WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanosecond mid-infrared detection

  1. Off-axis QEPAS using a pulsed nanosecond Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Feng, Yuyang; peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C

    2016-01-01

    A trace gas sensor, based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), consisting of two acoustically coupled micro-resonators (mR) with an o?-axis 20 kHz quartz tuning fork (QTF) is demonstrated. The complete acoustically coupled mR system is optimized based on finite element simulations and experimentally verified. The QEPAS sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (MIR OPO). The sensor is used for spectroscopic measurements on methane in the 3.1 um to 3.5 um wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 1 cm^-1 and a detection limit of 0.8 ppm. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the QEPAS sensor is 32 ppbv@190s and that the background noise is solely due to the thermal noise of the QTF.

  2. A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, C.; Willer, U.; Lewicki, R.; Pohlkötter, A.; Kosterev, A.; Kosynkin, D.; Tittel, F. K.; Schade, W.

    2009-03-01

    Recent developments of external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QC lasers) enable new applications in laser spectroscopy of trace gas species in the mid-infrared spectral region. We report the application of quartz enhanced photo acoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) with widely tuneable EC-QC lasers as excitation sources for chemical sensing of different species such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP). A pulsed EC-QC laser operating at v~1120cm-1 and a cw EC-QC laser operating at v~950cm-1 are used for the detection of the explosive TATP which is a mid infrared broad band absorber. The detection limit of our present setup is ~1ppm TATP at atmospheric pressure.

  3. TATP and TNT detection by mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Johannes; Hildenbrand, Jürgen; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Lambrecht, Armin

    2009-05-01

    Sensitive and fast detection of explosives remains a challenge in many threat scenarios. Fraunhofer IPM works on two different detection methods using mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy in combination with quantum cascade lasers (QCL). 1. stand-off detection for a spatial distance of several meters and 2. contactless extractive sampling for short distance applications. The extractive method is based on a hollow fiber that works as gas cell and optical waveguide for the QCL light. The samples are membranes contaminated with the explosives and real background. The low vapor pressure of TNT requires a thermal desorbtion to introduce gaseous TNT and TATP into the heated fiber. The advantage of the hollow fiber setup is the resulting small sample volume. This enables a fast gas exchange rate and fast detection in the second range. The presented measurement setup achieves a detection limit of around 58 ng TNT and 26 ng TATP for 1 m hollow fiber. TATP - an explosive with a very high vapor pressure in comparison to TNT or other explosives - shows potential for an adequate concentration in gas phase under normal ambient conditions and thus the possibility of an explosive detection using open path absorption of TATP at 8 μm wavelength. In order to lower the cross sensitivities or interferents with substances with an absorption in the wavelength range of the TATP absorption the probe volume is checked synchronously by a second QCL emitting beside the target absorption wavelength. In laboratory measurements a detection limit of 5 ppm*m TATP are achieved.

  4. Upconversion based continuous-wave mid-infrared detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental work on upconversion based mid-wavelength infrared detection using silicon detectors without the need for cryogenic cooling. We consider both multi-spectral imaging and point spectroscopy targeting several specific applications.......We present theoretical and experimental work on upconversion based mid-wavelength infrared detection using silicon detectors without the need for cryogenic cooling. We consider both multi-spectral imaging and point spectroscopy targeting several specific applications....

  5. Development of a portable mid-infrared methane detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-fang; He, Qi-xin; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2017-03-01

    Based on direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a portable methane (CH4) detection device was implemented. The device mainly includes a dual-channel non-dispersive infrared sensor (integrated with an infrared light source, light path and pyroelectric detector), a driving circuit of the sensor, an ARM11 embedded WinCE system, and a LabVIEW-based data-processing platform. Experiments were carried out with prepared CH4 samples to investigate the sensing performance. The relative detection error is less than 9.14% within the measuring range of 0—7×10-2. For a CH4 sample with concentration of 0 (i.e., pure nitrogen), the measured concentration fluctuation range is -1.2×10-5—+2×10-5. An Allan deviation analysis on the gas sample with concentration of 0 indicates that the 1 σ limit of detection ( LoD) of the device is 4.8×10-6 with an average time of 1 s. Experiments were performed on three CH4 samples with different concentrations to test the response time, which is validated to be less than 20 s. Due to the small size of the ARM11 embedded system and the powerful data processing capability of the LabVIEW platform, the proposed portable and miniaturized CH4 sensor shows a good application prospect in mining operations and some other industrial fields.

  6. Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a pulse train structure of an oscillator-type free-electron laser (FEL) results in the immediate damage of a solid target upon focusing. We demonstrate that the laser-induced damage threshold can be significantly improved by gating the mid-infrared (MIR) FEL pulses with a plasma mirror. Although the switching pulses we employ have a nanosecond duration which does not guarantee the clean wavefront of the gated FEL pulses, the high focusablity is experimentally confirmed through the observation of spectral broadening by a factor of 2.1 when we tightly focus the gated FEL pulses onto the Ge plate.

  7. On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Lin, P.; Singh, V.; Kimerling, L.; Hu, J.; Richardson, K.; Agarwal, A.; Tan, D. T. H.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate an on-chip sensor for room-temperature detection of methane gas using a broadband spiral chalcogenide glass waveguide coupled with off-chip laser and detector. The waveguide is fabricated using UV lithography patterning and lift-off after thermal evaporation. We measure the intensity change due to the presence and concentration of methane gas in the mid-infrared (MIR) range. This work provides an approach for broadband planar MIR gas sensing.

  8. A Spitzer survey of mid-infrared molecular emission from protoplanetary disks I: Detection rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Meijerink, Rowin; Carr, John S; Najita, Joan

    2010-01-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 micron molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H2O, OH, C2H2, HCN and CO2. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H2O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5x10^-4 to 9x10^-3 Lsun, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the 5 transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H...

  9. Mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect Sclerotinia stem rot on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu; Feng, Xuping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Detection of plant diseases in a fast and simple way is crucial for timely disease control. Conventionally, plant diseases are accurately identified by DNA, RNA or serology based methods which are time consuming, complex and expensive. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a promising technique that simplifies the detection procedure for the disease. Mid-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the spectral differences between healthy and infected oilseed rape leaves. Two different sample sets from two experiments were used to explore and validate the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy in detecting Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) on oilseed rape leaves. The average mid-infrared spectra showed differences between healthy and infected leaves, and the differences varied among different sample sets. Optimal wavenumbers for the 2 sample sets selected by the second derivative spectra were similar, indicating the efficacy of selecting optimal wavenumbers. Chemometric methods were further used to quantitatively detect the oilseed rape leaves infected by SSR, including the partial least squares-discriminant analysis, support vector machine and extreme learning machine. The discriminant models using the full spectra and the optimal wavenumbers of the 2 sample sets were effective for classification accuracies over 80%. The discriminant results for the 2 sample sets varied due to variations in the samples. The use of two sample sets proved and validated the feasibility of using mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods for detecting SSR on oilseed rape leaves. The similarities among the selected optimal wavenumbers in different sample sets made it feasible to simplify the models and build practical models. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is a reliable and promising technique for SSR control. This study helps in developing practical application of using mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics to detect plant disease.

  10. Nanoparticle probes and mid-infrared chemical imaging for DNA microarray detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoba, Magdi M; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F; Schoen, Brianna; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2010-11-01

    To date most mid-infrared spectroscopic studies have been limited, due to lack of sensitivity, to the structural characterization of a single oligonucleotide probe immobilized over the entire surface of a gold-coated slide or other infrared substrate. By contrast, widely used and commercially available glass slides and a microarray spotter that prints approximately 120-μm-diameter DNA spots were employed in the present work. To our knowledge, mid-infrared chemical imaging (IRCI) in the external reflection mode has been applied in the present study for the first time to the detection of nanostructure-based DNA microarrays spotted on glass slides. Alkyl amine-modified oligonucleotide probes were immobilized on glass slides that had been prefunctionalized with succinimidyl ester groups. This molecular fluorophore-free method entailed the binding of gold-nanoparticle-streptavidin conjugates to biotinylated DNA targets. Hybridization was visualized by the silver enhancement of gold nanoparticles. The adlayer of silver, selectively bound only to hybridized spots in a microarray, formed the external reflective infrared substrate that was necessary for the detection of DNA hybridization by IRCI in the present proof-of-concept study. IRCI made it possible to discriminate between diffuse and specular external reflection modes. The promising qualitative results are presented herein, and the implications for quantitative determination of DNA microarrays are discussed.

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for detection of Huanglongbing (greening) in citrus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Ehsani, Reza; Etxeberria, Edgardo

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening has greatly affected citrus orchards in Florida. This disease has caused significant economic and production losses costing about $750/acre for HLB management. Early and accurate detection of HLB is a critical management step to control the spread of this disease. This work focuses on the application of mid-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of HLB in citrus leaves. Leaf samples of healthy, nutrient-deficient, and HLB-infected trees were processed in two ways (process-1 and process-2) and analyzed using a rugged, portable mid-infrared spectrometer. Spectral absorbance data from the range of 5.15-10.72 μm (1942-933 cm(-1)) were preprocessed (baseline correction, negative offset correction, and removal of water absorbance band) and used for data analysis. The first and second derivatives were calculated using the Savitzky-Golay method. The preprocessed raw dataset, first derivatives dataset, and second derivatives dataset were first analyzed by principal component analysis. Then, the selected principal component scores were classified using two classification algorithms, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) and k-nearest neighbor (kNN). When the spectral data from leaf samples processed using process-1 were used for data analysis, the kNN-based algorithm yielded higher classification accuracies (especially nutrient-deficient leaf class) than that of the other spectral data (process-2). The performance of the kNN-based algorithm (higher than 95%) was better than the QDA-based algorithm. Moreover, among different types of datasets, preprocessed raw dataset resulted in higher classification accuracies than first and second derivatives datasets. The spectral peak in the region of 9.0-10.5 μm (952-1112 cm(-1)) was found to be distinctly different between the healthy and HLB-infected leaf samples. This carbohydrate peak could be attributed to the starch accumulation in the HLB-infected citrus leaves

  12. Development of a Broadly Tunable Mid-Infrared Laser Source for Highly Sensitive Multiple Trace Gas Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Juan Cui; Feng-Zhong Dong; Yu-Jun Zhang; Rui-Feng Kan; Yi-Ben Cui; Min Wang; Dong Chen; Jian-Guo Liu; Wen-Qing Liu

    2008-01-01

    A room-temperature broadly tunable mid-infrared difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive trace gas detection has been developed recently in our laboratory. The mid-infrared laser system is based on quasi-phase-matched (QPM) difference frequency generation (DFG) in a multi-grating, temperature-controlled periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal and employs two near-infrared diode lasers as pump sources. The mid-infrared coherent radiation generated is tunable from 3.2 μm to 3.7 μm with an output power of about 100 μW. By changing one of the pump laser head with another wavelength range, we can readily obtain other needed mid-infrared wavelength range cover. The performance of the mid-infrared laser system and its application to highly sensitive spectroscopic detection of CH4, HCI, CH2O, and NO2 has been carried out. A multi-reflection White cell was used in the experiment gaining ppb-level sensitivity. The DFG laser system has the features of compact, room-temperature operation, narrow line-width, and broadly continuous tunable range for potential applications in industry and environmental monitoring.

  13. High sensitivity InAs photodiodes for mid-infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jo Shien; Zhou, Xinxin; Auckloo, Akeel; White, Benjamin; Zhang, Shiyong; Krysa, Andrey; David, John P. R.; Tan, Chee Hing

    2016-10-01

    Sensitive detection of mid-infrared light (2 to 5 μm wavelengths) is crucial to a wide range of applications. Many of the applications require high-sensitivity photodiodes, or even avalanche photodiodes (APDs), with the latter generally accepted as more desirable to provide higher sensitivity when the optical signal is very weak. Using the semiconductor InAs, whose bandgap is 0.35 eV at room temperature (corresponding to a cut-off wavelength of 3.5 μm), Sheffield has developed high-sensitivity APDs for mid-infrared detection for one such application, satellite-based greenhouse gases monitoring at 2.0 μm wavelength. With responsivity of 1.36 A/W at unity gain at 2.0 μm wavelength (84 % quantum efficiency), increasing to 13.6 A/W (avalanche gain of 10) at -10V, our InAs APDs meet most of the key requirements from the greenhouse gas monitoring application, when cooled to 180 K. In the past few years, efforts were also made to develop planar InAs APDs, which are expected to offer greater robustness and manufacturability than mesa APDs previously employed. Planar InAs photodiodes are reported with reasonable responsivity (0.45 A/W for 1550 nm wavelength) and planar InAs APDs exhibited avalanche gain as high as 330 at 200 K. These developments indicate that InAs photodiodes and APDs are maturing, gradually realising their potential indicated by early demonstrations which were first reported nearly a decade ago.

  14. Mid-infrared Laser-Induced Fluorescence with Nanosecond Time Resolution Using a Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector: New Technology for Molecular Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Schwarzer, Dirk; Verma, Varun B; Stevens, Martin J; Marsili, Francesco; Mirin, Richard P; Nam, Sae Woo; Wodtke, Alec M

    2017-06-20

    In contrast to UV photomultiplier tubes that are widely used in physical chemistry, mid-infrared detectors are notorious for poor sensitivity and slow time response. This helps explain why, despite the importance of infrared spectroscopy in molecular science, mid-infrared fluorescence is not more widely used. In recent years, several new technologies have been developed that open new experimental possibilities for research in the mid-infrared. In this Account, we present one of the more promising technologies, superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) by sharing our experience with its use in a typical experiment carried out by physical chemists (laser-induced fluorescence) and comparing the SNSPD to a detector commonly used by physical chemists (InSb at LN Temperature). SNSPDs are fabricated from a thin film of superconducting metal, patterned into a meandering nanowire. The nanowire is cooled below its superconducting temperature, Tc, and held in a constant current circuit below the critical current necessary to destroy superconductivity, Ic. Upon absorption of a photon, the resulting heat is sufficient to destroy superconductivity across the entire width of the nanowire, an event that can be detected as a voltage pulse. In contrast to semiconductor-based detectors, which have a long wavelength cutoff determined by the band gap, the SNSPD exhibits single-photon sensitivity across the entire mid-IR spectrum. As these devices have not been used extensively outside the field of light detection technology research, one important goal of this Account is to provide practical details for the implementation of these devices in a physical chemistry laboratory. We provide extensive Supporting Information describing what is needed. This includes information on a liquid nitrogen cooled monochromator, the optical collection system including mid-infrared fibers, as well as a closed-cycle cryogenic cooler that reaches 0.3 K. We demonstrate the advantages of

  15. Generation of broadly tunable picosecond mid-infrared laser and sensitive detection of a mid-infrared signal by parametric frequency up-conversion in MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiu-Lin; Zhang Jing; Qiu Kang-Sheng; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in the near-infrared region within 1.361-1.656 μm and the mid-infrared region within 2.976-4.875 μm is constructed on the basis of bulk MgO:LiNbO3 crystals pumped at 1.064 μm.The maximum pulse energy reaches 1.3 mJ at 1.464 μm and 0.47 mJ at 3.894 μm,corresponding to a pumpto-idler photon conversion efficiency of 25%.By seeding the hard-to-measure mid-infrared radiation as the idler in the optical parametric amplification and measuring the amplified and frequency up-converted signal in the near-infrared or even visible region,one can measure very week mid-infrared radiation with ordinary detectors,which are insensitive to mid-infrared radiation,with a very high gain.A maximum gain factor of about 7 x 107 is achieved at the mid-infrared wavelength of 3.374 μm and the corresponding energy detection limit is as low as about 390 aJ per pulse.

  16. A multiwavelength study of Cygnus X-1: the first mid-infrared spectroscopic detection of compact jets

    CERN Document Server

    Rahoui, Farid; Heinz, Sebastian; Hynes, Dean C; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Grinberg, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE/PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multiwavelength study of the microquasar Cygnus X-1, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9e13 Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keV, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-1 stems from the blue supergiant com...

  17. Analytical potential of mid-infrared detection in capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuligowski, Julia; Quintas, Guillermo; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50th Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Lendl, Bernhard, E-mail: blendl@mail.zserv.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9-164, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2010-10-29

    Literature published in the last decade concerning the use of mid-infrared spectrometry as a detection system in separation techniques employing a liquid mobile phase is reviewed. In addition to the continued use of isocratic liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques, advances in chemometric data evaluation techniques now allow the use of gradient techniques on a routine basis, thus significantly broadening the range of possible applications of LC-IR. The general trend towards miniaturized separation systems was also followed for mid-IR detection where two key developments are of special importance. Firstly, concerning on-line detection the advent of micro-fabricated flow-cells with inner volumes of only a few nL for transmission as well as attenuated total reflection measurements enabled on-line mid-IR detection in capillary LC and opened the path for the first successful realization of on-line mid-IR detection in capillary zone electrophoresis as well as micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Secondly, concerning off-line detection the use of micro-flow through dispensers now enables to concentrate eluting analytes on dried spots sized a few tens of micrometers, thus matching the dimensions for sensitive detection by mid-IR microscopy. Finally in an attempt to increase detection sensitivity of on-line mid-IR detection, mid-IR quantum cascade lasers have been used. Applications cover the field of food analysis, environmental analysis and the characterization of explosives among others. Best detection sensitivities for on-line and off-line detection have been achieved in miniaturized systems and are in the order of 50 ng and 2 ng on column, respectively.

  18. Spectral cullet classification in the mid-infrared field for ceramic glass contaminants detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Pohl, Roland

    2006-02-01

    The presence of glass-like contaminants inside waste glass products, usually resulting from both industrial and differentiated urban waste collection, has greatly increased in recent years, due to the introduction to the market of a large amount of goods manufactured from ceramic glass. The presence of contaminants in the glass recycling streams reduces product quality and increases production costs. The detection of ceramic glass detection is an unresolved problem, as such material looks like normal glass and can only be detected by trained personnel. In this study an innovative approach to ceramic glass recognition, based on the spectral signature in the mid-infrared (MIR) field, was proposed and investigated. The study specifically addressed the spectral characterization of glass and ceramic glass fragments collected in a real recycling plant from two different production lines: coloured container glass and white container glass. To define suitable inspection strategies to separate the useful (glass) from the polluting (ceramic glass) materials at the recycling plants, fragments presenting different colour, thickness, size, shape and manufacturing were selected. Both dirty and clean cullet was considered. The analyses, carried out in the MIR spectral field (2280-4480 nm), show that ceramic glass and glass fragments can be recognized according to their different spectral signature. In particular, by selecting a specific wavelength ratio the two classes of materials can be rapidly recognized, suggesting the possibility of developing an integrated hardware and software sorting system for 'on-line' ceramic glass separation.

  19. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn; Grinberg, Victoria

    2011-07-01

    We report on a Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph (mid-infrared), RXTE/PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multiwavelength study of the microquasar Cygnus X-1, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break—where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place—at about 2.9 × 1013 Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keV, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 μm mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-1 stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Rayleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f ∞ ≈ 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anti-correlation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and Cygnus X-1's environment and/or the companion star's stellar wind.

  20. Upconversion enhanced degenerate four-wave mixing in the mid-infrared for sensitive detection of acetylene in gas flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sahlberg, Anna-Lena;

    2014-01-01

    We present a new background free method for in situ gas detection that combines degenerate four-wave mixing with an infra-red light detector based on parametric frequency upconversion of infra-red light. The system is demonstrated at mid infrared wavelengths for low concentration measurements...... of acetylene diluted in a N2 gas flow at ambient conditions. It is demonstrated that the system is able to cover more than 100 nm in scanning range and detect concentrations as low as 3 ppm based on the R9e line. A major issue in small signal measurements is scattered light and it is showed how a spatial...

  1. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  2. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir; Abdel-Moneim, Nabil; Tang, Zhuoqi; Furniss, David; Sojka, Lukasz; Stone, Nick; Jayakrupakar, Nallala; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Lindsay, Ian; Ward, Jon; Farries, Mark; Moselund, Peter M.; Napier, Bruce; Lamrini, Samir; Møller, Uffe; Kubat, Irnis; Petersen, Christian R.; Bang, Ole

    2016-03-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the midinfrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy (`opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis of external cancers, mid-infrared detection of cancer-margins during external surgery for precise removal of diseased tissue, in one go during the surgery, and mid-infrared endoscopy for early diagnosis of internal cancers and their precision removal. The mid-infrared spectral region has previously lacked portable, bright sources. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum generated light 1.4 to 13.3 microns in a specially engineered, high numerical aperture mid-infrared optical fiber. The active mid-infrared fiber broadband supercontinuum for the first time offers the possibility of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security, agriculture and in manufacturing and chemical processing. This work is in part supported by the European Commission: Framework Seven (FP7) Large-Scale Integrated Project MINERVA: MId-to-NEaR- infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics (317803; www.minerva-project.eu).

  3. Mid-infrared multimode fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser for off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhili; Shi, Chao; Ren, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A mid-infrared quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor was developed using a multimode fiber (MMF)-coupled quantum cascade laser (QCL) and demonstrated for sensitive nitric oxide (NO) detection at a wavelength near 5.26 μm. The QCL radiation was readily coupled into a solid-core InF3 MMF (100 μm core) with 97% coupling efficiency using an aspheric lens. Despite the 25.5% transmission loss for the 1 m long MMF, the Gaussian beam-like fiber output of 5.72° divergence was almost completely focused through the microresonator tube (length, 8.0 mm; ID, 600 μm) designed for off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy. The sensor exploiting the R6.5 (Π21/2) doublet of NO at 1900.08  cm-1 demonstrated a minimum detection limit of 24 parts per billion by volume at an averaging time of 130 s. The sensor was found to be insensitive to the fiber bending noise for a bending radius >5  cm.

  4. Recent developments in the applications of mid-infrared lasers, LEDs, and other solid state sources to gas detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanley D.; Hardaway, Harvey R.; Crowder, J. G.

    2002-05-01

    Although mid infrared research into sources and detectors has made considerable progress in recent years, requirements for gas sensing purposes for source power and the detectivity of diode detectors - particularly in combination - remain to be convincingly demonstrated in an industrial context. Published results are often confusing in that they apply to a variety of pulse lengths and duty cycles. We suggest a standardized approach in terms of an averaged cw power output. Parameters such as radiance, drive current and electrical power are also important. We discuss the relative merits of lasers and LEDs, i.e. use of line or band absorption on gas sensing. We report recent advances in the use of immersion optics leading to detectors with D*~5x109 cmHz1/2W-1 at 5.4micrometers , LEDs with outputs improved by a factor of 5 and an LED/Diode/White cell gas sensing demonstration giving 2ppm sensitivity for NO2 with an electrical power requirement of only 0.25mW. Further consideration includes sensitivity of gas sensing, path length and volume, time constant and temperature stability. Latest results are assessed on the basis of the above and combined with some market indications.

  5. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  6. Mid-Infrared Lasers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid Infrared DIAL systems can provide vital data needed by atmospheric scientists to understand atmospheric chemistry. The Decadal Survey recommended missions, such...

  7. Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared - application to trace detection of H2O2

    CERN Document Server

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Fleisher, Adam J; Bjork, Bryce; Ye, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the first cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region and report the sensitive real-time trace detection of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a large amount of water. The experimental apparatus is based on a mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator synchronously pumped by a high power Yb:fiber laser, a high finesse broadband cavity, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer with autobalancing detection. The comb spectrum with a bandwidth of 200 nm centered around 3.75 {\\mu}m is simultaneously coupled to the cavity and both degrees of freedom of the comb, i.e., the repetition rate and carrier envelope offset frequency, are locked to the cavity to ensure stable transmission. The autobalancing detection scheme reduces the intensity noise by a factor of 300, and a sensitivity of 5.4 {\\times} 10^-9 cm^-1 Hz^-1/2 with a resolution of 800 MHz is achieved (corresponding to 6.9 {\\times} 10^-11 cm^-1 Hz^-1/2 per spectral element for 6000 resolve...

  8. Broadband and tunable optical parametric generator for remote detection of gas molecules in the short and mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Girard, Simon; Allard, Martin; Piché, Michel; Babin, François

    2015-04-01

    The development of a novel broadband and tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) is presented. The OPG properties are studied numerically and experimentally in order to optimize the generator's use in a broadband spectroscopic LIDAR operating in the short and mid-infrared. This paper discusses trade-offs to be made on the properties of the pump, crystal, and seeding signal in order to optimize the pulse spectral density and divergence while enabling energy scaling. A seed with a large spectral bandwidth is shown to enhance the pulse-to-pulse stability and optimize the pulse spectral density. A numerical model shows excellent agreement with output power measurements; the model predicts that a pump having a large number of longitudinal modes improves conversion efficiency and pulse stability.

  9. Fugitive methane leak detection using mid-infrared hollow-core photonic crystal fiber containing ultrafast laser drilled side-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason; Challener, William; Kasten, Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni; Pickrell, Gary; Homa, Daniel; Floyd, Adam; Cheng, Yujie; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The increase in domestic natural gas production has brought attention to the environmental impacts of persistent gas leakages. The desire to identify fugitive gas emission, specifically for methane, presents new sensing challenges within the production and distribution supply chain. A spectroscopic gas sensing solution would ideally combine a long optical path length for high sensitivity and distributed detection over large areas. Specialty micro-structured fiber with a hollow core can exhibit a relatively low attenuation at mid-infrared wavelengths where methane has strong absorption lines. Methane diffusion into the hollow core is enabled by machining side-holes along the fiber length through ultrafast laser drilling methods. The complete system provides hundreds of meters of optical path for routing along well pads and pipelines while being interrogated by a single laser and detector. This work will present transmission and methane detection capabilities of mid-infrared photonic crystal fibers. Side-hole drilling techniques for methane diffusion will be highlighted as a means to convert hollow-core fibers into applicable gas sensors.

  10. Development and analytical validation of a screening method for simultaneous detection of five adulterants in raw milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and PLS-DA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Bruno G; Reis, Nádia; Oliveira, Leandro S; Sena, Marcelo M

    2015-08-15

    This paper proposed a new screening method for the simultaneous detection of five common adulterants in raw cow milk by using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mid infrared spectroscopy and multivariate supervised classification (partial least squares discrimination analysis - PLSDA). The method was able to detect the presence of the adulterants water, starch, sodium citrate, formaldehyde and sucrose in milk samples containing from one up to five of these analytes, in the range of 0.5-10% w/v. A multivariate qualitative validation was performed, estimating specific figures of merit, such as false positive and false negative rates, selectivity, specificity and efficiency rates, accordance and concordance. The proposed method does not need any sample pretreatment, requires a small amount of sample (30 μL), is fast and simple, being suitable for the control of raw milk in a dairy industry or for the quality inspection of commercialized milk.

  11. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A.; Passmore, Brandon Scott

    2017-07-11

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  12. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  13. A novel statistical approach to detect differences in fat and protein test values among mid-infrared spectrophotometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael C; Barbano, David M

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to develop a statistical approach that could be used to determine whether a handler's fat, protein, or other solids mid-infrared (MIR) spectrophotometer test values were different, on average, from a milk regulatory laboratory's MIR test values when split-sampling test values are not available. To accomplish this objective, the Proc GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to evaluate 4 mo of MIR producer payment testing data (112 to 167 producers per month) from 2 different MIR instruments. For each of the 4 mo and each of the 2 components (fat or protein), the GLM model was Response=Instrument+Producer+Date+2-Way Interactions+3-Way Interaction. Instrument was significant in determining fat and protein tests for 3 of the 4 mo, and Producer was significant in determining fat and protein tests for all 4 mo. This model was also used to establish fat and protein least significant differences (LSD) between instruments. Fat LSD between instruments ranged from 0.0108 to 0.0144% (α=0.05) for the 4 mo studied, whereas protein LSD between instruments ranged from 0.0046 to 0.0085% (α=0.05). In addition, regression analysis was used to determine the effects of component concentration and date of sampling on fat and protein differences between 2 MIR instruments. This statistical approach could be performed monthly to document a regulatory laboratory's verification that a given handler's instrument has obtained a different test result, on average, from that of the regulatory laboratory's and that an adjustment to producer payment may be required.

  14. Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using mid-infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe incorporating polycrystalline silver halide fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Allyson C; Bilyk, Madeleine L; Nordon, Alison; Colquhoun, Gary; Littlejohn, David

    2011-04-01

    Two methods of analysis were developed to permit detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky samples using a novel attenuated total reflectance (ATR) diamond-tipped immersion probe for mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. The first method allowed determination of the ethanol concentration (35-45% (v/v)) in situ without dilution of the samples; the results obtained compared well with the supplied concentrations (average relative error of 1.2% and 0.8% for univariate and multivariate partial least squares (PLS) calibration, respectively). The second method involved analysis of dried residues of the whisky samples and caramel solutions on the diamond ATR crystal; principal component analysis (PCA) of the spectra was used to classify the samples and investigate the colorant added. Seventeen test whisky samples were successfully categorised as either authentic or counterfeit in a blind study when both MIR methods were used.

  15. Detection of high level carbon dioxide emissions using a compact optical fibre based mid-infrared sensor system for applications in environmental pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muda, R; Lewis, E; O' Keeffe, S; Dooly, G; Clifford, J, E-mail: razali.muda@ul.i [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    A novel and highly compact optical fibre based sensor system for measurement of high concentrations CO{sub 2} gas emissions in modern automotive exhaust is presented. The sensor system works based on the principle of open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The sensor system, which comprises low cost components and is compact in design, is well suited for applications in monitoring CO{sub 2} emissions from the exhaust of automotive vehicles. The sensor system utilises calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) lenses and a narrow band pass (NBP) filter for detection of CO{sub 2} gas. The response of the sensor to high concentrations of CO{sub 2} gas is presented and the result is compared with that of a commercial flue gas analyser. The sensor shows response times of 5.2s and demonstrates minimal susceptibility to cross interferences of other gases present in the exhaust system.

  16. Nonlinear photothermal mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totachawattana, Atcha; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Sander, Michelle Y.

    2016-10-01

    Mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy is a pump-probe technique for label-free and non-destructive sample characterization by targeting intrinsic vibrational modes. In this method, the mid-infrared pump beam excites a temperature-induced change in the refractive index of the sample. This laser-induced change in the refractive index is measured by a near-infrared probe laser using lock-in detection. At increased pump powers, emerging nonlinear phenomena not previously demonstrated in other mid-infrared techniques are observed. Nonlinear study of a 6 μm-thick 4-Octyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (8CB) liquid crystal sample is conducted by targeting the C=C stretching band at 1606 cm-1. At high pump powers, nonlinear signal enhancement and multiple pitchfork bifurcations of the spectral features are observed. An explanation of the nonlinear peak splitting is provided by the formation of bubbles in the sample at high pump powers. The discontinuous refractive index across the bubble interface results in a decrease in the forward scatter of the probe beam. This effect can be recorded as a bifurcation of the absorption peak in the photothermal spectrum. These nonlinear effects are not present in direct measurements of the mid-infrared beam. Evolution of the nonlinear photothermal spectrum of 8CB liquid crystal with increasing pump power shows enhancement of the absorption peak at 1606 cm-1. Multiple pitchfork bifurcations and spectral narrowing of the photothermal spectrum are demonstrated. This novel nonlinear regime presents potential for improved spectral resolution as well as a new regime for sample characterization in mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy.

  17. A novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Miguel; Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by paraffin, microcrystalline wax, tallow and stearic acid using single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy was developed. The use of the absorbance ratios of [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] allows a minimum of 5% paraffin/microcrystalline wax and tallow adulteration and 0.5% stearic acid adulteration of beeswax to be detected. The upper and lower critical limits for beeswax authenticity were established from the analysis of virgin beeswax and were validated by independent analysis of real sheet and comb beeswax samples using high-temperature gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. In addition to its simplicity with respect to sample handling, the amount of sample and the time needed are far less than those required in previously described methods, which are based on chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques. These advantages result in time and cost savings, an increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed, and, most importantly, the detection of the main beeswax adulterants using a single method.

  18. Group IV mid-infrared photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, G. Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Soler Penades, J.; Mitchell, C. J.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Littlejohns, C. J.; Stankovic, S.; Troia, B.; Wang, Y.; Reynolds, S.; Passaro, V. M. N.; Shen, L.; Healy, N.; Peacock, A. C.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Rowe, D. J.; Wilkinson, J. S.; Cheben, P.; Ackert, J. J.; Knights, A. P.; Thomson, D. J.; Gardes, F. Y.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present SOI, suspended Si, and Ge-on-Si photonic platforms and devices for the mid-infrared. We demonstrate low loss strip and slot waveguides in SOI and show efficient strip-slot couplers. A Vernier configuration based on racetrack resonators in SOI has been also investigated. Mid-infrared detection using defect engineered silicon waveguides is reported at the wavelength of 2-2.5 μm. In order to extend transparency of Si waveguides, the bottom oxide cladding needs to be removed. We report a novel suspended Si design based on subwavelength structures that is more robust than previously reported suspended designs. We have fabricated record low loss Ge-on-Si waveguides, as well as several other passive devices in this platform. All optical modulation in Ge is also analyzed.

  19. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  20. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  1. The potential of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for the detection of various doping agents used by athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C.; Bartlome, R.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of laser-photoacoustic measurements for the detection and the analysis of different isolated doping agents in the vapour phase is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that photoacoustic vapour-phase measurements of doping substances have been presented. Spectra of different doping classes (stimulants, anabolica, diuretica, and beta blockers) are shown and discussed in terms of their detection sensitivity and selectivity. The potential of laser spectroscopy for detecting the intake of prohibited substances by athletes is explored.

  2. Ppb-level mid-infrared ethane detection based on three measurement schemes using a 3.34-μm continuous-wave interband cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunguang; Zheng, Chuantao; Dong, Lei; Ye, Weilin; Tittel, Frank K.; Wang, Yiding

    2016-07-01

    A ppb-level mid-infrared ethane (C2H6) sensor was developed using a continuous-wave, thermoelectrically cooled, distributed feedback interband cascade laser emitting at 3.34 μm and a miniature dense patterned multipass gas cell with a 54.6-m optical path length. The performance of the sensor was investigated using two different techniques based on the tunable interband cascade laser: direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) and second-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2 f-WMS). Three measurement schemes, DAS, WMS and quasi-simultaneous DAS and WMS, were realized based on the same optical sensor core. A detection limit of ~7.92 ppbv with a precision of ±30 ppbv for the separate DAS scheme with an averaging time of 1 s and a detection limit of ~1.19 ppbv with a precision of about ±4 ppbv for the separate WMS scheme with a 4-s averaging time were achieved. An Allan-Werle variance analysis indicated that the precisions can be further improved to 777 pptv @ 166 s for the separate DAS scheme and 269 pptv @ 108 s for the WMS scheme, respectively. For the quasi-simultaneous DAS and WMS scheme, both the 2 f signal and the direct absorption signal were simultaneously extracted using a LabVIEW platform, and four C2H6 samples (0, 30, 60 and 90 ppbv with nitrogen as the balance gas) were used as the target gases to assess the sensor performance. A detailed comparison of the three measurement schemes is reported. Atmospheric C2H6 measurements on the Rice University campus and a field test at a compressed natural gas station in Houston, TX, were conducted to evaluate the performance of the sensor system as a robust and reliable field-deployable sensor system.

  3. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; Yang, Clayton S.-C.; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6 μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10 μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5 μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  4. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; S-C Yang, Clayton; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-05

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  5. Pulse Wavelength Scan of Room-Temperature Mid-Infrared Distributed Feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers for N2O Gas Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Gang; XU Gang-Yi; LI Ai-Zhen; LI Yao-Yao; GU Yi; LIU Sheng; WEI Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy under a pulse wavelength scan scheme is adapted to home-made room-temperature mid-infrared distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers; and identification of N2 O spectral fingerprint is demonstrated experimentally. By driving the laser at 800ns pulse duration, a wave number tuning of about 1.6 cm- 1 is produced, which make both 1289.04 cm- 1 and 1289.86 cm- 1 absorption fingerprints of N2 O gas to be definitely assigned. The measured relative absorption intensity is consistent with the HITRAN data precisely.

  6. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  7. Stand-off detection of solid targets with diffuse reflection spectroscopy using a high-power mid-infrared supercontinuum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Malay; Islam, Mohammed N; Terry, Fred L; Freeman, Michael J; Chan, Allan; Neelakandan, Manickam; Manzur, Tariq

    2012-05-20

    We measure the diffuse reflection spectrum of solid samples such as explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN), fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea), and paints (automotive and military grade) at a stand-off distance of 5 m using a mid-infrared supercontinuum light source with 3.9 W average output power. The output spectrum extends from 750-4300 nm, and it is generated by nonlinear spectral broadening in a 9 m long fluoride fiber pumped by high peak power pulses from a dual-stage erbium-ytterbium fiber amplifier operating at 1543 nm. The samples are distinguished using unique spectral signatures that are attributed to the molecular vibrations of the constituents. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations demonstrate the feasibility of increasing the stand-off distance from 5 to ~150 m, with a corresponding drop in SNR from 28 to 10 dB.

  8. Mid-infrared laser filaments in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A. V.; Voronin, A. A.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Pugžlys, A.; Stepanov, E. A.; Andriukaitis, G.; Flöry, T.; Ališauskas, S.; Fedotov, A. B.; Baltuška, A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in the atmosphere offers unique opportunities for long-range transmission of high-power laser radiation and standoff detection. With the critical power of self-focusing scaling as the laser wavelength squared, the quest for longer-wavelength drivers, which would radically increase the peak power and, hence, the laser energy in a single filament, has been ongoing over two decades, during which time the available laser sources limited filamentation experiments in the atmosphere to the near-infrared and visible ranges. Here, we demonstrate filamentation of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses in the atmosphere for the first time. We show that, with the spectrum of a femtosecond laser driver centered at 3.9 μm, right at the edge of the atmospheric transmission window, radiation energies above 20 mJ and peak powers in excess of 200 GW can be transmitted through the atmosphere in a single filament. Our studies reveal unique properties of mid-infrared filaments, where the generation of powerful mid-infrared supercontinuum is accompanied by unusual scenarios of optical harmonic generation, giving rise to remarkably broad radiation spectra, stretching from the visible to the mid-infrared. PMID:25687621

  9. Mid-infrared silicon photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Milosevic, Milan M.; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Owens, Nathan; Headley, William R.; Teo, Ee Jin; Xiong, Boqian; Yang, Pengyuan; Hu, Youfang

    2011-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectral region is interesting for bio-chemical sensing, environmental monitoring, free space communications, or military applications. Silicon is relatively low-loss from 1.2 to 8 μm and from 24 to 100 μm, and therefore silicon photonic circuits can be used in mid- and far- infrared wavelength ranges. In this paper we investigate several silicon based waveguide structures for mid-infrared wavelength region.

  10. Detection of an inner gaseous component in a Herbig Be star accretion disk: Near- and mid-infrared spectro-interferometry and radiative transfer modeling of MWC 147

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Stefan; Ohnaka, Keiichi

    2007-01-01

    We study the geometry and the physical conditions in the inner (AU-scale) circumstellar region around the young Herbig Be star MWC 147 using long-baseline spectro-interferometry in the near-infrared (NIR K-band, VLTI/AMBER observations and PTI archive data) as well as the mid-infrared (MIR N-band, VLTI/MIDIobservations). The emission from MWC 147 is clearly resolved and has a characteristic physical size of approx. 1.3 AU and 9 AU at 2.2 micron and 11 micron respectively (Gaussian diameter). The spectrally dispersed AMBER and MIDI interferograms both show a strong increase in the characteristic size towards longer wavelengths, much steeper than predicted by analytic disk models assuming power-law radial temperature distributions. We model the interferometric data and the spectral energy distribution of MWC 147 with 2-D, frequency-dependent radiation transfer simulations. This analysis shows that models of spherical envelopes or passive irradiated Keplerian disks (with vertical or curved puffed-up inner rim) c...

  11. Injection seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses by difference frequency mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Masuda, Takahiko; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We report on generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, narrow linewidth and high intensity. They are obtained by frequency mixing between injection seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:Sapphire ring laser are used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. Typical energy and pulse duration of the generated mid-infrared pulses is 0.4 mJ/pulse and 2 ns, respectively. Narrow linewidth of about 1 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a ro-vibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide.

  12. Mid-Infrared Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Florian; Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Cossel, Kevin C; Briles, Travis C; Hartl, Ingmar; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency-comb-based-high-resolution spectrometers offer enormous potential for spectroscopic applications. Although various implementations have been demonstrated, the lack of suitable mid-infrared comb sources has impeded explorations of molecular fingerprinting. Here we present for the first time a frequency-comb Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the 2100-to-3700-cm-1 spectral region that allows fast and simultaneous acquisitions of broadband absorption spectra with up to 0.0056 cm-1 resolution. We demonstrate part-per-billion detection limits in 30 seconds of integration time for various important molecules including methane, ethane, isoprene, and nitrous oxide. Our system enables precise concentration measurements even in gas mixtures that exhibit continuous absorption bands, and it allows detection of molecules at levels below the noise floor via simultaneous analysis of multiple spectral features. This system represents a near real-time, high-resolution, high-bandwidth mid-infrared sp...

  13. Mid-infrared supercontinuum laser system and its biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenan

    A mid-infrared supercontinuum (SC) laser system is developed, which provides a continuous spectrum from ˜0.8 to ˜4.5 microm and is pumped by amplified nanosecond laser diode pulses. The SC laser uses ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) fluoride fibers. The SC light source is all-fiber-integrated with no moving parts, operates at room temperature, and eliminates the need of mode-locked lasers. The time-averaged power of the SC is scalable up to 10.5 W by amplifying the pump pulses using cladding-pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber power amplifiers. SC has also been generated in silica fibers with spectrum extending to ˜3 microm and an average power up to 5.3 W. The SC laser system comprises an all-fiber-spliced high power pump laser system followed by nonlinear optical generation fibers, i.e. ZBLAN and silica fibers. The SC generation is initiated by breaking up the nanosecond diode pulses into femtosecond pulses through modulation instability, and the spectrum is then broadened through the interplay of self-phase modulation, parametric four-wave mixing, and stimulated Raman scattering. Theoretical simulations have been carried out to study the SC generation mechanism by numerically solving the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The SC long wavelength edge is limited by the intrinsic fiber material absorption, i.e. ˜3 microm in silica fibers and ˜4.5 microm in ZBLAN fibers, respectively. Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy of the constituents of normal artery, e.g. endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and atherosclerotic plaques, e.g. adipose tissue, macrophages and foam cells, and selective ablation of lipid-rich tissues have also been demonstrated using the SC laser system.

  14. Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Gardiner, Tom; Reid, Derryck T

    2013-08-15

    We present the first implementation of mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator. Methane absorption spectroscopy was demonstrated with a resolution of 0.2 cm(-1) (5 GHz) at an acquisition time of ~10.4 ms over a spectral coverage at 2900-3050 cm(-1). The average power from each individual mid-infrared comb line was ~1 μW, representing a power level much greater than typical difference-frequency-generation sources. Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy opens up unique opportunities to perform broadband spectroscopic measurements with high resolution, high requisition rate, and high detection sensitivity.

  15. Miniaturized Mid-Infrared Sensor Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S; Young, C; Mizaikoff, B

    2007-08-16

    Fundamental vibrational and rotational modes associated with most inorganic and organic molecules are spectroscopically accessible within the mid-infrared (MIR; 3-20 {micro}m) regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The interaction between MIR photons and organic molecules provides particularly sharp transitions, which - despite the wide variety of organic molecules - provide unique MIR absorption spectra reflecting the molecularly characteristic arrangement of chemical bonds within the probed molecules via the frequency position of the associated vibrational and rotational transitions. Given the inherent molecular selectivity and achievable sensitivity, MIR spectroscopy provides an ideal platform for optical sensing applications. Despite this potential, early MIR sensing applications were limited to localized applications due to the size of the involved instrumentation, and limited availability of appropriately compact MIR optical components including light sources, detectors, waveguides, and spectrometers. During the last decades, engineering advances in photonics and optical engineering have facilitated the translation of benchtop-style MIR spectroscopy into miniaturized optical sensing schemes providing a footprint compatible with portable instrumentation requirements for field deployable analytical tools. In this trend article, we will discuss recent advances and future strategies for miniaturizing MIR sensor technology. The Beer-Lambert law implies that achievable limit of detection (LOD) for any optical sensor system improves by increasing the interaction length between photons and target analyte species such as e.g., folding the optical path multiple times as in multi-pass gas phase sensing; however, this governing paradigm naturally leads to an increase in system dimensions. Hence, miniaturization of optical sensing system requires scaling down of each optical component, yet improving the performance of each optical element within a smaller form factor for

  16. Photothermal Mid-Infrared Microscopy: a new tool for hyperspectral chemical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertiri, Alket; Hong, Mi; Sander, Michelle; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method for label free microscopy in the mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum based on the photothermal effect. A Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) tuned to an infrared active vibrational molecular normal mode is used as the pump laser. A low-phase noise Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser (1.5 μm) is used as the probe. We demonstrate the method using a patterned image target with liquid crystal 4-cyano-4-octylbiphenyl (8CB) as the mid-infrared absorber. The QCL is tuned across the C-H scissoring band, with a peak absorption at 1607cm-1. Absorption of the modulated pump beam results in a change in the dielectric function and the refractive index at the probe beam frequency. The resultant scatter of the probe is observed in heterodyne lock-in detection. The combination of heterodyne detection, high brightness mid-infrared QCLs and low-phase noise stable EDF lasers provides an ultra-sensitive method for obtaining mid-infrared microscope images using short-wavelength optical detectors, whose performance far exceeds those of cryogenically cooled broadband mid-infrared detectors. The method provides a powerful new tool for hyperspectral label-free mid-infrared imaging.

  17. Adulteration Detection of Urea in Milk by Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy%基于中红外光谱检测牛奶中掺杂的尿素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仁杰; 刘蓉; 徐可欣

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a technique of mid-infrared spectroscopy for detection of urea in milk was put forward. Eighteen adulterated milk samples with added different content of urea (1~18 g · L-1) were prepared. The mid-infrared spectra of these milk samples were measured. The infrared characteristics of pure milk and adulterated milk were studied, and analysis and comparisons of the differences were carried out The absorption peak area (Al 562) of 1562 cm-1, which was assigned to the C-N stretching vibration for urea, and the absorption peak area (Al 464) of 1464 cm-1, which was assigned to the C-O stretching vibration for amide Ⅲ', were calculated by origin. Linear fitting of relation was made between A\\ 562 /Al 464 and urea concentration in milk. The results show that the Al 562/Al 464 is linear with urea concentration in milk, with a regression coefficient of 0. 96. The study is important to improving quality of dairy products and protecting the benefit of consumers, and takes on crucial social significance and application prospect%采用中红外光谱技术对牛奶中掺杂尿素目标物进行检测.配置含有尿素浓度范围为1~18 g·L-1之间18个牛奶样品,分别研究了纯牛奶和掺杂尿素牛奶的红外光谱特性,并进行了对比分析.利用尿素1 562 cm-1处酰胺Ⅲ带C=O伸缩振动吸收峰面积A1 562与1 464 cm-1处C-N伸缩振动吸收峰面积A1464的比值A1 562/A1464对牛奶中尿素浓度进行线性拟合,研究结果表明A1 562 /A1464与牛奶中含有尿素浓度具有一定的线性关系,其相关系数达到0.96以上.该研究对提高乳制品的质量,保护消费者利益具有重要的社会意义和应用前景.

  18. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for mid infrared (mid-IR) spectral analysis using upconversion technology applied in a diffuse reflectance setup. We demonstrate experimentally that mid-IR spectral features in the 2.6-4 μm range using different test samples (e.g. zeolites) can be obtained. The results...... are in good agreement with published data. We believe that the benefit of low noise upconversion methods combined with spectral analysis will provide an alternative approach to e.g. mid-IR Fourier Transform microscopy. We discuss in detail the experimental aspects of the proposed method. The upconversion unit...... located in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region easily accessible for low noise Silicon CCD camera technology. Thus the room temperature upconversion unit and the Silicon CCD camera replaces noisy mid infrared detectors used in existing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We demonstrate...

  19. Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.harrer@tuwien.ac.at; Schwarz, Benedikt; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-27

    We demonstrate monolithic integrated quantum cascade detectors enhanced by plasmonic lenses. Surface normal incident mid-infrared radiation is coupled to surface plasmon polaritons guided to and detected by the active region of the detector. The lens extends the optical effective active area of the device up to a 5 times larger area than for standard mesa detectors or pixel devices while the electrical active region stays the same. The extended optical area increases the absorption efficiency of the presented device as well as the room temperature performance while it offers a flexible platform for various detector geometries. A photocurrent response increase at room temperature up to a factor of 6 was observed.

  20. Unstable Resonator Mid-Infrared Laser Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0110 Unstable Resonator Mid-Infrared Laser Sources Steven Brueck UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO Final Report 02/26/2016 DISTRIBUTION...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) The Regents of the University of New Mexico 8...Transistors: State-of-the- Art ," IEEE J. Electron Device Soc. 2, 44 (2014). 43 A. M. Ionescu1 & H. Riel, "Tunnel field-effect transistors as energy

  1. Absorber Coatings for Mid-Infrared Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dahlia Anne; Wollack, Edward; Rostem, Karwan

    2017-01-01

    Control over optical response is an important aspect of instrument design for astrophysical imaging. Here we consider a mid-infrared absorber coating proposed for use on HIRMES (High Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectrometer), a cryogenic spectrometer which will fly on the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) aircraft. The aim of this effort is to develop an absorptive coating for the 20-200 microns spectral range based on a graphene loaded epoxy binder (Epotek 377H) and glass microsphere scatterers (3M K1). The coatings electromagnetic response was modeled using a Matlab script and the glass microspheres were characterized by the measured size distribution, the dielectric constant, and the filling fraction. Images of the microspheres taken by a microscope were used to determine the size distribution with an ImageJ particle analysis program. Representative test samples for optical evaluation were fabricated for characterization via infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The optical tests will determine the material’s absorptance and reflectance. These test results will be compared to the modeled response.

  2. Mid-infrared spectra of comet nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael S P; Gehrz, Robert D; Reach, William T; Harker, David E

    2016-01-01

    Jovian Trojan D-type asteroids have mid-infrared emissivity features strikingly similar to comet comae, suggesting that they have the same compositions and that the surfaces of the Trojans are highly porous. However, a direct comparison between a comet and asteroid surface has not been possible due to the paucity of spectra of comet nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. We present 5-35 {\\mu}m thermal emission spectra of comets 10P/Tempel 2, and 49P/Arend-Rigaux observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis suggests the spectra are dominated by the comet nucleus. We fit each spectrum with the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and find sizes in agreement with previous values. However, the NEATM beaming parameters of the nuclei, 0.74 to 0.83, are systematically lower than the Jupiter-family comet population mean of 1.03+/-0.11, derived from 16- and 22-{\\mu}m photometry. When the spectra are normalized by the NEATM model, a weak 10-{\\mu}m silicate plateau is evident, w...

  3. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Kehlet, Louis; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Beato, Pablo; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-02-01

    We present a novel approach for mid infrared (mid-IR) spectral analysis using upconversion technology applied in a diffuse reflectance setup. We demonstrate experimentally that mid-IR spectral features in the 2.6-4 μm range using different test samples (e.g. zeolites) can be obtained. The results are in good agreement with published data. We believe that the benefit of low noise upconversion methods combined with spectral analysis will provide an alternative approach to e.g. mid-IR Fourier Transform microscopy. We discuss in detail the experimental aspects of the proposed method. The upconversion unit consists of a PP:LN crystal situated as an intracavity component in a Nd:YVO4 laser. Mixing incoming spectrally and spatially incoherent light from the test sample with the high power intracavity beam of the Nd:YVO4 laser results in enhanced conversion efficiency. The upconverted light is spectrally located in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region easily accessible for low noise Silicon CCD camera technology. Thus the room temperature upconversion unit and the Silicon CCD camera replaces noisy mid infrared detectors used in existing Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We demonstrate specifically that upconversion methods can be deployed using a diffuse reflectance setup where the test sample is irradiated by a thermal light source, i.e. a globar. The diffuse reflectance geometry is particularly well suited when a transmission setup cannot be used. This situation may happen for highly scattering or absorbing samples.

  4. The Mid-infrared Evolution of the FU Orionis Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Jones, Olivia C.; Keller, Luke D.; Poteet, Charles A.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Fischer, William J.; Evans, Neal J., II; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2016-11-01

    We present new SOFIA-FORCAST observations obtained in 2016 February of the archetypal outbursting low-mass young stellar object FU Orionis, and we compare the continuum, solid-state, and gas properties with mid-infrared data obtained at the same wavelengths in 2004 with Spitzer-IRS. In this study, we conduct the first mid-infrared spectroscopic comparison of an FUor over a long time period. Over a 12-year period, UBVR monitoring indicates that FU Orionis has continued its steady decrease in overall brightness by ˜14%. We find that this decrease in luminosity occurs only at wavelengths ≲20 μm. In particular, the continuum shortward of the silicate emission complex at 10 μm exhibits a ˜12% (˜3σ) drop in flux density but no apparent change in slope; both the Spitzer and SOFIA spectra are consistent with a 7200 K blackbody. Additionally, the detection of water absorption is consistent with the Spitzer spectrum. The silicate emission feature at 10 μm continues to be consistent with unprocessed grains, unchanged over 12 years. We conclude that either the accretion rate in FU Orionis has decreased by ˜12-14% over this time baseline or the inner disk has cooled, but the accretion disk remains in a superheated state outside the innermost region.

  5. Mid-infrared photonics devices in SOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, G. Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Milošević, M. M.; Hu, Y.; Ben Masaud, T. M.; Jaberansary, E.; Chen, X.; Strain, M.; Sorel, M.; Peacock, A. C.; Chong, H. M. H.; Reed, G. T.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present silicon photonics devices designed for the 3-4μm wavelength region including waveguides, MMIs, ring resonators and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The devices are based on silicon on insulator (SOI) platform. We show that 400-500 nm high silicon waveguides can have propagation losses as low as ~ 4 dB/cm at 3.8μm. We also demonstrate MMIs with insertion loss of 0.25 dB, high extinction ratio asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and SOI ring resonators. This combined with our previous results reported at 3.4μm confirm that SOI is a viable platform for the 3-4 μm region and that low loss mid-infrared passive devices can be realized on it.

  6. The obscured mid-infrared continuum of NGC 4418 : A dust- and ice-enshrouded AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoon, HWW; Keane, JV; Tielens, AGGM; Lutz, D; Moorwood, AFM

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of absorption features in the 6-8 mum region superimposed on a featureless mid-infrared continuum in NGC 4418. For several of these features this is the first detection in an external galaxy We compare the absorption spectrum of NGC4418 to that; of embedded massive protostars

  7. New Opportunities in Mid-Infrared Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geiser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS has been well accepted as a preferred measurement technique for many industrial applications in recent years, especially for in situ applications. Previously, mainly near-infrared lasers have been used in TLAS sensors. The advent of compact mid-infrared light sources, like quantum cascade lasers and interband cascade lasers, has made it possible to detect gases with better sensitivity by utilizing fundamental absorption bands and to measure species that do not have any absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. This technological advancement has allowed developing new sensors for gases, such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide, for industrial applications. Detection limits of better than 1 ppm·m for nitric oxide and better than 10 ppm·m for sulfur dioxide are demonstrated in field experiments.

  8. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Mauro F; Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation  (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications.  This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g.  sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz ...

  9. Chalcogenide optical fibers for mid-infrared sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Bruno; Boussard, Catherine; Cui, Shuo; Chahal, Radwan; Anne, Marie Laure; Nazabal, Virginie; Sire, Olivier; Loréal, Olivier; Lucas, Pierre; Monbet, Valérie; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Camy, Patrice; Tariel, Hugues; Charpentier, Frédéric; Quetel, Lionel; Adam, Jean-Luc; Lucas, Jacques

    2014-02-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are a matchless material as far as mid-infrared (IR) applications are concerned. They transmit light typically from 2 to 12 μm and even as far as 20 μm depending on their composition, and numerous glass compositions can be designed for optical fibers. One of the most promising applications of these fibers consists in implementing fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy, which enables detection of the mid-IR signature of most biomolecules. The principles of fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy are recalled together with the benefit of using selenide glass to carry out this spectroscopy. Then, two large-scale studies in recent years in medicine and food safety are exposed. To conclude, the future strategy is presented. It focuses on the development of rare earth-doped fibers used as mid-IR sources on one hand and tellurium-based glasses to shift the limit of detection toward longer wavelength on the other hand.

  10. 基于虚拟信号处理平台的差分式中红外甲烷检测系统%Differential mid-infrared methane detection system based on virtue signal processing platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕瑞红; 宋楠; 宋芳; 叶玮琳; 郑传涛; 王一丁

    2013-01-01

    利用上位机及Labview工作平台数据处理能力强的优势,实现了一种针对甲烷(CH4)气体的双通道差分式中红外检测系统.采用IRGJ型双通道传感器(英国E2V公司,3.31μm和3.90 μm)检测气体浓度变化,利用Labview和数据采集(DAQ)卡(PCI6221)实现对探测器输出信号的采集和处理,采用二阶巴特沃斯数字滤波器滤除噪声以提高信噪比(SNR),对系统硬件和软件进行了集成.系统具有信号采集、滤波、幅值提取、浓度计算、存储及网络发布等功能.配备了不同浓度的CH4气体样品,开展了标定实验,并测量了系统的精度、稳定性和检测下限等指标.实验结果显示,系统对CH4气体的测量范围为0~5%,对9种气体样品的检测误差均小于6%.受传感器自身光程的限制,系统的检测下限约为60×10-6.对浓度为2000×10-6 (0.2%)的气体进行了长达4h 的浓度检测,除个别突变点外,检测的最大误差小于10%.由于数据处理能力强,系统功能不受资源限制并可任意扩展.%By means of strong data processing ability of personal computer (PC) and Labview platform,a mid-infrared dual-channel differential CH4 detection system is designed and realized.A dual-channel IRGJ sensor (purchased from E2V Company,British,3.31μm and 3.90 μm) is utilized to detect concentration change,Labview and data-acquisition (DAQ) card (PCI6221) are mainly used for signal sampling and processing,a digital second-order Butterworth filter is designed via the platform to increase signal to noise ratio (SNR),and finally the system is integrated with both hardware and software.The developed system possesses functions including signal acquisition,filtering,amplitude extraction,concentration calibration,information storage and website announcement.CH4 samples with different concentrations are prepared,calibration experiments are carried out,and detection precision,stability and detection limit are measured

  11. Mid-infrared spectra of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Reach, William T.; Harker, David E.

    2017-03-01

    Comet nuclei and D-type asteroids have several similarities at optical and near-IR wavelengths, including near-featureless red reflectance spectra, and low albedos. Mineral identifications based on these characteristics are fraught with degeneracies, although some general trends can be identified. In contrast, spectral emissivity features in the mid-infrared provide important compositional information that might not otherwise be achievable. Jovian Trojan D-type asteroids have emissivity features strikingly similar to comet comae, suggesting that they have the same compositions and that the surfaces of the Trojans are highly porous. However, a direct comparison between a comet and asteroid surface has not been possible due to the paucity of spectra of comet nuclei at mid-infrared wavelengths. We present 5-35 μm thermal emission spectra of comets 10P/Tempel 2, and 49P/Arend-Rigaux observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis reveals no evidence for a coma or tail at the time of observation, suggesting the spectra are dominated by the comet nucleus. We fit each spectrum with the near-Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) and find sizes in agreement with previous values. However, the NEATM beaming parameters of the nuclei, 0.74-0.83, are systematically lower than the Jupiter-family comet population mean of 1.03 ± 0.11, derived from 16- and 22-μm photometry. We suggest this may be either an artifact of the spectral reduction, or the consequence of an emissivity low near 16 μm. When the spectra are normalized by the NEATM model, a weak 10-μm silicate plateau is evident, with a shape similar to those seen in mid-infrared spectra of D-type asteroids. A silicate plateau is also evident in previously published Spitzer spectra of the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1. We compare, in detail, these comet nucleus emission features to those seen in spectra of the Jovian Trojan D-types (624) Hektor, (911) Agamemnon, and (1172) Aneas, as well

  12. Discovery of planetary nebulae using predictive mid-infrared diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Quentin A; Stupar, Milorad; Frew, David J; Green, Anne J; Bojicic, Ivan; Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette; Sabin, Laurence; Vogt, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a newly developed mid-infrared planetary nebula (PN) selection technique. It is designed to enable efficient searches for obscured, previously unknown, PN candidates present in the photometric source catalogues of Galactic plane MIR sky surveys. Such selection is now possible via new, sensitive, high-to-medium resolution, MIR satellite surveys such as those from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the all-sky Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite missions. MIR selection is based on how different colour-colour planes isolate zones (sometimes overlapping) that are predominately occupied by different astrophysical object types. These techniques depend on the reliability of the available MIR source photometry. In this pilot study we concentrate on MIR point source detections and show that it is dangerous to take the MIR GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire) photometry from Spitzer for each candidate at face value without examining the actual MIR image data. A...

  13. Advances in Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Julian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 μm spectral window has evolved from a routine laboratory technique into a state-of-the-art spectroscopy and sensing tool by benefitting from recent progress in increasingly sophisticated spectra acquisition techniques and advanced materials for generating, guiding, and detecting mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. Today, MIR spectroscopy provides molecular information with trace to ultratrace sensitivity, fast data acquisition rates, and high spectral resolution catering to demanding applications in bioanalytics, for example, and to improved routine analysis. In addition to advances in miniaturized device technology without sacrificing analytical performance, selected innovative applications for MIR spectroscopy ranging from process analysis to biotechnology and medical diagnostics are highlighted in this review.

  14. Modelocked mid-infrared frequency combs in a silicon microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mengjie; Griffith, Austin G; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) frequency combs have broad applications in molecular spectroscopy and chemical/biological sensing. Recently developed microresonator-based combs in this wavelength regime could enable portable and robust devices using a single-frequency pump field. Here, we report the first demonstration of a modelocked microresonator-based frequency comb in the mid-IR spanning 2.4 {\\mu}m to 4.3 {\\mu}m. We observe high pump-to-comb conversion efficiency, in which 40% of the pump power is converted to the output comb power. Utilizing an integrated PIN structure allows for tuning the silicon microresonator and controling modelocking and cavity soliton formation, simplifying the generation, monitoring and stabilization of mid-IR frequency combs via free-carrier detection and control. Our results significantly advance microresonator-based comb technology towards a portable and robust mid-IR spectroscopic device that operates at low pump powers.

  15. NIR Capturing images with spectral information in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    We demonstrate a method to capture images containing spectral information in the infrared. The method is based on sum frequency mixing of light, which allows for transformation of mid-infrared radiation to near visible light, allowing for use of a regular silicon based camera for detection. Combi...

  16. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  17. Herbig-Haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a deep [SII]6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg2. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [SII] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang & Wang, eleven extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs ...

  18. Detection of buried explosives using portable neutron sources with nanosecond timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A V; Evsenin, A V; Gorshkov, I Yu; Osetrov, O I; Vakhtin, D N

    2004-07-01

    Significant reduction of time needed to identify hidden explosives and other hazardous materials by the "neutron in, gamma out" method has been achieved by introducing timed (nanosecond) neutron sources-the so-called nanosecond neutron analysis technique. Prototype mobile device for explosives' detection based on a timed (nanosecond) isotopic (252)Cf neutron source has been created. The prototype is capable of identifying 400 g of hidden explosives in 10 min. Tests have been also made with a prototype device using timed (nanosecond) neutron source based on a portable D-T neutron generator with built-in segmented detector of accompanying alpha-particles. The presently achieved intensity of the neutron generator is 5x10(7)n/s into 4pi, with over 10(6) of these neutrons being correlated with alpha-particles detected by the built-in alpha-particle detector. Results of measurements with an anti-personnel landmine imitator are presented.

  19. Mid-infrared spectropolarimetry as a remote sensing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul E.; Watne, Bruce; Shipman, Russell; Cleavlin, Chris

    1994-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of mid-infrared spectropolarimetry as a new technique to accurately measure features in the thermal spectra of planetary regoliths is described. The 5- to 12-micron polarization of igneous rocks and powders commonly found on planetary surfaces is measured to explore the viability of this technique for future groundbased and space-based experiments. Mid-infrared polarization is found to be diagnostic of composition for both whole rock and sand samples, while exhibiting less interference from surface roughness effects than with mid-infrared spectrophotometry.

  20. Mid-infrared nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoping; Kuyken, Bart; Green, William M. J.; Osgood, Richard M.; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-03-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic technology with a wavelength of operation approximately from 2-14 μm. Among several established mid-IR photonic platforms, silicon nanophotonic platform could potentially offer ultra-compact, and monolithically integrated mid-IR photonic devices and device arrays, which could have board impact in the mid-IR technology, such as molecular spectroscopy, and imaging. At room temperature, silicon has a bandgap ~ 1.12 eV resulting in vanishing two-photon absorption (TPA) for mid-IR wavelengths beyond 2.2 μm, which, coupled with silicon's large nonlinear index of refraction and its strong waveguide optical confinement, enables efficient nonlinear processes in the mid-IR. By taking advantage of these nonlinear processes and judicious dispersion engineering in silicon waveguides, we have recently demonstrated a handful of silicon mid-IR nonlinear components, including optical parametric amplifiers (OPA), broadband sources, and a wavelength translator. Silicon nanophotonic waveguide's anomalous dispersion design, providing four-wave-mixing (FWM) phase-matching, has enabled the first demonstration of silicon mid-IR optical parametric amplifier (OPA) with a net off-chip gain exceeding 13 dB. In addition, reduction of propagation losses and balanced second and fourth order waveguide dispersion design led to an OPA with an extremely broadband gain spectrum from 1.9-2.5 μm and >50 dB parametric gain, upon which several novel silicon mid-IR light sources were built, including a mid-IR optical parametric oscillator, and a supercontinuum source. Finally, a mid-IR wavelength translation device, capable of translating signals near 2.4 μm to the telecom-band near 1.6 μm with simultaneous 19 dB gain, was demonstrated.

  1. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  2. in the mid-infrared with large aperture telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. De Buizer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the high spatial resolution af- forded by 8-10-m class telescopes, we are be- ginning to learn that some sources are ex- tended in their mid-infrared emission because of dusty outows or heated outow cavity walls. Therefore one must be extremely care- ful in interpreting the nature of extended mid-infrared sources (i.e. just because it is extended does not automatically mean it is a disk!.

  3. Selective treatment of carious dentin using a mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser at 6 μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Masayuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Optical technologies have good potential for caries detection, prevention, excavation, and the realization of minimal intervention dentistry. This study aimed to develop a selective excavation technique of carious tissue using the specific absorption in 6 μm wavelength range. Bovine dentin demineralized with lactic acid solution was used as a carious dentin model. A mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser was obtained by difference-frequency generation technique. The wavelength was tuned to 6.02 and 6.42 μm which correspond to absorption bands called amide I and amide II, respectively. The laser delivers 5 ns pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphological change after irradiation was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the measurement of ablation depth was performed with a confocal laser microscope. At λ = 6.02 μm and the average power density of 15 W/cm2, demineralized dentin was removed selectively with less-invasive effect on sound dentin. The wavelength of 6.42 μm also showed the possibility of selective removal. High ablation efficiency and low thermal side effect were observed using the nanosecond pulsed laser with λ = 6.02 μm. In the near future, development of compact laser device will open the minimal invasive laser treatment to the dental clinic.

  4. Predictions for surveys with the SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Wada, T; Kohno, K; Maiolino, R; Gruppioni, C; Pozzi, F; Lapi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions for number counts and redshift distributions of galaxies detectable in continuum and in emission lines with the Mid-infrared (MIR) Instrument (SMI) proposed for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA). We have considered 24 MIR fine-structure lines, four Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) bands (at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3$\\mu$m) and two silicate bands (in emission and in absorption) at 9.7$\\mu$m and 18.0$\\mu$m. Six of these lines are primarily associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), the others with star formation. A survey with the SMI spectrometers of 1 hour integration per field-of-view (FoV) over an area of $1\\,\\hbox{deg}^2$ will yield $5\\,\\sigma$ detections of $\\simeq 140$ AGN lines and of $\\simeq 5.2\\times10^{4}$ star-forming galaxies, $\\simeq 1.6\\times10^{4}$ of which will be detected in at least two lines. The combination of a shallow ($20.0\\,\\hbox{deg}^{2}$, $1.4\\times10^{-1}$ h integration per FoV) and a deep survey ($6.9\\times10^{-3}\\,\\hbox...

  5. Mid-Infrared Sensing of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensors for monitoring the levels of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment has received a great deal of attention in recent decades. In particular, the mid-infrared (MIR sensor based on attenuated total reflectance (ATR is a promising analytical tool that has been used to detect a variety of hydrocarbon compounds (i.e., aromatics, alkyl halides, phenols, etc. dissolved in water. It has been shown that under certain conditions the MIR-ATR sensor is capable of achieving detection limits in the 10-100 ppb concentration range. Since the infrared spectral features of every single organic molecule are unique, the sensor is highly selective, making it possible to distinguish between many different analytes simultaneously. This review paper discusses some of the parameters (i.e., membrane type, film thickness, conditioning that dictate MIR ATR sensor response. The performance of various chemoselective membranes which are used in the fabrication of the sensor will be evaluated. Some of the challenges associated with long-term environmental monitoring are also discussed.

  6. Probing stellar accretion with mid-infrared hydrogen lines

    CERN Document Server

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Duchene, G; Edwards, S; Ardila, D R; Grady, C; Mendigutía, I; Montesinos, B; Mulders, G D; Najita, J R; Carpenter, J; Furlan, E; Gorti, U; Meijerink, R; Meyer, M R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the origin of the mid-infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines for a sample of 114 disks in different evolutionary stages (full, transitional and debris disks) collected from the {\\it Spitzer} archive. We focus on the two brighter {H~{\\sc i}} lines observed in the {\\it Spitzer} spectra, the {H~{\\sc i}}(7-6) at 12.37$\\mu$m and the {H~{\\sc i}}(9-7) at 11.32$\\mu$m. We detect the {H~{\\sc i}}(7-6) line in 46 objects, and the {H~{\\sc i}}(9-7) in 11. We compare these lines with the other most common gas line detected in {\\it Spitzer} spectra, the {[Ne~{\\sc iii}]} at 12.81$\\mu$m. We argue that it is unlikely that the {H~{\\sc i}} emission originates from the photoevaporating upper surface layers of the disk, as has been found for the {[Ne~{\\sc iii}]} lines toward low-accreting stars. Using the {H~{\\sc i}}(9-7)/{H~{\\sc i}}(7-6) line ratios we find these gas lines are likely probing gas with hydrogen column densities of 10$^{10}$-10$^{11}$~cm$^{-3}$. The subsample of objects surrounded by ...

  7. Nonlinear photothermal Mid-Infrared Microspectroscopy with Superresolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mertiri, Alket; Liu, Hui; Totachawattana, Atcha; Hong, Mi; Sander, Michelle

    2015-03-01

    We describe a nonlinear method for breaking the diffraction limit in mid-infrared microscopy using nonlinear photothermal microspectroscopy. A Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) tuned to an infrared active vibrational molecular normal mode is used as the pump laser. A low-phase noise Erbium-doped fiber (EDFL) laser is used as the probe. When the incident intensity of the mid-infrared pump laser is increased past a critical threshold, a nanobubble is nucleated, strongly modulating the scatter of the probe beam, in agreement with prior work. Remarkably, we have also found that the photothermal spectral signature of the mid-infrared absorption bifurcates and is strongly narrowed, consistent with an effective ``mean-field'' theory of the observed pitchfork bifurcation. This ultrasharp narrowing can be exploited to obtain mid-infrared images with a resolution that breaks the diffraction limit, without the need of mechanical scanning near-field probes. The method provides a powerful new tool for hyperspectral label-free mid-infrared imaging and characterization of biological tissues and materials science and engineering. We thank our collaborators H. Altug, L. D. Ziegler, J. Mertz, for their advice and generous loan of equipment.

  8. Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of planetary nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Héctor; Guerrero, Martin A; Nigoche-Netro, Alberto; Toalá, Jesús A; Fang, Xuan; Rubio, Gabriel M; Kemp, Simon N; Navarro, Silvana G; Corral, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 {\\mu}m that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ~900+/-70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar III], [S IV], and [Ne II] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases. The decline of the [Ar III]/[Ne II] line ratio with the stellar effective temperature can be explained either by a true neon enrichment or by high density circumstellar regions of PNe that presumably descend from higher mass progenitor stars.

  9. Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Crystalline Microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C Y; Del'Haye, P; Schliesser, A; Hofer, J; Holzwarth, R; Hänsch, T W; Picqué, N; Kippenberg, T J

    2011-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectral range (\\lambda ~ 2 \\mu m to 20 \\mu m) is known as the "molecular fingerprint" region as many molecules have their highly characteristic, fundamental ro-vibrational bands in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy therefore constitutes a powerful and ubiquitous tool for optical analysis of chemical components that is used in biochemistry, astronomy, pharmaceutical monitoring and material science. Optical frequency combs, i.e. broad spectral bandwidth coherent light sources consisting of equally spaced sharp lines, have revolutionized optical frequency metrology one decade ago. They now demonstrate dramatically improved acquisition rates, resolution and sensitivity for molecular spectroscopy mostly in the visible and near-infrared ranges. Mid-infrared frequency combs have therefore become highly desirable and recent progress in generating such combs by nonlinear frequency conversion has opened access to this spectral region. Here we report on a pr...

  10. Mid-infrared (λ = 8.4-9.9 μm) light scattering from porcine tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakat, Sabbir; Michel, Anna P. M.; Bors, Kevin A.; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2012-08-01

    Back-scattering of mid-infrared light from porcine skin is studied versus wavelength and angle for a Quantum Cascade laser and a broadband infrared light source. Scattering is detected over 30° away from the specular angle for both sources, and modulation patterns with angle are seen when using the laser. A nonlinear increase in scattered light intensity versus input power indicates that directional scattering from within the skin is dominant. Collagen fibers in the dermis layer, over 200 μm deep into the skin, are conducive to such scattering. We conclude that mid-infrared light penetrates deep enough for potential glucose detection in dermal interstitial fluid.

  11. Mid-infrared generation based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xue-Chun; Wu Ling-An; Xu Zu-Yan; Kong Yu-Peng; Zhang Ying; Zhang Jie; Yao Ai-Yun; Bi Yong; Sun Zhi-Pei; Cui Da-Fu; Li Rui-Ning

    2004-01-01

    We report a nanosecond Nd:YVO4-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled LiNbOs (PPLN). Tuning is achieved in this experiment by varying the temperature and period of the PPLN. The design of double-pass singly resonant oscillator (DSRO) and confocal cavity enables the OPO threshold to be lowered considerably, resulting in a simple, compact, all-solid-state configuration with the mid-infrared idler powers of up to 466mW at 3.41μm.

  12. A Mid-Infrared View of the High Mass Star Formation Region W51A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. L.; Blum, R. D.; Damineli, A.; Conti, P. S.; Gusmão, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of a mid-infrared study of G49.5-0.4, or W51A, part of the massive starbirth complex W51. Combining public data from the Spitzer IRAC camera, and Gemini mid-infrared camera T-ReCS at 7.73, 9.69, 12.33, and 24.56 μm, with a spatial resolution of ˜0.″5, we have identified the mid-infrared counterparts of eight ultracompact H ii regions, showing that two radio sources are deeply embedded in molecular clouds and another is a cloud of ionized gas. From the T-ReCS data we have unveiled the central core of the W51 region, revealing massive young stellar candidates. We modeled the spectral energy distribution of the detected sources. The results suggest that the embedded objects are sources with spectral types ranging from B3 to O5, but the majority of the fits indicate stellar objects with B1 spectral types. We also present an extinction map of IRS 2, showing that a region with lower extinction corresponds to the region where a proposed jet of gas has impacted the foreground cloud. From this map, we also derived the total extinction toward the enigmatic source IRS 2E, which amounts to ˜60 mag in the V band. We calculated the color temperature due to thermal emission of the circumstellar dust of the detected sources; the temperatures are in the interval of ˜100-150 K, which corresponds to the emission of dust located at 0.1 pc from the central source. Finally, we show a possible mid-infrared counterpart of a detected source at millimeter wavelengths that was found by Zapata et al. to be a massive young stellar object undergoing a high accretion rate.

  13. Mid infrared supercontinuum generation from chalcogenide glass waveguides and fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luther-Davies, Barry; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Bin;

    2015-01-01

    I report work on mid-infrared super-continuum generation in chalcogenide fibers and waveguides pumped by 320fsec pulses at 21MHz in the 3-4.6µm range. Average powers of ≈20mW were produced with spectral coverage from <2µm to >11µm.......I report work on mid-infrared super-continuum generation in chalcogenide fibers and waveguides pumped by 320fsec pulses at 21MHz in the 3-4.6µm range. Average powers of ≈20mW were produced with spectral coverage from 11µm....

  14. Investigation of laser radar systems based on mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaltowski, Adam

    This dissertation deals with the possibility of utilizing mid-infrared semiconductor lasers in systems of optical remote sensing with range resolution, called laser radar or lidar. The main subject investigated in this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, an analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and related maximum sensing range calculations in this type of lidar based on available system components, and---secondly---improvements in the Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave (RM-CW) lidar technique to better utilize available mid-infrared semiconductor lasers. As far as the SNR analysis is concerned, an appropriate framework has been constructed to analyze post-demodulation noise in mid-infrared direct-detection RM-CW lidar. It is based on a generalization of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem; noise is assumed to be additive, stationary, and have an arbitrary power spectrum. This is in contrast to the SNR analysis in the literature on this subject, which is inadequate for mid-infrared RM-CW lidar as it only considers Poissonian fluctuations of the number of detected photons. In addition to regular SNR analysis, the framework derived in this dissertation allows treatment of singularities such as demodulation with an unbalanced sequence in 1/f noise. To calculate maximum lidar sensing range, the following detection limits have been considered: signal shot noise, background blackbody radiation shot noise based on the Background-Limited Photodetection (BLIP) detectivity limit, and minimum-size detector noise given by diffraction-limited focusing. The latter is found to be of greatest practical interest. Furthermore, a lidar figure of merit has been introduced, and all quantities related to lidar performance and its detection limits have been presented graphically. Since pseudo-random sequences discussed in the literature have been found highly non-optimal for most applications of RM-CW lidar, a framework for the construction of new pseudo-random sequences of desired

  15. Detection of buried explosives using portable neutron sources with nanosecond timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, A.V. E-mail: apl@atom.nw.ru; Evsenin, A.V.; Gorshkov, I.Yu.; Osetrov, O.I.; Vakhtin, D.N

    2004-07-01

    Significant reduction of time needed to identify hidden explosives and other hazardous materials by the 'neutron in, gamma out' method has been achieved by introducing timed (nanosecond) neutron sources--the so-called nanosecond neutron analysis technique. Prototype mobile device for explosives' detection based on a timed (nanosecond) isotopic {sup 252}Cf neutron source has been created. The prototype is capable of identifying 400 g of hidden explosives in 10 min. Tests have been also made with a prototype device using timed (nanosecond) neutron source based on a portable D-T neutron generator with built-in segmented detector of accompanying {alpha}-particles. The presently achieved intensity of the neutron generator is 5x10{sup 7} n/s into 4{pi}, with over 10{sup 6} of these neutrons being correlated with {alpha}-particles detected by the built-in {alpha}-particle detector. Results of measurements with an anti-personnel landmine imitator are presented.

  16. Mid-infrared ISO spectroscopy of NGC 4945

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoon, HWW; Koornneef, J; Moorwood, AFM; Lutz, D; Tielens, AGGM

    2000-01-01

    We have observed the central region of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4945 with the mid-infrared spectrometers SWS and PHT-S aboard ISO. We do not find any evidence for the existence of the powerful AGN, inferred from hard X-ray observations. The upper limits on our AGN tracers [Nev]14.32 mu m&24.3

  17. Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging: applications and advancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautam, R.; Samuel, A.; Sil, S.; Chaturvedi, D.; Dutta, A.; Ariese, F.; Umapathy, S.

    2015-01-01

    Using Raman and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopic imaging techniques one can examine the spatial distribution of various molecular constituents in a heterogeneous sample at a microscopic scale. Raman and MIR spectroscopy techniques provide bond-specific vibrational frequencies to characterize

  18. Group IV platforms for the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, G. Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Chen, X.; Ben Masaud, T. M.; Muneeb, M.; Strain, M.; Sorel, M.; Krauss, T. F.; Roelkens, G. C.; Peacock, A. C.; Chong, H. M. H.; Reed, G. T.

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated several material platforms for the mid-infrared including silicon on insulator (SOI), polycrystalline silicon, and suspended silicon structures. We review photonic devices based on these platforms including splitters, ring/racetrack resonators, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, and spectrometers.

  19. Group IV photonic devices for the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashanovich, G. Z.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Milosevic, M. M.; Hu, Y.; Gardes, F. Y.; Thomson, D. J.; Masaud, T.-B.; Jaberansary, E.; Chong, H. M. H.; Soref, R.; Reed, G. T.

    2012-06-01

    Group IV mid-infrared photonics is attracting more research interest lately. The main reason is a host of potential applications ranging from sensing, to medicine, to free space communications and infrared countermeasures. The field is, however, in its infancy and there are several serious challenges to be overcome before we see progress similar to that in the near-infrared silicon photonics. The first is to find suitable material platforms for the mid-infrared. In this paper we present experimental results for passive mid-infrared photonic devices realised in silicon-on-insulator, silicon-on-sapphire, and silicon on porous silicon. We also present relationships for the free-carrier induced electro-refraction and electro-absorption in silicon and germanium in the mid-infrared wavelength range. Electro-absorption modulation is calculated from impurity-doping spectra taken from the literature, and a Kramers-Kronig analysis of these spectra is used to predict electro-refraction modulation. We examine the wavelength dependence of electro-refraction and electro-absorption, finding that the predictions suggest longer-wave modulator designs will in many cases be different than those used in the telecom range.

  20. The Gˆ Mid-Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Power Supplies: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povich, M. S.; Wright, J. T.; Griffith, R.; Sigurdsson, S.; Maldonado, J. T.; Mullan, B.

    2014-03-01

    We present initial results from the Glimpsing Heat from Alien Technologies ("G-HAT" or Gˆ), in which we use the WISE all-sky mid-infrared (MIR) Source Catalog to search for and place constraints on the abundance of extraterrestrial civilizations with large power supplies. A civilization consuming a significant fraction of the luminous power of their host star (Kardashev type II civilization or K2; Kardashev 1964) or galaxy (K3) and operating at a temperature similar to the equilibrium temperatures in or near stellar habitable zones will produce MIR excess emission in the form of waste heat. Searches for such MIR excesses from K2s have been performed in the past, notably by Carrigan (2009) using the IRAS source catalog. Taking advantage of the 103 improvement in sensitivity over IRAS provided by WISE, Gˆ has enabled the first systematic search for waste heat from galaxy-spanning K3 civilizations and will search for K2s throughout a significant fraction of the Milky Way's volume. We find that a galaxy-spanning (K III) civilization with an power supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess. We have produced a catalog of 32,000 WISE extended sources and visually reviewed the data and literature on the reddest 4000 of them, identifying several hundred candidates worthy of detailed observational follow-up. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO could be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust. We will extend this analysis to WISE point sources to search for K2s.

  1. A variable mid-infrared synchrotron break associated with the compact jet in GX 339-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandhi, P.; Blain, A.W.; Russell, D.M.; Casella, P.; Malzac, J.; Corbel, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Lewis, F.W.; Markoff, S.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Goldoni, P.; Wachter, S.; Khangulyan, D.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many X-ray binaries remain undetected in the mid-infrared, a regime where emission from their compact jets is likely to dominate. Here, we report the detection of the black hole binary GX 339-4 with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) during a very bright, hard accretion state in 2010. Co

  2. Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Janner, Davide; Etezadi, Dordaneh; de Abajo, F Javier García; Pruneri, Valerio; Altug, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is the technique of choice for chemical identification of biomolecules through their vibrational fingerprints. However, infrared light interacts poorly with nanometric size molecules. Here, we exploit the unique electro-optical properties of graphene to demonstrate a high-sensitivity tunable plasmonic biosensor for chemically-specific label-free detection of protein monolayers. The plasmon resonance of nanostructured graphene is dynamically tuned to selectively probe the protein at different frequencies and extract its complex refractive index. Additionally, the extreme spatial light confinement in graphene, up to two orders of magnitude higher than in metals, produces an unprecedentedly high overlap with nanometric biomolecules, enabling superior sensitivity in the detection of their refractive index and vibrational fingerprints. The combination of tunable spectral selectivity and enhanced sensitivity of graphene opens exciting prospects for biosensing.

  3. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  4. PROBING STELLAR ACCRETION WITH MID-INFRARED HYDROGEN LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Pascucci, I.; Mulders, G. D. [Department of Planetary Science, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Edwards, S. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Ardila, D. R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grady, C. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Mendigutía, I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Montesinos, B. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, J. R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carpenter, J. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Furlan, E. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gorti, U. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Meyer, M. R., E-mail: rigliaco@lpl.arizona.edu, E-mail: elisabetta.rigliaco@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the origin of the mid-infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines for a sample of 114 disks in different evolutionary stages (full, transitional, and debris disks) collected from the Spitzer archive. We focus on the two brighter H I lines observed in the Spitzer spectra, the H I (7-6) at 12.37 μm and the H I (9-7) at 11.32 μm. We detect the H I (7-6) line in 46 objects, and the H I (9-7) in 11. We compare these lines with the other most common gas line detected in Spitzer spectra, the [Ne II] at 12.81 μm. We argue that it is unlikely that the H I emission originates from the photoevaporating upper surface layers of the disk, as has been found for the [Ne II] lines toward low-accreting stars. Using the H I (9-7)/H I (7-6) line ratios we find these gas lines are likely probing gas with hydrogen column densities of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}. The subsample of objects surrounded by full and transitional disks show a positive correlation between the accretion luminosity and the H I line luminosity. These two results suggest that the observed mid-IR H I lines trace gas accreting onto the star in the same way as other hydrogen recombination lines at shorter wavelengths. A pure chromospheric origin of these lines can be excluded for the vast majority of full and transitional disks. We report for the first time the detection of the H I (7-6) line in eight young (<20 Myr) debris disks. A pure chromospheric origin cannot be ruled out in these objects. If the H I (7-6) line traces accretion in these older systems, as in the case of full and transitional disks, the strength of the emission implies accretion rates lower than 10{sup –10} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We discuss some advantages of extending accretion indicators to longer wavelengths, and the next steps required pinning down the origin of mid-IR hydrogen lines.

  5. Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Labadie, L; 10.1364/OE.17.001947

    2009-01-01

    Research activities during the last decade have shown the strong potential of photonic devices to greatly simplify ground based and space borne astronomical instruments and to improve their performance. We focus specifically on the mid-infrared wavelength regime (about 5-20 microns), a spectral range offering access to warm objects (about 300 K) and to spectral features that can be interpreted as signatures for biological activity (e.g. water, ozone, carbon dioxide). We review the relevant research activities aiming at the development of single-mode guided optics and the corresponding manufacturing technologies. We evaluate the experimentally achieved performance and compare it with the performance requirements for applications in various fields of astronomy. Our goal is to show a perspective for future astronomical instruments based on mid-infrared photonic devices.

  6. Flexible chalcogenide glass microring resonator for mid-infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangliang; Li, Lijing; Sun, Mingjie

    2016-10-01

    Emerging applications in communication, sensing, medical, and many other fields call for on-chip microring laser, however, the method to make it work at mid-infrared still need to be explored. In this paper, a microring resonator integrated in flexible substrate is designed and evaluated, with high Q-factor ( 105) at pump and signal wavelengths, achieving emission in mid-infrared (3.6μm) using rare earth doped chalcogenide glass. Furthermore, the strain-optical coupling in multilayer flexible materials is numerically verified, and a 0.3 nm/μɛ resonance wavelength shift is achieved by local neutral axis theory, without significant loss of flexible device performance.

  7. Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Lucas; Wallner, Oswald

    2009-02-02

    Research activities during the last decade have shown the strong potential of photonic devices to greatly simplify ground based and space borne astronomical instruments and to improve their performance. We focus specifically on the mid-infrared wavelength regime (about 5-20 microm), a spectral range offering access to warm objects (about 300 K) and to spectral features that can be interpreted as signatures for biological activity (e.g. water, ozone, carbon dioxide). We review the relevant research activities aiming at the development of single-mode guided optics and the corresponding manufacturing technologies. We evaluate the experimentally achieved performance and compare it with the performance requirements for applications in various fields of astronomy. Our goal is to show a perspective for future astronomical instruments based on mid-infrared photonic devices.

  8. Mid-infrared predictions of cheese yield from bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Vanlierde, Amélie; Soyeurt, Hélène; Anceau, Christine; Vanden Bossche, sandrine; Dehareng, Frédéric; Pierre DARDENNE; Gengler, Nicolas; Sindic, Marianne; Colinet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Economically, cheese yield (CY) is very important. Todate, empirical or theoretical formulae allow estimating the theoretical CY from milk fat and casein or protein content of milk. It would be interesting to predict CY during milk recording directly without the need to estimate milk components. Through the BlueSel project, 157 milk samples were collected in Wallonia from individual cows and analyzed using a mid-infrared (MIR) MilkoScanFT6000 spectrometer. Individual laboratory cheese yields ...

  9. Time-resolved detection of relative intensity squeezed nanosecond pulses in a 87Rb vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Agha, Imad H; Messin, Gaetan; Grangier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We present experimental studies on the generation and detection of pulsed, relative-intensity squeezed light in a warm rubidium vapor. The noise correlations between a pulsed probe beam and its conjugate -generated through nearly-degenerate four-wave mixing in a double-lambda system- are studied via time-resolved balanced detection. We observe -0.96 dB of time-resolved relative intensity squeezing with 50 nanosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate. (-1.34 dB corrected for loss).

  10. Time-resolved detection of relative intensity squeezed nanosecond pulses in a Rb87 vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Agha, Imad H; Glorieux, Quentin; Coudreau, Thomas; Grangier, Philippe; Messin, Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results on the generation and detection of pulsed, relative-intensity squeezed light in a hot Rb87 vapor. The intensity noise correlations between a pulsed probe beam and its conjugate, generated through nearly-degenerate four-wave mixing in a double-lambda system, are studied numerically and measured experimentally via time-resolved balanced detection. We predict and observe about -1 dB of time-resolved relative intensity squeezing with 50 nanosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate. (-1.34 dB corrected for loss).

  11. Migrating the Mach-Zehnder chemical and bio-sensor to the mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, L.; Ewald, M.; Sieger, M.; Mizaikoff, B.; Gauglitz, G.

    2013-05-01

    The properties of integrated optical phase-modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (IO-MZI) are used to set up a new generation of chemical and biochemical sensors working in the mid-infrared. First applications of the MZI principle were introduced in the beginning 1990s. They range from a gas sensor to monitor organic solvent concentrations1 to setting up an immunoassay for the detection of the herbicide simazine2. Most if not all sensors of MZI type operate at wavelengths of the visible or near infrared spectrum. There are several reasons to change this strategy and move into the mid-infrared spectral range (MIR): higher manufacturing tolerances, increased evanescent field penetration depth, signal amplification by surface enhanced infrared absorption effect (SEIRA), species identification by MIR fingerprints. The basis of the planned MIR-MZI is a GaAs waveguide pattern epitaxially grown on a substrate3. As a first step towards nanostructuring the waveguide surface, chemical deposition of Au nanoparticles on GaAs transducers was established. For the use of MIR-MZI sensors in bioanalytical assay development, chemical immobilization of molecular recognition elements on GaAs transducers was carried out. The modified surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), dark field microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometric data as well as by a modified version of Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS)4. It was possible to monitor both the immobilization of gold nanoparticles and time-resolved specific binding using a model antibody antigen assay. After successful setup of relevant assays with RIfS, e.g. the detection of bacteria or endocrine disruptors, the assays are designed to be transferred onto the mid-infrared Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  12. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy based on a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Todd A

    2011-01-01

    We present a system for molecular spectroscopy using a broadband mid-infrared laser with near infrared detection. Difference frequency generation of a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser produced a mid-infrared (MIR) source tunable from 2100-3700 cm^-1 (2.7-4.7 microns) with average power up to 40 mW. The MIR spectrum was upconverted to near-infrared wavelengths for broadband detection using a two-dimensional dispersion imaging technique. Absorption measurements were performed over bandwidths of 240 cm^-1 (7.2 THz) with 0.048 cm^-1 (1.4 GHz) resolution, and absolute frequency scale uncertainty was better than 0.005 cm^-1 (150 MHz). The minimum detectable absorption coefficient per spectral element was determined to be 4.4 x 10^-7 cm^-1 from measurements in low pressure CH_4, leading to a detection limit of 2 parts-per-billion. The spectral range, resolution, and frequency accuracy of this system show promise for determination of trace concentrations in gas mixtures containing both narrow and broad overlapping spectral...

  13. Invited article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, P; Herzinger, C M; Schubert, M; Woollam, J A; Hofmann, T

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm(-1) to 7000 cm(-1) (0.1-210 THz or 0.4-870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  14. Demonstration of mid-infrared waveguide photonic crystal cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Hongtao; Deng, Fei; Ni, Chaoying; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Hu, Juejun

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first waveguide photonic crystal cavity operating in the mid-infrared. The devices were fabricated from Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass on CaF2 substrates by combing photolithographic patterning and focus ion beam milling. The waveguide-coupled cavities were characterized using a fiber end fire coupling method at 5.2 {\\mu}m wavelength, and a loaded quality factor of ~ 2,000 was measured near the critical coupling regime.

  15. Demonstration of mid-infrared waveguide photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Deng, Fei; Ni, Chaoying; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Hu, Juejun

    2013-08-01

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first waveguide photonic crystal cavity operating in the mid-infrared. The devices were fabricated from Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass (ChG) on CaF2 substrates by combing photolithographic patterning and focused ion beam milling. The waveguide-coupled cavities were characterized using a fiber end fire coupling method at 5.2 μm wavelength, and a loaded quality factor of ~2000 was measured near the critical coupling regime.

  16. Research and evolution of mid-infrared optical source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changshui; Hu, Hui; Xu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    3-5 μm mid-infrared wave band is in the atmosphere window, it has lots of promising applications on the spectroscopy, remote sensing, medical treatment, environmental protection and military affairs. So, it has been a hot topic around the world to research the lasers at this wave band. In recent years, adiabatic passage technology has been applied in frequency conversion area, which borrowed from atomic physics. In this paper we will introduce efficient nonlinear optics frequency conversion by suing this technology.

  17. Emerging techniques for soil analysis via mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, R.; Shaviv, A.

    2009-04-01

    Transmittance and diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the mid-IR range are well-established methods for soil analysis. Over the last five years, additional mid-IR techniques have been investigated, and in particular: 1. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Attenuated total reflectance is commonly used for analysis of liquids and powders for which simple transmittance measurements are not possible. The method relies on a crystal with a high refractive index, which is in contact with the sample and serves as a waveguide for the IR radiation. The radiation beam is directed in such a way that it hits the crystal/sample interface several times, each time penetrating a few microns into the sample. Since the penetration depth is limited to a few microns, very good contact between the sample and the crystal must be ensured, which can be achieved by working with samples close to water saturation. However, the strong absorbance of water in the mid-infrared range as well as the absorbance of some soil constituents (e.g., calcium carbonate) interfere with some of the absorbance bands of interest. This has led to the development of several post-processing methods for analysis of the spectra. The FTIR-ATR technique has been successfully applied to soil classification as well as to determination of nitrate concentration [1, 6-8, 10]. Furthermore, Shaviv et al. [12] demonstrated the possibility of using fiber optics as an ATR devise for direct determination of nitrate concentration in soil extracts. Recently, Du et al. [5] showed that it is possible to differentiate between 14N and 15N in such spectra, which opens very promising opportunities for developing FTIR-ATR based methods for investigating nitrogen transformation in soils by tracing changes in N-isotopic species. 2. Photo-acoustic spectroscopy Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is based on absorption-induced heating of the sample, which produces pressure fluctuations in a surrounding gas. These fluctuations are

  18. Dilute bismides for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Gu, Yi; Ye, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Dilute bismides are a group of emerging materials with unique properties. Incorporation of a small amount of Bi in common III–V host materials results in large band-gap reduction and strong spin-orbit splitting, leading to potential applications in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR......) optoelectronics. Recent progresses on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of novel III-Sb-Bi, i.e. GaSbBi and InSbBi thin films from our group are summarised in this paper. Quantum well structures based on GaSbBi and InGaAsBi aiming for the optical communication window were grown and characterized....

  19. Mid-infrared observations of sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with the Subaru Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootsubo, T.; Usui, F.; Takita, S.; Watanabe, J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Honda, M.; Kawakita, H.; Furusho, R.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are the frozen reservoirs of the early solar nebula and are made of ice and dust. The determination of the properties for cometary dust provides us insight into both the early-solar-nebula environment and the formation process of the planetary system. A silicate feature is often observed in comet spectra in the mid-infrared region and may be used for probing the early history of the solar system. In most cases, the feature shows the existence of crystalline silicate (for example, 11.3 microns) together with amorphous silicate [1,2]. Since the crystallization of silicates from amorphous ones generally requires high-temperature annealing above 800 K (e.g., [3,4]), it is believed that the crystalline silicate grains produced at the inner part of the disk were transported to the outer cold regions where the comet nuclei formed. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is a long-period Oort Cloud comet, discovered in September 2012. In particular, comet ISON is a sungrazing comet, which was predicted to pass close by the Sun and the Earth and becoming a bright object. Mid-infrared observations of this new comet and investigation of the 10-micron silicate feature help us understand the formation of crystalline silicate grains in the early solar nebula. We conducted observations of comet ISON in the mid-infrared wavelength region with the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) on the Subaru Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii [5,6,7]. The observation of comet ISON was carried out on 2013 October 19 and 21 UT. Since the weather conditions were not so good when we observed, we carried out N-band imaging observations (8.8 and 12.4 microns) and N-band low-resolution spectroscopy. The spectrum of comet ISON can be fit with the 260--265-K blackbody spectrum when we use the regions of 7.8--8.2 and 12.4--13.0 microns as the continuum. The spectrum has only a weak silicate excess feature, which may be able to attribute to small amorphous olivine grains. We could not detect a clear

  20. Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You-Chia; Liu, Che-Hung; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Siyuan; Marder, Seth R; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Zhong, Zhaohui; Norris, Theodore B

    2016-02-04

    While metal is the most common conducting constituent element in the fabrication of metamaterials, graphene provides another useful building block, that is, a truly two-dimensional conducting sheet whose conductivity can be controlled by doping. Here we report the experimental realization of a multilayer structure of alternating graphene and Al2O3 layers, a structure similar to the metal-dielectric multilayers commonly used in creating visible wavelength hyperbolic metamaterials. Chemical vapour deposited graphene rather than exfoliated or epitaxial graphene is used, because layer transfer methods are easily applied in fabrication. We employ a method of doping to increase the layer conductivity, and our analysis shows that the doped chemical vapour deposited graphene has good optical properties in the mid-infrared range. We therefore design the metamaterial for mid-infrared operation; our characterization with an infrared ellipsometer demonstrates that the metamaterial experiences an optical topological transition from elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion at a wavelength of 4.5 μm.

  1. Mid-Infrared Tunable Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zogg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared detectors that are sensitive only in a tunable narrow spectral band are presented. They are based on the Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detector (RCED principle and employing a thin active region using IV-VI narrow gap semiconductor layers. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by two mirrors. The active layer is grown onto one mirror, while the second mirror can be displaced. This changes the cavity length thus shifting the resonances where the detector is sensitive. Using electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors, a very compact tunable detector system has been fabricated. Mirror movements of more than 3 μm at 30V are obtained. With these mirrors, detectors with a wavelength tuning range of about 0.7 μm have been realized. Single detectors can be used in mid-infrared micro spectrometers, while a detector arrangement in an array makes it possible to realize Adaptive Focal Plane Arrays (AFPA.

  2. Time-domain spectroscopy in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanin, A. A.; Voronin, A. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    When coupled to characteristic, fingerprint vibrational and rotational motions of molecules, an electromagnetic field with an appropriate frequency and waveform offers a highly sensitive, highly informative probe, enabling chemically specific studies on a broad class of systems in physics, chemistry, biology, geosciences, and medicine. The frequencies of these signature molecular modes, however, lie in a region where accurate spectroscopic measurements are extremely difficult because of the lack of efficient detectors and spectrometers. Here, we show that, with a combination of advanced ultrafast technologies and nonlinear-optical waveform characterization, time-domain techniques can be advantageously extended to the metrology of fundamental molecular motions in the mid-infrared. In our scheme, the spectral modulation of ultrashort mid-infrared pulses, induced by rovibrational motions of molecules, gives rise to interfering coherent dark waveforms in the time domain. These high-visibility interference patterns can be read out by cross-correlation frequency-resolved gating of the field in the visible generated through ultrabroadband four-wave mixing in a gas phase.

  3. Calibration of the Mid-Infrared Tully-Fisher Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Sorce, Jenny G; Tully, R Brent; Seibert, Mark; Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L; Madore, Barry F; Persson, S Eric; Monson, Andy; Rigby, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Distance measures on a coherent scale around the sky are required to address the outstanding cosmological problems of the Hubble Constant and of departures from the mean cosmic flow. The correlation between galaxy luminosities and rotation rates can be used to determine distances to many thousands of galaxies in a wide range of environments potentially out to 200 Mpc. Mid-infrared (3.6 microns) photometry with the Spitzer Space Telescope is particularly valuable as the source of the luminosities because it provides products of uniform quality across the sky. From a perch above the atmosphere, essentially the total magnitude of targets can be registered in exposures of a few minutes. Extinction is minimal and the flux is dominated by the light from old stars which is expected to correlate with the mass of the targets. In spite of the superior photometry, the correlation between mid-infrared luminosities and rotation rates extracted from neutral hydrogen profiles is slightly degraded from the correlation found ...

  4. Realization of mid-infrared graphene hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, You-Chia; Liu, Che-Hung; Liu, Chang-Hua; Zhang, Siyuan; Marder, Seth R.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.; Zhong, Zhaohui; Norris, Theodore B.

    2016-02-01

    While metal is the most common conducting constituent element in the fabrication of metamaterials, graphene provides another useful building block, that is, a truly two-dimensional conducting sheet whose conductivity can be controlled by doping. Here we report the experimental realization of a multilayer structure of alternating graphene and Al2O3 layers, a structure similar to the metal-dielectric multilayers commonly used in creating visible wavelength hyperbolic metamaterials. Chemical vapour deposited graphene rather than exfoliated or epitaxial graphene is used, because layer transfer methods are easily applied in fabrication. We employ a method of doping to increase the layer conductivity, and our analysis shows that the doped chemical vapour deposited graphene has good optical properties in the mid-infrared range. We therefore design the metamaterial for mid-infrared operation; our characterization with an infrared ellipsometer demonstrates that the metamaterial experiences an optical topological transition from elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion at a wavelength of 4.5 μm.

  5. Mid-Infrared Frequency-Agile Dual-Comb Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Yan, Ming; Iwakuni, Kana; Millot, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy. It opens up new opportunities for accurate real-time spectroscopic diagnostics and it significantly simplifies the technique of dual-comb spectroscopy. Two mid-infrared frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies and moderate, but rapidly tunable, spectral span are generated in the 2800-3200 cm-1 region. The generators rely on electro-optic modulators, nonlinear fibers for spectral broadening and difference frequency generation and do not involve mode-locked lasers. Flat-top frequency combs span up to 10 cm-1 with a comb line spacing of 100 MHz (3×10-3 cm-1). The performance of the spectrometer without any phase-lock electronics or correction scheme is illustrated with spectra showing resolved comb lines and Doppler-limited spectra of methane. High precision on the spectroscopic parameter (line positions and intensities) determination is demonstrated for spectra measured on a millisecond time scale and it is validated with comparison with literature data. G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovannysyan, A. Bendahmane, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 10, 27-30 (2016).

  6. Intracellular protein mass spectroscopy using mid-infrared laser ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale analysis of proteins, which can be regarded as functional biomolecule, assumes an important role in the life science. A MALDI using an ultraviolet laser (UV-MALDI) is one of ionization methods without fragmentation and has achieved conformation analysis of proteins. Recently, protein analysis has shifted from conformation analysis to functional and direct one that reserves posttranslational modifications such as the sugar chain addition and phosphorylation. We have proposed a MALDI using a mid-infrared tunable laser (IR-MALDI) as a new ionization method. IR-MALDI is promising because most biomolecules have a specific absorption in mid-infrared range, and IR-MALDI is expected to offer; (1) use of various matrices, (2) use of biomolecules such as water and lipid as the matrix, and (3) super-soft ionization. First, we evaluated the wavelength dependence of ionization of different matrices using a difference frequency generation (DFG) laser, which can tune the wavelength within a range from 5.5 to 10.0 μm. As results, ionization was specifically occurred at 5.8 μm which the C=O vibration stretching bond in matrix material and mass spectrum was observed. Next, protein mass spectrum was observed in the culture cells, MIN6, which secrete insulin, without the conventional cell-preparation processes. We demonstrate that the IR-MALDI has an advantage over the conventional method (UV-MALDI) in direct analysis of intracellular proteins.

  7. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  8. Towards mid-infrared supercontinuum generation: Ge-Sb-Se mid-infrared step-index small-core optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, J. H.; Jayasuriya, D.; Li, Q. Q.; Furniss, D.; Moneim, N. A.; Barney, E.; Sujecki, S.; Benson, T. M.; Sanghera, J. S.; Seddon, A. B.

    2014-02-01

    In the 21st century, cancer has become a common and feared illness. Early detection is crucial for delivering the most effective treatment of patients, yet current diagnostic tests depend upon the skill of a consultant clinician and histologist for recognition of the cancerous cells. Therefore it is necessary to develop a medical diagnostic system which can analyze and image tissue instantly, removing the margin of human error and with the additional benefit of being minimally invasive. The molecular fingerprint of biological tissue lies within the mid-infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, 3-25μm wavelength. This can be used to determine a tissue spectral map and provide information about the absence or existence of disease, potentially in real-time and in vivo. However, current mid-IR broadband sources are not bright enough to achieve this. One alternative is to develop broadband, mid-IR, supercontinuum generation (SCG). Chalcogenide glass optical fibers have the potential to provide such mid-IR SC light. A popular chalcogenide glass fiber type is based on Ge-As-Se. For biomedical applications it is prudent to avoid the use of arsenic, on account of its toxicity. This paper investigates replacing arsenic with antimony, towards Ge-Sb-Se smallcore optical fibers for SCG. Physical properties of candidate glass pairs are investigated for glass stability via differential thermal analysis etc. and fiber optical loss measurements of associated fibers are assessed. These results are compared to analogous arsenic-containing chalcogenide glasses and optical fibers, and conclusions are drawn focusing on whether there is potential for antimony chalcogenide glass to be used for SCG for mid-infrared medical diagnostics.

  9. A single-shot nanosecond neutron pulsed technique for the detection of fissile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V.; Miklaszewski, R. A.; Chernyshova, M.; Scholz, M.; Prokopovicz, R.; Tomaszewski, K.; Drozdowicz, K.; Wiacek, U.; Gabanska, B.; Dworak, D.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.

    2012-07-01

    A novel technique with the potential of detecting hidden fissile materials is presented utilizing the interaction of a single powerful and nanosecond wide neutron pulse with matter. The experimental system is based on a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) device as a neutron source generating pulses of almost mono-energetic 2.45 MeV and/or 14.0 MeV neutrons, a few nanoseconds in width. Fissile materials, consisting of heavy nuclei, are detected utilizing two signatures: firstly by measuring those secondary fission neutrons which are faster than the elastically scattered 2.45 MeV neutrons of the D-D reaction in the DPF; secondly by measuring the pulses of the slower secondary fission neutrons following the pulse of the fast 14 MeV neutrons from the D-T reaction. In both cases it is important to compare the measured spectrum of the fission neutrons induced by the 2.45 MeV or 14 MeV neutron pulse of the DPF with theoretical spectra obtained by mathematical simulation. Therefore, results of numerical modelling of the proposed system, using the MCNP5 and the FLUKA codes are presented and compared with experimental data.

  10. Mid-Infrared Imaging of Exo-Earths: Impact of Exozodiacal Disk Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrere, Denis; Absil, O.; Stark, C.; den Hartog, R.; Danchi, W.

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of Earth-like extrasolar planets in the mid-infrared is a significant observational challenge that could be tackled by future space-based interferometers. The presence of large amounts of exozodiacal dust around nearby main sequence stars represents however a potential hurdle to obtain mid-infrared spectra of Earth-like planets. Whereas the disk brightness only affects the integration time, the emission of resonant dust structures mixes with the planet signal at the output of the interferometer and could jeopardize the spectroscopic analysis of an Earth-like planet. Fortunately, the high angular resolution provided by space-based interferometry is sufficient to spatially distinguish most of the extended exozodiacal emission from the planetary signal and only the dust located near the planet significantly contributes to the noise level. Considering modeled resonant structures created by Earth-like planets, we address in this talk the role of exozodiacal dust in two different cases: the characterization of Super-Earth planets with single space-based Bracewell interferometers (e.g., the FKSI mission) and the characterization of Earth-like planets with 4-telescope space-based nulling interferometers (e.g., the TPF-I and Darwin projects). In each case, we derive constraints on the disk parameters that can be tolerated without jeopardizing the detection of Earth-like planets

  11. Mid-infrared interferometry of 23 AGN tori: On the significance of polar-elongated emission

    CERN Document Server

    López-Gonzaga, N; Tristram, K R W; Meisenheimer, K; Schartmann, M

    2016-01-01

    Context. Detailed high resolution studies of AGN with mid-infrared (MIR) interferometry have revealed parsec-sized dust emission elongated in the polar direction in four sources. Aims. Using a larger, coherently analyzed sample of AGN observed with MIR interferometry, we aim to identify elongated mid-infrared emission in a statistical sample of sources. More specifically we wish to determine if there is indeed a preferred direction of the elongation and whether this direction is consistent with a torus-like structure or with a polar emission. Methods. We investigate the significance of the detection of an elongated shape in the MIR emission by fitting elongated Gaussian models to the interferometric data at 12 um. We pay special attention to 1) the uncertainties caused by an inhomogeneous (u,v) coverage, 2) the typical errors in the measurements and 3) the spatial resolution achieved for each object. Results. From our sample of 23 sources we are able to find elongated parsec-scale MIR emission in five sources...

  12. A "WISE BOSS": Finding The Cosmic Monsters in the Mid-Infrared Lochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicholas; Hamann, F. W.; Alexandroff, R.; Brandt, W. N.; Strauss, M. A.; Dey, A.; Richards, G. T.; Worseck, G.; Zakamska, N. L.; Eisenstein, D.; Ge, J.; Glikman, E.; Greene, J. E.; Haggard, D.; Krolik, J. H.; Myers, A. D.; Petitjean, P.; Streblyanska, A.; Schawinski, K.; Shen, Y.; Villforth, C.; McMahon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-infrared photometry of QSOs provide an important constraint on the presence of hot dust in the vicinity of the active nucleus. However, assembling large statistical MIR samples of quasars at the height of the ``quasar epoch'' ( 2.5) has, up until now, been challenging due to either wide but relatively shallow optical quasar surveys, or deep but narrow mid-IR data. The SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) is the state-of-the-art in optical wide-field spectroscopy, and has over 150,000 quasars confirmed, with the majority of the quasar data at z=2.2-3.5. We combine these data with the all-sky mid-infrared coverage from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and initially concentrate on BOSS quasars with ``extreme'' colors, e.g. r-[22]>14, and those detected only in the redder WISE bands, a.k.a. "the W1W2drops". We find that these selections identify a heterogeneous sample within the BOSS quasar data, but also provide a key tool for finding interesting populations including the 2.5 Type II QSO population. We relate these very red BOSS quasars to the recent discoveries of the ``hyper-LIRG" and ``Hot Dust Obscured Galaxy'' (or Hot DOG) population.

  13. High Efficiency, Room Temperature Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Development for IR Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER EFFICIENCY, ROOM TEMPERATURE MID-INFRARED SEMICONDUCTOR LASER DEVELOPMENT FOR IR COUNTERMEASURES Sb. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-04-1-0433...04-1-0433 Title: (DEPSCOR FY04) High Efficiency, Room Temperature Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Development for IR Countermeasures Principal...AFOSR Final Performance Report, March 2008 Award No.: FA9550-04-1-0433 Title: High Efficiency, Room Temperature Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser

  14. Low Threshold and High Conversion Efficiency Nanosecond Mid-Infrared KTA OPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; LI Jian-Song; CUI Hai-Xia; XU Deng-Gang; WANG Yu-Ye; ZHOU Rui; WANG Jing-Li; WANG Peng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Based on a Type Ⅱ non-critically phase-matched KTA crystal,a low-threshold and high conversion efficiency midinfrared optical parametric oscillator(OPO)pumped by a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO_4 laser is demonstrated.The OPO threshold is only 0.825 W.The maximum output power of 435mW at 3.47μm is achieved with the repetition rate of 30kHz,corresponding to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.4%.The photon conversion efficiency is as high as about 64%.The pulse width is 3.5 ns with a peak power of 4 kW for the maximum output power.

  15. High spatial resolution mid-infrared studies of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew

    I present the results of six papers related the formation and evolution of planets and planetary systems, all of which are based on high-resolution, ground-based, mid-infrared observations. The first three chapters are studies of T Tauri binaries. T Tauri stars are young, low mass stars, whose disks form the building blocks of extrasolar planets. The first chapter is a study of the 0.68"/0.12" triple system, T Tauri. Our spatially resolved N-band photometry reveals silicate absorption towards one component, T Tau Sa, indicating the presence of an edge-on disk, which is in contrast to the other components. The second chapter is an adaptive optics fed N-band spectroscopy study of the 0.88" binary, UY Aur. We find that the dust grains around UY Aur A are ISM-like, while the mineralogy of the dust around UY Aur B is more uncertain, due to self-extinction. The third chapter presents a survey of spatially resolved silicate spectroscopy for nine T Tauri binaries. We find with 90%-95% confidence that the silicate features of the binaries are more similar than those of randomly paired single stars. This implies that a shared binary property, such as age or composition, is an important parameter in dust grain evolution. The fourth chapter is a study of the planetary system, 2MASS 1207. We explore the source of 2MASS 1207 b's under-luminosity, which has typically been explained as the result of an edge-on disk of large, grey-extincting dust grains. We find that the edge-on disk theory is incompatible with several lines of evidence, and suggest that 2MASS 1207 b's appearance can be explained by a thick cloudy atmosphere, which might be typical among young, planetary systems. The fifth chapter is a study of the white dwarf, Sirius B, which in the context of this thesis is being studied as a post-planetary system. Our N-band imaging demonstrates that Sirius B does not have an infrared excess, in contrast to previous results. The sixth chapter is a study of mid-infrared

  16. Rapid prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared field instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J

    2016-11-01

    This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the field.

  17. Time-dependent calculations in Potassium mid-infrared wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Maragakis, P; Lambropoulos, P

    1999-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the Potassium atom in the mid-infrared, high intensity, short laser pulse regime. We ascertain our numerical convergence by comparing the results of two different propagation methods of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present ionization curves in the 12-, 13-, and 14-photon ionization range for Potassium. The ionization curve of a scaled system, namely Hydrogen starting from the 2s, is compared to the 12-photon results. In the 13-photon regime, a dynamic resonance is observed and analyzed in more detail. The results for all wavelengths and intensities, including the case of Hydrogen, display a clear plateau formation in the peak-heights of the low energy part of the Above Threshold Ionization (ATI) spectrum, which scales with the ponderomotive energy Up, and extends to (2.8 +- 0.5) Up.

  18. Mid-infrared plasmonic inductors: enhancing inductance with meandering lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Víctor; Ortuño, Rubén; Rodríguez-Ulibarri, Pablo; Griol, Amadeu; Martínez, Alejandro; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario

    2014-01-07

    We present a mid-infrared inductor that when applied to an extraordinary transmission hole array produces a strong redshift of the resonant peak accompanied by an unprecedented enlargement of the operation bandwidth. The importance of the result is twofold: from a fundamental viewpoint, the direct applicability of equivalent circuit concepts borrowed from microwaves is demonstrated, in frequencies as high as 17 THz upholding unification of plasmonics and microwave concepts and allowing for a simplification of structure design and analysis; in practical terms, a broadband funnelling of infrared radiation with fractional bandwidth and efficiency as high as 97% and 48%, respectively, is achieved through an area less than one hundredth the squared wavelength, which leads to an impressive accessible strong field localization that may be of great interest in sensing applications.

  19. Nonsequential double ionization with mid-infrared laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Bin; Wang, Xu; Yu, Ben-Hai; Tang, Qing-Bin; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    Using a full-dimensional Monte Carlo classical ensemble method, we present a theoretical study of atomic nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) with mid-infrared laser fields, and compare with results from near-infrared laser fields. Unlike single-electron strong-field processes, double ionization shows complex and unexpected interplays between the returning electron and its parent ion core. As a result of these interplays, NSDI for mid-IR fields is dominated by second-returning electron trajectories, instead of first-returning trajectories for near-IR fields. Some complex NSDI channels commonly happen with near-IR fields, such as the recollision-excitation-with-subsequent-ionization (RESI) channel, are virtually shut down by mid-IR fields. Besides, the final energies of the two electrons can be extremely unequal, leading to novel e-e momentum correlation spectra that can be measured experimentally.

  20. Atmospheric refractivity effects on mid-infrared ELT adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, S; Mathar, R J; Stuik, R; Hippler, S; Brandl, B

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the effect of atmospheric dispersion on the performance of a mid-infrared adaptive optics assisted instrument on an extremely large telescope (ELT). Dispersion and atmospheric chromaticity is generally considered to be negligible in this wavelength regime. It is shown here, however, that with the much-reduced diffraction limit size on an ELT and the need for diffraction-limited performance, refractivity phenomena should be carefully considered in the design and operation of such an instrument. We include an overview of the theory of refractivity, and the influence of infrared resonances caused by the presence of water vapour and other constituents in the atmosphere. `Traditional' atmospheric dispersion is likely to cause a loss of Strehl only at the shortest wavelengths (L-band). A more likely source of error is the difference in wavelengths at which the wavefront is sensed and corrected, leading to pointing offsets between wavefront sensor and science instrument that evolve with time over a long e...

  1. Precalibration evaluation procedures for mid-infrared milk analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M; Schweisthal, M; Fleming, J R

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a detailed account of the precalibration procedures developed and implemented by the USDA Federal Milk Market Administrators (FMMA) for evaluating mid-infrared (MIR) milk analyzers. Mid-infrared analyzers specifically designed for milk testing provide a rapid and cost-effective means for determining milk composition for payment and dairy herd improvement programs. These instruments determine the fat, protein, and lactose content of milk, and enable the calculation of total solids, solids-not-fat, and other solids. All MIR analyzers are secondary testing instruments that require calibration by chemical reference methods. Precalibration is the process of assuring that the instrument is in good working order (mechanically and electrically) and that the readings before calibration are stable and optimized. The main components of precalibration are evaluation of flow system integrity, homogenization efficiency, water repeatability, zero shift, linearity, primary slope, milk repeatability, purging efficiency, and establishment of intercorrection factors. These are described in detail and apply to both filter-based and Fourier transform infrared instruments operating using classical primary and reference wavelengths. Under the USDA FMMA Precalibration Evaluation Program, the precalibration procedures were applied longitudinally over time using a wide variety of instruments and instrument models. Instruments in this program were maintained to pass the criteria for all precalibration procedures. All instruments used similar primary wavelengths to measure fat, protein, and lactose but there were differences in reference wavelength selection. Intercorrection factors were consistent over time within all instruments and similar among groups of instruments using similar primary and reference wavelengths. However, the magnitude and sign of the intercorrection factors were significantly affected by the choice of reference wavelengths.

  2. A mid-infrared absorption diagnostic for acetylene detection

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav

    2015-05-14

    Acetylene is an important combustion intermediate and plays a critical role in soot formation. Accurate measurements of trace concentrations of acetylene can be very useful in validating hydrocarbon oxidation and soot formation mechanisms. Strongest vibrational band of acetylene near 13.7 μm is probed here to develop a highly sensitive absorption diagnostic. Experiments are carried out behind reflected shock waves to measure absorption cross sections of acetylene near 730 cm−1 over a wide range of temperatures (1000–2200 K) and pressures (1–5 bar). The diagnostic is demonstrated by measuring acetylene formation during the shock-heated pyrolysis and oxidation of propene. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. AKARI Near- to Mid-Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopic Observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud. I. Bright Point Source List

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Y; Tanabe, T; Matsunaga, N; Matsuura, M; Yamamura, I; Nakada, Y; Izumiura, H; Ueta, T; Mito, H; Fukushi, H; Kato, D

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a near- to mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic observations of the patchy areas in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. Two 100 arcmin2 areas were imaged in 3.2, 4.1, 7, 11, 15, and 24 um and also spectroscopically observed in the wavelength range continuously from 2.5 to 13.4 um. The spectral resolving power (lambda/Delta lambda) is about 20, 50, and 50 at 3.5, 6.6 and 10.6 um, respectively. Other than the two 100 arcmin2 areas, some patchy areas were imaged and/or spectroscopically observed as well. In this paper, we overview the observations and present a list of near- to mid-infrared photometric results, which lists ~ 12,000 near-infrared and ~ 1,800 mid-infrared bright point sources detected in the observed areas. The 10 sigma limits are 16.50, 16.12, 13.28, 11.26, 9.62, and 8.76 in Vega magnitudes at 3.2, 4.1, 7, 11, 15, and 24 um bands, respectively.

  4. The mid-infrared environments of 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers from the Methanol Multi-Beam Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gallaway, M; Lucas, P W; Fuller, G A; Caswell, J L; Green, J A; Voronkov, M A; Breen, S L; Quinn, L; Ellingsen, S P; Avison, A; Ward-Thompson, D; Cox, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the mid-infrared environments and association with star formation tracers of 6.7 GHz methanol masers taken from the Methanol Multi-Beam (MMB) Survey. Our ultimate goal is to establish the mass of the host star and its evolutionary stage for each maser site. As a first step, the GLIMPSE survey of the Galactic Plane is utilised to investigate the environment of 776 methanol masers and we find that while the majority of the masers are associated with mid-infrared counterparts, a significant fraction (17%) are not associated with any detectable mid-infrared emission. A number of the maser counterparts are clearly extended with respect to the GLIMPSE point spread function and we implement an adaptive non-circular aperture photometry (ANCAP) technique to determine the fluxes of the maser counterparts. The ANCAP technique doubles the number of masers with flux information at all four wavelengths compared to the number of the corresponding counterparts obtained from the GLIMPSE Point Source Cata...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  6. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  7. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grills, David C., E-mail: dcgrills@bnl.gov; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Wishart, James F. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Bernstein, Herbert J. [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Dowling College, 1300 William Floyd Parkway, Shirley, New York 11967 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm{sup −1}. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ∼40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ∼100 μOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  8. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, David C; Farrington, Jaime A; Layne, Bobby H; Preses, Jack M; Bernstein, Herbert J; Wishart, James F

    2015-04-01

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330 to 1051 cm(-1). The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ∼40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ∼100 μOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  9. Mid-Infrared Photoluminescence of CdS and CdSe Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwang Seob; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2016-02-23

    Mid-infrared intraband photoluminescence is observed from CdSe and CdS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) and core/shell systems when excited by a visible laser. The CQDs show more intraband photoluminescence with dodecanethiol than with other ligands. Core/shells show an increase of the intraband photoluminescence with increasing shell thickness. The detected emission is restricted to below 2900 cm(-1), bounded by the C-H vibrational modes of the organic ligands. Upon photoexcitation in air for all dodecanethiol ligands capped CQD systems studied, the intraband photoluminescence is quenched over time, and emission at lower frequency is observed, which is assigned to laser heating and thermal emission from oxides.

  10. High-speed mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David B.; Goyal, Anish K.; Zhu, Ninghui; Wood, Derek A.; Myers, Travis R.; Kotidis, Petros; Murphy, Cara; Georgan, Chelsea; Raz, Gil; Maulini, Richard; Müller, Antoine

    2017-05-01

    We report on a standoff chemical detection system using widely tunable external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (ECQCLs) to illuminate target surfaces in the mid infrared (λ = 7.4 - 10.5 μm). Hyperspectral images (hypercubes) are acquired by synchronously operating the EC-QCLs with a LN2-cooled HgCdTe camera. The use of rapidly tunable lasers and a high-frame-rate camera enables the capture of hypercubes with 128 x 128 pixels and >100 wavelengths in acetaminophen) on a variety of surfaces (e.g., aluminum, plastic, glass). Signature spectra are obtained for particulate loadings of RDX on glass of <1 μg/cm2.

  11. Bridging the Mid-Infrared-to-Telecom Gap with Silicon Nanophotonic Spectral Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaoping; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Osgood, Richard M; Green, William M J

    2012-01-01

    Expanding far beyond traditional applications in optical interconnects at telecommunications wavelengths, the silicon nanophotonic integrated circuit platform has recently proven its merits for working with mid-infrared (mid-IR) optical signals in the 2-8 {\\mu}m range. Mid-IR integrated optical systems are capable of addressing applications including industrial process and environmental monitoring, threat detection, medical diagnostics, and free-space communication. Rapid progress has led to the demonstration of various silicon components designed for the on-chip processing of mid-IR signals, including waveguides, vertical grating couplers, microcavities, and electrooptic modulators. Even so, a notable obstacle to the continued advancement of chip-scale systems is imposed by the narrow-bandgap semiconductors, such as InSb and HgCdTe, traditionally used to convert mid-IR photons to electrical currents. The cryogenic or multi-stage thermo-electric cooling required to suppress dark current noise, exponentially d...

  12. High-contrast GeTe4 waveguides for mid-infrared biomedical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vinita; Wilkinson, James S.; Murugan, Ganapathy S.

    2014-03-01

    Realization of single-mode waveguides is essential for ultra-sensitive biosensing in the mid-infrared molecular "fingerprint" region for biomedical lab-on-chip applications. High contrast (Δn ≍ 1) germanium telluride (GeTe4) single mode rib waveguides were fabricated on zinc selenide (ZnSe) substrates for evanescent field based sensing to detect analytes at low concentration. Amorphous GeTe4 thin films were deposited by RF-sputtering and were found to transmit over the spectral range from 2μm - 20μm. Photolithography followed by reactive ion etching was carried out to etch the film, forming rib waveguide structures with minimum surface roughness and vertical sidewalls. It was found that films deposited at room temperature have average roughness of about 5nm. Optical constants were determined by IR-VASE ellipsometry.

  13. CdS/PbSe heterojunction for high temperature mid-infrared photovoltaic detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Binbin, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Zhao, Lihua; Chang, Caleb [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Shi, Zhisheng, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nanolight, Inc., Norman, Oklahoma 73069 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    n-CdS/p-PbSe heterojunction is investigated. A thin CdS film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on top of epitaxial PbSe film by molecular beam epitaxy on Silicon. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with rectifying ratio of ∼178 and ideality factor of 1.79 at 300 K. Detectors made with such structure exhibit mid-infrared spectral photoresponse at room temperature. The peak responsivity R{sub λ} and specific detectivity D{sup *} are 0.055 A/W and 5.482 × 10{sup 8} cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W at λ = 4.7 μm under zero-bias photovoltaic mode. Temperature-dependent photoresponse measurements show abnormal intensity variation below ∼200 K. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are also discussed.

  14. A subwavelength structured multimode interference coupler for the 3-4 micrometers mid-infrared band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Postigo, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, Juan Gonzalo; Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos A.; Molina-Fernández, Íñigo; Soler Penadés, Jordi; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Mashanovich, Goran Z.; Cheben, Pavel

    2015-05-01

    The mid-infrared is attracting increasing attention since many molecules, including potentially hazardous gases such as methane and carbon dioxide, exhibit very specific absorption spectra in this wavelength region. Integrated silicon photonics circuits are envisioned to enable compact and low-cost measurement solutions for these molecules. Multimode interference couplers (MMIs) are basic building blocks for photonic circuits and a broad operational bandwidth is key if flexible operation is to be achieved, e.g. to detect different gases. Here we overcome the bandwidth limitations found in classical MMIs by segmenting the multimode region at a sub-wavelength pitch to engineer its refractive index and dispersion. We achieve less than 0:5 dB imbalance and excess loss in the complete 3 ̶ 4 µm wavelength range. The sub-wavelength MMI not only exhibits nearly threefold improvement in bandwidth, but is also about three times shorter than the conventional device.

  15. Sensores ópticos com detecção no infravermelho próximo e médio Near and mid infrared optical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio M. G. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical chemical sensors with detection in the near and mid infrared region are reviewed. Fundamental concepts of infrared spectroscopy and optical chemical sensors are briefly described, before presenting some aspects on optical chemical sensors, such as synthesis of NIR and IR reagents, preparation of new materials as well as application in determinations of species of biological, industrial and environmental importance.

  16. Terahertz and mid-infrared reflectance of epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cristiane N.; Joucken, Frédéric; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Louette, Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for infrared (IR) photodetectors and plasmonics. In this context, wafer scale epitaxial graphene on SiC is of great interest in a variety of applications in optics and nanoelectronics. Here we present IR reflectance spectroscopy of graphene grown epitaxially on the C-face of 6H-SiC over a broad optical range, from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (MIR). Contrary to the transmittance, reflectance measurements are not hampered by the transmission window of the substrate, and in particular by the SiC Reststrahlen band in the MIR. This allows us to present IR reflectance data exhibiting a continuous evolution from the regime of intraband to interband charge carrier transitions. A consistent and simultaneous analysis of the contributions from both transitions to the optical response yields precise information on the carrier dynamics and the number of layers. The properties of the graphene layers derived from IR reflection spectroscopy are corroborated by other techniques (micro-Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, transport measurements). Moreover, we also present MIR microscopy mapping, showing that spatially-resolved information can be gathered, giving indications on the sample homogeneity. Our work paves the way for a still scarcely explored field of epitaxial graphene-based THz and MIR optical devices. PMID:27102827

  17. Rapid Mid-Infrared Variability in Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Te T; Lin, Douglas N C

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distribution (SED) in protostellar disks is determined by the disks'internal dissipation and reprocessing of irradiation from their host stars. Around T Tauri stars, most mid-infrared (MIR) radiation (in a few to a few ten {\\mu}m wavelength range) emerge from regions around a fraction to a few AU's. This region is interesting because it contains both the habitable zone and the snow line. Recent observations reveal that SED variations, in the MIR wavelength range. These variations are puzzling because they occur on time scale (a few days) which is much shorter than the dynamical (months to years) time scale at 1AU to a few AU's. They are probably caused by shadows casted by inner onto outer disk regions. Interaction between disks and their misaligned magnetized host stars can lead to warped structure and periodic SED modulations. Rapid aperiodic SED variations may also be induced by observed X-ray flares from T Tauri stars. These flares can significantly modulate the ionization fraction of the ...

  18. Merging Galaxy Cluster Abell 2255 in Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, Hyunjin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Hwang, Narae; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Seo, Hyunjong; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2010-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, Abell 2255 by the AKARI space telescope. Using the AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3-24 micron and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (11 micron) flux is a good indicator to discriminate galaxies at different evolutionary stages, and divide galaxies into three classes accordingly : strong MIR-excess (N3-S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies, weak MIR-excess (-2.05 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars, and intermediate MIR-excess (-1.2

  19. Modeling Mid-Infrared Polarization from Protoplanetary Disks and YSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Pantin, Eric; Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging polarimetry has demonstrated its potential to map magnetic fields in star formation regions. To interpret high-resolution, mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations obtained with present or forthcoming instruments, such as GTC/CanariCam and SOFIA/HAWC+, we have developed a new package of codes to model mid-IR polarization from protoplanetary disks and YSOs. Based on RADMC-3D and DDSCAT, our package is the first of its kind that takes into account all polarization mechanisms known to be present in the mid-IR, including dichroic absorption, dichroic emission, and scattering. Mid-IR polarization arising from a disk or YSO depends on dust properties (e.g., the size distribution, shape, and composition), magnetic field configurations, and the geometry of the disk and/or envelope, all of which can be customized in our model. We have created synthetic maps of mid-IR linear polarization for a series of fiducial disk and YSO models to compare with observations. In general, we find 1) that emissive polarization arising from aligned dust grains in disk magnetic fields is at the level of a few percent and lower than previous expectations, and 2) that micron-sized dust particles are required to reproduce the observed level of polarization from dust scattering in the mid-IR for a typical Herbig Ae/Be disk. The research was support in part by NSF awards AST -0903672, AST-0908624, and AST-1515331 to CMT.

  20. The Mid-Infrared Emission of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Perlman, E S; Packham, Christopher; Levenson, N A; Elitzur, M; Schaefer, Justin J; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Sparks, William B; Radomski, James

    2007-01-01

    We discuss Subaru and Spitzer Space Telescope imaging and spectroscopy of M87 in the mid-infrared from 5-35 um. These observations allow us to investigate mid-IR emission mechanisms in the core of M87 and to establish that the flaring, variable jet component HST-1 is not a major contributor to the mid-IR flux. The Spitzer data include a high signal-to-noise 15-35 $\\mu$m spectrum of the knot A/B complex in the jet, which is consistent with synchrotron emission. However, a synchrotron model cannot account for the observed {\\it nuclear} spectrum, even when contributions from the jet, necessary due to the degrading of resolution with wavelength, are included. The Spitzer data show a clear excess in the spectrum of the nucleus at wavelengths longer than 25 um, which we model as thermal emission from cool dust at a characteristic temperature of 55 \\pm 10 K, with an IR luminosity \\sim 10^{39} {\\rm ~erg ~s^{-1}}. Given Spitzer's few-arcsecond angular resolution, the dust seen in the nuclear spectrum could be located ...

  1. The First Mid-Infrared Spectra of Cool White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Mullally, Fergal; Reach, William T; von Hippel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    We present the first mid-infrared spectra of two cool white dwarfs obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We also present 3.5-8 micron photometry for 19 cool white dwarfs with 5000K < Teff < 9000K. We perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis of these white dwarfs by fitting their UBVRIJHK and Spitzer photometry with state-of-the-art model atmospheres, and demonstrate that the optical and infrared spectral energy distributions of cool white dwarfs are well reproduced by our grid of models. Our mid-IR photometry and 7.5-14.5 micron spectrum of WD0018-267 are consistent with a Teff = 5720K, pure hydrogen white dwarf model atmosphere. On the other hand, LHS 1126 remains peculiar with significant mid-IR flux deficits in all IRAC bands and a featureless spectrum in the 5.2-7.5 micron range. Even though this deficit is attributed to collision induced absorption (CIA) due to molecular hydrogen, the shape of the deficit cannot be explained with current CIA opacity calculations. The infrared portion of th...

  2. Mid-Infrared Spectral Diagnostics of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Petric, A O; Howell, J; Chan, B; Mazzarella, J M; Evans, A S; Surace, J A; Sanders, D; Appleton, P; Charmandaris, V; Santos, T Diaz; Frayer, D; Lord, S; Haan, S; Inami, H; Iwasawa, K; Kim, D; Madore, B; Marshall, J; Spoon, H; Stierwalt, S; Sturm, E; U, V; Vavilkin, T; Veilleux, S

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of 248 luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) which comprise the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) observed with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on-board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The GOALS sample enables a direct measurement of the relative contributions of star-formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) to the total IR emission from a large sample of local LIRGs. The AGN contribution to the MIR emission (f-AGN) is estimated by employing several diagnostics based on the properties of the [NeV], [OIV] and [NeII] fine structure gas emission lines, the 6.2 microns PAH and the shape of the MIR continuum. We find that 18% of all LIRGs contain an AGN and that in 10% of all sources the AGN contributes more than 50% of the total IR luminosity. Summing up the total IR luminosity contributed by AGN in all our sources suggests that AGN supply ~12% of the total energy emitted by LIRGs. The average spectrum of sources with an AGN looks ...

  3. SIBI: A compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Domel, Roland; Coudrain, Christophe; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; D'Almeida, Oscar; Bousquet, Marc; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles have increased the demand for more and more compact optical systems. In order to bring solutions to this demand, several infrared systems are being developed at ONERA such as spectrometers, imaging devices, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems. In the field of compact infrared hyperspectral imaging devices, ONERA and Sagem Défense et Sécurité have collaborated to develop a prototype called SIBI, which stands for "Spectro-Imageur Birefringent Infrarouge". It is a static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer which operates in the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range and uses a birefringent lateral shearing interferometer. Up to now, birefringent interferometers have not been often used for hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared because of the lack of crystal manufacturers, contrary to the visible spectral domain where the production of uniaxial crystals like calcite are mastered for various optical applications. In the following, we will present the design and the realization of SIBI as well as the first experimental results.

  4. YSOVAR: Mid-Infrared Variability in NGC 1333

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Cody, A M; Guenther, H M; Hillenbrand, L A; Poppenhaeger, K; Wolk, S J; Hora, J; Hernandez, J; Bayo, A; Covey, K; Forbrich, J; Gutermuth, R; Morales-Calderon, M; Plavchan, P; Song, I; Bouy, H; Terebey, S; Cuillandre, J C; Allen, L

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ~35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 um using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ~10x~20arcmin area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded SEDs (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10-90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5]>0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1-0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be 'dippers', where texture in the disk occults the...

  5. Resolving the mid-infrared cores of local Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Smette, A; Hoenig, S; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Vignali, C; Duschl, W

    2009-01-01

    We present new photometry of 16 local Seyferts including 6 Compton-thick sources in N-band filters around 12-microns, obtained with the VISIR instrument on the 8-m Very Large Telescope. The near-diffraction-limited imaging provides the least-contaminated core fluxes for these sources to date. Augmenting these with our previous observations and with published intrinsic X-ray fluxes, we form a total sample of 42 sources for which we find a strong mid-infrared:X-ray (12.3 micron:2-10 keV) luminosity correlation. Performing a physically-motivated sub-selection of sources in which the Seyfert torus is likely to be best-resolved results in the correlation L_{MIR} ~ L_X^{1.11+/-0.07}, with a reduction of the scatter in luminosities as compared to the full sample. Consideration of systematics suggests a range of 1.02-1.21 for the correlation slope. The mean 2 keV:12.3 micron spectral index (alpha_IX) is found to be -1.10+/-0.01, largely independent of luminosity. Observed 12-micron bolometric corrections range over ~...

  6. ISO Mid-Infrared spectroscopy of Galactic Bulge AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blommaert, J A D L; Okumura, K; Ganesh, S; Omont, A; Cami, J; Glass, I S; Habing, H J; Schultheis, M; Simon, G; Van Loon, J T; Blommaert, Joris A.D.L.; Groenewegen, Martin A.T.; Okumura, Koryo; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Omont, Alain; Cami, Jan; Glass, Ian S.; Habing, Harm J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Simon, Guy; Loon, Jacco Th. van

    2006-01-01

    To study the nature of Bulge AGB stars and in particular their circumstellar dust, we have analysed mid-infrared spectra obtained with the ISOCAM CVF spectrometer in three Bulge fields. The ISOCAM 5-16.5 micron CVF spectra were obtained as part of the ISOGAL infrared survey of the inner Galaxy. A classification of the shape of the 10 micron dust feature was made for each case. The spectra of the individual sources were modelled using a radiative transfer model. Different combinations of amorphous silicates and aluminium-oxide dust were used in the modelling. Spectra were obtained for 29 sources of which 26 are likely to be Bulge AGB stars. Our modelling shows that the stars suffer mass loss rates in the range of 10^{-8} - 5 x 10^{-7} Msun / yr, which is at the low end of the mass-loss rates experienced on the Thermally Pulsing AGB. The luminosities range from 1,700 to 7,700 Lsun as expected for a population of AGB stars with Minit of 1.5 - 2Msun. In agreement with the condensation sequence scenario, we find t...

  7. Towards efficient mid-infrared integrated photonic-lanterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Alexander; Choudhury, Debaditya; Thomson, Robert R.

    2015-12-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a prototype integrated photonic-lantern for operation in the mid-IR (λ = 3.39 μm). The device was fabricated in a commercial gallium lanthanum sulphide chalcogenide glass substrate using ultrafast laser inscription. It was formed by inscribing a two-dimensional array of single-mode waveguides, which were then brought increasingly close together to form a single multimode waveguide. We demonstrate that the lantern successfully transforms particular single-mode states into well-defined coherent multimode states, with a loss comparable to that of a straight single-mode waveguide of the same length as the lantern (∼1.6 dB). We conclude, therefore, that the device should also work equally well in the reverse direction, thus enabling the low-loss conversion of mid-IR multimode states of light into discrete single-modes. This technology may be useful in a variety of emerging areas, including free-space laser communications and mid-infrared heterodyne spectroscopy.

  8. Dichroic polarization at mid-infrared wavelengths: a Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E

    2015-01-01

    A fast and general Bayesian inference framework to infer the physical properties of dichroic polarization using mid-infrared imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations is presented. The Bayesian approach is based on a hierarchical regression and No-U-Turn Sampler method. This approach simultaneously infers the normalized Stokes parameters to find the full family of solutions that best describe the observations. In comparison with previous methods, the developed Bayesian approach allows the user to introduce a customized absorptive polarization component based on the dust composition, and the appropriate extinction curve of the object. This approach allows the user to obtain more precise estimations of the magnetic field strength and geometry for tomographic studies, and information about the dominant polarization components of the object. Based on this model, imaging-polarimetric observations using two or three filters located in the central 9.5-10.5 $\\mu$m, and the edges 8-9 $\\mu$m and/or 11-13 $\\mu$m, o...

  9. The Mid-Infrared Spectra of Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Helou, G; Werner, M W; Malhotra, S; Silbermann, N A

    2000-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectra (2.5 to 5 and 5.7 to 11.6 mu) obtained by ISO-PHOT reveal the interstellar medium emission from galaxies powered by star formation to be strongly dominated by the aromatic features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 mu. Additional emission appears in-between the features, and an underlying continuum is clearly evident at 3-5 mu. This continuum would contribute about a third of the luminosity in the 3 to 13 mu range. The features together carry 5 to 30% of the 40-to-120 mu `FIR' luminosity. The relative fluxes in individual features depend very weakly on galaxy parameters such as the far-infrared colors, direct evidence that the emitting particles are not in thermal equilibrium. The dip at 10 mu is unlikely to result from silicate absorption, since its shape is invariant among galaxies. The continuum component has a f_nu its extrapolation to longer wavelengths falls well below the spectrum in the 6 to 12 mu range. This continuum component is almost certainly of non-stellar origin, and is probab...

  10. Mid-Infrared Extinction and its Variation with Galactic Longitude

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jian; Li, A

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data obtained from the Spitzer/GLIPMSE Legacy Program and the 2MASS project, we derive the extinction in the four IRAC bands, [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] micron, relative to the 2MASS Ks band (at 2.16 micron) for 131 GLIPMSE fields along the Galactic plane within |l|<65 deg, using red giants and red clump giants as tracers. As a whole, the mean extinction in the IRAC bands (normalized to the 2MASS Ks band), A_[3.6]/A_Ks=0.63, A_[4.5]/A_Ks=0.57, A_[5.8]/A_Ks=0.49, A_[8.0]/A_Ks=0.55, exhibits little variation with wavelength (i.e. the extinction is somewhat flat or gray). This is consistent with previous studies and agrees with that predicted from the standard interstellar grain model for R_V=5.5 by Weingartner & Draine (2001). As far as individual sightline is concerned, however, the wavelength dependence of the mid-infrared interstellar extinction A_{lambda}/A_Ks varies from one sightline to another, suggesting that there may not exist a "universal" IR extinction law. We, for the first t...

  11. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, J [INP-Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 19 (Germany); Lombardi, G [CNRS LIMHP, Universite Paris XIII, 99, av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Rousseau, A [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Davies, P B [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17{mu}m and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared.

  12. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  13. A Comparison of X-ray and Mid-Infrared Selection of Obscured AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Megan E; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A; Helfand, David J

    2009-01-01

    We compare the relative merits of AGN selection at X-ray and mid-infrared wavelengths using data from moderately deep fields observed by both Chandra and Spitzer. The X-ray-selected AGN sample and associated optical follow-up are drawn from the SEXSI program. Mid-infrared data in these fields are derived from Spitzer imaging, and mid-infrared AGN selection is accomplished primarily through application of the IRAC color-color AGN `wedge' selection technique. Nearly all X-ray sources in these fields which exhibit clear spectroscopic signatures of AGN activity have mid-infrared colors consistent with IRAC AGN selection. These are predominantly the most luminous X-ray sources. X-ray sources that lack high-ionization and/or broad lines in their optical spectra are far less likely to be selected as AGN by mid-infrared color selection techniques. The fraction of X-ray sources identified as AGN in the mid-infrared increases monotonically as the X-ray luminosity increases. Conversely, only 22% of mid-infrared-selected...

  14. All-fiber mid-infrared difference frequency generation source and its application to molecular dispersion spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzempek, K.; Abramski, K. M.; Nikodem, M.

    2017-09-01

    A widely tunable, fully monolithic, mid-infrared difference frequency generation source and its application in the dispersion-spectroscopy-based laser trace gas detection of methane and ethane, near 2938 and 2998 cm-1, is presented. Utilizing a fiber pigtailed nonlinear crystal module radically simplified the optical setup, while maintaining a superb conversion efficiency of 20% W-1. Seeded directly from two laser diodes, the source delivered ~0.5 mW of tunable radiation, which was used in a chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy setup, enabling the highly sensitive detection of hydrocarbons.

  15. The subarcsecond mid-infrared view of local active galactic nuclei: II. The mid-infrared--X-ray correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Asmus, D; Hoenig, S F; Smette, A; Duschl, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated mid-infrared (MIR) versus X-ray correlation for the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) population based on the high angular resolution 12 and 18um continuum fluxes from the AGN subarcsecond MIR atlas and 2-10 keV and 14-195 keV data collected from the literature. We isolate a sample of 152 objects with reliable AGN nature and multi-epoch X-ray data and minimal MIR contribution from star formation. Although the sample is not homogeneous or complete, we show that our results are unlikely to be affected by biases. The MIR--X-ray correlation is nearly linear and within a factor of two independent of the AGN type and the wavebands used. The observed scatter is <0.4 dex. A possible flattening of the correlation slope at the highest luminosities probed (~ 10^45 erg/s) is indicated but not significant. Unobscured objects have, on average, an MIR--X-ray ratio that is only <= 0.15 dex higher than that of obscured objects. Objects with intermediate X-ray column densities (22 < log N_H <...

  16. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  17. Modeling Mid-infrared Diagnostics of Obscured Quasars and Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Jonsson, Patrik; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan, Lin

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z ~ 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z ~ 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a ~109 yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 μm absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 μm, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  18. MODELING MID-INFRARED DIAGNOSTICS OF OBSCURED QUASARS AND STARBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Jonsson, Patrik; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Cox, Thomas J. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hopkins, Philip F. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, C-208 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yan Lin, E-mail: gsnyder@cfa.harvard.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z {approx} 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z {approx} 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a {approx}10{sup 9} yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 {mu}m absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 {mu}m, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  19. Toward Precision Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy on the OH Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Arthur; Furneaux, John; Meek, Samuel

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of vibrational transitions in small molecules can be used to test for a possible time variation of the electron-proton mass ratio. In our experiments, our goal is to measure two-photon v = 2 ← v = 0 vibrational transitions in the hydroxyl (OH) radical near 2 × 3500 wn with a relative accuracy of 10-14. Reaching this level of accuracy requires a mid-infrared laser with a linewidth of much less than 1 kHz, as well as the ability to compare the frequency of this laser with an absolute frequency standard. To achieve the high short-term stability necessary for such a narrow linewidth, we are implementing a 532-nm CW reference laser by locking a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser to a molecular iodine transition using saturated absorption spectroscopy. Similar setups have demonstrated relative stabilities of around 10-14 at the one-second timescale. The stability of this reference laser will then be transfered onto the idler of a 1064-nm-pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) using an optical frequency comb as a transfer oscillator. The frequency comb will also be used to measure the absolute optical frequencies of the various lasers and compare them to a GPS-linked radio frequency reference, providing long-term stability and absolute accuracy for the spectroscopic measurements. J.-P. Uzan. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 403-455 (2003). Döringshoff, K., Mohle, K., Nagel, M., Kovalchuk, E. V., Peters, A: High performance iodine frequency reference for tests of the LISA laser system. EFTF-2010 24th European Frequency and Time Forum (2010)

  20. Single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared free-electron laser by upconversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolong; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of single-shot spectra of temporally selected micropulses from a mid-infrared (MIR) free-electron laser (FEL) by upconversion. We achieve the upconversion of FEL pulses at 11 \\mu m using externally synchronized Nd:YAG or microchip laser pulses at 1064 nm to produce sum-frequency mixing (SFM) signals at 970 nm, which are detected by a compact CCD spectrometer without an intensifier. Our experimental system is very cost-effective, and allows us to obtain the laser spectra of selected micropulses at any temporal position within a single macropulse from an oscillator-type FEL.

  1. A Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsony, M.; Ressler, M. E.; Marsh, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the ρ Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5-m and at the Keck 10-m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0.5'' and 0.25'' resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend ˜ 3 × 105 yr in the Flat Spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. The highly variable value of K-band veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking, and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finallly, by comparing mid-infrared vs. near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk clearing mechanisms are explored. Financial support for this project through NSF grants AST 00-96087 (CAREER), AST 97-53229 (POWRE), and AST 02-06146 is gratefully acknowledged. MB further thanks the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship program at JPL, that made this work possible.

  2. Fully stabilized mid-infrared frequency comb for high-precision molecular spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Markku; Karhu, Juho

    2017-02-20

    A fully stabilized mid-infrared optical frequency comb spanning from 2.9 to 3.4 µm is described in this article. The comb is based on half-harmonic generation in a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator, which transfers the high phase coherence of a fully stabilized near-infrared Er-doped fiber laser comb to the mid-infrared region. The method is simple, as no phase-locked loops or reference lasers are needed. Precise locking of optical frequencies of the mid-infrared comb to the pump comb is experimentally verified at sub-20 mHz level, which corresponds to a fractional statistical uncertainty of 2 × 10-16 at the center frequency of the mid-infrared comb. The fully stabilized mid-infrared comb is an ideal tool for high-precision molecular spectroscopy, as well as for optical frequency metrology in the mid-infrared region, which is difficult to access with other stabilized frequency comb techniques.

  3. Merging Galaxy Cluster A2255 in Mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Hwang, Narae; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Lim, Sungsoon; Matsuhara, Hideo; Seo, Hyunjong; Wada, Takehiko; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2011-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) observation of a nearby galaxy cluster, A2255, by the AKARI space telescope. Using AKARI's continuous wavelength coverage between 3 and 24 μm and the wide field of view, we investigate the properties of cluster member galaxies to see how the infall of the galaxies, the cluster substructures, and the cluster-cluster merger influence their evolution. We show that the excess of MIR (~11 μm) flux is a good indicator for discriminating galaxies at different evolutionary stages and for dividing galaxies into three classes accordingly: strong MIR-excess (N3 - S11>0.2) galaxies that include both unobscured and obscured star-forming galaxies; weak MIR-excess (-2.0 S11 5 Gyr) galaxies where the MIR emission arises mainly from the circumstellar dust around AGB stars; and intermediate MIR-excess (-1.2 S11 < 0.2) galaxies in between the two classes that are less than a few Gyr old past the prime star formation activity. With the MIR-excess diagnostics, we investigate how local and cluster-scale environments affect the individual galaxies. We derive the total star formation rate (SFR) and the specific SFR of A2255 using the strong MIR-excess galaxies. The dust-free, total SFR of A2255 is ~130 M sun yr-1, which is consistent with the SFRs of other clusters of galaxies at similar redshifts and with similar masses. We find no strong evidence that supports enhanced star formation either inside the cluster or in the substructure region, suggesting that the infall or the cluster merging activities tend to suppress star formation. The intermediate MIR-excess galaxies, representing galaxies in transition from star-forming galaxies to quiescent galaxies, are located preferentially at the medium density region or cluster substructures with higher surface density of galaxies. Our findings suggest that galaxies are being transformed from star-forming galaxies into red, quiescent galaxies from the infall region through near the core which can be explained

  4. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M. [Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J.; Forbrich, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M.; Bouy, H. [Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Terebey, S., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ∼35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ∼10′ × ∼20′ area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded spectral energy distributions (SEDs) (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10–90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5] > 0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1–0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be “dippers,” where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be “bursters,” where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]–[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (∼half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6–7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (∼60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ∼30% of the variables overall)

  5. Mid-infrared pyro-resistive graphene detector on LiNbO3

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalan, Kavitha K; Nanot, Sebastien; Parret, Romain; Lundeberg, Mark B; Koppens, Frank H L; Pruneri, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (mid-IR) photo-detection has been recently growing in importance because of its multiple applications, including vibrational spectroscopy and thermal imaging. We propose and demonstrate a novel pyro-resistive photo-detection platform that combines a ferroelectric substrate (a z-cut LiNbO3 crystal) and a graphene layer transferred on top of its surface with electrical connections. Upon strong light absorption in the LiNbO3 substrate and the subsequent temperature increase, via the pyroelectric effect, polarization (bound) charges form at the crystal surface. These causes doping into graphene which in turn changes its carrier density and conductivity. In this way, by monitoring the graphene electrical resistance one can measure the incident optical power. . Detectivities of about 10^5 cm sqrt(Hz)/W in the 6 to 10 microns wavelength region are demonstrated.We explain the underlying physical mechanism of the pyro-resistive photo-detection and propose a model that reproduces accurately the experimenta...

  6. A Systematic Study of Mid-Infrared Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae with SPIRITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinyanont, Samaporn; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Dosovitz Fox, Ori; Lau, Ryan M.; Smith, Nathan; Williams, Robert E.; Jencson, Jacob; Perley, Daniel A.; Dykhoff, Devin; Gehrz, Robert D.; Johansson, Joel; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Masci, Frank J.; Cody, Ann Marie; Prince, Thomas Allen; SPIRITS

    2017-01-01

    Late-time mid-infrared emission from core-collpase supernovae tells stories of circumstellar interaction and dust formation. We present a systematic study of mid-infrared emission from 141 nearby supernovae observed with Spitzer/IRAC as part of the ongoing SPIRITS survey. We detect 8 Type Ia and 36 core-collapse SNe. While all SNe-Ia fade away within 3 years post explosion, about 20% of SNe-II remain detectable. Five SNe-II are detected two decades after discovery (SN 1974E, 1979C, 1980K, 1986J, and 1993J). From the two-band photometry, we can fit for IR luminosity and temperature, and the inferred dust mass assuming that all mid-IR emission comes from an optically thin shell of warm dust. We derive warm dust masses between 10-6 and 10-2 \\msol and dust color temperatures between 200 and 1280 K. This observed warm dust could be pre-existing or newly created. We note that either case represents a lower limit to the dust mass because cooler dust may be present. We present three case studies of extreme SNe. SN 2011ja (II-P) was over-luminous ([4.5] = -15.6 mag) at 900 days post-explosion with increasing hot dust mass, suggesting either an episode of dust formation or intensifying CSM interactions heating up pre-existing dust. SN 2014bi (II-P) showed a factor of 10 decrease in dust mass over one month suggesting either dust destruction or reduced dust heating. The IR luminosity of SN 2014C (Ib) stays constant over 800 days, possibly due to strong CSM interaction with H rich shell, which is rare among stripped-envelope SNe. The observations suggest that this CSM shell originated from an LBV-like eruption roughly 100 years pre-explosion. The observed diversity demonstrates the power of mid-IR observations of a large sample of SNe.

  7. Spitzer mid-infrared point sources in the fields of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, S J

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$ IRAC mid-infrared point source catalogs for mosaics covering the fields of the nearby ($\\lesssim$4 Mpc) galaxies NGC 55, NGC 253, NGC 2366, NGC 4214, and NGC 5253. We detect a total of 20159 sources in these five fields. Point spread function photometry was performed on sources detected in both $Spitzer$ IRAC 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m bands at greater than 3$\\sigma$ above background. These data were then supplemented by aperture photometry in the IRAC 5.8 $\\mu$m and 8.0 $\\mu$m bands conducted at the positions of the shorter wavelength sources. For sources with no detected object in the longer wavelengths, we estimated magnitude limits based on the local sky background. The individual galaxy point source breakdown is the following: NGC 55, 8746 sources; NGC 253, 9001 sources; NGC 2366, 505 sources; NGC 4214, 1185 sources; NGC 5253, 722 sources. The completeness limits of the full catalog vary with bandpass and were found to be $m_{3.6}=18.0$, $m_{4.5}=17.5$, $m_{5.8}=17.0$, and $m_{8.0}=16...

  8. The AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared All-Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Salama, Alberto; Alfageme, Carlos; Cassatella, Angelo; Cox, Nick; Garcia-Lario, Pedro; Stephenson, Craig; Cohen, Martin; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kim, Woojung; Matsuhara, Hideo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Muller, Thomas G; Nakagawa, Takao; Ohyama, Youichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Sakon, Itsuki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Takita, Satoshi; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumihiko; Wada, Takehiko; Watarai, Hiden ori; Yamamura, Issei; Yamauchi, Chisato

    2010-01-01

    Context : AKARI is the first Japanese astronomical satellite dedicated to infrar ed astronomy. One of the main purposes of AKARI is the all-sky survey performed with six infrared bands between 9 and 200um during the period from 2006 May 6 to 2007 August 28. In this paper, we present the mid-infrared part (9um and 18um b ands) of the survey carried out with one of the on-board instruments, the Infrar ed Camera (IRC). Aims : We present unprecedented observational results of the 9 and 18um AKARI al l-sky survey and detail the operation and data processing leading to the point s ource detection and measurements. Methods : The raw data are processed to produce small images for every scan and point sources candidates, above the 5-sigma noise level per single scan, are der ived. The celestial coordinates and fluxes of the events are determined statisti cally and the reliability of their detections is secured through multiple detect ions of the same source within milli-seconds, hours, and months from each other. Resu...

  9. Design and fabrication of a mid-infrared carbon dioxide sensor for the application in greenhouse environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-ning; Zheng, Ling-jiao; Niu, Xin-tao; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2016-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor is presented for the application in greenhouse environment. An integrated multi-pass gas chamber and a dual-channel differential detection method are adopted to decrease response time and suppress environmental influence, respectively. An optical module is developed using a cost-effective wideband mid-infrared light source, a dual-channel pyre electrical detector and a spherical mirror, and the moisture-proof function is specially designed for enabling the application of this sensor in greenhouse with high humidity. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the sensing performance on CO2 concentration. According to the experimental results, the limit of detection ( LoD) is about 3×10-5 with an absorption length of 30 cm. The relative detection error is less than 5% within the measurement range of 3×10-5—5×10-3. Based on 10 h long-term stability measurement on 5×10-4 and 2×10-3 standard CO2 samples, the maximum fluctuations are 1.08% and 3.6%, respectively. By using a 2.4 GHz wireless network communication system for remote monitoring and data recording, a field measurement of this sensor in a greenhouse is conducted, and good performance is proven in such circumstance.

  10. The Dense Plasma Focus Opportunities in Detection of Hidden Objects by Using Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Inspection System (NINIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V.; Dubrovsky, A.; Karpiński, L.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; StrzyŻewski, P.; Tomaszewski, K.

    2006-12-01

    Dense Plasma Focus device is proposed for use as a neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration. Our devices PF-6, recently put into operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw, Poland, and PF-10 belonging to the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia, have energy storages in its capacitor banks 7.4 kJ and 13 kJ as a maximum. Operated with the DPF chambers of a special design they have a current maximum up to ˜760 kA with a quarter period of the discharge equal to 1 microsecond. They generate circa 109 of 2.5-MeV neutrons in one pulse of ≅ 10-ns duration when working with deuterium, what permit to expect 1011 14-MeV neutrons at their operation with DT-mixture. This feature gives a principal possibility to create a "single-shot detection system" for interrogation of hidden objects. It means that all necessary information will be received during a single bright pulse of neutrons having duration in a nanosecond range by means of the time-of-flight technique with a short flight base. It might be a base for the creation of the Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Inspection System (NINIS). These characteristics of the neutron source open a number of opportunities while interrogation time in this case would now depend only on the data-processing system.

  11. Performance of mid infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Marker free optical spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the rapid inspection of pathologically suspicious skin lesions and the non-invasive detection of early skin tumors. This goal can be reached by the combination of signal localization and the spectroscopical detection of chemical cell signatures. We here present the development and application of mid infrared spectroscopy (midIR) for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin diagnostics. We developed standardized in vitro skin systems with increasing complexity, from single skin cell types as fibroblasts, keratinocytes and melanoma cells, to mixtures of these and finally three dimensional skin cancer phantoms. The cell systems were characterized with different systems in the midIR range up to 12 μm. The analysis of the spectra by novel data processing algorithms demonstrated the clear separation of all cell types, especially melanoma cells. Special attention and algorithm training was required for closely related mesenchymal cell types as dedifferentiated melanoma cells and fibroblasts. Proof of concept experiments with mixtures of in vivo fluorescence labelled skin cell types allowed the test of the new algorithms performance for the identification of specific cell types. The intense training of the software systems with various samples resulted in a increased sensitivity and specificity of the combined midIR and software system. These data highlight the potential of midIR spectroscopy as sensitive and specific future optical biopsy technology.

  12. PAH and Mid-Infrared Continuum Emission in a z>4 Submillimeter Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Daddi, Emanuele; Armus, Lee; Carilli, Christopher L; Walter, Fabian; Hodge, Jacqueline; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Morrison, Glenn E; Dickinson, Mark; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Elbaz, David

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of 6.2um polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and rest-frame 4-7um continuum emission in the z=4.055 submillimeter galaxy GN20, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. This represents the first detection of PAH emission at z>4. The strength of the PAH emission feature is consistent with a very high star formation rate of ~1800Msun/yr. We find that this intense starburst powers at least ~1/3 of the faint underlying 6um continuum emission, with an additional, significant (and perhaps dominant) contribution due to a power-law-like hot dust source, which we interpret to likely be a faint, dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). Despite the strong power-law component enhancing the mid-infrared continuum emission, the intense starburst associated with the photon-dominated regions that give rise to the PAH emission appears to dominate the total energy output in the infrared. By comparing the 6um AGN continuum luminosity to an upper limit on the hard X...

  13. Mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy of NO2 at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Ritobrata; Peng, Wen Yu; Strand, Christopher; Mitchell Spearrin, R.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Bekal, Anish; Halder, Purbasha; Poonacha, Samhitha P.; Vartak, Sameer; Sridharan, Arun K.

    2017-01-01

    A mid-infrared quantum cascade laser absorption sensor was developed for in-situ detection of NO2 in high-temperature gas environments. A cluster of spin-split transitions near 1599.9 cm-1 from the ν3 absorption band of NO2 was selected due to the strength of these transitions and the low spectral interference from water vapor within this region. Temperature- and species-dependent collisional broadening parameters of ten neighboring NO2 transitions with Ar, O2, N2, CO2 and H2O were measured and reported. The spectral model was validated through comparisons with direct absorption spectroscopy measurements of NO2 seeded in various bath gases. The performance of the scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS)-based sensor was demonstrated in a combustion exhaust stream seeded with varying flow rates of NO2, achieving reliable detection of 1.45 and 1.6 ppm NO2 by mole at 600 K and 800 K, respectively, with a measurement uncertainty of ±11%. 2σ noise levels of 360 ppb and 760 ppb were observed at 600 K and 800 K, respectively, in an absorption path length of 1.79 m.

  14. Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Dust-forming Classical Nova V2676 Oph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arai, Akira; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Nagashima, Masayoshi

    2017-02-01

    The dust-forming nova V2676 Oph is unique in that it was the first nova to provide evidence of C2 and CN molecules during its near-maximum phase and evidence of CO molecules during its early decline phase. Observations of this nova have revealed the slow evolution of its lightcurves and have also shown low isotopic ratios of carbon (12C/13C) and nitrogen (14N/15N) in its envelope. These behaviors indicate that the white dwarf (WD) star hosting V2676 Oph is a CO-rich WD rather than an ONe-rich WD (typically larger in mass than the former). We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of V2676 Oph in 2013 and 2014 (respectively 452 and 782 days after its discovery). No significant [Ne ii] emission at 12.8 μm was detected at either epoch. These provided evidence for a CO-rich WD star hosting V2676 Oph. Both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich grains were detected in addition to an unidentified infrared feature at 11.4 μm originating from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains in the envelope of V2676 Oph. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  15. A Systematic Study of Mid-Infrared Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae with SPIRITS

    CERN Document Server

    Tinyanont, Samaporn; Fox, Ori D; Lau, Ryan; Smith, Nathan; Williams, Robert; Jencson, Jacob; Perley, Daniel; Dykhoff, Devin; Gehrz, Robert; Johansson, Joel; Masci, Frank; Cody, Ann Marie; Prince, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission from 141 nearby supernovae (SNe) observed with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on Spitzer.These SNe reside in one of the 190 galaxies within 20 Mpc drawn from the ongoing SPIRITS program. We detect 8 Type Ia SNe and 36 core-collapse SNe. All Type I SNe become undetectable within 3 years of explosion. About 22$\\pm$11% of Type II SNe continue to be detected at late-times. Dust luminosity, temperature, and a lower liit on mass are obtained by fitting the SED using photometry with IRAC bands 1 and 2. The mass estimate does not distinguish between pre-existing and newly produced dust. We observe warm dust masses between $10^{-2}$ and $10^{-6}$ $\\rm M_{\\odot}$ and dust temperatures from 200 K to 1280 K.We present detailed case studies of two extreme Type II-P SNe: SN 2011ja and 2014bi. SN 2011ja was over-luminous ([4.5] = -15.6 mag) at 900 days post-explosion accompanied by the growing dust mass. This suggests either an episode of dust formation or an...

  16. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-Infrared Properties of Poststarburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, K; Bitsakis, T; Brown, M J I; Ciesla, L; Appleton, P N; Beaton, R L; Cales, S L; Crossett, J; Falcon-Barroso, J; French, K D; Kewley, L J; Kelson, D D; Kriek, M; Lanz, L; Medling, A M; Mulchaey, J S; Nyland, K; Rich, J A; Urry, C M

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of "E+A" identified poststarburst galaxies, including a deep analysis on 190 poststarbursts detected in the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog. The poststarburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone (IRTZ). Furthermore, we find that poststarbursts occupy a distinct region [3.4]-[4.6] vs. [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broad band photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of poststarbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that mid-infrared (4--12\\micron) properties of poststarbursts are consistent with either 11.3um polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or Thermally Pulsating Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended poststarburst galaxies with 22um emission detected with signal to noise >3 re...

  17. Mid-infrared studies of exoplanets using the E-ELT METIS instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin, E.; Salmon, J.; Charnoz, S.

    2010-10-01

    The E-ELT suite of potential instruments comprises a mid-infrared imager and spectrometer (3.5-13 um), METIS. Its design and expected performances make it a suited facility to characterize in the thermal infrared range giant exoplanets around nearby stars. Moreover, rings around giant planets are common at least in our Solar System. They can be dense, like Saturn's rings, or faint like those of Jupiter, Uranus or Neptune. Thus, the presence of rings around exoplanets, either gaseous or telluric, represents a possibility worth studying. We have simulated the dynamical evolution of a newly created ring of particles around a Super-Earth exoplanet. We show that, depending on the physical conditions (distance to the planet, planet mass and size, densities, particles' material), the ring can survive on Gyr timescales. Because of a larger total emitting surface, and possibly higher temperatures, their presence increases the planet's flux, making the detection of exoplanets easier. We will show the potential of METIS to characterize the exoplanets with special emphasis on the possibility to detect super-Earth exoplanets surrounded by a dusty ring.

  18. A Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    CERN Document Server

    Barsony, M; Marsh, K A; Barsony, Mary; Ressler, Michael E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5-m and at the Keck 10-m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0.25 arcsec and 0.25 arcsec resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. Among the 22 multiple systems observed, 15 were resolved and their individual component fluxes determined. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend ~400,000 yr in the Flat Spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects, and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large-amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. Although a general trend of mi...

  19. Cloud top structure of Venus revealed by Subaru/COMICS mid-infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T. M.; Sagawa, H.; Kouyama, T.; Mitsuyama, K.; Satoh, T.; Ohtsuki, S.; Ueno, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the cloud top structure of Venus by analyzing ground-based images taken at the mid-infrared wavelengths of 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm. Venus at a solar phase angle of ∼90°, with the morning terminator in view, was observed by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS), mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope, during the period October 25-29, 2007. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures for the observation period are ∼230 K and ∼238 K at 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm, respectively. The obtained images with good signal-to-noise ratio and with high spatial resolution (∼200 km at the sub-observer point) provide several important findings. First, we present observational evidence, for the first time, of the possibility that the westward rotation of the polar features (the hot polar spots and the surrounding cold collars) is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. Second, after high-pass filtering, the images reveal that streaks and mottled and patchy patterns are distributed over the entire disk, with typical amplitudes of ∼0.5 K, and vary from day to day. The detected features, some of which are similar to those seen in past UV images, result from inhomogeneities of both the temperature and the cloud top altitude. Third, the equatorial center-to-limb variations of brightness temperatures have a systematic day-night asymmetry, except those on October 25, that the dayside brightness temperatures are higher than the nightside brightness temperatures by 0-4 K under the same viewing geometry. Such asymmetry would be caused by the propagation of the migrating semidiurnal tide. Finally, by applying the lapse rates deduced from previous studies, we demonstrate that the equatorial center-to-limb curves in the two spectral channels give access to two parameters: the cloud scale height H and the cloud top altitude zc. The acceptable models for data on October 25 are obtained at H = 2.4-4.3 km and zc = 66-69 km; this supports

  20. Angle-resolved multioctave supercontinua from mid-infrared laser filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Mitryukovsky, S I; Rozhko, M V; Pugžlys, A; Fedotov, A B; Panchenko, V Ya; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2016-08-01

    Angle-resolved spectral analysis of a multioctave high-energy supercontinuum output of mid-infrared laser filaments is shown to provide a powerful tool for understanding intricate physical scenarios behind laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared. The ellipticity of the mid-infrared driver beam breaks the axial symmetry of filamentation dynamics, offering a probe for a truly (3+1)-dimensional spatiotemporal evolution of mid-IR pulses in the filamentation regime. With optical harmonics up to the 15th order contributing to supercontinuum generation in such filaments alongside Kerr-type and ionization-induced nonlinearities, the output supercontinuum spectra span over five octaves from the mid-ultraviolet deep into the mid-infrared. Full (3+1)-dimensional field evolution analysis is needed for an adequate understanding of this regime of laser filamentation. Supercomputer simulations implementing such analysis articulate the critical importance of angle-resolved measurements for both descriptive and predictive power of filamentation modeling. Strong enhancement of ionization-induced blueshift is shown to offer new approaches in filamentation-assisted pulse compression, enabling the generation of high-power few- and single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared.

  1. AcuA: the AKARI/IRC Mid-infrared Asteroid Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Usui, Fumihiko; Mueller, Thomas G; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Kataza, Hirokazu; Takita, Satoshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Ueno, Munetaka; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an unbiased asteroid survey in the mid-infrared wavelength with the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI. About 20% of the point source events recorded in the AKARI All-Sky Survey observations are not used for the IRC Point Source Catalog (IRC-PSC) in its production process because of the lack of multiple detection by position. Asteroids, which are moving objects on the celestial sphere, remain in these "residual events". We identify asteroids out of the residual events by matching them with the positions of known asteroids. For the identified asteroids, we calculate the size and albedo based on the Standard Thermal Model. Finally we have a brand-new catalog of asteroids, named the Asteroid Catalog Using Akari (AcuA), which contains 5,120 objects, about twice as many as the IRAS asteroid catalog. The catalog objects comprise 4,953 main belt asteroids, 58 near Earth asteroids, and 109 Jovian Trojan asteroids. The catalog will be publicly available via th...

  2. Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mengjie; Griffith, Austin G; Picqué, Nathalie; Lipson, Michal; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    On-chip spectroscopy that could realize real-time fingerprinting with label-free and high-throughput detection of trace molecules is one of the 'holy grails" of sensing. Such miniaturized spectrometers would greatly enable applications in chemistry, bio-medicine, material science or space instrumentation, such as hyperspectral microscopy of live cells or pharmaceutical quality control. Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS), a recent technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy without moving parts, is particularly promising since it measures high-precision spectra in the gas phase using only a single detector. Here, we present a microresonator-based platform designed for mid-infrared (mid-IR) DCS. A single continuous-wave (CW) low-power pump source generates two mutually coherent mode-locked frequency combs spanning from 2.6 $\\mu$m to 4.1 $\\mu$m in two silicon micro-resonators. Thermal control and free-carrier injection control modelocking of each comb and tune the dual-comb parameters. The large line spacing of the co...

  3. The Mid-infrared Spectrum of the Transiting Exoplanet HD 209458b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M. R.; Bouwman, J.; Akeson, R. L.; Lawler, S.; Beichman, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic detection of mid-infrared emission from the transiting exoplanet HD 209458b. Using archive data taken with the Spitzer IRS instrument, we have determined the spectrum of HD 209458b between 7.46 and 15.25 micrometers. We have used two independent methods to determine the planet spectrum, one differential in wavelength and one absolute, and find the results are in good agreement. Over much of this spectral range, the planet spectrum is consistent with featureless thermal emission. Between 7.5 and 8.5 m, we find evidence for an unidentified spectral feature. If this spectral modulation is due to absorption, it implies that the dayside vertical temperature profile of the planetary atmosphere is not entirely isothermal. Using the IRS data, we have determined the broadband eclipse depth to be 0:00315 +/- 0:000315, implying significant redistribution of heat from the dayside to the nightside. This work required the development of improved methods for Spitzer IRS data calibration that increase the achievable absolute calibration precision and dynamic range for observations of bright point sources.

  4. InSb Mid-Infrared Photon Detector for Room-Temperature Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Koichiro; Gomes Camargo, Edson; Katsumata, Takashi; Goto, Hiromasa; Kuze, Naohiro; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    We developed a small InSb mid-infrared (2-7 µm wavelength range) photon detector that operates at room temperature. The photodiode was made from (hetero epitaxial) InSb layers that were grown on a semi-insulating GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. To suppress the effects of the diffusion current of the p-i-n photodiode, we used an AlInSb barrier layer that raises the resistance of the photodiode. We also optimized the device's doping concentration and the infrared incidence window structure. These optimization steps realized high photoelectric current output in a room-temperature environment. We also increased the signal-to-noise ratio of the detector by connecting multiple photodiodes in series. The size of this detector is 1.9×2.7×0.4 mm3 and the detectivity is 2.8×108 cm Hz1/2/W at 300 K. This is a practical IR detector that can be used in general signal amplification ICs.

  5. Very Large Interstellar Grains as Evidenced by the Mid-Infrared Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B W

    2015-01-01

    The sizes of interstellar grains are widely distributed, ranging from a few angstroms to a few micrometers. The ultraviolet (UV) and optical extinction constrains the dust in the size range of a couple hundredth micrometers to several submicrometers. The near and mid infrared (IR) emission constrains the nanometer-sized grains and angstrom-sized very large molecules. However, the quantity and size distribution of micrometer-sized grains remain unknown as they are gray in the UV/optical extinction and they are too cold and emit too little in the IR to be detected by IRAS, Spitzer, or Herschel. In this work, we employ the ~3-8 micron mid-IR extinction which is flat in both diffuse and dense regions to constrain the quantity, size, and composition of the micron-sized grain component. We find that, together with nano- and submicron-sized silicate and graphite (as well as PAHs), micron-sized graphite grains with C/H=137 ppm and a mean size of ~1.2 micron closely fit the observed interstellar extinction of the Gala...

  6. Generation of Phase-Stable Sub-Cycle Mid-Infrared Pulses from Filamentation in Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Fuji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sub-single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared (MIR region were generated through a laser-induced filament. The fundamental (ω1 and second harmonic (ω2 output of a 30-fs Ti:sapphire amplifier were focused into nitrogen gas and produce phase-stable broadband MIR pulses (ω0 by using a four-wave mixing process (ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 through filamentation. The spectrum spread from 400 cm-1 to 5500 cm-1, which completely covered the MIR region. The low frequency components were detected by using an electro-optic sampling technique with a gaseous medium. The efficiency of the MIR pulse generation was very sensitive to the delay between the fundamental and second harmonic pulses. It was revealed that the delay dependence of the efficiency came from the interference between two opposite parametric processes, ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 and ω2 - ω1 - ω1 → ω0. The pulse duration was measured as 6.9 fs with cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by using four-wave mixing in nitrogen. The carrier-envelope phase of the MIR pulse was passively stabilized. The instability was estimated as 154 mrad rms in 2.5 h.

  7. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristanic, Daniela; Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    A method to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of a monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) is presented in this paper. The sensor is based on a quantum cascade laser/detector system built from the same epitaxial structure and with the same fabrication approach. The devices are connected via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide with a twofold function: it provides high light coupling efficiency and a strong interaction of the light with the environment (e.g., a surrounding fluid). The weakly coupled DFB quantum cascade laser emits narrow mode light with a FWHM of 2 cm-1 at 1586 cm-1. The room temperature laser threshold current density is 3 kA/cm2 and a pulsed output power of around 200 mW was measured. With the superior laser noise performance, due to narrow mode emission and the compensation of thermal fluctuations, the lower limit of detection was expanded by one order of magnitude to the 10 ppm range.

  8. Single-mode interband cascade laser sources for mid-infrared spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, J.; von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Becker, S.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-05-01

    Compared to the near infrared, many technologically and industrially relevant gas species have more than an order of magnitude higher absorption features in the mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range. These species include for example important hydrocarbons (methane, acetylene), nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS) has proven to be a versatile tool for gas sensing applications with significant advantages compared to other techniques. These advantages include real time measurement, standoff detection and ruggedness of the sensor. We present interband cascade lasers (ICLs), which have evolved into important laser sources for the MIR spectral range from 3 to 7 μm. ICLs achieve high efficiency by cascading optically active zones whilst using interband transitions, so they combine common diode laser as well as quantum cascade laser based technologies. Our application grade singlemode distributed feedback devices operate continuous wave at room temperature and are offering several features especially useful for high performance TLAS applications like: side mode suppression ratio of > 30 dB, continuous tuning ranges up to 30 nm, low threshold power densities and low overall power consumption. The devices are typically integrated in a thermoelectrically cooled TO-style package, hermetically sealed using a cap with anti-reflection coated window. This low power consumption as well as the compact size and ruggedness of the fabricated laser sources makes them perfectly suited for battery powered portable solutions for in field spectroscopy applications.

  9. Applications of High Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; McManus, J. Barry; Nelson, David; Zahniser, Mark; Herndon, Scott C.; Shorter, Joanne; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Jervis, Dylan; Dyroff, Christoph; Kolb, Charles E.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 20 years, high resolution infrared spectroscopy has served as a valuable tool to measure gas-phase concentrations of ambient gas samples. We review recent advances in atmospheric sampling using direct absorption high resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy from the perspective of light sources, detectors, and optical designs. Developments in diode, quantum cascade and interband cascade laser technology have led to thermoelectrically-cooled single-mode laser sources capable of operation between 800 wn and 3100 wn, with 10 mW power. Advances in detector and preamplifier technology have yielded thermoelectriocally-cooled sensors capable of room-temperature operation with extremely high detectivities. Finally, novel spectrometer optical designs have led to robust multipass absorption cells capable of >400 m effective pathlength in a compact package. In combination with accurate spectroscopic databases, these developments have afforded dramatic improvements in measurement sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity. We will present several examples of the applications of high resolution mid-IR spectrometers in real-world field measurements at sampling towers and aboard mobile platforms such as vehicles and airplanes.

  10. Mid-infrared imaging of 25 local AGN with VLT-VISIR

    CERN Document Server

    Horst, Hannes; Gandhi, Poshak; Smette, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Aims. High angular resolution N-band imaging is used to discern the torus of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from its environment in order to allow a comparison of its mid-infrared properties to the expectations of the unified scenario for AGN. Methods. We present VLT-VISIR images of 25 low-redshift AGN of different Seyfert types, as well as N-band SEDs of 20 of them. In addition, we compare our results for 19 of them to Spitzer IRS spectra. Results. We find that at a resolution of ~ 0.35", all the nuclei of our observed sources are point-like, except for 2 objects whose extension is likely of instrumental origin. For 3 objects, however, we observed additional extended circumnuclear emission, even though our observational strategy was not designed to detect it. Comparison of the VISIR photometry and Spitzer spectrophotometry indicates that the latter is affected by extended emission in at least 7 out of 19 objects and the level of contamination is (0.20 ~ 0.85) * F_IRS. In particular, the 10 um silicate emission...

  11. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristanic, Daniela; Schwarz, Benedikt, E-mail: benedikt.schwarz@tuwien.ac.at; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, Vienna 1040 (Austria)

    2015-01-26

    A method to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of a monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) is presented in this paper. The sensor is based on a quantum cascade laser/detector system built from the same epitaxial structure and with the same fabrication approach. The devices are connected via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide with a twofold function: it provides high light coupling efficiency and a strong interaction of the light with the environment (e.g., a surrounding fluid). The weakly coupled DFB quantum cascade laser emits narrow mode light with a FWHM of 2 cm{sup −1} at 1586 cm{sup −1}. The room temperature laser threshold current density is 3 kA∕cm{sup 2} and a pulsed output power of around 200 mW was measured. With the superior laser noise performance, due to narrow mode emission and the compensation of thermal fluctuations, the lower limit of detection was expanded by one order of magnitude to the 10 ppm range.

  12. A variable mid-infrared synchrotron break associated with the compact jet in GX 339-4

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Russell, D M; Casella, P; Malzac, J; Corbel, S; D'Avanzo, P; Lewis, F W; Markoff, S; Bel, M Cadolle; Goldoni, P; Wachter, S; Khangulyan, D; Mainzer, A

    2011-01-01

    Many X-ray binaries remain undetected in the mid-infrared, a regime where emission from their compact jets is likely to dominate. Here, we report the detection of the black hole binary GX 339-4 with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) during a very bright, hard accretion state in 2010. Combined with a rich contemporaneous multiwavelength dataset, clear spectral curvature is found in the infrared, associated with the peak flux density expected from the compact jet. An optically-thin slope of ~-0.7 and a jet radiative power of >6x10^{35} erg/s (d/8 kpc)^2 are measured. A ~24 h WISE light curve shows dramatic variations in mid-infrared spectral slope on timescales at least as short as the satellite orbital period ~95 mins. There is also significant change during one pair of observations spaced by only 11 s. These variations imply that the spectral break associated with the transition from self-absorbed to optically-thin jet synchrotron radiation must be varying across the full wavelength range of ~3-2...

  13. An Ordered Magnetic Field in the Protoplanetary Disk of AB Aur Revealed by Mid-Infrared Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles M; Zhang, Han; Wright, Christopher M; Barnes, Peter J; Packham, Chris; Mariñas, Naibí

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields (B-fields) play a key role in the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks, but their properties are poorly understood due to the lack of observational constraints. Using CanariCam at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, we have mapped out the mid-infrared polarization of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star AB Aur. We detect ~0.44% polarization at 10.3 micron from AB Aur's inner disk (r < 80 AU), rising to ~1.4% at larger radii. Our simulations imply that the mid-infrared polarization of the inner disk arises from dichroic emission of elongated particles aligned in a disk B-field. The field is well ordered on a spatial scale commensurate with our resolution (~50 AU), and we infer a poloidal shape tilted from the rotational axis of the disk. The disk of AB Aur is optically thick at 10.3 micron, so polarimetry at this wavelength is probing the B-field near the disk surface. Our observations therefore confirm that this layer, favored by some theoretical studies for develop...

  14. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectra of Cool-Core Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    de Messières, G E; McNamara, B R; Donahue, M; Nulsen, P E J; Voit, G M; Wise, M W

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation in the brightest cluster galaxy. Our goal is to use the advantages of the mid-infrared band to improve estimates of star formation. Our spectra are characterized by diverse morphologies ranging from classic starbursts to flat spectra with surprisingly weak dust features. Although most of our sample are known from optical/UV data to be active star-formers, they lack the expected strong mid-infrared continuum. Star formation may be proceeding in unusually dust-deficient circumgalactic environments such as the interface between the cooling flow and the relativistic jets from the active galactic nucleus.

  15. Efficient Dielectric Metasurface Collimating Lenses for Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Bagheri, Mahmood; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Light emitted from single-mode semiconductor lasers generally has large divergence angles, and high numerical aperture lenses are required for beam collimation. Visible and near infrared lasers are collimated using aspheric glass or plastic lenses, yet collimation of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers typically requires more costly aspheric lenses made of germanium, chalcogenide compounds, or other infrared-transparent materials. Here we report mid-infrared dielectric metasurface flat lenses that efficiently collimate the output beam of single-mode quantum cascade lasers. The metasurface lenses are composed of amorphous silicon posts on a flat sapphire substrate and can be fabricated at low cost using a single step conventional UV binary lithography. Mid-infrared radiation from a 4.8 $\\mu$m distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser is collimated using a polarization insensitive metasurface lens with 0.86 numerical aperture and 79% transmission efficiency. The collimated beam has a half divergence angle of 0...

  16. A graphene-based Fabry-Pérot spectrometer in mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaosai; Chen, Chen; Pan, Liang; Wang, Jicheng

    2016-08-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy is of great importance in many areas and its integration with thin-film technology can economically enrich the functionalities of many existing devices. In this paper we propose a graphene-based ultra-compact spectrometer (several micrometers in size) that is compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing. The proposed structure uses a monolayer graphene as a mid-infrared surface waveguide, whose optical response is spatially modulated using electric fields to form a Fabry-Pérot cavity. By varying the voltage acting on the cavity, we can control the transmitted wavelength of the spectrometer at room temperature. This design has potential applications in the graphene-silicon-based optoelectronic devices as it offers new possibilities for developing new ultra-compact spectrometers and low-cost hyperspectral imaging sensors in mid-infrared region.

  17. The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. VIII. A Mid-Infrared Kinematic Distance Discrimination Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P; Rosolowsky, Erik; Mairs, Steven; Evans, Neal J; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Shirley, Yancy L; Bally, John

    2013-01-01

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the longitude range 7.5 < l < 65. The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the Galactic distribution of molecular gas. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discriminatio...

  18. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  19. Feasibility study of mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy using electrospray ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Precise detection of trace amount of molecules, such as the disease biomarkers present in biofluids or explosive residues, requires high sensitivity detection. electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is a common and effective technique for sensitive trace molecular detection in small-volume liquid samples. In ESI-MS, nano-liter volume samples are ionized and aerosolized by ESI, and fed into MS for mass analysis. ESI-MS has proven to be a reliable ionization technique for coupling liquid phase separations like liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) with the highly specific resolving power of MS. While CE and ESI can be performed on a microfluidic chip having a footprint of a few cm2, MS is typically at least 100 times bigger in size than a micro-chip. A reduced size, weight, and power profile would enable semi-portable applications in forensics, environmental monitoring, defense, and biological/pharmaceutical applications. To achieve this goal, we present an initial study evaluating the use of mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy (MIRAS) in place of MS to create a ESI-MIRAS system. To establish feasibility, we perform ESI-MIRAS on phospholipid samples, which have been previously demonstrated to be separable by CE. Phospholipids are biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases and can be found in biofluids such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. To establish sensitivity limits, calibration samples of 100 μM concentration are electrospray deposited on to a grounded Si wafer for different times (1 minutes to 4 minutes with a 1 minute step). The minimum detectable concentration-time product, where a FTIR globar is used as the MIR source, is found 200 μM·s.

  20. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  1. Pitchfork Bifurcation and Zharov Splitting in Nonlinear Mid-infrared Photothermal Spectroscopy in a liquid crystal using a Quantum Cascade Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Mertiri, Alket; Hong, M K; Mehta, P; Mertz, J; Ziegler, L D; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2013-01-01

    We report on the mid-infrared nonlinear photothermal spectrum of the neat liquid crystal 4-Octyl-4'-Cyanobiphenyl (8CB) using a tunable Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL). The nonequilibrium steady state characterized by the nonlinear photothermal infrared response undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The bifurcation, observed in heterodyne two-color pump-probe detection, leads to ultrasharp nonlinear infrared spectra similar to those reported in the visible region. A systematic study of the peak splitting as function of absorbed infrared power shows the bifurcation has a critical exponent of 0.5. The surprising observation of an apparently universal critical exponent in a nonequilibrium state is explained using a simple model reminiscent of mean field theory. Apart from the intrinsic interest for nonequilibrium studies, nonlinear photothermal methods lead to a dramatic narrowing of spectral lines, giving rise to a potential new contrast mechanism for the rapidly emerging new field of mid-infrared micros...

  2. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YSOs IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION GGD12-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Günther, H. Moritz; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Forbrich, J. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-5 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA 98225-9164 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the star-forming region GGD 12-15. More than 1000 objects were monitored, including about 350 objects within the central 5′, which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67 ks Chandra observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5′ are young stellar objects (YSOs) based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability, and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability. There are 39 periodic sources, and all but one is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of the periodic sources do not show IR excesses. Overall, more than 85% of the Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II sources are found to vary. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Most of the Class I/II objects exhibit redder colors in a fainter state, which is compatible with time-variable extinction. A few become bluer when fainter, which can be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. A search for changes in the IR due to X-ray events is carried out, but the low number of flares prevented an analysis of the direct impact of X-ray flares on the IR light curves. However, we find that X-ray detected Class II sources have longer timescales for change in the MIR than a similar set of non-X-ray detected Class IIs.

  3. CONSTRAINING THE EXOZODIACAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: COMPLETE RESULTS FROM THE KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M.; Bryden, G.; Doré, O.; Traub, W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Millan-Gabet, R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Absil, O. [Département d' Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, 4000 Liège (Belgium); Wyatt, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Danchi, W.; Kuchner, M.; Stapelfeldt, K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Defrère, D.; Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ragland, S. [Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Scott, N. [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Woillez, J., E-mail: Bertrand.Mennesson@jpl.nasa.gov [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    Forty-seven nearby main-sequence stars were surveyed with the Keck Interferometer mid-infrared Nulling instrument (KIN) between 2008 and 2011, searching for faint resolved emission from exozodiacal dust. Observations of a subset of the sample have already been reported, focusing essentially on stars with no previously known dust. Here we extend this previous analysis to the whole KIN sample, including 22 more stars with known near- and/or far-infrared excesses. In addition to an analysis similar to that of the first paper of this series, which was restricted to the 8-9 μm spectral region, we present measurements obtained in all 10 spectral channels covering the 8-13 μm instrumental bandwidth. Based on the 8-9 μm data alone, which provide the highest signal-to-noise measurements, only one star shows a large excess imputable to dust emission (η Crv), while four more show a significant (>3σ) excess: β Leo, β UMa, ζ Lep, and γ Oph. Overall, excesses detected by KIN are more frequent around A-type stars than later spectral types. A statistical analysis of the measurements further indicates that stars with known far-infrared (λ ≥ 70 μm) excesses have higher exozodiacal emission levels than stars with no previous indication of a cold outer disk. This statistical trend is observed regardless of spectral type and points to a dynamical connection between the inner (zodi-like) and outer (Kuiper-Belt-like) dust populations. The measured levels for such stars are clustering close to the KIN detection limit of a few hundred zodis and are indeed consistent with those expected from a population of dust that migrated in from the outer belt by Poynting-Robertson drag. Conversely, no significant mid-infrared excess is found around sources with previously reported near-infrared resolved excesses, which typically have levels of the order of 1% over the photospheric flux. If dust emission is really at play in these near-infrared detections, the absence of a strong mid-infrared

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Dominik A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Armus, Lee; Chary, Ranga-Ram [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Hodge, Jacqueline [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Morrison, Glenn E. [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743-8432 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: dr@astro.cornell.edu [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    We report the detection of 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and rest-frame 4-7 μm continuum emission in the z = 4.055 submillimeter galaxy GN20, using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. This represents the first detection of PAH emission at z > 4. The strength of the PAH emission feature is consistent with a very high star formation rate of ∼1600 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find that this intense starburst powers at least ∼1/3 of the faint underlying 6 μm continuum emission, with an additional, significant (and perhaps dominant) contribution due to a power-law-like hot dust source, which we interpret to likely be a faint, dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). The inferred 6 μm AGN continuum luminosity is consistent with a sensitive upper limit on the hard X-ray emission as measured by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory if the previously undetected AGN is Compton-thick. This is in agreement with the finding at optical/infrared wavelengths that the galaxy and its nucleus are heavily dust-obscured. Despite the strong power-law component enhancing the mid-infrared continuum emission, the intense starburst associated with the photon-dominated regions that give rise to the PAH emission appears to dominate the total energy output in the infrared. GN20 is one of the most luminous starburst galaxies known at any redshift, embedded in a rich protocluster of star-forming galaxies. This investigation provides an improved understanding of the energy sources that power such exceptional systems, which represent the extreme end of massive galaxy formation at early cosmic times.

  5. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. de Messières; R.W. O'Connell; B.R. McNamara; M. Donahue; P.E.J. Nulsen; G.M. Voit; M.W. Wise; B. Smith; J. Higdon; S. Higdon; N. Bastian

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  6. Supercontinuum - broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune

    2012-01-01

    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ≈ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thuliu...

  7. Towards supercontinuum-driven hyperspectral microscopy in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsay, I. D.; Valle, S.; Ward, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The extension of supercontinuum (SC) sources into the mid-infrared, via the use of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibers, potentially offers the high radiance of a laser combined with spectral coverage far exceeding that of typical tunable lasers and comparable to traditional black-body emitters...

  8. The Mid-Infrared Luminosity Evolution and Luminosity Function of Quasars with SDSS and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, J; Gerber, A

    2016-01-01

    We determine the 22$\\mu$m luminosity evolution and luminosity function for quasars from a data set of over 20,000 objects obtained by combining flux-limited Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical and Wide field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data. We apply methods developed in previous works to access the intrinsic population distributions non-parametrically, taking into account the truncations and correlations inherent in the data. We find that the population of quasars exhibits positive luminosity evolution with redshift in the mid-infrared, but with considerably less mid-infrared evolution than in the optical or radio bands. With the luminosity evolutions accounted for, we determine the density evolution and local mid-infrared luminosity function. The latter displays a sharp flattening at local luminosities below $\\sim 10^{31}$ erg sec$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$, which has been reported previously at 15 $\\mu$m for AGN classified as both type-1 and type-2. We calculate the integrated total emission from quasars at 2...

  9. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee;

    ,2]. Moreover plasmonics for mid-infrared offer unique applications such as bio-sensing, thermal imaging and quest for novel materials and structures has been continuing [3]. In this report we show that vertical trench structures made of, for example, aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) or other transparent conductive...

  10. Mid-infrared Spectroscopy/Bioimaging: Moving toward MIR optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Napier, Bruce; Lindsay, Ian;

    2016-01-01

    Limited availability of tests to diagnose cancer in its early stages has contributed to an unfortunate prevalence of late-stage diagnoses and metastatic spread. For this reason, emerging technologies that promise early diagnosis constitute a key focus of research. Mid-infrared imaging (MIR), with...

  11. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  12. Near-Infrared Versus Mid-Infrared for the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over several decades, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been shown to be extremely versatile for the rapid analysis of many agricultural materials including forages, foods and grains. More recently, mid-infrared and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFTS and NIRS, respective...

  13. Near- and Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for the Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    For several decades near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to determine the composition of a variety of agricultural products. More recently, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) has similarly been shown to be able to determine the co...

  14. Mid-infrared emission of galactic nuclei - TIMMI2 versus ISO observations and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenmorgen, R; Krugel, E; Spoon, HWW

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the mid-infrared radiation of galaxies that are powered by a starburst or by an AGN. For this end, we compare the spectra obtained at different spatial scales in a sample of infrared bright galaxies. ISO observations which include emission of the nucleus as well as most of the host ga

  15. Mid-infrared lasers: Challenges imposed by the population dynamics of the gain system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of the population dynamics on mid-infrared lasers. Specifically, the typically longer lifetime of the lower compared to the upper laser level has to be addressed in order to achieve highly efficient laser operation in this wavelength range. Examples of different

  16. A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunhui; Wang, Fengqiu; Meng, Yafei; Yuan, Xiang; Xiu, Faxian; Luo, Hongyu; Wang, Yazhou; Li, Jianfeng; Lv, Xinjie; He, Liang; Xu, Yongbing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Rong; Zhu, Shining

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed lasers operating in the mid-infrared (3-20 μm) are important for a wide range of applications in sensing, spectroscopy, imaging and communications. Despite recent advances with mid-infrared gain platforms, the lack of a capable pulse generation mechanism remains a significant technological challenge. Here we show that bulk Dirac fermions in molecular beam epitaxy grown crystalline Cd3As2, a three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetal, constitutes an exceptional ultrafast optical switching mechanism for the mid-infrared. Significantly, we show robust and effective tuning of the scattering channels of Dirac fermions via an element doping approach, where photocarrier relaxation times are found flexibly controlled over an order of magnitude (from 8 ps to 800 fs at 4.5 μm). Our findings reveal the strong impact of Cr doping on ultrafast optical properties in Cd3As2 and open up the long sought parameter space crucial for the development of compact and high-performance mid-infrared ultrafast sources.

  17. Cross-phase modulation in visible-pump/mid-infrared-probe spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapini, Andrea; Vázquez, Sandra Mosquera; Touceda, Patricia Tourón; Lima, Manuela

    2011-05-01

    One of the most powerful tools to investigate the structural dynamics of electronically excited molecular systems is visible-pump/mid-infrared-probe spectroscopy. When performing this kind of experiments one must be aware of the artifacts deriving from the non-linear response of the solvent and of the sample cell itself. Cross-phase modulation (XPM) is observed when a strong visible-pump pulse modulates the refraction index seen by the mid-infrared-probe. The effect is enhanced when the probe pulse is chirped and causes the distortion of the transient signal in both the frequency and the time domains. We undertook a detailed simulation of XPM in the mid-infrared region where a visible pulse modulates the MIR pulse by XPM and in close conditions to the experimental ones. Our simulation takes into account the different group velocities of the pump and probe pulses and includes the influence of the linear chirp of the mid-infrared pulse and its asymmetry. The results of our numerical calculations fit very well the experimental signals measured in a 2 mm thick CaF 2 window.

  18. Efficient Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Tapered Large Mode Area Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source....

  19. High Average Power Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in a Suspended Core Chalcogenide Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system...

  20. Prediction of Soil Fertility Properties from a Globally Distributed Soil Mid-Infrared Spectral Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhoeven-Urselmans, T.; Vagen, T.G.; Spaargaren, O.; Shepherd, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Globally applicable calibrations to predict standard soil properties based on infrared spectra may increase the use of this reliable technique. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (4000-602 cm(-1)) to predict chemical and textural

  1. Mid-infrared Spectral Indicators of Star Formation and Active Galactic Nucleus Activity in Normal Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; Johnson, Benjamin D.; O'Dowd, Matt; Martin, Christopher D.; Wyder, Ted; Charlot, Stephane; Heckman, Timothy; Martins, Lucimara; Seibert, Mark; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared (MIR) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, the continuum, and emission lines as probes of star formation (SF) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in a sample of 100 "normal" and local (z similar to 0.1) emission-line galaxies. The MIR spectra wer

  2. TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 QUASARS IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Ridgway

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 or \\obscured" AGN have long been identi ed at low AGN luminosities (e.g. Seyfert 2s or through their radio luminosities (e.g. radio galaxies. But radio-quiet quasars (RQQs are many times more common than radio-loud quasars, and it's therefore unsurprising that recent searches have revealed that radio-quiet quasar 2s also form a signi cant population. Finding the numbers, properties, and redshift distribution of quasar 2s will be very important to resolving questions about the formation and co-evolution of black holes and galaxies. We have selected a sample of Type 2 and Type 1 quasars matched in their mid-infrared luminosity from the Spitzer First Look Survey by selecting on their mid-infrared dust emission properties (as measured by Spitzer IRAC photometry. This emission provides a distinctive signature of AGN activity but should not be a cted by orientation or torus opening angle. We have obtained mid-infrared IRS spectroscopy of these samples to study star formation activity in the host galaxies and the dust environments of the AGN, using measurements of the PAH features, the shape of the mid-infrared SED, and the equivalent width of the silicate features at 10 microns. We nd that the quasar 2s have more diverse mid-IR spectral properties, and that obscuration of the AGN is linked to star formation activity in the host.

  3. High Average Power Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in a Suspended Core Chalcogenide Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg;

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system...

  4. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecaplain, C.; Javerzac-Galy, C.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-11-01

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2 and SrF2 microresonators. We show that MgF2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF2 and BaF2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date.

  5. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  6. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  7. Mid-infrared absorption-spectroscopy-based carbon dioxide sensor network in greenhouse agriculture: development and deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Zheng, Lingjiao; Niu, Xintao; Zheng, Chuantao; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K

    2016-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor was experimentally demonstrated for application in a greenhouse farm environment. An optical module was developed using a lamp source, a dual-channel pyre-electrical detector, and a spherical mirror. A multi-pass gas chamber and a dual-channel detection method were adopted to effectively enhance light collection efficiency and suppress environmental influences. The moisture-proof function realized by a breathable waterproof chamber was specially designed for the application of such a sensor in a greenhouse with high humidity. Sensor structure of the optical part and electrical part were described, respectively, and related experiments were carried out to evaluate the sensor performance on CO2 concentration. The limit of detection of the sensor is 30 ppm with an absorption length of 30 cm. The relative detection error is less than 5% within the measurement range of 30-5000 ppm. The fluctuations for the long-term (10 h) stability measurements on a 500 ppm CO2 sample and a 2000 ppm CO2 sample are 1.08% and 3.6%, respectively, indicating a good stability of the sensor. A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system was implemented for greenhouse application using multiple mid-infrared CO2 sensor nodes. A monitor software based on LabVIEW was realized via a laptop for real-time environmental data display, storage, and website sharing capabilities. A field experiment of the sensor network was carried out in the town of Shelin in Jilin Province, China, which proved that the whole monitoring system possesses stable sensing performance for practical application under the circumstances of a greenhouse.

  8. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O

    2017-08-09

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bioimaging, and simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation, and therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  9. Mid-infrared Plasmonic Circular Dichroism Generated by Graphene Nanodisk Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Zhao, Runbo; Wang, Zhiming; Govorov, Alexander O.

    2017-08-01

    It is very interesting to bring plasmonic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the mid-infrared spectral interval, and there are two reasons for this. This spectral interval is very important for thermal bio-imaging and, simultaneously, this spectral range includes vibrational lines of many chiral biomolecules. Here we demonstrate that graphene plasmons indeed offer such opportunity. In particular, we show that chiral graphene assemblies consisting of a few graphene nanodisks can generate strong circular dichroism (CD) in the mid-infrared interval. The CD signal is generated due to the plasmon-plasmon coupling between adjacent nanodisks in the specially designed chiral graphene assemblies. Because of the large dimension mismatch between the thickness of a graphene layer and the incoming light's wavelength, three-dimensional configurations with a total height of a few hundred nanometers are necessary to obtain a strong CD signal in the mid-infrared range. The mid-infrared CD strength is mainly governed by the total dimensions (total height and helix scaffold radius) of the graphene nanodisk assembly, and by the plasmon-plasmon interaction strength between its constitutive nanodisks. Both positive and negative CD bands can be observed in the graphene assembly array. The frequency interval of the plasmonic CD spectra overlaps with the vibrational modes of some important biomolecules, such as DNA and many different peptides, giving rise to the possibility of enhancing the vibrational optical activity of these molecular species by attaching them to the graphene assemblies. Simultaneously the spectral range of chiral mid-infrared plasmons in our structures appears near the typical wavelength of the human-body thermal radiation and, therefore, our chiral metastructures can be potentially utilized as optical components in thermal imaging devices.

  10. ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Giant HII Regions in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, B. P.; Waller, W. H.; Hodge, P. W.; Boulanger, F.; Cornett, R. H.; Fanelli, M. N.; Lequeux, J.; Stecher, T. P.; Viallefond, F.; Hui, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM) Circular Variable Filter scans of three giant HII regions in M33. IC 133, NGC 595, and CC 93 span a wide range of metallicity, luminosity, nebular excitation, and infrared excess; three other emission regions (CC 43, CC 99, and a region to the northeast of the core of NGC 595) are luminous enough in the mid-infrared to be detected in the observed fields. ISOCAM CVF observations provide spatially resolved observations (5'') of 151 wavelengths between 5.1 and 16.5 microns with a spectral resolution R = 35 to 50. We observe atomic emission lines ([Ne II], [Ne III], and [S IV]), several "unidentified infrared bands" (UIBs; 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, and 12.7 microns), and in some cases a continuum which rises steeply at longer wavelengths. We conclude that the spectra of these three GHRs are well explained by combinations of ionized gas, PAHs, and very small grains in various proportions and with different spatial distributions. Comparisons between observed ratios of the various UIBs with model ratios indicate that the PAHs in all three of the GHRs are dehydrogenated and that the small PAHs have been destroyed in IC 133 but have survived in NGC 595 and CC 93. The [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios observed in IC 133 and NGC 595 are consistent with their ages of 5 and 4.5 Myr, respectively; the deduced ionization parameter is higher in IC 133, consistent with its more compact region of emission.

  11. ISO Mid-Infrared Observations of Giant HII Regions in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, B. P.; Waller, W. H.; Hodge, P. W.; Boulanger, F.; Cornett, R. H.; Fanelli, M. N.; Lequeux, J.; Stecher, T. P.; Viallefond, F.; Hui, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We present Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM) Circular Variable Filter scans of three giant HII regions in M33. IC 133, NGC 595, and CC 93 span a wide range of metallicity, luminosity, nebular excitation, and infrared excess; three other emission regions (CC 43, CC 99, and a region to the northeast of the core of NGC 595) are luminous enough in the mid-infrared to be detected in the observed fields. ISOCAM CVF observations provide spatially resolved observations (5'') of 151 wavelengths between 5.1 and 16.5 microns with a spectral resolution R = 35 to 50. We observe atomic emission lines ([Ne II], [Ne III], and [S IV]), several "unidentified infrared bands" (UIBs; 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, and 12.7 microns), and in some cases a continuum which rises steeply at longer wavelengths. We conclude that the spectra of these three GHRs are well explained by combinations of ionized gas, PAHs, and very small grains in various proportions and with different spatial distributions. Comparisons between observed ratios of the various UIBs with model ratios indicate that the PAHs in all three of the GHRs are dehydrogenated and that the small PAHs have been destroyed in IC 133 but have survived in NGC 595 and CC 93. The [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios observed in IC 133 and NGC 595 are consistent with their ages of 5 and 4.5 Myr, respectively; the deduced ionization parameter is higher in IC 133, consistent with its more compact region of emission.

  12. The mid-infrared polarization of the Herbig Ae star WL 16: an interstellar origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Telesco, Charles M.; Pantin, Eric; Li, Dan; Wright, Christopher M.; Mariñas, Naibí; Barnes, Peter; Li, Aigen; Packham, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We present high-resolution (0.4 arcsec) mid-infrared (mid-IR) polarimetric images and spectra of WL 16, a Herbig Ae star at a distance of 125 pc. WL 16 is surrounded by a protoplanetary disc of ∼ 900 au in diameter, making it one of the most extended Herbig Ae/Be discs as seen in the mid-IR. The star is behind, or embedded in, the ρ Ophiuchus molecular cloud, and obscured by 28 mag of extinction at optical wavelengths by the foreground cloud. Mid-IR polarization of WL 16 mainly arises from aligned elongated dust grains present along the line of sight, suggesting a uniform morphology of polarization vectors with an orientation of 33°(east from north) and a polarization fraction of ∼ 2.0 per cent. This orientation is consistent with previous polarimetric surveys in the optical and near-IR bands to probe large-scale magnetic fields in the Ophiuchus star formation region, indicating that the observed mid-IR polarization towards WL 16 is produced by the dichroic absorption of magnetically aligned foreground dust grains by a uniform magnetic field. Using polarizations of WL 16 and Elias 29, a nearby polarization standard star, we constrain the polarization efficiency, p10.3/A10.3, for the dust grains in the ρ Ophiuchus molecular cloud to be ≃1.0 per cent mag-1. WL 16 has polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features detected at 8.6, 11.2, 12.0, and 12.7 μm by our spectroscopic data, and we find an anticorrelation between the PAH surface brightness and the PAH ionization fraction between the north-west and south-west sides of the disc.

  13. Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahnke, H.; Kleine, D.; Hering, P.; Mürtz, M.

    2001-06-01

    We report on spectroscopic real-time analysis of ethane traces in exhaled human breath. Ethane is considered the most important volatile marker of free-radical induced lipid peroxidation and cell damage in the human body. Our measurements were carried out by means of mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy in the 3 μm region, a cw variant of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The spectrometer is based on a CO overtone laser with tunable microwave sidebands. The resulting system proved to be an unique tool with high sensitivity and selectivity for rapid and precise breath testing. With a 5 s integration time, we achieved a detection limit on the order of 100 parts per trillion ethane in human breath. Thus, sample preconcentration is unnecessary. Time-resolved monitoring of the decaying ethane fraction in breath after smoking a cigarette is demonstrated.

  14. Room temperature mid-infrared InAsSbN multi-quantum well photodiodes grown by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaria, M.; de la Mare, M.; Krier, A.

    2016-11-01

    Room temperature photoresponse in the mid-infrared spectral region is demonstrated from InAsSbN/InAs multi-quantum well photodiodes grown by nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The structural quality of the InAsSbN MQWs was ascertained in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction and ex situ by high resolution x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The extended long wavelength photoresponse is identified to originate from the electron-heavy hole (e1-hh1) and electron-light hole (e1-lh1) transitions in the InAsSbN MQW, with a cut off wavelength ~4.20 µm and peak detectivity D *  =  1.25  ×  109 cm Hz1/2 W-1.

  15. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present high resolution upconversion of incoherent infrared radiation by means of sum-frequency mixing with a laser followed by simple CCD Si-camera detection. Noise associated with upconversion is, in strong contrast to room temperature direct mid-IR detection, extremely small, thus very faint...... signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...

  16. Mid-infrared nonlinear upconversion imaging and sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    for excitation of the sample and sensitive mid-IR detectors. With the advent of mid-IR Quantum cascaded lasers and super continuum light sources new possibilities has emerged. However, low-noise, mid-IR (2-15 mu m) detection is still challenging requiring cryogenic cooling to gain sensitivities needed...

  17. Mid - infrared solid state lasers for spectroscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Yuri

    This work is devoted to study of novel high power middle-infrared (Mid-IR) laser sources enabling development of portable platform for sensing of organic molecules with the use of recently discovered Quartz Enhanced Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (QEPAS). The ability to detect small concentrations is beneficial to monitor atmosphere pollution as well for biomedical applications such as analysis of human breath to detect earlier stages of cancer or virus activities. A QEPAS technique using a quartz tuning fork (QTF) as a detector enables a strong enhancement of measured signal when pump laser is modulated with a frequency coinciding with a natural frequency of a QTF. It is known that the detectability of acousto-optics based sensors is proportional to the square root of the laser intensity used for detection of analyte. That is the reason why commercially available semiconductor Mid-IR lasers having small output power limit sensitivity of modern QEPAS based sensors. The lack of high power broadly tunable lasers operating with a modulation frequency of quartz forks (~ 32.768 kHz) is the major motivation of this study. Commercially available Mid-IR (2-3.3 microm), single frequency, continuous wave (CW) fiber pumped lasers based on transition metal doped chalcogenides (e.g. Cr:ZnSe) prove to be efficient laser sources for organic molecules detection. However, their direct modulation is limited to several kHz, and cannot be directly used in combination with QEPAS. Hence, one objective of this work is to study and develop fiber laser pumped Ho:YAG (Er:YAG)/Cr:ZnSe tandem laser system/s. Ho (Holmium) and/or Er (Erbium) ions having long radiation lifetime (~ 10 ms) can effectively accumulate population inversion under CW fiber laser excitation. Utilization of acousto-optic (AO) modulators in the cavity of Ho:YAG (Er:YAG) laser will enable effective Q-Switching with repetition rate easily reaching the resonance frequency of a QTF. It is expected that utilization of Ho:YAG (Er

  18. Supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg

    2014-01-01

    The advent of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has paved the road for commercial high-power supercontinuum light sources. The air-hole structuring in the PCF manipulates the properties of light and gives a tremendous degree of design freedom, which has enabled pushing the properties of PCFs to limi....... We discuss the prospects for extending the supercontinuum generation beyond 10 μm and highlight useful applications such as cancer detection and food analysis....

  19. Mid-infrared fiber optic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, A.; Kellner, R.

    1993-03-01

    A new approach for the determination of cholesterol and triglycerides is presented. After the ex-traction of the sample's lipid content into an organic solvent, an infrared (IR) spectrum of the organic phase is recorded using a 10 cm piece of an uncoated chalcogenide fiber, which is incorporated in a flow cell. The characteristic absorption bands of the lipid constituents cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides are evaluated. The method covers the biological and clinical interesting range and the detection limit for the lipid constituents varies from 1 to 4 mmol/l.

  20. Mid-infrared interferometric variability of DG Tauri: Implications for the inner-disk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J.; Gabányi, K. É.; Ábrahám, P.; Chen, L.; Kóspál, Á.; Menu, J.; Ratzka, Th.; van Boekel, R.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Jaffe, W.; Juhász, A.; Moór, A.; Mosoni, L.; Sipos, N.

    2017-08-01

    Context. DG Tau is a low-mass pre-main sequence star, whose strongly accreting protoplanetary disk exhibits a so-far enigmatic behavior: its mid-infrared thermal emission is strongly time-variable, even turning the 10 μm silicate feature from emission to absorption temporarily. Aims: We look for the reason for the spectral variability at high spatial resolution and at multiple epochs. Methods: Infrared interferometry can spatially resolve the thermal emission of the circumstellar disk, also giving information about dust processing. We study the temporal variability of the mid-infrared interferometric signal, observed with the VLTI/MIDI instrument at six epochs between 2011 and 2014. We fit a geometric disk model to the observed interferometric signal to obtain spatial information about the disk. We also model the mid-infrared spectra by template fitting to characterize the profile and time dependence of the silicate emission. We use physically motivated radiative transfer modeling to interpret the mid-infrared interferometric spectra. Results: The inner disk (r 1-3 au) spectra show a crystalline silicate feature in emission, similar to the spectra of comet Hale-Bopp. The striking difference between the inner and outer disk spectral feature is highly unusual among T Tauri stars. The mid-infrared variability is dominated by the outer disk. The strength of the silicate feature changed by more than a factor of two. Between 2011 and 2014 the half-light radius of the mid-infrared-emitting region decreased from 1.15 to 0.7 au. Conclusions: For the origin of the absorption we discuss four possible explanations: a cold obscuring envelope, an accretion heated inner disk, a temperature inversion on the disk surface and a misaligned inner geometry. The silicate emission in the outer disk can be explained by dusty material high above the disk plane, whose mass can change with time, possibly due to turbulence in the disk. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large

  1. Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast

  2. The Mid-Infrared Properties of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yanling Wu; Houck, J R; Bernasrd-Salas, J; Lebouteiller, V

    2008-01-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity of the Spitzer Space Telescope has enabled us for the first time to detect a large sample of Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs), which are intrinsically faint in the infrared. In the present paper we present a summary of our findings which providing essential information on the presence/absence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon features in metal-poor environments. In addition, using Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectroscopy, we study the elemental abundances of neon and sulfur in BCDs and compare with the results from optical studies. Finally, we present an analysis of the mid- and far-infrared to radio correlation in low luminosity low metallicity galaxies.

  3. Establishing the mid-infrared selection of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Martin; Chini, Rolf; Huchra, John P.; Leipski, Christian; Mueller, Sven A. H.; Ott, Stephan; Schartel, Norbert; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Wilkes, Belinda

    2004-09-01

    Since a large fraction of AGN is missed in common UV-excess surveys, and even in radio, near-IR and X-ray surveys, we have searched for AGN via mid-IR emission from their nuclear dust at T>300 K. This is a new AGN selection technique, and one not affected by extinction. Among 3000 high galactic latitude sources randomly detected by ISO at 6.7 microns we have discovered a population of extremly infra-red, mostly unknown objects. This population is not detected on IRAS-ADDSCANs and very few of these sources show up in the NVSS and FIRST radio surveys. Various colour criteria from 2MASS and optical wavebands and the comparison with known object types show that the sources have a higher MIR excess than those seen in the ELAIS survey. Our analysis suggests that we have, in fact, found AGN with a pronounced MIR emission. We estimate that, if this is true, the number counts of AGN will have to be revised dramatically upwards. In order to verify our hypothesis on the AGN nature of the sources, we have selected MIR-excess AGN candidates with unknown classification from our ISO survey. First results from optical spectrocopy show some to be AGN, but also that many of the sources are extremely reddened. Therefore, we here apply for 5-40 micron IRS spectroscopy of 30 of the remaining unidentified sources to establish their nature as AGN, to determine the fraction of type 1 and 2 AGN among this MIR selected sample, and to constrain their additional starburst contribution. While new IR surveys from Spitzer are expected to find more such interesting objects, we have already identified a promising sample. The requested observations will make a significant contribution to the debate on the entire AGN population.

  4. The Spitzer mid-infrared AGN survey. I - optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate obscured and normal AGN selected in the mid-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Lacy, M; Gates, E L; Nielsen, D M; Petric, A O; Sajina, A; Urrutia, T; Drews, S Cox; Harrison, C; Seymour, N; Storrie-Lombardi, L J

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGN closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol~10^10L_sun, to highly luminous quasars (L_bol~10^14L_sun), and with redshifts from 0-4.3. Samples of candidate AGN were selected through mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 micron flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGN and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type-1 AGN with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type-2 objects with extinctions A_V>~5 towards their AGN, 96 (14%) are AGN with lower extinctions (A_V~1) and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. 50% of the survey objects have L_bol >10^12L_sun, in the quasar ...

  5. SN 2009js AT THE CROSSROADS BETWEEN NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE IIP SUPERNOVAE: OPTICAL AND MID-INFRARED EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yamanaka, M.; Itoh, R. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Nozawa, T.; Maeda, K.; Moriya, T. J. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Kawabata, K. S. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Saviane, I. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sasada, M. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-20

    We present a study of SN 2009js in NGC 918. Multi-band Kanata optical photometry covering the first {approx}120 days shows the source to be a Type IIP SN. Reddening is dominated by that due to our Galaxy. One-year-post-explosion photometry with the New Technology Telescope and a Subaru optical spectrum 16 days post-discovery both imply a good match with the well-studied subluminous SN 2005cs. The plateau-phase luminosity of SN 2009js and its plateau duration are more similar to the intermediate luminosity IIP SN 2008in. Thus, SN 2009js shares characteristics with both subluminous and intermediate luminosity supernovae (SNe). Its radioactive tail luminosity lies between SN 2005cs and SN 2008in, whereas its quasi-bolometric luminosity decline from peak to plateau (quantified by a newly defined parameter {Delta}logL, which measures adiabatic cooling following shock breakout) is much smaller than both the others'. We estimate the ejected mass of {sup 56}Ni to be low ({approx}0.007 M{sub Sun }). The SN explosion energy appears to have been small, similar to that of SN 2005cs. SN 2009js is the first subluminous SN IIP to be studied in the mid-infrared. It was serendipitously caught by Spitzer at very early times. In addition, it was detected by WISE 105 days later with a significant 4.6 {mu}m flux excess above the photosphere. The infrared excess luminosity relative to the photosphere is clearly smaller than that of SN 2004dj, which has been extensively studied in the mid-infrared. The excess may be tentatively assigned to heated dust with mass {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun }, or to CO fundamental emission as a precursor to dust formation.

  6. Mid-Infrared interferometry of dust around massive evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, Jayadev; Wallace, D; Danchi, W C; Chesneau, O; López, B; Monnier, J D; Ireland, M; Tuthill, P G

    2007-01-01

    We report long-baseline interferometric measurements of circumstellar dust around massive evolved stars with the MIDI instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and provide spectrally dispersed visibilities in the 8-13 micron wavelength band. We also present diffraction-limited observations at 10.7 micron on the Keck Telescope with baselines up to 8.7 m which explore larger scale structure. We have resolved the dust shells around the late type WC stars WR 106 and WR 95, and the enigmatic NaSt1 (formerly WR 122), suspected to have recently evolved from a Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stage. For AG Car, the protoypical LBV in our sample, we marginally resolve structure close to the star, distinct from the well-studied detached nebula. The dust shells around the two WC stars show fairly constant size in the 8-13 micron MIDI band, with gaussian half-widths of ~ 25 to 40 mas. The compact dust we detect around NaSt1 and AG Car favors recent or ongoing dust formation. Using the measured visibilities, we bu...

  7. The Mid-Infrared Evolution of the FU Orionis Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Joel D; Keller, Luke D; Poteet, Charles A; Yang, Yao-Lun; Fischer, William J; Evans, Neal J; Sargent, Benjamin A; Rebull, Luisa M

    2016-01-01

    We present new SOFIA-FORCAST observations obtained in Feburary 2016 of the archetypal outbursting low mass young stellar object FU Orionis, and compare the continuum, solid state, and gas properties with mid-IR data obtained at the same wavelengths in 2004 with Spitzer-IRS. In this study, we conduct the first mid-IR spectroscopic comparison of an FUor over a long time period. Over a 12 year period, UBVR monitoring indicates that FU Orionis has continued its steady decrease in overall brightness by ~ 14%. We find that this decrease in luminosity occurs only at wavelengths < 20 microns. In particular, the continuum short ward of the silicate emission complex at 10 microns exhibits a ~ 12% (~ 3 sigma) drop in flux density, but no apparent change in slope; both the Spitzer and SOFIA spectra are consistent with a 7200 K blackbody. Additionally, the detection of water absorption is consistent with the Spitzer spectrum. The silicate emission feature at 10 microns continues to be consistent with unprocessed grains...

  8. Chalcogenide glass mid-infrared on-chip sensor for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongtao

    Chemical sensing in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) has been considered to be significant for molecular detection for decades, but until recently has mostly relied on benchtop spectroscopic instruments like Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, etc. Recent strides in planar photonic integration envision compact, standalone "sensor-on-a-chip" devices for molecular analysis as a potentially disruptive technology as compared to their conventional bulky counterparts. However, the difficulty of achieving adequate sensitivity in integrated optical sensors is still a key barrier towards their practical application, limited by the weak interactions between photons and molecules over the short optical path length accessible on a chip. To solve the sensitivity challenge, a novel mid-IR photothermal spectroscopic sensing technique was proposed and theoretically examined. Through dramatically amplified photothermal effects in an optical nano-cavity doubly resonant at both mid-IR pump and near infrared probe wavelengths, a device design based on nested 1-D nanobeam photonic crystal cavities is numerically analyzed to demonstrate the technique's potential for single small gas molecule detection without the need for cryogenically cooled mid-IR photo-detectors. Furthermore, since silica becomes opaque at wavelengths beyond 3.5 microm, new material platforms and fabrication techniques are needed for mid-IR on-chip chemical sensors. Chalcogenide glasses (ChG), amorphous compounds containing S, Se and Te, are ideal material choices for mid-IR chemical sensors given their broad mid-IR transparency window, large photothermal figure-of-merit, amorphous structure and low processing temperature. A ChG lift-off process and a nano-fabrication technique using focused ion beam milling have been developed to fabricate mid-IR ChG resonators and photonic crystal waveguide cavities. ChG resonators on CaF2 substrate claimed a high quality factor around 4 x 105. Using these devices, we have also

  9. Gate-controlled mid-infrared light bending with aperiodic graphene nanoribbons array

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, Eduardo; Mosig, Juan R; Low, Tony; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Graphene plasmonic nanostructures enable subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic energy from the mid-infrared down to the terahertz frequencies. By exploiting the spectrally varying light scattering phase at vicinity of the resonant frequency of the plasmonic nanostructure, it is possible to control the angle of reflection of an incoming light beam. We demonstrate, through full-wave electromagnetic simulations based on Maxwell equations, the electrical control of the angle of reflection of a mid-infrared light beam by using an aperiodic array of graphene nanoribbons, whose widths are engineered to produce a spatially varying reflection phase profile that allows for the construction of a far-field collimated beam towards a predefined direction.

  10. Stellar populations in the outskirts of M31: the mid-infrared view

    CERN Document Server

    Barmby, P

    2016-01-01

    The mid-infrared provides a unique view of galaxy stellar populations, sensitive to both the integrated light of old, low-mass stars and to individual dusty mass-losing stars. We present results from an extended Spitzer/IRAC survey of M31 with total lengths of 6.6 and 4.4 degrees along the major and minor axes, respectively. The integrated surface brightness profile proves to be surprisingly diffcult to trace in the outskirts of the galaxy, but we can also investigate the disk/halo transition via a star count profile, with careful correction for foreground and background contamination. Our point-source catalog allows us to report on mid-infrared properties of individual objects in the outskirts of M31, via cross-correlation with PAndAS, WISE, and other catalogs.

  11. Nanowires-assisted excitation and propagation of mid-infrared surface plasmon polaritons in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Zhao, Jianlin; Gu, Min

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of surface plasmon polaritons in a novel graphene hybrid photonic nanostructure, which consists of a graphene sheet and a dielectric layer with partly etched nanowires coated on the silicon substrate. The simulation and analytical results show that the mid-infrared plasmonic wave can be generated in the graphene sheet by normally incident light due to the satisfaction of the wavevector matching condition. Especially, we find that the plasmonic wavelength and spectral width are determined by the width, pitch, and refractive index of the dielectric nanowires, as well as the layer number and the Fermi level of graphene sheet. The analytical calculations agree well with the finite-difference time-domain simulations. These results would provide an new avenue toward the excitation of graphene plasmonics for the manipulation of mid-infrared light at nanoscale.

  12. Mid-infrared broadband absorber of full semiconductor epi-layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohua; Wang, Yufei; Zhang, Siriguleng; Zheng, Wanhua

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate mid-infrared dual channel near-perfect absorbers based on full semiconductor epi-layers theoretically. Strong absorption (>99.9%) is observed at 25.04 THz. Through introducing composite grating and controlling the thickness of the dielectric layer, we can get a broadband absorption with absorptivity above 80% at the range from 8 μm to 12 μm with a good incidence angle tolerance. The structure investigated in this paper shows a broadband, all-semiconductor, plasmonic architecture, which is of great importance for many applications such as bolometers, cloaking, imaging devices and also can be used in enhancing interaction of mid-infrared radiation with integrated semiconductor optoelectronic elements.

  13. Cascade-coupled racetrack resonators based on the Vernier effect in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Benedetto; Khokhar, Ali Z; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Penades, Jordi Soler; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Mashanovich, Goran Z

    2014-10-06

    In this paper we report the experimental demonstration of racetrack resonators in silicon-on-insulator technology platform operating in the mid-infrared wavelength range of 3.7-3.8 μm. Insertion loss lower than 1 dB and extinction ratio up to 30 dB were measured for single resonators. The experimental characterization of directional couplers and bending losses in silicon rib waveguides are also reported. Furthermore, we present the design and fabrication of cascade-coupled racetrack resonators based on the Vernier effect. Experimental spectra of Vernier architectures were demonstrated for the first time in the mid-infrared with insertion loss lower than 1 dB and maximum interstitial peak suppression of 10 dB.

  14. Gold triple-helix mid-infrared metamaterial by STED-inspired laser lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschke, Johannes; Wegener, Martin

    2015-09-01

    In analogy to wire-grid polarizers for linear polarization, metal-helix metamaterials can act as broadband circular polarizers. This concept has brought circular-polarization capabilities to mid-infrared and terahertz frequencies, which were previously difficult to access. Due to the lack of rotational symmetry, however, single-helix metamaterials exhibit unwanted circular-polarization conversions. Recent theoretical work showed that conversions can be fully eliminated by intertwining N=3 or 4 helices within each unit cell. While direct laser writing in positive-tone photo-resist yielded good results for single-helix metamaterials operating at mid-infrared frequencies, the axial resolution is insufficient for N-helix metamaterials. Here, we use stimulated emission depletion-inspired three-dimensional laser lithography to fabricate such microstructures. We measure all entries of the Jones transmission and reflection matrices and show experimentally that polarization conversions are minimized, in good agreement with theory.

  15. Split-cross antenna based narrowband mid-infrared absorber for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ao; Yang, Kecheng; Zhou, Lun; Li, Junyu; Tan, Xiaochao; Liu, Huan; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Feng; Yi, Fei

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated numerically a narrowband near unity mid-infrared absorber based on a periodic array of gold split cross antenna backed by a dielectric spacer and a gold backmirror. We systematically studied the spectral dependence on the antenna parameters and explored the optimized parameters for nanofabrication. The optimized structure has a linewidth of 39 nm at 3.17 μm and the peak absorption is 96.5%. This can be explained in terms of surface lattice resonance of the periodic structure. The investigated structure can be devised as a mid-infrared refractive index sensor. Due to the strong near field enhancement and spectral dependence on the surface dielectric conditions, the narrow linewidth arises from the coupled plasmonic-photonic modes in the structure and has potential applications in plasmonic biosensing.

  16. Tunable mid-infrared emission from acetylene-filled hollow-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zefeng; Zhou, Zhiyue; Li, Zhixian; Zhang, Naiqian; Chen, Yubin

    2016-11-01

    We report here a step tunable mid-infrared laser emission from acetylene-filled hollow-core fiber. Two kinds of anti-resonant hollow-core fibers are filled with mbar level of acetylene gas, and pumped with a modulated, amplified, narrow linewidth, fine tunable, 1.5 μm diode laser, then 3 μm laser emissions are generated by the intrinsic absorption of acetylene molecules. The laser wavelength is step-tunable in the range of 3.1 3.2 μm when the pump laser is precisely tuned to different absorption lines of P-branch of acetylene. By properly designing the fiber's transmission bands, and carefully selecting active gases and pump lasers, this paper provides a novel method for efficient, compact and tunable mid-infrared fiber lasers over a broad spectrum range.

  17. Mid-Infrared Properties of Disk Averaged Observations of Earth with AIRS

    CERN Document Server

    Hearty, Thomas; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ~ 1200; 3.75-15.4 microns) spectra to construct directly-observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  18. Two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As-Se suspended core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    2015-01-01

    A more than two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum with an average output power of 15.6 mW covering 1.7-7.5 μm (1,333-5,900 cm-1) is generated in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm.......A more than two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum with an average output power of 15.6 mW covering 1.7-7.5 μm (1,333-5,900 cm-1) is generated in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm....

  19. A systematic investigation of high harmonic generation using mid-infrared driving laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of the influences of gas pressure,focal position and focusing geometry on high harmonic generation by use of mid-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. We also discuss the spatial characteristics of harmonics under different focusing conditions. By optimizing the parameters,we experimentally observed the generation of 1 kHz,low divergence coherent X-ray beams in the water-window region.

  20. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccio D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present supercontinuum generation pumped by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses in a bulk homogeneous material. The spectrum extends from 450 nm into the midinfrared, and carries high spectral energy density (3 pJ/nm–10 nJ/nm. The supercontinuum has high shot-to-shot reproducibility and preserves the carrier-to-envelope phase. Our result paves the way for compact supercontinuum sources with unprecedented bandwidth.

  1. Genetic parameters for methane emissions predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Vanlierde, Amélie; Dehareng, Frédéric; Froidmont, Eric; Pierre DARDENNE; Lewis, E.; Buckley, F.; Deighton, MH; McParland, S.; Gengler, Nicolas; Soyeurt, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Genetic selection of low methane (CH4) emitting animals is additive and permanent but the difficulties associated with individual CH4 measurement result in a paucity of records required to estimate genetic variability of CH4 traits. Recently, it was shown that direct quantification of CH4 emissions by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) from milk. The CH4 prediction equation was developed using 452 SF6 CH4 measurements with associated milk spectra and the calibration equation wa...

  2. Potential estimation of titratable acidity in cow milk using mid-infrared spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Colinet, Frédéric; Soyeurt, Hélène; Anceau, Christine; Vanlierde, Amélie; Keyen, Nicolas; Pierre DARDENNE; Gengler, Nicolas; Sindic, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Milk coagulation has a direct effect on cheese yield. Several factors influence the milk coagulation kinetics. In addition to calcium and milk protein concentrations, titratable acidity influences all the phases of milk coagulation. The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of prediction of titratable acidity directly in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectrometry. In order to maximize the variability in the measurements of titratable acidity, milk samples were collected on ...

  3. The use of mid-infrared spectrometry to predict body energy status of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, S.; G. Banos; Wall, E.; Coffey, M. P.; Soyeurt, H.; Veerkamp, R F; Berry, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy balance, especially in early lactation, is known to be associated with subsequent health and fertility in dairy cows. However, its inclusion in routine management decisions or breeding programs is hindered by the lack of quick, easy, and inexpensive measures of energy balance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of mid-infrared (MIR) analysis of milk, routinely available from all milk samples taken as part of large-scale milk recording and milk payment operations;...

  4. Genetic variability of lactoferrin content estimated by mid-infrared spectrometry in bovine milk

    OpenAIRE

    Soyeurt, Hélène; Colinet, Frédéric; Arnould, Valérie; Dardenne, Pierre; Bertozzi, Carlo; Renaville, Robert; Portetelle, Daniel; Gengler, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The effects of lactoferrin (LF) on the immune system have already been shown by many studies. Unfortunately, the current methods used to measure LF levels in milk do not permit the study of the genetic variability of lactoferrin or the performance of routine genetic evaluations. The first aim of this research was to derive a calibration equation permitting the prediction of LF in milk by mid-infrared spectrometry (MIR). The calibration with partial least squares on 69 ...

  5. Multi-milliwatt mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Kubat, Irnis

    2015-01-01

    A low-loss suspended core As38Se62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm and a zero-dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μm was used for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. The dispersion of the fiber was measured from 2.9 to 4.2 μm and was in good correspondence with the calculated dispersion. An optic...

  6. The Mid-Infrared Emission of Seyfert Galaxies: A New Analysis of ISOCAM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Almeida, C.; Pérez García, A. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    We present mid-infrared data of a sample of 57 AGNs obtained with the instrument ISOCAM on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) satellite. The images were obtained through the LW2 (6.75 μm) and LW7 (9.62 μm) filters. This is a new analysis of the Clavel et al. galaxy sample, which is divided into 26 type 1 (1.5) Seyfert galaxies, plus three QSOs. The spatial resolution of the images allows us to separate the nuclear and the extended contributions to the total emission after decomposing the brightness profiles into different morphological components. The most common components are a central point source (identified as the active nucleus) and an exponential disk. In some cases a bulge, a bar, or a ring are needed. The relative contribution of the nucleus to the total emission appears larger in Seyfert 1 than in Seyfert 2 types. This result confirms that both types of Seyfert galaxies are different in the mid-infrared wavelength range and supports the existence of a structure which produces anisotropic emission in this wavelength range. We have also explored correlations between the mid-infrared and the radio and X-ray wavelength ranges. The well-established radio/infrared correlation is maintained in our sample for the global emission of the galaxies. If only the nuclear infrared emission is considered, then a nonlinear correlation is apparent in the luminosity-luminosity scatter diagram. The ratio between the intrinsic hard X-ray and the nuclear mid-infrared emission presents large scatter and slightly larger values for type 2 Seyfert galaxies. These results seem to be consistent with the presence of a clumpy dusty torus surrounding the active nucleus. Based on observations with the Infrared Space Observatory, an ESA project with instruments funded by the ESA member states (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  7. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Zahedpour, S; Milchberg, H M

    2015-01-01

    We measure the nonlinear refractive index coefficients in N$_2$, O$_2$ and Ar from visible through mid-infrared wavelengths (\\lambda = 0.4 - 2.4 {\\mu}m). The wavelengths investigated correspond to transparency windows in the atmosphere. Good agreement is found with theoretical models of $\\chi^{(3)}$. Our results are essential for accurately simulating the propagation of ultrashort mid-IR pulses in the atmosphere.

  8. Converting mid-infrared signals to near-infrared through optomechanical transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsalis, A.; Mesaritakis, C.; Bogris, A.; Syvridis, D.

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared silicon photonics emerge as the dominant technology to bridge photonics and electronics in multifunctional high-speed integrated chips. The transmission and processing of optical signals lying at the mid-infrared wavelength region is ideal for sensing, absorption-spectroscopy and free-space communications and the use of group IV materials becomes principally promising as the vehicle towards their realization. In parallel, optical forces originating from modes and cavities can reach to outstandingly large values when sizes drop into the nanoscale. In this work, we propose the exploitation of large gradient optical forces generated between suspended silicon beams and optomechanical transduction as a means of converting signals from the mid-infrared to the near-infrared region. A midinfrared signal is injected into the waveguide system so as to excite the fundamental symmetric mode. In the 2-5μm wavelength range, separation gaps in the 100nm order and waveguide widths ranging from 300-600nm, the mode is mostly guided in the air slot between the waveguides which maximizes the optomechanical coupling coefficient and optical force. The resulting attractive force deflects the waveguides and the deflection is linearly dependent on the midinfrared optical power. A simple read-out technique using 1.55μm signals with conventional waveguiding in the directional coupler formed by the two beams is analyzed. A positive conversion efficiency (index unconventional guiding in mid-infrared could be a key component towards multifunctional lab-on-a-chip devices.

  9. Mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopic characterization of 5,6-dihydroxyindole and eumelanin derived from it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyogo, Ryosuke; Nakamura, Atsushi; Okuda, Hidekazu; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Sota, Takayuki

    2011-12-01

    Mid-infrared vibrational spectroscopic study has been made on 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI) and DHI-derived eumelanin. It has been revealed for DHI monomer that measured infrared absorption spectrum is well reproduced by that predicted from ab initio calculations. Thus, vibrational modes of DHI monomer causing dominant absorption bands have been successfully assigned. It has been also reconfirmed that DHI-derived eumelanin includes indolequinone and/or quinone methide units in addition to DHI units.

  10. Mid-infrared absorption spectra of dimethyl methylphosphonate as molecular simulant of nerve agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonggang Zhang; Zhenxing Cheng; Aizhen Li; Songlin Feng

    2006-01-01

    The fine mid-infrared absorption features of dimethyl methylphosphonate vapor have been characterized by using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, and the nitrous oxide was used for calibration purpose. The results show that the main P-O-C and P=O bonds related absorption bands of dimethyl methylphosphonate vapor are peaked at 1050.01 and 1275.76 cm-1 respectively, those two bands show continuous characteristics at resolution of 0.125 cm-1.

  11. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...... quality and production optimization. By combining a new MIR supercontinuum source with spectroscopy and chemometrics, we seek to enable faster and more precise analysis of grains, soils and dairy products....

  12. Standardization of milk mid-infrared spectra from a European dairy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelet, C; Fernández Pierna, J A; Dardenne, P; Baeten, V; Dehareng, F

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study was to find a procedure to standardize dairy milk mid-infrared spectra from different Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrophotometers (different brands or models) inside a European dairy network to create new farm-management indicators (e.g., fertility, health, feed, environmental impact) based on milk infrared spectra. This step is necessary to create common spectral databases, allowing the building of statistical tools, to be used by all instruments of the network. The method used was piecewise direct standardization (PDS), which matches slave-instrument spectra on master-instrument spectra. To evaluate the possibility of using common equations on different instruments, the PDS method was tested on a set of milk samples measured on each machine, and an equation predicting fat content of milk is applied on all. Regressions were performed between master and slaves fat predictions, before and after PDS. Bias and root mean square error between predictions were decreased after PDS, respectively, from 0.3781 to 0.0000 and from 0.4609 to 0.0156 (g of fat/100mL of milk). The stability over time of these results was confirmed by an application of the coefficients created by PDS 1 mo later on the slave spectra. These preliminary results showed that the PDS method permits a reduction of the inherent spectral variability between instruments, allowing the merging of Fourier transform mid-infrared milk spectra from different instruments into a common database, the creation of new types of dairy farm management indicators, and the use of these common calibrations for all Fourier transform mid-infrared instruments of the European dairy network.

  13. Dy{sup 3+}-doped Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses for mid-infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mingjie [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Laser Materials and Devices, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Yang, Anping, E-mail: apyang@jsnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Laser Materials and Devices, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Peng, Yuefeng [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Zhang, Bin; Ren, He; Guo, Wei; Yang, Yan; Zhai, Chengcheng; Wang, Yuwei; Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Dingyuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Laser Materials and Devices, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses doped with Dy{sup 3+} ions were synthesized. • The glasses show good thermal stability and excellent infrared transparency. • The glasses show low phonon energy and intense mid-infrared emissions. • The mid-infrared emissions have high quantum efficiency. • The mid-infrared emissions have large stimulated emission cross sections. - Abstract: Novel Ga–Sb–S chalcogenide glasses doped with different amount of Dy{sup 3+} ions were prepared. Their thermal stability, optical properties, and mid-infrared (MIR) emission properties were investigated. The glasses show good thermal stability, excellent infrared transparency, very low phonon energy (∼306 cm{sup −1}), and intense emissions centered at 2.95, 3.59, 4.17 and 4.40 μm. Three Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω{sub 2} = 8.51 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}, Ω{sub 4} = 2.09 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}, and Ω{sub 6} = 1.60 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) are obtained, and the related radiative transition properties are evaluated. The high quantum efficiencies and large stimulated emission cross sections of the MIR emissions (88.10% and 1.11 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} for 2.95 μm emission, 75.90% and 0.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} for 4.40 μm emission, respectively) in the Dy{sup 3+}-doped Ga–Sb–S glasses make them promising gain materials for the MIR lasers.

  14. Spatio-temporal characterization of mid-infrared laser pulses with spatially encoded spectral shearing interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Witting, Tobias; Tisch, John W G; Marangos, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    We report on the spatially resolved full amplitude and phase characterization of mid-infrared high intensity laser pulses generated in a three stage OPA. We use a spatially-encoded arrangement (SEA-)SPIDER with spectral filters for ancilla generation for spatially resolved characterization. Using five interchangeable filter sets we are able to characterize pulses from 1 to 2{\\mu}m with one single device with minimal adjustments.

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach for measurements of photoluminescence and electroluminescence in mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. G.; Gu, Y.; Wang, K.; Fang, X.; Li, A. Z.; Liu, K. H.

    2012-05-01

    An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.

  16. Laboratory demonstration of a mid-infrared AGPM vector vortex coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Delacroix, Christian; Forsberg, Pontus; Mawet, Dimitri; Christiaens, Valentin; Karlsson, Michael; Boccaletti, Anthony; Baudoz, Pierre; Kuittinen, Markku; Vartiainen, Ismo; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Coronagraphy is a powerful technique to achieve high contrast imaging and hence to image faint companions around bright targets. Various concepts have been used in the visible and near-infrared regimes, while coronagraphic applications in the mid-infrared remain nowadays largely unexplored. Vector vortex phase masks based on concentric subwavelength gratings show great promise for such applications. We aim at producing and validating the first high-performance broadband focal plane phase mask coronagraphs for applications in the mid-infrared regime, and in particular the L band with a fractional bandwidth of ~16% (3.5-4.1 \\mu m). Based on rigorous coupled wave analysis, we designed an annular groove phase mask (AGPM) producing a vortex effect in the L band, and etched it onto a series of diamond substrates. The grating parameters were measured by means of scanning electron microscopy. The resulting components were then tested on a mid-infrared coronagraphic test bench. A broadband raw null depth of 2 x 10^{-3...

  17. Spectral principal component analysis of mid-infrared spectra of a sample of PG QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Wei-Hao; Green, Richard; Shi, Yong; Ge, Xue; Liu, Wen-Shuai

    2015-01-01

    A spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 87 PG QSOs at $z < 0.5$ is presented for their mid-infrared spectra from Spitzer Space Telescope. We have derived the first five eigenspectra, which account for 85.2\\% of the mid-infrared spectral variation. It is found that the first eigenspectrum represents the mid-infrared slope, forbidden emission line strength and $9.7~\\mu m$ silicate feature, the 3rd and 4th eigenspectra represent the silicate features at $18~ \\mu m$ and $9.7~\\mu m$, respectively. With the principal components (PC) from optical PCA, we find that there is a medium strong correlation between spectral SPC1 and PC2 (accretion rate). It suggests that more nuclear contribution to the near-IR spectrum leads to the change of mid-IR slope. We find mid-IR forbidden lines are suppressed with higher accretion rate. A medium strong correlation between SPC3 and PC1 (Eddington ratio) suggests a connection between the silicate feature at $18~\\mu m$ and the Eddington ratio. For the ratio o...

  18. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach for measurements of photoluminescence and electroluminescence in mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y G; Gu, Y; Wang, K; Fang, X; Li, A Z; Liu, K H

    2012-05-01

    An improved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy approach adapting to photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements in mid-infrared has been developed, in which diode-pumped solid-state excitation lasers were adopted for photoluminescence excitation. In this approach, three different Fourier transform infrared modes of rapid scan, double modulation, and step scan were software switchable without changing the hardware or connections. The advantages and limitations of each mode were analyzed in detail. Using this approach a group of III-V and II-VI samples from near-infrared extending to mid-infrared with photoluminescence intensities in a wider range have been characterized at room temperature to demonstrate the validity and overall performances of the system. The weaker electroluminescence of quantum cascade lasers in mid-infrared band was also surveyed at different resolutions. Results show that for samples with relatively strong photoluminescence or electroluminescence out off the background, rapid scan mode is the most preferable. For weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence overlapped with background, double modulation is the most effective mode. To get a better signal noise ratio when weaker photoluminescence or electroluminescence signal has been observed in double modulation mode, switching to step scan mode should be an advisable option despite the long data acquiring time and limited resolution.

  19. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin;

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great interest because virtually all organic compounds display distinctive spectral fingerprints herein that reveal chemical information about them [1], and the mid-infrared region is therefore of key importance to many applications, including food quality...... control [2], gas sensing [3] and medical diagnostics [4] . We have used a low-loss suspended core As 38 Se 62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μ m and a zero - dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μ m to generate mid-infrared supercontinuum by pumping with an optical parametric amplifier delivering 320 fs pulses...... with a peak power of ~5.5 kW at a repetition rate of 21 MHz at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μ m . By pumping at 4.4 μ m with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7 to 7.5 μ m with an average output power of 15.6 mW was obtained. Figure 1 shows the results...

  20. Far and mid infrared observations of two ultracompact H II regions and one compact CO clump

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, R P; Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N

    2003-01-01

    Two ultracompact H II regions (IRAS 19181+1349 and 20178+4046) and one compact molecular clump (20286+4105) have been observed at far infrared wavelengths using the TIFR 1 m balloon-borne telescope and at mid infrared wavelengths using ISO. Far infrared observations have been made simultaneously in two bands with effective wavelengths of ~ 150 and ~ 210 micron, using liquid 3He cooled bolometer arrays. ISO observations have been made in seven spectral bands using the ISOCAM instrument; four of these bands cover the emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. In addition, IRAS survey data for these sources in the four IRAS bands have been processed using the HIRES routine. In the high resolution mid infrared maps as well as far infrared maps multiple embedded energy sources have been resolved. There are structural similarities between the images in the mid infrared and the large scale maps in the far infrared bands, despite very different angular resolutions of the two. Dust temperature and ...

  1. Mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in bovine milk: potential indicator of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyeurt, H; Bastin, C; Colinet, F G; Arnould, V M-R; Berry, D P; Wall, E; Dehareng, F; Nguyen, H N; Dardenne, P; Schefers, J; Vandenplas, J; Weigel, K; Coffey, M; Théron, L; Detilleux, J; Reding, E; Gengler, N; McParland, S

    2012-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LTF) is a milk glycoprotein favorably associated with the immune system of dairy cows. Somatic cell count is often used as an indicator of mastitis in dairy cows, but knowledge on the milk LTF content could aid in mastitis detection. An inexpensive, rapid and robust method to predict milk LTF is required. The aim of this study was to develop an equation to quantify the LTF content in bovine milk using mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry. LTF was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and all milk samples were analyzed by MIR. After discarding samples with a coefficient of variation between 2 ELISA measurements of more than 5% and the spectral outliers, the calibration set consisted of 2499 samples from Belgium (n = 110), Ireland (n = 1658) and Scotland (n = 731). Six statistical methods were evaluated to develop the LTF equation. The best method yielded a cross-validation coefficient of determination for LTF of 0.71 and a cross-validation standard error of 50.55 mg/l of milk. An external validation was undertaken using an additional dataset containing 274 Walloon samples. The validation coefficient of determination was 0.60. To assess the usefulness of the MIR predicted LTF, four logistic regressions using somatic cell score (SCS) and MIR LTF were developed to predict the presence of mastitis. The dataset used to build the logistic regressions consisted of 275 mastitis records and 13 507 MIR data collected in 18 Walloon herds. The LTF and the interaction SCS × LTF effects were significant (P validation) and data collected from a research herd at the University of Wisconsin - Madison (i.e. 5886 Wisconsin MIR records related to 93 mastistis events - external validation). Model specificity was better when LTF was included in the regression along with SCS when compared with SCS alone. Correct classification of non-mastitis records was 95.44% and 92.05% from Wisconsin and Walloon data, respectively. The same conclusion was formulated from the

  2. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leggett, Sandy K [GEMINI OBSERVATORY; Burningham, Ben [HERTFORDSHITE UNIV; Marley, Mark S [NASA AMES; Waren, S J [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Jones, H R A [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Pinfield, D J [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Smart, R L [ASTRONOMICAL OBS

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  3. Mid-Infrared OPO for High Resolution Measurements of Trace Gases in the Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Numata,Kenji; Riris, haris; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham; Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is composed primarily (>95%) of CO2 and N2 gas, with CO, O2, CH4, and inert gases such as argon comprising most of the remainder. It is surprisingly dynamic with various processes driving changes in the distribution of CO2, dust, haze, clouds and water vapor on global scales in the meteorology of Mars atmosphere [I]. The trace gases and isotopic ratios in the atmosphere offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of the planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. In the search for life on Mars, an important process is the ability of bacteria to metabolize inorganic substrates (H2, CO2 and rock) to derive energy and produce methane as a by-product of anaerobic metabolism. Trace gases have been measured in the Mars atmosphere from Earth, Mars orbit, and from the Mars surface. The concentration of water vapor and various carbon-based trace gases are observed in variable concentrations. Within the past decade multiple groups have reported detection of CH4, with concentrations in the 10's of ppb, using spectroscopic observations from Earth [2]. Passive spectrometers in the mid-infrared (MIR) are restricted to the sunlit side of the planet, generally in the mid latitudes, and have limited spectral and spatial resolution. To accurately map the global distribution and to locate areas of possibly higher concentrations of these gases such as plumes or vents requires an instrument with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution that also has global coverage and can measure during both day and night. Our development goal is a new MIR lidar capable of measuring, on global scales, with sensitivity, resolution and precision needed to characterize the trace gases and isotopic ratios of the Martian atmosphere. An optical parametric oscillator operating in the MIR is well suited for this instrument. The sufficient wavelength tuning range of the OPO can extend the measurements to other organic molecules, CO2, atmospheric water

  4. Development of a near-infrared/mid-infrared dual-region spectrometer for online process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Nishii, Takashi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2012-07-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer having two immersion probes, a transmission probe for NIR, and an attenuated total reflection (ATR) probe for mid-IR has been developed for highly reliable process monitoring and deep process understanding. This spectrometer facilitates sequential acquisition of both NIR (10,000-4000 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (5000-1200 cm(-1)) spectra by switching the light path leading to the probes without the need for probe replacement. The use of a single light source and a single beam splitter enables achievement of a permanent alignment of the optical system and sequential data acquisition. The transmission NIR and ATR mid-IR probes designed and developed in the present study facilitate the acquisition of NIR/mid-IR spectra with optimized absorption intensities in both regions by simply placing the probes into a sample solution. The performance of the developed spectrometer was demonstrated in monitoring the ethanol fermentation process. NIR/mid-IR spectra of the fermentation solution with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) represent the relative changes in the concentrations of glucose and ethanol in both regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the MSC-treated spectra in the regions 6300-5650 cm(-1), 4850-4300 cm(-1), and 3500-2880 cm(-1) to detect the end-point of the fermentation as an example of process monitoring. For all the regions, the score plot of the first principal component (PC) indicates that the fermentation progresses with the fermentation time and stops after 210 minutes and thus the end-point of the fermentation exists at around 210 minutes. The loading plot indicates that all of the first PCs are the relative changes in the concentrations of glucose and ethanol. This result reveals that the same chemical changes are observed in both transmission NIR and ATR mid-IR spectra. Multiple and simultaneous analysis was also performed, and intensity change in light

  5. Prediction of fat globule particle size in homogenized milk using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Cree, Patrick; Barbano, David M

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to develop partial least square models using data from Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR) spectra to predict the particle size distributions d(0.5) and d(0.9), surface volume mean diameter D[3,2], and volume moment mean diameter D[4,3] of milk fat globules and validate the models. The goal of the study was to produce a method built into the MIR milk analyzer that could be used to warn the instrument operator that the homogenizer is near failure and needs to be replaced to ensure quality of results. Five homogenizers with different homogenization efficiency were used to homogenize pasteurized modified unhomogenized milks and farm raw bulk milks. Homogenized milks were collected from the homogenizer outlet and then run through an MIR milk analyzer without an in-line homogenizer to collect a MIR spectrum. A separate portion of each homogenized milk was analyzed with a laser light-scattering particle size analyzer to obtain reference values. The study was replicated 3 times with 3 independent sets of modified milks and bulk tank farm milks. Validation of the models was done with a set of 34 milks that were not used in the model development. Partial least square regression models were developed and validated for predicting the following milk fat globule particle size distribution parameters from MIR spectra: d(0.5) and d(0.9), surface volume mean diameter D[3,2], and volume moment mean diameter D[4,3]. The basis for the ability to model particle size distribution of milk fat emulsions was hypothesized to be the result of the partial least square modeling detecting absorbance shifts in MIR spectra of milk fat due to the Christiansen effect. The independent sample validation of particle size prediction methods found more variation in d(0.9) and D[4,3] predictions than the d(0.5) and D[3,2] predictions relative to laser light-scattering reference values, and this may be due to variation in particle size among different pump strokes. The accuracy of the

  6. High energy femtosecond mid-infrared generation pumped by a two-color Ti:sapphire multipass amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA JiangFan; SONG Jie; Donna T. Strickland

    2008-01-01

    Intense mid-infrared was generated by direct frequency mixing two pulses from a dual-wavelength Ti:sapphire system. From a multipass amplifier we generated two tunable wavelength femtosecond pulses with a total energy of 15 mJ. Pulse energy of 1.6 μJ and 7.4 μJ of mid-infrared light is achieved with and without its multipass amplifier at 9-11 μm, with pulse duration of 500 fs.

  7. A handheld mid-infrared methane sensor using a dual-step differential method for additive/multiplicative noise suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Dang, Peipei; Zheng, Chuantao; Ye, Weilin; Wang, Yiding

    2016-11-01

    A miniature mid-infrared (mid-IR) methane (CH4) sensor system was developed by employing a wide-band wire-source and a semi-ellipsoid multi-pass gas cell. A dual-step differential method instead of the traditional one-step differential method was adopted by this sensor to tune measuring range/zero point and to suppress the additive/multiplicative noise. This method included a first subtraction operation between the two output signals (including a detection signal and a reference signal) from the dual-channel detector and a second subtraction operation on the amplitudes of the first-subtraction signal and the reference signal, followed by a ratio operation between the amplitude of the second-subtraction signal and the reference signal. Detailed experiments were performed to assess the performance of the sensor system. The detection range is 0-50 k ppm, and as the concentration gets larger than 12 k ppm, the relative detection error falls into the range of -3% to +3%. The Allan deviation is about 4.65 ppm with an averaging time of 1 s, and such value can be further improved to 0.45 ppm with an averaging time of 124 s. Due to the cost-effective incandescence wire-source, the small-size ellipsoid multi-pass gas cell and the miniature structure of the sensor, the developed standalone device shows potential applications of CH4 detection under coal-mine environment.

  8. A mid-infrared carbon monoxide sensor system using wideband absorption spectroscopy and a single-reflection spherical optical chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Zheng, Chuantao; Miao, Shuzhuo; Song, Fang; Wang, Yiding

    2017-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon monoxide (CO) sensor system based on a dual-channel differential detection method was developed using a broadband light source in the 4.60 μm wavelength region and a single-reflection spherical optical chamber with ∼0.373 m absorption path length. CO detection was realized by targeting the wideband strong absorption lines within 4.55-4.65 μm. A dual-channel pyroelectric detector as well as a self-developed digital signal processor (DSP) based orthogonal lock-in amplifier was employed to process CO sensing signal. A minimum detection limit of ∼0.5 ppm in volume (ppmv) was achieved with a measurement time of 6 s, based on an Allan deviation analysis of the sensor system. The response time (1000 → 0 ppmv) was determined to be ∼7 s for the CO sensor operation. Due to the characteristics of low detection limit, fast response time and high cost performance, the proposed sensor has relatively good prospect in coal-mining operation.

  9. Silver halide fiber-based evanescent-wave liquid droplet sensing with thermoelectrically cooled room temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Z.; Liu, Zhijun; Gmachl, Claire F.; Sivco, Deborah L.

    2005-11-01

    Quantum cascade lasers coupled directly to unclad silver halide fibers were used to assemble mid-infrared fiber-optics evanescent-wave sensors suitable to measure the chemical composition of simple liquid droplets. Quantum cascade lasers can be designed to emit across a wide range of mid-infrared wavelengths by tailoring the quantum-well structure, and the wavelength can be fine tuned by a thermoelectric cooler. Here, laser wavelengths were chosen which offer the largest absorption contrast between two constituents of a droplet. The laser was coupled to an unclad silver halide fiber, which penetrates through the droplet resting on a hydrophobic surface. For the same liquid composition and droplet size, the transmitted intensity is weaker for a droplet on a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-octyltrichlorosilane coated glass slide than for one on a hexadecanethiol (HDT) coated Au-covered glass slide because of the high reflectivity of the HDT/Au surface at mid-infrared wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of water, glycerol, α-tocophenol acetate, and squalane were measured by varying the immersion length of the fiber; i.e. the droplet size. A pseudo-Beer-Lambert law fits well with the experimental data. We tested both aqueous liquid mixtures (acetone/water and ethanol/water) and oil-base solutions (n-dodecane/squalane and α-tocophenol acetate/squalane); α-tocophenol acetate and squalane are common ingredients of cosmetics, either as active ingredients or for chemical stabilization. Using a 300μm diameter silver halide fiber with a 25mm immersion length, the detection limits are 1 vol.% for α-tocophenol in squalane and 2 vol.% for acetone in water for laser wavenumbers of 1208 cm -1 and 1363 cm -1, respectively. This work was previously been reported in J. Z. Chen et al. Optics Express 13, 5953 (2005).

  10. A mid-infrared sensor for the determination of perfluorocarbon-based compounds in aquatic systems for geosequestration purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Florian; Schwenk, Matthias; Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ho, Koon-Bay; Stalker, Linda; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-12-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) compounds have been used as chemical tracer molecules to understand the movement of supercritical carbon dioxide for geosequestration monitoring and verification purposes. A commonly used method for detecting PFCs involves the collection of a sample from either soil-gas or the atmosphere via carbon-based sorbents which are then analyzed in a laboratory. However, PFC analysis in aquatic environments is neglected and this is an issue that needs to be considered since the PFC is likely to undergo permeation through the overlying water formations. This paper presents for the first time an innovative analytical method for the trace level in situ detection of PFCs in water. It reports on the development of a sensor based on mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (MIR-ATR) spectroscopy for determining the concentration of perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH) and perfluoro-1,3-dimethylcyclohexane (PDCH) in aquatic systems. The sensor comprises a zinc selenide waveguide with the surface modified by a thin polymer film. The sensitivity of this device was investigated as a function of polymer type, coating thickness, and solution flow rates. The limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 23 ppb and 79 ppb for PMCH and PDCH, respectively when using a 5 μm thick polyisobutylene (PIB) coated waveguide. This study has shown that the MIR-ATR sensor can be used to directly quantify PFC-based chemical tracer compounds in water over the 20-400 ppb concentration range.

  11. Selective detection of luminescence from semiconductor quantum dots by nanosecond time-gated imaging with a colour-masked CCD detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A C; Dad, S; Morgan, C G

    2008-05-01

    Quantum dots are of considerable interest as highly detectable labels with broad absorption, narrow spectral emission and good quantum yields. The luminescence emission has a longer decay time than that of the most common fluorophores, leading to facile rejection of much background emission (such as autofluorescence from biological samples) by means of gated detection. Here, it is shown that a new technique, true-colour nanosecond time-gated luminescence imaging, can be used for selective detection of quantum dot luminescence and should prove valuable for multiplexed detection on the basis of both spectral emission profile and luminescence decay time.

  12. Tunability of the dielectric function of heavily doped germanium thin films for mid-infrared plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Jacopo; Ballabio, Andrea; Isella, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Biagioni, Paolo; Bollani, Monica; Napolitani, Enrico; Manganelli, Costanza; Virgilio, Michele; Grupp, Alexander; Fischer, Marco P.; Brida, Daniele; Gallacher, Kevin; Paul, Douglas J.; Baldassarre, Leonetta; Calvani, Paolo; Giliberti, Valeria; Nucara, Alessandro; Ortolani, Michele

    2016-08-01

    Heavily doped semiconductor thin films are very promising for application in mid-infrared plasmonic devices because the real part of their dielectric function is negative and broadly tunable in the 5 to 50 μ m wavelength range at least. In this work, we investigate the electrodynamics of heavily n -type-doped germanium epilayers at infrared frequencies beyond the assumptions of the Drude model. The films are grown on silicon and germanium substrates, are in situ doped with phosphorous in the 1017 to 1019 cm-3 range, then screened plasma frequencies in the 100 to 1200 cm-1 range were observed. We employ infrared spectroscopy, pump-probe spectroscopy, and dc transport measurements to determine the tunability of the plasma frequency. Although no plasmonic structures have been realized in this work, we derive estimates of the decay time of mid-infrared plasmons and of their figures of merit for field confinement and for surface plasmon propagation. The average electron scattering rate increases almost linearly with excitation frequency, in agreement with quantum calculations based on a model of the ellipsoidal Fermi surface at the conduction band minimum of germanium accounting for electron scattering with optical phonons and charged impurities. Instead, we found weak dependence of plasmon losses on neutral impurity density. In films where a transient plasma was generated by optical pumping, we found significant dependence of the energy relaxation times in the few-picosecond range on the static doping level of the film, confirming the key but indirect role played by charged impurities in energy relaxation. Our results indicate that underdamped mid-infrared plasma oscillations are attained in n -type-doped germanium at room temperature.

  13. Authentication of Whey Protein Powders by Portable Mid-Infrared Spectrometers Combined with Pattern Recognition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow Ying; Mutilangi, William; Aykas, Didem P; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to differentiate whey protein types (WPC, WPI, and WPH) used for beverage manufacturing by combining the spectral signature collected from portable mid-infrared spectrometers and pattern recognition analysis. Whey protein powders from different suppliers are produced using a large number of processing and compositional variables, resulting in variation in composition, concentration, protein structure, and thus functionality. Whey protein powders including whey protein isolates, whey protein concentrates and whey protein hydrolysates were obtained from different suppliers and their spectra collected using portable mid-infrared spectrometers (single and triple reflection) by pressing the powder onto an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) diamond crystal with a pressure clamp. Spectra were analyzed by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) generating a classification model showing the ability to differentiate whey protein types by forming tight clusters with interclass distance values of >3, considered to be significantly different from each other. The major bands centered at 1640 and 1580 cm(-1) were responsible for separation and were associated with differences in amide I and amide II vibrations of proteins, respectively. Another important band in whey protein clustering was associated with carboxylate vibrations of acidic amino acids (∼1570 cm(-1)). The use of a portable mid-IR spectrometer combined with pattern recognition analysis showed potential for discriminating whey protein ingredients that can help to streamline the analytical procedure so that it is more applicable for field-based screening of ingredients. A rapid, simple and accurate method was developed to authenticate commercial whey protein products by using portable mid-infrared spectrometers combined with chemometrics, which could help ensure the functionality of whey protein ingredients in food applications. © 2015

  14. Atmospheric transmission and thermal background emission in the mid-infrared at Mauna Kea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otárola, A.; Richter, M.; Packham, C.; Chun, M.

    2015-04-01

    We present results of a preliminary study intended to quantitatively estimate the atmospheric transmission and thermal background emission in the mid-infrared (MIR), 7 μm - 26 μm, at the 13N TMT site in Mauna Kea. This is in the interest of supporting the planning of MIR instrumentation for the posible second-generation of astronomical instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project. Mauna Kea, located at high altitude (4,050 m above sea level), enjoys natural conditions that make it an outstanding location for astronomical observations in the mid-infrared. The goal of this work is to produce a dataset and model that shows the atmospheric transmission and thermal emission for two cases of precipitable water vapor (PWV), a low value of 0.3 mm, and at 1.5 mm which represent near median conditions at the site. Besides, and driven by the interest of the MIR community to exploit the daily twilight times, we look at the specific atmospheric conditions around twilight as a function of season. The best conditions are found for cold and dry winter days, and in particular the morning twilight offers the best conditions. The analysis of PWV data, shows the median value for the site (all year conditions between 6:00 PM and 7:30AM) is 1.8 mm and that periods of water vapor lower than 1.0 mm are common, these supports the opportunity and discovery potential of the TMT project in the mid-infrared bands.

  15. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-22

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  16. Giant Photoresponsivity of Mid-Infrared Hyperbolic Metamaterials in the Quantum Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Sakhdari, Maryam; Alù, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We explore broadband, wide-angle mid-infrared rectification based on nanopatterned hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM), composed of two dissimilar metals separated by a sub-nanometer tunnel barrier. The exotic slow-light modes supported by such periodically trenched HMMs efficiently trap incident radiation in massively parallel metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions supporting ultrafast optical rectification induced by photon-assisted tunneling. This leads to highly efficient photon-to-electron conversion, orders of magnitude larger than conventional rectennas. Our results promise an impact on infrared energy harvesters and plasmonic photodetectors.

  17. Demonstration of high-Q mid-infrared chalcogenide glass-on-silicon resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Zou, Yi; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Kozacik, Stephen; Murakowski, Maciej; Prather, Dennis; Lin, Pao T; Singh, Vivek; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C; Hu, Juejun

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrated high-index-contrast, waveguide-coupled As2Se3 chalcogenide glass resonators monolithically integrated on silicon fabricated using optical lithography and a lift-off process. The resonators exhibited a high intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(5) at 5.2 μm wavelength, which is among the highest values reported in on-chip mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic devices. The resonator can serve as a key building block for mid-IR planar photonic circuits.

  18. FIRST SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS WITH SOFIA/FORCAST: THE FORCAST MID-INFRARED CAMERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Gull, G. E.; Schoenwald, J.; Henderson, C. P.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); De Buizer, J. M.; Vacca, W. D. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) completed its first light flight in May of 2010 using the facility mid-infrared instrument FORCAST. Since then, FORCAST has successfully completed 13 science flights on SOFIA. In this Letter, we describe the design, operation, and performance of FORCAST as it relates to the initial three Short Science flights. FORCAST was able to achieve near-diffraction-limited images for {lambda} > 30 {mu}m allowing unique science results from the start with SOFIA. We also describe ongoing and future modifications that will improve overall capabilities and performance of FORCAST.

  19. Indirect absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Ruf, Alexander; Fischer, Peer

    2013-11-04

    We record vibrational spectra with two indirect schemes that depend on the real part of the index of refraction: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy. In the former, a quantum cascade laser (QCL) spot is imaged to determine the angles of total internal reflection, which yields the absorption line via a beam profile analysis. In the photothermal measurements, a tunable QCL excites vibrational resonances of a molecular monolayer, which heats the surrounding medium and changes its refractive index. This is observed with a probe laser in the visible. Sub-monolayer sensitivities are demonstrated.

  20. Prediction of protein composition of individual cow milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Carnier; Guido Di Martino; Alessio Cecchinato; Valentina Bonfatti; Massimo De Marchi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the application of mid-infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of protein composition in individual milk samples (n=1,336) of Simmental cows. Protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC and MIR data were recorded over the spectral range from 4,000 to 900 cm-1. Models were developed by partial least squares regression using untreated spectra. The most successful predictions were for protein, casein, αS1-casein, whey protein, and β-lactoglobulin contents. Th...

  1. Evidence for Dynamical Changes in a Transitional Protoplanetary Disk with Mid-infrared Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Furlan, Elise; Smith, Paul S; Allen, Lori; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S Thomas; Muench, August; Rieke, George H; Sherry, William H

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr-old star forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.

  2. Mid-Infrared Conductivity from Mid-Gap States Associated with Charge Stripes

    OpenAIRE

    Homes, C. C.; Tranquada, J. M.; Li, Q; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Buttrey, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    The optical conductivity of La(2-x)Sr(x)NiO(4) has been interpreted in various ways, but so far the proposed interpretations have neglected the fact that the holes doped into the NiO(2) planes order in diagonal stripes, as established by neutron and X-ray scattering. Here we present a study of optical conductivity in La(2)NiO(4+d) with d=2/15, a material in which the charge stripes order three-dimensionally. We show that the conductivity can be decomposed into two components, a mid-infrared p...

  3. Improving the mid-infrared energy absorption efficiency by using a dual-band metamaterial absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Zhang; Peiheng Zhoun; Shifeng Zou; Xiaolong Weng; Jianliang Xie; Longjiang Deng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-band mid-infrared metamaterial absorber was proposed to improve the energy absorption efficiency. Up to 99%absorption was obtained at 9.03 and 11.83μm in the simulation, and each absorption band can be tuned by the dielectric spacing layer, i.e., the dielectric constant and its thickness. The dual-band absorption mechanism was analyzed, and the quite well absorption performance at large incident angles was also presented. The results of this study can be applied in the field of thermal absorbing and solar energy harvesting.

  4. Terahertz Generation in Nonlinear Crystals with Mid-Infrared CO2 Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yan-Zhao; WANG Xin-Bing; MIAO Liang; ZUO Du-Luo; CHENG Zu-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The terahertz(THz)generation based on difference frequency generation in nonlinear optical crystals pumped by mid-infrared C02 laser has been investigated.We present a comprehensive study of the phase-matching conditions in the GaSe, ZnGeP2 and GaAs crystals. A comparison of the characteristics of these crystals as the THz frequency generator is also presented. The investigation of the conversion efficiency shows that GaSe and GaAs are the most promising nonlinear crystals for the efficient and widely tunable THz generation.

  5. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P.; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J.; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  6. First Science Observations with SOFIA/FORCAST: The FORCAST Mid-infrared Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Herter, T L; De Buizer, J M; Gull, G E; Schoenwald, J; Henderson, C P; Keller, L D; Nikola, T; Stacey, G; Vacca, W D

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) completed its first light flight in May of 2010 using the facility mid-infrared instrument FORCAST. Since then, FORCAST has successfully completed thirteen science flights on SOFIA. In this paper we describe the design, operation and performance of FORCAST as it relates to the initial three Short Science flights. FORCAST was able to achieve near diffraction-limited images for lambda > 30 microns allowing unique science results from the start with SOFIA. We also describe ongoing and future modifications that will improve overall capabilities and performance of FORCAST.

  7. Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Difference Frequency Generation for Molecular Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz, Flavio C; Johnson, Todd; Ycas, Gabriel; Klose, Andrew; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Coddington, Ian; Diddams, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Mid-infrared femtosecond optical frequency combs were produced by difference frequency generation of the spectral components of a near-infrared comb in a 3-mm-long MgO:PPLN crystal. We observe strong pump depletion and 9.3 dB parametric gain in the 1.5 \\mu m signal, which yields powers above 500 mW (3 \\mu W/mode) in the idler with spectra covering 2.8 \\mu m to 3.5 \\mu m. Potential for broadband, high-resolution molecular spectroscopy is demonstrated by absorption spectra and interferograms obtained by heterodyning two combs.

  8. Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallacher, K.; Millar, R. W.; Paul, D. J., E-mail: Douglas.Paul@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Ballabio, A.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Polo Territoriale di Como, Via Anzani 42, Como I-22100 (Italy); Bashir, A.; MacLaren, I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ortolani, M. [Center for Life NanoScience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Viale Regina Elena 291, Rome I-00161 (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    Mid-infrared intersubband absorption from p-Ge quantum wells with Si{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} barriers grown on a Si substrate is demonstrated from 6 to 9 μm wavelength at room temperature and can be tuned by adjusting the quantum well thickness. Fourier transform infra-red transmission and photoluminescence measurements demonstrate clear absorption peaks corresponding to intersubband transitions among confined hole states. The work indicates an approach that will allow quantum well intersubband photodetectors to be realized on Si substrates in the important atmospheric transmission window of 8–13 μm.

  9. Widely Tunable Monolithic Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers Using Super-Structure Grating Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Dingkai Guo; Jiun-Yun Li; Liwei Cheng; Xing Chen; Terry Worchesky; Fow-Sen Choa

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic, three-section, and widely tunable mid-infrared (mid-IR) quantum cascade laser (QCL) is demonstrated. This electrically tuned laser consists of a gain section placed between two super structure grating (SSG) distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). By varying the injection currents to the two grating sections of this device, its emission wavelength can be tuned from 4.58 μm to 4.77 μm (90 cm−1) with a supermode spacing of 30 nm. This type of SSG-DBR QCLs can be a compact replacement ...

  10. Inference of Surface Chemical and Physical Properties Using Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.

    2016-01-01

    Reflected or emitted energy from solid surfaces in the solar system can provide insight into thermo-physical and chemical properties of the surface materials. Measurements have been obtained from instruments located on Earth-based telescopes and carried on several space missions. The characteristic spectral features commonly observed in Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectra of minerals will be reviewed, along with methods used for compositional interpretations of MIR emission spectra. The influence of surface grain size, and space weathering processes on MIR emissivity spectra will also be discussed. Methods used for estimating surface temperature, emissivity, and thermal inertias from MIR spectral observations will be reviewed.

  11. Design of mid-infrared ultra-wideband metallic absorber based on circuit theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Kamalodin; Abdollahramezani, Sajjad; Farajollahi, Saeed; Khavasi, Amin; Rejaei, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    An ultra-broadband absorber of light is proposed by using periodic array of ultra-thin metallic ribbons on top of a lossless quarter-wavelength dielectric spacer placed on a metallic reflector. We propose a fully analytical circuit model for the structure, and then the absorber is duly designed based on the impedance matching concept. As a result, normalized bandwidth of 99.5% is realized by the proposed absorbing structure in mid-infrared regime. Performing a numerical optimization algorithm, we could also reach to normalized bandwidth of 103%.

  12. Prediction of bovine milk true protein content by mid-infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Botaro,Bruno Garcia; CORTINHAS, Cristina Simões; Mestieri, Lucinéia; Machado,Paulo Fernando; Santos, Marcos Veiga dos

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of milk true protein (TP) by mid-infrared absorbance method (MIR) in samples from bulk tank of dairy herds, and to determine the correlation between the results of TP of milk determined by Kjeldahl and MIR. Forty nine dairy herds were selected (17 Holstein, 6 Jersey and 26 Girolando) for monthly collections of samples from bulk tanks during the period of one year (284 samples). Fat, lactose, crude protein and total solids were firstly de...

  13. Primary Reactions of the LOV2 Domain of Phototropin Studied with Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy and Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Maxime T.A.; Domratcheva, Tatiana; Bonetti, Cosimo; van Wilderen, Luuk J.G.W.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie-Louise; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; Kennis, John T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Phototropins, major blue-light receptors in plants, are sensitive to blue light through a pair of flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding light oxygen and voltage (LOV) domains, LOV1 and LOV2. LOV2 undergoes a photocycle involving light-driven covalent adduct formation between a conserved cysteine and the FMN C(4a) atom. Here, the primary reactions of Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 (AsLOV2) were studied using ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy and quantum chemistry. The singlet excited state (S1) evolves into the triplet state (T1) with a lifetime of 1.5 ns at a yield of ∼50%. The infrared signature of S1 is characterized by absorption bands at 1657 cm−1, 1495–1415 cm−1, and 1375 cm−1. The T1 state shows infrared bands at 1657 cm−1, 1645 cm−1, 1491–1438 cm−1, and 1390 cm−1. For both electronic states, these bands are assigned principally to C=O, C=N, C-C, and C-N stretch modes. The overall downshifting of C=O and C=N bond stretch modes is consistent with an overall bond-order decrease of the conjugated isoalloxazine system upon a π-π∗ transition. The configuration interaction singles (CIS) method was used to calculate the vibrational spectra of the S1 and T1 excited ππ∗ states, as well as respective electronic energies, structural parameters, electronic dipole moments, and intrinsic force constants. The harmonic frequencies of S1 and T1, as calculated by the CIS method, are in satisfactory agreement with the evident band positions and intensities. On the other hand, CIS calculations of a T1 cation that was protonated at the N(5) site did not reproduce the experimental FMN T1 spectrum. We conclude that the FMN T1 state remains nonprotonated on a nanosecond timescale, which rules out an ionic mechanism for covalent adduct formation involving cysteine-N(5) proton transfer on this timescale. Finally, we observed a heterogeneous population of singly and doubly H-bonded FMN C(4)=O conformers in the dark state, with stretch frequencies

  14. Long Fading Mid-infrared Emission in Transient Coronal Line Emitters: Dust Echo of a Tidal Disruption Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Liming; Wang, Ting-gui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Lyu, Jianwei; Zhou, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    The sporadic accretion following the tidal disruption of a star by a super-massive black hole (TDE) leads to a bright UV and soft X-ray flare in the galactic nucleus. The gas and dust surrounding the black hole responses to such a flare with an echo in emission lines and infrared emission. In this paper, we report the detection of long fading mid-IR emission lasting up to 14 years after the flare in four TDE candidates with transient coronal lines using the WISE public data release. We estimate that the reprocessed mid-IR luminosities are in the range between 4× {10}42 and 2× {10}43 erg s-1 and dust temperature in the range of 570-800 K when WISE first detected these sources three to five years after the flare. Both luminosity and dust temperature decrease with time. We interpret the mid-IR emission as the infrared echo of the tidal disruption flare. We estimate the UV luminosity at the peak flare to be 1 to 30 times 1044 erg s-1 and that for warm dust masses to be in the range of 0.05-1.3 {M}⊙ within a few parsecs. Our results suggest that the mid-infrared echo is a general signature of TDE in the gas-rich environment.

  15. Multi-species sensing using multi-mode absorption spectroscopy with mid-infrared interband cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, S.; Northern, J. H.; Gras, B.; Ewart, P.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Merritt, C. D.; Bewley, W. W.; Canedy, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    The application of an interband cascade laser, ICL, to multi-mode absorption spectroscopy, MUMAS, in the mid-infrared region is reported. Measurements of individual mode linewidths of the ICL, derived from the pressure dependence of lineshapes in MUMAS signatures of single, isolated, lines in the spectrum of HCl, were found to be in the range 10-80 MHz. Multi-line spectra of methane were recorded using spectrally limited bandwidths, of approximate width 27 cm-1, defined by an interference filter, and consist of approximately 80 modes at spectral locations spanning the 100 cm-1 bandwidth of the ICL output. Calibration of the methane pressures derived from MUMAS data using a capacitance manometer provided measurements with an uncertainty of 1.1 %. Multi-species sensing is demonstrated by the simultaneous detection of methane, acetylene and formaldehyde in a gas mixture. Individual partial pressures of the three gases are derived from best fits of model MUMAS signatures to the data with an experimental error of 10 %. Using an ICL, with an inter-mode interval of ~10 GHz, MUMAS spectra were recorded at pressures in the range 1-10 mbar, and, based on the data, a potential minimum detection limit of the order of 100 ppmv is estimated for MUMAS at atmospheric pressure using an inter-mode interval of 80 GHz.

  16. Attosecond lighthouse above 100 eV from high-harmonic generation of mid-infrared pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Negro, M.; Vozzi, C.; Stagira, S.; Tosa, V.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we numerically investigate the possibility to obtain a lighthouse emission for the attosecond pulses produced by high-order harmonics of a strong mid-infrared fundamental pulse without any optical element inserted in the path of the generating beam. The parameters of the driving pulse, focusing geometry, gas medium and detection configuration are currently experimentally feasible. Here, we study in detail the specific propagation conditions of the laser beam, and describe the exact mechanism of the sensitive space-time variation of the medium’s refractive index that lead to the dynamic wavefront rotation. This basic requirement for the lighthouse phenomenon is transmitted to the harmonic bursts, which are emitted with different divergence in successive optical half-cycles, thus can be detected in the far field at increasing distances from the optical axis. In this configuration, spectral filtering of the harmonics is not necessary, therefore the total harmonic pulse power might be used in further pump-probe experiments.

  17. A Mid-Infrared Spitzer Study of the Herbig Be Star R Mon and the Associated HH 39 Herbig-Haro Object

    CERN Document Server

    Audard, M; Güdel, M; Lanz, T; Paerels, F; Arce, H

    2007-01-01

    We report on initial results of our Spitzer Cycle 2 program to observe the young massive star R Mon and its associated HH 39 Herbig-Haro object in the mid-infrared. Our program used all instruments on-board Spitzer to obtain deep images with IRAC of the HH 39 complex and of R Mon and its surroundings, a deep image of HH 39 at 24 and 70 $\\mu$m with MIPS, and mid-infrared spectra with the SH, LH, and LL modules of IRS. The aim of this program is to study the physical links in a young massive star between accretion disk, outflows and jets, and sh ocks in the associated HH object. Our preliminary analysis reveals that several knots of HH 39 are clearly detected in most IRAC bands. In IRAC4 (8 $\\mu$m), diffuse emission, probably from PAHs, appears as foreground emission covering the HH 39 emission. The HH 39 knots are detected at 24 microns, despite the fact that dust continuum emission covers the knots and shows the same structure as observed with IRAC4. The IRS spectra of HH 39 show weak evidence of [Ne II] 12.8...

  18. Subwavelength engineered fiber-to-chip silicon-on-sapphire interconnects for mid-infrared applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Han, Zhaohong; Le Roux, Xavier; Lin, Hongtao; Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Tan, Dawn; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vivien, Laurent; Wada, Kazumi; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2016-05-01

    The mid-Infrared wavelength range (2-20 µm), so-called fingerprint region, contains the very sharp vibrational and rotational resonances of many chemical and biological substances. Thereby, on-chip absorption-spectrometry-based sensors operating in the mid-Infrared (mid-IR) have the potential to perform high-precision, label-free, real-time detection of multiple target molecules within a single sensor, which makes them an ideal technology for the implementation of lab-on-a-chip devices. Benefiting from the great development realized in the telecom field, silicon photonics is poised to deliver ultra-compact efficient and cost-effective devices fabricated at mass scale. In addition, Si is transparent up to 8 µm wavelength, making it an ideal material for the implementation of high-performance mid-IR photonic circuits. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, typically used in telecom applications, relies on silicon dioxide as bottom insulator. Unfortunately, silicon dioxide absorbs light beyond 3.6 µm, limiting the usability range of the SOI platform for the mid-IR. Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) has been proposed as an alternative solution that extends the operability region up to 6 µm (sapphire absorption), while providing a high-index contrast. In this context, surface grating couplers have been proved as an efficient means of injecting and extracting light from mid-IR SOS circuits that obviate the need of cleaving sapphire. However, grating couplers typically have a reduced bandwidth, compared with facet coupling solutions such as inverse or sub-wavelength tapers. This feature limits their feasibility for absorption spectroscopy applications that may require monitoring wide wavelength ranges. Interestingly, sub-wavelength engineering can be used to substantially improve grating coupler bandwidth, as demonstrated in devices operating at telecom wavelengths. Here, we report on the development of fiber-to-chip interconnects to ZrF4 optical fibers and integrated SOS

  19. Detection of explosives and other illicit materials by a single nanosecond neutron pulses — Monte Carlo simulation of the detection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewski, R.; Wiącek, U.; Dworak, D.; Drozdowicz, K.; Gribkov, V.

    2012-07-01

    Recent progress in the development of a Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects (explosives and other illicit materials) by means of measuring elastically and non-elastically scattered neutrons is presented. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having durations of the order of few nanoseconds, generated by a dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or a deuterium-tritium mixture as a working gas. A very short duration of the neutron pulse, as well as its high brightness and mono-chromaticity allows using time-of-flight methods with bases of about few meters to distinguish signals from neutrons scattered by different elements. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations of the scattered neutron field from several compounds (explosives and everyday use materials) are presented. The MCNP5 code has been used to get information on the angular and energy distributions of neutrons scattered by the above mentioned compounds assuming the initial neutron energies to be equal to 2.45 MeV (DD) and 14 MeV (DT). A new input has been elaborated that allows modeling not only a spectrum of the neutrons scattered at different angles but also their time history from the moment of generation up to the detection. Such an approach allows getting approximate signals registered by hypothetic scintillator + photomultipler probes placed at various distances from the scattering object, demonstrating principal capability of the method to identify an elemental content of the inspected objects. The extensive computations reveled also several limitations of the proposed method, namely: low number of neutrons reaching detector system, distortions and interferences of scattered neutron signals etc. Further more, preliminary results of the MCNP modeling of the hidden fissile materials detection process are presented.

  20. Spectral and Imaging Observations of a White-light Flare in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Penn, M; Hudson, H; Jhabvala, M; Jennings, D; Lunsford, A; Kaufmann, P

    2015-01-01

    We report high-resolution observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of a minor solar flare, SOL2014-09-24T17T17:50 (C7.0), using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) cameras at an auxiliary of the McMath-Pierce telescope. The flare emissions, the first simultaneous observations in two mid-infrared bands at $5\\ \\mu$m and $8\\ \\mu$m with white-light and hard X-ray coverage, revealed impulsive time variability with increases on time scales of $\\sim 4$~s followed by exponential decay at $\\sim$10 s in two bright regions separated by about 13$"$. The brightest source is compact, unresolved spatially at the diffraction limit ($1.3"$ at $5\\ \\mu$m). We identify the IR sources as flare ribbons also seen in white-light emission at 6173~\\AA~observed by SDO/HMI, with twin hard X-ray sources observed by RHESSI, and with EUV sources (e.g., 94~\\AA) observed by SDO/AIA. The two infrared points have closely the same flux density ($f_\

  1. Long-period suspended silicon Bragg grating filter for hybrid near- and mid-infrared operation

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Benedikovic, Daniel; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Duran-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Perez-Galacho, Diego; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Cheben, Pavel; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The large transparency window of silicon, covering the 1.1 um 8 um wavelength range, makes it a promising platform for the implementation of photothermal-based absorption spectrometers. These devices indirectly sense absorption in the mid-infrared (MIR) by using near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, thereby enabling the realization of MIR absorption spectrometers without the need for MIR photodetectors. Nevertheless, due to their comparatively large index contrast and cross-sections, MIR Si strip waveguides are multi-mode at NIR wavelengths, hindering device implementation. Here we present, for the first time, an integrated Bragg grating waveguide filter for hybrid near- and mid-infrared operation. Specifically, the filter is implemented in a single-etch suspended silicon corrugated waveguide with an effectively single-mode operation in NIR region for a waveguide cross-section as large as 0.5 um x 1.1 um. At the same time, the waveguide supports single-mode propagation in MIR region. We demonstrate a long-period w...

  2. Invited review: Mid-infrared spectroscopy as phenotyping tool for milk traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, M; Toffanin, V; Cassandro, M; Penasa, M

    2014-03-01

    Interest in methods that routinely and accurately measure and predict animal characteristics is growing in importance, both for quality characterization of livestock products and for genetic purposes. Mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) is a rapid and cost-effective tool for recording phenotypes at the population level. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is based on crossing matter by electromagnetic radiation and on the subsequent measure of energy absorption, and it is commonly used to determine traditional milk quality traits in official milk laboratories. The aim of this review was to focus on the use of MIRS to predict new milk phenotypes of economic relevance such as fatty acid and protein composition, coagulation properties, acidity, mineral composition, ketone bodies, body energy status, and methane emissions. Analysis of the literature demonstrated the feasibility of MIRS to predict these traits, with different accuracies and with margins of improvement of prediction equations. In general, the reviewed papers underlined the influence of data variability, reference method, and unit of measurement on the development of robust models. A crucial point in favor of the application of MIRS is to stimulate the exchange of data among countries to develop equations that take into account the biological variability of the studied traits under different conditions. Due to the large variability of reference methods used for MIRS calibration, it is essential to standardize the methods used within and across countries.

  3. An interferometric study of the Fomalhaut inner debris disk II. Keck Nuller mid-infrared observations

    CERN Document Server

    Mennesson, B; Lebreton, J; Augereau, J -C; Serabyn, E; Colavita, M M; Millan-Gabet, R; Liu, W; Hinz, P; Thebault, P

    2012-01-01

    We report on high contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% +/- 0.10% between 8 and 11 microns and increases from 8 to 13 microns. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band observations, which implied the presence of a ~ 0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric 2D radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-com...

  4. The mid-infrared emission of Seyfert galaxies. A new analysis of ISOCAM data

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Acosta-Pulido, Jose Antonio; Espinosa, Jose Miguel Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    We present mid-infrared data of a sample of 57 AGNs obtained with the instrument ISOCAM on board the satellite ISO. The images were obtained through the LW2 (6.75 microns) and LW7 (9.62 microns) filters. This is a new analysis of Clavel et al. (2000) galaxy sample, which is divided into 26 type 1 ( 1.5) Seyfert galaxies, plus three QSOs. The spatial resolution of the images allow us to separate the nuclear and the extended contributions to the total emission after decomposing the brightness profiles into different morphological components. The most common components are a central point source (identified as the active nucleus) and an exponential disk. In some cases a bulge, a bar or a ring are needed. The relative contribution of the nucleus to the total emission appears larger in Seyfert 1 than in Seyfert 2. This result confirms that both types of Seyfert galaxies are different in the mid-infrared and supports the existence of an structure which produces anisotropic emission in this wavelength range. We have...

  5. Widely tunable rapid-scanning mid-infrared laser spectrometer for industrial gas process stream analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Douglas J; Cook, David J; Sharpe, Scott J; Van Pelt, Aaron D

    2007-07-01

    A mid-infrared spectrometer with a tuning range of >400 cm(-1) in the C-H stretching region of the spectrum has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer is based on the difference-frequency generation of two tunable diode lasers in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides. Tuning is achieved by varying a single parameter, the wavelength of one of the near-infrared input lasers. The instrument can be tuned over the entire tuning range in less than 1 s. By taking advantage of the wide tuning range, the instrument has been used to analyze a mixture of methane, ethylene, and propylene. Each of these major components was measured with an accuracy of better than 2% (where the error is defined as a percentage of the measured value) in a single 30 s long scan. When optimized, the spectrometer has the potential to meet both the performance requirements and the practical requirements for real-time process control in petrochemical manufacturing. The general principles for the design of mid-infrared spectrometers with wide tuning ranges are explained, including the use of variable waveguide fabrication recipes to create broad phase-matching resonances (which lead to broad tuning) in the desired location.

  6. Terahertz and mid-infrared plasmons in three-dimensional nanoporous graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apuzzo, Fausto; Piacenti, Alba R.; Giorgianni, Flavio; Autore, Marta; Guidi, Mariangela Cestelli; Marcelli, Augusto; Schade, Ulrich; Ito, Yoshikazu; Chen, Mingwei; Lupi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) graphene emerged as an outstanding material for plasmonic and photonic applications due to its charge-density tunability, high electron mobility, optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. Recently, novel fabrication processes have realised a three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous configuration of high-quality monolayer graphene which provides a third dimension to this material. In this work, we investigate the optical behaviour of nanoporous graphene by means of terahertz and infrared spectroscopy. We reveal the presence of intrinsic 2D Dirac plasmons in 3D nanoporous graphene disclosing strong plasmonic absorptions tunable from terahertz to mid-infrared via controllable doping level and porosity. In the far-field the spectral width of these absorptions is large enough to cover most of the mid-Infrared fingerprint region with a single plasmon excitation. The enhanced surface area of nanoporous structures combined with their broad band plasmon absorption could pave the way for novel and competitive nanoporous-graphene based plasmonic-sensors. PMID:28345584

  7. Discovery of a strong Baldwin effect in mid-infrared AGN lines

    CERN Document Server

    Hoenig, S F; Beckert, T; Horst, H; Duschl, W; Gandhi, P; Kishimoto, M; Weigelt, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the discovery of a Baldwin effect in 8 nearby Seyfert galaxies for the three most prominent mid-infrared forbidden emission lines observable from the ground that are commonly found in AGN, [ArIII](8.99 micron), [SIV](10.51 micron), and [NeII](12.81 micron). The observations were carried out using the VLT/VISIR imager and spectroraph at the ESO/Paranal observatory. The bulk of the observed line emission comes from the inner <0.4 arcsec which corresponds to spatial scales <100 pc in our object sample. The correlation index is approximately -0.6 without significant difference among the lines. This is the strongest anti-correlation between line equivalent width and continuum luminosity found so far. In the case of Circinus, we show that despite the use of mid-infrared lines, obscuration by either the host galaxy or the circumnuclear dust torus might affect the equivalent widths. Given the small observed spatial scales from which most of the line emission emanates, it is unclear how these observat...

  8. Wireless Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Sensor Network for Automatic Carbon Dioxide Fertilization in a Greenhouse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wireless mid-infrared spectroscopy sensor network was designed and implemented for carbon dioxide fertilization in a greenhouse environment. A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2 sensor based on non-dispersive infrared (NDIR with the functionalities of wireless communication and anti-condensation prevention was realized as the sensor node. Smart transmission power regulation was applied in the wireless sensor network, according to the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI, to realize high communication stability and low-power consumption deployment. Besides real-time monitoring, this system also provides a CO2 control facility for manual and automatic control through a LabVIEW platform. According to simulations and field tests, the implemented sensor node has a satisfying anti-condensation ability and reliable measurement performance on CO2 concentrations ranging from 30 ppm to 5000 ppm. As an application, based on the Fuzzy proportional, integral, and derivative (PID algorithm realized on a LabVIEW platform, the CO2 concentration was regulated to some desired concentrations, such as 800 ppm and 1200 ppm, in 30 min with a controlled fluctuation of <±35 ppm in an acre of greenhouse.

  9. How useful is the mid-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment of black carbon in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. de la Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, the recalcitrant continuum of products from incomplete combustion, includes char, charcoal and soot, being considered an important component of the global C cycle. However due to measurement uncertainties, the magnitude and distribution of BC is hardly known. In this study, a rapid and inexpensive spectroscopic technique, as it is mid-infrared spectroscopy in combination with oxidation procedures is proposed to quantify the recalcitrant aromatic fraction resistant, which can effectively determine the proportion of BC in soils. This method was tested by using a wide variety soil samples of various origin, composition and properties. Results were contrasted by those obtained by applying solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Mid-infrared spectroscopy showed a very high predicting potential in the case of samples with large concentrations of BC by taking advantage of the relative optical density of the 2920 cm-1 C–H stretching band. In the case of soils with low BC contents, the application of Partial Least Square Regression to baseline-subtracted, second-derivative Fourier-Transformed Infra-red (FT-IR spectra lead to significant (P<0.05 cross-validation models. By this procedure a considerable improvement in forecasting the aromatic fraction resistant to the chemical oxidation steps (BC-like material was obtained.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide mid-infrared photodetector at 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Kim, Jin Ho; Oller, Declan; Xu, Jimmy [School of Engineering, Brown University, Box D, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    We report on uncooled mid-infrared photovoltaic responses at 300 K arising in heterojunctions of reduced graphene oxide with p-Si. Two major photoresponse spectral peaks are observed, one in the near infrared starting at 1.1 μm corresponding to electron-hole pair generation in the Si substrate, and another at wavelengths below 2.5 μm, arising from properties of the reduced graphene oxide-Si heterojunction. Our analysis of the current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures suggests that the two materials form a type-II (broken-gap) heterojunction, with a characteristic transition between direct tunneling to field emission, to over-the-barrier excitation with increasing reverse voltage. Illumination was found to affect the onset of the transition between direct tunneling and field-emission, suggesting that the mid infrared response results from the excitation of minority carriers (electrons) from the Si and their collection in the reduced graphene oxide contact. The photoresponse near 1.1 μm showed a time constant at least five times faster than the one at 2.5 μm, which points to surface defects as well as high series resistance and capacitance as potentially limiting factors in this mode of operation. With proper device engineering considerations, these devices could be promising as a graphene-based platform for infrared sensing.

  11. Tunable graphene-based mid-infrared plasmonic wide-angle narrowband perfect absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongju; Wang, Lingling; Zhai, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the periodic double-layer graphene ribbon arrays placed near a metallic ground plate coated by a dielectric layer are proposed and analyzed by the coupled-mode theory (CMT) to predict the perfect absorption response in the mid-infrared region. Numerical simulations of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method confirm this effect and give the underlying physical origin. The anti-symmetric dipole-dipole coupling mode is supported by the double-layer graphene ribbons and acts as the electrical resonance to suppress the reflection, because of the impedance matching. The transmission from this system is restricted by the ultra-thick metallic ground plate. All incident electromagnetic energy is efficiently confined in the interlayer between graphene ribbons and the metallic plate, and the dramatic narrowband perfect absorption peak with the FWHM (full width at half maximums) of 300 nm hence is achieved. The spectral position of the absorption peak can be dynamically tuned by a small change in the chemical potential of graphene, in addition to varying geometrical parameters of the absorber. Meanwhile, this device exhibits good absorption stability over a wide angle range of incidence around ± 60° at least. Such absorber will benefit the fabrication of mid-infrared nano-photonic devices for optical filtering and storage.

  12. An overview of the mid-infrared spectro-interferometer MATISSE: science, concept, and current status

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, A; Antonelli, P; Lehmitz, M; Bettonvil, F; Beckmann, U; Lagarde, S; Jaffe, W; Petrov, R G; Berio, P; Millour, F; Robbe-Dubois, S; Glindemann, A; Bristow, P; Schoeller, M; Lanz, T; Henning, T; Weigelt, G; Heininger, M; Morel, S; Cruzalebes, P; Meisenheimer, K; Hofferbert, R; Wolf, S; Bresson, Y; Agocs, T; Allouche, F; Augereau, J -C; Avila, G; Bailet, C; Behrend, J; Van Belle, G; Berger, J -P; van Boekel, R; Bourget, P; Brast, R; Clausse, J -M; Connot, C; Conzelmann, R; Csepany, G; Danchi, W C; Delbo, M; Dominik, C; van Duin, A; Elswijk, E; Fantei, Y; Finger, G; Gabasch, A; Gonté, F; Graser, U; Guitton, F; Guniat, S; De Haan, M; Haguenauer, P; Hanenburg, H; Hofmann, K -H; Hogerheijde, M; ter Horst, R; Hron, J; Hummel, C; Isderda, J; Ives, D; Jakob, G; Jasko, A; Jolley, P; Kiraly, S; Kragt, J; Kroener, T; Kroes, G; Kuindersma, S; Labadie, L; Laun, W; Leinert, C; Lizon, J -L; Lucuix, C; Marcotto, A; Martinache, F; Martinot-Lagarde, G; Mauclert, N; Mehrgan, L; Meilland, A; Mellein, M; Menardi, S; Merand, A; Neumann, U; Nussbaum, E; Ottogalli, S; Palsa, R; Panduro, J; Pantin, E; Percheron, I; Duc, T Phan; Pott, J -U; Pozna, E; Roelfsema, R; Rupprecht, G; Schertl, D; Schmidt, C; Schuil, M; Spang, A; stegmeier, J; Tromp, N; Vakili, F; Vannier, M; Wagner, K; Venema, L; Woillez, J

    2016-01-01

    MATISSE is the second-generation mid-infrared spectrograph and imager for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal. This new interferometric instrument will allow significant advances by opening new avenues in various fundamental research fields: studying the planet-forming region of disks around young stellar objects, understanding the surface structures and mass loss phenomena affecting evolved stars, and probing the environments of black holes in active galactic nuclei. As a first breakthrough, MATISSE will enlarge the spectral domain of current optical interferometers by offering the L and M bands in addition to the N band. This will open a wide wavelength domain, ranging from 2.8 to 13 um, exploring angular scales as small as 3 mas (L band) / 10 mas (N band). As a second breakthrough, MATISSE will allow mid-infrared imaging - closure-phase aperture-synthesis imaging - with up to four Unit Telescopes (UT) or Auxiliary Telescopes (AT) of the VLTI. Moreover, MATISSE will offer a spectral re...

  13. [The correlation based mid-infrared temperature and emissivity separation algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Nie, Ai-Xiu; Du, Yong-Ming

    2009-02-01

    Temperature and emissivity separation is the key problem in infrared remote sensing. Based on the analysis of the relationship between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emissivity containing atmosphere residue without the effects of sun irradiation, the present paper puts forward a temperature and emissivity separation algorithm for the ground-based mid-infrared hyperspectral data. The algorithm uses the correlation between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emissivity containing atmosphere residue as a criterion to optimize the surface temperature, and the correlation between the atmospheric downward radiance and surface emissivity containing atmosphere residue depends on the bias between the estimated surface temperature and true surface temperature. The larger the temperature bias, the greater the correlation. Once we have obtained the surface temperature, the surface emissivity can be calculated easily. The accuracy of the algorithm was evaluated with the simulated mid-infrared hyperspectral data. The results of simulated calculation show that the algorithm can achieve higher accuracy of temperature and emissivity inversion, and also has broad applicability. Meanwhile, the algorithm is insensitive to the instrumental random noise and the change in atmospheric downward radiance during the field measurements.

  14. Observations of V592 Cassiopeiae with the Spitzer Space Telescope - Dust in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Wachter, Stefanie; Howell, Steve B; Brinkworth, Carolyn S; Ciardi, David R; Szkody, Paula; Belle, Kunegunda; Froning, Cynthia; van Belle, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet-optical-infrared spectral energy distribution of the low inclination novalike cataclysmic variable V592 Cassiopeiae, including new mid-infrared observations from 3.5-24 microns obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. At wavelengths shortward of 8 microns, the spectral energy distribution of V592 Cas is dominated by the steady state accretion disk, but there is flux density in excess of the summed stellar components and accretion disk at longer wavelengths. Reproducing the observed spectral energy distribution from ultraviolet to mid-infrared wavelengths can be accomplished by including a circumbinary disk composed of cool dust, with a maximum inner edge temperature of ~500 K. The total mass of circumbinary dust in V592 Cas (~10^21 g) is similar to that found from recent studies of infrared excess in magnetic CVs, and is too small to have a significant effect on the long-term secular evolution of the cataclysmic variable. The existence of circumbinary dust in V592 Cas is possibly ...

  15. Low loss mid-infrared ZBLAN waveguides for future astronomical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Simon; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Sharp, Adam; Ireland, Michael; Lawrence, Jon; Withford, Michael J

    2015-03-23

    Photonic technologies will be at the heart of future terrestrial planet hunting interferometers. In particular the mid-infrared spectral region between 3.5 - 4.2 μm is the ideal window for hunting for young extra-solar planets, since the planet is still hot from its formation and thus offers a favorable contrast with respect to the parent star compared to other spectral regions. This paper demonstrates two basic photonic building blocks of such an instrument, namely single-mode waveguides with propagation losses as low as 0.29±0.03 dB/cm at a wavelength of 4 μm as well as directional couplers with a constant splitting ratio across a broad wavelength band of 500 nm. The devices are based on depressed cladding waveguides inscribed into ZBLAN glass using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. This demonstration is the first stepping stone towards the realization of a high transmission mid-infrared nulling interferometer.

  16. Wireless Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Sensor Network for Automatic Carbon Dioxide Fertilization in a Greenhouse Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Niu, Xintao; Zheng, Lingjiao; Zheng, Chuantao; Wang, Yiding

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, a wireless mid-infrared spectroscopy sensor network was designed and implemented for carbon dioxide fertilization in a greenhouse environment. A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO₂) sensor based on non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) with the functionalities of wireless communication and anti-condensation prevention was realized as the sensor node. Smart transmission power regulation was applied in the wireless sensor network, according to the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI), to realize high communication stability and low-power consumption deployment. Besides real-time monitoring, this system also provides a CO₂ control facility for manual and automatic control through a LabVIEW platform. According to simulations and field tests, the implemented sensor node has a satisfying anti-condensation ability and reliable measurement performance on CO₂ concentrations ranging from 30 ppm to 5000 ppm. As an application, based on the Fuzzy proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) algorithm realized on a LabVIEW platform, the CO₂ concentration was regulated to some desired concentrations, such as 800 ppm and 1200 ppm, in 30 min with a controlled fluctuation of <±35 ppm in an acre of greenhouse.

  17. Towards an Understanding of the Mid-Infrared Surface Brightness of Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Silbermann, N A; Contursi, A; Malhotra, S; Rubin, R H; Dale, Daniel A.; Helou, George; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Contursi, Alessandra; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rubin, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We report a mid-infrared color and surface brightness analysis of IC 10, NGC 1313, and NGC 6946, three of the nearby galaxies studied under the Infrared Space Observatory Key Project on Normal Galaxies. Images with < 9 arcsecond (170 pc) resolution of these nearly face-on, late-type galaxies were obtained using the LW2 (6.75 mu) and LW3 (15 mu) ISOCAM filters. Though their global I_nu(6.75 mu)/I_nu(15 mu) flux ratios are similar and typical of normal galaxies, they show distinct trends of this color ratio with mid-infrared surface brightness. We find that I_nu(6.75 mu)/I_nu(15 mu) ~< 1 only occurs for regions of intense heating activity where the continuum rises at 15 micron and where PAH destruction can play an important role. The shape of the color-surface brightness trend also appears to depend, to the second-order, on the hardness of the ionizing radiation. We discuss these findings in the context of a two-component model for the phases of the interstellar medium and suggest that star formation inte...

  18. Mathematical Modeling on Combined Mid-infrared and Hot Air Drying of Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drying models and characteristics of Combined Mid-Infrared and Hot Air (CMIHA drying BEEF MEAT (BM, a laboratory scale CMIHA dryer was applied to the treatment of BM samples in a temperature range from 40-70°C, with air velocity of 1m/s and mid-infrared of 2.8-3.1 m. Microsoft visual C sharp (C# was used to develop a Moisture Prediction System (MPS to digitize the prediction process. The results indicated that the Modified Henderson and Pabis model could present better predictions for the moisture transfer than others and the MPS could predict the moisture ratio through the whole drying process conveniently. Besides, higher temperature could accelerate effective diffusivities to increase drying rate, thus shorten the drying time. The activation energy of BM dried with CMIHA was 32.83 kJ/mol. All of these could be used in the design and operation of the combination drying beef meat.

  19. Mid-Infrared Resolution of a 3 AU Radius Debris Disk around ζ Leporis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerchen, M. M.; Telesco, C. M.; Packham, C.; Kehoe, T. J. J.

    2007-02-01

    We present subarcsecond-resolution mid-infrared images of the debris disk surrounding the 230 Myr old A star ζ Lep. Our data obtained with T-ReCS at Gemini South show the source to be unresolved at 10.4 μm but clearly extended at 18.3 μm. Quadratic subtraction of the PSF profile from that of ζ Lep implies a characteristic radius for the dust disk of 3 AU, which is comparable in size to our solar system's asteroid belt. Simple models suggest that the 18 μm flux is well approximated by two contiguous annuli of mid-infrared-emitting dust from 2-4 and 4-8 AU with a 3:1 flux ratio for the annuli, respectively. We consider two scenarios for the collisions that must be resupplying the dust population: (1) continuous ``steady state'' grinding of planetesimals and (2) an isolated cataclysmic collision. We determine that radiation pressure and subsequent collisions are the dominant determinants of the disk morphology in either case and that Poynting-Robertson drag is comparatively insignificant. Observations were obtained at the Gemini Observatory, operated by AURA, Inc., under agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: NSF (US), PPARC (UK), NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  20. Nonlinearly enhanced linear absorption under filamentation in mid-infrared (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilo, Daniil; Panov, Nicolay; Andreeva, Vera; Kosareva, Olga G.; Saletski, Alexander M.; Xu, Huai-Liang; Polynkin, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    The mid-infrared OPCPA-based laser facilities have recently reached the critical power for self-focusing in air [1]. This ensures the demonstration of the major difference between the mid- and near-infrared filamentation in air: the odd optical harmonics, harshly suppressed by the material dispersion and phase-mismatch in the near-infrared (800 nm), gain reliable energies in the mid-infrared (3.9 µm) filament [1,2]. Another issue that makes mid-infrared filamentation different from the near-infrared one is a lot of molecular vibrational lines belonging to atmospheric constituents and located in the mid-infrared range [3]. As the result the mid-infrared region of interest becomes subdivided into the bands of normal and anomalous dispersion, the former of which leads to the pulse splitting in temporal domain, while the latter produces the confined light bullet. We simulate the 3.9-µm filamentation using Forward Maxwell equation. We include the tunnel ionization and transient photocurrent as the collapse arresting mechanism, which balances dynamically the instantaneous third-order medium response (similarly to 800-nm filamentation). The key feature that allows us to quantify the losses due to absorption bands is the accurate account of the complex linear absorption index. The absorption index obtained from Mathar model [3] is interpolated to the fine frequency grid (step of about 0.1 THz), and the refractive index is matched according to Kramers-Krönig relations [4]. If the initial Gaussian pulse has a center wavelength of 3.9 µm and a duration of 80 fs FWHM, the energy loss in the carbon dioxide (CO_2) absorption band at 4.3 µm is about 1% in the linear propagation regime. But when we take the 80-mJ pulse (about 3 critical powers for self-focusing), the Kerr-induced spectral broadening develops significantly before the clamping level of intensity is reached. In the collimated beam geometry about 2% of the initial pulse energy is absorbed on the CO_2 band before

  1. Confronting Standard Models of Proto--Planetary Disks With New Mid--Infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Monnier, John D; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Grady, Carol A; Day, Amanda N; Perry, R B; Harries, Tim J; Aarnio, Alicia N; Colavita, Mark M; Wizinowich, Peter L; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present near and mid-infrared interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the IRTF of 11 well known young stellar objects, several observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With AU-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and mid-infrared disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the mid-infrared disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used "star + inner dust rim + flared disk" class of models strongly fails to reproduce the SED and spatially-resolved mid-infrared data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of mid-infrared emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore t...

  2. Mid-Infrared Observations of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies The Infrared Space Observatory Key Project Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Helou, G; Dale, Daniel A.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Helou, George

    2000-01-01

    We present mid-infrared maps and preliminary analysis for 61 galaxies observed with the ISOCAM instrument aboard the Infrared Space Observatory. Many of the general features of galaxies observed at optical wavelengths---spiral arms, disks, rings, and bright knots of emission---are also seen in the mid-infrared, except the prominent optical bulges are absent at 6.75 and 15 microns. In addition, the maps are quite similar at 6.75 and 15 microns, except for a few cases where a central starburst leads to lower 6.75/15 ratios in the inner region. We also present infrared flux densities and mid-infrared sizes for these galaxies. The mid-infrared color 6.75/15 shows a distinct trend with the far-infrared color 60/100. The quiescent galaxies in our sample (60/100 < 0.6) show 6.75/15 near unity, whereas this ratio drops significantly for galaxies with higher global heating intensity levels. Azimuthally-averaged surface brightness profiles indicate the extent to which the mid-infrared flux is centrally concentrated,...

  3. Brightness and Fluctuation of the Mid-Infrared Sky from AKARI Observations towards the North Ecliptic Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsuura, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wavebands covering from 2.4 to 24 \\mu m, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. A simple sinusoidal fit to the seasonal variation of the sky brightness shows that the mid-infrared brightness towards the NEP is not affected by small-scale features of the interplanetary dust cloud. We applied power spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 \\mum) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 \\mum), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over t...

  4. The composition of Titan's stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS mid-infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, Athena; Achterberg, Richard K.; Conrath, Barney J.; Jennings, Donald E.; Marten, André; Gautier, Daniel; Nixon, Conor A.; Flasar, F. Michael; Teanby, Nick A.; Bézard, Bruno; Samuelson, Robert E.; Carlson, Ronald C.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Romani, Paul N.; Taylor, Fred W.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Fouchet, Thierry; Hubert, Augustin; Orton, Glenn S.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Vinatier, Sandrine; Mondellini, Jacqueline; Abbas, Mian M.; Courtin, Regis

    2007-07-01

    We have analyzed data recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard the Cassini spacecraft during the Titan flybys T0-T10 (July 2004-January 2006). The spectra characterize various regions on Titan from 70° S to 70° N with a variety of emission angles. We study the molecular signatures observed in the mid-infrared CIRS detector arrays (FP3 and FP4, covering roughly the 600-1500 cm -1 spectral range with apodized resolutions of 2.54 or 0.53 cm -1). The composite spectrum shows several molecular signatures: hydrocarbons, nitriles and CO 2. A firm detection of benzene (C 6H 6) is provided by CIRS at levels of about 3.5×10 around 70° N. We have used temperature profiles retrieved from the inversion of the emission observed in the methane ν band at 1304 cm -1 and a line-by-line radiative transfer code to infer the abundances of the trace constituents and some of their isotopes in Titan's stratosphere. No longitudinal variations were found for these gases. Little or no change is observed generally in their abundances from the south to the equator. On the other hand, meridional variations retrieved for these trace constituents from the equator to the North ranged from almost zero (no or very little meridional variations) for C 2H 2, C 2H 6, C 3H 8, C 2H 4 and CO 2 to a significant enhancement at high northern (early winter) latitudes for HCN, HC 3N, C 4H 2, C 3H 4 and C 6H 6. For the more important increases in the northern latitudes, the transition occurs roughly between 30 and 50 degrees north latitude, depending on the molecule. Note however that the very high-northern latitude results from tours TB-T10 bear large uncertainties due to few available data and problems with latitude smearing effects. The observed variations are consistent with some, but not all, of the predictions from dynamical-photochemical models. Constraints are set on the vertical distribution of C 2H 2, found to be compatible with 2-D equatorial predictions by global circulation

  5. Mid-infrared properties of OH megamaser host galaxies. I: Spitzer IRS low- and high-resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Kyle W; Spoon, Henrik W W; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee

    2011-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry from the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope for 51 OH megamasers (OHMs), along with 15 galaxies confirmed to have no megamaser emission above L_OH = 10^2.3 L_sun. The majority of galaxies display moderate-to-deep 9.7 um amorphous silicate absorption, with OHM galaxies showing stronger average absorption and steeper 20-30 um continuum emission than non-masing galaxies. Emission from multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 um, is detected in almost all systems. Fine-structure atomic emission (including [Ne II], [Ne III], [S III], and [S IV]) and multiple H2 rotational transitions are observed in more than 90% of the sample. A subset of galaxies show emission from rarer atomic lines, such as [Ne V], [O IV], and [Fe II]. 50% of the OHMs show absorption from water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains (HACs), while absorption features from CO2, HCN, C2H2, and crystalline silicates are also seen in sev...

  6. A Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray: Mid-Infrared Observations and Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Michael A; Luhman, Kevin L; Getman, Konstantin V; Busk, Heather S; Feigelson, Eric D

    2013-01-01

    Spitzer IRAC observations and stellar photometric catalogs are presented for the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in the Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX). MYStIX is a multiwavelength census of young stellar members of twenty nearby (d < 4 kpc), Galactic, star-forming regions that contain at least one O star. All regions have data available from the Spitzer Space Telescope, consisting of GLIMPSE or other published catalogs for eleven regions and results of our own photometric analysis of archival data for the remaining nine regions. This paper seeks to construct deep and reliable catalogs of sources from the Spitzer images. Mid-infrared study of these regions faces challenges of crowding and high nebulosity. Our new catalogs typically contain fainter sources than existing Spitzer studies, which improves the match rate to Chandra X-ray sources that are likely to be young stars, but increases the possibility of spurious point-source detections, especially peaks in the nebulosity. IRAC color-color diagrams ...

  7. The subarcsecond mid-infrared view of local active galactic nuclei: I. The N- and Q-band imaging atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Asmus, D; Gandhi, P; Smette, A; Duschl, W J

    2013-01-01

    We present the first subarcsecond-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) atlas of local active galactic nuclei (AGN) containing 253 objects with a median redshift of z = 0.016. It comprises all available MIR imaging observations performed to date with ground-based 8-meter class telescopes and includes in total 895 independent photometric measurements, of which more than 60% are previously unpublished.We detect extended nuclear emission in at least 21% of the objects, while another 19% appear clearly point-like, and the remaining objects cannot be constrained. Subarcsecond resolution allows us to isolate the emission of the AGN on scales of a few tens of parsecs for the bulk of the sample and obtain nuclear photometry in multiple filters for the objects. The photometry is used to construct median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the different optical AGN types and estimate the individual MIR 12 and 18 um continuum luminosities, which range over more than six orders of magnitude. We also analyse the arcsecond-sc...

  8. Constraints on the substellar companions in wide orbits around the Barnard's Star from CanariCam mid-infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gauza, B; Rebolo, R; Álvarez, C; Bihain, G; Osorio, M R Zapatero; Caballero, J A; Telesco, C M; Packham, C

    2015-01-01

    We have performed mid-infrared imaging of Barnard's Star, one of the nearest stars to the Sun, using CanariCam on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We aim to investigate an area within 1-10 arcsec separations, which for the 1.83 pc distance of the star translates to projected orbital separations of 1.8-18 AU (P > 12 yr), which have not been explored yet with astrometry or radial velocity programs. It is therefore an opportunity to enter the domain of distances where most giant planets are expected to form. We performed deep imaging in the N-band window (Si-2 filter, 8.7 {\\mu}m) reaching a 3{\\sigma} detection limit of 0.85+/-0.18 mJy and angular resolution of 0.24 arcsec, close to the diffraction limit of the telescope at this wavelength. A total of 80 min on-source integration time data were collected and combined for the deepest image. We achieved a dynamical range of 8.0+/-0.1 mag in the 8.7 {\\mu}m band, at angular separations from ~2 to 10 arcsec and of ~6-8 mag at 1-2 arcsec. No additional sources were...

  9. Rising from the Ashes: Mid-Infrared Re-Brightening of the Impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ryan M; Bond, Howard E; Smith, Nathan; Fox, Ori D; Carlon, Robert; Cody, Ann Marie; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin; Gerhz, Robert; Hsiao, Eric; Jencson, Jacob; Khan, Rubab; Masci, Frank; Monard, L A G; Monson, Andrew J; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Ressler, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We present multi-epoch mid-infrared (IR) photometry and the optical discovery observations of the "impostor" supernova (SN) 2010da in NGC 300 using new and archival Spitzer Space Telescope images and ground-based observatories. The mid-IR counterpart of SN 2010da was detected as SPIRITS 14bme in the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transient Survey (SPIRITS), an ongoing systematic search for IR transients. A sharp increase in the 3.6 $\\mu$m flux followed by a rapid decrease measured ~150 d before and ~80 d after the initial outburst, respectively, reveal a mid-IR counterpart to the coincident optical and high luminosity X-ray outbursts. At late times after the outburst (~2000 d), the 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m emission increased to over a factor of 2 times the progenitor flux. We attribute the re-brightening mid-IR emission to continued dust production and increasing luminosity of the surviving system associated with SN 2010da. We analyze the evolution of the dust temperature, mass, luminosity, and equilibrium temperature ...

  10. Observations of the Near- to Mid-Infrared Unidentified Emission Bands in the Interstellar Medium of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tamami I; Onaka, Takashi; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Umehata, Hideki; Ohsawa, Ryou

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of near- to mid-infrared slit spectroscopic observations (2.55--13.4 um) of the diffuse emission toward nine positions in the Large Magellanic Cloud with the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board AKARI. The target positions are selected to cover a wide range of the intensity of the incident radiation field. The unidentified infrared bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 um are detected toward all the targets, and ionized gas signatures: hydrogen recombination lines and ionic forbidden lines toward three of them. We classify the targets into two groups: those without the ionized gas signatures (Group A) and those with the ionized signatures (Group B). Group A includes molecular clouds and photo-dissociation regions, whereas Group B consists of HII regions. In Group A, the band ratios of I(3.3)/I(11.3), I(6.2)/I(11.3), I(7.7)/$I(11.3) and $I(8.6)/$I(11.3) show positive correlation with the IRAS and AKARI colors, but those of Group B do not follow the correlation. We discuss the results in terms o...

  11. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Lensed Galaxies at 1

    CERN Document Server

    Rigby, J R; Egami, E; Rieke, G H; Richard, J; Kneib, J -P; Fadda, D; Willmer, C N A; Borys, C; Van der Werf, P P; Pérez-González, P G; Knudsen, K K; Papovich, C

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS mid-infrared spectra for 15 gravitationally lensed, 24 micron--selected galaxies, and combine the results with 4 additional very faint galaxies with IRS spectra in the literature. The median intrinsic 24 micron flux density of the sample is 130 microJy, enabling a systematic survey of the spectral properties of the very faint 24 micron sources that dominate the number counts of Spitzer cosmological surveys. Six of the 19 galaxy spectra (32%) show the strong mid-IR continuua expected of AGN; X-ray detections confirm the presence of AGN in three of these cases, and reveal AGNs in two other galaxies. These results suggest that nuclear accretion may contribute more flux to faint 24 micron--selected samples than previously assumed. Almost all the spectra show some aromatic (PAH) emission features; the measured aromatic flux ratios do not show evolution from z=0. In particular, the high S/N mid-IR spectrum of SMM J163554.2+661225 agrees remarkably well with low--redshift, lower--luminosity te...

  12. Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: Use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wei; Guo, Mingxing; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to correlate the soil spectral information to the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Hg and Fe in wheat grains. The principal components in the spectra influencing soil heavy metal bioavailability were identified and used in prediction model construction. The established soil DRIFTS-based prediction models were applied to estimate the heavy metal concentrations in wheat grains in the mid-Yangtze River Delta area. The predicted heavy metal concentrations of wheat grain were highly consistent with the measured levels by chemical analysis, showing a significant correlation (r2 > 0.72) with acceptable root mean square error RMSE. In conclusion, DRIFTS is a promising technique for assessing the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and related ecological risk.

  13. High Spatial Resolution of the Mid-Infrared Emission of Compton-Thick Seyfert 2 Galaxy Mrk3

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, Dinalva A; Pastoriza, M G; Riffel, R; Winge, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra observed with Gemini/Michelle were used to study the nuclear region of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxy Mrk 3 at a spatial resolution of $\\sim$200 pc. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission bands were detected in the N-band spectrum of Mrk 3. However, intense [Ar III] 8.99 $\\mu$m, [S IV] 10.5 $\\mu$m and [Ne II] 12.8 $\\mu$m ionic emission-lines, as well as silicate absorption feature at 9.7$\\mu$m have been found in the nuclear extraction ($\\sim$200 pc). We also present subarcsecond-resolution Michelle N-band image of Mrk 3 which resolves its circumnuclear region. This diffuse MIR emission shows up as a wings towards East-West direction closely aligned with the S-shaped of the Narrow Line Region (NLR) observed at optical [O III]$\\lambda$5007\\AA image with Hubble/FOC. The nuclear continuum spectrum can be well represented by a theoretical torus spectral energy distribution (SED), suggesting that the nucleus of Mrk 3 may host a dusty toroidal structure predicted by...

  14. Modal Filtering for Nulling Interferometry-First Single-Mode Conductive Waveguides in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Labadie, L; Kern, P; Schanen, I; Arezki, B; Broquin, J E

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the work achieved for the manufacturing and characterization of first single-mode waveguides to be used as modal filters for nulling interferometry in the mid-infrared range [4-20 um]. As very high dynamic range is mandatory for detection of Earth-like planets, modal filtering is one of the most stringent instrumental aspects. The hollow metallic waveguides (HMW) presented here are manufactured using micro-machining techniques. Single-mode behavior has been investigated in laboratory through a technique of polarization analysis while transmission features have been measured using flux relative comparison. The single-mode behavior have been assessed at lambda=10.6 um for rectangular waveguides with dimensions a=10 um and b<5.3 um with an accuracy of ~2.5 %. The tests have shown that a single-polarization state can be maintained in the waveguide. A comparison with results on multi-mode HMW is proposed. Excess losses of 2.4 dB (~ 58 % transmission) have been measured for a single-mode wave...

  15. Depth-resolved mid-infrared photothermal imaging of living cells and organisms with submicrometer spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Li, Chen; Zhang, Chi; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Eakins, Gregory; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contrast has long been sought for label-free visualization of biomolecules and materials in complex living systems. Although infrared spectroscopic imaging has come a long way in this direction, it is thus far only applicable to dried tissues because of the strong infrared absorption by water. It also suffers from low spatial resolution due to long wavelengths and lacks optical sectioning capabilities. We overcome these limitations through sensing vibrational absorption–induced photothermal effect by a visible laser beam. Our mid-infrared photothermal (MIP) approach reached 10 μM detection sensitivity and submicrometer lateral spatial resolution. This performance has exceeded the diffraction limit of infrared microscopy and allowed label-free three-dimensional chemical imaging of live cells and organisms. Distributions of endogenous lipid and exogenous drug inside single cells were visualized. We further demonstrated in vivo MIP imaging of lipids and proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. The reported MIP imaging technology promises broad applications from monitoring metabolic activities to high-resolution mapping of drug molecules in living systems, which are beyond the reach of current infrared microscopy. PMID:27704043

  16. Mid-Infrared Spectrophotometric Observations of Fragments B and C of Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, David E; Kelley, Michael S; Sitko, Michael L; Wooden, Diane H; lynch, David K; Russell, Ray W

    2010-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and images from the GEMINI-N (+Michelle) observations of fragments SW3-[B] and SW3-[C] of the ecliptic (Jupiter Family) comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 pre-perihelion. We observed fragment B soon after an outburst event (between 2006 April 16 - 26 UT) and detected crystalline silicates. The mineralogy of both fragments was dominated by amorphous carbon and amorphous pyroxene. The grain size distribution (assuming a Hanner modified power-law) for fragment SW3-[B] has a peak grain radius of a_p ~ 0.5 micron, and for fragment SW3-[C], a_p ~ 0.3 micron; both values larger than the peak grain radius of the size distribution for the dust ejected from ecliptic comet 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact event (a_p = 0.2 micron. The silicate-to-carbon ratio and the silicate crystalline mass fraction for the submicron to micron-size portion of the grain size distribution on the nucleus of fragment SW3-[B] was 1.341 +0.250 -0.253 and 0.335 +0.089 -0.112, respectively, while on the nucleus ...

  17. Ge-Sb-Se glass fiber-optics for in-vivo mid-infrared optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, H.; Butterworth, J. H.; Sakr, H.; Tang, Z.; Furniss, D.; Benson, T. M.; Scotchford, C.; Seddon, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    In the UK, it is now recognised that 1 in 2 people born after 1960 will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. Diagnosing patients whilst in the early stages drastically improves their chances of survival but up until now the gold standard for cancer detection is via a lengthy excision biopsy procedure, which relies on the skill of a histopathologist. Evidently, the need for a faster solution is paramount. The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral region covers the wavelengths 3-25 μm and characteristic vibrational spectra unique to each molecular type. Subtle changes in the specific spectral response within this region are indicative of changes within the cells relative to normal cells, signifying the presence or absence of a disease. Our goal is to carry out disease diagnosis in vivo. Reaching these wavelengths has previously presented difficulties as conventional MIR blackbody light sources are weak and optical fibers for transmitting MIR light to/from tissue in vivo can be limited by strong material absorption such as silica glass >2.4 μm and tellurite, and heavy metal fluoride, >4.75 μm. However, chalcogenide glasses have been shown to transmit MIR light out to 25 μm. This paper reports on a glass composition in the Ge-Sb-Se system and its suitability as an optical fiber for the transmission of MIR to and from tissue samples, enabling in vivo mapping for an immediate diagnostic response- a technique termed `optical biopsy'.

  18. Ecological risk assessment on heavy metals in soils: Use of soil diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Li, Wei; Guo, Mingxing; Ji, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals in soil is controlled by their concentrations and soil properties. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is capable of detecting specific organic and inorganic bonds in metal complexes and minerals and therefore, has been employed to predict soil composition and heavy metal contents. The present study explored the potential of DRIFTS for estimating soil heavy metal bioavailability. Soil and corresponding wheat grain samples from the Yangtze River Delta region were analyzed by DRIFTS and chemical methods. Statistical regression analyses were conducted to correlate the soil spectral information to the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Hg and Fe in wheat grains. The principal components in the spectra influencing soil heavy metal bioavailability were identified and used in prediction model construction. The established soil DRIFTS-based prediction models were applied to estimate the heavy metal concentrations in wheat grains in the mid-Yangtze River Delta area. The predicted heavy metal concentrations of wheat grain were highly consistent with the measured levels by chemical analysis, showing a significant correlation (r2 > 0.72) with acceptable root mean square error RMSE. In conclusion, DRIFTS is a promising technique for assessing the bioavailability of soil heavy metals and related ecological risk. PMID:28198802

  19. Depth-resolved mid-infrared photothermal imaging of living cells and organisms with submicrometer spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Li, Chen; Zhang, Chi; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Eakins, Gregory; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-09-01

    Chemical contrast has long been sought for label-free visualization of biomolecules and materials in complex living systems. Although infrared spectroscopic imaging has come a long way in this direction, it is thus far only applicable to dried tissues because of the strong infrared absorption by water. It also suffers from low spatial resolution due to long wavelengths and lacks optical sectioning capabilities. We overcome these limitations through sensing vibrational absorption-induced photothermal effect by a visible laser beam. Our mid-infrared photothermal (MIP) approach reached 10 μM detection sensitivity and submicrometer lateral spatial resolution. This performance has exceeded the diffraction limit of infrared microscopy and allowed label-free three-dimensional chemical imaging of live cells and organisms. Distributions of endogenous lipid and exogenous drug inside single cells were visualized. We further demonstrated in vivo MIP imaging of lipids and proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. The reported MIP imaging technology promises broad applications from monitoring metabolic activities to high-resolution mapping of drug molecules in living systems, which are beyond the reach of current infrared microscopy.

  20. Visible Light-Assisted High-Performance Mid-Infrared Photodetectors Based on Single InAs Nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hehai; Hu, Weida; Wang, Peng; Guo, Nan; Luo, Wenjin; Zheng, Dingshan; Gong, Fan; Luo, Man; Tian, Hongzheng; Zhang, Xutao; Luo, Chen; Wu, Xing; Chen, Pingping; Liao, Lei; Pan, Anlian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-10-12

    One-dimensional InAs nanowires (NWs) have been widely researched in recent years. Features of high mobility and narrow bandgap reveal its great potential of optoelectronic applications. However, most reported work about InAs NW-based photodetectors is limited to the visible waveband. Although some work shows certain response for near-infrared light, the problems of large dark current and small light on/off ratio are unsolved, thus significantly restricting the detectivity. Here in this work, a novel "visible light-assisted dark-current suppressing method" is proposed for the first time to reduce the dark current and enhance the infrared photodetection of single InAs NW photodetectors. This method effectively increases the barrier height of the metal-semiconductor contact, thus significantly making the device a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiode. These MSM photodiodes demonstrate broadband detection from less than 1 μm to more than 3 μm and a fast response of tens of microseconds. A high detectivity of ∼10(12) Jones has been achieved for the wavelength of 2000 nm at a low bias voltage of 0.1 V with corresponding responsivity of as much as 40 A/W. Even for the incident wavelength of 3113 nm, a detectivity of ∼10(10) Jones and a responsivity of 0.6 A/W have been obtained. Our work has achieved an extended detection waveband for single InAs NW photodetector from visible and near-infrared to mid-infrared. The excellent performance for infrared detection demonstrated the great potential of narrow bandgap NWs for future infrared optoelectronic applications.

  1. Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in a photoreaction chamber with a tunable mid-infrared laser and ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew T; Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; McIntyre, Thomas J; Tulip, John; Jäger, Wolfgang; McDonald, Karen

    2011-02-01

    We describe the implementation of a mid-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor with a photoreaction chamber, used for reproducing chemical transformations of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) gases that may occur in the atmosphere. The system performance was assessed in the presence of photoreaction products including aerosol particles. A mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL)-tunable from 9.41-9.88 μm (1012-1063 cm(-1))-was used to monitor gas phase concentrations of BTX simultaneously and in real time during chemical processing of these compounds with hydroxyl radicals in a photoreaction chamber. Results are compared to concurrent measurements using ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV DOAS). The EC-QCL based system provides quantitation limits of approximately 200, 200, and 600 parts in 10(9) (ppb) for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, respectively, which represents a significant improvement over our previous work with this laser system. Correspondingly, we observe the best agreement between the EC-QCL measurements and the UV DOAS measurements with benzene, followed by toluene, then p-xylene. Although BTX gas-detection limits are not as low for the EC-QCL system as for UV DOAS, an unidentified by-product of the photoreactions was observed with the EC-QCL, but not with the UV DOAS system.

  2. An In-Depth View of the Mid-Infrared Properties of Point Sources and the Diffuse ISM in the SMC Giant HII Region, N66

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, David G; Galliano, Frederic; Peeters, Els; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Johnson, Kelsey E; Indebetouw, Remy; Brandl, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    (abridged)The focus of this work is to study mid-infrared point sources and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the low-metallicity (~0.2 solar) giant HII region N66 using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. We study 14 targeted infrared point sources as well as spectra of the diffuse ISM that is representative of both the photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the HII regions. Among the point source spectra, we spectroscopically confirm that the brightest mid-infrared point source is a massive embedded young stellar object, we detect silicates in emission associated with two young stellar clusters, and we observe spectral features of a known B[e] supergiant that are more commonly associated with Herbig Be stars. In the diffuse ISM, we provide additional evidence that the very small grain population is being photodestroyed in the hard radiation field. The 11.3 um PAH complex emission exhibits an unexplained centroid shift in both the point source and ISM spectra that should be investigated...

  3. Comparison of nanosecond and picosecond excitation for interference-free two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of atomic hydrogen in flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatilaka, Waruna D; Patterson, Brian D; Frank, Jonathan H; Settersten, Thomas B

    2008-09-10

    Two-photon laser-induced fluorescence (TP-LIF) line imaging of atomic hydrogen was investigated in a series of premixed CH4/O2/N2, H2/O2, and H2/O2/N2 flames using excitation with either picosecond or nanosecond pulsed lasers operating at 205 nm. Radial TP-LIF profiles were measured for a range of pulse fluences to determine the maximum interference-free signal levels and the corresponding picosecond and nanosecond laser fluences in each of 12 flames. For an interference-free measurement, the shape of the TP-LIF profile is independent of laser fluence. For larger fluences, distortions in the profile are attributed to photodissociation of H2O, CH3, and/or other combustion intermediates, and stimulated emission. In comparison with the nanosecond laser, excitation with the picosecond laser can effectively reduce the photolytic interference and produces approximately an order of magnitude larger interference-free signal in CH4/O2/N2 flames with equivalence ratios in the range of 0.5laser fluence in all flames, stimulated emission, occurring between the laser-excited level, H(n=3), and H(n=2), is the limiting factor for picosecond excitation in the flames with the highest H atom concentration. Nanosecond excitation is advantageous in the richest (Phi=1.64) CH4/O2/N2 flame and in H2/O2/N2 flames. The optimal excitation pulse width for interference-free H atom detection depends on the relative concentrations of hydrogen atoms and photolytic precursors, the flame temperature, and the laser path length within the flame.

  4. [Evaluation of nutrient release profiles from polymer coated fertilizers using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya-zhen; Du, Chang-wen; Zhou, Jian-min; Wang, Huo-yan; Chen, Xiao-qin

    2012-02-01

    The acrylate-like materials were used to develop the polymer coated controlled release fertilizer, the nutrients release profiles were determined, meanwhile the Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra of the coatings were recorded and characterized; GRNN model was used to predict the nutrients release profiles using the principal components of the mid-infrared photoacoustic spectra as input. Results showed that the GRNN model could fast and effectively predict the nutrient release profiles, and the predicted calibration coefficients were more than 0.93; on the whole, the prediction errors (RMSE) were influenced by the profiling depth of the spectra, the average prediction error was 10.28%, and the spectra from the surface depth resulted in a lowest prediction error with 7.14%. Therefore, coupled with GRNN modeling, Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy can be used as an alternative new technique in the fast and accurate prediction of nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizer.

  5. High-power mid-infrared frequency comb source based on a femtosecond Er:fiber oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Feng; Kolomenskii, Alexandre A; Strohaber, James; Holzwarth, Ronald; Schuessler, Hans A

    2013-01-01

    We report on a high-power mid-infrared frequency comb source based on a femtosecond Er:fiber oscillator with a stabilized repetition rate at 250 MHz. The mid-infrared frequency comb is produced through difference frequency generation in a periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate crystal. The output power is about 120 mW with a pulse duration of about 80 fs, and spectrum coverage from 2.9 to 3.6 um. The coherence properties of the produced high-power broadband mid-infrared frequency comb are maintained, which was verified by heterodyne measurements. As the first application, the spectrum of a ~200 ppm methane-air mixture in a short 20 cm glass cell at ambient atmospheric pressure and temperature was measured.

  6. Detection of hidden explosives by using tagged neutron beams with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesente, Silvia; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Lunardon, Marcello; Viesti, Giuseppe E-mail: giuseppe.viesti@pd.infn.it; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Blagus, Sasha; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2004-10-01

    Non-destructive inspection of luggage has been simulated in laboratory conditions by using a 14 MeV tagged neutron beam and BaF{sub 2} scintillation detectors (Tagged Neutron Inspection System, TNIS). The tagged neutron beam is produced by detecting the associated alpha particle emitted in the D+T reaction by means of a YAP:Ce scintillator. The TNIS intrinsic time resolution has been measured to be {delta}t=0.9 ns [FWHM], which allows inspection of a minimum voxel of 5 cm depth along the neutron flight path. This characteristic is demonstrated by identifying graphite and water samples hidden inside a hard plastic suitcase filled with background material. Finally, explosive devices such as small anti-personnel or anti-tank landmines have been inspected when placed inside the suitcase. In the case of relatively large explosive objects such as an anti-tank landmine, the system is capable of testing directly the TNT charge inside the device, separating this material from the external plastic case. Further developments of the TNIS concept are discussed.

  7. AMUSE-VIRGO. III. MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AND LIMITS ON OBSCURED NUCLEAR EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Antonucci, Robert [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak, E-mail: leipski@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-10

    We complete our census of low-level nuclear activity in Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies by searching for obscured emission using Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared (MIR) imaging at 24 {mu}m. Of a total sample of 95 early-type galaxies, 53 objects are detected, including 16 showing kiloparsec-scale dust in optical images. One-dimensional and two-dimensional surface photometry of the 37 detections without extended dust features reveals that the MIR light is more centrally concentrated than the optical light as traced by Hubble Space Telescope F850LP-band images. No such modeling was performed for the sources with dust detected in the optical images. We explore several possible sources of the MIR excess emission, including obscured nuclear emission. We find that radial metallicity gradients in the stellar population appear to be a natural and most likely explanation for the observed behavior in a majority of the sources. Alternatively, if the concentrated MIR emission were due to nuclear activity, it would imply a MIR-to-X luminosity ratio {approx}5-10 for the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) detected in X-rays by our survey. This ratio is an order of magnitude larger than that of typical low-luminosity AGNs and would imply an unusual spectral energy distribution. We conclude that the black holes found by our survey in quiescent early-type galaxies in Virgo have low bolometric Eddington ratios arising from low accretion rates and/or highly radiatively inefficient accretion.

  8. Sub-kHz linewidth narrowing of a mid-infrared OPO idler frequency by direct cavity stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, I; Parisi, M; Maddaloni, P; Santamaria, L; De Natale, P; De Rosa, M

    2015-01-01

    We stabilize the idler frequency of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator directly to the resonance of a mid-infrared Fabry-P\\'erot reference cavity. This is accomplished by the Pound-Drever-Hall locking scheme, controlling either the pump laser or the resonant signal frequency. A residual relative frequency noise power spectral density below 10$^3$ Hz$^2$/Hz is reached, with a Gaussian linewidth of 920 Hz over 100 ms, which demonstrates the potential for reaching spectral purity down to the Hz level by locking the optical parametric oscillator against a mid-infrared cavity with state-of-the-art superior performance.

  9. Coupling mid-infrared light from a photonic crystal waveguide to metallic transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.blanco@tecnalia.com, E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu [ICT-European Software Institute Division, Tecnalia, Ibaizabal Bidea, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Sarriugarte, Paulo [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Garcia-Adeva, Angel [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, E.T.S. Ingeniería de Bilbao, UPV-EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Zubia, Joseba [Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Hillenbrand, Rainer, E-mail: andrea.blanco@tecnalia.com, E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2014-01-06

    We propose and theoretically study a hybrid structure consisting of a photonic crystal waveguide (PhC-wg) and a two-wire metallic transmission line (TL), engineered for efficient transfer of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light between them. An efficiency of 32% is obtained for the coupling from the transverse magnetic (TM) photonic mode to the symmetric mode of the TL, with a predicted intensity enhancement factor of 53 at the transmission line surface. The strong coupling is explained by the small phase velocity mismatch and sufficient spatial overlapping between the modes. This hybrid structure could find applications in highly integrated mid-IR photonic-plasmonic devices for biological and gas sensing, among others.

  10. Short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for mid-infrared photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugan, H.J.; Szmulowicz, F.; Brown, G.J.; Munshi, S.R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Ullrich, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green State University, Ohio 45433 (United States); Wickett, J.C.; Stokes, D.W. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Using a newly developed envelope function approximation model that includes interface effects, several InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (SLs) were designed for uncooled mid-infrared detector applications. The 4 micron cutoff could be achieved with several SL designs. Superlattices with shorter periods have larger intervalence band separations than larger-ones, which could increase the optical signal and reduce the detector noise, thus making room temperature operation possible. To test these possibilities, several short-period SLs were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and their optical properties with reducing SL period were studied by band-edge absorption, photoconductivity and photoluminescence measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Simulation of an erbium-doped chalcogenide micro-disk mid-infrared laser source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Tal, Faleh; Dimas, Clara; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C

    2011-06-20

    The feasibility of mid-infrared (MIR) lasing in erbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) micro-disks was examined. Lasing condition at 4.5 µm signal using 800 nm pump source was simulated using rate equations, mode propagation and transfer matrix formulation. Cavity quality (Q) factors of 1.48 × 10(4) and 1.53 × 10(6) were assumed at the pump and signal wavelengths, respectively, based on state-of-the-art chalcogenide micro-disk resonator parameters. With an 80 µm disk diameter and an active erbium concentration of 2.8 × 10(20) cm(-3), lasing was shown to be possible with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.26 × 10(-4) and associated pump threshold of 0.5 mW.

  12. A polarization-sensitive mid-infrared plasmonic absorber for multi-band resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqian; Wang, Binbin; Xu, Xiaolun; Su, Lei; Zhou, Zili

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to present a multi-band absorption metamaterials. One dual cross-shape perfect absorber metamaterials (PAMs) was developed to obtain multi-band spectrum at mid-infrared. The PAMs possess three distinct resonant peaks standing independently, which are attributed to the polarization sensitive excitation of plasmonic resonance. The optical parameters retrieved by S-parameters method were investigated, which provides a satisfactory qualitative description of the multiple-band spectra responses. On the other hand, the near-field plasmonic behaviors and redistribution of the electromagnetic field were probed theoretically and numerically into the PAMs structure, which also explains the observed absorption behavior of the PAMs ensemble based upon the microscopic perspective. The multiplex spectrum enables the infrared perfect absorber metamaterials (PAMs) a powerful tool for direct access to vibrational fingerprints of single molecular structure.

  13. Mid-Infrared Evidence for Accelerated Evolution in Compact Group Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Lisa May; Gallagher, Sarah C; Hibbard, John E; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Charlton, Jane C; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    We find evidence for accelerated evolution in compact group galaxies from the distribution in mid-infrared colorspace of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) compared to the the distributions of several other samples including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are not uniformly distributed in colorspace, as well as quantitative evidence for a gap. Galaxies in the infall region of the Coma cluster also exhibit a non-uniform distribution and a less well defined gap, which may reflect a similarity with the compact group environment. Neither the Coma Center or interacting samples show evidence of a gap, leading us to speculate that the gap is unique to the environment of high galaxy density where gas has not been fully processed or stripped.

  14. Mode-selective phonon excitation in gallium nitride using mid-infrared free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Kyohei; Zen, Heishun; Hachiya, Kan; Sagawa, Takashi; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2017-02-01

    The single-phonon mode was selectively excited in a solid-state sample. A mid-infrared free-electron laser, which was tuned to the target phonon mode, was irradiated onto a crystal cooled to a cryogenic temperature, where modes other than the intended excitation were suppressed. An A 1(LO) vibrational mode excitation on GaN(0001) face was demonstrated. Anti-Stokes Raman scattering was used to observe the excited vibrational mode, and the appearance and disappearance of the scattering band at the target wavenumber were confirmed to correspond to on and off switching of the pump free-electron laser and were fixed to the sample vibrational mode. The sum-frequency generation signals of the pump and probe lasers overlapped the Raman signals and followed the wavenumber shift of the pump laser.

  15. Discrimination of Cognacs and other distilled drinks by mid-infrared spectropscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, Daniel; Lieben, Pascale; Corrieu, Georges; Cantagrel, Roger; Lablanquie, Odile; Snakkers, Guillaume

    2006-07-26

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy was applied to the analysis and discrimination of Cognacs and other distilled drinks (Armagnacs, whiskies, brandies, bourbons, rums, and counterfeit products). Strong correlations were found between dry extract spectra, polyphenolic dry extract spectra, and the total polyphenol concentration of samples, notably of Cognacs. Principal component analysis applied to spectral data made it possible to emphasize the importance of dry extract data when a distinction is made between Cognacs and Armagnacs, whiskies, bourbons, and rums, and of polyphenol concentration when Cognacs, brandies, and counterfeit products are separated. Ninety-six percent of samples in the test set were correctly assigned to Cognacs and non-Cognacs by partial least-squares discriminant analysis.

  16. Ambient temperature-independent dual-band mid-infrared radiation thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, You; He, Xin; Wei, Zhong-Hui; Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Chang, Song-Tao

    2016-03-20

    For temperature measurements of targets at low temperatures, dual-band radiation thermometry using mid-infrared detectors has been investigated extensively. However, the accuracy is greatly affected by the reflected ambient radiation and stray radiation, which depend on the ambient temperature. To ensure measurement accuracy, an improved dual-band measurement model is established by considering the reflected ambient radiation and the stray radiation. The effect of ambient temperature fluctuation on temperature measurement is then further analyzed in detail. Experimental results of measuring a gray-body confirm that the proposed method yields high accuracy at varying ambient temperatures. This method provides a practical approach to remove the effect of ambient temperature fluctuations on temperature measurements.

  17. Near-infrared and Mid-infrared Spectroscopy with the Infrared Camera (IRC) for AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Ohyama, Youichi; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Kim, Woojung; Fujishiro, Naofumi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Sakon, Itsuki; Cohen, Martin; Ishigaki, Miho; Ishihara, Daisuke; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kataza, Hirokazu; Matsumoto, Toshio; Murakami, Hiroshi; Oyabu, Shinki; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Takagi, Toshinobu; Ueno, Munetaka; Usui, Fumio; Watarai, Hidenori; Pearson, Chris P; Takeyama, Norihide; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Camera (IRC) is one of the two instruments on board the AKARI satellite. In addition to deep imaging from 1.8-26.5um for the pointed observation mode of the AKARI, it has a spectroscopic capability in its spectral range. By replacing the imaging filters by transmission-type dispersers on the filter wheels, it provides low-resolution (lambda/d_lambda ~ 20-120) spectroscopy with slits or in a wide imaging field-of-view (approximately 10'X10'). The IRC spectroscopic mode is unique in space infrared missions in that it has the capability to perform sensitive wide-field spectroscopic surveys in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. This paper describes specifications of the IRC spectrograph and its in-orbit performance.

  18. Kerr nonlinearity and multi-photon absorption in germanium at mid-infrared wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, B.-U.; Monmeyran, C.; Kimerling, L. C.; Agarwal, A. M.; Tan, D. T. H.

    2017-08-01

    Multiphoton absorption coefficients and nonlinear refractive indices of germanium in the near and mid-infrared (2-5 μm) are reported. The nonlinear coefficients are measured by open and closed aperture Z-scan with 150 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The nonlinear refractive index of Ge has a peak value of 9.1 ×10-5cm2/GW at a wavelength of 3 μm. The effect of free electrons generated by multiphoton absorption is discussed by investigating the variation of multiphoton absorption coefficients at different input powers. Kramers-Kronig relations are also discussed with regard to the relationship between nonlinear refractive index and two photon absorption coefficient.

  19. Comb-assisted subkilohertz linewidth quantum cascade laser for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, I.; Cappelli, F.; Bartalini, S.; Mazzotti, D.; Giusfredi, G.; Cancio, P.; De Natale, P. [CNR-INO-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze, FI (Italy); LENS-European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Via Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Siciliani de Cumis, M. [CNR-INO-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze, FI (Italy); Borri, S. [CNR-IFN-Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari, BA (Italy); Montori, A. [LENS-European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, Via Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Akikusa, N. [Development Bureau Laser Device R and D Group, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan); Yamanishi, M. [Central Research Laboratories, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka 434-8601 (Japan)

    2013-03-25

    We report on the linewidth narrowing of a room-temperature mid-infrared quantum cascade laser by phase-locking to a difference-frequency-generated radiation referenced to an optical frequency comb synthesizer. A locking bandwidth of 250 kHz, with a residual rms phase-noise of 0.56 rad, has been achieved. The laser linewidth is narrowed by more than 2 orders of magnitude below 1 kHz, and its frequency is stabilized with an absolute traceability of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}. This source has allowed the measurement of the absolute frequency of a CO{sub 2} molecular transition with an uncertainty of about 1 kHz.

  20. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered As2S3 chalcogenide planar waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Hongyu; Li, Wenbo; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2016-10-01

    We numerically demonstrate mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a non-uniformly tapered chalcogenide planar waveguide. This planar rib waveguide of As2S3 glass on MgF2 is 2 cm long with increasing etch depth longitudinally to manage the total dispersion. This waveguide has zero dispersion at two wavelengths. The dispersion profile varies along the propagation distance, leading to continuous modification of the phase-matching condition for dispersive wave emission and enhancement of energy transfer efficiency between solitons and dispersive waves. Numerical simulations are conducted for secant input pulses at a wavelength of 1.55 μm with a width of 50 fs and peak power of 2 kW. Results show this proposed scheme significantly broadens the generated continuum, extending from ~1 to ~7 μm.

  1. The Mid-Infrared Extinction Law in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Li, Aigen; Xue, M. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the photometric data from the Spitzer/SAGE survey and with red giants as the extinction tracers, the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction laws in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are derived for the first time in the form of A_\\lambda/A_Ks, the extinction in the four IRAC bands (i.e., [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0]um) relative to the 2MASS Ks band at 2.16um. We obtain the near-infrared (NIR) extinction coefficient to be E(J-H)/E(H-Ks)=1.29\\pm0.04 and E(J-Ks)/E(H-Ks)=1.94\\pm0.04. The waveleng...

  2. Mid-infrared surface plasmon coupled emitters utilizing intersublevel transitions in InAs quantum dots.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Stephen A. (Princeton University, Princeton, NJ); Chow, Weng Wah; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Ribaudo, Troy (University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA); Adams, David (University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA); Wasserman, Daniel (University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA); Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate mid-infrared electroluminescence from intersublevel transitions in self-assembled InAs quantum dots coupled to surface plasmon modes on metal hole arrays. Subwavelength metal hole arrays with different periodicity are patterned into the top contact of the broadband (9-15 {micro}m) quantum dot material and the measured electroluminescence is compared to devices without a metal hole array. The resulting normally directed emission is narrowed and a splitting in the spectral structure is observed. By applying a coupled quantum electrodynamic model and using reasonable values for quantum dot distributions and plasmon linewidths we are able to reproduce the experimentally measured spectral characteristics of device emission when using strong coupling parameters.

  3. The influence of melt purification and structure defects on mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, A

    2003-01-01

    Mid-infrared light emitting diodes which exhibit more than 7 mW (pulsed) and 0.35 mW dc output power at 3.3 mu m and at room temperature have been fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy using Pb as a neutral solvent. Using Pb solution an increase in pulsed output power of between two and three times was obtained compared with InAs light emitting diodes (LEDs) made using rare-earth gettering. The performance improvements were attributed to a reduction in residual carrier concentration arising from the removal of un-intentional donors and structure defects in the InAs active region material. These LEDs are well matched to the CH sub 4 absorption spectrum and potentially could form the basis of a practical infrared CH sub 4 gas sensor.

  4. Coherent broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The generation of fully coherent broadband mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum (SC) from 2.3 um to 8.3 um is demonstrated by using a 4.1 um pump and an As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber (PCF).By introducing the random quantum noise and the power instability on the input pulse and by numerically implementing the Young,s double slits experiment, we examine the coherence properties across the SC spectrum. It is found that the coherence of this MIR SC source depends strongly on the input pulse duration, the peak power, the power stability, and the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the As2Se3 PCF.The optimal conditions for the MIR SC with a maximal coherent bandwidth are identified.

  5. Identification of olive oil sensory defects by multivariate analysis of mid infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Calvo, Angels

    2015-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000-600 cm(-1)) of olive oils were analyzed using chemometric methods to identify the four main sensorial defects, musty, winey, fusty and rancid, previously evaluated by an expert sensory panel. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish between extra-virgin olive oils (defect absent) and lower quality olive oils (defect present). The most important spectral ranges responsible for the discrimination were identified. PLS-DA models were able to discriminate between defective and high quality oils with predictive abilities around 87% for the musty defect and around 77% for winey, fusty and rancid defects. This methodology advances instrumental determination of results previously only achievable with a human test panel.

  6. Enhancing extraction efficiency of mid-infrared fluorescence in chalcogenide glass via photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Peiqing; Ma, Beijiao; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Qiuhua

    2016-04-01

    The use of rare earth-doped chalcogenide glass is an attractive method to develop mid-infrared sources. In this work, Er3+-doped chalcogenide glass is prepared, and photonic crystal (PC) pattern is designed to improve the extraction efficiency of light emission from the sample surface. The finite difference time domain simulation shows that the light extraction efficiency from the sample surface can be 1.62 times stronger than that from the sample without PC structure by introducing a simple two-dimensional (2D) PC structure into glass samples. This improvement was the result of the efficient light diffraction on the surface because of the integrated 2D PC. Results in this work offer a potential in developing midinfrared light sources.

  7. Importance of coherence in models of mid-infrared quantum cascade laser gain spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuzhang I.; Harter, Michael P.; Dikmelik, Yamac; Hoffman, Anthony J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a three-level model based on a density matrix to examine the influence of coherence and dephasing on the gain spectrum of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers. The model is used to examine a quantum cascade active region with multiple optical transitions. We show how coherence can explain the origin of additional peaks in the gain spectrum. We also analyze the spectra calculated using the three-level model with a rate equation formalism to demonstrate the importance of considering interface roughness and limitations of the rate equation formalism. Specifically, we present how interface roughness influences the broadening and oscillator strength that are recovered using a rate equation analysis. The results of this work are important when considering the design of active regions with multiple optical transitions and could lead to devices with improved performance.

  8. SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument (SMI): technical concepts and scientific capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Wada, Takehiko; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Isobe, Naoki; Asano, Kentaroh; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Sakon, Itsuki; Tsumura, Kohji; Shibai, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Taro

    2016-07-01

    SMI (SPICA Mid-infrared Instrument) is one of the two focal-plane scientific instruments planned for new SPICA, and the Japanese instrument proposed and managed by a university consortium in Japan. SMI covers the wavelength range of 12 to 36 μm, using the following three spectroscopic channels with unprecedentedly high sensitivities: low-resolution spectroscopy (LRS; R = 50 - 120, 17 - 36 μm), mid-resolution spectroscopy (MRS; R = 1300 - 2300, 18 - 36 μm), and high-resolution spectroscopy (HRS; R = 28000, 12 - 18 μm). The key functions of these channels are high-speed dustband mapping with LRS, high-sensitivity multi-purpose spectral mapping with MRS, and high-resolution molecular-gas spectroscopy with HRS. This paper describes the technical concept and scientific capabilities of SMI.

  9. Three-dimensional single gyroid photonic crystals with a mid-infrared bandgap

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Siying; Chen, Valerian H; Khabiboulline, Emil T; Braun, Paul; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    A gyroid structure is a distinct morphology that is triply periodic and consists of minimal isosurfaces containing no straight lines. We have designed and synthesized amorphous silicon (a-Si) mid-infrared gyroid photonic crystals that exhibit a complete bandgap in infrared spectroscopy measurements. Photonic crystals were synthesized by deposition of a-Si/Al2O3 coatings onto a sacrificial polymer scaffold defined by two-photon lithography. We observed a 100% reflectance at 7.5 \\mum for single gyroids with a unit cell size of 4.5 \\mum, in agreement with the photonic bandgap position predicted from full-wave electromagnetic simulations, whereas the observed reflection peak shifted to 8 um for a 5.5 \\mum unit cell size. This approach represents a simulation-fabrication-characterization platform to realize three-dimensional gyroid photonic crystals with well-defined dimensions in real space and tailored properties in momentum space.

  10. Corneal morphology after ex-vivo UV and mid-infrared laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratou, E.; Voloudakis, G. E.; Moutsouris, K.; Asproudis, I.; Baltatzis, S.; Makropoulou, M.; Bacharis, C.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, ablation experiments of ex vivo porcine cornea tissue were conducted with two solid state lasers (an Er:YAG laser and the 4th harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser, both in the ns pulse width range) emitting in mid infrared and ultraviolet part of the spectrum respectively, at moderate laser fluences. The cornea epithelium of each porcine eye was manually removed before the ablation. Histology analysis of the specimens was performed, in order to examine the microscopic appearance of the ablated craters and the existence of any thermal or mechanical damage caused by the midinfrared and the UV laser irradiation. For a detailed and complete examination of the morphology of the laser ablated corneal tissue, the surface roughness was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Two-color mid-infrared thermometer with a hollow glass optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; Matthews, D L; Soltz, B A

    1998-10-01

    We have developed a low-temperature optical-fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. A single 700-mum-bore hollow glass optical fiber collects and transmits radiation that is then modulated and split into two paths by a reflective optical chopper. Two different thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared HgCdZnTe photoconductors monitor the chopped signals that are recovered with lock-in amplification. With the two previously obtained blackbody calibration equations, a computer algorithm calculates the true temperature and emissivity of a target in real time, taking into account reflection of the ambient radiation field from the target surface. The small numerical aperture of the hollow glass fiber and the fast response of the detectors, together with the two-color principle, permit high spatial and temporal resolution while allowing the user to dynamically alter the fiber-to-target distance.

  12. Active Multiple Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Graphene Sheets Resonators in Mid-Infrared Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiple plasmon-induced transparency (PIT device operated in the mid-infrared region has been proposed. The designed model is comprised of one graphene ribbon as main waveguide and two narrow graphene sheets resonators. The phase coupling between two graphene resonators has been investigated. The multimode PIT resonances have been found in both cases and can be dynamically tuned via varying the chemical potential of graphene resonators without optimizing its geometric parameters. In addition, this structure can get multiple PIT effect by equipping extra two sheets on the symmetric positions of graphene waveguide. The simulation results based on finite element method (FEM are in good agreement with the resonance theory. This work may pave new way for graphene-based thermal plasmonic devices applications.

  13. Optical and mid-infrared neon abundance determinations in star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Dors, Oli L; Cardaci, Monica V; Perez-Montero, Enrique; Krabbe, Angela C; Vilchez, Jose M; Sales, Dinalva A; Riffel, Rogerio; Riffel, Rogemar A

    2013-01-01

    We employed observational spectroscopic data of star-forming regions compiled from the literature and photoionization models to analyse the neon ionic abundances obtained using both optical and mid-infrared emission-lines. Comparing Ne++/H+ ionic abundances from distinct methods, we found that, in average, the abundances obtained via IR emission-lines are higher than those obtained via optical lines by a factor of 4. Photoionization models with abundance variations along the radius of the hypothetical nebula provide a possible explanation for a large part of the difference between ionic abundances via optical and infrared emission-lines. Ionization Correction Factor (ICF) for the neon is obtained from direct determinations of ionic fractions using infrared emission-lines. A constant Ne/O ratio (logNe/O \\approx -0.70) for a large range of metallicity, independently of the ICF used to compute the neon total abundance is derived.

  14. Mid-Infrared Selected Quasars I: Virial Black Hole Mass and Eddington Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Y Sophia; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Fazio, Giovanni G; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Wilkes, Belinda J; Willmer, Christopher N A; Omont, Alain; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR, 24$\\mu$m) broad-emission-line (BEL, type 1) quasars in the 22 deg$^2$ SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with $S_{\\rm 24} > 400\\mu$Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) $ 19.1$. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The SMBH mass shows evidence of downsizing, though the Eddington ratios remain constant at $1 < z < 4$. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at $z < 1$ show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.

  15. Theoretical calculation of mid-infrared spectra from hypersonic non-ablative sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yu, Xilong; Zhu, Xijuan; Ma, Jing; Mao, Hongxia

    2016-10-01

    Hypersonic body moving in the atmosphere will suffer high temperature reacting flows which will emit complex radiation. Theoretical calculation was taken in this paper for a hypersonic non-ablative sphere. Hypersonic flow around the sphere was simulated using 9 species chemical kinetic and two temperature thermal non-equilibrium model. Based on this simulated flow field, the LOS method is used to solve radiative transfer and line-by-line model is used to calculate the spectrum from molecular and atoms in mid-infrared. The spectra from different components have been analyzed one by one. The calculation founds out that atom N and O diatomic molecule NO and bremsstrahlung will be important radiation source in this pure air hypersonic flow field. The radiation from hypersonic flow field has been analyzed in both high pressure environment and low pressure environment.

  16. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2016-01-11

    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  17. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Whittaker, John; Schedin, Fredrik; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Jiaguang

    2016-02-01

    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  18. Analytical modeling and ATLAS simulation for a homojunction LED in the mid-infrared spectral region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjeev; P. Chakrabarti

    2009-01-01

    A generic analytical model and the ATLAS simulation of a homojunction light emitting diode (LED) based on p+-InAso0 91Sb0.09/n0-InAs0.91Sb0.09/n+-InAs0.91Sb0.09 materials grown on lattice matched p+-GaSb substrate are presented. This LED is suitable for use as source in the optical absorption gas spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral region at 300 K. The various electro-optical properties of the homojunction LED are evaluated using analytical techniques and ATLAS device simulation software. The current-voltage characteristics of the structure are computed analytically and simulated, and the results are found to be in good agreement. The output power of the homojunction LED is estimated as a function of bias current under high carrier injection and compared with the reported experimental results.

  19. An attenuated total reflectance mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy study of gelatinization in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Roumeliotis, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-08-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of attenuated total reflectance and mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy and to understand the gelatinization and retro-gradation of flour barley samples and the relationship with malting quality. Samples were sourced from two commercial barley varieties exhibiting high hot water extract (HWE) namely Navigator (n=8), and Admiral (n=8). Samples were analysed using the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) and ATR-MIR analysis. These results showed that ATR-MIR spectroscopy is capable of characterising gel samples derived from barley flour samples having different malting characteristics. Infrared spectra can effectively represent a 'fingerprint' of the sample being analysed and can be used to simplify and reduce analytical times in the routine methods currently used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary structure of food proteins by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, M; Nucara, A

    2010-03-01

    Fourier transform spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (400-5,000 cm(-1)) (FT-IR) is being recognized as a powerful tool for analyzing chemical composition of food, with special concern to molecular architecture of food proteins. Unlike other spectroscopic techniques, it provides high-quality spectra with very small amount of protein, in various environments irrespective of the molecular mass. The fraction of peptide bonds in alpha-helical, beta-pleated sheet, turns and aperiodic conformations can be accurately estimated by analysis of the amide I band (1,600-1,700 cm(-1)) in the mid-IR region. In addition, FT-IR measurement of secondary structure highlights the mechanism of protein aggregation and stability, making this technique of strategic importance in the food proteomic field. Examples of applications of FT-IR spectroscopy in the study of structural features of food proteins critical of nutritional and technological performance are discussed.

  1. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Coffee Variety Identification: Comparison of Pattern Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using mid-infrared transmittance spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition algorithm to identify coffee variety was investigated. Four coffee varieties in China were studied, including Typica Arabica coffee from Yunnan Province, Catimor Arabica coffee from Yunnan Province, Fushan Robusta coffee from Hainan Province, and Xinglong Robusta coffee from Hainan Province. Ten different pattern recognition methods were applied on the optimal wavenumbers selected by principal component analysis loadings. These methods were classified as highly effective methods (soft independent modelling of class analogy, support vector machine, back propagation neural network, radial basis function neural network, extreme learning machine, and relevance vector machine, methods of medium effectiveness (partial least squares-discrimination analysis, K nearest neighbors, and random forest, and methods of low effectiveness (Naive Bayes classifier according to the classification accuracy for coffee variety identification.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF ADULTERANT AND ALCOHOL ROUTE IN BIODIESEL USING MID-INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryleide Ventura da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze soybean oil, ethylic and methylic soybean biodiesel, and blends prepared with soybean oil mixed with biodiesel, in order to evaluate this method as an alternative to assess oil as impurities or adulterant in biodiesel. We also aimed to determine whether the biodiesel was prepared by the ethyl or methyl routes, by inspecting the infrared spectra. The C-O functional groups between 1100 and 1200 cm-1 are different for oil and biodiesel, which allows them to be used to distinguish impurities (residual oil in biofuel. The peak C-O-C at 1017 cm-1 is characteristic for methylic biodiesel, and the peak O-C-C at 1035 cm-1 for ethylic biodiesel. These vibrational modes can therefore be used to indicate the route used to prepare the biofuel. Results indicated that infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for monitoring the quality of biofuel for commercial sale.

  3. Widely Tunable Monolithic Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers Using Super-Structure Grating Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingkai Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A monolithic, three-section, and widely tunable mid-infrared (mid-IR quantum cascade laser (QCL is demonstrated. This electrically tuned laser consists of a gain section placed between two super structure grating (SSG distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs. By varying the injection currents to the two grating sections of this device, its emission wavelength can be tuned from 4.58 μm to 4.77 μm (90 cm−1 with a supermode spacing of 30 nm. This type of SSG-DBR QCLs can be a compact replacement for the external cavity QCL. It has great potential to achieve gap-free and even further tuning ranges for sensor applications.

  4. Data fusion of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra for identification of rhubarb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Zhuoyong; Zhu, Ruohua

    2017-01-01

    Rhubarb has different medicinal efficacy to official rhubarb and may affect the clinical medication safety. In order to guarantee the quality of rhubarb, we established a method to distinguish unofficial rhubarbs. 52 official and unofficial rhubarb samples were analyzed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for classification. The feature vectors, which were selected by wavelet compression (WC) and interval partial least squares (iPLS) from NIR, MIR spectra, were fused together for identifying rhubarb samples. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA), support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were compared for classifying rhubarb. The use of data fusion strategies improved the classification model and allowed correct classification of all the samples.

  5. Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy applications for monitoring the structural plasticity of plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; Hernández-Altamirano, Mabel; García-Calvo, Laura; Alonso-Simón, Ana; Álvarez, Jesús; Acebes, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy has been extensively used as a potent, fast and non-destructive procedure for analyzing cell wall architectures, with the capacity to provide abundant information about their polymers, functional groups, and in muro entanglement. In conjunction with multivariate analyses, this method has proved to be a valuable tool for tracking alterations in cell walls. The present review examines recent progress in the use of FT-MIR spectroscopy to monitor cell wall changes occurring in muro as a result of various factors, such as growth and development processes, genetic modifications, exposition or habituation to cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors and responses to other abiotic or biotic stresses, as well as its biotechnological applications. PMID:25071791

  6. An Atlas of Galaxy Spectral Energy Distributions from the Ultraviolet to the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; Smith, J -D T; da Cunha, Elisabete; Jarrett, T H; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Armus, Lee; Brandl, Bernhard R; Peek, J E G

    2013-01-01

    We present an atlas of 129 spectral energy distributions for nearby galaxies, with wavelength coverage spanning from the UV to the mid-infrared. Our atlas spans a broad range of galaxy types, including ellipticals, spirals, merging galaxies, blue compact dwarfs and luminous infrared galaxies. We have combined ground-based optical drift-scan spectrophotometry with infrared spectroscopy from Spitzer and Akari, with gaps in spectral coverage being filled using MAGPHYS spectral energy distribution models. The spectroscopy and models were normalized, constrained and verified with matched-aperture photometry measured from Swift, GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE images. The availability of 26 photometric bands allowed us to identify and mitigate systematic errors present in the data. Comparison of our spectral energy distributions with other template libraries and the observed colors of galaxies indicates that we have smaller systematic errors than existing atlases, while spanning a broader range of galaxy types...

  7. Mid-Infrared Mapping of Jupiter's Temperatures, Aerosol Opacity and Chemical Distributions with IRTF/TEXES

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, L N; Orton, G S; Sinclair, J A; Giles, R S; Irwin, P G J; Encrenaz, T

    2016-01-01

    Global maps of Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, gaseous composition and aerosol opacity are derived from a programme of 5-20 $\\mu$m mid-infrared spectroscopic observations using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Image cubes from December 2014 in eight spectral channels, with spectral resolutions of $R\\sim2000-12000$ and spatial resolutions of $2-4^\\circ$ latitude, are inverted to generate 3D maps of tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures, 2D maps of upper tropospheric aerosols, phosphine and ammonia, and 2D maps of stratospheric ethane and acetylene. The results are compared to a re-analysis of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations acquired during Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter in December 2000, demonstrating that this new archive of ground-based mapping spectroscopy can match and surpass the quality of previous investigations, and will permit future studies of Jupiter's evolving atmosphere. We identify mid-i...

  8. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope I: Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieke, G H; Boeker, T; Bouwman, J; Colina, L; Glasse, Alistair; Gordon, K D; Greene, T P; Guedel, Manual; Henning, Th; Justtanont, K; Lagage, P -O; Meixner, M E; Norgaard-Nielsen, H -U; Ray, T P; Ressler, M E; van Dishoeck, E G; Waelkens, C

    2015-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)) operates from 5 to 28.5 microns and combines over this range: 1.) unprecedented sensitivity levels; 2.) sub-arcsec angular resolution; 3.) freedom from atmospheric interference; 4.) the inherent stability of observing in space; and 5.) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: 1.) imaging exoplanets; 2.) transit and eclipse spectroscopy of exoplanets; 3.) probing the first stages of star and planet formation, including identifying bioactive molecules; 4.) determining star formation rates and mass growth as galaxies are assembled; and 5.) characterizing the youngest massive galaxies. This paper is the introduction to a series of ten covering all aspects of the instrument.

  9. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, X. Operations and Data Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Karl D; Anderson, Rachel E; Azzollini, Ruyman; Bergeron, L; Bouchet, Patrice; Bouwman, Jeroen; Cracraft, Misty; Fischer, Sebastian; Friedman, Scott D; Garcia-Marin, Macarena; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M; Goodson, G B; Greene, T P; Hines, Dean C; Khorrami, M A; Lahuis, Fred; Lajoie, C -P; Meixner, M E; Morrison, Jane E; O'Sullivan, Brian; Pontoppidan, K M; Regan, M W; Ressler, M E; Rieke, G H; Scheithauer, Silvia; Walker, Helen; Wright, G S

    2015-01-01

    We describe the operations concept and data reduction plan for the Mid- Infrared Instrument (MIRI) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The overall JWST operations concept is to use Observation Templates (OTs) to provide a straightforward and intuitive way for users to specify observations. MIRI has four OTs that correspond to the four observing modes: 1.) Imaging, 2.) Coronagraphy, 3.) Low Resolution Spectroscopy, and 4.) Medium Resolution Spectroscopy. We outline the user choices and expansion of these choices into detailed instrument operations. The data reduction plans for MIRI are split into three stages, where the specificity of the reduction steps to the observation type increases with stage. The reduction starts with integration ramps: stage 1 yields uncalibrated slope images; stage 2 calibrates the slope images; and then stage 3 combines multiple calibrated slope images into high level data products (e.g. mosaics, spectral cubes, and extracted source information). Finally, we give examples of t...

  10. Young massive stars and their environment in the mid-infrared at high angular resolution

    CERN Document Server

    De Wit, W J; Oudmaijer, R D; Fujiyoshi, T

    2008-01-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish mid-infrared observations of a sample of massive young stellar objects (BN-type objects), using VLTI-MIDI (10 micron) and Subaru-COMICS (24.5 micron). We discuss the regions S140, Mon R2, M8E-IR, and W33A. The observations probe the inner regions of the dusty envelope at scales of 50 milli arcsecond and 0.6 arcsec (100-1000 AU), respectively. Simultaneous model fits to spectral energy distributions and spatial data are achieved using self-consistent spherical envelope modelling. We conclude that those MYSO envelopes that are best described by a spherical geometry, the commensurate density distribution is a powerlaw with index -1.0. Such a powerlaw is predicted if the envelope is supported by turbulence on the 100-1000AU scales probed with MIDI and COMICS, but the role of rotation at these spatial scales need testing.

  11. High efficiency near diffraction-limited mid-infrared flat lenses based on metasurface reflectarrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuyan; Aieta, Francesco; She, Alan; Mansuripur, Tobias; Gabay, Ilan; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Rousso, David; Wang, Xiaojun; Troccoli, Mariano; Yu, Nanfang; Capasso, Federico

    2016-01-01

    A limiting factor in the development of mid-infrared optics is the lack of abundant materials that are transparent, low cost, lightweight, and easy to machine. In this paper, we demonstrate a metasurface device that circumvents these limitations. A flat lens based on antenna reflectarrays was designed to achieve near diffraction-limited focusing with a high efficiency (experiment: 80%, simulation: 83%) at 45(o) incidence angle at {\\lambda} = 4.6 {\\mu}m. This geometry considerably simplifies the experimental arrangement compared to the common geometry of normal incidence which requires beam splitters. Simulations show that the effect of comatic aberrations is small compared to parabolic mirrors. The use of single-step photolithography allows large scale fabrication.

  12. Determination of intrinsic mid-infrared absorption of a fluoride glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, J M; Aggarwal, I D

    1991-10-15

    The intrinsic mid-infrared optical absorption of a ZrF(4)-BaF(2)-LaF(3)-AlF(3)-NaF (ZBLAN) glass has been determined by combining laser calorimetry and spark-source mass spectrographic analysis. The total optical absorption of four samples of varying purity was measured at 3.9 microm with laser calorimetry. The extrinsic contribution to the total absorption for each glass was calculated from the measured concentration of rare-earth impurity ions and known extinction coefficients. The intrinsic absorption of this glass at 3.9 microm determined from the difference between the total measured absorption and the calculated extrinsic absorption is 6.11 (+/-0.61) x 10(-4) cm(-1).

  13. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Lawton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  14. Measuring the Boltzmann constant by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy of ammonia

    CERN Document Server

    Mejri, S; Kozlova, O; Ayari, C; Tokunaga, Sean; Chardonnet, C; Briaudeau, S; Darquié, B; Rohart, F; Daussy, C

    2015-01-01

    We report on our ongoing effort to measure the Boltzmann constant, $k_B,$ using the Doppler broadening technique on ammonia. This paper presents some of the improvements made to the mid-infrared spectrometer including the use of a phase-stabilized quantum cascade laser, a lineshape analysis based on a refined physical model and an improved fitting program 2 increasing the confidence in our estimates of the relevant molecular parameters, and a first evaluation of the saturation parameter and its impact on the measurement of k B. A summary of the systematic effects contributing to the measurement is given and the optimal experimental conditions for mitigating those effects in order to reach a competitive measurement of $k_B$ at a part per million accuracy level are outlined.

  15. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  16. Comparing Mid-Infrared Globular Cluster Colors With Population Synthesis Models

    CERN Document Server

    Barmby, P

    2012-01-01

    Several population synthesis models now predict integrated colors of simple stellar populations in the mid-infrared bands. To date, the models have not been extensively tested in this wavelength range. In a comparison of the predictions of several recent population synthesis models, the integrated colors are found to cover approximately the same range but to disagree in detail, for example on the effects of metallicity. To test against observational data, globular clusters are used as the closest objects to idealized groups of stars with a single age and single metallicity. Using recent mass estimates, we have compiled a sample of massive, old globular clusters in M31 which contain enough stars to guard against the stochastic effects of small-number statistics, and measured their integrated colors in the Spitzer/IRAC bands. Comparison of the cluster photometry in the IRAC bands with the model predictions shows that the models reproduce the cluster colors reasonably well, except for a small (not statistically ...

  17. Low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for chemical sensing in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Choi, Duk-Yong; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin; Yang, Zhiyong; Debbarma, Sukanta; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry

    2013-12-02

    We report the characteristics of low-loss chalcogenide waveguides for sensing in the mid-infrared (MIR). The waveguides consisted of a Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄Se₆₄.₅ rib waveguide core with a 10nm fluoropolymer coating on a Ge₁₁.₅As₂₄S₆₄.₅ bottom cladding and were fabricated by thermal evaporation, photolithography and ICP plasma etching. Over most of the functional group band from 1500 to 4000 cm⁻¹ the losses were < 1 dB/cm with a minimum of 0.3 dB/cm at 2000 cm⁻¹. The basic capabilities of these waveguides for spectroscopy were demonstrated by measuring the absorption spectrum of soluble Prussian blue in Dimethyl Sulphoxide.

  18. Mid-infrared observations of O-type stars: spectral morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; Bouret, J.-C.; Lanz, T.; Maia, D. S.; Audard, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations for a sample of 16 O-type stars. The data were acquired with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, using the IRS instrument at moderate resolution (R ∼ 600), covering the range of ∼10-37 μm. Our sample includes early, mid and late O supergiants and dwarfs. We explore for the first time their mid-IR spectral morphology in a quantitative way. We use NLTE expanding atmosphere models to help with line identifications, analyse profile contributions and line-formation regions. The O supergiants present a rich emission line spectra. The most intense features are from hydrogen - 6 α, 7 α and 8 α - that have non-negligible contributions of He i or He ii lines, depending on the spectral type. The spectrum of early O supergiants is a composite of H i and He ii lines, He i lines being absent. On the other hand, late O supergiants present features composed mainly by H i and He i lines. All emission lines are formed throughout the stellar wind. We found that O dwarfs exhibit a featureless mid-IR spectrum. Two stars of our sample exhibit very similar mid-IR features, despite having a very different optical spectral classification. The analysis of O-type stars based on mid-IR spectra alone to infer spectral classes or to estimate physical parameters may thus be prone to substantial errors. Our results may therefore inform spectroscopic observations of massive stars located in heavily obscured regions and help establish an initial framework for observations of massive stars using the Mid-Infrared Instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Analysis of mid-infrared optical conductivity in electron-doped cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Dinesh [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhawan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore-452017 (India); Patel, G S [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhawan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore-452017 (India); Singh, R K [M P Bhoj (Open) University, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal-462016, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2003-05-01

    Observed frequency dependent optical conductivity {sigma}({omega}) of electron-doped cuprate Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4-{delta}} ({delta} {approx} 0.02, T{sub c} {approx} 25 K) superconductors has been theoretically analysed. Starting from an effective two-dimensional (2D) interaction potential for superlattice of electron-doped cuprates treated as a layered electron gas, the spectral function is developed. Calculations of {sigma}({omega}) have been made within the two component scheme: one is the coherent Drude carriers responsible for superconductivity and the other is incoherent motion of carriers from one site to the other that leads to a pairing between Drude carriers. The approach accounts for the anomalies observed (frequency dependence of optical conductivity) in the optical measurements for the normal state. Estimating the effective mass from specific heat measurement and {epsilon}{sub {infinity}} from band structure calculations for the low-energy charge density waves, the model has only one free parameter, the relaxation rate. The frequency dependent relaxation rates are expressed in terms of memory functions, and the coherent Drude carriers from the effective interaction potential lead to a sharp peak at zero frequency and a long tail at higher frequencies, i.e. in the infrared region, while the hopping of carriers from one site to the other (incoherent motion of doped carriers) yields a peak value in the optical conductivity centred at mid-infrared region. We find that both the Drude and hopping carriers in the superlattice of electron-doped cuprates will contribute to the optical process of conduction in the CuO{sub 2} planes and show similar results on optical conductivity in the mid-infrared as well as infrared frequency regions as those revealed from experiments.

  20. Analysis of mid-infrared optical conductivity in electron-doped cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Patel, G. S.; Singh, R. K.

    2003-05-01

    Observed frequency dependent optical conductivity sigma(omega) of electron-doped cuprate Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4-delta (delta approx 0.02, Tc approx 25 K) superconductors has been theoretically analysed. Starting from an effective two-dimensional (2D) interaction potential for superlattice of electron-doped cuprates treated as a layered electron gas, the spectral function is developed. Calculations of sigma(omega) have been made within the two component scheme: one is the coherent Drude carriers responsible for superconductivity and the other is incoherent motion of carriers from one site to the other that leads to a pairing between Drude carriers. The approach accounts for the anomalies observed (frequency dependence of optical conductivity) in the optical measurements for the normal state. Estimating the effective mass from specific heat measurement and varepsiloninfty from band structure calculations for the low-energy charge density waves, the model has only one free parameter, the relaxation rate. The frequency dependent relaxation rates are expressed in terms of memory functions, and the coherent Drude carriers from the effective interaction potential lead to a sharp peak at zero frequency and a long tail at higher frequencies, i.e. in the infrared region, while the hopping of carriers from one site to the other (incoherent motion of doped carriers) yields a peak value in the optical conductivity centred at mid-infrared region. We find that both the Drude and hopping carriers in the superlattice of electron-doped cuprates will contribute to the optical process of conduction in the CuO2 planes and show similar results on optical conductivity in the mid-infrared as well as infrared frequency regions as those revealed from experiments.

  1. High resolution mid-infrared cross-sections for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Allen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorption spectra of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(OOONO2 vapour at room temperature (295 K have been measured in the mid-infrared range, 550–2200 cm−1 (18.2–3.33 µm, using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at instrument resolutions of 0.25 and 0.03 cm−1 (unapodised. Both cross-section data and integrated absorption intensities for the five principal bands in the PAN spectra in this spectral range have been derived from fourteen separate PAN transmission spectra measurements. Band intensities and band centre absorptivities are also reported for four weaker PAN absorption bands in the mid infrared for the first time. These observations are the highest spectral resolution measurements of PAN bands recorded in the infrared to date. For three of the five strongest bands, the absolute integrated absorption intensities are in excellent agreement with previous studies. A 4.8% lower integrated intensity was found for the 1741 cm−1 νas (NO2 PAN absorption band, possibly as a result of the removal in this work of spectra affected by subtle acetone contamination, while a 10.6% higher intensity was determined for the 1163 cm−1 ν (C-O absorption band. No direct effects of spectral resolution were observed. The improved accuracy of these absorption cross-sections will allow more accurate investigations of PAN using infrared spectroscopy, particularly for remote sensing of PAN in the atmosphere.

  2. Spectral and Imaging Observations of a White-light Solar Flare in the Mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Matt; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh; Jhabvala, Murzy; Jennings, Don; Lunsford, Allen; Kaufmann, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    We report high-resolution observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of a minor solar flare, SOL2014-09-24T17:50 (C7.0), using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector cameras at an auxiliary of the McMath-Pierce telescope. The flare emissions, the first simultaneous observations in two mid-infrared bands at 5.2 and 8.2 μ {{m}} with white-light and hard X-ray coverage, revealed impulsive time variability with increases on timescales of ˜4 s followed by exponential decay at ˜10 s in two bright regions separated by about 13\\prime\\prime . The brightest source is compact, unresolved spatially at the diffraction limit (1\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;72 at 5.2 μ {{m}}). We identify the IR sources as flare ribbons also seen in white-light emission at 6173 Å observed by SDO/HMI, with twin hard X-ray sources observed by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, and with EUV sources (e.g., 94 Å) observed by SDO/AIA. The two infrared points have nearly the same flux density (fν, W m-2 Hz) and extrapolate to a level of about an order of magnitude below that observed in the visible band by HMI, but with a flux of more than two orders of magnitude above the free-free continuum from the hot (˜15 MK) coronal flare loop observed in the X-ray range. The observations suggest that the IR emission is optically thin; this constraint and others suggest major contributions from a density less than about 4× {10}13 cm-3. We tentatively interpret this emission mechanism as predominantly free-free emission in a highly ionized but cool and rather dense chromospheric region.

  3. An overview of the mid-infrared spectro-interferometer MATISSE: science, concept, and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, A.; Lopez, B.; Antonelli, P.; Lehmitz, M.; Bettonvil, F.; Beckmann, U.; Lagarde, S.; Jaffe, W.; Petrov, R.; Berio, P.; Millour, F.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Glindemann, A.; Bristow, P.; Schoeller, M.; Lanz, T.; Henning, T.; Weigelt, G.; Heininger, M.; Morel, S.; Cruzalebes, P.; Meisenheimer, K.; Hofferbert, R.; Wolf, S.; Bresson, Y.; Agocs, T.; Allouche, F.; Augereau, J.-C.; Avila, G.; Bailet, C.; Behrend, J.; van Belle, G.; Berger, J.-P.; van Boekel, R.; Bourget, P.; Brast, R.; Clausse, J.-M.; Connot, C.; Conzelmann, R.; Csepany, G.; Danchi, W. C.; Delbo, M.; Dominik, C.; van Duin, A.; Elswijk, E.; Fantei, Y.; Finger, G.; Gabasch, A.; Gonté, F.; Graser, U.; Guitton, F.; Guniat, S.; De Haan, M.; Haguenauer, P.; Hanenburg, H.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Hogerheijde, M.; ter Horst, R.; Hron, J.; Hummel, C.; Isderda, J.; Ives, D.; Jakob, G.; Jasko, A.; Jolley, P.; Kiraly, S.; Kragt, J.; Kroener, T.; Kroes, G.; Kuindersma, S.; Labadie, L.; Laun, W.; Leinert, C.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Marcotto, A.; Martinache, F.; Martinot-Lagarde, G.; Mauclert, N.; Mehrgan, L.; Meilland, A.; Mellein, M.; Menardi, S.; Merand, A.; Neumann, U.; Nussbaum, E.; Ottogalli, S.; Palsa, R.; Panduro, J.; Pantin, E.; Percheron, I.; Phan Duc, T.; Pott, J.-U.; Pozna, E.; Roelfsema, R.; Rupprecht, G.; Schertl, D.; Schmidt, C.; Schuil, M.; Spang, A.; Stegmeier, J.; Tromp, N.; Vakili, F.; Vannier, M.; Wagner, K.; Venema, L.; Woillez, J.

    2016-08-01

    MATISSE is the second-generation mid-infrared spectrograph and imager for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at Paranal. This new interferometric instrument will allow significant advances by opening new avenues in various fundamental research fields: studying the planet-forming region of disks around young stellar objects, understanding the surface structures and mass loss phenomena affecting evolved stars, and probing the environments of black holes in active galactic nuclei. As a first breakthrough, MATISSE will enlarge the spectral domain of current optical interferometers by offering the L and M bands in addition to the N band. This will open a wide wavelength domain, ranging from 2.8 to 13 μm, exploring angular scales as small as 3 mas (L band) / 10 mas (N band). As a second breakthrough, MATISSE will allow mid-infrared imaging - closure-phase aperture-synthesis imaging - with up to four Unit Telescopes (UT) or Auxiliary Telescopes (AT) of the VLTI. Moreover, MATISSE will offer a spectral resolution range from R ˜ 30 to R ˜ 5000. Here, we present one of the main science objectives, the study of protoplanetary disks, that has driven the instrument design and motivated several VLTI upgrades (GRA4MAT and NAOMI). We introduce the physical concept of MATISSE including a description of the signal on the detectors and an evaluation of the expected performances. We also discuss the current status of the MATISSE instrument, which is entering its testing phase, and the foreseen schedule for the next two years that will lead to the first light at Paranal.

  4. Mid-Infrared and Near Infrared Calibrations for Nutritional Parameters of Triticale (Triticosecale) and Pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data is lacking about the relative effectiveness of diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed mid-infrared (MidIR) versus near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for calibration development of forage constituents. The objective of this study was to develop MidIR and NIR calibrations for acid detergent fiber ...

  5. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    in operation. The Mid-Infrared Instrument is one of four instruments to be used on the James Webb Space Telescope which is due for launch in 2018. This telescope will be successor to the Hubble Space Telescope and is the largest space-based astronomy project ever to be conceived. Critical to operation...

  6. Far- and mid-infrared spectrum of YBa2Cu3O6.0 in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruninger, M; vanderMarel, D; vanBentum, PJM; Erb, A; Geserich, HP; Kopp, T

    1996-01-01

    The far- and mid-infrared spectrum of antiferromagnetic YBa2Cu3O6.0 was investigated by infrared transmission measurements ((k) over right arrow parallel to c-axis) in high magnetic fields up to 16.5 Tesla. at T=1K. A peak at 1436 cm(-1) which previously was assigned to the excitation of single opti

  7. Increased mid-infrared supercontinuum bandwidth and average power by tapering large-mode-area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The trade-off between the spectral bandwidth and average output power from chalcogenide fiber-based mid-infrared supercontinuum sources is one of the major challenges towards practical application of the technology. In this paper we address this challenge through tapering of large-mode-area chalc...... m. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  8. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  9. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantavini, Mário S.; Pontes, Flávia L. D.; Uber, Caroline P.; Stremel, Dile P.; Sena, Marcelo M.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm-1, preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones.

  10. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  11. [Two-Dimensional Hetero-Spectral Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy for Discrimination Adulterated Milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Yang, Ren-jie; Lü, Ai-jun; Tan, En-zhong

    2015-08-01

    New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero-spectral two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). Firstly, 36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L(-1)) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk. Then, one-dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room temperature. And the synchronous 2D NIR-IR (4200~4800 vs. 900~1700 cm(-1)) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated. Due to the trace of adulterants, the synchronous 2D IR-NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle. Consequently, it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adulterated milk. Finally, 2D IR-NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra, respectively. The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8%. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR-IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR, and 2D IR correlation spectra. The proposed method can not only effectively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk, but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adulterated food.

  12. Monitoring wheat mitochondrial compositional and respiratory changes using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy in response to agrochemical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Matthew; Wegner, Casey; Phansak, Piyaporn; Sarath, Gautam; Gaussoin, Roch; Schlegel, Vicki

    2017-02-01

    Fungicides and plant growth regulators can impact plant growth outside of their effects on fungal pathogens. Although many of these chemicals are inhibitors of mitochondrial oxygen uptake, information remains limited as to whether they are able to modify other mitochondrial constituents. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-mIR) offers a high sample throughput method to comparatively and qualitatively evaluate the effects of exogenously added compounds on mitochondrial components. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the ability of FT-mIR to detect effects mitochondrial fractions isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in response to several agrochemical treatments, with an emphasis on fungicides. The accessed need was to develop FT-mIR analytical and statistical routines as an effective approach to differentiate spectra obtained from chemically-treated or untreated mitochondria. An NADH-dependent oxygen uptake approach was initially used as a comparative method to determine whether the fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, cyazofamid, fluazinam, isopyrazam, and pyraclostrobin) and the plant growth regulator, (trinexapac-ethyl) reduced respiration inhibition on isolated mitochondria. Pyraclostrobin was the most effective inhibitor, whereas amisulbrom did not impact oxygen uptake. However, hierarchical clustering of FT-mIR spectra of isolated mitochondria treated with these different compounds separated into clades consistent with each of their expected mode of action. Analysis of the FT-mIR amide protein region indicated that amisulbrom and pyraclostrobin interacted with the isolated wheat mitochondria. Both chemicals were statistically different from the control signifying that respiration was indeed influenced by these treatments. Moreover, the entire FT-mIR region showed differences in various biological bands thereby providing additional information on mitochondria responses to agrochemicals, if so warranted.

  13. Retrieval of xCO2 from ground-based mid-infrared (NDACC solar absorption spectra and comparison to TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buschmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available High resolution solar absorption spectra, taken within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC in the mid-infrared spectral region are used to infer partial or total column abundances of many gases. In this paper we present the retrieval of a column averaged mole fraction of carbon dioxide from NDACC-IRWG spectra taken with a Fourier-Transform-Infra-Red (FTIR spectrometer at the site in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. The retrieved time series is compared to co-located standard TCCON measurements of total column CO2. Comparing the NDACC and TCCON retrievals we find that the sensitivity of the NDACC retrieval is lower in the troposphere (by a factor of two and higher in the stratosphere, compared to TCCON. Thus, the NDACC retrieval is less sensitive to tropospheric changes (e.g. the seasonal cycle in the column average.

  14. Prediction of bovine milk technological traits from mid-infrared spectroscopy analysis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, G; McDermott, A; McParland, S; Berry, D P; Kenny, O A; Brodkorb, A; Fenelon, M A; De Marchi, M

    2015-09-01

    Rapid, cost-effective monitoring of milk technological traits is a significant challenge for dairy industries specialized in cheese manufacturing. The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of mid-infrared spectroscopy to predict rennet coagulation time, curd-firming time, curd firmness at 30 and 60min after rennet addition, heat coagulation time, casein micelle size, and pH in cow milk samples, and to quantify associations between these milk technological traits and conventional milk quality traits. Samples (n=713) were collected from 605 cows from multiple herds; the samples represented multiple breeds, stages of lactation, parities, and milking times. Reference analyses were undertaken in accordance with standardized methods, and mid-infrared spectra in the range of 900 to 5,000cm(-1) were available for all samples. Prediction models were developed using partial least squares regression, and prediction accuracy was based on both cross and external validation. The proportion of variance explained by the prediction models in external validation was greatest for pH (71%), followed by rennet coagulation time (55%) and milk heat coagulation time (46%). Models to predict curd firmness 60min from rennet addition and casein micelle size, however, were poor, explaining only 25 and 13%, respectively, of the total variance in each trait within external validation. On average, all prediction models tended to be unbiased. The linear regression coefficient of the reference value on the predicted value varied from 0.17 (casein micelle size regression model) to 0.83 (pH regression model) but all differed from 1. The ratio performance deviation of 1.07 (casein micelle size prediction model) to 1.79 (pH prediction model) for all prediction models in the external validation was <2, suggesting that none of the prediction models could be used for analytical purposes. With the exception of casein micelle size and curd firmness at 60min after rennet addition

  15. Coupled blind signal separation and spectroscopic database fitting of the mid infrared PAH features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Berné, O.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The aromatic infrared bands (AIBs) observed in the mid infrared spectrum of galactic and extragalactic sources are attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Recently, two new approaches have been developed to analyze the variations of AIBs in terms of chemical evolution of PAH species: blind signal separation (BSS) and the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database fitting tool. Aims: We aim to study AIBs in a photo-dissociation region (PDR) since in these regions, as the radiation environment changes, the evolution of AIBs are observed. Methods: We observe the NGC 7023-north west (NW) PDR in the mid-infrared (10-19.5 μm) using the InfraRed Spectrometer (IRS), on board Spitzer, in the high-resolution, short wavelength mode. Clear variations are observed in the spectra, most notably the ratio of the 11.0 to 11.2 μm bands, the peak position of the 11.2 and 12.0 μm bands, and the degree of asymmetry of the 11.2 μm band. The observed variations appear to change as a function of position within the PDR. We aim to explain these variations by a change in the abundances of the emitting components of the PDR. A blind signal separation (BSS) method, i.e. a Non-Negative Matrix Factorization algorithm is applied to separate the observed spectrum into components. Using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database, these extracted signals are fit. The observed signals alone were also fit using the database and these components are compared to the BSS components. Results: Three component signals were extracted from the observation using BSS. We attribute the three signals to ionized PAHs, neutral PAHs, and very small grains (VSGs). The fit of the BSS extracted spectra with the PAH database further confirms the attribution to PAH+ and PAH0 and provides confidence in both methods for producing reliable results. Conclusions: The 11.0 μm feature is attributed to PAH+ while the 11.2 μm band is attributed to PAH0. The VSG signal shows a characteristically

  16. Mid-Infrared (8.1-12.5 μm) Imaging of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, A. L.; Deutsch, L. K.; Hora, J.; Fazio, G. G.; Ludwig, B.; Emery, J.; Hoffmann, W. F.

    2000-10-01

    The first images of Mercury to be obtained in thermal emission are discussed. Images at 22 wavelengths between 8.1 and 13.25 μm obtained with MIRAC (Mid-Infrared Array Camera) have been reduced and analyzed to obtain new information regarding the thermal and chemical makeup of Mercury's surface. The region observed is centered at ˜210-250° mercurian longitude, encompassing the location of a ˜1000-km-diameter radar-bright region on Mercury's surface that was not imaged by Mariner 10. We found some evidence supporting ground-based spectroscopy of alkali-rich feldspathoids. However, the large pixel size (at the sub-Earth point the area per square pixel is 28,000 km 2—8 μm; 63,000 km 2—12 μm), the diffraction limit of the telescope, and the small angular diameter of Mercury all conspired to prevent any compositional spatial discrimination on the Earth-facing disk. Our four results are: (1) data fits to rough surface thermal models indicate the surface is smoother at this location (Thetabar ˜8°-11°) than at previous locations (10-75° and 100-160° longitude) measured in the mid-infrared (Thetabar ˜20°); (2) with the spatial resolution of these data, color ratios of images do not reveal any locations of enhanced or depressed flux that can be associated with regions of different rock composition across the disk of Mercury; (3) 18-channel spectra generated from Mercury whole-disk averages exhibit emissivity features over part of the spectral range (8.1-10.5 μm) indicative of bronzite, a pyroxene composed of ˜2% CaSiO 3, 86% MgSiO 3, and 12% FeSiO 3. In addition, the overall spectrum was grossly matched by a spectrum of picrite (an ultra-mafic rock) with 25% MgO, 8% CaO, and 11% FeO, and other minor components including plagioclase feldspar (4). TIMS six-channel simulations have a best match to sodalite (Na 8Al 6Si 6O 24C 12), a mineral associated with nephaline syenite rocks. On Earth, all of these materials are found in association in the Teschenite

  17. Improved mid-infrared cross-sections for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Allen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption spectra of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(OOONO2 vapour at room temperature (295K have been measured in the mid-infrared range, 550-2200cm-1 (18.2-4.55µm, using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer at instrument resolutions of 0.25 and 0.03cm-1 (unapodised. Between five and eight measurements were obtained for each spectral band of PAN in the pressure range 0.24-2.20mb showing good agreement with Beer's law. Both cross-section data and integrated absorption intensities for the five principal bands in the PAN spectra in this spectral range have been derived with peak cross-sections of the 794, 1163, 1302, 1741 and 1842cm-1 bands measured to be 0.95(±0.02, 1.21(±0.03, 0.92(±0.02, 2.39(±0.06 and 0.74(±0.03 (x10-18cm2molecule-1 respectively. Band intensities and band centre absorptivities are also reported for four weaker PAN absorption bands in the mid infrared for the first time. These observations are the highest spectral resolution measurements of PAN bands reported in the infrared to date. For three of the five strongest bands, the absolute integrated absorption intensities are in excellent agreement with previous studies. A 4.8% lower integrated intensity was found for the 1741cm-1νas(NO2 PAN absorption band, possibly as a result of the removal in this work of spectra affected by acetone contamination, while a 10.6% higher intensity was determined for the 1163cm-1ν(C-O absorption band. No resolution of fine structure in the PAN absorption bands was observed at the resolutions studied. The confirmation of absorption cross-sections and estimated errors in this work will allow more accurate investigations of PAN using infrared spectroscopy, particularly for remote sensing of PAN in the atmosphere.

  18. Mid-infrared pulsed fiber lasers operating at 3μm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Li, Jianfeng; Yu, Luohong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Li, Heping; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2014-11-01

    Mid-infrared pulsed fiber laser with centered wavelength from 2 to 5 μm have attracted substantial attention owing to their potential applications in defence, laser microsurgery, material processing, nonlinear frequency conversion, etc. We demonstrated our recent achievements at 3 μm pulsed fiber lasers by utilizing Q-switching method. Firstly, a cascaded dual wavelength actively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber was reported by inserting an external electrically driven acoustic-optical modulator (AOM) into the cavity. The 3.0 μm and 2.07 μm pulse trains were achieved with a μs level time delay corresponding to the pulse energy of 29 μJ and 7 μJ, pulse duration of 380 ns and 260 ns, respectively. The narrower pulse width in this case compared to that in passively Q-switched fiber lasers can be attributed to the much higher modulation depth of AOM. Using a reversely designed semiconductor saturable mirror (SESAM) as the saturable absorber (SA), we presented a passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser operating at ~2971 nm, the obtained maximum pulse energy of 6.65 μJ only limited by the maximum pump power was also the highest level from passively Q-switched fiber lasers at this wavelength range, and corresponding pulse repetition rate and duration were 47.6 kHz and 1.68 μs, respectively. Then using a Fe2+: ZnSe crystal with an initial transmission of 69 % as the SA, a passively Q-switched Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser operating at 2970.3 nm was also achieved. The obtained pulse duration and repetition rate were 1.92 μs and 62.74 kHz, respectively with an output power of 266 mW and a pulse energy of 4.24 μJ. The further performance improvements were possible because they were just limited by the maximum pump power. To sum up, the above achievements would be beneficial for further development of mid-infrared pulsed fiber lasers.

  19. The nuclear and extended mid-infrared emission of Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bernete, I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Alonso-Herrero, A; González-Martín, O; Hernán-Caballero, A; Pereira-Santaella, M; Levenson, N A; Packham, C; Perlman, E S; Ichikawa, K; Esquej, P; Díaz-Santos, T

    2016-01-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution mid-infrared (MIR) images obtained with 8-10 m-class ground-based telescopes of a complete volume-limited (D$_L<$40 Mpc) sample of 24 Seyfert galaxies selected from the Swift/BAT nine month catalog. We use those MIR images to study the nuclear and circumnuclear emission of the galaxies. Using different methods to classify the MIR morphologies on scales of $\\sim$400 pc, we find that the majority of the galaxies (75-83%) are extended or possibly extended and 17-25% are point-like. This extended emission is compact and it has low surface brightness compared with the nuclear emission, and it represents, on average, $\\sim$30% of the total MIR emission of the galaxies in the sample. We find that the galaxies whose circumnuclear MIR emission is dominated by star formation show more extended emission (650$\\pm$700 pc) than AGN-dominated systems (300$\\pm$100 pc). In general, the galaxies with point-like MIR morphologies are face-on or moderately inclined (b/a$\\sim$0.4-1.0), and we ...

  20. Primary experimental studies on mid-infrared FEL irradiation on dental substances at BFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Biao, Z J; Gao Xue Ju; He Wei; Huang Yu Ying; Li Yong Gui; LiuNianQing; Wang Min Kai; Wu Gan; Yan Xue Pin; Zhang Guo Qing

    2001-01-01

    A free electron laser (FEL) with its characteristics of wide wavelength tunability, ultrashort pulse time structure, and high peak power density is predominantly superior to all other conventional lasers in applications. Several experimental studies on mid-infrared FEL irradiation on dental enamel and dentine were performed at the Beijing FEL. Experimental aims were to investigate changes in the hardness, ratios of P to Ca and Cs before and after irradiation on samples with a characteristic absorption wavelength of 9.66 mu m, in the colors of these sample surfaces after irradiation with different wavelengths around the peak wavelength. The time dependence of temperature of the dentine sample was measured with its ps pulse effects compared to that with a continuous CO sub 2 laser. FTIR absorption spectra in the range of 2.5-15.4 mu m for samples of these hard dental substances and pure hydroxyapatite were first examined to decide their chemical components and absorption maximums. Primary experimental results w...

  1. Mid-Infrared Spectral Indicators of Star-Formation and AGN Activity in Normal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Treyer, Marie; Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of mid-infrared PAH bands, continuum and emission lines as probes of star-formation and AGN activity in a sample of 100 `normal' and local (z~0.1) galaxies. The MIR spectra were obtained with the Spitzer IRS as part of the Spitzer-SDSS-GALEX Spectroscopic Survey (SSGSS) which includes multi-wavelength photometry from the UV to the FIR and optical spectroscopy. The spectra were decomposed using PAHFIT (Smith et al. 2007), which we find to yield PAH equivalent widths (EW) up to ~30 times larger than the commonly used spline methods. Based on correlations between PAH, continuum and emission line properties and optically derived physical properties (gas phase metallicity, radiation field hardness), we revisit the diagnostic diagram relating PAH EWs and [NeII]/[OIV] and find it more efficient as distinguishing weak AGNs from star-forming galaxies than when spline decompositions are used. The luminosity of individual MIR component (PAH, continuum, Ne and molecular hydrogen lines) are found to...

  2. Mid-Infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lecaplain, C; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-01-01

    Decades ago, the losses of glasses in the near infrared (near-IR) were investigated in views of developments for optical telecommunications. Today, properties in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) are of interest for molecular spectroscopy applications. In particular, high-sensitivity spectroscopic techniques based on high-finesse mid-IR cavities hold high promise for medical applications. Due to exceptional purity and low losses, whispering gallery mode microresonators based on polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals (i.e the $\\mathrm{XF_2}$ family, where X $=$ Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr,...) have attained ultra-high quality (Q) factor resonances (Q$>$10$^{8}$) in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. Here we report for the first time ultra-high Q factors in the mid-IR using crystalline microresonators. Using an uncoated chalcogenide (ChG) tapered fiber, light from a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (QCL) is efficiently coupled to several crystalline microresonators at 4.4 $\\mu$m wavelength. We measure the optica...

  3. The Mid-Infrared [SIV]/[NeII] versus [NeIII]/[NeII] Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Groves, Brent; Brandl, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The mid-infrared ratio [NeIII]15.6mum/[NeII]12.8mum is a strong diagnostic of the ionization state of emission line objects, due to its use of only strong neon emission lines only weakly affected by extinction. However this ratio is not available to ground-based telescopes as only a few spectroscopic windows are available in the MIR. To deal with this problem we aimed to verify if there exists a conversion law between ground-accessible, strong MIR line ratio [SIV]/[NeII] and the diagnostic [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio that can serve as a reference for future ground-based observations. We collated the [SIV]10.5mum, [NeII]12.8mum, [NeIII]15.6\\mum and [SIII]18.7mum emission line fluxes from a wide range of sources in the rich Spitzer and ISO archives, and compared the [NeIII]/[NeII], [SIV]/[SIII], and [SIV]/[NeII] ratios. We find a strong correlation between the [SIV]/[NeII] and [\

  4. The Mid-Infrared Spectrum of Star-Forming Galaxies: Global Properties of PAH Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, J D T; Dale, D A; Moustakas, J; Kennicutt, R C; Helou, G; Armus, L; Roussel, H; Sheth, K; Bendo, G J; Buckalew, B A; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Hollenbach, D J; Li, A; Malhotra, S; Murphy, E J; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    We present a sample of low-resolution 5-38um Spitzer IRS spectra of the inner few square kiloparsecs of 59 nearby galaxies spanning a large range of star formation properties. A robust method for decomposing mid-infrared galaxy spectra is described, and used to explore the behavior of PAH emission and the prevalence of silicate dust extinction. Evidence for silicate extinction is found in ~1/8 of the sample, at strengths which indicate most normal galaxies undergo A_V < ~3 magnitudes averaged over their centers. The contribution of PAH emission to the total infrared power is found to peak near 10% and extend up to ~20%, and is suppressed at metallicities Z < ~Z_sun/4, as well as in low-luminosity AGN environments. Strong inter-band PAH feature strength variations (2-5x) are observed, with the presence of a weak AGN and, to a lesser degree, increasing metallicity shifting power to the longer wavelength bands. A peculiar PAH emission spectrum with markedly diminished 5-8um features arises among the sample...

  5. Surface Properties of Asteroids from Mid-Infrared Observations and Thermophysical Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work is the physical characterization of asteroids, focusing on the thermal inertia of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Thermal inertia governs the Yarkovsky effect, a non-gravitational force which significantly alters the orbits of asteroids up to \\sim 20 km in diameter. Yet, very little has previously been known about the thermal inertia of small asteroids including NEAs. Observational and theoretical work is reported. The thermal emission of asteroids has been observed in the mid-infrared (5-35 {\\mu}m) wavelength range using the Spitzer Space Telescope and the 3.0m IRTF. A detailed thermophysical model (TPM) has been developed and extensively tested; this is the first detailed TPM shown to be applicable to NEA data. Our main result is the determination of the thermal inertia of 5 NEAs, increasing the total number of NEAs with measured thermal inertia to 6. For two of our targets, previously available estimates are refined. Our results allow the first determination of the typical thermal ine...

  6. Directly Imaged L-T Transition Exoplanets in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Skemer, Andrew J; Hinz, Philip M; Morzinski, Katie M; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron M; Close, Laird M; Saumon, Didier; Bailey, Vanessa P; Briguglio, Runa; Defrere, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Follette, Katherine B; Hill, John M; Males, Jared R; Puglisi, Alfio; Rodigas, Timothy J; Xompero, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Gas-giant planets emit a large fraction of their light in the mid-infrared ($\\gtrsim$3$\\mu \\rm m$), where photometry and spectroscopy are critical to our understanding of the bulk properties of extrasolar planets. Of particular importance are the L and M-band atmospheric windows (3-5$\\mu \\rm m$), which are the longest wavelengths currently accessible to ground-based, high-contrast imagers. We present binocular LBT AO images of the HR 8799 planetary system in six narrow-band filters from 3-4$\\mu \\rm m$, and a Magellan AO image of the 2M1207 planetary system in a broader 3.3$\\mu \\rm m$ band. These systems encompass the five known exoplanets with luminosities consistent with L$\\rightarrow$T transition brown dwarfs. Our results show that the exoplanets are brighter and have shallower spectral slopes than equivalent temperature brown dwarfs in a wavelength range that contains the methane fundamental absorption feature. For 2M1207 b, we find that thick clouds and non-equilibrium chemistry caused by vertical mixing ...

  7. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  8. Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Patel, Neil; Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Zou, Yi; Deng, Fei; Ni, Chaoying; Hu, Juejun; Giammarco, James; Soliani, Anna Paola; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Luzinov, Igor; Novak, Spencer; Novak, Jackie; Wachtel, Peter; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Kimerling, Lionel C; Agarwal, Anuradha M

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we review our recent work on mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic materials and devices fabricated on silicon for on-chip sensing applications. Pedestal waveguides based on silicon are demonstrated as broadband mid-IR sensors. Our low-loss mid-IR directional couplers demonstrated in SiN x waveguides are useful in differential sensing applications. Photonic crystal cavities and microdisk resonators based on chalcogenide glasses for high sensitivity are also demonstrated as effective mid-IR sensors. Polymer-based functionalization layers, to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of our sensor devices, are also presented. We discuss the design of mid-IR chalcogenide waveguides integrated with polycrystalline PbTe detectors on a monolithic silicon platform for optical sensing, wherein the use of a low-index spacer layer enables the evanescent coupling of mid-IR light from the waveguides to the detector. Finally, we show the successful fabrication processing of our first prototype mid-IR waveguide-integrated detectors.

  9. Mid-infrared interferometry of Seyfert galaxies: Challenging the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    López-Gonzaga, N

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We aim to find torus models that explain the observed high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) measurements of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our goal is to determine the general properties of the circumnuclear dusty environments. Methods: We used the MIR interferometric data of a sample of AGNs provided by the instrument MIDI/VLTI and followed a statistical approach to compare the observed distribution of the interferometric data with the distributions computed from clumpy torus models. We mainly tested whether the diversity of Seyfert galaxies can be described using the Standard Model idea. In addition to line-of-sight (LOS) effects, we performed different realizations of the same model to include possible variations that are caused by the stochastic nature of the dusty models. Results: We find that our entire sample of AGNs, which contains both Seyfert types, cannot be explained merely by an inclination effect and by including random variations of the clouds. Instead, we find that each subset of Seyfert typ...

  10. Probing the envelopes of massive young stellar objects with diffraction limited mid-infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wheelwright, H E; Oudmaijer, R D; Hoare, M G; Lumsden, S L; Fujiyoshi, T; Close, J L

    2012-01-01

    Massive stars form whilst they are still embedded in dense envelopes. As a result, the roles of rotation, mass loss and accretion in massive star formation are not well understood. This study evaluates the source of the Q-band, lambda=19.5 microns, emission of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). This allows us to determine the relative importance of rotation and outflow activity in shaping the circumstellar environments of MYSOs on 1000 AU scales. We obtained diffraction limited mid-infrared images of a sample of 20 MYSOs using the VLT/VISIR and Subaru/COMICS instruments. For these 8 m class telescopes and the sample selected, the diffraction limit, ~0.6", corresponds to approximately 1000 AU. We compare the images and the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) observed to a 2D, axis-symmetric dust radiative transfer model that reproduces VLTI/MIDI observations of the MYSO W33A. We vary the inclination, mass infall rate, and outflow opening angle to simultaneously recreate the behaviour of the sample of MYSO...

  11. Young Stellar Object Variability (YSOVAR): Long Timescale Variations in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Covey, K R; Guenther, H M; Hillenbrand, L A; Plavchan, P; Poppenhaeger, K; Stauffer, J R; Wolk, S J; Gutermuth, R; Morales-Calderon, M; Song, I; Barrado, D; Bayo, A; James, D; Hora, J L; Vrba, F J; de Oliveira, C Alves; Bouvier, J; Carey, S J; Carpenter, J M; Favata, F; Flaherty, K; Forbrich, J; Hernandez, J; McCaughrean, M J; Megeath, S T; Micela, G; Smith, H A; Terebey, S; Turner, N; Allen, L; Ardila, D; Bouy, H; Guieu, S

    2014-01-01

    The YSOVAR (Young Stellar Object VARiability) Spitzer Space Telescope observing program obtained the first extensive mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5 um) time-series photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster plus smaller footprints in eleven other star-forming cores (AFGL490, NGC1333, MonR2, GGD 12-15, NGC2264, L1688, Serpens Main, Serpens South, IRAS 20050+2720, IC1396A, and Ceph C). There are ~29,000 unique objects with light curves in either or both IRAC channels in the YSOVAR data set. We present the data collection and reduction for the Spitzer and ancillary data, and define the "standard sample" on which we calculate statistics, consisting of fast cadence data, with epochs about twice per day for ~40d. We also define a "standard sample of members", consisting of all the IR-selected members and X-ray selected members. We characterize the standard sample in terms of other properties, such as spectral energy distribution shape. We use three mechanisms to identify variables in the fast cadence data--the Stetson ind...

  12. The Mid-Infrared Extinction Law in the Ophiuchus, Perseus, and Serpens Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Nicholas L; Lai, Shih-Ping; Evans, Neal J

    2008-01-01

    We compute the mid-infrared extinction law from 3.6-24 microns in three molecular clouds: Ophiuchus, Perseus, and Serpens, by combining data from the "Cores to Disks" Spitzer Legacy Science program with deep JHKs imaging. Using a new technique, we are able to calculate the line-of-sight extinction law towards each background star in our fields. With these line-of-sight measurements, we create, for the first time, maps of the chi-squared deviation of the data from two extinction law models. Because our chi-squared maps have the same spatial resolution as our extinction maps, we can directly observe the changing extinction law as a function of the total column density. In the Spitzer IRAC bands, 3.6-8 microns, we see evidence for grain growth. Below $A_{K_s} = 0.5$, our extinction law is well-fit by the Weingartner & Draine (2001) $R_V = 3.1$ diffuse interstellar medium dust model. As the extinction increases, our law gradually flattens, and for $A_{K_s} >= 1$, the data are more consistent with the Weingart...

  13. Mid-infrared quantum dot emitters utilizing planar photonic crystal technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Lyo, Sungkwun Kenneth; Cederberg, Jeffrey George; Passmore, Brandon Scott; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2008-09-01

    The three-dimensional confinement inherent in InAs self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) yields vastly different optical properties compared to one-dimensionally confined quantum well systems. Intersubband transitions in quantum dots can emit light normal to the growth surface, whereas transitions in quantum wells emit only parallel to the surface. This is a key difference that can be exploited to create a variety of quantum dot devices that have no quantum well analog. Two significant problems limit the utilization of the beneficial features of SAQDs as mid-infrared emitters. One is the lack of understanding concerning how to electrically inject carriers into electronic states that allow optical transitions to occur efficiently. Engineering of an injector stage leading into the dot can provide current injection into an upper dot state; however, to increase the likelihood of an optical transition, the lower dot states must be emptied faster than upper states are occupied. The second issue is that SAQDs have significant inhomogeneous broadening due to the random size distribution. While this may not be a problem in the long term, this issue can be circumvented by using planar photonic crystal or plasmonic approaches to provide wavelength selectivity or other useful functionality.

  14. Interstellar dust properties of M51 from AKARI mid-infrared images

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Sakon, Itsuki; Onaka, Takashi; Arimatsu, Ko; Matsuhara, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Using mid-infrared (MIR) images of four photometric bands of the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard the AKARI satellite, S7 (7 um), S11 (11 um), L15 (15 um), and L24 (24 um), we investigate the interstellar dust properties of the nearby pair of galaxies M51 with respect to its spiral arm structure. The arm and interarm regions being defined based on a spatially filtered stellar component model image, we measure the arm-to-interarm contrast for each band. The contrast is lowest in the S11 image, which is interpreted as that among the four AKARI MIR bands the S11 image best correlates with the spatial distribution of dust grains including colder components, while the L24 image with the highest contrast traces warmer dust heated by star forming activities. The surface brightness ratio between the bands, i.e. color, is measured over the disk of the main galaxy, M51a, at 300 pc resolution. We find that the distribution of S7/S11 is smooth and well traces the global spiral arm pattern while L15/S11 and L24/S11 peak at i...

  15. Characterization of Mid-Infrared Single Mode Fibers as Modal Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, A.; Lay, O.; Martin, S.; Sanghera, J. S.; Busse, L. E.; Kim, W. H.; Pureza, P. C.; Nguyen, V. Q.; Aggarwal, I. D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a technique for measuring the modal filtering ability of single mode fibers. The ideal modal filter rejects all input field components that have no overlap with the fundamental mode of the filter and does not attenuate the fundamental mode. We define the quality of a nonideal modal filter Q(sub f) as the ratio of transmittance for the fundamental mode to the transmittance for an input field that has no overlap with the fundamental mode. We demonstrate the technique on a 20 cm long mid-infrared fiber that was produced by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. The filter quality Q(sub f) for this fiber at 10.5 micron wavelength is 1000 +/- 300. The absorption and scattering losses in the fundamental mode are approximately 8 dB/m. The total transmittance for the fundamental mode, including Fresnel reflections, is 0.428 +/- 0.002. The application of interest is the search for extrasolar Earthlike planets using nulling interferometry. It requires high rejection ratios to suppress the light of a bright star, so that the faint planet becomes visible. The use of modal filters increases the rejection ratio (or, equivalently, relaxes requirements on the wavefront quality) by reducing the sensitivity to small wavefront errors. We show theoretically that, exclusive of coupling losses, the use of a modal filter leads to the improvement of the rejection ratio in a two-beam interferometer by a factor of Q(sub f).

  16. A mid-infrared Mueller ellipsometer with pseudo-achromatic optical elements

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Caurel, E; Ndong, G; Al-Bugami, B; Bernon, C; Al-Qahtani, E; Rengnez, F; De Martino, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a new broadband Mueller ellipsometer designed to work in the mid-infrared range, from 3 to 14 microns. The Mueller ellipsometer, which can be mounted in reflection or in transmission configuration, consists of a polarization state generator (PSG), a sample holder, and a polarization state analyzer (PSA). The PSG consists in one linear polarizer and a retarder sequentially rotated to generate a set of four optimal polarization states. The retarder consists in a bi-prism made of two identical Fresnel rhombs disposed symmetrically and joined by optical contact, giving the ensemble a "V" shape. Retardation is induced by the four total internal reflections that the beam undergoes when it propagates through the bi-prism. Total internal reflection allows to generate a quasi-achromatic retardation. The PSA is identical to the PSG, but with its optical elements mounted in reverse order. After a measurement run, the instrument yields a set of sixteen independent values, which i...

  17. Continuous-wave mid-infrared photonic crystal light emitters at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Binbin; Qiu, Jijun; Shi, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared photonic crystal enhanced lead-salt light emitters operating under continuous-wave mode at room temperature were investigated in this work. For the device, an active region consisting of 9 pairs of PbSe/Pb0.96Sr0.04Se quantum wells was grown by molecular beam epitaxy method on top of a Si(111) substrate which was initially dry-etched with a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure in a pattern of hexagonal holes. Because of the photonic crystal structure, an optical band gap between 3.49 and 3.58 µm was formed, which matched with the light emission spectrum of the quantum wells at room temperature. As a result, under optical pumping, using a near-infrared continuous-wave semiconductor laser, the device exhibited strong photonic crystal band-edge mode emissions and delivered over 26.5 times higher emission efficiency compared to the one without photonic crystal structure. The output power obtained was up to 7.68 mW (the corresponding power density was 363 mW/cm2), and a maximum quantum efficiency reached to 1.2%. Such photonic crystal emitters can be used as promising light sources for novel miniaturized gas-sensing systems.

  18. Prediction of protein composition of individual cow milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the application of mid-infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of protein composition in individual milk samples (n=1,336 of Simmental cows. Protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC and MIR data were recorded over the spectral range from 4,000 to 900 cm-1. Models were developed by partial least squares regression using untreated spectra. The most successful predictions were for protein, casein, αS1-casein, whey protein, and β-lactoglobulin contents. The models could discriminate between high and low values of protein composition (R2=0.50 to 0.58. The root mean square errors of cross-validation were 3.11g/l for protein (range 39.91g/l, 2.76g/l for casein (range 35.16g/l, 1.07 g/l for αS1-casein (range 12.82g/l, 0.51 g/l for whey protein (range 4.97g/l, and 0.43 for β-lactoglobulin (range 4.37. Application of MIR spectroscopy is possible for the routinely assessment of protein, casein, αS1-casein, whey protein, and β-lactoglobulin and its implementation might be in future a tool for improving protein composition of bovine milk through breeding programs.

  19. Prediction of fatty acid profiles in cow, ewe, and goat milk by mid-infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand-Calmels, M; Palhière, I; Brochard, M; Leray, O; Astruc, J M; Aurel, M R; Barbey, S; Bouvier, F; Brunschwig, P; Caillat, H; Douguet, M; Faucon-Lahalle, F; Gelé, M; Thomas, G; Trommenschlager, J M; Larroque, H

    2014-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry was used to estimate the fatty acid (FA) composition in cow, ewe, and goat milk. The objectives were to compare different statistical approaches with wavelength selection to predict the milk FA composition from MIR spectra, and to develop equations for FA in cow, goat, and ewe milk. In total, a set of 349 cow milk samples, 200 ewe milk samples, and 332 goat milk samples were both analyzed by MIR and by gas chromatography, the reference method. A broad FA variability was ensured by using milk from different breeds and feeding systems. The methods studied were partial least squares regression (PLS), first-derivative pretreatment + PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS, wavelets + PLS, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method (LASSO), and elastic net. The best results were obtained with PLS, genetic algorithm + PLS and first derivative + PLS. The residual standard deviation and the coefficient of determination in external validation were used to characterize the equations and to retain the best for each FA in each species. In all cases, the predictions were of better quality for FA found at medium to high concentrations (i.e., for saturated FA and some monounsaturated FA with a coefficient of determination in external validation >0.90). The conversion of the FA expressed in grams per 100mL of milk to grams per 100g of FA was possible with a small loss of accuracy for some FA.

  20. Milk Fatty Acids Predicted by Mid-infrared Spectroscopy in Mixed Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, healthy food has gained interest among consumers, especially with regard to the fat content of livestock products which has been associated to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Individual milk samples (n = 12,624 of 2,977 Holstein-Friesian (HF, Brown Swiss (BS and Simmental (SI cows from 39 multibreed herds were analyzed for fat content, protein content, casein content and somatic cell count using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS. Daily milk yield was also recorded. Groups of fatty acids (FA, expressed as percentage of milk fat, were predicted by MIRS: they were saturated (SFA, unsaturated (UFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA FA. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model including the fixed effects of month of sampling, parity, days in milk (DIM, herd, breed, and interactions between parity and breed, and DIM and breed. The random effects were cow nested within breed and residual. Milk of HF cows exhibited the lowest percentage of SFA (70.45% and the highest of UFA (31.20%, and milk of SI cows was intermediate between that of HF and BS breeds for all groups of FA. The values of groups of FA across DIM were similar for the different breeds. Results from this study indicate that, under similar environmental and management conditions, milk of HF exhibits better FA profile than milk of BS and SI.

  1. The Orion HII Region and the Orion Bar in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, F; Adams, J D; Herter, T L; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion Bar obtained with FORCAST aboard SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5 and 37.1 \\um. By complementing this observations with archival FORCAST and \\emph{Herschel}/PACS images we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula By comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and HII region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28~pc along the line-of-sight and that the Bar is inclined at an angle of $4\\degr$. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion Bar represents a swept up shell with a thickness of 0.1~pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of $\\simeq 3$ km/s and an age of $\\simeq 10^5$ yr for the HII region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the HII region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lo...

  2. Young massive stars and their environment in the mid-infrared at high angular resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, W J de; Hoare, M G; Oudmaijer, R D [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Fujiyoshi, T [Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)], E-mail: w.j.m.dewit@leeds.ac.uk

    2008-10-15

    We present interferometric and single-dish mid-infrared observations of a sample of massive young stellar objects (BN-type objects), using VLTI-MIDI (10{mu}m) and Subaru-COMICS (24.5 {mu}m). We discuss the regions S140, Mon R2, M8E-IR, and W33A. The observations probe the inner regions of the dusty envelope at scales of 50 milli arcsecond and 0.6'' ({approx}100-1000 AU), respectively. Simultaneous model fits to spectral energy distributions and spatial data are achieved using self-consistent spherical envelope modelling. We conclude that those MYSO envelopes that are best described by a spherical geometry, the commensurate density distribution is a powerlaw with index -1.0. Such a powerlaw is predicted if the envelope is supported by turbulence on the 100-1000 AU scales probed with MIDI and COMICS, but the role of rotation at these spatial scales need testing.

  3. High-energy mid-infrared sub-cycle pulse synthesis from a parametric amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Houkun; Zawilski, Kevin; Schunemann, Peter; Moses, Jeffrey; Hong, Kyung-Han; Kartner, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    High-energy, sub-cycle, mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulses with long-term carrier-envelope phase (CEP) stability can provide unique opportunities of exploring phase-sensitive strong-field light-matter interactions in atoms, molecules, and solid materials. The applications include the generation of isolated attosecond or even zeptosecond X-ray pulses, steering the atomic-scale motion of electrons, and sub-femtosecond control and metrology of bound-electron dynamics. Here, we present a high-energy, sub-cycle pulse synthesizer based on a mid-IR optical parametric amplifier (OPA), pumped by CEP-stable, 2.1 um femtosecond pulses. The signal and idler combined spectrum spans from 2.5 to 9.0 um, which covers the whole midwave-infrared (MWIR) region. We coherently synthesize the CEP-stable few-cycle signal and idler pulses to generate 33 uJ, 0.77-cycle (13 fs), 2.5 GW pulses centered at ~5 um, which is further energy scalable. The signal and idler pulses are both passively CEP stable, ensuring long-term overall CEP stabili...

  4. Mid-infrared strong-field ionization of clusters using two-cycle pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Bernd; Austin, Dane R; Brahms, Christian; Strüber, Christian; Witting, Tobias; Tisch, John W G; Marangos, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    We study mid-infrared strong-field ionization of rare-gas clusters ($10^3$ to $10^5$ atoms) in the impulsive limit using 12 fs laser pulses. The emission of fast electrons with kinetic energies exceeding 3 keV is observed at 1.8 $\\mu$m and an intensity of $1\\times 10^{15}$ W/cm$^2$, whereas only electrons below 500 eV are observed at 800 nm using a similar intensity and pulse duration. Fast electrons are preferentially emitted along the laser polarization direction, indicating that they are driven out from the cluster by the laser field via direct and rescattering processes within a few femtoseconds. In contrast to previous near-infrared strong-field ionization experiments in clusters using 200-1000 fs laser pulses, the yield of fast electrons decreases with increasing pulse duration. Scaling to longer wavelengths is expected to result in a highly directional current of hot electrons on a few-femtosecond timescale.

  5. Low-luminosity Blazars in Wise: A Mid-infrared View of Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, S.; Shemmer, O.; Wu, J.

    2012-01-01

    We use the preliminary data release from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform the first statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ( 102) of BL Lac objects -- low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and the shape of their SEDs in the IR correlates well with SED peak frequency. In other BL Lac objects, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN, and we do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. While at odds with simple unification, the missing torus is consistent with recent suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion flows. We discuss implications on the ``nature vs. nurture" debate for FR I and FR II galaxies, and also on the standard orientation-based AGN unification model.

  6. Mid-infrared (MIR) photonics: MIR passive and active fiberoptics chemical and biomedical, sensing and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Angela B.

    2016-10-01

    The case for new, portable, real-time mid-infrared (MIR) molecular sensing and imaging is discussed. We set a record in demonstrating extreme broad-band supercontinuum (SC) generated light 1.4-13.3 μm in a specially engineered, step-index MIR optical fiber of high numerical aperture. This was the first experimental demonstration truly to reveal the potential of MIR fibers to emit across the MIR molecular "fingerprint spectral region" and a key first step towards bright, portable, broadband MIR sources for chemical and biomedical, molecular sensing and imaging in real-time. Potential applications are in the healthcare, security, energy, environmental monitoring, chemical-processing, manufacturing and the agriculture sectors. MIR narrow-line fiber lasers are now required to pump the fiber MIR-SC for a compact all-fiber solution. Rare-earth-ion (RE-) doped MIR fiber lasers are not yet demonstrated >=4 μm wavelength. We have fabricated small-core RE-fiber with photoluminescence across 3.5-6 μm, and long excited-state lifetimes. MIR-RE-fiber lasers are also applicable as discrete MIR fiber sensors in their own right, for applications including: ship-to-ship free-space communications, aircraft counter-measures, coherent MIR imaging, MIR-optical coherent tomography, laser-cutting/ patterning of soft materials and new wavelengths for fiber laser medical surgery.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  8. High-Quality-Factor Mid-Infrared Toroidal Excitation in Folded 3D Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Du, Shuo; Cui, Ajuan; Li, Zhancheng; Fan, Yuancheng; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2017-05-01

    With unusual electromagnetic radiation properties and great application potentials, optical toroidal moments have received increasing interest in recent years. 3D metamaterials composed of split ring resonators with specific orientations in micro-/nanoscale are a perfect choice for toroidal moment realization in optical frequency considering the excellent magnetic confinement and quality factor, which, unfortunately, are currently beyond the reach of existing micro-/nanofabrication techniques. Here, a 3D toroidal metamaterial operating in mid-infrared region constructed by metal patterns and dielectric frameworks is designed, by which high-quality-factor toroidal resonance is observed experimentally. The toroidal dipole excitation is confirmed numerically and further demonstrated by phase analysis. Furthermore, the far-field radiation intensity of the excited toroidal dipoles can be adjusted to be predominant among other multipoles by just tuning the incident angle. The related processing method expands the capability of focused ion beam folding technologies greatly, especially in 3D metamaterial fabrication, showing great flexibility and nanoscale controllability on structure size, position, and orientation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Atomic-scale photonic hybrids for mid-infrared and terahertz nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joshua D.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Tischler, Joseph G.; Glembocki, Orest J.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.; Reinecke, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The field of nanophotonics focuses on the ability to confine light to nanoscale dimensions, typically much smaller than the wavelength of light. The goal is to develop light-based technologies that are impossible with traditional optics. Subdiffractional confinement can be achieved using either surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) or surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs). SPPs can provide a gate-tunable, broad-bandwidth response, but suffer from high optical losses; whereas SPhPs offer a relatively low-loss, crystal-dependent optical response, but only over a narrow spectral range, with limited opportunities for active tunability. Here, motivated by the recent results from monolayer graphene and multilayer hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures, we discuss the potential of electromagnetic hybrids -- materials incorporating mixtures of SPPs and SPhPs -- for overcoming the limitations of the individual polaritons. Furthermore, we also propose a new type of atomic-scale hybrid the crystalline hybrid -- where mixtures of two or more atomic-scale (~3 nm or less) polar dielectric materials lead to the creation of a new material resulting from hybridized optic phonon behaviour of the constituents, potentially allowing direct control over the dielectric function. These atomic-scale hybrids expand the toolkit of materials for mid-infrared to terahertz nanophotonics and could enable the creation of novel actively tunable, yet low-loss optics at the nanoscale.

  10. Organic and inorganic carbon in paddy soil as evaluated by mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Changwen

    Full Text Available Paddy soils are classified as wetlands which play a vital role in climatic change and food production. Soil carbon (C, especially soil organic C (SOC, in paddy soils has been received considerable attention as of recent. However, considerably less attention has been given to soil inorganic carbon (SIC in paddy soils and the relationship between SOC and SIC at interface between soil and the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to investigate the utility of applying Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS to explore SOC and SIC present near the surface (0-10 µm of paddy soils. The FTIR-PAS spectra revealed an unique absorption region in the wavenumber range of 1,350-1,500 cm(-1 that was dominated by C-O (carbonate and C-H bending vibrations (organic materials, and these vibrations were used to represented SIC and SOC, respectively. A circular distribution between SIC and SOC on the surface of paddy soils was determined using principal component analysis (PCA, and the distribution showed no significant relationship with the age of paddy soil. However, SIC and SOC were negatively correlated, and higher SIC content was observed near the soil surface. This relationship suggests that SIC in soil surface plays important roles in the soil C dynamics.

  11. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures.

  12. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation of the perfect vitrification of poly(ethylene glycol) aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Miyashita, Takashi; Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kitano, Hiromi

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization/recrystallization behaviors of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) aqueous solutions with water contents (WC's) of ∼36-51 wt % were investigated by temperature-variable mid-infrared spectroscopy. At a WC of 43.2 wt %, crystallization and recrystallization of water and PEG were not observed. At this specific WC value (WCPV), perfect vitrification occurred. Below and above the WCPV value, crystallization/recrystallization behaviors changed drastically. The crystallization temperature below WCPV (237 K) was ∼10 K greater than that above WCPV (226 K). Recrystallization above and below WCPV occurred in one (213 K) and two (198 and 210 K) steps, respectively. These findings resulted from the difference in the (re)crystallization behaviors of water molecules associated with PEG chains with helical and random-coil conformations. These two types of water molecules might have limiting concentrations for their (re)crystallization, indicating that perfect vitrification might have occurred when the concentrations of the two types of water molecules were less than the limiting concentrations of their (re)crystallization.

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Mid-Infrared Properties and Empirical Relations from $WISE$

    CERN Document Server

    Cluver, M E; Hopkins, A M; Driver, S P; Liske, J; Gunawardhana, M L P; Taylor, E N; Robotham, A S G; Alpaslan, M; Baldry, I; Brown, M J I; Peacock, J A; Popescu, C C; Tuffs, R J; Bauer, A E; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Colless, M; Holwerda, B W; Lara-Lopez, M A; Leschinski, K; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Norberg, P; Owers, M; Wang, L; Wilkins, S M

    2014-01-01

    The Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey furnishes a deep redshift catalog that, when combined with the Wide-field Infrared Explorer ($WISE$), allows us to explore for the first time the mid-infrared properties of $> 110, 000$ galaxies over 120 deg$^2$ to $z\\simeq 0.5$. In this paper we detail the procedure for producing the matched GAMA-$WISE$ catalog for the G12 and G15 fields, in particular characterising and measuring resolved sources; the complete catalogs for all three GAMA equatorial fields will be made available through the GAMA public releases. The wealth of multiwavelength photometry and optical spectroscopy allows us to explore empirical relations between optically determined stellar mass (derived from synthetic stellar population models) and 3.4micron and 4.6micron WISE measurements. Similarly dust-corrected Halpha-derived star formation rates can be compared to 12micron and 22micron luminosities to quantify correlations that can be applied to large samples to $z<0.5$. To illustrate the appli...

  14. GeSn/SiGeSn photonic devices for mid-infrared applications: experiments and calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Genquan; Zhang, Qingfang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Chunfu; Hao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a fully strained GeSn photodetector with Sn atom percent of 8% is fabricated on Ge buffer on Si(001) substrate. The wavelength λ of light signals with obvious optical response for Ge0.92Sn0.08 photodetector is extended to 2 μm. The impacts of compressive strain introduced during the epitaxial growth of GeSn on Ge/Si are studied by simulation. Besides, the tensile strain engineering of GeSn photonic devices is also investigated. Lattice-matched GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure light emitting diodes (LEDs) with Si3N4 tensile liner stressor are designed to promote the further mid-infrared applications of GeSn photonic devices. With the releasing of the residual stress in Si3N4 liner, a large biaxial tensile strain is induced in GeSn active layer. Under biaxial tensile strain, the spontaneous emission rate rsp and internal quantum efficiency ηIQE for GeSn/SiGeSn LED are significantly improved.

  15. A mid-infrared statistical investigation of clumpy torus model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hönig, S. F.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Levenson, N. A.; Roche, P. F.; González-Martín, O.; Packham, C.; Kishimoto, M.

    2017-09-01

    We present new calculations of the Clumpy AGN Tori in a 3D geometry (CAT3D) clumpy torus models, which now include a more physical dust sublimation model as well as active galactic nucleus (AGN) anisotropic emission. These new models allow graphite grains to persist at temperatures higher than the silicate dust sublimation temperature. This produces stronger near-infrared emission and bluer mid-infrared (MIR) spectral slopes. We make a statistical comparison of the CAT3D model MIR predictions with a compilation of sub-arcsecond resolution ground-based MIR spectroscopy of 52 nearby Seyfert galaxies (median distance of 36 Mpc) and 10 quasars. We focus on the AGN MIR spectral index αMIR and the strength of the 9.7 μm silicate feature SSil. As with other clumpy torus models, the new CAT3D models do not reproduce the Seyfert galaxies with deep silicate absorption (SSil low photon escape probabilities, while the quasars and the Seyfert 1-1.5 require generally models with higher photon escape probabilities. Quasars and Seyfert 1-1.5 tend to show steeper radial cloud distributions and fewer clouds along an equatorial line of sight than Seyfert 2. Introducing AGN anisotropic emission besides the more physical dust sublimation models alleviates the problem of requiring inverted radial cloud distributions (i.e. more clouds towards the outer parts of the torus) to explain the MIR spectral indices of type 2 Seyferts.

  16. Automated measurement of redshift from mid-infrared low resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We present a new SED-fitting based routine for redshift determination that is optimised for mid-infrared (MIR) low-resolution spectroscopy. Its flexible template scaling increases the sensitivity to slope changes and small scale features in the spectrum, while a new selection algorithm called Maximum Combined Pseudo-Likelihood (MCPL) provides increased accuracy and a lower number of outliers compared to the standard maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. Unlike ML, MCPL searches for local (instead of absolute) maxima of a 'pseudo-likelihood' (PL) function, and combines results obtained for all the templates in the library to weed out spurious redshift solutions. The capabilities of MCPL are demonstrated by comparing its results to those of regular ML and to the optical spectroscopic redshifts of a sample of 491 Spitzer/IRS spectra from sources at 00.02) is 14% for MCPL and 22% for ML. chi^2 values for ML solutions are found to correlate with the SNR of the spectra, but not with redshift accuracy. By contrast, the ...

  17. The (new) Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) for the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David; Mommert, Michael; Smith, Howard A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Marscher, Alan P.; Tokunaga, Alan; Bergknut, Lars; Bonnet, Morgan; Bus, Schelte J.; Connelly, Michael; Rayner, John; Watanabe, Darryl

    2015-11-01

    The Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) was developed at Boston University and has been in use since 2002 on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), making observations of asteroids, planets, and comets in the 2 - 25 μm wavelength range. Recently the instrument has been unavailable due to electronics issues and the high cost of supplying liquid helium on Maunakea. We have begun a project to upgrade MIRSI to a cryocooler-based system with new array readout electronics and a dichroic and optical camera to simultaneously image the science field for image acquisition and optical photometry. The mechanical cryocooler will enable MIRSI to be continuously mounted on the IRTF multiple instrument mount (MIM) along with the other facility instruments, making it available to the entire community for multi-wavelength imaging and spectral observations. We will propose to use the refurbished MIRSI to measure the 10 μm flux from Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and determine their diameters and albedos through the use of a thermal model. We plan to observe up to 750 NEOs over the course of a three year survey, most of whose diameters will be under 300 meters. Here we present an overview of the MIRSI upgrade and give the current status of the project.This work is funded by the NASA Solar System Observations/NEOO program.

  18. Enhanced Warm H2 Emission in the Compact Group Mid-Infrared "Green Valley"

    CERN Document Server

    Cluver, M E; Ogle, P; Jarrett, T H; Rasmussen, J; Lisenfeld, U; Guillard, P; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Antonucci, R; Bitsakis, T; Charmandaris, V; Boulanger, F; Egami, E; Xu, C K; Yun, M S

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a Spitzer, mid-infrared spectroscopy study of a sample of 74 galaxies located in 23 Hickson Compact Groups, chosen to be at a dynamically-active stage of HI depletion. We find evidence for enhanced warm H2 emission (i.e. above that associated with UV excitation in star-forming regions) in 14 galaxies (~20%), with 8 galaxies having extreme values of L(H2 S(0)-S(3))/L(7.7micron PAH), in excess of 0.07. Such emission has been seen previously in the compact group HCG 92 (Stephan's Quintet), and was shown to be associated with the dissipation of mechanical energy associated with a large-scale shock caused when one group member collided, at high velocity, with tidal debris in the intragroup medium. Similarly, shock excitation or turbulent heating is likely responsible for the enhanced H2 emission in the compact group galaxies, since other sources of heating (UV or X-ray excitation from star formation or AGN) are insufficient to account for the observed emission. The group galaxies fall predo...

  19. Mid-infrared conductivity from mid-gap states associated with charge stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homes, C. C.; Tranquada, J. M.; Li, Q.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Buttrey, D. J.

    2003-05-01

    The optical conductivity of La2-xSrxNiO4 has been interpreted in various ways, but so far the proposed interpretations have neglected the fact that the holes doped into the NiO2 planes order in diagonal stripes, as established by neutron and x-ray scattering. Here we present a study of optical conductivity in La2NiO4+δ with δ=2/15, a material in which the charge stripes order three dimensionally. We show that the conductivity can be decomposed into two components, a mid-infrared peak that we attribute to transitions from the filled valence band into empty mid-gap states associated with the stripes, and a Drude peak that appears at higher temperatures as carriers are thermally excited into the mid-gap states. The shift of the mid-IR peak to lower energy with increasing temperature is explained in terms of the Franck-Condon effect. The relevance of these results to understanding the optical conductivity in the cuprates is discussed.

  20. KALI Camera: mid-infrared camera for the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Moore, James D.; Palmer, Dean L.; Serabyn, Eugene

    2003-03-01

    We present a brief overview of the KALI Camera, the mid-infrared camera for the Keck Interferometer Nulling Project, built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The instrument utilizes mainly transmissive optics in four identical beam paths to spatially and spectrally filter, polarize, spectrally disperse and image the incoming 7-14 micron light from the four outputs of the Keck Nulling Beam Combiner onto a custom Boeing/DRS High Flux 128 X 128 BIB array. The electronics use a combination of JPL and Wallace Instruments boards to interface the array readout with the existing real-time control system of the Keck Interferometer. The cryogenic dewar, built by IR Laboratories, uses liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to cool the optics and the array, and includes six externally motorized mechanisms for aperture and pinhole control, focus, and optical component selection. The instrument will be assembled and tested through the summer of 2002, and is planned to be deployed as part of the Keck Interferometer Nulling experiment in 2003.