Ltd. (United Kingdom); Moura, Francisco José, E-mail: moura@puc-rio.br [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Solórzano-Naranjo, Ivan Guillermo [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Different materials have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates thermal decomposition to prepare oxide or co-formed oxides and reduction by hydrogen or graphite to obtain mixed oxides, composites or alloys. These chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support its feasibility. In addition, selective reduction reactions have been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic composites, and alloys. Structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction and, more extensively, Transmission Electron Microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM), indicated the possibility of obtaining oxide and alloy crystals of sizes ranging between 20 and 40 nm. - Highlights: • The viability in obtaining Ni–Co, Cu–Al, Mn–Al co-formed nano oxides was evaluated. • Partial and complete H{sub 2} reduction were used to produce alloy, composite and Spinel. • XRD, TEM and HREM techniques were used to characterize the obtained nanostructures.

  18. Phase evolution in Al-Ni-(Ti, Nb, Zr) powder blends by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, A. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur (India); Manna, I. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, I.I.T., Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur (India)], E-mail: c.partha@mailcity.com

    2007-08-25

    Mechanical alloying of Al-rich Al-Ni-ETM (ETM = Ti, Nb, Zr) elemental powder blends by planetary ball milling yielded amorphous and/or nanocrystalline products after ball milling for suitable duration. Powder samples collected at different stages of ball milling have been examined by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning caloremetry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to examine the solid-state phase evolution. Powder blends having nominal composition of Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 10}Ti{sub 10} and Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 10}Nb{sub 10} yielded predominantly amorphous products, while the other alloys formed composite microstructures comprising nanaocrystalline and amorphous solid solutions. The amorphous Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 10}Ti{sub 10} alloy was mixed with different amounts of Al powder, and subjected to warm rolling after consolidation within the Al-cans with or without intermediate annealing for 10 min at 500 K to obtain sheet of 2.5 mm thickness. Notable improvement in mechanical properties has been achieved for the composite sheets in comparison to the pure Al.

  19. Advanced composite alloys for constructional parts of robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issin, D. K.; Zholdubayeva, Zh D.; Neshina, Y. G.; Alkina, A. D.; Khuangan, N.; Rahimova, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years all over the world special attention has been paid to the development and implementation of nanostructured materials possessing unique properties and opening fascinating prospects for the development of technical progress in various fields of human activities. A special place can be given to the development of service robots, the market of which is actively developing. There is problem associated mainly with the lack of heat-strengthened alloys which consists in low thermal stability of the alloy properties under the conditions of elevated variable temperatures and loads. The article presents studies to assess the effect of composition, the amounts of refractory nanoscale particles and methods for their introduction into the melt on the structure and properties in nanostructured composite aluminum alloys. The powders of metals, alloys, as well as silicon carbide and aluminum oxide were used to produce the nanostructured powder composite materials. As a result of the research, NPCM compositions containing micro-size particles of transition metals that are carriers of nanosized reinforcing particles and initiators of the formation of an intermetallide of endogenous origin in a melt.

  20. Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA NSTRF proposal entitled Nanostructured Photovoltaics for Space Power is targeted towards research to improve the current state of the art photovoltaic...

  1. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    A guide to the theory, application and potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. It offers an overview of resonance fluorescence emission.$bAn understanding of the interaction between light and matter on a quantum level is of fundamental interest and has many applications in optical technologies. The quantum nature of the interaction has recently attracted great attention for applications of semiconductor nanostructures in quantum information processing. Quantum optics with semiconductor nanostructures is a key guide to the theory, experimental realisation, and future potential of semiconductor nanostructures in the exploration of quantum optics. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of single quantum dot systems, beginning with a look at resonance fluorescence emission. Quantum optics with single quantum dots in photonic crystal and micro cavities are explored in detail, before part two goes on to review nanolasers with quantum dot emitters. Light-matter interaction...

  2. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to advance the fundamental understanding of novel photoelectronic organic device structures integrated with inorganic nanostructures, while also expanding the general field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems.

  3. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  4. Quantum Nanostructures by Droplet Epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2009-01-01

    Droplet epitaxy is an alternative growth technique for several quantum nanostructures. Indium droplets are distributed randomly on GaAs substrates at low temperatures (120-350'C). Under background pressure of group V elements, Arsenic and Phosphorous, InAs and InP nanostructures are created. Quantum rings with isotropic shape are obtained at low temperature range. When the growth thickness is increased, quantum rings are transformed to quantum dot rings. At high temperature range, anisotropic...

  5. Nanostructures via DNA scaffold metallization

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, C.; Zinchenko, A.; Baigl, D.; Pyshkina, O.; Sergeyev, V.; Endo, Kazunaka; Yoshikawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    The critical role of polymers in process of noble metals nanostructures formation is well known, however, the use of DNA chain template in this process is yet largely unknown. In this study we demonstrate different ways of silver deposition on DNA template and report the influence of silver nanostructures formation on DNA conformational state. Metallization of DNA chain proceeds by two different scenarios depending on DNA conformation. If DNA chain is unfolded (elongated) chain, silver reduct...

  6. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  7. Mechanical design of DNA nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos E.; Su, Hai-Jun; Marras, Alexander E.; Zhou, Lifeng; Johnson, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. As the applications of DNA nanotechnology expand, a consideration of their mechanical behavior is becoming essential to understand how these structures will respond to physical interactions. This review considers three major avenues of recent progress in this area: (1) measuring and designing mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures, (2) designing complex nanostructures based on imposed mechanical stresses, and (3) designing and controlling structurally dynamic nanostructures. This work has laid the foundation for mechanically active nanomachines that can generate, transmit, and respond to physical cues in molecular systems.Structural DNA nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that has demonstrated great potential for applications such as single molecule sensing, drug delivery, and templating molecular components. As the applications of DNA nanotechnology expand, a consideration of their mechanical behavior is becoming essential to understand how these structures will respond to physical interactions. This review considers three major avenues of recent progress in this area: (1) measuring and designing mechanical properties of DNA nanostructures, (2) designing complex nanostructures based on imposed mechanical stresses, and (3) designing and controlling structurally dynamic nanostructures. This work has laid the foundation for mechanically active nanomachines that can generate, transmit, and respond to physical cues in molecular systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07153k

  8. Study on Nanostructures Induced by High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four techniques using high-current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB were proposed to obtain surface nanostructure of metal and alloys. The first method involves the distribution of several fine Mg nanoparticles on the top surface of treated samples by evaporation of pure Mg with low boiling point. The second technique uses superfast heating, melting, and cooling induced by HCPEB irradiation to refine the primary phase or the second phase in alloys to nanosized uniform distributed phases in the matrix, such as the quasicrystal phase Mg30Zn60Y10 in the quasicrystal alloy Mg67Zn30Y3. The third technique involves the refinement of eutectic silicon phase in hypereutectic Al-15Si alloys to fine particles with the size of several nanometers through solid solution and precipitation refinement. Finally, in the deformation zone induced by HCPEB irradiation, the grain size can be refined to several hundred nanometers, such as the grain size of the hypereutectic Al-15Si alloys in the deformation zone, which can reach ~400 nm after HCPEB treatment for 25 pulses. Therefore, HCPEB technology is an efficient way to obtain surface nanostructure.

  9. Monitoring alloy formation during mechanical alloying process by x-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom; Noraizam Md Diah; Mazli Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring alloying (MA) is a novel processing technique that use high energy impact ball mill to produce alloys with enhanced properties and microscopically homogeneous materials starting from various powder mixtures. Mechanical alloying process was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion strengthened nickel superalloys. In principal, in high-energy ball milling process, alloy is formed by the result of repeated welding, fracturing and rewelding of powder particles in a high energy ball mill. In this process a powder mixture in a ball mill is subjected to high-energy collisions among balls. MA has been shown to be capable of synthesizing a variety of materials. It is known to be capable to prepare equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases starting from blended elemental or prealloyed powders. The process ability to produce highly metastable materials such as amorphous alloys and nanostructured materials has made this process attractive and it has been considered as a promising material processing technique that could be used to produce many advanced materials at low cost. The present study explores the conditions under which aluminum alloys formation occurs by ball milling of blended aluminum and its alloying elements powders. In this work, attempt was made in producing aluminum 2024 alloys by milling of blended elemental aluminum powder of 2024 composition in a stainless steel container under argon atmosphere for up to 210 minutes. X-ray diffraction together with thermal analysis techniques has been used to monitor phase changes in the milled powder. Results indicate that, using our predetermined milling parameters, alloys were formed after 120 minutes milling. The thermal analysis data was also presented in this report. (Author)

  10. Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...

  11. Guided aggregation of three-dimensional nanostructures in stressed thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qiwei; Bassani, John L; Lou, Yucun

    2012-01-01

    Stress fields induced by external loads can alter the energy landscape in alloy systems and direct precipitation to form organized nanostructures. The aggregation of periodically patterned nanostructures via surface indentation on thin films is investigated using a phase-field model, which includes chemical, interfacial and elastic energies coupled with externally imposed stress fields. Both cylindrical and spherical indenters are considered, which lead to the formation of nanorods and nanodots, respectively, in the film, and the effects of loading geometry and material properties are systematically studied through 3D simulations. Nanostructures can be formed with varying precipitate morphologies. The results are shown to be consistent with estimates of elastic interaction energies associated with transformation strain, contrast in elastic properties and external loading. (paper)

  12. Reversibility of Pt-Skin and Pt-Skeleton Nanostructures in Acidic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Julien; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Dubau, Laetitia; Chatenet, Marian; Soldo-Olivier, Yvonne; Guétaz, Laure; Bayle-Guillemaud, Pascale; Maillard, Frédéric

    2014-02-06

    Following a well-defined series of acid and heat treatments on a benchmark Pt3Co/C sample, three different nanostructures of interest for the electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction were tailored. These nanostructures could be sorted into the "Pt-skin" structure, made of one pure Pt overlayer, and the "Pt-skeleton" structure, made of 2-3 Pt overlayers surrounding the Pt-Co alloy core. Using a unique combination of high-resolution aberration-corrected STEM-EELS, XRD, EXAFS, and XANES measurements, we provide atomically resolved pictures of these different nanostructures, including measurement of the Pt-shell thickness forming in acidic media and the resulting changes of the bulk and core chemical composition. It is shown that the Pt-skin is reverted toward the Pt-skeleton upon contact with acid electrolyte. This change in structure causes strong variations of the chemical composition.

  13. Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Pt-Based One-Dimensional Hierarchically Porous Nanostructures with Large Mesopores as Highly Efficient ORR Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Junhua; Engelhard, Mark H; Xia, Haibing; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-12-28

    Rational design and construction of Pt-based porous nanostructures with large mesopores have triggered significant considerations because of their high surface area and more efficient mass transport. Hydrochloric acid-induced kinetically controlled reduction of metal precursors in the presence of soft template F-127 and hard template tellurium nanowires has been successfully demonstrated to construct one-dimensional hierarchical porous PtCu alloy nanostructures with large mesopores. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the PtCu hierarchically porous nanostructures synthesized under optimized conditions exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction in acid media.

  14. Kinetically Controlled Synthesis of Pt-Based One-Dimensional Hierarchically Porous Nanostructures with Large Mesopores as Highly Efficient ORR Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Song, Junhua; Engelhard, Mark H.; Xia, Haibing; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-12-28

    Rational design and construction of Pt-based porous nanostructures with large mesopores have triggered significant considerations because of their high surface area and more efficient mass transport. Hydrochloric acid-induced kinetic reduction of metal precursors in the presence of soft template F-127 and hard template tellurium nanowires has been successfully demonstrated to construct one-dimensional hierarchical porous PtCu alloy nanostructures with large mesopores. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the resultant PtCu hierarchically porous nanostructures with optimized composition exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction.

  15. Hierarchical Pd-Sn alloy nanosheet dendrites: an economical and highly active catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, An-Liang; Ou, Yan-Nan; Li, Qi; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Wen-Xia; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical alloy nanosheet dendrites (ANSDs) are highly favorable for superior catalytic performance and efficient utilization of catalyst because of the special characteristics of alloys, nanosheets, and dendritic nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a facile and efficient electrodeposition approach for the controllable synthesis of Pd-Sn ANSDs with high surface area. These synthesized Pd-Sn ANSDs exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and superior long-term cycle stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocataytic activity of Pd-Sn ANSDs may be attributed to Pd-Sn alloys, nanosheet dendrite induced promotional effect, large number of active sites on dendrite surface, large surface area, and good electrical contact with the base electrode. Because of the simple implement and high flexibility, the proposed approach can be considered as a general and powerful strategy to synthesize the alloy electrocatalysts with high surface areas and open dendritic nanostructures.

  16. Tailoring and patterning the grain size of nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detor, Andrew J.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys that exhibit grain boundary segregation can access thermodynamically stable or metastable states with the average grain size dictated by the alloying addition. Here we consider nanocrystalline Ni-W alloys and demonstrate that the W content controls the grain size over a very broad range: ∼2-140 nm as compared with ∼2-20 nm in previous work on strongly segregating systems. This trend is attributed to a relatively weak tendency for W segregation to the grain boundaries. Based upon this observation, we introduce a new synthesis technique allowing for precise composition control during the electrodeposition of Ni-W alloys, which, in turn, leads to precise control of the nanocrystalline grain size. This technique offers new possibilities for understanding the structure-property relationships of nanocrystalline solids, such as the breakdown of Hall-Petch strength scaling, and also opens the door to a new class of customizable materials incorporating patterned nanostructures

  17. Development of ODS FeCrAl alloys for accident-tolerant fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-18

    FeCrAl alloys are prime candidates for accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their excellent oxidation resistance up to 1400 C and good mechanical properties at intermediate temperature. Former commercial oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys such as PM2000 exhibit significantly better tensile strength than wrought FeCrAl alloys, which would alloy for the fabrication of a very thin (~250 m) ODS FeCrAl cladding and limit the neutronic penalty from the replacement of Zr-based alloys by Fe-based alloys. Several Fe-12-Cr-5Al ODS alloys where therefore fabricated by ball milling FeCrAl powders with Y2O3 and additional oxides such as TiO2 or ZrO2. The new Fe-12Cr-5Al ODS alloys showed excellent tensile strength up to 800 C but limited ductility. Good oxidation resistance in steam at 1200 and 1400 C was observed except for one ODS FeCrAl alloy containing Ti. Rolling trials were conducted at 300, 600 C and 800 C to simulate the fabrication of thin tube cladding and a plate thickness of ~0.6mm was reached before the formation of multiple edge cracks. Hardness measurements at different stages of the rolling process, before and after annealing for 1h at 1000 C, showed that a thinner plate thickness could likely be achieved by using a multi-step approach combining warm rolling and high temperature annealing. Finally, new Fe-10-12Cr-5.5-6Al-Z gas atomized powders have been purchased to fabricate the second generation of low-Cr ODS FeCrAl alloys. The main goals are to assess the effect of O, C, N and Zr contents on the ODS FeCrAl microstructure and mechanical properties, and to optimize the fabrication process to improve the ductility of the 2nd gen ODS FeCrAl while maintaining good mechanical strength and oxidation resistance.

  18. The nanostructure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction techniques are making progress in tackling the difficult problem of solving the structures of nanoparticles and nanoscale materials. The great gift of x-ray crystallography has made us almost complacent in our ability to locate the three-dimensional coordinates of atoms in a crystal with a precision of around 10 -4 nm. However, the powerful methods of crystallography break down for structures in which order only extends over a few nanometers. In fact, as we near the one hundred year mark since the birth of crystallography, we face a resilient frontier in condensed matter physics: our inability to routinely and robustly determine the structure of complex nanostructured and amorphous materials. Knowing the structure and arrangement of atoms in a solid is so fundamental to understanding its properties that the topic routinely occupies the early chapters of every solid-state physics textbook. Yet what has become clear with the emergence of nanotechnology is that diffraction data alone may not be enough to uniquely solve the structure of nanomaterials. As part of a growing effort to incorporate the results of other techniques to constrain x-ray refinements - a method called 'complex modeling' which is a simple but elegant approach for combining information from spectroscopy with diffraction data to solve the structure of several amorphous and nanostructured materials. Crystallography just works, so we rarely question how and why this is so, yet understanding the physics of diffraction can be very helpful as we consider the nanostructure problem. The relationship between the electron density distribution in three dimensions (i.e., the crystal structure) and an x-ray diffraction pattern is well established: the measured intensity distribution in reciprocal space is the square of the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the electron density distribution ρ(r). The fact that we get the autocorrelation function (rather than just the density

  19. Multiscale modelling of nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vvedensky, Dimitri D

    2004-01-01

    Most materials phenomena are manifestations of processes that are operative over a vast range of length and time scales. A complete understanding of the behaviour of materials thereby requires theoretical and computational tools that span the atomic-scale detail of first-principles methods and the more coarse-grained description provided by continuum equations. Recent efforts have focused on combining traditional methodologies-density functional theory, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods and continuum descriptions-within a unified multiscale framework. This review covers the techniques that have been developed to model various aspects of materials behaviour with the ultimate aim of systematically coupling the atomistic to the continuum descriptions. The approaches described typically have been motivated by particular applications but can often be applied in wider contexts. The self-assembly of quantum dot ensembles will be used as a case study for the issues that arise and the methods used for all nanostructures. Although quantum dots can be obtained with all the standard growth methods and for a variety of material systems, their appearance is a quite selective process, involving the competition between equilibrium and kinetic effects, and the interplay between atomistic and long-range interactions. Most theoretical models have addressed particular aspects of the ordering kinetics of quantum dot ensembles, with far fewer attempts at a comprehensive synthesis of this inherently multiscale phenomenon. We conclude with an assessment of the current status of multiscale modelling strategies and highlight the main outstanding issues. (topical review)

  20. Nuclear spins in nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coish, W.A.; Baugh, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review recent theoretical and experimental advances toward understanding the effects of nuclear spins in confined nanostructures. These systems, which include quantum dots, defect centers, and molecular magnets, are particularly interesting for their importance in quantum information processing devices, which aim to coherently manipulate single electron spins with high precision. On one hand, interactions between confined electron spins and a nuclear-spin environment provide a decoherence source for the electron, and on the other, a strong effective magnetic field that can be used to execute local coherent rotations. A great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding the details of the relevant decoherence processes and to find new methods to manipulate the coupled electron-nuclear system. A sequence of spectacular new results have provided understanding of spin-bath decoherence, nuclear spin diffusion, and preparation of the nuclear state through dynamic polarization and more general manipulation of the nuclear-spin density matrix through ''state narrowing.'' These results demonstrate the richness of this physical system and promise many new mysteries for the future. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  2. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Nanostructured Basaltfiberconcrete Exploitational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraykina, K. A.; Shamanov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article demonstrates that the mass use of basalt fiber concrete (BFC) is constrained by insufficient study of their durability and serviceability in a variety of environments. This research is aimed at the study of the basalt fiber corrosion processes in the cement stone of BFC, the control of the new products structure formation in order to protect the reinforcing fiber from alkaline destruction and thereby improve the exploitational characteristics of the composite. The research result revealed that the modification of basaltfiber concrete by the dispersion of MWNTs contributes to the directional formation of new products in the cement matrix. The HAM additive in basaltfiberconcrete provides for the binding of portlandite to low-basic calcium hydroaluminosilicates, thus reducing the aggressive effect of the cement environment on the reinforcing fibers properties. The complex modification of BFC with nanostructured additives provides for an increase in its durability and exploitational properties (strength, frost resistance and water resistance) due to basalt fiber protection from alkali corrosion on account of the compacting of the contact zone “basalt fiber - cement stone” and designing of the new products structure and morphology of cement matrix over the fiber surface.

  4. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. In Vitro Analysis of Electrophoretic Deposited Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coating on Micro-arc Oxidized AZ91 Magnesium Alloy for Biomaterials Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been recently introduced as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic applications. However, their fast corrosion, low bioactivity, and mechanical integrity have limited their clinical applications. The main aim of this research was to improve such properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy through surface modifications. For this purpose, nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA) was coated on AZ91 Mg alloy by micro-arc oxidation and electrophoretic deposition method. The coated alloy was characterized through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, in vitro corrosion tests, mechanical tests, and cytocompatibility evaluation. The results confirmed the improvement of the corrosion resistance, in vitro bioactivity, mechanical integrity, and the cytocompatibility of the coated Mg alloy. Therefore, the nanostructured FHA coating can offer a promising way to improve the properties of the Mg alloy for orthopedic applications.

  6. Active brazed diamond and cubic boron nitride interfacial nanostructure and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, U.E.; Elsener, H.R.; Elsener, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Active brazing is an effective technique for joining diamond or cBN grit onto metallic substrates. Current use of this technique is being made for super abrasive, high performance tools. The lecture will give an overview over different aspects such as (i) tool performance in selected applications, (ii) interfacial nanostructure between super abrasive grit and brazing alloys matrix, (iii) attempts to computer model such interface reactions and (iv) recent improvements of the abrasion resistance of the brazing alloy itself. Super abrasive tools with outstanding performance in applications such as grinding, honing or stone cutting can be manufactured by a single-layer of brazed diamond or cBN grit. A method to obtain regular grit patterns will be presented. Examples of prototype tools and their performance in different applications will be shown. The investigation of interface reactions between diamond and active brazing alloys plays an important role to further improve the brazing process and resulting tool performance. The interfacial nanostructure is characterised by a thin reaction layer of Ti with diamond and cBN, respectively. Results for Ag- and Cu-based brazing alloys will be presented and discussed in view of the influence of brazing process parameters and brazing alloy matrix. Computer modelling of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the interface reactions may allow optimising the process parameters. This requires reliable databases currently being built up. The potential of such methods in ceramic to metal joining will be described. The abrasion resistance of brazing alloys itself plays an important role for tool performance. A new method to achieve a dispersion of nano sized TiC precipitates in the alloy matrix by addition of an organic binder, decomposing during brazing will be presented. In an outlook further applications of brazed diamond grit, such as thermal management materials will be discussed. (author)

  7. Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The experimental work in this thesis is focused on the fabrication of nanostructures that can be implemented in organic solar cell (OSC) architecture for enhancement of the device performance. Solar devices made from organic material are gaining increased attention, compared to their inorganic...... counterparts, due to the promising advantages, such as transparency, flexibility, ease of processing etc. But their efficiencies cannot be compared to the inorganic ones. Boosting the efficiency of OSCs by nanopatterning has thus been puzzling many researchers within the past years. Therefore various methods...... have been proposed to be used for developing efficient nanostructures for OSC devices such as, plasmonic structures, nanowires (NWs), gratings, nanorods etc. The nanostructuring methods applied though, do not offer the possibility of a cheap, rapid, reproducible and scalable fabrication. It is the aim...

  8. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  9. Quantum Nanostructures by Droplet Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Droplet epitaxy is an alternative growth technique for several quantum nanostructures. Indium droplets are distributed randomly on GaAs substrates at low temperatures (120-350'C. Under background pressure of group V elements, Arsenic and Phosphorous, InAs and InP nanostructures are created. Quantum rings with isotropic shape are obtained at low temperature range. When the growth thickness is increased, quantum rings are transformed to quantum dot rings. At high temperature range, anisotropic strain gives rise to quantum rings with square holes and non-uniform ring stripe. Regrowth of quantum dots on these anisotropic quantum rings, Quadra-Quantum Dots (QQDs could be realized. Potential applications of these quantum nanostructures are also discussed.

  10. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  11. PREFACE: Self-organized nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Sylvie; Ortega, Enrique

    2006-04-01

    In order to fabricate ordered arrays of nanostructures, two different strategies might be considered. The `top-down' approach consists of pushing the limit of lithography techniques down to the nanometre scale. However, beyond 10 nm lithography techniques will inevitably face major intrinsic limitations. An alternative method for elaborating ultimate-size nanostructures is based on the reverse `bottom-up' approach, i.e. building up nanostructures (and eventually assemble them to form functional circuits) from individual atoms or molecules. Scanning probe microscopies, including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) invented in 1982, have made it possible to create (and visualize) individual structures atom by atom. However, such individual atomic manipulation is not suitable for industrial applications. Self-assembly or self-organization of nanostructures on solid surfaces is a bottom-up approach that allows one to fabricate and assemble nanostructure arrays in a one-step process. For applications, such as high density magnetic storage, self-assembly appears to be the simplest alternative to lithography for massive, parallel fabrication of nanostructure arrays with regular sizes and spacings. These are also necessary for investigating the physical properties of individual nanostructures by means of averaging techniques, i.e. all those using light or particle beams. The state-of-the-art and the current developments in the field of self-organization and physical properties of assembled nanostructures are reviewed in this issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The papers have been selected from among the invited and oral presentations of the recent summer workshop held in Cargese (Corsica, France, 17-23 July 2005). All authors are world-renowned in the field. The workshop has been funded by the Marie Curie Actions: Marie Curie Conferences and Training Courses series named `NanosciencesTech' supported by the VI Framework Programme of the European Community, by

  12. Zinc stannate nanostructures: hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, Sunandan; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured binary semiconducting metal oxides have received much attention in the last decade owing to their unique properties rendering them suitable for a wide range of applications. In the quest to further improve the physical and chemical properties, an interest in ternary complex oxides has become noticeable in recent times. Zinc stannate or zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is a class of ternary oxides that are known for their stable properties under extreme conditions, higher electron mobility compared to its binary counterparts and other interesting optical properties. The material is thus ideal for applications from solar cells and sensors to photocatalysts. Among the different methods of synthesizing ZTO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is an attractive green process that is carried out at low temperatures. In this review, we summarize the conditions leading to the growth of different ZTO nanostructures using the hydrothermal method and delve into a few of its applications reported in the literature. (topical review)

  13. Nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachioni-Vasconcelos, Juliana de Almeida; Lopes, André Moreni; Apolinário, Alexsandra Conceição; Valenzuela-Oses, Johanna Karina; Costa, Juliana Souza Ribeiro; Nascimento, Laura de Oliveira; Pessoa, Adalberto; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Use of nanoscale devices as carriers for drugs and imaging agents has been extensively investigated and successful examples can already be found in therapy. In parallel, recombinant DNA technology together with molecular biology has opened up numerous possibilities for the large-scale production of many proteins of pharmaceutical interest, reflecting in the exponentially growing number of drugs of biotechnological origin. When we consider protein drugs, however, there are specific criteria to take into account to select adequate nanostructured systems as drug carriers. In this review, we highlight the main features, advantages, drawbacks and recent developments of nanostructures for protein encapsulation, such as nanoemulsions, liposomes, polymersomes, single-protein nanocapsules and hydrogel nanoparticles. We also discuss the importance of nanoparticle stabilization, as well as future opportunities and challenges in nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

  14. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  15. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  16. Structural, thermal and magnetic investigations on immiscible Ag–Co nanocrystalline alloy with addition of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, B.N., E-mail: bholanath_mondal@yahoo.co.in [Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chabri, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India); Sardar, G. [Department of Zoology, Baruipur College, South 24 Parganas 743610 (India); Nath, D.N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, P.P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711 103 (India)

    2016-08-15

    50Ag–50Co (at%) and 40Ag–40Co–20Mn (at%) alloys prepared by ball milling up to 50 h and subsequent isothermal annealing at the temperature range of 350–650 °C for 1 h has been investigated systematically. Mn promotes early formation of the nanostructures and solid solutions of the alloys by ball milling. In contrast, annealing at 350 °C of Ag–Co alloy resulted the dissolution of hcp Co. Annealing above 350 °C decomposes the metastable Ag–Co alloy into the polycrystalline and segregated Ag and fcc Co. Enthalpy of mixing of both the alloy has increased with increase in milling time. Both the nanocrystalline alloys prepared by ball milling and annealing have been revealed the ferromagnetic behavior. The most significant improvement of magnetic properties is yielded in as-milled Ag–Co–Mn alloy obtained after annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. - Highlights: • A complete solid solution of Ag–Co–Mn alloy obtained after 50 h of milling. • A complete solid solution of milled Ag–Co alloy forms annealed at 350 {sup °}C for 1 h. • Precipitation of fcc Co are observed after annealing above 350 °C. • Enthalpy of mixing of the alloys increased with increase in milling time. • The superior magnetic properties achieved of Ag–Co–Mn alloy annealed at 550 °C.

  17. Magnetic properties of ball-milled Fe0.6Mn0.1Al0.3 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebolledo, A.F.; Romero, J.J.; Cuadrado, R.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Pigazo, F.; Palomares, F.J.; Medina, M.H.; Perez Alcazar, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The FeMnAl-disordered alloy system exhibits, depending on the composition and the temperature, a rich variety of magnetic phases including the occurrence of ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism, paramagnetism and spin-glass and reentrant spin glass behaviors. These latter phases result from the presence of atomic disorder and magnetic dilution and from the competing exchange interactions taking place between an Fe atom and its Mn and Fe first neighbors. The use of mechanical alloying in order to prepare these alloys is specially interesting since it allows to introduce in a progressive way large amounts of disorder. In this work, we describe the evolution with the milling time of the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of mechanically alloyed Fe 0.6 Mn 0.1 Al 0.3 samples. The materials were prepared in a planetary ball mill using a balls-to-powder mass ratio of 15:1 and pure (99.95 at%) Fe, Mn and Al powders for times up to 19 h. The X-rays diffraction (XRD) spectra show the coexistence of three phases at short milling times. For milling times over 6 h, only the FeMnAl ternary alloy BCC phase is observed. Moesbauer spectroscopy reveals the complete formation of the FeMnAl alloy after 9 h milling time. The magnetic characterization showed that all the samples were ferromagnetic at room temperature with coercivities decreasing from 105 Oe (3 h milled sample) down to 5 Oe in the case of the sample milled for 19 h

  18. Positive effect of hydrogen-induced vacancies on mechanical alloying of Fe and Al

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Procházka, I.; Vlček, M.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Švec, P.; Janičkovič, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 629, APR (2015), s. 22-26 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Vacancy formation * Positron spectroscopies * Mössbauer spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2015

  19. Microstructure characterization of rapidly solidified Al-Fe-Cr-Ce alloy by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalcová, A.; Vojtěch, D.; Čízek, J.; Procházka, I.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Novák, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 509, č. 7 (2011), s. 3211-3218 ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : metals and alloy s * nanostructured materials * rapid solidification * positron spectroscopies * transmission electron microscopy * x-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.289, year: 2011

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Nanostructured and Ultrafine Grained Materials under Shock Wave Loadings. Experimental Data and Results of Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Features of mechanical behavior of nanostructured (NS) and ultrafine grained (UFG) metal and ceramic materials under quasistatic and shock wave loadings are discussed in this report. Multilevel models developed within the approach of computational mechanics of materials were used for simulation mechanical behavior of UFG and NS metals and ceramics. Comparisons of simulation results with experimental data are presented. Models of mechanical behavior of nanostructured metal alloys takes into account a several structural factors influencing on the mechanical behavior of materials (type of a crystal lattice, density of dislocations, a size of dislocation substructures, concentration and size of phase precipitation, and distribution of grains sizes). Results show the strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress of UFG and polycrystalline alloys is various in a range from 103 up to 106 1/s. But the difference of the Hugoniot elastic limits of a UFG and coarse-grained alloys may be not considerable. The spall strength, the yield stress of UFG and NS alloys are depend not only on grains size, but a number of factors such as a distribution of grains sizes, a concentration and sizes of voids and cracks, a concentration and sizes of phase precipitation. Some titanium alloys with grain sizes from 300 to 500 nm have the quasi-static yield strength and the tensile strength twice higher than that of coarse grained counterparts. But the spall strength of the UFG titanium alloys is only 10 percents above than that of coarse grained alloys. At the same time it was found the spall strength of the bulk UFG aluminium and magnesium alloys with precipitation strengthening is essentially higher in comparison of coarse-grained counterparts. The considerable decreasing of the strain before failure of UFG alloys was predicted at high strain rates. The Hugoniot elastic limits of oxide nanoceramics depend not only on the porosity, but also on sizes and volume distribution of voids.

  1. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  2. Al-TiC in situ composite coating fabricated by low power pulsed laser cladding on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yingqiao; Wei, Shouzheng; Liu, Fuqiang

    2018-03-01

    Al + (Ti + B4C) composite coating was cladded on AZ91D magnesium alloy by a low power pulsed Nd-YAG laser. The Ti+B4C mixed powder is with the ratio of Ti: B4C = 5:1, which was then mixed with Al powder by weight fraction of 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction were used to study the microstructure, chemical composition and phase composition of the coating. Results showed that the coating had satisfied metallurgical bonding with the magnesium substrate. Al3Mg2, Al12Mg17, Al3Ti and TiC were formed by in-situ reaction. The coatings have micro-hardness of 348HV, which is about 5-6 times higher than that of AZ91D. The wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the coatings are enhanced with the addition of the mixed powder.

  3. Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatami, Moosa; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Zhang, Q.F.; Kelly, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    We model and evaluate the Peltier and Seebeck effects in magnetic multilayer nanostructures by a finite-element theory of thermoelectric properties. We present analytical expressions for the thermopower and the current-induced temperature changes due to Peltier cooling/heating. The thermopower of a

  4. Noncollinear magnetism in manganese nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelený, Martin; Šob, Mojmír; Hafner, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 14 (2009), 144414/1-144414/19 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920; GA MŠk OC09011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : magnetism of nanostructures * nanowires * noncollinear magnetism * manganese Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  5. Magnetic nanostructures: radioactive probes and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prandolini, M J

    2006-01-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic sensors and storage devices down to the nano-scale leads to drastic changes in magnetic phenomena compared with the same devices with a larger size. Excited-nuclear-probe (radioactive probe) techniques are ideal for investigating these new magnetic nanostructures. By observing the magnetic hyperfine fields (and in some cases the electric-field-gradients (EFGs)) at the nuclei of radioactive probes, microscopic information about the magnetic environment of the probes is acquired. The magnetic hyperfine field is particularly sensitive to the s-spin polarization of the conduction electrons and to the orbital magnetic moment of the probe atom. Three methods of inserting radioactive probes into magnetic nanostructures are presented; neutron activation, recoil implantation and 'soft-landing', followed by descriptions of their application to selected examples. In some cases, these methods offer the simultaneous creation and observation of new magnetic materials at the atomic scale. This review focuses firstly on the induced magnetism in noble-metal spacer layers between either ferromagnetic (FM) or FM/antiferromagnetic (AFM) layers in a trilayer structure. Using the method of low-temperature nuclear orientation, the s-spin polarization of noble-metal probes was measured and was found to be very sensitive to the magnetic properties at both the FM and AFM interfaces. Secondly, the recoil implantation of radioactive Fe probes into rare-earth hosts and d-band alloys and subsequent measurement using time-differential perturbed angular distribution offer the possibility of controlling the chemical composition and number of nearest-neighbours. This method was used to prepare local 3d-magnetic clusters in a non-magnetic matrix and to observe their magnetic behaviour. Finally, non-magnetic radioactive probes were 'soft-landed' onto Ni surfaces and extremely lattice-expanded ultrathin Ni films. By measuring the magnetic hyperfine fields and EFGs at

  6. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  7. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  8. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  9. Composite Layers “MgAl Intermetalic Layer / PVD Coating” Obtained On The AZ91D Magnesium Alloy By Different Hybrid Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolik J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have very interesting physical properties which make them ‘materials of the future’ for tools and machine components in many industry areas. However, very low corrosion and tribological resistance of magnesium alloys hampers the implementation of this material in the industry. One of the methods to improve the properties of magnesium alloys is the application of the solutions of surface engineering like hybrid technologies. In this paper, the authors compare the tribological and corrosion properties of two types of “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers obtained by two different hybrid surface treatment technologies. In the first configuration, the “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layer was obtained by multisource hybrid surface treatment technology combining magnetron sputtering (MS, arc evaporation (AE and vacuum heating methods. The second type of a composite layer was prepared using a hybrid technology combined with a diffusion treatment process in Al-powder and the electron beam evaporation (EB method. The authors conclude, that even though the application of „MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers can be an effective solution to increase the abrasive wear resistance of magnesium alloys, it is not a good solution to increase its corrosion resistance.

  10. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  11. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium–zirconium alloy after acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Walter, Martin S. [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lyngstadaas, S. Petter [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Wintermantel, Erich [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium–zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (p < 0.01) on the titanium–zirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium. - Highlights: ► TiZr alloy showed increased hydrogen levels over Ti. ► The alloying element Zr appeared to catalyze hydrogen absorption in Ti. ► Surface roughness was significantly increased for the TiZr alloy over Ti. ► TiZr alloy revealed nanostructures not observed for Ti.

  12. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  13. Structure, hardness and fracture features of nanostructural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Korznikov, A.V.; Idrisova, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into nanocrystalline metals Cu and Mo, nanocrystalline intermetallic compound Ni 3 Al produced using severe plastic deformation; nanophase alloys Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 1.35 B 9 and Pd 81 Cu 7 Si 12 produced by crystallization from amorphous state as well as nanophase materials TiN and Al 2 O 3 produced by nano powder compacting in the temperature range of 273-573 K. Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, mechanical testing and microhardness measurement are applied to study structure, internal elastic stress, phase composition, hardness, strength and plastic properties, surface fracture mode of nanostructural materials [ru

  14. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  15. Nanostructured Layered Cathode for Rechargeable Mg-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepavcevic, Sanja; Liu, Yuzi; Zhou, Dehua; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg; Zuo, Xiaobing; Chan, Henry; Král, Petr; Johnson, Christopher S; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad M; Rajh, Tijana

    2015-08-25

    Nanostructured bilayered V2O5 was electrochemically deposited within a carbon nanofoam conductive support. As-prepared electrochemically synthesized bilayered V2O5 incorporates structural water and hydroxyl groups, which effectively stabilizes the interlayers and provides coordinative preference to the Mg(2+) cation in reversible cycling. This open-framework electrode shows reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Mg(2+) ions in common electrolytes such as acetonitrile. Using a scanning transmission electron microscope we demonstrate that Mg(2+) ions can be effectively intercalated into the interlayer spacing of nanostructured V2O5, enabling electrochemical magnesiation against a Mg anode with a specific capacity of 240 mAh/g. We employ HRTEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging to understand the role of environment in the intercalation processes. A rebuilt full cell was tested by employing a high-energy ball-milled Sn alloy anode in acetonitrile with Mg(ClO4)2 salt. XRF microscopy reveals effective insertion of Mg ions throughout the V2O5 structure during discharge and removal of Mg ions during electrode charging, in agreement with the electrode capacity. We show using XANES and XRF microscopy that reversible Mg intercalation is limited by the anode capacity.

  16. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam

    2014-07-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  17. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam; Miele, Ermanno; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; Capiglia, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of novel W80Ni10Nb10 alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R.; Patra, A.; Karak, S. K.; Pattanaik, A.; Mishra, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W) based alloy with nominal composition of W80Ni10Nb10 (in wt. %) was synthesized by mechanical alloying of elemental powders of tungsten (W), nickel (Ni), niobium (Nb) in a high energy planetary ball-mill for 20 h using chrome steel as grinding media and toluene as process control agent followed by compaction at 500 MPa pressure for 5 mins and sintering at 1500°C for 2 h in Ar atmosphere. The phase evolution and the microstructure of the milled powder and consolidated product were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of W in W80Ni10Nb10 powder was reduced from 100 μm at 0 h to 45.6 nm at 10 h and 34.1 nm at 20 h of milling whereas lattice strain increases to 35% at 20 h of milling. The dislocation density shows sharp increase up to 5 h of milling and the rate of increase drops beyond 5 to 20 h of milling. The lattice parameter of tungsten in W80Ni10Nb10 expanded upto 0.04% at 10 h of milling and contracted upto 0.02% at 20 h of milling. The SEM micrograph revealed the presence of spherical and elongated particles in W80Ni10Nb10 powders at 20 h of milling. The particle size decreases from 100 μm to 2 μm with an increase in the milling time from 0 to 20 hours. The crystallite size of W in milled W80Ni10Nb10 alloy as evident from bright field TEM image was in well agreement with the measured crystallite size from XRD. Structure of W in 20 h milled W80Ni10Nb10 alloy was identified by indexing of selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern. Formation of NbNi intermetallic was evident from XRD pattern and SEM micrograph of sintered alloy. Maximum sinterability of 90.8% was achieved in 20 h milled sintered alloy. Hardness and wear study was also conducted to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the sintered product. Hardness of W80Ni10Nb10 alloy reduces with increasing load whereas wear rate increases with increasing load. The evaluated

  19. High-strength laser welding of aluminum-lithium scandium-doped alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Ivanova, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of laser welding of an aluminum alloy (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by cold plastic deformation on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys. The strength of the plastically deformed welded joint, aluminum alloys of the Al-Mg-Li and Al-Cu-Li systems reached 0.95 and 0.6 of the base alloy strength, respectively.

  20. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail: mingxingguo@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Cao, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy.

  1. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  2. Complex Nanostructures by Pulsed Droplet Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboyuki Koguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available What makes three dimensional semiconductor quantum nanostructures so attractive is the possibility to tune their electronic properties by careful design of their size and composition. These parameters set the confinement potential of electrons and holes, thus determining the electronic and optical properties of the nanostructure. An often overlooked parameter, which has an even more relevant effect on the electronic properties of the nanostructure, is shape. Gaining a strong control over the electronic properties via shape tuning is the key to access subtle electronic design possibilities. The Pulsed Dropled Epitaxy is an innovative growth method for the fabrication of quantum nanostructures with highly designable shapes and complex morphologies. With Pulsed Dropled Epitaxy it is possible to combine different nanostructures, namely quantum dots, quantum rings and quantum disks, with tunable sizes and densities, into a single multi-function nanostructure, thus allowing an unprecedented control over electronic properties.

  3. Influence of electrical parameters on morphology of nanostructured TiO2 layers developed by electrochemical anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti6Al4V alloy micro rough surfaces with TiO2 self-organized nanostructured layers were synthesized using electrochemical anodization in phosphate/fluoride electrolyte, at different end potentials (5V, 10V, 15V, and 20 V. The current – time characteristics were recorded, and the link between current evolution and the morphology of developing oxide layers was investigated. On flat surfaces of Ti6Al4V alloy we developed TiO2 layers with different morphologies (random pores, nanopores of 25…50 nm, and highly organized nanotubes of 50…100 nm in diameter depending on electrical parameters of anodization process. In our anodization cell, in optimized conditions, we are able to superimpose nanostructured oxide layers (nanotubular or nanoporous over micro structured surfaces of titanium based materials used for biomedical implants.

  4. Pressure effects on nanostructured manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acha, C.; Garbarino, G.; Leyva, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the pressure sensitivity of magnetic properties on La 5/8-y Pr y Ca 3/8 MnO 3 (y=0.3) nanostructured powders. Samples were synthesized following a microwave assisted denitration process and a final heat treatment at different temperatures to control the grain size of the samples. A span in grain diameters from 40 nm to ∼1000 nm was obtained. Magnetization curves as a function of temperature were measured following different thermomagnetic histories. AC susceptibility as a function of temperature was also measured at different hydrostatic pressures (up to 10 kbar) and for different frequencies. Our results indicate that the nanostructuration plays a role of an internal pressure, producing a structural deformation with similar effects to those obtained under an external hydrostatic pressure

  5. Imaging edges of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Jens; Cagliani, Alberto; Booth, T. J.

    Graphene, as the forefather of 2D-materials, attracts much attention due to its extraordinary properties like transparency, flexibility and outstanding high conductivity, together with a thickness of only one atom. However, graphene also possesses no band gap, which makes it unsuitable for many...... electronic applications like transistors. It has been shown theoretically that by nanostructuring pristine graphene, e.g. with regular holes, the electronic properties can be tuned and a band gap introduced. The size, distance and edge termination of these “defects” influence the adaptability....... Such nanostructuring can be done experimentally, but especially characterization at atomic level is a huge challenge. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) is used to characterize the atomic structure of graphene. We optimized the imaging conditions used for the FEI Titan ETEM. To reduce the knock-on damage of the carbon atoms...

  6. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O' Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T, E-mail: tlaoui@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: karnik@mit.edu, E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering and Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-22

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  7. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O'Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N; Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T

    2011-01-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  8. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, T.; Lee, J.; O'Hern, S. C.; Fellman, B. A.; Baig, M. A.; Hassan, S. F.; Atieh, M. A.; Rahman, F.; Laoui, T.; Karnik, R.; Wang, E. N.

    2011-07-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity.

  9. Reactor casts light on nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, C.

    2002-01-01

    Chris Garvey explains how the replacement research reactor will help scientists to design better materials by understanding how macromolecules behave. Australia is making a substantial financial commitment to providing scientists with facilities to scatter neutrons. Neutron scattering is one of the core areas of science in which the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) invests its resources. His particular interest is to find out the way nature uses macromolecules, and how the shape and interaction of macromolecules with other molecules change their function. Biologists call aggregates of macromolecules, 'nanostructures'. Neutron probes are used at ANSTO for studying nanostructures, and in particular the organisation of the protein that is used to transport oxygen in the blood. Small angle neutron scattering was also allowed to understand at microscopic level, how humidity changes the mechanical properties of fibres

  10. Formation, Characteristics and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanoporous Metals Formed by Dealloying of Ternary-Noble Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Zuniga, Adrian A.

    Nanoporous metals formed by electrochemical dealloying of silver from Ag-Au-Pt alloys, with 77 at.% silver and platinum contents of 1, 2 and 3 at.%, have been studied. The presence of platinum, which is immobile relative to gold, refine the ligament size and stabilized the nanostructure against coarsening, even under experimental conditions that would be expected to promote coarsening (e.g., exposure to high temperature, longer dealloying times). By adding only 1 at.% Pt to the alloy precursor, the ligament/pore size was reduced by 50% with respect to that in nanoporous gold (NPG), which was formed on a Ag-Au alloy with the same silver content as ternary alloys. A further decrease in the ligament size was observed by increasing the platinum content of the precursor; however, most of the improvement occurred with 1 at.% Pt. The adsorbate-induced surface segregation of platinum was also investigated for these nanoporous metals. By exposing freshly-dealloyed nanostructures to moderate temperatures in the presence of air, platinum segregated to the ligament surface; in contrast, in an inert atmosphere (Ar-H 2), platinum mostly reverted to the bulk of the ligaments. This thermally activated process was thermodynamically driven by the interaction between platinum and oxygen; however, at the desorption temperature of oxygen, platinum de-segregated from the surface. Moreover, the co-segregation of platinum and oxygen hindered the thermal coarsening of the ligaments. Finally, the electrocatalytic abilities of these nanostructures were studied towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation, in alkaline and acidic media, showing significantly improved response in comparison to that observed in NPG. The synergistic effect between gold and platinum atoms and the smaller feature size of the nanostructures were directly associated with this behaviour. In alkaline electrolyte, the nanostructure formed on the alloy with 1 at.% Pt showed higher catalytic response than the other two

  11. Effects of the Nanostructured Fe-V-Nb Modificators on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Si-Mn Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiebao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanostructured Fe-V-Nb master alloy was prepared in vacuum rapid quenching furnace and then was added in the steel melts as modificators before casting. Next, the effects of the nanostructured Fe-V-Nb modificators on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the steel were studied. The results show that the grain size of the steel has been effectively refined, which is mainly because the dispersed nanoscale particles can produce more nucleation sites during the solidification of the liquid steel. Tensile properties and fracture morphology reveal that the yield strength and toughness of the steel modified by nanostructured Fe-V-Nb modificators are better than that of the microalloyed steel. TEM analysis shows that vanadium and niobium in the modificators exist in the form of (V, Nb C which effectively increases the nucleation rate and leads to better mechanical properties of the steel.

  12. Fibrin nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, Suppl. 2 (2016), S263-S272 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fibrinogen * fibrin-bound thrombin * nanostructures Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/65%20Suppl%202/65_S263.pdf

  13. Metal chalcogenide nanostructures for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2014-01-01

    This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires,  nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).  The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important prop

  14. When lithography meets self-assembly: a review of recent advances in the directed assembly of complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert A.; Menumerov, Eredzhep; Neretina, Svetlana

    2017-07-01

    One of the foremost challenges in nanofabrication is the establishment of a processing science that integrates wafer-based materials, techniques, and devices with the extraordinary physicochemical properties accessible when materials are reduced to nanoscale dimensions. Such a merger would allow for exacting controls on nanostructure positioning, promote cooperative phenomenon between adjacent nanostructures and/or substrate materials, and allow for electrical contact to individual or groups of nanostructures. With neither self-assembly nor top-down lithographic processes being able to adequately meet this challenge, advancements have often relied on a hybrid strategy that utilizes lithographically-defined features to direct the assembly of nanostructures into organized patterns. While these so-called directed assembly techniques have proven viable, much of this effort has focused on the assembly of periodic arrays of spherical or near-spherical nanostructures comprised of a single element. Work directed toward the fabrication of more complex nanostructures, while still at a nascent stage, has nevertheless demonstrated the possibility of forming arrays of nanocubes, nanorods, nanoprisms, nanoshells, nanocages, nanoframes, core-shell structures, Janus structures, and various alloys on the substrate surface. In this topical review, we describe the progress made in the directed assembly of periodic arrays of these complex metal nanostructures on planar and textured substrates. The review is divided into three broad strategies reliant on: (i) the deterministic positioning of colloidal structures, (ii) the reorganization of deposited metal films at elevated temperatures, and (iii) liquid-phase chemistry practiced directly on the substrate surface. These strategies collectively utilize a broad range of techniques including capillary assembly, microcontact printing, chemical surface modulation, templated dewetting, nanoimprint lithography, and dip-pen nanolithography and

  15. Reactor and method for production of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kim, Jeong H.; Kumar, Vivekanand

    2017-04-25

    A reactor and method for production of nanostructures, including metal oxide nanowires or nanoparticles, are provided. The reactor includes a regulated metal powder delivery system in communication with a dielectric tube; a plasma-forming gas inlet, whereby a plasma-forming gas is delivered substantially longitudinally into the dielectric tube; a sheath gas inlet, whereby a sheath gas is delivered into the dielectric tube; and a microwave energy generator coupled to the dielectric tube, whereby microwave energy is delivered into a plasma-forming gas. The method for producing nanostructures includes providing a reactor to form nanostructures and collecting the formed nanostructures, optionally from a filter located downstream of the dielectric tube.

  16. Is there a shift to 'active nanostructures'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Shapira, Philip

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology development is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present different or increased societal impacts and require new approaches for risk assessment. An active nanostructure 'changes or evolves its state during its operation,' according to the National Science Foundation's (2006) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems grant solicitation. Active nanostructure examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This article considers two questions: (a) Is there a 'shift' to active nanostructures? (b) How can we characterize the prototypical areas into which active nanostructures may emerge? We build upon the NSF definition of active nanostructures to develop a research publication search strategy, with a particular intent to distinguish between passive and active nanotechnologies. We perform bibliometric analyses and describe the main publication trends from 1995 to 2008. We then describe the prototypes of research that emerge based on reading the abstracts and review papers encountered in our search. Preliminary results suggest that there is a sharp rise in active nanostructures publications in 2006, and this rise is maintained in 2007 and through to early 2008. We present a typology that can be used to describe the kind of active nanostructures that may be commercialized and regulated in the future.

  17. Is there a shift to "active nanostructures"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vrishali; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L.; Shapira, Philip

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology development is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present different or increased societal impacts and require new approaches for risk assessment. An active nanostructure "changes or evolves its state during its operation," according to the National Science Foundation's (2006) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems grant solicitation. Active nanostructure examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This article considers two questions: (a) Is there a "shift" to active nanostructures? (b) How can we characterize the prototypical areas into which active nanostructures may emerge? We build upon the NSF definition of active nanostructures to develop a research publication search strategy, with a particular intent to distinguish between passive and active nanotechnologies. We perform bibliometric analyses and describe the main publication trends from 1995 to 2008. We then describe the prototypes of research that emerge based on reading the abstracts and review papers encountered in our search. Preliminary results suggest that there is a sharp rise in active nanostructures publications in 2006, and this rise is maintained in 2007 and through to early 2008. We present a typology that can be used to describe the kind of active nanostructures that may be commercialized and regulated in the future.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Eskandari, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    In this present work, a nanostructured iron–cobalt–nickel alloy with Fe_5_0Co_3_0Ni_2_0 composition has been processed by mechanical alloying. The structural and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that the crystallize size reaches to about 18.7 nm after 32 h milling time. A remarkable decrease in coercivity after 16 h milling time and also a continuous increase in remanent magnetization during the mechanical alloying process are observed. Heat treatment of the samples milled at 32 and 48 h demonstrates the crystalline constituent elements and also Fe_3O_4 crystalline phase. - Highlights: • This article focuses on mechanical alloying of Fe_5_0Co_3_0Ni_2_0 composition. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • Saturation magnetization was increased sharply after 16 h of milling time. • The heat treatment revealed the signature of Fe_3O_4 as well as FeNi_3 and Co crystalline phases.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raanaei, Hossein, E-mail: hraanaei@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandari, Hossein [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this present work, a nanostructured iron–cobalt–nickel alloy with Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 20} composition has been processed by mechanical alloying. The structural and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that the crystallize size reaches to about 18.7 nm after 32 h milling time. A remarkable decrease in coercivity after 16 h milling time and also a continuous increase in remanent magnetization during the mechanical alloying process are observed. Heat treatment of the samples milled at 32 and 48 h demonstrates the crystalline constituent elements and also Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystalline phase. - Highlights: • This article focuses on mechanical alloying of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 20} composition. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • Saturation magnetization was increased sharply after 16 h of milling time. • The heat treatment revealed the signature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as well as FeNi{sub 3} and Co crystalline phases.

  20. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel.

  1. Rolling Contact Fatigue Performances of Carburized and High-C Nanostructured Bainitic Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Fucheng; Yang, Zhinan; Lv, Bo; Zheng, Chunlei

    2016-11-25

    In the present work, the nanostructured bainitic microstructures were obtained at the surfaces of a carburized steel and a high-C steel. The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performances of the two alloy steels with the same volume fraction of undissolved carbide were studied under lubrication. Results show that the RCF life of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is superior to that of the high-C nanostructured bainitic steel in spite of the chemical composition, phase constituent, plate thickness of bainitic ferrite, hardness, and residual compressive stress value of the contact surfaces of the two steels under roughly similar conditions. The excellent RCF performance of the carburized nanostructured bainitic steel is mainly attributed to the following reasons: finer carbide dispersion distribution in the top surface, the higher residual compressive stress values in the carburized layer, the deeper residual compressive stress layer, the higher work hardening ability, the larger amount of retained austenite transforming into martensite at the surface and the more stable untransformed retained austenite left in the top surface of the steel.

  2. Self-Consolidation Mechanism of Nanostructured Ti5Si3 Compact Induced by Electrical Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge using a capacitance of 450 μF at 7.0 and 8.0 kJ input energies was applied to mechanical alloyed Ti5Si3 powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti5Si3 with no compositional deviation was obtained in times as short as 159 μsec by the discharge. During an electrical discharge, the heat generated is the required parameter possibly to melt the Ti5Si3 particles and the pinch force can pressurize the melted powder without allowing the formation of pores. Followed rapid cooling preserved the nanostructure of consolidated Ti5Si3 compact. Three stepped processes during an electrical discharge for the formation of nanostructured Ti5Si3 compact are proposed: (a a physical breakdown of the surface oxide of Ti5Si3 powder particles, (b melting and condensation of Ti5Si3 powder by the heat and pinch pressure, respectively, and (c rapid cooling for the preservation of nanostructure. Complete conversion yielding a single phase Ti5Si3 is primarily dominated by the solid-liquid mechanism.

  3. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  4. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  5. Carbon nanostructures and graphite-coated metal nanostructures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under certain conditions, pyrolysis of ruthenocene gives rise to graphite coated ruthenium nanoparticles as well as worm-like carbon structures. Pyrolysis of mixtures of ruthenocene and ferrocene gives rise to nanoparticles or nanorods of FeRu alloys, the composition depending upon the composition of the original mixture.

  6. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  7. Nanostructured glass–ceramic coatings for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Lu, Zufu; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhou, Xiaming; Ding, Chuanxian; Zreiqat, Hala

    2011-01-01

    Glass–ceramics have attracted much attention in the biomedical field, as they provide great possibilities to manipulate their properties by post-treatments, including strength, degradation rate and coefficient of thermal expansion. In this work, hardystonite (HT; Ca2ZnSi2O7) and sphene (SP; CaTiSiO5) glass–ceramic coatings with nanostructures were prepared by a plasma spray technique using conventional powders. The bonding strength and Vickers hardness for HT and SP coatings are higher than the reported values for plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. Both types of coatings release bioactive calcium (Ca) and silicon (Si) ions into the surrounding environment. Mineralization test in cell-free culture medium showed that many mushroom-like Ca and phosphorus compounds formed on the HT coatings after 5 h, suggesting its high acellular mineralization ability. Primary human osteoblasts attach, spread and proliferate well on both types of coatings. Higher proliferation rate was observed on the HT coatings compared with the SP coatings and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, probably due to the zinc ions released from the HT coatings. Higher expression levels of Runx2, osteopontin and type I collagen were observed on both types of coatings compared with Ti-6Al-4V alloy, possibly due to the Ca and Si released from the coatings. Results of this study point to the potential use of HT and SP coatings for orthopaedic applications. PMID:21292725

  8. A general soft-enveloping strategy in the templating synthesis of mesoporous metal nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jixiang; Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jiang; Lu, Lu; Ma, Chuansheng; Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Zhiyuan; Xiong, Qihua; You, Hongjun

    2018-02-06

    Metal species have a relatively high mobility inside mesoporous silica; thus, it is difficult to introduce the metal precursors into silica mesopores and suppress the migration of metal species during a reduction process. Therefore, until now, the controlled growth of metal nanocrystals in a confined space, i.e., mesoporous channels, has been very challenging. Here, by using a soft-enveloping reaction at the interfaces of the solid, liquid, and solution phases, we successfully control the growth of metallic nanocrystals inside a mesoporous silica template. Diverse monodispersed nanostructures with well-defined sizes and shapes, including Ag nanowires, 3D mesoporous Au, AuAg alloys, Pt networks, and Au nanoparticle superlattices are successfully obtained. The 3D mesoporous AuAg networks exhibit enhanced catalytic activities in an electrochemical methanol oxidation reaction. The current soft-enveloping synthetic strategy offers a robust approach to synthesize diverse mesoporous metal nanostructures that can be utilized in catalysis, optics, and biomedicine applications.

  9. Fabrication, spark plasma consolidation, and thermoelectric evaluation of nanostructured CoSb3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, A.; Saleemi, M.; Johnsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured powders of thermoelectric (TE) CoSb3 compounds were synthesized using a chemical alloying method. This method involved co-precipitation of oxalate precursors in aqueous solution with controlled pH, followed by thermochemical treatments including calcination and reduction to produce...... stoichiometric nanostructured CoSb3. Moreover, CoSb 3 nanoparticles were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) with a very brief processing time. Very high compaction densities (>95%) were achieved and the grain growth was almost negligible during consolidation. An iterative procedure was developed...... to minimize the grain growth while achieving sufficient densification. Grain sizes in the range of 500 nm to 1 μm, with compaction density of 95-98% were obtained. Preliminary measurements of thermal diffusivity and conductivity showed the dependence on grain size as well as on porosity. TE transport...

  10. La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  11. Hierarchical oxide-based composite nanostructures for energy, environmental, and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Shimpi, Paresh; Cai, Wenjie; Gao, Haiyong; Jian, Dunliang; Wrobel, Gregory

    2011-02-01

    Self-assembled composite nanostructures integrate various basic nano-elements such as nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanowires toward realizing multifunctional characteristics, which promises an important route with potentially high reward for the fast evolving nanoscience and nanotechnology. A broad array of hierarchical metal oxide based nanostructures have been designed and fabricated in our research group, involving semiconductor metal oxides, ternary functional oxides such as perovskites and spinels and quaternary dielectric hydroxyl metal oxides with diverse applications in efficient energy harvesting/saving/utilization, environmental protection/control, chemical sensing and thus impacting major grand challenges in the area of materials and nanotechnology. Two of our latest research activities have been highlighted specifically in semiconductor oxide alloy nanowires and metal oxide/perovskite composite nanowires, which could impact the application sectors in ultraviolet/blue lighting, visible solar absorption, vehicle and industry emission control, chemical sensing and control for vehicle combustors and power plants.

  12. Modification of implant material surface properties by means of oxide nano-structured coatings deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Vladimir; Zykova, Anna; Smolik, Jerzy; Rogowska, Renata; Lukyanchenko, Vladimir; Kolesnikov, Dmitrii

    2014-08-01

    The deposition of functional coatings on the metal surface of artificial joints is an effective way of enhancing joint tribological characteristics. It is well-known that nanostructured oxide coatings have specific properties advantageous for future implant applications. In the present study, we measured the high hardness parameters, the adhesion strength and the low friction coefficient of the oxide magnetron sputtered coatings. The corrosion test results show that the oxide coating deposition had improved the corrosion resistance by a factor of ten for both stainless steel and titanium alloy substrates. Moreover, the hydrophilic nature of coated surfaces in comparison with the metal ones was investigated in the tensiometric tests. The surfaces with nanostructured oxide coatings demonstrated improved biocompatibility for in vitro and in vivo tests, attributed to the high dielectric constants and the high values of the surface free energy parameters.

  13. Preface to the Viewpoint Set: Nanostructured metals - Advances in processing, characterization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    with increasingly finer structures in order to improve properties and sustainability. The structural scale of interest in such materials is therefore reduced to the nanometer range, which means that characterization and modeling of nanostructured metals now address an audience including not only physicists...... and materials scientists but also technologists and engineers. The present Viewpoint Set therefore covers metallic materials with a structural scale ranging from micrometer to nanometer in dimensions and focuses on processing techniques such as plastic deformation and phase transformations. As a result......The theme of two viewpoint sets has been nanostructured metals: one in 2003 on “Mechanical properties of fully dense nanocrystalline metals” (Scripta Materialia 2003;49:625–680) and one in 2004 on “Metals and alloys with a structural scale from the micrometer to the atomic dimensions” (Scripta...

  14. Epitaxial strain-engineered self-assembly of magnetic nanostructures in FeRh thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, Ralf; Kruk, Robert; Molinari, Alan; Wang, Di; Brand, Richard A; Hahn, Horst; Schlabach, Sabine; Provenzano, Virgil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an innovative bottom–up approach for engineering self-assembled magnetic nanostructures using epitaxial strain-induced twinning and phase separation. X-ray diffraction, 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy show that epitaxial films of a near-equiatomic FeRh alloy respond to the applied epitaxial strain by laterally splitting into two structural phases on the nanometer length scale. Most importantly, these two structural phases differ with respect to their magnetic properties, one being paramagnetic and the other ferromagnetic, thus leading to the formation of a patterned magnetic nanostructure. It is argued that the phase separation directly results from the different strain-dependence of the total energy of the two competing phases. This straightforward relation directly enables further tailoring and optimization of the nanostructures’ properties. (paper)

  15. Manufacturing and testing of self-passivating tungsten alloys of different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calvo

    2016-12-01

    Bulk W-15Cr, W-10Cr-2Ti and W-12Cr-0.5Y alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying followed by can encapsulation and HIP. This route resulted in fully dense materials with nano-structured grains. The ability of Ti and especially of Y to inhibit grain growth was observed in the W-10Cr-2Ti and W-12Cr-0.5Y alloys. Besides, Y formed Y-rich oxide nano-precipitates at the grain boundaries, and is thus expected to improve the mechanical behaviour of the Y-containing alloy. Isothermal oxidation tests at 800 ºC (1073K and oxidation tests under accident-like conditions revealed that the W-12Cr-0.5Y alloy exhibits the best oxidation behaviour of all alloys, especially in the accident-like scenario. Preliminary HHF tests performed at GLADIS indicated that the W-10Cr-2Ti alloy is able to withstand power densities of 2 MW/m2 without significant damage of the bulk structure. Thermo-shock tests at JUDITH-1 to simulate mitigated disruptions resulted in chipping of part of the surface of the as-HIPed W-10Cr-2Ti alloy. An additional thermal treatment at 1600 °C (1873K improves the thermo-shock resistance of the W-10Cr-2Ti alloy since only crack formation is observed.

  16. Multi-periodic nanostructures for photon control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluge, Christian; Adam, Jost; Barié, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    We propose multi-periodic nanostructures yielded by superposition of multiple binary gratings for wide control over photon emission in thin-film devices. We present wavelength- and angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements of multi-periodically nanostructured organic light-emitting layers...

  17. Geometry and magnetism of L10 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, K.D.; Skomski, R.; Daniil, M.; Michalski, S.; Gao, L.; Zhou, J.; Yan, M.; Sui, Y.; Kirby, R.D.; Liou, S.H.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The fabrication and magnetism of L1 0 nanostructures with different shapes (such as nanoparticles and nanotubes) is investigated. These nanostructures are produced by hydrogen processing and focused ion beam milling. The structures exhibit interesting reversal modes and are of present or potential interest for sensors and imaging, as well as magnetic recording

  18. Spin tunneling and manipulation in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E Ya; Ban, Yue; Gulyaev, L V; Khomitsky, D V

    2012-09-01

    The results for joint effects of tunneling and spin-orbit coupling on spin dynamics in nanostructures are presented for systems with discrete and continuous spectra. We demonstrate that tunneling plays the crucial role in the spin dynamics and the abilities of spin manipulation by external electric field. This result can be important for design of nanostructures-based spintronics devices.

  19. Progress in atomizing high melting intermetallic titanium based alloys by means of a novel plasma melting induction guiding gas atomization facility (PIGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, R.; Schimansky, F.P.; Wagner, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1994-12-31

    For the production of intermetallic titanium based alloy powders a novel gas atomization facility has been put into operation: By means of a plasma torch the alloy is melted in a water cooled copper crucible in skull melting technique. To the tap hole of the crucible, a novel transfer system is mounted which forms a thin melt stream and guides it into the gas nozzle. This transfer system consists of a ceramic free induction heated water cooled copper funnel. Gas atomization of {gamma}-TiAl (melting temperature 1400 C) and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (2130 C) proved the possibility to produce ceramic free pre-alloyed powders with this novel facility. The TiAl powder particles are spherical; about 20 wt.% are smaller than 45 {mu}m. The oxygen and copper pick up during atomization do not exceed 250 and 35 {mu}g/g respectively. The Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} powder particles are almost spherical. Only about 10 wt.% are <45 {mu}m whereas the O{sub 2} and Cu contamination is also kept at a very low level (250 and 20 {mu}g/g respectively). (orig.)

  20. Advanced nanostructured materials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Gregory S.

    Due to a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to utilize renewable sources of energy, much effort has been directed towards creating new alternatives to fossil fuels. Identifying novel materials for energy storage and conversion can enable radical changes to the current fuel production infrastructure and energy utilization. The use of engineered nanostructured materials in these systems unlocks unique catalytic activity in practical configurations. In this work, research efforts have been focused on the development of nanostructured materials to address the need for both better energy conversion and storage, with applications toward Li-O2 battery electrocatalysts, electrocatalytic generation of H2, conversion of furfural to useful chemicals and fuels, and Li battery anode materials. Highly-active alpha-MnO2 materials were synthesized for use as bifunctional oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) catalysts in Li-O2 batteries, and were evaluated under operating conditions with a novel in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy configuration. Through detailed analysis of local coordination and oxidation states of Mn atoms at key points in the electrochemical cycle, a self-switching behavior affecting the bifunctional activity was identified and found to be critical. In an additional study of materials for lithium batteries, nanostructured TiO2 anode materials doped with first-row transition metals were synthesized and evaluated for improving battery discharge capacity and rate performance, with Ni and Co doping at low levels found to cause the greatest enhancement. In addition to battery technology research, I have also sought to find inexpensive and earth-abundant electrocatalysts to replace state-of-the-art Pt/C in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a systematic computational study of Cu-based bimetallic electrocatalysts was performed. During the screening of dilute surface alloys of Cu mixed with other first-row transition metals, materials with

  1. Vicinal surfaces for functional nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2009-01-07

    Vicinal surfaces are currently the focus of research. The regular arrangements of atomic steps on a mesoscopic scale reveal the possibility to functionalize these surfaces for technical applications, e.g. nanowires, catalysts, etc. The steps of the vicinal surface are well-defined defect structures of atomic size for nucleation of low-dimensional nanostructures. The concentration and therefore the coupling between the nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range by simply changing the inclination angle of the substrate. However, the coupling of these nano-objects to the substrate is just as important in controlling their electronic or chemical properties and making a functionality useable. On the basis of stepped insulating films, these aspects are fulfilled and will be considered in the first part of this review. Recent results for the epitaxial growth of wide bandgap insulating films (CaF(2), MgO, NaCl, BaSrO) on metallic and semiconducting vicinal substrates (Si(100), Ge(100), Ag(100)) will be presented. The change of the electronic structure, the adsorption behavior as well as the kinetics and energetics of color centers in the presence of steps is discussed. The successful bridging of the gap between the atomic and mesoscopic world, i.e. the functionalization of vicinal surfaces by nanostructures, is demonstrated in the second part by metal adsorption on semiconducting surfaces. For (sub)monolayer coverage these systems have in common that the surface states do not hybridize with the support, i.e. the semiconducting surfaces are insulating. Here I will focus on the latest results of macroscopic transport measurements on Pb quantum wires grown on vicinal Si(111) showing indeed a one-dimensional transport behavior.

  2. Vicinal surfaces for functional nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegenkamp, Christoph [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: tegenkamp@fkp.uni-hannover.de

    2009-01-07

    Vicinal surfaces are currently the focus of research. The regular arrangements of atomic steps on a mesoscopic scale reveal the possibility to functionalize these surfaces for technical applications, e.g. nanowires, catalysts, etc. The steps of the vicinal surface are well-defined defect structures of atomic size for nucleation of low-dimensional nanostructures. The concentration and therefore the coupling between the nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range by simply changing the inclination angle of the substrate. However, the coupling of these nano-objects to the substrate is just as important in controlling their electronic or chemical properties and making a functionality useable. On the basis of stepped insulating films, these aspects are fulfilled and will be considered in the first part of this review. Recent results for the epitaxial growth of wide bandgap insulating films (CaF{sub 2}, MgO, NaCl, BaSrO) on metallic and semiconducting vicinal substrates (Si(100), Ge(100), Ag(100)) will be presented. The change of the electronic structure, the adsorption behavior as well as the kinetics and energetics of color centers in the presence of steps is discussed. The successful bridging of the gap between the atomic and mesoscopic world, i.e. the functionalization of vicinal surfaces by nanostructures, is demonstrated in the second part by metal adsorption on semiconducting surfaces. For (sub)monolayer coverage these systems have in common that the surface states do not hybridize with the support, i.e. the semiconducting surfaces are insulating. Here I will focus on the latest results of macroscopic transport measurements on Pb quantum wires grown on vicinal Si(111) showing indeed a one-dimensional transport behavior. (topical review)

  3. Vicinal surfaces for functional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Vicinal surfaces are currently the focus of research. The regular arrangements of atomic steps on a mesoscopic scale reveal the possibility to functionalize these surfaces for technical applications, e.g. nanowires, catalysts, etc. The steps of the vicinal surface are well-defined defect structures of atomic size for nucleation of low-dimensional nanostructures. The concentration and therefore the coupling between the nanostructures can be tuned over a wide range by simply changing the inclination angle of the substrate. However, the coupling of these nano-objects to the substrate is just as important in controlling their electronic or chemical properties and making a functionality useable. On the basis of stepped insulating films, these aspects are fulfilled and will be considered in the first part of this review. Recent results for the epitaxial growth of wide bandgap insulating films (CaF 2 , MgO, NaCl, BaSrO) on metallic and semiconducting vicinal substrates (Si(100), Ge(100), Ag(100)) will be presented. The change of the electronic structure, the adsorption behavior as well as the kinetics and energetics of color centers in the presence of steps is discussed. The successful bridging of the gap between the atomic and mesoscopic world, i.e. the functionalization of vicinal surfaces by nanostructures, is demonstrated in the second part by metal adsorption on semiconducting surfaces. For (sub)monolayer coverage these systems have in common that the surface states do not hybridize with the support, i.e. the semiconducting surfaces are insulating. Here I will focus on the latest results of macroscopic transport measurements on Pb quantum wires grown on vicinal Si(111) showing indeed a one-dimensional transport behavior. (topical review)

  4. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  5. Transport Properties of Nanostructured Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Despite of its many wonderful properties, pristine graphene has one major drawback: it does not have a band gap, which complicates its applications in electronic devices. Many routes have been suggested to overcome this difficulty, such as cutting graphene into nanoribbons, using chemical methods...... device operation. In this talk I elaborate these ideas and review the state-of-the-art both from the theoretical and the experimental points of view. I also introduce two new ideas: (1) triangular antidots, and (2) nanobubbles formed in graphene. Both of these nanostructuring methods are predicted...

  6. Field Emission from Carbon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giubileo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Field emission electron sources in vacuum electronics are largely considered to achieve faster response, higher efficiency and lower energy consumption in comparison with conventional thermionic emitters. Carbon nanotubes had a leading role in renewing attention to field emission technologies in the early 1990s, due to their exceptional electron emitting properties enabled by their large aspect ratio, high electrical conductivity, and thermal and chemical stability. In the last decade, the search for improved emitters has been extended to several carbon nanostructures, comprising carbon nanotubes, either individual or films, diamond structures, graphitic materials, graphene, etc. Here, we review the main results in the development of carbon-based field emitters.

  7. Nanostructured Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skandan, G.; Hahn, H.; Parker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that a variety of nanostructured (n-) metal-oxide ceramics such as n-TiO 2 , n-ZrO 2 , n-Al 2 O 3 , n-ZnO and n-MgO can be produced using the inert gas condensation process. Amongst all the nanostructured oxides, the synthesis, microstructure, sintering, and mechanical properties of n-TiO 2 have been studied the most extensively. The gas condensation preparation of nanostructured metal-oxide ceramics involves evaporation of metal nanoparticles, collection and post- oxidation. The original synthesis studies of n-TiO 2 showed that in order to avoid formation of the many low oxidation state oxides in the Ti-O system, the post-oxidation had to be performed by rapidly exposing the Ti nanoparticles to pure oxygen gas. By doing so, the highest oxidation state and the most stable structure, rutile, was obtained. An undesired feature of this step is that the nanoparticles heat up to high temperatures for a brief period of time due to the exothermic nature of the oxidation. As a consequence, the particles with an average size of 12 nm tend to agglomerate into larger structures up to 50 nm. The agglomerated state of the powder is important since it determines the original density and pore size distribution after compaction, as well as the sintering characteristics and final microstructure of the bulk sample. As a consequence of the preparation procedure of n-TiO 2 and the resulting agglomeration, the pore size distribution of n-TiO 2 compacted at room temperature is very wide, with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 200 nm. Nevertheless, the n-TiO 2 sinters at temperatures several hundred degrees lower than conventional coarse grained ceramics. From the previous results on n- TiO 2 it is anticipated that better microstructures and properties can be achieved by reducing the agglomeration of nanostructured powders through a more controlled post- oxidation process

  8. PdM (M = Pt, Au) bimetallic alloy nanowires with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for electro-oxidation of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2012-05-02

    A facile and general method has been developed to synthesize well-defined PdPt and PdAu alloy nanowires, which exhibit significantly enhanced activity towards small molecules, such as ethanol, methanol, and glucose electro-oxidation in an alkaline medium. Considering the important role of one-dimensional alloy nanowires in electrocatalytic systems, the present Pd-based alloy nanostructures could offer a promising new class of advanced electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells and electrochemical sensors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Biocompatibility of dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braemer, W. [Heraeus Kulzer GmbH and Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    Modern dental alloys have been used for 50 years to produce prosthetic dental restorations. Generally, the crowns and frames of a prosthesis are prepared in dental alloys, and then veneered by feldspar ceramics or composites. In use, the alloys are exposed to the corrosive influence of saliva and bacteria. Metallic dental materials can be classified as precious and non-precious alloys. Precious alloys consist of gold, platinum, and small amounts of non-precious components such as copper, tin, or zinc. The non-precious alloys are based on either nickel or cobalt, alloyed with chrome, molybdenum, manganese, etc. Titanium is used as Grade 2 quality for dental purposes. As well as the dental casting alloys, high purity electroplated gold (99.8 wt.-%) is used in dental technology. This review discusses the corrosion behavior of metallic dental materials with saliva in ''in vitro'' tests and the influence of alloy components on bacteria (Lactobacillus casei and Streptococcus mutans). The test results show that alloys with high gold content, cobalt-based alloys, titanium, and electroplated gold are suitable for use as dental materials. (orig.)

  10. Nanostructured diamond film deposition on curved surfaces of metallic temporomandibular joint implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Marc D; Vohra, Yogesh K [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2002-10-21

    Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition of nanostructured diamond films was carried out on curved surfaces of Ti-6Al-4V alloy machined to simulate the shape of a temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dental implant. Raman spectroscopy shows that the deposited films are uniform in chemical composition along the radius of curvature of the TMJ condyle. Thin film x-ray diffraction reveals an interfacial carbide layer and nanocrystalline diamond grains in this coating. Nanoindentation hardness measurements show an ultra-hard coating with a hardness value of 60{+-}5 GPa averaged over three samples. (rapid communication)

  11. Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain, Alicia G.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana; Shutthanandan, V.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered candidates for nuclear fission and fusion applications at high temperature and dose. The complex oxide nanoclusters in these alloys provide high-temperature strength and are expected to afford better radiation resistance. Proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiations have been performed to evaluate cluster stability in 14YWT and 9CrODS steel under a range of irradiation conditions. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used in this work to analyze the evolution of the oxide population.

  12. Characterization of Nanostructured Semiconductors by Ultrafast Luminescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jolie

    Single nanostructures are predicted to be the building blocks of next generation devices and have already been incorporated into prototypes for solar cells, biomedical devices and lasers. Their role in such applications requires a fundamental understanding of their opto-electronic properties and in particular the charge carrier dynamics occurring on an ultrafast timescale. Luminescence detection is a common approach used to investigate electronic properties of nanostructures because of the contact-less nature of these methods. They are, however, often not equipped to efficiently measure multiple single nanostructures nor do they have the temporal resolution necessary for observing femtosecond dynamics. This dissertation intends to address this paucity of techniques available for the contact-less measurement of single nanostructures through the development of an ultrafast wide-field Kerr-gated microscope system and measurement technique. The setup, operational in both the steady state and transient mode and capable of microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, was developed to measure the transient luminescence of single semiconductor nanostructures. With sub micron spatial resolution and the potential to achieve a temporal resolution greater than 90 fs, the system was used to probe the charge carrier dynamics at multiple discrete locations on single nanowires exhibiting amplified spontaneous emission. Using a rate model for amplified spontaneous emission, the transient emission data was fitted to extract the values of the competing Shockley-Read-Hall, non-geminate and Auger recombination constants. The capabilities of the setup were first demonstrated in the visible detection range, where single nanowires of the ternary alloy CdS x Se1-x were measured. The temporal emission dynamics at two separate locations were compared and calculation of the Langevin mobility revealed that the large carrier densities generated in the nanowire allows access to non

  13. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  14. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  15. Space charge in nanostructure resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    In quantum ballistic propagation of electrons through a variety of nanostructures, resonance in the energy-dependent transmission and reflection probabilities generically is associated with (1) a quasi-level with a decay lifetime, and (2) a bulge in electron density within the structure. It can be shown that, to a good approximation, a simple formula in all cases connects the density of states for the latter to the energy dependence of the phase angles of the eigen values of the S-matrix governing the propagation. For both the Lorentzian resonances (normal or inverted) and for the Fano-type resonances, as a consequence of this eigen value formula, the space charge due to filled states over the energy range of a resonance is just equal (for each spin state) to one electron charge. The Coulomb interaction within this space charge is known to 'distort' the electrical characteristics of resonant nanostructures. In these systems, however, the exchange effect should effectively cancel the interaction between states with parallel spins, leaving only the anti-parallel spin contribution.

  16. Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Frank (Bud) Bridges, University of California-Santa Cruz

    2010-08-05

    The two-and-a-half day symposium on the "Quantitative Characterization of Nanostructured Materials" will be the first comprehensive meeting on this topic held under the auspices of a major U.S. professional society. Spring MRS Meetings provide a natural venue for this symposium as they attract a broad audience of researchers that represents a cross-section of the state-of-the-art regarding synthesis, structure-property relations, and applications of nanostructured materials. Close interactions among the experts in local structure measurements and materials researchers will help both to identify measurement needs pertinent to real-world materials problems and to familiarize the materials research community with the state-of-the-art local structure measurement techniques. We have chosen invited speakers that reflect the multidisciplinary and international nature of this topic and the need to continually nurture productive interfaces among university, government and industrial laboratories. The intent of the symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for discussion and exchange of ideas on the recent progress in quantitative characterization of structural order in nanomaterials using different experimental techniques and theory. The symposium is expected to facilitate discussions on optimal approaches for determining atomic structure at the nanoscale using combined inputs from multiple measurement techniques.

  17. The use of Nb in rapid solidified Al alloys and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audebert, F., E-mail: metal@fi.uba.ar [Advanced Materials Group, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1063 (Argentina); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Wheatley Campus, OX33 1HX Oxford (United Kingdom); Galano, M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Saporiti, F. [Advanced Materials Group, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, Ciudad de Buenos Aires 1063 (Argentina)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The use of Nb in RS Al alloys and composites has been reviewed. • Nb was found to improve the GFA of rapid solidified Al–Fe and Al–Ni alloys. • Nb has higher effect in increasing the corrosion resistance than RE in Al–Fe alloys. • Nb improves the stability of the Al–Fe–Cr icosahedral phase. • Nb improves strength, ductility and toughness of nanoquasicrystalline Al matrix composites. - Abstract: The worldwide requirements for reducing the energy consumption and pollution have increased the demand of new and high performance lightweight materials. The development of nanostructured Al-based alloys and composites is a key direction towards solving this demand. High energy prices and decreased availability of some alloying elements open up the opportunity to use non-conventional elements in Al alloys and composites. In this work the application of Nb in rapid solidified Al-based alloys and Al alloys matrix composites is reviewed. New results that clarify the effect of Nb on rapid solidified Al alloys and composites are also presented. It is observed that Nb stabilises the icosahedral Al–Fe/Cr clusters, enhances the glass forming ability and shifts the icosahedral phase decomposition towards higher temperatures. Nb provides higher corrosion resistance with respect to the pure Al and Al–Fe–RE (RE: rare earth) alloys in the amorphous and crystalline states. The use of Nb as a reinforcement to produce new Al alloy matrix composites is explored. It is observed that Nb provides higher strength, ductility and toughness to the nanoquasicrystalline matrix composite. Nb appears as a new key element that can improve several properties in rapid solidified Al alloys and composites.

  18. Lifetime of Nano-Structured Black Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping pro......, respectively. This is promising for use of black silicon RIE nano-structuring in a solar cell process flow......In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping...

  19. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  20. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  1. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  2. Nature of radiative recombination processes in layered semiconductor PbCdI{sub 2} nanostructural scintillation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukivskii, A.P. [Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gnatenko, Yu.P., E-mail: yuriygnatenko@ukr.net [Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Piryatinskii, Yu.P. [Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gamernyk, R.V. [Lviv National University, 8 Kyryl o and Mefodiy Str., 29005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-05-15

    We report on the efficient photoluminescence (PL) and radioluminescence (RL) of the PbI{sub 2} nanoclusters (NCLs), which are naturally formed in the nanostructured Pb{sub 1-X}Cd{sub x}I{sub 2} alloys (X=0.70). Here, we carried out the studies of the nature of radiative recombination processes in the NCLs of various sizes by measuring PL temperature evolution. Our results indicate that at low temperatures the PL is mainly caused by exciton emission and recombination of donor-acceptor pairs, generated in volume of large NCLs. The broad bands, which are associated with the deep intrinsic surface states, including self-trapped excitons (STEs), are dominant in the PL spectra at higher temperature (>100 K). Our work shows that the nature of emission, associated with RL bands is analogous to that for PL bands. It was shown that the investigated nanostructured material is strongly radiation-resistant. Thus, the Pb{sub 1-X}Cd{sub X}I{sub 2} alloys can be considered as new effective layered semiconductor nanostructured materials which can be suitable for the elaboration of perspective semiconductor scintillators. These nanomaterials have promising prospects for applications in new generations of devices for biomedical diagnostics and industrial imaging applications. - Highlights: •The intense PL and RL of nanostructural PbCdI{sub 2} alloys were observed. •The nature of recombination processes of the nanoscintillators was established. •The low temperature PL is caused by exciton and donor-acceptor pairs recombination. •The broad PL bands are due to the deep intrinsic states formed on the NCLs surface. •The PL associated with STEs for NCLs of different sizes was analyzed in detail. •It was shown that the nature of PL and RL spectra is same.

  3. Pt, Co–Pt and Fe–Pt alloy nanoclusters encapsulated in virus capsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, M; Eloi, J-C; Jones, S E Ward; Schwarzacher, W; Verwegen, M; Cornelissen, J J L M

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured Pt-based alloys show great promise, not only for catalysis but also in medical and magnetic applications. To extend the properties of this class of materials, we have developed a means of synthesizing Pt and Pt-based alloy nanoclusters in the capsid of a virus. Pure Pt and Pt-alloy nanoclusters are formed through the chemical reduction of [PtCl 4 ] − by NaBH 4 with/without additional metal ions (Co or Fe). The opening and closing of the ion channels in the virus capsid were controlled by changing the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The size of the nanoclusters is limited to 18 nm by the internal diameter of the capsid. Their magnetic properties suggest potential applications in hyperthermia for the Co–Pt and Fe–Pt magnetic alloy nanoclusters. This study introduces a new way to fabricate size-restricted nanoclusters using virus capsid. (paper)

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Al-20 at. % Cu Powders Produced by Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molka Ben Makhlouf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying is a powder processing technique used to process materials farther from equilibrium state. This technique is mainly used to process difficult-to-alloy materials in which the solid solubility is limited and to process materials where nonequilibrium phases cannot be produced at room temperature through conventional processing techniques. This work deals with the microstructural properties of the Al-20 at. % Cu alloy prepared by high-energy ball milling of elemental aluminum and copper powders. The ball milling of powders was carried out in a planetary mill in order to obtain a nanostructured Al-20 at. % Cu alloy. The obtained powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The structural modifications at different stages of the ball milling are investigated with X-ray diffraction. Several microstructure parameters such as the crystallite sizes, microstrains and lattice parameters are determined.

  5. Unusual hardening behaviour in heavily cryo-rolled Cu-Al-Zn alloys during annealing treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.L. [Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Ren, S.Y. [Ningbo Powerway Alloy Material Co., Ltd, Ningbo 315135 (China); Zeng, S.D. [Yunnan Institute of Measuring and Testing Technology, Kunming 650228 (China); Zhu, X.K., E-mail: xk_zhu@hotmail.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China)

    2016-04-06

    Three nanostructured Cu-Al-Zn alloys were produced via rolling at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The deformed Cu alloys were then annealed at 150–300 °C for 1 h. The two alloys with high solute content and thus with low stacking fault energy exhibit unusual annealing hardening, namely, an increase in hardness and strength and a decrease in tensile elongation after annealing at 150 and 200 °C. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and microstructural observations by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), it is found that microstrain and dislocation density decrease after annealing at 200 °C because of the recovery of dislocations and the lattice parameter decreases due to solute segregation. Meanwhile, the twin density of the two Cu alloys increases and grain size remains basically unchanged. It is shown that the formation of annealing twins and stacking faults and the segregation of solute atoms may be the main causes of unusual annealing hardening.

  6. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  7. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  8. Ceramic nanostructures and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-24

    Structures and methods for the fabrication of ceramic nanostructures. Structures include metal particles, preferably comprising copper, disposed on a ceramic substrate. The structures are heated, preferably in the presence of microwaves, to a temperature that softens the metal particles and preferably forms a pool of molten ceramic under the softened metal particle. A nano-generator is created wherein ceramic material diffuses through the molten particle and forms ceramic nanostructures on a polar site of the metal particle. The nanostructures may comprise silica, alumina, titania, or compounds or mixtures thereof.

  9. nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    In this method no special electrolytes, chemicals and surfactants are needed. ... tures collected from the bottom of the cell are either nanothreads embodying beads of different diameters,. ~10–40 nm or .... when copious oxygen produced through electrolysis at- ... corresponding bandgap calculations of the as synthesized.

  10. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  11. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji; Ferreira, Nildemar A.M.; Rumbao, Ana Carolina S. Coutinho; Lazar, Dolores R.R.; Ussui, Valter

    2009-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150°C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  13. Modelling nanostructures with vicinal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugarza, A; Schiller, F; Kuntze, J; Cordon, J; Ruiz-Oses, M; Ortega, J E

    2006-01-01

    Vicinal surfaces of the (111) plane of noble metals are characterized by free-electron-like surface states that scatter at one-dimensional step edges, making them ideal model systems to test the electronic properties of periodic lateral nanostructures. Here we use high-resolution, angle-resolved photoemission to analyse the evolution of the surface state on a variety of vicinal surface structures where both the step potential barrier and the superlattice periodicity can vary. A transition in the electron dimensionality is found as we vary the terrace size in single-phase step arrays. In double-phase, periodic faceted surfaces, we observe surface states that characterize each of the phases

  14. Homoepitaxial Nanostructures of Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Plakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homoepitaxial ZnO nanostructures (HENS were obtained on different substrates using various techniques. The first type of homoepitaxial ZnO nanorod arrays was grown on Si or ITO substrates by using two alternative sequences: (a seeding → growth from solution → growth from vapor and contrariwise (b seeding → growth from vapor → growth from solution. As follows from transport and cathode luminescence measurements homoepitaxial growth allows enhancing electrical or luminescence properties. The second type of HENS was prepared by growth of vertically or horizontally oriented ZnO nanorod arrays depending on monocrystalline ZnO wafers with [0001] and [10-10] orientation. In all cases the growth occurs along the c-axis of fast growth.

  15. Optical Characterization of Nanostructured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    Micro- and nanostructured surfaces are interesting due to the unique properties they add to the bulk material. One example is structural colors, where the interaction between surface structures and visible light produce bright color effects without the use of paints or dyes. Several research groups...... modeling to evaluate the dimensions of subwavelength gratings, by correlating the reflected light measured from the structures with a database of simulations. A new method is developed and termed color scatterometry, since compared to typical spectroscopic scatterometry, which evaluates the full reflection...... spectrum; the new method only evaluates the color of the reflected light using a standard RGB color camera. Color scatterometry provides the combined advantages of spectroscopic scatterometry, which provides fast evaluations, and imaging scatterometry that provides an overview image from which small...

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured titania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshito, W.K.; Ferreira, N.A.M.; Lazar, D.R.R.; Ussui, V.; Rumbao, A.C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Titania ceramics have many applications due to its surface properties and, recently, its nanostructured compounds, prepared by hydrothermal treatments, have been described to improve these properties. In this work, commercial titanium dioxide was treated with 10% sodium hydroxide solution in a pressurized reactor at 150 deg C for 24 hours under vigorous stirring and then washed following two different procedures. The first one consisted of washing with water and ethanol and the second with water and hydrochloric acid solution (1%). Resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N 2 gas adsorption and field emission gun scanning and transmission electronic microscopy. Results showed that from an original starting material with mainly rutile phase, both anatase and H 2 Ti 3 O 7 phase could be identified after the hydrothermal treatment. Surface area of powders presented a notable increase of one order of magnitude and micrographs showed a rearrangement on the microstructure of powders. (author)

  17. Preparation and characterization of nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Ye Weichun; Ma Chuanli; Wang Chunming

    2008-01-01

    Nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film were prepared by an electroless deposition method under the conditions of tin chloride sensitization and palladium chloride activation. The prepared materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanostructure of the materials was then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy film composition was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results indicated the approximate composition 49.84%Ni-37.29%Zn-12.88%P was obtained

  18. Advances in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagle, S.R.; Wood, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    As described above, new developments in the aerospace market are focusing on higher temperature alloys for jet engine components and higher strength/toughness alloys for airframe applications. Conventional alloys for engines have reached their maximum useful temperature of about 1000 F (540 C) because of oxidation resistance requirements. IMI 834 and Ti-1100 advanced alloys show some improvement, however, the major improvement appears to be in gamma titanium aluminides which could extend the maximum usage temperature to about 1500 F (815 C). This puts titanium alloys in a competitive position to replace nickel-base superalloys. Advanced airframe alloys such as Ti-6-22-22S, Beta C TM , Ti-15-333 and Ti-10-2-3 with higher strength than conventional Ti-6-4 are being utilized in significantly greater quantities, both in military and commercial applications. These alloys offer improved strength with little or no sacrifice in toughness and improved formability, in some cases. Advanced industrial alloys are being developed for improved corrosion resistance in more reducing and higher temperature environments such as those encountered in sour gas wells. Efforts are focused on small precious metal additions to optimize corrosion performance for specific applications at a modest increase in cost. As these applications develop, the usage of titanium alloys for industrial markets should steadily increase to approach that for aerospace applications. (orig.)

  19. Manufacturing a durable superhydrophobic polypropylene coating on aluminum alloy substrate by adding nano-titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiyun; Wu, Ruomei; Hu, Zhongliang; Yuan, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xuehui; Liu, Qilong

    2014-07-01

    A superhydrophobic polypropylene (PP) coating on the surface of aluminum alloy coupons is unstable because of the existence of metastable state in curing process. Nano-titania particles were added into PP solution to form hierarchical micro- and nano-structures of PP coatings on the surface of aluminum alloy coupons. The morphology of the coatings was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and the corresponding structure and components were investigated with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively. The results indicated that nano-TiO2 particles are the main nucleation cores in the curing of the coatings; PP in solution is enclosed in these cores and crystallizes gradually. The coatings can preserve the stable micro- and nano-structure on six months due to the nucleation action of nano-TiO2 particles, and its durable water contact angle (WCA) is about 164 +/- 1.5 degrees.

  20. Hierarchically Nanostructured Materials for Sustainable Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eRen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive overview of the hierarchical nanostructured materials with either geometry or composition complexity in environmental applications. The hierarchical nanostructures offer advantages of high surface area, synergistic interactions and multiple functionalities towards water remediation, environmental gas sensing and monitoring as well as catalytic gas treatment. Recent advances in synthetic strategies for various hierarchical morphologies such as hollow spheres and urchin-shaped architectures have been reviewed. In addition to the chemical synthesis, the physical mechanisms associated with the materials design and device fabrication have been discussed for each specific application. The development and application of hierarchical complex perovskite oxide nanostructures have also been introduced in photocatalytic water remediation, gas sensing and catalytic converter. Hierarchical nanostructures will open up many possibilities for materials design and device fabrication in environmental chemistry and technology.

  1. Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) EFRC is a multi-institutional research center, one of 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers established by the...

  2. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  3. Metallic Nanostructures Based on DNA Nanoshapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxuan Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanostructures have inspired extensive research over several decades, particularly within the field of nanoelectronics and increasingly in plasmonics. Due to the limitations of conventional lithography methods, the development of bottom-up fabricated metallic nanostructures has become more and more in demand. The remarkable development of DNA-based nanostructures has provided many successful methods and realizations for these needs, such as chemical DNA metallization via seeding or ionization, as well as DNA-guided lithography and casting of metallic nanoparticles by DNA molds. These methods offer high resolution, versatility and throughput and could enable the fabrication of arbitrarily-shaped structures with a 10-nm feature size, thus bringing novel applications into view. In this review, we cover the evolution of DNA-based metallic nanostructures, starting from the metallized double-stranded DNA for electronics and progress to sophisticated plasmonic structures based on DNA origami objects.

  4. Probing plasmonic nanostructures by photons and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Kneipp, Harald; Kneipp, Janina

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments for studying plasmonic metal nanostructures. Exploiting photons and electrons opens up new capabilities to probe the complete plasmon spectrum including bright and dark modes and related local optical fields at subnanometer spatial resolution. This comprehensive cha...

  5. Second harmonic spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Yu, Ping; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor nanostructures and their application to optoelectronic devices have attracted much attention recently. Lower-dimensional structures, and in particular quantum dots, are highly anisotropic resulting in broken symmetry as compared to their bulk counterparts. This is not only reflected...

  6. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-03

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures extending from the HNWs.

  7. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography...... and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...... the minimum line width that can be realized by our fabrication method and the influence of etching angle on the structure profile during the ion beam etching process. Trenches down to 400 nm in width have been successfully fabricated into a 316 type electro-polished steel wafer. Afterward a plastic replica...

  8. Packaging glass with hierarchically nanostructured surface

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau; Fu, Hui-Chun

    2017-01-01

    An optical device includes an active region and packaging glass located on top of the active region. A top surface of the packaging glass includes hierarchical nanostructures comprised of honeycombed nanowalls (HNWs) and nanorod (NR) structures

  9. Plant-derived nanostructures: types and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived nanostructures and nanoparticles (NPs) have functional applications in numerous disciplines such as health care, food and feed, cosmetics, biomedical science, energy science, drug-gene delivery, environmental health, and so on. Consequently, it is imperative for res...

  10. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    such as hydrocarbons or steroids have been introduced to change the surface properties of DNA origami structures, either to protect the DNA nanostructure or to dock it into membranes and other hydrophobic surfaces. DNA nanostructures have also been used to control covalent chemical reactions. This article provides......DNA nanotechnology has the power to form self-assembled and well-defined nanostructures, such as DNA origami, where the relative positions of each atom are known with subnanometer precision. Our ability to synthesize oligonucleotides with chemical modifications in almost any desired position...... provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  11. Hollow Micro-/Nanostructures: Synthesis and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen (David); Archer, Lynden A.; Yang, Zichao

    2008-01-01

    for Portland cement, to produce concrete with enhanced strength and durability. This review is devoted to the progress made in the last decade in synthesis and applications of hollow micro-nanostructures. We present a comprehensive overview of synthetic

  12. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  13. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.

    1998-01-01

    Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM) alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable high-strength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO 2 laser . This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloy, over the last years. (Author) 16 refs

  14. Leafy nanostructure PANI for material of supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    XI Dong; CHEN Xinman

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructure conducting polyaniline(PANI) has great potential applications in supercapacitor electrode materials.In this paper,we report a template-free approach to synthesize PANI by a galvanostatic current procedure with a three-electrode configuration directly on indium-doped tin-oxide substrates (ITO).The morphology of product was characterized by Hitachi S-4800 field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM).Due to the nanostructure,the specific capacitance of PANI film with the th...

  15. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  16. Engineering metallic nanostructures for plasmonics and nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Nathan C.; Nagpal, Prashant; McPeak, Kevin M.; Norris, David J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Metallic nanostructures now play an important role in many applications. In particular, for the emerging fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics, the ability to engineer metals on nanometric scales allows the development of new devices and the study of exciting physics. This review focuses on top-down nanofabrication techniques for engineering metallic nanostructures, along with computational and experimental characterization techniques. A variety of current and emerging applications are also covered.

  17. Gold nanostructures and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin Z [Santa Cruz, CA; Schwartzberg, Adam [Santa Cruz, CA; Olson, Tammy Y [Santa Cruz, CA

    2012-03-20

    The invention is drawn to novel nanostructures comprising hollow nanospheres and nanotubes for use as chemical sensors, conduits for fluids, and electronic conductors. The nanostructures can be used in microfluidic devices, for transporting fluids between devices and structures in analytical devices, for conducting electrical currents between devices and structure in analytical devices, and for conducting electrical currents between biological molecules and electronic devices, such as bio-microchips.

  18. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Dou, Nicholas; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the characteristic size of departing droplets via a surface-tension-driven mechanism [1]. In this work, we investigated a scalable synthesis technique to produce oxide nanostructures on copper surfaces capable of sustaining superhydrophobic condensation and characterized the growth an...

  19. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  20. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  1. Nanostructured gold microelectrodes for extracellular recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueggemann, Dorothea; Wolfrum, Bernhard; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhaeusser, Andreas [CNI Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology and Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems 2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Electrophysiological activity of electrogenic cells is currently recorded with planar bioelectronic interfaces such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In this work, a novel concept of biocompatible nanostructured gold MEAs for extracellular signal recording is presented. MEAs were fabricated using clean room technologies, e.g. photolithography and metallization. Subsequently, they were modified with gold nanopillars of approximately 300 to 400 nm in height and 60 nm width. The nanostructuring process was carried out with a template-assisted approach using nanoporous aluminium oxide. Impedance spectroscopy of the resulting nanostructures showed higher capacitances compared to planar gold. This confirmed the expected increase of the surface area via nanostructuring. We used the nanostructured microelectrodes to record extracellular potentials from heart muscle cells (HL1), which were plated onto the chips. Good coupling between the HL1 cells and the nanostructured electrodes was observed. The resulting signal-to-noise ratio of nanopillar-MEAs was increased by a factor of 2 compared to planar MEAs. In future applications this nanopillar concept can be adopted for distinct interface materials and coupling to cellular and molecular sensing components.

  2. Microstructure and physical properties of mechanically alloyed Fe-Mo powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Zábranský, Karel; Turek, Ilja; Buršík, Jiří; Jančík, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 477, - (2009), s. 55-61 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2111; GA ČR GD106/05/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Microstructure * Magnetic measurements * Mössbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2009

  3. Influence of Molybdenum on the Alloying and Physical Properties of Fe-Al

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Hapla, Miroslav; Turek, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), s. 905-910 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1350; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Nanostructured materials * Mechanical alloying * Magnetic proprties * Grain core * Defects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.100, year: 2015

  4. Microstructure and functional properties of micro- and nanostructure metal composites obtained by diffusion welding and rolling of multilayer packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhov, Valery P.; Karpov, Michael I., E-mail: korzhov@issp.ac.ru [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Multilayered nanostructure composites of Cu/Fe, Cu/Nb, and Cu/(Nb/NbTi) with an ≤10 nm the average thickness of individual layers mechanical and superconducting properties which are implemented immediately after rolling, and micro- and nanostructure composites of Ni/Al, Ti/Ni, and (Cu/Nb)/Cu12Sn functional properties which, in contrast to the first, are manifested after rolling and heat treatment were investigated. Composites of (Cu/Nb)/Cu12Sn in final form were a multilayer tape of superconducting compound Nb{sub 3}Sn. Welding of stacks carried by heat treatment under pressure and rolling mill in a vacuum with heating to 900-950°C and large (∼30%) compression in a single pass. The microstructure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. For superconducting composites critical current density and upper critical magnetic field were measured. Shown that the pinning of superconducting vortices in alloys of NbTi are occurred at interlayer Nb- NbTi boundaries. Change in hardness and strength of multilayer composites under rolling deformation is described by the expression of the Hall-Petch relationship, in which instead of the grain size appeared thick of layers. Key words: multilayered composite, micro- and nanostructure, NbTi alloy, superconducting compound, rolling, heat treatment, the superconducting properties, hardness, strength, superconducting vortices, the Hall-Petch expression.

  5. Structural, thermal, and photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline Cr{sub 3}Ge produced by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prates, P. B.; Maliska, A. M.; Ferreira, A. S. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Poffo, C. M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus de Araranguá, 88900-000 Araranguá, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Borges, Z. V. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil); Lima, J. C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fisica.ufsc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Biasi, R. S. de [Seção de Engenharia Mecânica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-10-21

    A thermodynamic analysis of the Cr-Ge system suggested that it was possible to produce a nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase by mechanical alloying. The same analysis showed that, due to low activation energies, Cr-poor crystalline and/or amorphous alloy could also be formed. In fact, when the experiment was performed, Cr{sub 11}Ge{sub 19} and amorphous phases were present for small milling times. For milling times larger than 15 h these additional phases decomposed and only the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase remained up to the highest milling time used (32 h). From the differential scanning calorimetry measurements, the Avrami exponent n was obtained, indicating that the nucleation and growth of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase may be restricted to one or two dimensions, where the Cr and Ge atoms diffuse along the surface and grain boundaries. In addition, contributions from three-dimensional diffusion with a constant nucleation rate may be present. The thermal diffusivity of the nanostructured Cr{sub 3}Ge phase was determined by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements.

  6. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  7. Shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszuwara, W.

    2004-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA), when deformed, have the ability of returning, in certain circumstances, to their initial shape. Deformations related to this phenomenon are for polycrystals 1-8% and up to 15% for monocrystals. The deformation energy is in the range of 10 6 - 10 7 J/m 3 . The deformation is caused by martensitic transformation in the material. Shape memory alloys exhibit one directional or two directional shape memory effect as well as pseudoelastic effect. Shape change is activated by temperature change, which limits working frequency of SMA to 10 2 Hz. Other group of alloys exhibit magnetic shape memory effect. In these alloys martensitic transformation is triggered by magnetic field, thus their working frequency can be higher. Composites containing shape memory alloys can also be used as shape memory materials (applied in vibration damping devices). Another group of composite materials is called heterostructures, in which SMA alloys are incorporated in a form of thin layers The heterostructures can be used as microactuators in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Basic SMA comprise: Ni-Ti, Cu (Cu-Zn,Cu-Al, Cu-Sn) and Fe (Fe-Mn, Fe-Cr-Ni) alloys. Shape memory alloys find applications in such areas: automatics, safety and medical devices and many domestic appliances. Currently the most important appears to be research on magnetic shape memory materials and high temperature SMA. Vital from application point of view are composite materials especially those containing several intelligent materials. (author)

  8. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  9. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  10. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  11. Influence of laser parameters in surface texturing of Ti6Al4V and AA2024-T3 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuir-Torres, J. I.; Arenas, M. A.; Perrie, W.; de Damborenea, J.

    2018-04-01

    Laser texturing can be used for surface modification of metallic alloys in order to improve their properties under service conditions. The generation of textures is determined by the relationship between the laser processing parameters and the physicochemical properties of the alloy to be modified. In the present work the basic mechanism of dimple generation is studied in two alloys of technological interest, titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and aluminium alloy AA2024-T3. Laser treatment was performed using a pulsed solid state Nd: Vanadate (Nd: YVO4) laser with a pulse duration of 10 ps, operating at a wavelength of 1064 nm and 5 kHz repetition rate. Dimpled surface geometries were generated through ultrafast laser ablation while varying pulse energy between 1 μJ and 20 μJ/pulse and with pulse numbers from 10 to 200 pulses per spot. In addition, the generation of Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) nanostructures in both alloys, as well as the formation of random nanostructures in the impact zones are discussed.

  12. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  13. Neutron-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoi, K.I.; Arabei, L.B.; Gryaznov, G.M.; Levi, L.I.; Lunin, G.L.; Kozhukhov, V.M.; Markov, J.M.; Fedotov, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for the production of an alloy consiting of 1 to 20% In, 0.5 to 15% Sm, and from 3 to 18% Hf, the balance being Ni. Such alloys show a good absorption capacity for thermal and intermediate neutrons, good neutron capture efficiency, and good corrosion resistance, and find application in nuclear reactor automatic control and safety systems. The Hf provides for the maintenance of a reasonably high order of neutron capture efficiency throughout the lifetime of a reactor. The alloys are formed in a vacuum furnace operating with an inert gas atmosphere at 280 to 300 mm.Hg. They have a corrosion resistance from 3 to 3.5 times that of the Ag-based alloys commonly employed, and a neutron capture efficiency about twice that of the Ag alloys. Castability and structural strength are good. (U.K.)

  14. Alloying principles for magnesium base heat resisting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drits, M.E.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Oreshkina, A.A.; Nikitina, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Some binary systems of magnesium-base alloys in which solid solutions are formed, are considered for prospecting heat resistant alloys. It is shown that elements having essential solubility in solid magnesium strongly decreasing with temperature should be used for alloying maqnesium base alloys with high strength properties at increased temperatures. The strengthening phases in these alloys should comprise essential quantity of magnesium and be rather refractory

  15. Physical metallurgy of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    Researches in electric, magnetic, thermophysical properties of titanium alloys in the wide range of temperatures (from helium upto elevated one), as well as stability of phases in alloys of different types are generalized. Fundamental description of physical properties of binary model alloys is given. Acoustic emission, shape memory and Bauschinger effects, pseudoelasticity, aging and other aspects of physical metallurgy of titanium alloys are considered

  16. Plastic deformation of indium nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Indium nanopillars display two different deformation mechanisms. → ∼80% exhibited low flow stresses near that of bulk indium. → Low strength nanopillars have strain rate sensitivity similar to bulk indium. → ∼20% of compressed indium nanopillars deformed at nearly theoretical strengths. → Low-strength samples do not exhibit strength size effects. - Abstract: Mechanical properties and morphology of cylindrical indium nanopillars, fabricated by electron beam lithography and electroplating, are characterized in uniaxial compression. Time-dependent deformation and influence of size on nanoscale indium mechanical properties were investigated. The results show two fundamentally different deformation mechanisms which govern plasticity in these indium nanostructures. We observed that the majority of indium nanopillars deform at engineering stresses near the bulk values (Type I), with a small fraction sustaining flow stresses approaching the theoretical limit for indium (Type II). The results also show the strain rate sensitivity and flow stresses in Type I indium nanopillars are similar to bulk indium with no apparent size effects.

  17. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  18. Chemical scissors cut phosphorene nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xihong; Wei, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene, a recently fabricated two-dimensional puckered honeycomb structure of phosphorus, showed promising properties for applications in nano-electronics. In this work, we report a chemical scissors effect on phosphorene, using first-principles method. It was found that chemical species, such as H, OH, F, and Cl, can act as scissors to cut phosphorene. Phosphorus nanochains and nanoribbons can be obtained. The scissors effect results from the strong bonding between the chemical species and phosphorus atoms. Other species such as O, S and Se fail to cut phosphorene nanostructures due to their weak bonding with phosphorus. The electronic structures of the produced P-chains reveal that the hydrogenated chain is an insulator while the pristine chain is a one-dimensional Dirac material, in which the charge carriers are massless fermions travelling at an effective speed of light ∼8 × 10 5 m s −1 . The obtained zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons show either metallic or semiconducting behaviors, depending on the treatment of the edge phosphorus atoms. (paper)

  19. 3D magnetic nanostructures grown by focused electron and ion beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Amalio

    Three-dimensional nanomagnetism is an emerging research area, where magnetic nanostructures extend along the whole space, presenting novel functionalities not limited to the substrate plane. The development of this field could have a revolutionary impact in fields such as electronics, the Internet of Things or bio-applications. In this contribution, I will show our recent work on 3D magnetic nanostructures grown by focused electron and ion beam induced deposition. This 3D nano-printing techniques, based on the local chemical vapor deposition of a gas via the interaction with electrons and ions, makes the fabrication of complex 3D magnetic nanostructures possible. First, I will show how by exploiting different growth regimes, suspended Cobalt nanowires with modulated diameter can be patterned, with potential as domain wall devices. Afterwards, I will show recent results where the synthesis of Iron-Gallium alloys can be exploited in the field of artificial multiferroics. Moreover, we are developing novel methodologies combining physical vapor deposition and 3D nano-printing, creating Permalloy 3D nanostrips with controllable widths and lengths up to a few microns. This approach has been extended to more complex geometries by exploiting advanced simulation growth techniques combining Monte Carlo and continuum model methods. Throughout the talk, I will show the methodology we are following to characterize 3D magnetic nanostructures, by combining magneto-optical Kerr effect, scanning probe microscopy and electron and X-R magnetic imaging, and I will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities when studying these structures. I acknowledge funding from EPSRC and the Winton Foundation.

  20. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zou, Xingli, E-mail: xinglizou@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xionggang, E-mail: luxg@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Zhongfu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Micro/nanostructured Zn and Cu–Zn alloy films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO/CuO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES, the typical nucleation-growth mechanism and the micro/nanostructures-formation process are determined. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Zn films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO precursor in deep eutectic solvent (DES). • The morphology of the Zn electrodeposits depends on the cathodic potential and temperature. • The electrodeposited Zn films exhibit homogeneous morphologies with controllable particle sizes and improved corrosion resistance. • Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from their metal oxides precursors in DES. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO–ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu–Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  1. Nanostructure evolution in ODS steels under ion irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rogozhkin

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we carried out atom probe tomography (APT and transmission electron microscopy (TEM studies of three different ODS steels produced by mechanical alloying: ODS Eurofer, 13.5Cr ODS and 13.5Cr-0.3Ti ODS. These materials were investigated after irradiation with Fe (5.6MeV or Ti (4.8MeV ions up to 1015ion/cm2 and part of them up to 3×1015ion/cm2. In all cases, areas for TEM investigation were cut at a depth of ∼ 1.3µm from the irradiated surface corresponding to the peak of the radiation damage dose. It was shown that after irradiation at RT and at 300°С the number density of oxide particles in all the samples grew up. Meanwhile, the fraction of small particles in the size distribution has increased. APT revealed an essential increase in nanoclusters number and a change of their chemical composition at the same depth. The nanostructure was the most stable in 13.5Cr-0.3Ti ODS irradiated at 300°С: the increase of the fraction of small oxides was minimal and no change of nanocluster chemical composition was detected.

  2. Facile Growth of Multi-twined Au Nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like nanostructures undergo spontaneous transformation into multi-twined nanostructures within 24 h. These nanocrystalline ... reactions,1 and a color indicating reagent for the sensing of biomolecules.2 ... Two-compartment, three electrode ...

  3. Mapping the nanostructures in human adult and baby tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, I.M.; Mahmood, U.; Duraman, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the variations in crystal structure, composition, and nanostructures within the human adult and deciduous teeth. The similarities and differences in the nanostructure of both types of teeth are highlighted and discussed. (author)

  4. Half-Heusler Alloys as Promising Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Alexander A.

    This thesis describes Ph.D. research on the half-Heusler class of thermoelectric materials. Half-Heusler alloys are a versatile class of materials that have been studied for use in photovoltaics, phase change memory, and thermoelectric power generation. With respect to thermoelectric power generation, new approaches were recently developed in order to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, of half-Heusler alloys. Two of the strategies discussed in this work are adding excess Ni within MNiSn (M = Ti, Zr, or Hf) compounds to form full-Heusler nanostructures and using isoelectronic substitution of Ti, Zr, and Hf in MNiSn compounds to create microscale grain boundaries. This work uses computational simulations based on density functional theory, combined with the cluster expansion method, to predict the stable phases of pseudo-binary and pseudo-ternary composition systems. Statistical mechanics methods were used to calculate temperature-composition phase diagrams that relate the equilibrium phases. It is shown that full-Heusler nanostructures are predicted to remain stable even at high temperatures, and the microscale grain boundaries observed in (Ti,Zr,Hf)NiSn materials are found to be thermodynamically unstable at equilibrium. A new strategy of combining MNiSn materials with ZrNiPb has also recently emerged, and theoretical and experimental work show that a solid solution of the two materials is stable.

  5. Bake hardening of nanograin AA7075 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bake hardening behavior of AA7075 was studied and compared with its coarse-grain counterpart. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 88–100% increase in bake hardenability. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 36–38% increase in final yield strength after baking. ► Maximum bake hardenability and final yield stress were about 185 MPa and 719 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of nanostructured AA7075 aluminum alloy was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) was used to produce nanograin layers on both surfaces of workpieces. The nanostructured layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The thickness of nanostructured layer, having the grains of 50–110 nm, was about 75 μm on each side of workpiece. The bake hardenability of nanograin and coarse-grain AA7075 was then compared by pre-straining to 2, 4 and 6% followed by baking at 100 °C and 200 °C for 20 min. Comparing to coarse-grain case, there was about 88–100% increase in bake hardenability and about 36–38% increase in yield strength after the bake hardening of present nanograin AA7075. Such an increase in bake hardenability and strength was achieved when the thickness of two nanograin layers was about only one-tenth of the whole thickness.

  6. Terminating DNA Tile Assembly with Nanostructured Caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Deepak K; Jiang, Ruoyu; Reinhart, Seth; Mohammed, Abdul M; Jorgenson, Tyler D; Schulman, Rebecca

    2017-10-24

    Precise control over the nucleation, growth, and termination of self-assembly processes is a fundamental tool for controlling product yield and assembly dynamics. Mechanisms for altering these processes programmatically could allow the use of simple components to self-assemble complex final products or to design processes allowing for dynamic assembly or reconfiguration. Here we use DNA tile self-assembly to develop general design principles for building complexes that can bind to a growing biomolecular assembly and terminate its growth by systematically characterizing how different DNA origami nanostructures interact with the growing ends of DNA tile nanotubes. We find that nanostructures that present binding interfaces for all of the binding sites on a growing facet can bind selectively to growing ends and stop growth when these interfaces are presented on either a rigid or floppy scaffold. In contrast, nucleation of nanotubes requires the presentation of binding sites in an arrangement that matches the shape of the structure's facet. As a result, it is possible to build nanostructures that can terminate the growth of existing nanotubes but cannot nucleate a new structure. The resulting design principles for constructing structures that direct nucleation and termination of the growth of one-dimensional nanostructures can also serve as a starting point for programmatically directing two- and three-dimensional crystallization processes using nanostructure design.

  7. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azawi, A; Smistrup, K; Kristensen, A

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro- and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate the minimum line width that can be realized by our fabrication method and the influence of etching angle on the structure profile during the ion beam etching process. Trenches down to 400 nm in width have been successfully fabricated into a 316 type electro-polished steel wafer. Afterward a plastic replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are produced. (paper)

  8. Technetium and technetium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijdo, W.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey on technetium and technetium alloys. The literature has been searched through 1993. The survey was focused on technetium and (binary cubic) technetium alloys, but other important information on technetium has not been omitted from this survey. This report has been written with the aim to collect more information about phase systems which could be of importance in the transmutation process by neutrons of technetium. With the information presented in this report, it should be possible to select a suitable technetium alloy for further investigation regarding to the transmutation process. (orig.)

  9. Metal films with imprinted nanostructures by template stripping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    We present a novel template stripping procedure for fabricating metal films with imprinted nanostructures. The basic idea is to deposit a gold film onto a nano-structured substrate and subsequently strip the film from the substrate surface thereby revealing imprinted nanostructures in the film...... result is a thin gold film with imprinted nano-cavities....

  10. Science and Technology of Nanostructures in the Department of Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murday, James S.

    1999-01-01

    The United States Department of Defense maintains a research and development program in nanostructures with special attention to miniaturization of information technology devices, nanostructured materials, and nanobiotechnology for detection of biological agents. This article provides a brief guide to those DoD funding officers and research scientists actively interested in nanostructures

  11. Synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    Significant and growing interest is being exhibited in the novel and enhanced properties of nanostructured materials. These materials, with their constituent phase or grain structures modulated on a length scale less than 100 nm, are artificially synthesized by a wide variety of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods. In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, where mechanical behavior is emphasized, nanostructured materials with modulation dimensionalities from one (multilayers) to three (nanophase materials) are mainly considered. No attempt is made in this review to cover in detail all of the diverse methods available for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rather, the basic principles involved in their synthesis are discussed in terms of the special properties sought using examples of particular synthesis and processing methodologies. Some examples of the property changes that can result from one of these methods, cluster assembly of nanophase materials, are presented

  12. Synthesis and AFM visualization of DNA nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Rika; Haruta, Hirotaka; Morii, Takashi; Okada, Takao; Asakawa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel bottom-up approach for the fabrication of various desired nanostructures, based on self-assembly of oligonucleotides governed by Watson-Crick base pairing. Using this approach, we designed Y-shaped, closed Y-shaped, H-shaped, and hexagonal structures with oligonucleotides. These structures were autonomously fabricated simply by mixing equimolar solutions of oligonucleotides and performing hybridization. After synthesis of the nanostructures, we confirmed their validity by agarose gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscope (AFM) visualization. We detected bands of the desired molecular sizes in the gel electrophoresis and observed the desired structures by AFM analysis. We concluded that the synthesized structures were consistent with our intended design and that AFM visualization is a very useful tool for the observation of nanostructures

  13. Transport and dynamics of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue

    This thesis is concerned with the heating and electronic properties of nanoscale devices based on nanostructured graphene. As electronic devices scale down to nanometer dimensions, the operation depends on the detailed atomic structure. Emerging carbon nano-materials such as graphene, carbon...... nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, exhibit promising electronic and heat transport properties. Much research addresses the electron mobility of pristine graphene devices. However, the thermal transport properties, as well as the effects of e-ph interaction, in nanoscale devices, based on nanostructured...... graphene, have received much less attention. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the thermal properties of nanostructured graphene. The computational analysis is based on DFT/TB-NEGF. We show how a regular nanoperforation of a graphene layer - a graphene antidot lattice (GAL) - may...

  14. Fractal like charge transport in polyaniline nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, A.

    2013-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) doped nanotubes, and hydrochloric acid (HCl) doped nanofibers and nanoparticles of polyaniline have been studied as a function of doping level. The crystallinity increases with doping for all the nanostructures. Electrical transport measurements in the temperature range of 5–300 K show an increase in conductivity with doping for the nanostructures. All the nanostructures exhibit metal to insulator (MIT) transition below 40 K. The metallic behavior is ascribed to the electron–electron interaction effects. In the insulating regime of the nanotubes conduction follows the Mott quasi-1D variable range hopping model, whereas the conduction in the nanofibers and nanoparticles occur by variable range hopping of charge carriers among superlocalized states without and with Coulomb interaction, respectively. The smaller dopant size in case of HCl makes the polymer fractal resulting in superlocalization of electronic wave-functions. The confined morphology of the nanoparticles results in effective Coulomb interaction dominating the intersite hopping

  15. Electrode Nanostructures in Lithium‐Based Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Lithium‐based batteries possessing energy densities much higher than those of the conventional batteries belong to the most promising class of future energy devices. However, there are some fundamental issues related to their electrodes which are big roadblocks in their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). Nanochemistry has advantageous roles to overcome these problems by defining new nanostructures of electrode materials. This review article will highlight the challenges associated with these chemistries both to bring high performance and longevity upon considering the working principles of the various types of lithium‐based (Li‐ion, Li‐air and Li‐S) batteries. Further, the review discusses the advantages and challenges of nanomaterials in nanostructured electrodes of lithium‐based batteries, concerns with lithium metal anode and the recent advancement in electrode nanostructures. PMID:27980896

  16. Metal oxide nanostructures as gas sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, G

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Nanostructures as Gas Sensing Devices explores the development of an integrated micro gas sensor that is based on advanced metal oxide nanostructures and is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology. This sensor can then be used to create a compact, low-power, handheld device for analyzing air ambience. The book first covers current gas sensing tools and discusses the necessity for miniaturized sensors. It then focuses on the materials, devices, and techniques used for gas sensing applications, such as resistance and capacitance variations. The author addresses the issues of sensitivity, concentration, and temperature dependency as well as the response and recovery times crucial for sensors. He also presents techniques for synthesizing different metal oxides, particularly those with nanodimensional structures. The text goes on to highlight the gas sensing properties of many nanostructured metal oxides, from aluminum and cerium to iron and titanium to zinc and zirconium. The final...

  17. Electron Microscopy of Nanostructures in Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købler, Carsten

    with cells is therefore increasingly more relevant from both an engineering and a toxicological viewpoint. My work involves developing and exploring electron microscopy (EM) for imaging nanostructures in cells, for the purpose of understanding nanostructure-cell interactions in terms of their possibilities...... in science and concerns in toxicology. In the present work, EM methods for imaging nanostructure-cell interactions have been explored, and the complex interactions documented and ordered. In particular the usability of the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) was explored. Using EM...... in literature. Furthermore, EM proved valuable as it revealed an unnoticed CNT effect. FIB-SEM helped establish that the effect was linked to eosionophilic crystalline pneumonia (ECP)....

  18. Spin currents in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czeschka, Franz Dominik

    2011-09-05

    A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)

  19. Optical properties of nitride nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarero, A.; Cros, A.; Garro, N.; Gomez-Gomez, M.I.; Garcia, A.; Lima, M.M. de [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Daudin, B. [Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, SPMM, CEA/Grenoble, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Rizzi, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg August Universitaet Goettingen, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper we review some recent results on the optical properties of nitride nanostructures, in particular on GaN quantum dots (QDs) and InN nanocolumns (NCs). First, we will give a brief introduction on the particularities of vibrational modes of wurtzite. The GaN QDs, embedded in AlN, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the Stransky-Krastanov mode on c- and a-plane 6H-SiC. We have studied the optical properties by means of photoluminescence (PL) and performed Raman scattering measurements to analyze the strain relaxation in the dots and the barrier, the effect of the internal electric fields, and the influence of specific growth parameters, like the influence of capping or the spacer on the relaxation of the QDs. A theoretical model, based on continuous elastic theory, were developed to interpret the Raman scattering results. On the other hand, InN NCs have been grown by MBE in the vapor-liquid-solid mode using Au as a catalyst. The nanocolumns have different morphology depending on the growth conditions. The optical properties can be correlated to the morphology of the samples and the best growth conditions can be selected. We observe, from the analysis of the Raman data in InN NCs, the existence of two space regions contributing to the scattering: the surface and the inner region. From the inner region, uncoupled phonon modes are clearly observed, showing the high crystal quality and the complete relaxation of the NCs (no strain). The observation of a LO-phonon-plasmon couple in the same spectra is a fingerprint of the accumulation layer predicted at the surface of the nanocolumns. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  1. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  2. Positrons in amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Pierre.

    1981-07-01

    Positron annihilation techniques give interesting informations about ''empty spaces'' in amorphous alloys. The results of an extensive research work on the properties of either pre-existing or irradiation induced ''empty spaces'' in four amorphous alloys are presented. The pre-existing empty spaces appear to be small vacancy-like defects. The irradiation induced defects are ''close pairs'' with widely distributed configurations. There is a strong interaction between vacancy like and interstitial like components. A model is proposed, which explains the radiation resistance mechanism of the amorphous alloys. An extensive joint research work to study four amorphous alloys, Fe 80 B 20 ,Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 , Cu 50 Ti 50 , Pd 80 Si 20 , is summarized

  3. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  4. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene nanostruc...... demonstrated the opening of what could be interpreted as a band gap....... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...

  5. Research of Self-Formation Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Petrauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateral etching processes for the modeling of the geometry of self-formation nanostructures with Silvaco TCAD Athena program are analyzed. Self-formation nanostructures is modeled with different mask selectivity values equal to 2, 10, 40 and 100 with respect to the etching layer, with the etching duration of 0–180 s. The etching rates are constant – 1.33 nm/s. The analysis of the dependence of the etching systematic error on its thickness has been carried out. The computer modeled results are close to the ones produced by means of the application of the analytical calculation models by other authors.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  7. About possible technologies of creation nanostructures blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blednova, Zh.M.; Chaevskij, M.I.; Rusinov, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    Possible technologies of formation nanostructures blankets are considered: a method of thermal carrying over of weights in the conditions of a high gradient of temperatures; the combined method including cathode-plasma nitriding in the conditions of low pressure and drawing of nitride of the titan in a uniform work cycle; the combined method including high-frequency ionic nitriding and drawing of carbide of chrome by pyrolysis chrome and organic of connections in plasma of the decaying category. Possibility of formation layered nanostructures layers is shown.

  8. Engineered Metallic Nanostructures: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohloul, Arash

    Metallic nanostructures have garnered a great deal of attention due to their fascinating optical properties, which differ from the bulk metal. They have been proven to exceed expectations in wide variety of applications including chemical and biological sensing. Nevertheless, high-throughput and low cost nanofabrication techniques are required to implant metallic nanostructures in widespread applications. With that vision, this thesis presents a versatile and reliable method for scalable fabrication of gold nanostructures. In this approach, a plasma-treated ordered array of polystyrene nanospheres acts as an initial mask. The key step in this process is the vapor-deposition of nickel as a sacrificial mask. Thereby, gold nanostructures are directly formed on the substrate through the nickel mask. This is an easy, powerful, and straightforward method that offers several degrees of freedom to precisely control the shape and size of nanostructures. We made a library of nanostructures including gold nanocrescents, double crescents, nanorings, and nanodisks with the ability to tune the size in the range of 150 to 650 nm. The fabricated nanostructures are highly packed and uniformly cover the centimeter scale substrate. The optical properties of metallic nanostructures were extensively studied by a combination of UV-Vis-NIR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, and correlation between optical response and geometrical parameters were investigated. In the next part of this thesis, highly sensitive surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) analysis was demonstrated on gold nanocrescent arrays. Theoretical modeling was confirmed that these substrates provide highly dense and strong hot-spots over the substrate, which is required for surface enhanced spectroscopic studies. Gold nanocrescent arrays exhibit highly tunable plasmon resonance to cover desired molecular vibrational bands. These substrates experimentally illustrated 3 orders of magnitude

  9. Hollow raspberry-like PdAg alloy nanospheres: High electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Mingrui; Zheng, Yixiong

    2015-03-01

    Palladium-silver (PdAg) alloy nanospheres with unique structure were prepared using a one-pot procedure based on the galvanic replacement reaction. Their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media was evaluated. The morphology and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were used to analyze the electrochemical performance of the PdAg alloy nanospheres. The SEM and TEM images showed that the PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure with hollow interiors and porous walls. Compared to the commercial Pd/C catalyst, the as-prepared PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, showing its potential as a new non-Pt electro-catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  10. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  11. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  12. Electroplating technologies of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hyun Kyu; Hwnag, Sung Sik; Seo, Yong Chil; Kim, Dong Jin; Seo, Moo Hong

    2001-12-01

    In localization of electrosleeving technique, there are some problems like the following articles. Firstly, Patents published by OHT have claimed Ni-P, Ni-B alloy plating and Mo, Mn Cr, W, Co as a pinning agent. Secondly, alloy platings have many restrictions. There are some method to get alloy plating in spite of the various restrictions. If current density increase above limiting current density in one of the metals, both of the metals discharge at the same time. The addition of surface active agent(sufactant) in the plating solution is one of the methods to get alloy plating. Alloy plating using pulse current easily controls chemical composition and structure of deposit. Ni-Fe alloy plating is known to exhibit anomalous type of plating behavior in which deposition of the less noble metal is favoured. Presence of hypophohphite ion can control the iron codeposition by changing the deposition mechanism. Hypophohphite suppresses the deposition of Fe and also promotes Ni. Composite plating will be considered to improve the strength at the high temperature. Addition of particle size of 10δ400μm makes residual stress compressive in plate layer and suppress the grain growth rate at the high temperature. Addition of particle makes suface roughness high and fracture stress low at high temperature. But, selection of the kinds of particle and control of additives amount overcome the problems above

  13. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication of Supported Noble Metal Alloy Nanoparticle Arrays for Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugroho, Ferry A. A.; Iandolo, Beniamino; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2016-01-01

    Mixing different elements at the nanoscale to obtain alloy nanostructures with fine-tuned physical and chemical properties offers appealing opportunities for nanotechnology and nanoscience. However, despite widespread successful application of alloy nanoparticles made by colloidal synthesis...... in heterogeneous catalysis, nanoalloy systems have been used very rarely in solid-state devices and nanoplasmonics-related applications. One reason is that such applications require integration in arrays on a surface with compelling demands on nanoparticle arrangement, uniformity in surface coverage......, and optimization of the surface density. These cannot be fulfilled even using state-of-the-art self -assembly strategies of colloids. As a solution, we present here a generic bottom-up nanolithography-compatible fabrication approach for large-area arrays of alloy nanoparticles on surfaces. To illustrate...

  14. Thermodynamic Tuning of Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Lu, Yanshan; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Mg-based hydrides are one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials because of their relatively high storage capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, slow kinetics and stable thermodynamics hinder their practical application. In contrast to the substantial progress in the enhancement of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics, thermodynamic tuning is still a great challenge for Mg-based alloys. At present, the main strategies to alter the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH2 are alloying, nanostructuring, and changing the reaction pathway. Using these approaches, thermodynamic tuning has been achieved to some extent, but it is still far from that required for practical application. In this article, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Based on the current progress, finding reversible systems with high hydrogen capacity and effectively tailored reaction enthalpy offers a promising route for tuning the thermodynamics of Mg-based hydrogen storage alloys. PMID:28788353

  15. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  16. Effect of Nanosheet Surface Structure of Titanium Alloys on Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Komasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are the most frequently used dental implants partly because of the protective oxide coating that spontaneously forms on their surface. We fabricated titania nanosheet (TNS structures on titanium surfaces by NaOH treatment to improve bone differentiation on titanium alloy implants. The cellular response to TNSs on Ti6Al4V alloy was investigated, and the ability of the modified surfaces to affect osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells and increase the success rate of titanium implants was evaluated. The nanoscale network structures formed by alkali etching markedly enhanced the functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression of rat bone marrow cells. Other cell behaviors, such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin deposition, and mineralization, were also markedly increased in TNS-modified Ti6Al4V. Our results suggest that titanium implants modified with nanostructures promote osteogenic differentiation, which may improve the biointegration of these implants into the alveolar bone.

  17. Texture in low-alloyed uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariel, J.

    1982-08-01

    The dependence of the preferred orientation of cast and heat-treated polycrystalline adjusted uranium and uranium -0.1 w/o chromium alloys on the production process was studied. The importance of obtaining material free of preferred orientation is explained, and a survey of the regular methods to determine preferred orientation is given. Dilatometry, tensile testing and x-ray diffraction were used to determine the extent of the directionality of these alloys. Data processing showed that these methods are insufficient in a case of a material without any plastic forming, because of unreproducibility of results. Two parameters are defined from the results of Schlz's method diffraction test. These parameters are shown theoretically and experimentally (by extreme-case samples) to give the deviation from isotropy. Application of these parameters to the examined samples showes that cast material has preferred orientation, though it is not systematic. This preferred orientation was reduced by adequate heat treatments

  18. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian Fernandez, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D' Acapito, F

    2001-04-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (0{<=}x{<=}1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy.

  19. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian Fernandez, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D'Acapito, F.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu 50 Ni 50 nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu 60 Ni 40 bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co x Ni 1-x (0≤x≤1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10 16 ions/cm 2 total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy

  20. WC-3015 alloy (high-temperature alloy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    WC-3015 Nb alloy containing 28 to 30 Hf, 1 to 2 Zr, 13 to 16 W, 0 to 4 Ta, 0 to 5 Ti, 0.07 to 0.33 C, less than or equal to 0.02 N, less than or equal to 0.03 O, less than or equal to 0.001 H was developed for use at high temperature in oxidizing environments. Its composition can be tailored to meet specific requirements. When WC-3015 is exposed to O at elevated temperature, Hf and Nb oxidized preferentially and HfO 2 dissolves in Nb 2 O 5 to form 6HfO-Nb 2 O 5 . This complex oxide has a tight cubic lattice which resists the diffusion of O into the substrate. During 24-h exposure to air at 2400 0 F, the alloy oxidizes to a depth of approximately 0.035 in. with a surface recession of 0 to 0.004 in. Oxidation resistance of WC-3015 welds and base material can be further enhanced greatly by applying silicide coatings. WC-3015 alloy can be machined by conventional and electrical-discharge methods. It can be hot worked readily by extrusion, forging or rolling. Cold working can be used at room or elevated temperature. It can be welded by the electron-beam or Tig processes. Physical constants, typical mechanical properties at 75 to 2400 0 F, and effects of composition and heat treatment on tensile and stress-rupture properties of the alloy are tabulated

  1. Nanostructure Diffraction Gratings for Integrated Spectroscopy and Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junpeng (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present disclosure pertains to metal or dielectric nanostructures of the subwavelength scale within the grating lines of optical diffraction gratings. The nanostructures have surface plasmon resonances or non-plasmon optical resonances. A linear photodetector array is used to capture the resonance spectra from one of the diffraction orders. The combined nanostructure super-grating and photodetector array eliminates the use of external optical spectrometers for measuring surface plasmon or optical resonance frequency shift caused by the presence of chemical and biological agents. The nanostructure super-gratings can be used for building integrated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrometers. The nanostructures within the diffraction grating lines enhance Raman scattering signal light while the diffraction grating pattern of the nanostructures diffracts Raman scattering light to different directions of propagation according to their wavelengths. Therefore, the nanostructure super-gratings allows for the use of a photodetector array to capture the surface enhanced Raman scattering spectra.

  2. Magnetic properties of nickel nanostructures grown in AAO membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.-L.; Kim, Y.-R.; Malkinski, L.; Vovk, A.; Whittenburg, S.L.; Kim, E.-M.; Jung, J.-S.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures can be built by performing chemical or electrochemical reactions in the pores of a suitable host or matrix material. We have developed a method of electrodeposition of nickel nanostructures inside cylindrical pores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, which provides precise control of the nanostructure height. We were able to fabricate hexagonal arrays of particles in the form of spheres, rods and long wires. Magnetization measurements of these nanostructures as function of field and temperature were carried out using a superconducting quantum-interference device magnetometer. The shape of nickel nanostructures has been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope. The coercivity of the nickel nanostructures measured with the field perpendicular to the membrane was increasing with increasing aspect ratio of the nanostructures. These experimental values of the coercivity, varying from 200 Oe for the spherical nanodots to 730 Oe for the nanowires, are in a fair agreement with our micromagnetic modeling calculations

  3. Magnetic properties of nickel nanostructures grown in AAO membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S -L [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y -R [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Malkinski, L [Advanced Material Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Vovk, A [Advanced Material Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Whittenburg, S L [Advanced Material Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Kim, E -M [Korea Basic Science Institute, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J -S [Department of Chemistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    One-dimensional nanostructures can be built by performing chemical or electrochemical reactions in the pores of a suitable host or matrix material. We have developed a method of electrodeposition of nickel nanostructures inside cylindrical pores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, which provides precise control of the nanostructure height. We were able to fabricate hexagonal arrays of particles in the form of spheres, rods and long wires. Magnetization measurements of these nanostructures as function of field and temperature were carried out using a superconducting quantum-interference device magnetometer. The shape of nickel nanostructures has been investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope. The coercivity of the nickel nanostructures measured with the field perpendicular to the membrane was increasing with increasing aspect ratio of the nanostructures. These experimental values of the coercivity, varying from 200 Oe for the spherical nanodots to 730 Oe for the nanowires, are in a fair agreement with our micromagnetic modeling calculations.

  4. Electrochemical Corrosion and In Vitro Bioactivity of Nano-Grained Biomedical Ti-20Nb-13Zr Alloy in a Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bioactivity and the corrosion protection for a novel nano-grained Ti-20Nb-13Zr at % alloy were examined in a simulated body fluid (SBF. The effect of the SPS’s temperature on the corrosion performance was investigated. The phases and microstructural details of the developed alloy were analyzed by XRD (X-ray Diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. The electrochemical study was investigated using linear potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a SBF, and the bioactivity was examined by immersing the developed alloy in a SBF for 3, 7, and 14 days. The morphology of the depositions after immersion was examined using SEM. Alloy surface analysis after immersion in the SBF was characterized by XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The results of the bioactivity test in SBF revealed the growth of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the alloy. The analysis of XPS showed the formation of protective oxides of TiO2, Ti2O3, ZrO2, Nb2O5, and a Ca3(PO42 compound (precursor of hydroxyapatite deposited on the alloy surface, indicating that the presented alloy can stimulate bone formation. The corrosion resistance increased by increasing the sintering temperature and the highest corrosion resistance was obtained at 1200 °C. The improved corrosion protection was found to be related to the alloy densification. The bioactivity and the corrosion resistance of the developed nanostructured alloy in a SBF renders the nanostructured Ti-20Nb-13Zr alloy a promising candidate as an implant material.

  5. Engineering Platinum Alloy Electrocatalysts in Nanoscale for PEMFC Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Ting [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    Fuel cells are expected to be a key next-generation energy source used for vehicles and homes, offering high energy conversion efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. However, due to large overpotentials on anode and cathode, the efficiency is still much lower than theoretically predicted. During the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate synergy effect of platinum alloyed with base metals. But, engineering the alloy particles in nanoscale has been a challenge. Most important challenges in developing nanostructured materials are the abilities to control size, monodispersity, microcomposition, and even morphology or self-assembly capability, so called Nanomaterials-by-Design, which requires interdisciplinary collaborations among computational modeling, chemical synthesis, nanoscale characterization as well as manufacturing processing. Electrocatalysts, particularly fuel cell catalysts, are dramatically different from heterogeneous catalysts because the surface area in micropores cannot be electrochemically controlled on the same time scale as more transport accessible surfaces. Therefore, electrocatalytic architectures need minimal microporous surface area while maximizing surfaces accessible through mesopores or macropores, and to "pin" the most active, highest performance physicochemical state of the materials even when exposed to thermodynamic forces, which would otherwise drive restructuring, crystallization, or densification of the nanoscale materials. In this presentation, results of engineering nanoscale platinum alloy particles down to 2 ~ 4 nm will be discussed. Based on nature of alloyed base metals, various synthesis technologies have been studied and developed to achieve capabilities of controlling particle size and particle microcomposition, namely, core-shell synthesis, microemulsion technique, thermal decomposition process, surface organometallic chemical method, etc. The results show that by careful engineering the

  6. PdCu alloy nanoparticle-decorated copper nanotubes as enhanced electrocatalysts: DFT prediction validated by experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dengfeng; Xu, Haoxiang; Cao, Dapeng; Fisher, Adrian; Gao, Yi; Cheng, Daojian

    2016-12-01

    In order to combine the advantages of both 0D and 1D nanostructured materials into a single catalyst, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to study the PdCu alloy NP-decorated Cu nanotubes (PdCu@CuNTs). These present a significant improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of formic acid oxidation (FAO). Motivated by our theoretical work, we adopted the seed-mediated growth method to successfully synthesize the nanostructured PdCu@CuNTs. The new catalysts triple the catalytic activity for FAO, compared with commercial Pd/C. In summary, our work provides a new strategy for the DFT prediction and experimental synthesis of novel metal NP-decorated 1D nanostructures as electrocatalysts for fuel cells.

  7. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  9. Fullerenes and nanostructured plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Hummelen, Jan C.; Kuzmany, H; Fink, J; Mehring, M; Roth, S

    1998-01-01

    We report on the present on the present status of the plastic solar cell and on the design of fullerene derivatives and pi-conjugated donor molecules that can function as acceptor-donor pairs and (supra-) molecular building blocks in organized, nanostructured interpenetrating networks, forming a

  10. Electroluminescence from Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EL and PL intensities occurs at the same energy; however, the EL intensity has sharp Gaussian sub peaks and red shifted compared to the PL intensity. To get our result, we used the idea of quantum confinement model (QCM), that can explain PL and EL on pure Si nanostructures and Si-terminated with impurities.

  11. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  12. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  13. Hydrogen adsorption in carbon nanostructures compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmel, H.G.; Nijkamp, M.G.; Kearley, G.J.; Rivera, A.; de Jong, K.P.; Mulder, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports continue to suggest high hydrogen storage capacities for some carbon nanostructures due to a stronger interaction between hydrogen and carbon. Here the interaction of hydrogen with activated charcoal, carbon nanofibers, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and electron beam ‘opened’

  14. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...

  15. Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells.

  16. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  17. Numerical simulations of nanostructured gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repän, Taavi; Frydendahl, Christian; Novikov, Sergey M.

    2017-01-01

    We present an approach to analyse near-field effects on nanostructured gold films by finite element simulations. The studied samples are formed by fabricating gold films near the percolation threshold and then applying laser damage. Resulting samples have complicated structures, which...

  18. Controlling light with resonant plasmonic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waele, R. de

    2009-01-01

    Plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons in a metal. At optical frequencies plasmons enable nanoscale confinement of light in metal nanostructures. This ability has given rise to many applications in e.g. photothermal cancer treatment, light trapping in photovoltaic cells, and sensing.

  19. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.; Flemban, Tahani H.

    2016-01-01

    ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc

  20. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...