WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanosecond mid-infrared detection

  1. Evaluation of detectable angle of mid-infrared slot antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, R.; Horikawa, J.; Shimakage, H.; Kawakami, A.

    2017-07-01

    For evaluations of a mid-infrared (MIR) detectors with antenna, we constructed an angular dependence measurement system of the antenna properties. The fabricated MIR detector consisted of twin slot antennas and a bolometer. The area of the slot antennas was designed to be 2.6 × 0.2 μm2 as to resonate at 61 THz, and they were located parallel and separated 1.6 μm each other. The bolometer was fabricated using by a 7.0-nm thick NbN thin film, and located at the center of the twin antennas. We measured polarization angle dependence and directivity, and showed that the MIR antennas have polarization dependence and directivity like radiofrequency antennas.

  2. Research on propane leak detection system and device based on mid infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Junlong; Wang, Yizhao; Li, Pan; Feng, Qiaoling

    2017-10-01

    Propane is a key component of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and crude oil volatile. This issue summarizes the recent progress of propane detection technology. Meanwhile, base on the development trend, our latest progress is also provided. We demonstrated a mid infrared propane sensor system, which is based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique with a CW interband cascade laser (ICL) emitting at 3370.4nm. The ICL laser scanned over a sharp feature in the broader spectrum of propane, and harmonic signals are obtained by lock-in amplifier for gas concentration deduction. The surrounding gas is extracted into the fine optical absorption cell through the pump to realize online detection. The absorption cell is designed in mid infrared windows range. An example experimental setup is shown. The second harmonic signals 2f and first harmonic signals1f are obtained. We present the sensor performance test data including dynamic precision and temperature stability. The propane detection sensor system and device is portable can carried on the mobile inspection vehicle platforms or intelligent robot inspection platform to realize the leakage monitoring of whole oil gas tank area.

  3. Submillisecond mixing in a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Drew P; Magana, Donny; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2014-02-07

    We report a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection, with an experimentally determined, submillisecond mixing time. The simple and robust mixer design has the microfluidic channels cut through a polymer spacer that is sandwiched between two IR transparent windows. The mixer hydrodynamically focuses the sample stream with two side flow channels, squeezing it into a thin jet and initiating mixing through diffusion and advection. The detection system generates a mid-infrared hyperspectral absorbance image of the microfluidic sample stream. Calibration of the hyperspectral image yields the mid-IR absorbance spectrum of the sample versus time. A mixing time of 269 μs was measured for a pD jump from 3.2 to above 4.5 in a D2O sample solution of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which acts as an infrared pD indicator. The mixer was further characterized by comparing experimental results with a simulation of the mixing of an H2O sample stream with a D2O sheath flow, showing good agreement between the two. The IR microfluidic mixer eliminates the need for fluorescence labeling of proteins with bulky, interfering dyes, because it uses the intrinsic IR absorbance of the molecules of interest, and the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy to follow specific chemical changes such as the protonation state of AMP.

  4. Analytical potential of mid-infrared detection in capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuligowski, Julia; Quintas, Guillermo; Guardia, Miguel de la; Lendl, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Literature published in the last decade concerning the use of mid-infrared spectrometry as a detection system in separation techniques employing a liquid mobile phase is reviewed. In addition to the continued use of isocratic liquid chromatographic (LC) techniques, advances in chemometric data evaluation techniques now allow the use of gradient techniques on a routine basis, thus significantly broadening the range of possible applications of LC-IR. The general trend towards miniaturized separation systems was also followed for mid-IR detection where two key developments are of special importance. Firstly, concerning on-line detection the advent of micro-fabricated flow-cells with inner volumes of only a few nL for transmission as well as attenuated total reflection measurements enabled on-line mid-IR detection in capillary LC and opened the path for the first successful realization of on-line mid-IR detection in capillary zone electrophoresis as well as micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Secondly, concerning off-line detection the use of micro-flow through dispensers now enables to concentrate eluting analytes on dried spots sized a few tens of micrometers, thus matching the dimensions for sensitive detection by mid-IR microscopy. Finally in an attempt to increase detection sensitivity of on-line mid-IR detection, mid-IR quantum cascade lasers have been used. Applications cover the field of food analysis, environmental analysis and the characterization of explosives among others. Best detection sensitivities for on-line and off-line detection have been achieved in miniaturized systems and are in the order of 50 ng and 2 ng on column, respectively.

  5. Generation of broadly tunable picosecond mid-infrared laser and sensitive detection of a mid-infrared signal by parametric frequency up-conversion in MgO:LiNbO3 optical parametric amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiu-Lin; Zhang Jing; Qiu Kang-Sheng; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Picosecond optical parametric generation and amplification in the near-infrared region within 1.361–1.656 μm and the mid-infrared region within 2.976–4.875 μm is constructed on the basis of bulk MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals pumped at 1.064 μm. The maximum pulse energy reaches 1.3 mJ at 1.464 μm and 0.47 mJ at 3.894 μm, corresponding to a pump-to-idler photon conversion efficiency of 25%. By seeding the hard-to-measure mid-infrared radiation as the idler in the optical parametric amplification and measuring the amplified and frequency up-converted signal in the near-infrared or even visible region, one can measure very week mid-infrared radiation with ordinary detectors, which are insensitive to mid-infrared radiation, with a very high gain. A maximum gain factor of about 7 × 10 7 is achieved at the mid-infrared wavelength of 3.374 μm and the corresponding energy detection limit is as low as about 390 aJ per pulse. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  6. Room temperature high-detectivity mid-infrared photodetectors based on black arsenic phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Peng; Xia, Hui; Ott, Claudia; Pan, Chen; Fu, Yajun; Liu, Erfu; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei; Nilges, Tom; Xu, Jianbin; Wang, Xiaomu; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The mid-infrared (MIR) spectral range, pertaining to important applications, such as molecular "fingerprint" imaging, remote sensing, free space telecommunication, and optical radar, is of particular scientific interest and technological importance. However, state-of-the-art materials for MIR detection are limited by intrinsic noise and inconvenient fabrication processes, resulting in high-cost photodetectors requiring cryogenic operation. We report black arsenic phosphorus-based long-wavelength IR photodetectors, with room temperature operation up to 8.2 μm, entering the second MIR atmospheric transmission window. Combined with a van der Waals heterojunction, room temperature-specific detectivity higher than 4.9 × 10 9 Jones was obtained in the 3- to 5-μm range. The photodetector works in a zero-bias photovoltaic mode, enabling fast photoresponse and low dark noise. Our van der Waals heterojunction photodetectors not only exemplify black arsenic phosphorus as a promising candidate for MIR optoelectronic applications but also pave the way for a general strategy to suppress 1/ f noise in photonic devices.

  7. A Multiwavelength Study of Cygnus X-1: The First Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Detection of Compact Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C.; Heinz, Sebastian; Hines, Dean C.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2011-01-01

    We report on a Spitzer/IRS (mid-infrared), RXTE /PCA+HEXTE (X-ray), and Ryle (radio) simultaneous multi-wavelength study of the micro quasar Cygnus X-I, which aimed at an investigation of the origin of its mid-infrared emission. Compact jets were present in two out of three observations, and we show that they strongly contribute to the mid-infrared continuum. During the first observation, we detect the spectral break - where the transition from the optically thick to the optically thin regime takes place - at about 2.9 x 10(exp 13) Hz. We then show that the jet's optically thin synchrotron emission accounts for the Cygnus X-1's emission beyond 400 keY, although it cannot alone explain its 3-200 keV continuum. A compact jet was also present during the second observation, but we do not detect the break, since it has likely shifted to higher frequencies. In contrast, the compact jet was absent during the last observation, and we show that the 5-30 micron mid-infrared continuum of Cygnus X-I stems from the blue supergiant companion star HD 226868. Indeed, the emission can then be understood as the combination of the photospheric Raleigh-Jeans tail and the bremsstrahlung from the expanding stellar wind. Moreover, the stellar wind is found to be clumpy, with a filling factor f(sub infinity) approx.= 0.09-0.10. Its bremsstrahlung emission is likely anti-correlated to the soft X-ray emission, suggesting an anticorrelation between the mass-loss and mass-accretion rates. Nevertheless, we do not detect any mid-infrared spectroscopic evidence of interaction between the jets and the Cygnus X-1's environment and/or companion star's stellar wind.

  8. Upconversion enhanced degenerate four-wave mixing in the mid-infrared for sensitive detection of acetylene in gas flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Sahlberg, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    We present a new background free method for in situ gas detection that combines degenerate four-wave mixing with an infra-red light detector based on parametric frequency upconversion of infra-red light. The system is demonstrated at mid infrared wavelengths for low concentration measurements...... of acetylene diluted in a N2 gas flow at ambient conditions. It is demonstrated that the system is able to cover more than 100 nm in scanning range and detect concentrations as low as 3 ppm based on the R9e line. A major issue in small signal measurements is scattered light and it is showed how a spatial...

  9. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  10. Sol-gel based mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors for detection of organophosphate pesticides in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janotta, Markus; Karlowatz, Manfred; Vogt, Frank; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2003-10-31

    This work demonstrates the application of organically modified sol-gels as recognition layers combined with mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors for in situ detection of nitrated organics in aqueous media. Sol-gels were prepared by acid-catalyzed copolymerization of phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and were spin-coated onto ZnSe attenuated total reflection (ATR) waveguides. These sensors were investigated with respect to their enrichment properties of selected organophosphates, i.e. parathion, fenitrothion and paraoxon, respectively, and their capability of suppressing interfering water background absorptions. Figures of merit are derived from calibration curves determined to assess sensitivity and reproducibility of the applied sensor system. It can be concluded that sol-gel coated infrared optical sensors enable reproducible detection of organophosphates down to the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, measurement of spiked river water samples demonstrates feasibility as remote field sensor system. Once the required sensitivity is achieved, sol-gel based mid-infrared evanescent wave sensors have the potential of being an alternative to commonly applied biosensors for detection of organophosphates in environmental analysis, since they provide superior mechanical and chemical stability during application relevant periods of time.

  11. Mid-Infrared Lasers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mid infrared solid state lasers for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) systems required for understanding atmospheric chemistry are not available. This program...

  12. Terahertz and Mid Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Shulika, Oleksiy; Detection of Explosives and CBRN (Using Terahertz)

    2014-01-01

    The reader will find here a timely update on new THz sources and detection schemes as well as concrete applications to the detection of Explosives and CBRN. Included is a method to identify hidden RDX-based explosives (pure and plastic ones) in the frequency domain study by Fourier Transformation, which has been complemented by the demonstration of improvement of the quality of the images captured commercially available THz passive cameras. The presented examples show large potential for the detection of small hidden objects at long distances (6-10 m).  Complementing the results in the short-wavelength range, laser spectroscopy with a mid-infrared, room temperature, continuous wave, DFB laser diode and high performance DFB QCL have been demonstrated to offer excellent enabling sensor technologies for environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, industrial and security applications.  From the new source point of view a number of systems have been presented - From superconductors to semiconductors, e.g. Det...

  13. CO and CO2 dual-gas detection based on mid-infrared wideband absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Zhong, Guo-qiang; Miao, Shu-zhuo; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2018-03-01

    A dual-gas sensor system is developed for CO and CO2 detection using a single broadband light source, pyroelectric detectors and time-division multiplexing (TDM) technique. A stepper motor based rotating system and a single-reflection spherical optical mirror are designed and adopted for realizing and enhancing dual-gas detection. Detailed measurements under static detection mode (without rotation) and dynamic mode (with rotation) are performed to study the performance of the sensor system for the two gas samples. The detection period is 7.9 s in one round of detection by scanning the two detectors. Based on an Allan deviation analysis, the 1σ detection limits under static operation are 3.0 parts per million (ppm) in volume and 2.6 ppm for CO and CO2, respectively, and those under dynamic operation are 9.4 ppm and 10.8 ppm for CO and CO2, respectively. The reported sensor has potential applications in various fields requiring CO and CO2 detection such as in the coal mine.

  14. Mid-infrared Semiconductor Optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The practical realisation of optoelectronic devices operating in the 2–10 µm (mid-infrared) wavelength range offers potential applications in a variety of areas from environmental gas monitoring around oil rigs and landfill sites to the detection of pharmaceuticals, particularly narcotics. In addition, an atmospheric transmission window exists between 3 µm and 5 µm that enables free-space optical communications, thermal imaging applications and the development of infrared measures for "homeland security". Consequently, the mid-infrared is very attractive for the development of sensitive optical sensor instrumentation. Unfortunately, the nature of the likely applications dictates stringent requirements in terms of laser operation, miniaturisation and cost that are difficult to meet. Many of the necessary improvements are linked to a better ability to fabricate and to understand the optoelectronic properties of suitable high-quality epitaxial materials and device structures. Substantial progress in these m...

  15. Detecting adulterants in milk with lower cost mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwon; Wang, Wenbo; Wilson, Benjamin K.; Connett, Marie; Keller, Matthew D.

    2018-02-01

    Adulteration of milk for economic gains is a widespread issue throughout the developing world that can have far-reaching health and nutritional impacts. Milk analysis technologies, such as infrared spectroscopy, can screen for adulteration, but the cost of these technologies has prohibited their use in low resource settings. Recent developments in infrared and Raman spectroscopy hardware have led to commercially available low-cost devices. In this work, we evaluated the performance of two such spectrometers in detecting and quantifying the presence of milk adulterants. Five common adulterants - ammonium sulfate, melamine, sodium bicarbonate, sucrose, and urea, were spiked into five different raw cow and goat milk samples at different concentrations. Collected MIR and Raman spectra were analyzed using partial least squares regression. The limit of detection (LOD) for each adulterant was determined to be in the range of 0.04 to 0.28% (400 to 2800 ppm) using MIR spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy showed similar LOD's for some of the adulterants, notably those with strong amine group signals, and slightly higher LOD's (up to 1.0%) for other molecules. Overall, the LODs were comparable to other spectroscopic milk analyzers on the market, and they were within the economically relevant concentration range of 100 to 4000 ppm. These lower cost spectroscopic devices therefore appear to hold promise for use in low resource settings.

  16. Applying Fourier Transform Mid Infrared Spectroscopy to Detect the Adulteration of Salmo salar with Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric methods to detect fish adulteration. Muscles of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) (SS) and Salmon trout (Onconrhynchus mykiss) (OM) muscles were mixed in different percentages and transformed into mini-burgers. These were stored at 3 °C, then examined at 0, 72, 160, and 240 h for deteriorative microorganisms. Mini-burgers was submitted to Soxhlet extraction, following which lipid extracts were analyzed by FTIR. The principal component analysis (PCA) described the studied adulteration using four principal components with an explained variance of 95.60%. PCA showed that the absorbance in the spectral region from 721, 1097, 1370, 1464, 1655, 2805, to 2935, 3009 cm−1 may be attributed to biochemical fingerprints related to differences between SS and OM. The partial least squares regression (PLS-R) predicted the presence/absence of adulteration in fish samples of an external set with high accuracy. The proposed methods have the advantage of allowing quick measurements, despite the storage time of the adulterated fish. FTIR combined with chemometrics showed that a methodology to identify the adulteration of SS with OM can be established, even when stored for different periods of time. PMID:29621135

  17. Broadband and tunable optical parametric generator for remote detection of gas molecules in the short and mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Girard, Simon; Allard, Martin; Piché, Michel; Babin, François

    2015-04-01

    The development of a novel broadband and tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) is presented. The OPG properties are studied numerically and experimentally in order to optimize the generator's use in a broadband spectroscopic LIDAR operating in the short and mid-infrared. This paper discusses trade-offs to be made on the properties of the pump, crystal, and seeding signal in order to optimize the pulse spectral density and divergence while enabling energy scaling. A seed with a large spectral bandwidth is shown to enhance the pulse-to-pulse stability and optimize the pulse spectral density. A numerical model shows excellent agreement with output power measurements; the model predicts that a pump having a large number of longitudinal modes improves conversion efficiency and pulse stability.

  18. Four novel alkyl 2-cyanoacylate monomers and their use in latent fingermark detection by mid-infrared spectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Mark; Scott, Sonia A; Kalman, John R; Reedy, Brian J

    2011-04-15

    Four novel alkyl 2-cyanoacrylate monomers (alkyl=1-cyanoethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, trideuteromethyl and pentadeuteroethyl) have been tested for their ability to develop latent fingermarks that can then be visualized using mid-infrared spectral (chemical) imaging. Each of the four monomers was chosen for its potential to produce a strong, isolated infrared spectral band in its corresponding polymer (to provide spectral contrast against most backgrounds), as well as for its potential ability to be fumed onto fingermarks in the manner of conventional ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (superglue). With the exception of the 2-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, which had to be fumed under reduced pressure, all of the monomers were found to be sufficiently volatile to be fumed in a conventional fuming cabinet. All four monomers polymerized selectively on fingermark ridges on a variety of non-porous and semi-porous surfaces, leading to excellent development of the fingermarks. Unfortunately, although high quality mid-infrared spectral images of the fingermarks could be formed for all of the polymers at various frequencies, the new CN or CD stretching vibrations did not give rise to strong enough absorption intensities for good contrast on difficult backgrounds such as polymer banknotes. However, in the 1-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate polymer, the presence of the additional nitrile group had the unintended but desirable effect of shifting the strong CO absorption to higher frequencies, moving it away from interfering banknote absorptions. This enabled fingermark contrast to be achieved even against the intaglio printing on the banknotes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fugitive methane leak detection using mid-infrared hollow-core photonic crystal fiber containing ultrafast laser drilled side-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jason; Challener, William; Kasten, Matthias; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni; Pickrell, Gary; Homa, Daniel; Floyd, Adam; Cheng, Yujie; Yu, Fei; Knight, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The increase in domestic natural gas production has brought attention to the environmental impacts of persistent gas leakages. The desire to identify fugitive gas emission, specifically for methane, presents new sensing challenges within the production and distribution supply chain. A spectroscopic gas sensing solution would ideally combine a long optical path length for high sensitivity and distributed detection over large areas. Specialty micro-structured fiber with a hollow core can exhibit a relatively low attenuation at mid-infrared wavelengths where methane has strong absorption lines. Methane diffusion into the hollow core is enabled by machining side-holes along the fiber length through ultrafast laser drilling methods. The complete system provides hundreds of meters of optical path for routing along well pads and pipelines while being interrogated by a single laser and detector. This work will present transmission and methane detection capabilities of mid-infrared photonic crystal fibers. Side-hole drilling techniques for methane diffusion will be highlighted as a means to convert hollow-core fibers into applicable gas sensors.

  20. Detection of high level carbon dioxide emissions using a compact optical fibre based mid-infrared sensor system for applications in environmental pollution monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muda, R; Lewis, E; O' Keeffe, S; Dooly, G; Clifford, J, E-mail: razali.muda@ul.i [Optical Fibre Sensors Research Centre, Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    A novel and highly compact optical fibre based sensor system for measurement of high concentrations CO{sub 2} gas emissions in modern automotive exhaust is presented. The sensor system works based on the principle of open-path direct absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The sensor system, which comprises low cost components and is compact in design, is well suited for applications in monitoring CO{sub 2} emissions from the exhaust of automotive vehicles. The sensor system utilises calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) lenses and a narrow band pass (NBP) filter for detection of CO{sub 2} gas. The response of the sensor to high concentrations of CO{sub 2} gas is presented and the result is compared with that of a commercial flue gas analyser. The sensor shows response times of 5.2s and demonstrates minimal susceptibility to cross interferences of other gases present in the exhaust system.

  1. Mid-infrared spectroscopic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.; Vergo, N.; Salisbury, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic research efforts are discussed. The development of a new instrumentation to permit advanced measurements in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, the development of a special library of well-characterized mineral and rock specimens for interpretation of remote sensing data, and cooperative measurements of the spectral signatures of analogues of materials that may be present on the surfaces of asteroids, planets or their Moons are discussed

  2. A Mid-Infrared Search for Kardashev Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Wright, J.; Griffith, R.; Povich, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    We are using the WISE all-sky Source Catalog to search for and put upper limits on the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations with large energy supplies. Any galaxy-spanning (Type III) civilization with an energy supply of more than about one percent of its stellar luminosity will have detectable mid-infrared excess, and nearby (extended) galaxies with civilizations with supplies more than about 80% of their stellar luminosity will be well-distinguished from nearly all natural sources in WISE color-color space. Mid-infrared spectra, far-infrared photometry, and radio emission from CO can all be used to distinguish extraterrestrial mid-infrared radiation from dust.

  3. Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Andersen, H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is emerging as an attractive alternative to near-infrared or visible spectroscopy. MIR spectroscopy offers a unique possibility to probe the fundamental absorption bands of a large number of gases as well as the vibrational spectra of complex molecules. In this paper...

  4. Interband cascade laser-based ppbv-level mid-infrared methane detection using two digital lock-in amplifier schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fang; Zheng, Chuantao; Yu, Di; Zhou, Yanwen; Yan, Wanhong; Ye, Weilin; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    A parts-per-billion in volume (ppbv) level mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor system was demonstrated using second-harmonic wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2 f-WMS). A 3291 nm interband cascade laser (ICL) and a multi-pass gas cell (MPGC) with a 16 m optical path length were adopted in the reported sensor system. Two digital lock-in amplifier (DLIA) schemes, a digital signal processor (DSP)-based DLIA and a LabVIEW-based DLIA, were used for harmonic signal extraction. A limit of detection (LoD) of 13.07 ppbv with an averaging time of 2 s was achieved using the DSP-based DLIA and a LoD of 5.84 ppbv was obtained using the LabVIEW-based DLIA with the same averaging time. A rise time of 0→2 parts-per-million in volume (ppmv) and fall time of 2→0 ppmv were observed. Outdoor atmospheric CH4 concentration measurements were carried out to evaluate the sensor performance using the two DLIA schemes.

  5. Sensitive Mid-Infrared Detection in Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors Using Extreme Non-Degenerate Two-Photon Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-07

    is 20 pJ, whereas for MCT the minimum detectable energy is 200 pJ (for details of detector par- ameters, such as pre- amplifier and transimpedance ...contributions (Fig. 1). This is analogous to having a ‘noisy’ detector electronic amplifier ; however, this ‘noise’ is measurable and could in principle be...portion of the 780 nm light was used to pump an optical parametric generator/ amplifier (OPG/A, TOPAS-800, Light Conversion) to generate MIR pulses

  6. Continuous statistical modelling for rapid detection of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil using mid infrared and Raman spectroscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Konstantia; Martinez Del Rincon, Jesus; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to develop a novel dimensionality reduction technique as a part of an integrated pattern recognition solution capable of identifying adulterants such as hazelnut oil in extra virgin olive oil at low percentages based on spectroscopic chemical fingerprints. A novel Continuous Locality Preserving Projections (CLPP) technique is proposed which allows the modelling of the continuous nature of the produced in-house admixtures as data series instead of discrete points. The maintenance of the continuous structure of the data manifold enables the better visualisation of this examined classification problem and facilitates the more accurate utilisation of the manifold for detecting the adulterants. The performance of the proposed technique is validated with two different spectroscopic techniques (Raman and Fourier transform infrared, FT-IR). In all cases studied, CLPP accompanied by k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) algorithm was found to outperform any other state-of-the-art pattern recognition techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for atmospheric NO2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Mikael; Lamard, Laurent; Balslev-Harder, David; Peremans, Andre; Petersen, Jan C.

    2018-02-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) sensor for spectroscopic measurements of NO2-N2 at ambient pressure and temperature is demonstrated. The PA sensor is pumped resonantly by a nanosecond pulsed single-mode mid-infrared (MIR) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Spectroscopic measurements of NO2-N2 in the 3.25 μm to 3.55 μm wavelength region with a resolution bandwidth of 5 cm-1 and with a single shot detection limit of 1.6 ppmV (μmol/mol) is demonstrated. The measurements were conducted with a constant flow rate of 300 ml/min, thus demonstrating the suitability of the gas sensor for real time trace gas measurements. The acquired spectra is compared with data from the Hitran database and good agreement is found. An Allan deviation analysis shows that the detection limit at optimum integration time for the PAS sensor is 14 ppbV (nmol/mol) at 170 seconds of integration time, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 3.3×10-7 W cm-1 Hz-1/2.

  8. Mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid detection of Gardeniae Fructus by a liquid-liquid extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lingyan; Lin, Zhonglin; Chen, Jiashan; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2017-10-25

    Gardeniae Fructus is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, and many studies have confirmed its medical and economic value. In this study, samples collected from different liquid-liquid extraction batches of Gardeniae Fructus were detected by mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Seven analytes, neochlorogenic acid (5-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), chlorogenic acid (3-CQA), geniposidic acid (GEA), deacetyl-asperulosidic acid methyl ester (DAAME), genipin-gentiobioside (GGB), and gardenoside (GA), were chosen as quality property indexes of Gardeniae Fructus. The two kinds of spectra were each used to build models by single partial least squares (PLS). Additionally, both spectral data were combined and modeled by multiblock PLS. For single spectroscopy modeling results, NIR had a better prediction for high-concentration analytes (3-CQA, DAAME, GGB, and GA) whereas MIR performed better for low-concentration analytes (5-CQA, 4-CQA, and GEA). The multiblock methodology was found to be better compared to single spectroscopy models for all seven analytes. Specifically, the coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of the NIR, MIR, and multiblock PLS calibration models of all seven components were higher than 0.95. Relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were all less than 7%, except for models of GGB, which were 10.36%, 13.24%, and 8.15% for the NIR-PLS, MIR-PLS, and multiblock models, respectively. These results indicate that MIR and NIR spectrographic techniques could provide a new choice for quality control in industrial production of Gardeniae Fructus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seddon, Angela B.; Benson, Trevor M.; Sujecki, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    We are establishing a new paradigm in mid-infrared molecular sensing, mapping and imaging to open up the mid-infrared spectral region for in vivo (i.e. in person) medical diagnostics and surgery. Thus, we are working towards the mid-infrared optical biopsy ('opsy' look at, bio the biology) in situ...... in the body for real-time diagnosis. This new paradigm will be enabled through focused development of devices and systems which are robust, functionally designed, safe, compact and cost effective and are based on active and passive mid-infrared optical fibers. In particular, this will enable early diagnosis...... of a bright mid-infrared wideband source in a portable package as a first step for medical fiber-based systems operating in the mid-infrared. Moreover, mid-infrared molecular mapping and imaging is potentially a disruptive technology to give improved monitoring of the environment, energy efficiency, security...

  10. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  11. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  12. Injection-seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses generated by difference frequency mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Masuda, Takahiko; Hiraki, Takahiro; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    We report on the generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, a narrow linewidth, and a high pulse energy. These pulses are obtained by frequency mixing between injection-seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:sapphire ring laser is used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. The typical energy of the generated mid-infrared pulses is in the range of 0.4-1 mJ/pulse. The tuning wavelength ranges from 3142 to 4806 nm. A narrow linewidth of 1.4 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a rovibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide at 4587 nm.

  13. Innovative mid-infrared detector concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, Sven; Pfenning, Andreas; Weih, Robert; Ratajczak, Albert; Hartmann, Fabian; Knebl, Georg; Kamp, Martin; Worschech, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Gas sensing is a key technology with applications in various industrial, medical and environmental areas. Optical detection mechanisms allow for a highly selective, contactless and fast detection. For this purpose, rotational-vibrational absorption bands within the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region are exploited and probed with appropriate light sources. During the past years, the development of novel laser concepts such as interband cascade lasers (ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has driven a continuous optimization of MIR laser sources. On the other hand side, there has been relatively little progress on detectors in this wavelength range. Here, we study two novel and promising GaSb-based detector concepts: Interband cascade detectors (ICD) and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photodetectors. ICDs are a promising approach towards highly sensitive room temperature detection of MIR radiation. They make use of the cascading scheme that is enabled by the broken gap alignment of the two binaries GaSb and InAs. The interband transition in GaSb/InAs-superlattices (SL) allows for normal incidence detection. The cut-off wavelength, which determines the low energy detection limit, can be engineered via the SL period. RTD photodetectors act as low noise and high speed amplifiers of small optically generated electrical signals. In contrast to avalanche photodiodes, where the gain originates from multiplication due to impact ionization, in RTD photodetectors a large tunneling current is modulated via Coulomb interaction by the presence of photogenerated minority charge carriers. For both detector concepts, first devices operational at room temperature have been realized.

  14. Mid-infrared Variability of Changing-look AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Zhenfeng; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo; Yan, Lin; Dou, Liming

    2017-01-01

    It is known that some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) transit from Type 1 to Type 2 or vice versa. There are two explanations for the so-called changing-look AGNs: one is the dramatic change of the obscuration along the line of sight, and the other is the variation of accretion rate. In this Letter, we report the detection of large amplitude variations in the mid-infrared luminosity during the transitions in 10 changing-look AGNs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) and newly released Near-Earth Object WISE Reactivation data. The mid-infrared light curves of 10 objects echo the variability in the optical band with a time lag expected for dust reprocessing. The large variability amplitude is inconsistent with the scenario of varying obscuration, rather it supports the scheme of dramatic change in the accretion rate.

  15. Mid-infrared Variability of Changing-look AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhenfeng; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan, Lin [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dou, Liming, E-mail: shengzf@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-09-01

    It is known that some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) transit from Type 1 to Type 2 or vice versa. There are two explanations for the so-called changing-look AGNs: one is the dramatic change of the obscuration along the line of sight, and the other is the variation of accretion rate. In this Letter, we report the detection of large amplitude variations in the mid-infrared luminosity during the transitions in 10 changing-look AGNs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) and newly released Near-Earth Object WISE Reactivation data. The mid-infrared light curves of 10 objects echo the variability in the optical band with a time lag expected for dust reprocessing. The large variability amplitude is inconsistent with the scenario of varying obscuration, rather it supports the scheme of dramatic change in the accretion rate.

  16. Generation of Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs for Spectroscopic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Daniel L.

    Mid-infrared laser sources prove to be a valuable tool in exploring a vast array of phenomena, finding their way into applications ranging from trace gas detection to X-ray generation and carbon dating. Mid-infrared frequency combs, in particular, are well-suited for many of these applications, owing to their inherent low-noise and broadband nature. Frequency comb technology is well-developed in the near-infrared as a result of immense technological development by the telecommunication industry in silica fiber and the existence of readily-available glass dopants such as ytterbium and erbium that enable oscillators at 1 and 1.5 ?m. However, options become substantially more limited at longer wavelengths, as silica is no longer transparent and the components required in a mid-infrared frequency comb system (oscillators, fibers, and both fiber and free-space components) are far less technologically mature. This thesis explores several different approaches to generating frequency comb sources in the mid-infrared region, and the development of sources used in the nonlinear processes implemented to reach these wavelengths. An optical parametric oscillator, two approaches to difference frequency generation, and nonlinear spectral broadening in chip-scale waveguides are developed, characterized, and spectroscopic potential for these techniques is demonstrated. The source used for these nonlinear processes, the erbium-doped fiber amplifier, is also studied and discussed throughout the design and optimization process. The nonlinear optical processes critical to this work are numerically modeled and used to confirm and predict experimental behavior.

  17. Broadband integrated mid infrared light sources as enabling technology for point of care mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0061 Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy Alex...mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid-infrared spectroscopy 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-16-1-4037...Broadband integrated mid-infrared light sources as enabling technology for point-of-care mid- infrared spectroscopy ” Date: 16th August 2017 Name

  18. Next-generation mid-infrared sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, D.; Bank, S.; Lee, M. L.; Wasserman, D.

    2017-12-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is a wavelength range with a variety of technologically vital applications in molecular sensing, security and defense, energy conservation, and potentially in free-space communication. The recent development and rapid commercialization of new coherent mid-infrared sources have spurred significant interest in the development of mid-infrared optical systems for the above applications. However, optical systems designers still do not have the extensive optical infrastructure available to them that exists at shorter wavelengths (for instance, in the visible and near-IR/telecom wavelengths). Even in the field of optoelectronic sources, which has largely driven the growing interest in the mid-infrared, the inherent limitations of state-of-the-art sources and the gaps in spectral coverage offer opportunities for the development of new classes of lasers, light emitting diodes and emitters for a range of potential applications. In this topical review, we will first present an overview of the current state-of-the-art mid-IR sources, in particular thermal emitters, which have long been utilized, and the relatively new quantum- and interband-cascade lasers, as well as the applications served by these sources. Subsequently, we will discuss potential mid-infrared applications and wavelength ranges which are poorly served by the current stable of mid-IR sources, with an emphasis on understanding the fundamental limitations of the current source technology. The bulk of the manuscript will then explore both past and recent developments in mid-infrared source technology, including narrow bandgap quantum well lasers, type-I and type-II quantum dot materials, type-II superlattices, highly mismatched alloys, lead-salts and transition-metal-doped II-VI materials. We will discuss both the advantages and limitations of each of the above material systems, as well as the potential new applications which they might serve. All in all, this topical review does not aim

  19. THE MID-INFRARED EVOLUTION OF THE FU ORIONIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Joel D.; Jones, Olivia C.; Poteet, Charles A.; Sargent, Benjamin A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Keller, Luke D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yang, Yao-Lun; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fischer, William J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [IPAC, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present new SOFIA-FORCAST observations obtained in 2016 February of the archetypal outbursting low-mass young stellar object FU Orionis, and we compare the continuum, solid-state, and gas properties with mid-infrared data obtained at the same wavelengths in 2004 with Spitzer -IRS. In this study, we conduct the first mid-infrared spectroscopic comparison of an FUor over a long time period. Over a 12-year period, UBVR monitoring indicates that FU Orionis has continued its steady decrease in overall brightness by ∼14%. We find that this decrease in luminosity occurs only at wavelengths ≲20 μ m. In particular, the continuum shortward of the silicate emission complex at 10 μ m exhibits a ∼12% (∼3 σ ) drop in flux density but no apparent change in slope; both the Spitzer and SOFIA spectra are consistent with a 7200 K blackbody. Additionally, the detection of water absorption is consistent with the Spitzer spectrum. The silicate emission feature at 10 μ m continues to be consistent with unprocessed grains, unchanged over 12 years. We conclude that either the accretion rate in FU Orionis has decreased by ∼12–14% over this time baseline or the inner disk has cooled, but the accretion disk remains in a superheated state outside the innermost region.

  20. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Mauro F; Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation  (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications.  This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g.  sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz ...

  1. New Opportunities in Mid-Infrared Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Geiser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TLAS has been well accepted as a preferred measurement technique for many industrial applications in recent years, especially for in situ applications. Previously, mainly near-infrared lasers have been used in TLAS sensors. The advent of compact mid-infrared light sources, like quantum cascade lasers and interband cascade lasers, has made it possible to detect gases with better sensitivity by utilizing fundamental absorption bands and to measure species that do not have any absorption lines in the near-infrared spectral region. This technological advancement has allowed developing new sensors for gases, such as nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide, for industrial applications. Detection limits of better than 1 ppm·m for nitric oxide and better than 10 ppm·m for sulfur dioxide are demonstrated in field experiments.

  2. Thermal noise in mid-infrared broadband upconversion detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Low noise detection with state-of-the-art mid-infrared (MIR) detectors (e.g., PbS, PbSe, InSb, HgCdTe) is a primary challenge owing to the intrinsic thermal background radiation of the low bandgap detector material itself. However, researchers have employed frequency upconversion based detectors...... of the noise-equivalent power of an UCD system. In this article, we rigorously analyze the optical power generated by frequency upconversion of the intrinsic black-body radiation in the nonlinear material itself due to the crystals residual emissivity, i.e. absorption. The thermal radiation is particularly...... prominent at the optical absorption edge of the nonlinear material even at room temperature. We consider a conventional periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based MIR-UCD for the investigation. The UCD is designed to cover a broad spectral range, overlapping with the entire absorption edge of the PPLN...

  3. Nonlinear optics in germanium mid-infrared fiber material: Detuning oscillations in femtosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ordu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Germanium optical fibers hold great promise in extending semiconductor photonics into the fundamentally important mid-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The demonstration of nonlinear response in fabricated Ge fiber samples is a key step in the development of mid-infrared fiber materials. Here we report the observation of detuning oscillations in a germanium fiber in the mid-infrared region using femtosecond dispersed pump-probe spectroscopy. Detuning oscillations are observed in the frequency-resolved response when mid-infrared pump and probe pulses are overlapped in a fiber segment. The oscillations arise from the nonlinear frequency resolved nonlinear (χ(3 response in the germanium semiconductor. Our work represents the first observation of coherent oscillations in the emerging field of germanium mid-infrared fiber optics.

  4. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg 2 . In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  5. Modelling of mid-infrared interferometric signature of hot exozodiacal dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchschlager, Florian; Wolf, Sebastian; Brunngräber, Robert; Matter, Alexis; Krivov, Alexander V.; Labdon, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Hot exozodiacal dust emission was detected in recent surveys around two dozen main-sequence stars at distances of less than 1 au using the H- and K-band interferometry. Due to the high contrast as well as the small angular distance between the circumstellar dust and the star, direct observation of this dust component is challenging. An alternative way to explore the hot exozodiacal dust is provided by mid-infrared interferometry. We analyse the L, M and N bands interferometric signature of this emission in order to find stronger constraints for the properties and the origin of the hot exozodiacal dust. Considering the parameters of nine debris disc systems derived previously, we model the discs in each of these bands. We find that the M band possesses the best conditions to detect hot dust emission, closely followed by L and N bands. The hot dust in three systems - HD 22484 (10 Tau), HD 102647 (β Leo) and HD 177724 (ζ Aql) - shows a strong signal in the visibility functions, which may even allow one to constrain the dust location. In particular, observations in the mid-infrared could help to determine whether the dust piles up at the sublimation radius or is located at radii up to 1 au. In addition, we explore observations of the hot exozodiacal dust with the upcoming mid-infrared interferometer Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment (MATISSE) at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer.

  6. Mid-infrared spectroscopy in skin cancer cell type identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Kemper, Björn; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Naranjo, Valery; Penaranda, Francisco; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Mid infrared spectroscopy samples were developed for the analysis of skin tumor cell types and three dimensional tissue phantoms towards the application of midIR spectroscopy for fast and reliable skin cancer diagnostics.

  7. Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Lin, Hongtao; Hu, Juejun; Li, Mo

    2014-07-22

    Besides being the foundational material for microelectronics, crystalline silicon has long been used for the production of infrared lenses and mirrors. More recently, silicon has become the key material to achieve large-scale integration of photonic devices for on-chip optical interconnect and signal processing. For optics, silicon has significant advantages: it offers a very high refractive index and is highly transparent in the spectral range from 1.2 to 8 μm. To fully exploit silicon’s superior performance in a remarkably broad range and to enable new optoelectronic functionalities, here we describe a general method to integrate silicon photonic devices on arbitrary foreign substrates. In particular, we apply the technique to integrate silicon microring resonators on mid-infrared compatible substrates for operation in the mid-infrared. These high-performance mid-infrared optical resonators are utilized to demonstrate, for the first time, on-chip cavity-enhanced mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of organic chemicals with a limit of detection of less than 0.1 ng.

  8. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  9. Selective treatment of carious dentin using a mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser at 6 μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Masayuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Optical technologies have good potential for caries detection, prevention, excavation, and the realization of minimal intervention dentistry. This study aimed to develop a selective excavation technique of carious tissue using the specific absorption in 6 μm wavelength range. Bovine dentin demineralized with lactic acid solution was used as a carious dentin model. A mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser was obtained by difference-frequency generation technique. The wavelength was tuned to 6.02 and 6.42 μm which correspond to absorption bands called amide I and amide II, respectively. The laser delivers 5 ns pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphological change after irradiation was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the measurement of ablation depth was performed with a confocal laser microscope. At λ = 6.02 μm and the average power density of 15 W/cm2, demineralized dentin was removed selectively with less-invasive effect on sound dentin. The wavelength of 6.42 μm also showed the possibility of selective removal. High ablation efficiency and low thermal side effect were observed using the nanosecond pulsed laser with λ = 6.02 μm. In the near future, development of compact laser device will open the minimal invasive laser treatment to the dental clinic.

  10. Mid-Infrared Sensing of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of chemical sensors for monitoring the levels of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment has received a great deal of attention in recent decades. In particular, the mid-infrared (MIR sensor based on attenuated total reflectance (ATR is a promising analytical tool that has been used to detect a variety of hydrocarbon compounds (i.e., aromatics, alkyl halides, phenols, etc. dissolved in water. It has been shown that under certain conditions the MIR-ATR sensor is capable of achieving detection limits in the 10-100 ppb concentration range. Since the infrared spectral features of every single organic molecule are unique, the sensor is highly selective, making it possible to distinguish between many different analytes simultaneously. This review paper discusses some of the parameters (i.e., membrane type, film thickness, conditioning that dictate MIR ATR sensor response. The performance of various chemoselective membranes which are used in the fabrication of the sensor will be evaluated. Some of the challenges associated with long-term environmental monitoring are also discussed.

  11. Mid-Infrared Sensing of Organic Pollutants in Aqueous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ross, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The development of chemical sensors for monitoring the levels of organic pollutants in the aquatic environment has received a great deal of attention in recent decades. In particular, the mid-infrared (MIR) sensor based on attenuated total reflectance (ATR) is a promising analytical tool that has been used to detect a variety of hydrocarbon compounds (i.e., aromatics, alkyl halides, phenols, etc.) dissolved in water. It has been shown that under certain conditions the MIR-ATR sensor is capable of achieving detection limits in the 10–100 ppb concentration range. Since the infrared spectral features of every single organic molecule are unique, the sensor is highly selective, making it possible to distinguish between many different analytes simultaneously. This review paper discusses some of the parameters (i.e., membrane type, film thickness, conditioning) that dictate MIR-ATR sensor response. The performance of various chemoselective membranes which are used in the fabrication of the sensor will be evaluated. Some of the challenges associated with long-term environmental monitoring are also discussed. PMID:22454582

  12. A MID-INFRARED VIEW OF THE HIGH MASS STAR FORMATION REGION W51A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, C. L. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, R. dos Estados Unidos, Bairro das Nações, CEP 37504-364, Itajubá—MG (Brazil); Blum, R. D. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Damineli, A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão, 1226, Cid. Universitária, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Conti, P. S. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Gusmão, D. M., E-mail: cassio.barbosa@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: rblum@noao.edu, E-mail: augusto.damineli@iag.usp.br, E-mail: pconti@jila.colorado.edu, E-mail: danilo@univap.br [IP and D—Universidade do Vale do Paraíba, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911. São José dos Campos, SP, 12244-000 (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of a mid-infrared study of G49.5-0.4, or W51A, part of the massive starbirth complex W51. Combining public data from the Spitzer IRAC camera, and Gemini mid-infrared camera T-ReCS at 7.73, 9.69, 12.33, and 24.56 μ m, with a spatial resolution of ∼0.″5, we have identified the mid-infrared counterparts of eight ultracompact H ii regions, showing that two radio sources are deeply embedded in molecular clouds and another is a cloud of ionized gas. From the T-ReCS data we have unveiled the central core of the W51 region, revealing massive young stellar candidates. We modeled the spectral energy distribution of the detected sources. The results suggest that the embedded objects are sources with spectral types ranging from B3 to O5, but the majority of the fits indicate stellar objects with B1 spectral types. We also present an extinction map of IRS 2, showing that a region with lower extinction corresponds to the region where a proposed jet of gas has impacted the foreground cloud. From this map, we also derived the total extinction toward the enigmatic source IRS 2E, which amounts to ∼60 mag in the V band. We calculated the color temperature due to thermal emission of the circumstellar dust of the detected sources; the temperatures are in the interval of ∼100–150 K, which corresponds to the emission of dust located at 0.1 pc from the central source. Finally, we show a possible mid-infrared counterpart of a detected source at millimeter wavelengths that was found by Zapata et al. to be a massive young stellar object undergoing a high accretion rate.

  13. Short pulse mid-infrared amplifier for high average power

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  14. Mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectroscopy probing of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparajeo Chattopadhyay

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... cm3 molecule. −1 s. −1 ... Quantum cascade laser; time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy; transient absorption; peroxy radicals .... peak of the laser emission profile. .... cal with O2 is a termolecular reaction (Eq. 3) and the.

  15. Mid-infrared beam splitter for ultrashort pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Carmine; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Kiel, Thomas; Busch, Kurt; Braun, Andreas; Matalla, Mathias; Ickert, Karina; Krüger, Olaf

    2017-08-01

    A design is presented for a beam splitter suitable for ultrashort pulses in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range consisting of a structured metal layer on a diamond substrate. Both the theory and experiment show that this beam splitter does not distort the temporal pulse shape.

  16. Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Ingenious techniques are needed to extend group IV photonics from near-infrared to mid-infrared wavelengths. If achieved, the reward could be on-chip CMOS optoelectronic systems for use in spectroscopy, chemical and biological sensing, and free-space communications.

  17. Picosecond mid-infrared amplifier for high average power.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  18. Laser-induced filaments in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltikov, A M

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared gives rise to unique regimes of nonlinear wave dynamics and reveals in many ways unusual nonlinear-optical properties of materials in this frequency range. The λ 2 scaling of the self-focusing threshold P cr , with radiation wavelength λ , allows the laser powers transmitted by single mid-IR filaments to be drastically increased without the loss of beam continuity and spatial coherence. When extended to the mid-infrared, laser filamentation enables new methods of pulse compression. Often working around the universal physical limitations, it helps generate few-cycle and subcycle field waveforms within an extraordinarily broad range of peak powers, from just a few up to hundreds of P cr . As a part of a bigger picture, laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared offers important physical insights into the general properties of the nonlinear-optical response of matter as a function of the wavelength. Unlike their near-infrared counterparts, which can be accurately described within the framework of perturbative nonlinear optics, mid-infrared filaments often entangle perturbative and nonperturbative nonlinear-optical effects, showing clear signatures of strong-field optical physics. With the role of nonperturbative nonlinear-optical phenomena growing, as a general tendency, with the field intensity and the driver wavelength, extension of laser filamentation to even longer driver wavelengths, toward the long-wavelength infrared, promises a hic sunt dracones land. (topical review)

  19. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nima; Maser, Daniel L.; Cruz, Flavio C.; Kowligy, Abijith; Timmers, Henry; Chiles, Jeff; Fredrick, Connor; Westly, Daron A.; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard P.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Diddams, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm-6.2 μm). Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  20. Versatile silicon-waveguide supercontinuum for coherent mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Nader

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser frequency combs, with their unique combination of precisely defined spectral lines and broad bandwidth, are a powerful tool for basic and applied spectroscopy. Here, we report offset-free, mid-infrared frequency combs and dual-comb spectroscopy through supercontinuum generation in silicon-on-sapphire waveguides. We leverage robust fabrication and geometrical dispersion engineering of nanophotonic waveguides for multi-band, coherent frequency combs spanning 70 THz in the mid-infrared (2.5 μm–6.2 μm. Precise waveguide fabrication provides significant spectral broadening with engineered spectra targeted at specific mid-infrared bands. We characterize the relative-intensity-noise of different bands and show that the measured levels do not pose any limitation for spectroscopy applications. Additionally, we use the fabricated photonic devices to demonstrate dual-comb spectroscopy of a carbonyl sulfide gas sample at 5 μm. This work forms the technological basis for applications such as point sensors for fundamental spectroscopy, atmospheric chemistry, trace and hazardous gas detection, and biological microscopy.

  1. Polarization effects in above-threshold ionization with a mid-infrared strong laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hui-Peng; Xu, Song-Po; Wang, Yan-Lan; Yu, Shao-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Hao, Xiao-Lei; Lai, Xuan-Yang; Pfeifer, Thomas; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2018-05-01

    Using a semiclassical approach, we theoretically study the above-threshold ionization of magnesium by intense, mid-infrared laser pulses. The formation of low-energy structures in the photoelectron spectrum is found to be enhanced by comparing with a calculation based on the single-active electron approximation. By performing electron trajectory and recollision-time distribution analysis, we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the laser-induced ionic core polarization effects on the recolliding electrons. We also show that the polarization effects should be experimentally detectable. Our finding provides new insight into ultrafast control of strong-field photoionization and imaging of polar molecules.

  2. Protoplanetary disks around intermediate-mass stars: the asset of imaging in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, Coralie

    2006-01-01

    The accrued efficiency of the instruments in many wavelengths has allowed to show that most young stellar objects were surrounded by circumstellar matter distributed in a disk. Direct imaging of such systems is very difficult because of their narrow angular size and their weak luminosity in comparison with the star. Nowadays, 50 % of low-mass pre-main sequence stars, i.e. T Tauri stars, are surrounded by a disk. This proportion is less obvious for intermediate-mass stars, like Herbig Ae stars, that are less numerous and whose direct disk detection is more difficult. Until now, only the interpretation of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of such objects allows to have access to the geometry of the disk. But the solutions are degenerated and several parameters fit the same SED. It is essential to have direct images of the objects, the only evidence of the presence of disks. This PhD allows to show that mid-infrared imaging could rise a part of the degeneracy of the disk's parameters linked to the fit of the SED for several objects and gives constraints on the minimum external radius and inclination of the disk. We present a new observation mode with VISIR, the mid-infrared imager and spectrometer on the VLT (ESO, Chile): the so-called BURST mode. This mode allows to reach the diffraction limit of the telescope. Thanks to mid-infrared imaging with this instrument, we were able, for the first time, to have access to the geometry of a disk (flared structure) around a massive star that was, until now, only deduced from the SED modelling. (author) [fr

  3. Femtosecond few-cycle mid-infrared laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xing

    The few-cycle pulses of mid-infrared (mid-IR, wavelength 2-10 microns) have attracted increasing attention owing to their great potentials for high order harmonic generation, time-resolved spectroscopy, precision of cutting and biomedical science.In this thesis, mid-IR frequency conversion.......2 - 5.5 μm with only one fixed pump wavelength, a feature absent in Kerr media. Finally, we experimentally observe supercontinuum generation spanning 1.5 octaves, generated in a 10 mm long silicon-rich nitride waveguide pumped by 100 pJ femtosecond pulses from an erbium fiber laser. The waveguide has...

  4. Silicon nitride photonics: from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Bru, Luis A.; Pastor, Daniel; Doménech, David; Fernández, Juan; Sánchez, Ana; Cirera, Josep M.; Domínguez, Carlos; Muñoz, Pascual

    2018-02-01

    Silicon nitride has received a lot of attention during the last ten years, for applications such as bio-photonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing. In this paper, firstly an updated review of the state of the art of silicon nitride photonics integration platforms will be provided. Secondly, our developments on a moderate confinement Si3N4 platform in the near-infrared will be presented. Finally, our steps towards establishing a Si3N4 based platform for broadband operation spanning from visible to mid-infrared wavelengths will be introduced.

  5. Dilute bismides for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Gu, Yi; Ye, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Dilute bismides are a group of emerging materials with unique properties. Incorporation of a small amount of Bi in common III–V host materials results in large band-gap reduction and strong spin-orbit splitting, leading to potential applications in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR......) optoelectronics. Recent progresses on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of novel III-Sb-Bi, i.e. GaSbBi and InSbBi thin films from our group are summarised in this paper. Quantum well structures based on GaSbBi and InGaAsBi aiming for the optical communication window were grown and characterized....

  6. Mid-Infrared Continuously Tunable Single Mode VECSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Fill, M.; Zogg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Tunable mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers were developed for the wavelength range around 3.8-3.9 μm and 3.2-3.3 μm, respectively. The devices are based on lead salt materials epitaxially grown by MBE on a Si substrate. The active part consists of PbSe QW in a PbSrSe host layer. Both devices are operated around -20 °C and have output power of several 10 mW. By changing the cavity length, a single mode hop free tuning range up to 80 cm-1 is achieved.

  7. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  8. Mid-Infrared Frequency-Agile Dual-Comb Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Yan, Ming; Iwakuni, Kana; Millot, Guy; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy. It opens up new opportunities for accurate real-time spectroscopic diagnostics and it significantly simplifies the technique of dual-comb spectroscopy. Two mid-infrared frequency combs of slightly different repetition frequencies and moderate, but rapidly tunable, spectral span are generated in the 2800-3200 cm-1 region. The generators rely on electro-optic modulators, nonlinear fibers for spectral broadening and difference frequency generation and do not involve mode-locked lasers. Flat-top frequency combs span up to 10 cm-1 with a comb line spacing of 100 MHz (3×10-3 cm-1). The performance of the spectrometer without any phase-lock electronics or correction scheme is illustrated with spectra showing resolved comb lines and Doppler-limited spectra of methane. High precision on the spectroscopic parameter (line positions and intensities) determination is demonstrated for spectra measured on a millisecond time scale and it is validated with comparison with literature data. G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovannysyan, A. Bendahmane, T.W. Hänsch, N. Picqué, Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy, Nature Photonics 10, 27-30 (2016).

  9. Mid-Infrared Tunable Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Zogg

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared detectors that are sensitive only in a tunable narrow spectral band are presented. They are based on the Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detector (RCED principle and employing a thin active region using IV-VI narrow gap semiconductor layers. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by two mirrors. The active layer is grown onto one mirror, while the second mirror can be displaced. This changes the cavity length thus shifting the resonances where the detector is sensitive. Using electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors, a very compact tunable detector system has been fabricated. Mirror movements of more than 3 μm at 30V are obtained. With these mirrors, detectors with a wavelength tuning range of about 0.7 μm have been realized. Single detectors can be used in mid-infrared micro spectrometers, while a detector arrangement in an array makes it possible to realize Adaptive Focal Plane Arrays (AFPA.

  10. Mid-Infrared Silicate Dust Features in Seyfert 1 Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grant D.; Levenson, N. A.; Sirocky, M. M.; Uddin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate dust emission dominates the mid-infrared spectra of galaxies, and the dust produces two spectral features, at 10 and 18 μm. These features' strengths (in emission or absorption) and peak wavelengths reveal the geometry of the dust distribution, and they are sensitive to the dust composition. We examine mid-infrared spectra of 32 Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the spectra, we typically find the shorter-wavelength feature in emission, at an average peak wavelength of 10.0 μm, although it is known historically as the "9.7 μm" feature. In addition, peak wavelength increases with feature strength. The 10 and 18 μm feature strengths together are sensitive to the dust geometry surrounding the central heating engine. Numerical calculations of radiative transfer distinguish between clumpy and smooth distributions, and we find that the surroundings of these AGN (the obscuring "tori" of unified AGN schemes) are clumpy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features are associated with star formation, and we find strong PAH emission (luminosity ≥ 1042 erg/s) in only four sources, three of which show independent evidence for starbursts. We will explore the effects of luminosity on dust geometry and chemistry in a comparison sample of quasars. We acknowledge work supported by the NSF under grant number 0237291.

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopy for characterization of Baltic amber (succinite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Wysiecka, Ewa

    2018-05-01

    Natural Baltic amber (succinite) is the most appreciated fossil resin of the rich cultural traditions dating back to prehistoric times. Its unequivocal identification is extremely important in many branches of science and trades including archeology, paleontology, chemistry and finally mineralogical and gemological societies. Current methods of modification of natural succinite are more and more sophisticated making the identification of natural Baltic amber often challenging. In article the systematic analytical approach for identification of natural and modified under different conditions succinite, using mid-infrared spectroscopy (transmission, Drifts and ATR techniques) is presented. The correlation between spectral characteristics and properties of succinite is discussed pointing that the understanding of the nature of changes is the key of identification of this precious material.

  12. Mid Infrared Instrument cooler subsystem test facility overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Zan, J.; Hannah, B.; Chui, T.; Penanen, K.; Weilert, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Cryocooler for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides cooling at 6.2K on the instrument interface. The cooler system design has been incrementally documented in previous publications [1][2][3][4][5]. It has components that traverse three primary thermal regions on JWST: Region 1, approximated by 40K; Region 2, approximated by 100K; and Region 3, which is at the allowable flight temperatures for the spacecraft bus. However, there are several sub-regions that exist in the transition between primary regions and at the heat reject interfaces of the Cooler Compressor Assembly (CCA) and Cooler Control Electronics Assembly (CCEA). The design and performance of the test facility to provide a flight representative thermal environment for acceptance testing and characterization of the complete MIRI cooler subsystem are presented.

  13. Mid-infrared integrated photonics on silicon: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of silicon photonics over the past two decades has established silicon as a preferred substrate platform for photonic integration. While most silicon-based photonic components have so far been realized in the near-infrared (near-IR telecommunication bands, the mid-infrared (mid-IR, 2–20-μm wavelength band presents a significant growth opportunity for integrated photonics. In this review, we offer our perspective on the burgeoning field of mid-IR integrated photonics on silicon. A comprehensive survey on the state-of-the-art of key photonic devices such as waveguides, light sources, modulators, and detectors is presented. Furthermore, on-chip spectroscopic chemical sensing is quantitatively analyzed as an example of mid-IR photonic system integration based on these basic building blocks, and the constituent component choices are discussed and contrasted in the context of system performance and integration technologies.

  14. Quantitative determination of additive Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin preparation: Investigation of bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach by mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Song, Xiangzhong; Tian, Kuangda; Chen, Yilin; Xiong, Yanmei; Min, Shungeng

    2018-02-01

    A novel method, mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, which enables the determination of Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin within minutes, is proposed. We further evaluate the prediction ability of four wavelength selection methods, including bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach (BOSS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA-PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) respectively. The results showed that BOSS method obtained the lowest root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0245) and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) (0.0271), as well as the highest coefficient of determination of cross-validation (Qcv2) (0.9998) and the coefficient of determination of test set (Q2test) (0.9989), which demonstrated that the mid infrared spectroscopy can be used to detect Chlorantraniliprole in Abamectin conveniently. Meanwhile, a suitable wavelength selection method (BOSS) is essential to conducting a component spectral analysis.

  15. Two-crystal mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator for absorption and dispersion dual-comb spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuwei; Cristescu, Simona M; Harren, Frans J M; Mandon, Julien

    2014-06-01

    We present a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) containing two magnesium-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystals in a singly resonant ring cavity, pumped by two mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers. As such, the OPO generates two idler combs (up to 220 mW), covering a wavelength range from 2.7 to 4.2 μm, from which a mid-infrared dual-comb Fourier transform spectrometer is constructed. By detecting the heterodyning signal between the two idler beams a full broadband spectrum of a molecular gas can be observed over 250  cm(-1) within 70 μs with a spectral resolution of 15 GHz. The absorption and dispersion spectra of acetylene and methane have been measured around 3000  cm(-1), indicating that this OPO represents an ideal broadband mid-infrared source for fast chemical sensing.

  16. A mid-infrared absorption diagnostic for acetylene detection

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav

    2015-05-14

    Acetylene is an important combustion intermediate and plays a critical role in soot formation. Accurate measurements of trace concentrations of acetylene can be very useful in validating hydrocarbon oxidation and soot formation mechanisms. Strongest vibrational band of acetylene near 13.7 μm is probed here to develop a highly sensitive absorption diagnostic. Experiments are carried out behind reflected shock waves to measure absorption cross sections of acetylene near 730 cm−1 over a wide range of temperatures (1000–2200 K) and pressures (1–5 bar). The diagnostic is demonstrated by measuring acetylene formation during the shock-heated pyrolysis and oxidation of propene. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  17. Broadly tunable mid-infrared VECSEL for multiple components hydrocarbon gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J. M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Sigrist, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    A new sensing platform to simultaneously identify and quantify volatile C1 to C4 alkanes in multi-component gas mixtures is presented. This setup is based on an optically pumped, broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) developed for gas detection. The lead-chalcogenide VECSEL is the key component of the presented optical sensor. The potential of the proposed sensing setup is illustrated by experimental absorption spectra obtained from various mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons and water vapor. The sensor has a sub-ppm limit of detection for each targeted alkane in a hydrocarbon gas mixture even in the presence of a high water vapor content.

  18. AN ORDERED MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK OF AB Aur REVEALED BY MID-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan; Pantin, Eric; Telesco, Charles M.; Zhang, Han; Barnes, Peter J.; Mariñas, Naibí [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, FL 32611 (United States); Wright, Christopher M. [School of Physical, Environmental, and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2610 (Australia); Packham, Chris, E-mail: d.li@ufl.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1 UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Magnetic fields ( B -fields) play a key role in the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks, but their properties are poorly understood due to the lack of observational constraints. Using CanariCam at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, we have mapped out the mid-infrared polarization of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star AB Aur. We detect ∼0.44% polarization at 10.3 μ m from AB Aur's inner disk ( r  < 80 au), rising to ∼1.4% at larger radii. Our simulations imply that the mid-infrared polarization of the inner disk arises from dichroic emission of elongated particles aligned in a disk B -field. The field is well ordered on a spatial scale, commensurate with our resolution (∼50 au), and we infer a poloidal shape tilted from the rotational axis of the disk. The disk of AB Aur is optically thick at 10.3 μ m, so polarimetry at this wavelength is probing the B -field near the disk surface. Our observations therefore confirm that this layer, favored by some theoretical studies for developing magneto-rotational instability and its resultant viscosity, is indeed very likely to be magnetized. At radii beyond ∼80 au, the mid-infrared polarization results primarily from scattering by dust grains with sizes up to ∼1 μ m, a size indicating both grain growth and, probably, turbulent lofting of the particles from the disk mid-plane.

  19. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: The Mid-infrared Properties of Post-starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Lanz, Lauranne; Lacy, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; French, K. Decker; Ciesla, Laure; Appleton, Philip N.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Crossett, Jacob; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Kelson, Daniel D.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Kriek, Mariska; Medling, Anne M.; Mulchaey, John S.; Nyland, Kristina; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Urry, C. Meg

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the optical and Wide-field Survey Explorer (WISE) colors of “E+A” identified post-starburst galaxies, including a deep analysis of 190 post-starbursts detected in the 2 μm All Sky Survey Extended Source Catalog. The post-starburst galaxies appear in both the optical green valley and the WISE Infrared Transition Zone. Furthermore, we find that post-starbursts occupy a distinct region of [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] WISE colors, enabling the identification of this class of transitioning galaxies through the use of broadband photometric criteria alone. We have investigated possible causes for the WISE colors of post-starbursts by constructing a composite spectral energy distribution (SED), finding that the mid-infrared (4-12 μm) properties of post-starbursts are consistent with either 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, or thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and post-AGB stars. The composite SED of extended post-starburst galaxies with 22 μm emission detected with signal-to-noise ratio ≥slant 3 requires a hot dust component to produce their observed rising mid-infrared SED between 12 and 22 μm. The composite SED of WISE 22 μm non-detections (S/N systems. This could mean that including selections capable of identifying AGNs as part of a search for transitioning and post-starburst galaxies would create a more complete census of the transition pathways taken as a galaxy quenches its star formation.

  20. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  1. SIBI: A compact hyperspectral camera in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola Fossi, Armande; Ferrec, Yann; Domel, Roland; Coudrain, Christophe; Guerineau, Nicolas; Roux, Nicolas; D'Almeida, Oscar; Bousquet, Marc; Kling, Emmanuel; Sauer, Hervé

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles have increased the demand for more and more compact optical systems. In order to bring solutions to this demand, several infrared systems are being developed at ONERA such as spectrometers, imaging devices, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems. In the field of compact infrared hyperspectral imaging devices, ONERA and Sagem Défense et Sécurité have collaborated to develop a prototype called SIBI, which stands for "Spectro-Imageur Birefringent Infrarouge". It is a static Fourier transform imaging spectrometer which operates in the mid-wavelength infrared spectral range and uses a birefringent lateral shearing interferometer. Up to now, birefringent interferometers have not been often used for hyperspectral imaging in the mid-infrared because of the lack of crystal manufacturers, contrary to the visible spectral domain where the production of uniaxial crystals like calcite are mastered for various optical applications. In the following, we will present the design and the realization of SIBI as well as the first experimental results.

  2. Cadmium zinc telluride as a mid-infrared variable retarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, William; Taherion, Saeid; Kumar, F. Joseph; Giles, David; Hore, Dennis

    2018-04-01

    The electro-optic behavior of cadmium zinc telluride is examined in the mid-infrared region between 3 and 11 μm, for applied DC field strengths of up to 106 V/m. The measurements performed here include full characterization of the polarization state of the transmitted light by means of the Stokes vector. We demonstrate the suitability of this material for DC variable retarder applications such as those achieved by quarter- or half-wave retardation. A comparison of two different metallic coatings for electrodes, gold and indium, reveals important differences in performance that are attributed to the homogeneity of the field through the bulk of the crystal. We illustrate that, in the case of both metals, the same electro-optic coefficients are measured, but regions of higher and lower retardation result in significant depolarization in the case of gold. Such depolarization may adversely affect the contrast ratio in a light valve, or increase the voltage necessary for the operation of an arbitrary polarization state generator.

  3. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  5. Characterization methods of integrated optics for mid-infrared interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Lucas; Kern, Pierre Y.; Schanen-Duport, Isabelle; Broquin, Jean-Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    his article deals with one of the important instrumentation challenges of the stellar interferometry mission IRSI-Darwin of the European Space Agency: the necessity to have a reliable and performant system for beam combination has enlightened the advantages of an integrated optics solution, which is already in use for ground-base interferometry in the near infrared. Integrated optics provides also interesting features in terms of filtering, which is a main issue for the deep null to be reached by Darwin. However, Darwin will operate in the mid infrared range from 4 microns to 20 microns where no integrated optics functions are available on-the-shelf. This requires extending the integrated optics concept and the undergoing technology in this spectral range. This work has started with the IODA project (Integrated Optics for Darwin) under ESA contract and aims to provide a first component for interferometry. In this paper are presented the guidelines of the characterization work that is implemented to test and validate the performances of a component at each step of the development phase. We present also an example of characterization experiment used within the frame of this work, is theoretical approach and some results.

  6. Sensores ópticos com detecção no infravermelho próximo e médio Near and mid infrared optical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kássio M. G. Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical chemical sensors with detection in the near and mid infrared region are reviewed. Fundamental concepts of infrared spectroscopy and optical chemical sensors are briefly described, before presenting some aspects on optical chemical sensors, such as synthesis of NIR and IR reagents, preparation of new materials as well as application in determinations of species of biological, industrial and environmental importance.

  7. Application of mid-infrared tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy to plasma diagnostics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roepcke, J; Lombardi, G; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B

    2006-01-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy over a region from 3 to 17μm and based on tuneable lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy or TDLAS, has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry in molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has led to further applications of TDLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. TDLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetic phenomena. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from TDLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected by TDLAS. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes. The aim of the present paper is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid-infrared

  8. Recent advances of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank; Gluszek, Aleksander; Hudzikowski, Arkadiusz; Dong, Lei; Li, Chunguang; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Wojtas, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    The recent development of compact interband cascade lasers(ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based trace gas sensors will permit the targeting of strong fundamental rotational-vibrational transitions in the mid-infrared which are one to two orders of magnitude more intense than transitions in the overtone and combination bands in the near-infrared. This has led to the design and fabrication of mid-infrared compact, field deployable sensors for use in the petrochemical industry, environmental monitoring and atmospheric chemistry. Specifically, the spectroscopic detection and monitoring of four molecular species, methane (CH4) [1], ethane (C2H6), formaldehyde (H2CO) [2] and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [3] will be described. CH4, C2H6 and H2CO can be detected using two detection techniques: mid-infrared tunable laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) using a compact multi-pass gas cell and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). Both techniques utilize state-of-the-art mid-IR, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback (DFB) ICLs and QCLs. TDLAS was performed with an ultra-compact 54.6m effective optical path length innovative spherical multipass gas cell capable of 435 passes between two concave mirrors separated by 12.5 cm. QEPAS used a small robust absorption detection module (ADM) which consists of a quartz tuning fork (QTF), two optical windows, gas inlet/outlet ports and a low noise frequency pre-amplifier. Wavelength modulation and second harmonic detection were employed for spectral data processing. TDLAS and QEPAS can achieve minimum detectable absorption losses in the range from 10-8 to 10-11cm-1/Hz1/2. Several recent examples of real world applications of field deployable gas sensors will be described. For example, an ICL based TDLAS sensor system is capable of detecting CH4 and C2H6 concentration levels of 1 ppb in a 1 sec. sampling time, using an ultra-compact, robust sensor architecture. H2S detection was realized with a THz QEPAS sensor

  9. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  10. Online analysis of H2S and SO2 via advanced mid-infrared gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruci, João Flavio da Silveira; Wilk, Andreas; Cardoso, Arnaldo Alves; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-10-06

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are among the most prevalent emitted pollutants in urban and rural atmospheres. Mainly because of the versatility of sulfur regarding its oxidation state (2- to 6+), VSCs are present in a wide variety of redox-environments, concentration levels, and molar ratios. Among the VSCs, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are considered most relevant and have simultaneously been detected within naturally and anthropogenically caused emission events (e.g., volcano emissions, food production and industries, coal pyrolysis, and various biological activities). Next to their presence as pollutants, changes within their molar ratio may also indicate natural anomalies. Prior to analysis, H2S- and SO2-containing samples are usually preconcentrated via solid sorbents and are then detected by gas chromatographic techniques. However, such analytical strategies may be of limited selectivity, and the dimensions and operation modalities of the involved instruments prevent routine field usage. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous H2S and SO2 via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguides (iHWG) serving as a highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell with a custom-made preconcentration tube and an in-line UV-converter device. Both species were collected onto a solid sorbent within the preconcentrator and then released by thermal desorption into the UV-device. Hydrogen sulfide is detected by UV-assisted quantitative conversion of the rather weak IR-absorber H2S into SO2, which provides a significantly more pronounced and distinctively detectable rovibrational signature. Modulation of the UV-device system (i.e., UV-lamp on/off) enables discriminating between SO2 generated from H2S conversion and abundant SO2 signals. After optimization of the operational parameters, calibrations in the range of 0.75-10 ppmv with a limit

  11. Towards diode-pumped mid-infrared praseodymium-ytterbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Hudson, D. D.; Jackson, S. D.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the potential of a new mid-infrared laser transition in praseodymium-doped fluoride fiber for emission around 3.4 μm, which can be conveniently pumped by 0.975 μm diodes via ytterbium sensitizer co-doping. Optimal cavity designs are determined through spectroscopic measurements and numerical modeling, suggesting that practical diode-pumped watt-level mid-infrared fiber sources beyond 3 μm could be achieved.

  12. Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0054 Silicon based mid infrared SiGeSn heterostrcture emitters and detectors Greg Sun UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report... Silicon Based Mid Infrared SiGeSn Heterostructure Emitters and Detectors ” February 10, 2016 Principal Investigator: Greg Sun Engineering...diodes are incompatible with the CMOS process and therefore cannot be easily integrated with Si electronics . The GeSn mid IR detectors developed in

  13. LOCUSS: THE MID-INFRARED BUTCHER-OEMLER EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, C. P.; Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Egami, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Moran, S. M.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Smith, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of galaxies in 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.40, using panoramic Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm and near-infrared data, including 27 new observations from the LoCuSS and ACCESS surveys. This is the largest sample of clusters to date with such high-quality and uniform MIR data covering not only the cluster cores, but extending into the infall regions. We use these data to revisit the so-called Butcher-Oemler (BO) effect, measuring the fraction of massive infrared luminous galaxies (K IR > 5 x 10 10 L sun ) within r 200 , finding a steady increase in the fraction with redshift from ∼3% at z = 0.02 to ∼10% by z = 0.30, and an rms cluster-to-cluster scatter about this trend of 0.03. The best-fit redshift evolution model of the form f SF ∝ (1 + z) n has n = 5.7 +2.1 -1.8 , which is stronger redshift evolution than that of L* IR in both clusters and the field. We find that, statistically, this excess is associated with galaxies found at large cluster-centric radii, specifically r 500 200 , implying that the MIR BO effect can be explained by a combination of both the global decline in star formation in the universe since z ∼ 1 and enhanced star formation in the infall regions of clusters at intermediate redshifts. This picture is supported by a simple infall model based on the Millennium Simulation semianalytic galaxy catalogs, whereby star formation in infalling galaxies is instantaneously quenched upon their first passage through the cluster, in that the observed radial trends of f SF trace those inferred from the simulations. The observed f SF values, however, lie systematically above the predictions, suggesting an overall excess of star formation, either due to triggering by environmental processes, or a gradual quenching. We also find that f SF does not depend on simple indicators of the dynamical state of clusters, including the offset between the brightest cluster galaxy and the peak of the X-ray emission

  14. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M. [Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J.; Forbrich, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M.; Bouy, H. [Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Terebey, S., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ∼35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ∼10′ × ∼20′ area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded spectral energy distributions (SEDs) (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10–90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5] > 0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1–0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be “dippers,” where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be “bursters,” where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]–[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (∼half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6–7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (∼60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ∼30% of the variables overall)

  15. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SAMPLE OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE. I. EMISSION-LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth, E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.; Armus, L.

    2010-01-01

    We compare mid-infrared emission-line properties from high-resolution Spitzer spectra of a hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission lines, [O IV] 25.89 μm, [Ne II] 12.81 μm, [Ne III] 15.56 μm, and [Ne V] 14.32/24.32 μm, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations; however, six newly discovered BAT AGNs are under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT fluxes and luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGNs. We also compare the mid-infrared emission lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of ULIRGs, Palomar-Green quasars, star-forming galaxies, and LINERs. We find that the BAT AGN sample falls into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] ratios. These line ratios are lower in sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGNs than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGNs represent the main contribution to the observed line emission. These ratios represent a new emission line diagnostic for distinguishing between AGNs and star-forming galaxies.

  16. Design analysis of doped-silicon surface plasmon resonance immunosensors in mid-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPippo, William; Lee, Bong Jae; Park, Keunhan

    2010-08-30

    This paper reports the design analysis of a microfabricatable mid-infrared (mid-IR) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform. The proposed platform has periodic heavily doped profiles implanted into intrinsic silicon and a thin gold layer deposited on top, making a physically flat grating SPR coupler. A rigorous coupled-wave analysis was conducted to prove the design feasibility, characterize the sensor's performance, and determine geometric parameters of the heavily doped profiles. Finite element analysis (FEA) was also employed to compute the electromagnetic field distributions at the plasmon resonance. Obtained results reveal that the proposed structure can excite the SPR on the normal incidence of mid-IR light, resulting in a large probing depth that will facilitate the study of larger analytes. Furthermore, the whole structure can be microfabricated with well-established batch protocols, providing tunability in the SPR excitation wavelength for specific biosensing needs with a low manufacturing cost. When the SPR sensor is to be used in a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy platform, its detection sensitivity and limit of detection are estimated to be 3022 nm/RIU and ~70 pg/mm(2), respectively, at a sample layer thickness of 100 nm. The design analysis performed in the present study will allow the fabrication of a tunable, disposable mid-IR SPR sensor that combines advantages of conventional prism and metallic grating SPR sensors.

  17. MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUST-FORMING CLASSICAL NOVA V2676 OPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Arai, Akira; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nagashima, Masayoshi, E-mail: kawakthd@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    The dust-forming nova V2676 Oph is unique in that it was the first nova to provide evidence of C{sub 2} and CN molecules during its near-maximum phase and evidence of CO molecules during its early decline phase. Observations of this nova have revealed the slow evolution of its lightcurves and have also shown low isotopic ratios of carbon ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({sup 14}N/{sup 15}N) in its envelope. These behaviors indicate that the white dwarf (WD) star hosting V2676 Oph is a CO-rich WD rather than an ONe-rich WD (typically larger in mass than the former). We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic and photometric observations of V2676 Oph in 2013 and 2014 (respectively 452 and 782 days after its discovery). No significant [Ne ii] emission at 12.8 μ m was detected at either epoch. These provided evidence for a CO-rich WD star hosting V2676 Oph. Both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich grains were detected in addition to an unidentified infrared feature at 11.4 μ m originating from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules or hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains in the envelope of V2676 Oph.

  18. Cloud top structure of Venus revealed by Subaru/COMICS mid-infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T. M.; Sagawa, H.; Kouyama, T.; Mitsuyama, K.; Satoh, T.; Ohtsuki, S.; Ueno, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.

    2014-11-01

    We have investigated the cloud top structure of Venus by analyzing ground-based images taken at the mid-infrared wavelengths of 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm. Venus at a solar phase angle of ∼90°, with the morning terminator in view, was observed by the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS), mounted on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope, during the period October 25-29, 2007. The disk-averaged brightness temperatures for the observation period are ∼230 K and ∼238 K at 8.66 μm and 11.34 μm, respectively. The obtained images with good signal-to-noise ratio and with high spatial resolution (∼200 km at the sub-observer point) provide several important findings. First, we present observational evidence, for the first time, of the possibility that the westward rotation of the polar features (the hot polar spots and the surrounding cold collars) is synchronized between the northern and southern hemispheres. Second, after high-pass filtering, the images reveal that streaks and mottled and patchy patterns are distributed over the entire disk, with typical amplitudes of ∼0.5 K, and vary from day to day. The detected features, some of which are similar to those seen in past UV images, result from inhomogeneities of both the temperature and the cloud top altitude. Third, the equatorial center-to-limb variations of brightness temperatures have a systematic day-night asymmetry, except those on October 25, that the dayside brightness temperatures are higher than the nightside brightness temperatures by 0-4 K under the same viewing geometry. Such asymmetry would be caused by the propagation of the migrating semidiurnal tide. Finally, by applying the lapse rates deduced from previous studies, we demonstrate that the equatorial center-to-limb curves in the two spectral channels give access to two parameters: the cloud scale height H and the cloud top altitude zc. The acceptable models for data on October 25 are obtained at H = 2.4-4.3 km and zc = 66-69 km; this supports

  19. THE SUBARCSECOND MID-INFRARED VIEW OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. POLAR DUST EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations have shown that in a few active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only a little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGNs. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGNs, 21 show extended MIR emission on single-dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the position angle (PA) of the system axis, established by [O iii], radio, polarization, and maser-based PA measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40% and scales with the [O iv] fluxes, implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [O iv] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emission structure in AGNs. The current low detection rate of polar dust in the AGNs of the MIR atlas is explained by the lack of sufficient high-quality MIR data and the requirements on the orientation, strength of narrow-line region, and distance of the AGNs. The James Webb Space Telescope will enable much deeper nuclear MIR studies with comparable angular resolution, allowing us to resolve the polar emission and surroundings in most of the nearby AGNs.

  20. The origin of the mid-infrared nuclear polarization of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Ichikawa, K.; Levenson, N. A.; Martinez-Paredes, M.; Nikutta, R.; Packham, C.; Perlman, E.; Almeida, C. Ramos; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Telesco, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We combine new (NGC 1275, NGC 4151, and NGC 5506) and previously published (Cygnus A, Mrk 231, and NGC 1068) sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared (MIR; 8-13 μm) imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations of six Seyfert galaxies using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. These observations reveal a diverse set of physical processes responsible for the nuclear polarization, and permit characterization of the origin of the MIR nuclear polarimetric signature of active galactic nuclei (AGN). For all radio quiet objects, we found that the nuclear polarization is low (sensitivity to detect such extended emission (i.e., NGC 1068 and NGC 4151). We suggest that the higher degree of polarization previously found in lower resolution data arises only on the larger-than-nuclear scales. Only the radio-loud Cygnus A exhibits significant nuclear polarization (˜11 per cent), attributable to synchrotron emission from the pc-scale jet close to the core. We present polarization models that suggest that the MIR nuclear polarization for highly obscured objects arises from a self-absorbed MIR polarized clumpy torus and/or dichroism from the host galaxy, while for unabsorbed cores, MIR polarization arises from dust scattering in the torus and/or surrounding nuclear dust.

  1. Generation of Phase-Stable Sub-Cycle Mid-Infrared Pulses from Filamentation in Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Fuji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sub-single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared (MIR region were generated through a laser-induced filament. The fundamental (ω1 and second harmonic (ω2 output of a 30-fs Ti:sapphire amplifier were focused into nitrogen gas and produce phase-stable broadband MIR pulses (ω0 by using a four-wave mixing process (ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 through filamentation. The spectrum spread from 400 cm-1 to 5500 cm-1, which completely covered the MIR region. The low frequency components were detected by using an electro-optic sampling technique with a gaseous medium. The efficiency of the MIR pulse generation was very sensitive to the delay between the fundamental and second harmonic pulses. It was revealed that the delay dependence of the efficiency came from the interference between two opposite parametric processes, ω1 + ω1 - ω2 → ω0 and ω2 - ω1 - ω1 → ω0. The pulse duration was measured as 6.9 fs with cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating by using four-wave mixing in nitrogen. The carrier-envelope phase of the MIR pulse was passively stabilized. The instability was estimated as 154 mrad rms in 2.5 h.

  2. Development of integrated platform based on chalcogenides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Arroyo, Aldo; Bodiou, Loïc.; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Baudet, Emeline; Baillieul, Marion; Hardy, Isabelle; Caillaud, Celine; Colas, Florent; Boukerma, Kada; Rinnert, Emmanuel; Michel, Karine; Bureau, Bruno; Nazabal, Virginie; Charrier, Joël.

    2018-03-01

    Mid-Infrared (mid-IR) spectral range, spanning from 2 μm to 20 μm, is ideal for chemical sensing using spectroscopy thanks to the presence of vibrational absorption bands of many liquid and gas substances in this wavelength range. Indeed, mid-IR spectroscopy allows simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis by, respectively, identifying molecules from their spectral signature and relating the concentrations of different chemical agents to their absorption coefficient according to Beer-Lambert law. In the last years, photonic integrated sensors based on mid-IR spectroscopy have emerged as a cheap, accurate, and compact solution that would enable continuous real-time on-site diagnostics and monitoring of molecular species without the need to collect samples for off-site measurements. Here, we report the design, processing and characterization of a photonic integrated transducer based on selenide ridge waveguides. Evanescent wave detection of chemical substances in liquid phase (isopropyl alcohol, C3H8O, and acetic acid, C2H4O2, both dissolved in cyclohexane) is presented using their absorption at a wavelength of 7.7 μm.

  3. Restraint deformation and corrosion protection of gold deposited aluminum mirrors for cold optics of mid-infrared instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Mizuho; Miyata, Takashi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Asano, Kentaro; Okada, Kazushi; Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki; Kataza, Hirokazu; Sarugaku, Yuki; Kirino, Okiharu; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Okada, Norio; Mitsui, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    We report the restraint deformation and the corrosion protection of gold deposited aluminum mirrors for mid-infrared instruments. To evaluate the deformation of the aluminum mirrors by thermal shrinkage, monitoring measurement of the surface of a mirror has been carried out in the cooling cycles from the room temperature to 100 K. The result showed that the effect of the deformation was reduced to one fourth if the mirror was screwed with spring washers. We have explored an effective way to prevent the mirror from being galvanically corroded. A number of samples have been prepared by changing the coating conditions, such as inserting an insulation layer, making a multi-layer and overcoating water blocking layer, or carrying out precision cleaning before coating. Precision cleaning before the deposition and protecting coat with SiO over the gold layer seemed to be effective in blocking corrosion of the aluminum. The SiO over-coated mirror has survived the cooling test for the mid-infrared use and approximately 1 percent decrease in the reflectance has been detected at 6-25 microns compared to gold deposited mirror without coating.

  4. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  5. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VIII. A MID-INFRARED KINEMATIC DISTANCE DISCRIMINATION METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Glenn, Jason; Battersby, Cara; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L., E-mail: timothy.ellsworthbowers@colorado.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    We present a new distance estimation method for dust-continuum-identified molecular cloud clumps. Recent (sub-)millimeter Galactic plane surveys have cataloged tens of thousands of these objects, plausible precursors to stellar clusters, but detailed study of their physical properties requires robust distance determinations. We derive Bayesian distance probability density functions (DPDFs) for 770 objects from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey in the Galactic longitude range 7. Degree-Sign 5 {<=} l {<=} 65 Degree-Sign . The DPDF formalism is based on kinematic distances, and uses any number of external data sets to place prior distance probabilities to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity (KDA) for objects in the inner Galaxy. We present here priors related to the mid-infrared absorption of dust in dense molecular regions and the distribution of molecular gas in the Galactic disk. By assuming a numerical model of Galactic mid-infrared emission and simple radiative transfer, we match the morphology of (sub-)millimeter thermal dust emission with mid-infrared absorption to compute a prior DPDF for distance discrimination. Selecting objects first from (sub-)millimeter source catalogs avoids a bias towards the darkest infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) and extends the range of heliocentric distance probed by mid-infrared extinction and includes lower-contrast sources. We derive well-constrained KDA resolutions for 618 molecular cloud clumps, with approximately 15% placed at or beyond the tangent distance. Objects with mid-infrared contrast sufficient to be cataloged as IRDCs are generally placed at the near kinematic distance. Distance comparisons with Galactic Ring Survey KDA resolutions yield a 92% agreement. A face-on view of the Milky Way using resolved distances reveals sections of the Sagittarius and Scutum-Centaurus Arms. This KDA-resolution method for large catalogs of sources through the combination of (sub-)millimeter and mid-infrared observations of molecular

  6. Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune; Agger, Christian; Bang, Ole; Keiding, Søren R.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ~ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thulium and use ZBLAN fibers to generate a 1.75-4.4 μm spectrum. We will present results obtained by applying the source for mid-infrared microscopy where absorption spectra can be used to identify the chemical nature of different parts of a sample. Subsequently, we discuss the possible application of a mid-IR supercontinuum source in other areas including infrared countermeasures.

  7. Optimum output coupling for a mid-infrared KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guochao; Gao, Yesheng; Zheng, Guangjin; Zhao, Yao; Chen, Kunfeng; Wang, Qingpu; Bai, Fen

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the turn off time of the Q-switch, the coupled equations for a mid-infrared KTiOAsO 4 optical parametric oscillator (OPO) are given. These rate equations are solved numerically and some key parameters for designing the laser system are determined. The key parameters include the optimal coupling and nonlinear crystal length which maximize the output power and OPO conversion efficiency. We found that a low-loss singly resonant OPO cavity not only enhances the mid-infrared output but also decreases the optimal OPO crystal length. (paper)

  8. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  9. Efficient Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Tapered Large Mode Area Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source.......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source....

  10. Mid-infrared-to-mid-ultraviolet supercontinuum enhanced by third-to-fifteenth odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Mitryukovskiy, S I; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Pugžlys, A; Andriukaitis, G; Flöry, T; Stepanov, E A; Fedotov, A B; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2015-05-01

    A high-energy supercontinuum spanning 4.7 octaves, from 250 to 6500 nm, is generated using a 0.3-TW, 3.9-μm output of a mid-infrared optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier as a driver inducing a laser filament in the air. The high-frequency wing of the supercontinuum spectrum is enhanced by odd-order optical harmonics of the mid-infrared driver. Optical harmonics up to the 15th order are observed in supercontinuum spectra as overlapping, yet well-resolved peaks broadened, as verified by numerical modeling, due to spatially nonuniform ionization-induced blue shift.

  11. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YSOs IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION GGD12-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Günther, H. Moritz; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Forbrich, J. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-5 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA 98225-9164 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the star-forming region GGD 12-15. More than 1000 objects were monitored, including about 350 objects within the central 5′, which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67 ks Chandra observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5′ are young stellar objects (YSOs) based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability, and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability. There are 39 periodic sources, and all but one is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of the periodic sources do not show IR excesses. Overall, more than 85% of the Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II sources are found to vary. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Most of the Class I/II objects exhibit redder colors in a fainter state, which is compatible with time-variable extinction. A few become bluer when fainter, which can be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. A search for changes in the IR due to X-ray events is carried out, but the low number of flares prevented an analysis of the direct impact of X-ray flares on the IR light curves. However, we find that X-ray detected Class II sources have longer timescales for change in the MIR than a similar set of non-X-ray detected Class IIs.

  12. The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Mid-Infrared Sensing of Dissolved Hydrocarbons in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Charles; Myers, Matthew; Pejcic, Bobby

    2017-12-19

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using a polymer coated internal reflection element/waveguide is an established sensor platform for the detection of a range of organic and hydrocarbon molecules dissolved in water. The polymer coating serves two purposes: to concentrate hydrocarbons from the aqueous phase and to exclude water along with other interfering molecules from the surface of the internal reflection element. Crucial to reliable quantification and analytical performance is the calibration of the ATR-FTIR sensor which is commonly performed in water under mild ambient conditions (i.e., 25 °C and 1 atm). However, there is a pressing need to monitor environmental and industrial processes/events that may occur at high pressures and temperatures where this calibration approach is unsuitable. Using a ruggedized optical fiber probe with a diamond-based ATR, we have conducted mid-infrared sensor experiments to understand the influence of high pressure (up to 207 bar) and temperature (up to 80 °C) on the detection of toluene and naphthalene dissolved in water. Using a poly(isobutylene) film, we have shown that the IR spectroscopic response is relatively unaffected by changes in pressure; however, a diminished response was observed with increasing temperature. We reveal that changes in the refractive index of the polymer film with temperature have only a minor effect on sensitivity. A more plausible explanation for the observed significant change in sensor response with temperature is that the partitioning process is exothermic and becomes less favorable with increasing temperature. This Article shows that the sensitivity is relatively invariant to pressure; however, the thermal variations are significant and need to be considered when quantifying the concentration of hydrocarbons in water.

  13. Rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser for avionics applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Esser, MJD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of a helicopter-based application using advanced laser technology, the authors have developed a rugged and compact mid-infrared solid-state laser. The requirement for the laser was to simultaneously emit at 2...

  14. Mid-infrared plasmonic resonances exploiting heavily-doped Ge on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Sakat, E.; Baldassarre, L.; Calandrini, E.; Samarelli, A.; Gallacher, K.; Frigerio, J.; Isella, G.; Paul, D. J.; Ortolani, M.

    2015-03-01

    We address the behavior of mid-infrared localized plasmon resonances in elongated germanium antennas integrated on silicon substrates. Calculations based on Mie theory and on the experimentally retrieved dielectric constant allow us to study the tunability and the figures of merit of plasmon resonances in heavily-doped germanium and to preliminarily compare them with those of the most established plasmonic material, gold.

  15. Spitzer mid-infrared spectra of cool-core galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Messières, G.E.; O'Connell, R.W.; McNamara, B.R.; Donahue, M.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Voit, G.M.; Wise, M.W.; Smith, B.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Bastian, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained mid-infrared spectra of nine cool-core galaxy clusters with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. X-ray, ultraviolet and optical observations have demonstrated that each of these clusters hosts a cooling flow which seems to be fueling vigorous star formation

  16. Spectral-temporal composition matters when cascading supercontinua into the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide fibers is a promising technology for broadband spatially coherent sources in the mid-infrared, but it suffers from discouraging commercial prospects, mainly due to a lack of suitable pump lasers. Here, a promising approach is experimentally demonstrated u...

  17. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...

  18. Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hairun; Herkommer, Clemens; Billat, Adrien; Grassani, Davide; Zhang, Chuankun; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Weng, Wenle; Brès, Camille-Sophie; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2018-06-01

    Mid-infrared optical frequency combs are of significant interest for molecular spectroscopy due to the large absorption of molecular vibrational modes on the one hand, and the ability to implement superior comb-based spectroscopic modalities with increased speed, sensitivity and precision on the other hand. Here, we demonstrate a simple, yet effective, method for the direct generation of mid-infrared optical frequency combs in the region from 2.5 to 4.0 μm (that is, 2,500-4,000 cm-1), covering a large fraction of the functional group region, from a conventional and compact erbium-fibre-based femtosecond laser in the telecommunication band (that is, 1.55 μm). The wavelength conversion is based on dispersive wave generation within the supercontinuum process in an unprecedented large-cross-section silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide with the dispersion lithographically engineered. The long-wavelength dispersive wave can perform as a mid-infrared frequency comb, whose coherence is demonstrated via optical heterodyne measurements. Such an approach can be considered as an alternative option to mid-infrared frequency comb generation. Moreover, it has the potential to realize compact dual-comb spectrometers. The generated combs also have a fine teeth-spacing, making them suitable for gas-phase analysis.

  19. Diagnostic studies of molecular plasmas using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röpcke, J.; Welzel, S.; Lang, N.; Hempel, F.; Gatilova, L.; Guaitella, O.; Rousseau, A.; Davies, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    Within the last decade mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 µm, known as infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has

  20. Towards supercontinuum-driven hyperspectral microscopy in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindsay, I. D.; Valle, S.; Ward, J.

    2016-01-01

    The extension of supercontinuum (SC) sources into the mid-infrared, via the use of fluoride and chalcogenide optical fibers, potentially offers the high radiance of a laser combined with spectral coverage far exceeding that of typical tunable lasers and comparable to traditional black-body emitte...

  1. Two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As-Se suspended core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    2015-01-01

    A more than two-octave mid-infrared supercontinuum with an average output power of 15.6 mW covering 1.7-7.5 μm (1,333-5,900 cm-1) is generated in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm....

  2. Conductive Oxides Trench Structures as Hyperbolic Metamaterials in Mid-infrared Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takayama, Osamu; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    ,2]. Moreover plasmonics for mid-infrared offer unique applications such as bio-sensing, thermal imaging and quest for novel materials and structures has been continuing [3]. In this report we show that vertical trench structures made of, for example, aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) or other transparent conductive...

  3. Supercontinuum - broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Petersen, Christian; Dupont, Sune

    2012-01-01

    Based on the experience gained developing our market leading visible spectrum supercontinuum sources NKT Photonics has built the first mid-infrared supercontinuum source based on modelocked picosecond fiber lasers. The source is pumped by a ≈ 2 um laser based on a combination of erbium and thuliu...

  4. Characterizing Wolf-Rayet stars in the near- and mid-infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Shara, Michael M.; Zurek, David; Kanarek, Graham [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Moffat, Anthony F. J., E-mail: jfaherty@dtm.ciw.edu [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    We present refined color-color selection criteria for identifying Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars using available mid-infrared (MIR) photometry from WISE in combination with near-infrared (NIR) photometry from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Using a sample of spectrally classified objects, we find that WR stars are well distinguished from the field stellar population in the (W1 – W2) versus (J – K{sub s} ) color-color diagram, and further distinguished from other emission line objects such as planetary nebulae, Be, and cataclysmic variable stars using a combination of NIR and MIR color constraints. As proof of concept we applied the color constraints to a photometric sample in the Galactic plane, located WR star candidates, and present five new spectrally confirmed and classified WC (1) and WN (4) stars. Analysis of the 0.8-5.0 μm spectral data for a subset of known, bright WC and WN stars shows that emission lines (primarily He I) extend into the 3.0-5.0 μm spectral region, although their strength is greatly diminished compared to the 0.8-2.5 μm region. The WR population stands out relative to background field stars at NIR and MIR colors due to an excess continuum contribution, likely caused by free-free scattering in dense winds. Mean photometric properties of known WRs are presented and imply that reddened late-type WN and WC sources are easier to detect than earlier-type sources at larger Galactic radii. WISE W3 and W4 images of 10 WR stars show evidence of circumstellar shells linked to mass ejections from strong stellar winds.

  5. VERY LARGE INTERSTELLAR GRAINS AS EVIDENCED BY THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W. [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: shuwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: wanshu@missouri.edu, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2015-09-20

    The sizes of interstellar grains are widely distributed, ranging from a few angstroms to a few micrometers. The ultraviolet (UV) and optical extinction constrains the dust in the size range of a couple hundredths of micrometers to several submicrometers. The near and mid infrared (IR) emission constrains the nanometer-sized grains and angstrom-sized very large molecules. However, the quantity and size distribution of micrometer-sized grains remain unknown because they are gray in the UV/optical extinction and they are too cold and emit too little in the IR to be detected by IRAS, Spitzer, or Herschel. In this work, we employ the ∼3–8 μm mid-IR extinction, which is flat in both diffuse and dense regions to constrain the quantity, size, and composition of the μm-sized grain component. We find that, together with nano- and submicron-sized silicate and graphite (as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), μm-sized graphite grains with C/H ≈ 137 ppm and a mean size of ∼1.2 μm closely fit the observed interstellar extinction of the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium from the far-UV to the mid-IR, as well as the near-IR to millimeter thermal emission obtained by COBE/DIRBE, COBE/FIRAS, and Planck up to λ ≲ 1000 μm. The μm-sized graphite component accounts for ∼14.6% of the total dust mass and ∼2.5% of the total IR emission.

  6. Frequency locking of an extended-cavity quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb for precision mid infrared spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaif, Bidoor; Lamperti, Marco; Gatti, Davide; Laporta, Paolo; Fermann, Martin E.; Farooq, Aamir; Marangoni, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Extended-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) enable mode-hope-free frequency sweeps in the mid-infrared region over ranges in excess of 100 cm−1, at speeds up to 1 THz/s and with a 100-mW optical power level. This makes them ideally suited for broadband absorption spectroscopy and for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. On the other hand, their use for precision spectroscopy has been hampered so far by a large amount of frequency noise, resulting in an optical linewidth of about 30 MHz over 50 ms [1]. This is one of the reasons why neither their frequency nor their phase have been so far locked to a frequency comb. Their use in combination with frequency combs has been performed in an open loop regime only [2], which has the merit of preserving the inherently fast modulation speed of these lasers, yet not to afford high spectral resolution and accuracy.

  7. Frequency locking of an extended-cavity quantum cascade laser to a frequency comb for precision mid infrared spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaif, Bidoor

    2017-11-02

    Extended-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) enable mode-hope-free frequency sweeps in the mid-infrared region over ranges in excess of 100 cm−1, at speeds up to 1 THz/s and with a 100-mW optical power level. This makes them ideally suited for broadband absorption spectroscopy and for the simultaneous detection of multiple gases. On the other hand, their use for precision spectroscopy has been hampered so far by a large amount of frequency noise, resulting in an optical linewidth of about 30 MHz over 50 ms [1]. This is one of the reasons why neither their frequency nor their phase have been so far locked to a frequency comb. Their use in combination with frequency combs has been performed in an open loop regime only [2], which has the merit of preserving the inherently fast modulation speed of these lasers, yet not to afford high spectral resolution and accuracy.

  8. Effect of preservatives on the accuracy of mid-infrared milk component testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Wojciechowski, K L; Lynch, J M

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of commonly used milk preservatives on the accuracy of fat, protein, and lactose content determination in milk by mid-infrared (mid-IR) milk analysis. Two producer raw milks (Holstein and Jersey) and 2 pasteurized modified milks, 1 similar to Holstein milk and 1 similar to Jersey milk were used as the 4 different milk sources. Seven different milk preservative approaches (K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and 6 different bronopol-based preservatives) and a portion of unpreserved milk for each of the 4 different milks sources were tested for fat B, lactose, protein, and fat A. The experiment was replicated 3 times (28 d each) for a total of 84 d. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) transmittance milk analyzers (an optical and a virtual filter instrument) were used. A large batch of pilot milk was prepared from pasteurized, homogenized, unpreserved whole milk, split into vials, quick frozen by immersion in liquid nitrogen, and transferred into a -80 °C freezer. Pilots were thawed and analyzed on each testing day during the study. Significant increases were observed in all uncorrected readings on the pilot milks over the 84 d of the study, but the increases were gradual and small on each instrument for all components. Results from the study were corrected for these changes. A significant difference in mid-IR fat A readings was observed, whereas no differences were detected for fat B, lactose, or protein between unpreserved and preserved milks containing 0.02% K(2)Cr(2)O(7.) Therefore, K(2)Cr(2)O(7) has little or no effect on mid-IR test results. All bronopol-based preservative approaches in this study differed in mid-IR test results compared with K(2)Cr(2)O(7)-preserved and unpreserved milks, with the largest effect on protein results. Mid-IR uncorrected readings increased with time of refrigerated storage at 4°C for all preservative approaches, with the largest increase for protein. The rate of increase in uncorrected readings with time of storage was

  9. Mid-infrared interferometric variability of DG Tauri: Implications for the inner-disk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J.; Gabányi, K. É.; Ábrahám, P.; Chen, L.; Kóspál, Á.; Menu, J.; Ratzka, Th.; van Boekel, R.; Dullemond, C. P.; Henning, Th.; Jaffe, W.; Juhász, A.; Moór, A.; Mosoni, L.; Sipos, N.

    2017-08-01

    Context. DG Tau is a low-mass pre-main sequence star, whose strongly accreting protoplanetary disk exhibits a so-far enigmatic behavior: its mid-infrared thermal emission is strongly time-variable, even turning the 10 μm silicate feature from emission to absorption temporarily. Aims: We look for the reason for the spectral variability at high spatial resolution and at multiple epochs. Methods: Infrared interferometry can spatially resolve the thermal emission of the circumstellar disk, also giving information about dust processing. We study the temporal variability of the mid-infrared interferometric signal, observed with the VLTI/MIDI instrument at six epochs between 2011 and 2014. We fit a geometric disk model to the observed interferometric signal to obtain spatial information about the disk. We also model the mid-infrared spectra by template fitting to characterize the profile and time dependence of the silicate emission. We use physically motivated radiative transfer modeling to interpret the mid-infrared interferometric spectra. Results: The inner disk (r 1-3 au) spectra show a crystalline silicate feature in emission, similar to the spectra of comet Hale-Bopp. The striking difference between the inner and outer disk spectral feature is highly unusual among T Tauri stars. The mid-infrared variability is dominated by the outer disk. The strength of the silicate feature changed by more than a factor of two. Between 2011 and 2014 the half-light radius of the mid-infrared-emitting region decreased from 1.15 to 0.7 au. Conclusions: For the origin of the absorption we discuss four possible explanations: a cold obscuring envelope, an accretion heated inner disk, a temperature inversion on the disk surface and a misaligned inner geometry. The silicate emission in the outer disk can be explained by dusty material high above the disk plane, whose mass can change with time, possibly due to turbulence in the disk. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large

  10. CHARACTERIZING THE MID-INFRARED EXTRAGALACTIC SKY WITH WISE AND SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lin; Donoso, E.; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, R.; Jarrett, T.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Blain, A. W.; Stanford, S. A.; Wright, E.; Bridge, C.; Riechers, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has completed its all-sky survey in four channels at 3.4-22 μm, detecting hundreds of millions of objects. We merge the WISE mid-infrared data with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and provide a phenomenological characterization of WISE extragalactic sources. WISE is most sensitive at 3.4 μm (W1) and least sensitive at 22 μm (W4). The W1 band probes massive early-type galaxies out to z ∼> 1. This is more distant than SDSS identified early-type galaxies, consistent with the fact that 28% of 3.4 μm sources have faint or no r-band counterparts (r > 22.2). In contrast, 92%-95% of 12 μm and 22 μm sources have SDSS optical counterparts with r ≤ 22.2. WISE 3.4 μm detects 89.8% of the entire SDSS QSO catalog at S/N W1 >7σ, but only 18.9% at 22 μm with S/N W4 > 5σ. We show that WISE colors alone are effective in isolating stars (or local early-type galaxies), star-forming galaxies, and strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs)/QSOs at z ∼ 0.8 and W2 –2 . (2) Selection of dust-obscured, type-2 AGN/QSO candidates. We show that WISE W1 – W2 > 0.8, W2 6 (Vega) colors can be used to identify type-2 AGN candidates. The fraction of these type-2 AGN candidates is one-third of all WISE color-selected AGNs. (3) Selection of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ∼ 2 with extremely red colors, r – W4 > 14 or well-detected 22 μm sources lacking detections in the 3.4 and 4.6 μm bands. The surface density of z ∼ 2 ULIRG candidates selected with r – W4 > 14 is 0.9 ± 0.07 deg –2 at S/N W4 ≥ 5 (the corresponding, lowest flux density of 2.5 mJy), which is consistent with that inferred from smaller area Spitzer surveys. Optical spectroscopy of a small number of these high-redshift ULIRG candidates confirms our selection, and reveals a possible trend that optically fainter or r – W4 redder candidates are at higher redshifts.

  11. IPHAS A-TYPE STARS WITH MID-INFRARED EXCESSES IN SPITZER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, Antonio S.; Barlow, Michael J.; Drew, Janet E.; Unruh, Yvonne C.; Greimel, Robert; Irwin, Michael J.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    We have identified 17 A-type stars in the Galactic Plane that have mid-infrared (mid-IR) excesses at 8 μm. From observed colors in the (r' - Hα) - (r' - i') plane, we first identified 23,050 early A-type main-sequence (MS) star candidates in the Isaac Newton Photometric H-Alpha Survey (IPHAS) point source database that are located in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Galactic plane fields. Imposing the requirement that they be detected in all seven Two Micron All Sky Survey and Infrared Astronomical Satellite bands led to a sample of 2692 candidate A-type stars with fully sampled 0.6 to 8 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Optical classification spectra of 18 of the IPHAS candidate A-type MS stars showed that all but one could be well fitted using MS A-type templates, with the other being an A-type supergiant. Out of the 2692 A-type candidates 17 (0.6%) were found to have 8 μm excesses above the expected photospheric values. Taking into account non-A-Type contamination estimates, the 8 μm excess fraction is adjusted to ∼0.7%. The distances to these sources range from 0.7 to 2.5 kpc. Only 10 out of the 17 excess stars had been covered by Spitzer MIPSGAL survey fields, of which five had detectable excesses at 24 μm. For sources with excesses detected in at least two mid-IR wavelength bands, blackbody fits to the excess SEDs yielded temperatures ranging from 270 to 650 K, and bolometric luminosity ratios L IR /L * from 2.2 x 10 -3 - 1.9 x 10 -2 , with a mean value of 7.9 x 10 -3 (these bolometric luminosities are lower limits as cold dust is not detectable by this survey). Both the presence of mid-IR excesses and the derived bolometric luminosity ratios are consistent with many of these systems being in the planet-building transition phase between the early protoplanetary disk phase and the later debris disk phase.

  12. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF OH MEGAMASER HOST GALAXIES. I. SPITZER IRS LOW- AND HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Darling, Jeremy; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee

    2011-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry from the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope for 51 OH megamasers (OHMs), along with 15 galaxies confirmed to have no megamaser emission above L OH = 10 2.3 L sun . The majority of galaxies display moderate-to-deep 9.7 μm amorphous silicate absorption, with OHM galaxies showing stronger average absorption and steeper 20-30 μm continuum emission than non-masing galaxies. Emission from multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 μm, is detected in almost all systems. Fine-structure atomic emission (including [Ne II], [Ne III], [S III], and [S IV]) and multiple H 2 rotational transitions are observed in more than 90% of the sample. A subset of galaxies show emission from rarer atomic lines, such as [Ne V], [O IV], and [Fe II]. Fifty percent of the OHMs show absorption from water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains, while absorption features from CO 2 , HCN, C 2 H 2 , and crystalline silicates are also seen in several OHMs. Column densities of OH derived from 34.6 μm OH absorption are similar to those derived from 1667 MHz OH absorption in non-masing galaxies, indicating that the abundance of masing molecules is similar for both samples. This data paper presents full mid-infrared spectra for each galaxy, along with measurements of line fluxes and equivalent widths, absorption feature depths, and spectral indices.

  13. Mid-Infrared Properties of OH Megamaser Host Galaxies. I. Spitzer IRS Low- and High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Kyle W.; Darling, Jeremy; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee

    2011-03-01

    We present mid-infrared spectra and photometry from the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope for 51 OH megamasers (OHMs), along with 15 galaxies confirmed to have no megamaser emission above L OH = 102.3 L sun. The majority of galaxies display moderate-to-deep 9.7 μm amorphous silicate absorption, with OHM galaxies showing stronger average absorption and steeper 20-30 μm continuum emission than non-masing galaxies. Emission from multiple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 μm, is detected in almost all systems. Fine-structure atomic emission (including [Ne II], [Ne III], [S III], and [S IV]) and multiple H2 rotational transitions are observed in more than 90% of the sample. A subset of galaxies show emission from rarer atomic lines, such as [Ne V], [O IV], and [Fe II]. Fifty percent of the OHMs show absorption from water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains, while absorption features from CO2, HCN, C2H2, and crystalline silicates are also seen in several OHMs. Column densities of OH derived from 34.6 μm OH absorption are similar to those derived from 1667 MHz OH absorption in non-masing galaxies, indicating that the abundance of masing molecules is similar for both samples. This data paper presents full mid-infrared spectra for each galaxy, along with measurements of line fluxes and equivalent widths, absorption feature depths, and spectral indices.

  14. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF MID-INFRARED EMISSION FROM CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SPIRITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinyanont, Samaporn; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lau, Ryan; Jencson, Jacob; Prince, Thomas; Fox, Ori D.; Williams, Robert; Smith, Nathan; Perley, Daniel; Dykhoff, Devin; Gehrz, Robert; Johansson, Joel; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Masci, Frank; Cody, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of mid-infrared emission from 141 nearby supernovae (SNe) observed with Spitzer /IRAC as part of the ongoing SPIRITS survey. We detect 8 Type Ia and 36 core-collapse SNe. All Type Ia/Ibc SNe become undetectable within three years of explosion, whereas 22 ± 11% of Type II SNe continue to be detected. Five Type II SNe are detected even two decades after discovery (SN 1974E, 1979C, 1980K, 1986J, and 1993J). Warm dust luminosity, temperature, and a lower limit on mass are obtained by fitting the two IRAC bands, assuming an optically thin dust shell. We derive warm dust masses between 10 −6 and 10 −2 M ⊙ and dust color temperatures between 200 and 1280 K. This observed warm dust could be pre-existing or newly created, but in either case represents a lower limit to the dust mass because cooler dust may be present. We present three case studies of extreme SNe. SN 2011ja (II-P) was over-luminous ([4.5] = −15.6 mag) at 900 days post explosion with increasing hot dust mass, suggesting either an episode of dust formation or intensifying circumstellar material (CSM) interactions heating up pre-existing dust. SN 2014bi (II-P) showed a factor of 10 decrease in dust mass over one month, suggesting either dust destruction or reduced dust heating. The IR luminosity of SN 2014C (Ib) stayed constant over 800 days, possibly due to strong CSM interaction with an H-rich shell, which is rare among stripped-envelope SNe. The observations suggest that this CSM shell originated from an LBV-like eruption roughly 100 years pre-explosion. The observed diversity demonstrates the power of mid-IR observations of a large sample of SNe.

  15. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF MID-INFRARED EMISSION FROM CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SPIRITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinyanont, Samaporn; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lau, Ryan; Jencson, Jacob; Prince, Thomas [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fox, Ori D.; Williams, Robert [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Perley, Daniel [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Dykhoff, Devin; Gehrz, Robert [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S. E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Johansson, Joel [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Masci, Frank [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie, E-mail: st@astro.caltech.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We present a systematic study of mid-infrared emission from 141 nearby supernovae (SNe) observed with Spitzer /IRAC as part of the ongoing SPIRITS survey. We detect 8 Type Ia and 36 core-collapse SNe. All Type Ia/Ibc SNe become undetectable within three years of explosion, whereas 22 ± 11% of Type II SNe continue to be detected. Five Type II SNe are detected even two decades after discovery (SN 1974E, 1979C, 1980K, 1986J, and 1993J). Warm dust luminosity, temperature, and a lower limit on mass are obtained by fitting the two IRAC bands, assuming an optically thin dust shell. We derive warm dust masses between 10{sup −6} and 10{sup −2} M {sub ⊙} and dust color temperatures between 200 and 1280 K. This observed warm dust could be pre-existing or newly created, but in either case represents a lower limit to the dust mass because cooler dust may be present. We present three case studies of extreme SNe. SN 2011ja (II-P) was over-luminous ([4.5] = −15.6 mag) at 900 days post explosion with increasing hot dust mass, suggesting either an episode of dust formation or intensifying circumstellar material (CSM) interactions heating up pre-existing dust. SN 2014bi (II-P) showed a factor of 10 decrease in dust mass over one month, suggesting either dust destruction or reduced dust heating. The IR luminosity of SN 2014C (Ib) stayed constant over 800 days, possibly due to strong CSM interaction with an H-rich shell, which is rare among stripped-envelope SNe. The observations suggest that this CSM shell originated from an LBV-like eruption roughly 100 years pre-explosion. The observed diversity demonstrates the power of mid-IR observations of a large sample of SNe.

  16. Exploring the mid-infrared region for urban remote sensing: seasonal and view angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning 3-5 microns, the mid-infrared (MIR) region is the mixing zone between reflected sunlight and emitted earthlight in roughly equal proportions. While the MIR has been utilized in atmospheric remote sensing, its potential in terrestrial remote sensing--particularly urban remote sensing, has yet to be realized. One major advantage of the MIR is the ability to penetrate most anthropogenic haze and smog. Green vegetation appears MIR-dark, urban building materials appear MIR-grey, and bare soil and dried vegetation appear MIR-bright. Thus, there is an intrinsic seasonality in MIR radiance dynamics due both to surface type differences and to seasonal change in insolation. These factors merit exploration into the potential applications of the MIR for monitoring urban change. We investigated MIR radiance dynamics in relation to (1) the spectral properties of land cover types, (2) time of year and (3) sensor view zenith angle (VZA). We used Aqua MODIS daily swaths for band 23 (~ 4.05 μm) at 1 km spatial resolution from 2009-2010 and the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) 30 m product from 2001 and 2006. We found the effects of time of year, sensor VZA, and %ISA to be three principal factors influencing MIR radiance dynamics. We focused on analyzing the relationship between MIR radiance and %ISA over eight major cities in the Great Plains of the USA. This region is characterized by four distinct seasons, relatively flat terrain, and isolated urban centers situated within a vegetated landscape. We used west-east transects beginning in the agricultural areas outside of each city, passing through the urban core and extending back out into the agricultural periphery to observe the spatial pattern of MIR radiance and how it changes seasonally. Sensor VZA influences radiance dynamics by affecting the proportion of surface elements detected--especially pertinent at the coarse spatial resolution (~1 km) of MODIS. For example, smaller VZAs (30°). Larger VZAs detect

  17. Critical coupling using the hexagonal boron nitride crystals in the mid-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jipeng; Wang, Hengliang; Wen, Shuangchun [Key Laboratory for Micro-/Nano-Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Jiang, Leyong; Guo, Jun; Dai, Xiaoyu [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Xiang, Yuanjiang, E-mail: xiangyuanjiang@126.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-/Nano-Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science & Technology, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2016-05-28

    We theoretically demonstrate the perfect absorption phenomena in the hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) crystals in the mid-infrared wavelength ranges by means of critical coupling with a one-dimensional photonic crystal spaced by the air. Different from the polymer absorbing layer composed by a metal-dielectric composite film, the hyperbolic dispersion characteristics of hBN can meet the condition of critical coupling and achieve the total absorption in the mid-infrared wavelength ranges. However, the critical coupling phenomenon can only appear in the hBN crystals with the type II dispersion. Moreover, we discuss the influence of the thickness of hBN, the incident angle, and the thickness and permittivity of the space dielectric on the total absorption. Ultimately, the conditions for absorption enhancement and the optimization methods of perfect absorption are proposed, and the design rules for a totally absorbing system under the different conditions are achieved.

  18. Estimating optical feedback from a chalcogenide fiber in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jumpertz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of optical feedback originating from a chalcogenide fiber used to couple light from a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser is evaluated experimentally. Threshold reduction measurements on the fibered laser, combined with an analytical study of a rate equations model of the laser under optical feedback, allow estimating the feedback strength between 11% and 15% depending on the fiber cleavage quality. While this remains below the frontier of the chaotic regime, it is sufficient to deeply modify the optical spectrum of a quantum cascade laser. Hence for applications such as gas spectroscopy, where the shape of the optical spectrum is of prime importance, the use of mid-infrared optical isolators may be necessary for fibered quantum cascade lasers to be fully exploited.

  19. Mid-Infrared Observations of Possible Intergalactic Star Forming Regions in the Leo Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Mark; Smith, B.; Struck, C.

    2011-05-01

    Within the Leo group of galaxies lies a gigantic loop of intergalactic gas known as the Leo Ring. Not clearly associated with any particular galaxy, its origin remains uncertain. It may be a primordial intergalactic cloud alternatively, it may be a collision ring, or have a tidal origin. Combining archival Spitzer images of this structure with published UV and optical data, we investigate the mid-infrared properties of possible knots of star formation in the ring. These sources are very faint in the mid-infrared compared to star forming regions in the tidal features of interacting galaxies. This suggests they are either deficient in dust, or they may not be associated with the ring.

  20. Optical system design with common aperture for mid-infrared and laser composite guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuanzhi; Yang, Zijian; Sun, Ting; Yang, Huamei; Han, Kunye; Hu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    When the field of operation of precision strike missiles is more and more complicated, autonomous seekers will soon encounter serious difficulties, especially with regard to low signature targets and complex scenarios. So the dual-mode sensors combining an imaging sensor with a semi-active laser seeker are conceived to overcome these specific problems. Here the sensors composed a dual field of view mid-infrared thermal imaging camera and a laser range finder have the common optical aperture which produced the minization of seeker construction. The common aperture optical systems for mid-infrared and laser dual-mode guildance have been developed, which could meet the passive middle infrared high-resolution imaging and the active laser high-precision indication and ranging. The optical system had good image quality, and fulfilled the performance requirement of seeker system. The design and expected performance of such a dual-mode optical system will be discussed.

  1. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF DISK AVERAGED OBSERVATIONS OF EARTH WITH AIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Song, Inseok; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ∼ 1200; 3.75-15.4 μm) spectra to construct directly observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  2. Optical field emission from resonant gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusa, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Echternkamp, K. E.; Herink, G.; Ropers, C. [4th Physical Institute – Solids and Nanostructures, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ashihara, S., E-mail: ashihara@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate strong-field photoelectron emission from gold nanorods driven by femtosecond mid-infrared optical pulses. The maximum photoelectron yield is reached at the localized surface plasmon resonance, indicating that the photoemission is governed by the resonantly-enhanced optical near-field. The wavelength- and field-dependent photoemission yield allows for a noninvasive determination of local field enhancements, and we obtain intensity enhancement factors close to 1300, in good agreement with finite-difference time domain computations.

  3. Luminescence from ZnSe excited by picosecond mid-infrared FEL pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuyu, T.; Suzuki, T.; Tomimasu, T.

    1998-01-01

    We have observed blue band-edge emission from a ZnSe crystal under irradiation of mid-infrared picosecond free electron laser (FEL) pulses. The emission characteristics including spectrum, excitation power dependence, excitation wavelength dependence, and decay time have been investigated. The experimental results have indicated that it is difficult to understand the excitation process by multiphoton excitation, thermal excitation, or excitation through mid-gap levels. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccio D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present supercontinuum generation pumped by femtosecond mid-infrared pulses in a bulk homogeneous material. The spectrum extends from 450 nm into the midinfrared, and carries high spectral energy density (3 pJ/nm–10 nJ/nm. The supercontinuum has high shot-to-shot reproducibility and preserves the carrier-to-envelope phase. Our result paves the way for compact supercontinuum sources with unprecedented bandwidth.

  5. Silicon Nitride Photonic Integration Platforms for Visible, Near-Infrared and Mid-Infrared Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Gloria; Pastor, Daniel; Pérez, Daniel; Doménech, José David; Fernández, Juan; Baños, Rocío; Alemany, Rubén; Sánchez, Ana M.; Cirera, Josep M.; Mas, Roser

    2017-01-01

    Silicon nitride photonics is on the rise owing to the broadband nature of the material, allowing applications of biophotonics, tele/datacom, optical signal processing and sensing, from visible, through near to mid-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, a review of the state of the art of silicon nitride strip waveguide platforms is provided, alongside the experimental results on the development of a versatile 300 nm guiding film height silicon nitride platform. PMID:28895906

  6. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  7. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great interest because virtually all organic compounds display distinctive spectral fingerprints herein that reveal chemical information about them [1], and the mid-infrared region is therefore of key importance to many applications, including food quality...... control [2], gas sensing [3] and medical diagnostics [4] . We have used a low-loss suspended core As 38 Se 62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μ m and a zero - dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μ m to generate mid-infrared supercontinuum by pumping with an optical parametric amplifier delivering 320 fs pulses...... with a peak power of ~5.5 kW at a repetition rate of 21 MHz at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μ m . By pumping at 4.4 μ m with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7 to 7.5 μ m with an average output power of 15.6 mW was obtained. Figure 1 shows the results...

  8. Cutting and skin-ablative properties of pulsed mid-infrared laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, R; Hartmann, A; Hibst, R

    1994-02-01

    Pulsed mid-infrared lasers allow a precise removal of soft tissues with only minimal thermal damage. To study the potential dermatosurgical usefulness of currently available systems at different wavelengths (2010-nm Thulium:YAG laser, 2100-nm Holmium:YAG laser, 2790-nm Erbium:YSGG laser, and 2940-nm Erbium:YAG laser) in vivo on pig skin. Immediate effects and wound healing of superficial laser-abrasions and incisions were compared with those of identical control lesions produced by dermabrasion, scalpel incisions, or laser surgery performed by a 1060-nm Nd:YAG and a 1060-nm CO2 laser (continuous and superpulsed mode). Best efficiency and least thermal injury was found for the pulsed Erbium:YAG laser, leading to ablative and incisional lesions comparable to those obtained by dermabrasion or superficial scalpel incisions, respectively. In contrast to other mid-infrared lasers tested, the 2940-nm Erbium:YAG laser thus provides a potential instrument for future applications in skin surgery, especially when aiming at a careful ablative removal of delicate superficial lesions with maximum sparing of adjacent tissue structures. However, in the purely incisional application mode pulsed mid-infrared lasers, though of potential usefulness in microsurgical indications (eg, surgery of the cornea), do not offer a suggestive alternative to simple scalpel surgery of the skin.

  9. Mid-infrared followup of cold brown dwarfs: diversity in age, mass and metallicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leggett, Sandy K [GEMINI OBSERVATORY; Burningham, Ben [HERTFORDSHITE UNIV; Marley, Mark S [NASA AMES; Waren, S J [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Jones, H R A [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Pinfield, D J [HERTFORDSHIRE U; Smart, R L [ASTRONOMICAL OBS

    2009-01-01

    We present new Spitzer IRAC [3.6], [4.5], [5.8] and [8.0] photometry of nine very late-type T dwarfs. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T{sub eff}) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 {micro}m, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T{sub eff} at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 {micro}m) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T{sub eff} with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 {micro}m) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are twelve dwarfs currently known with H - [4.5] > 3.0, and {approx} 500 < T{sub eff} K {approx}< 800, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1 - 1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3 - 12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e. near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H]= -0.3 to [m/H]= +0.2. The small number of T8 - T9 dwarfs found in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions warm-Spitzer and WISE are desirable in order to obtain the vital mid-infrared data for cold brown dwarfs, and to discover more of these rare objects.

  10. MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF COLD BROWN DWARFS: DIVERSITY IN AGE, MASS, AND METALLICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, S. K.; Burningham, Ben; Jones, H. R. A.; Lucas, P. W.; Pinfield, D. J.; Saumon, D.; Marley, M. S.; Warren, S. J.; Smart, R. L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2010-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) photometry of 12 very late-type T dwarfs: nine have [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] photometry and three have [3.6] and [4.5] photometry only. Combining this with previously published photometry, we investigate trends with type and color that are useful for both the planning and interpretation of infrared surveys designed to discover the coldest T or Y dwarfs. The online appendix provides a collation of MKO-system YJHKL'M' and IRAC photometry for a sample of M, L, and T dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with effective temperature (T eff ) below 700 K emit more than half their flux at wavelengths longer than 3 μm, and the ratio of the mid-infrared flux to the near-infrared flux becomes very sensitive to T eff at these low temperatures. We confirm that the color H (1.6 μm) - [4.5] is a good indicator of T eff with a relatively weak dependence on metallicity and gravity. Conversely, the colors H - K (2.2 μm) and [4.5] - [5.8] are sensitive to metallicity and gravity. Thus, near- and mid-infrared photometry provide useful indicators of the fundamental properties of brown dwarfs, and if temperature and gravity are known, then mass and age can be reliably determined from evolutionary models. There are 12 dwarfs currently known with H- [4.5] >3.0, and 500 K ∼ eff ∼<800 K, which we examine in detail. The ages of the dwarfs in the sample range from very young (0.1-1.0 Gyr) to relatively old (3-12 Gyr). The mass range is possibly as low as 5 Jupiter masses to up to 70 Jupiter masses, i.e., near the hydrogen burning limit. The metallicities also span a large range, from [m/H] = -0.3 to [m/H] = +0.3. The small number of T8-T9 dwarfs found in the UK Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey to date appear to be predominantly young low-mass dwarfs. Accurate mid-infrared photometry of cold brown dwarfs is essentially impossible from the ground, and extensions to the mid-infrared space missions, warm-Spitzer and Wide-Field Infrared

  11. Extended mid-infrared emission from VV 114: Probing the birth of a ULIRG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floc'h, E.; Charmandaris, V.; Laurent, O.; Mirabel, I. F.; Gallais, P.; Sauvage, M.; Vigroux, L.; Cesarsky, C.

    2002-08-01

    We present our 5-16 mu m spectro-imaging observations of VV 114, an infrared luminous early-stage merger of two galaxies VV 114E and VV 114W, taken with the ISOCAM camera on-board the Infrared Space Observatory. We find that only 40% of the mid-infrared (MIR) flux is associated with a compact nuclear region of VV 114E, while the rest of the emission originates from a rather diffuse component extended over several kpc in the regions between VV 114E and VV 114W. This is in stark contrast with the very compact MIR starbursts usually seen in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. A secondary peak of MIR emission is associated with an extra-nuclear star forming region of VV 114W which displays the largest Hα equivalent width in the whole system. Comparing our data with the distribution of the molecular gas and cold dust, as well as with radio observations, it becomes evident that the conversion of molecular gas into stars can be triggered over large areas at the very first stages of an interaction. This extended star formation along with the extreme nuclear starburst observed in VV 114E can easily lead to the heating of dust grains found in the tidally disturbed disks of the progenitor galaxies and subsequently traced via their MIR emission. The presence of a very strong continuum at the 5-6.5 mu m range in the spectrum of VV 114E indicates that an enshrouded active galactic nucleus (AGN) may contribute to ~ 40% of its MIR flux. We finally note that the relative variations in the UV to radio spectral properties between VV 114E and VV 114W provide evidence that the extinction-corrected star formation rate of similar objects at high z, such as those detected in optical deep surveys, cannot be accurately derived from their rest-frame UV properties. Based on observations with the ISO satellite, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation

  12. Design of high-efficiency diffractive optical elements towards ultrafast mid-infrared time-stretched imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Ren, Delun; Wang, Chao; Mao, Chensheng; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast time stretch imaging offers unprecedented imaging speed and enables new discoveries in scientific research and engineering. One challenge in exploiting time stretch imaging in mid-infrared is the lack of high-quality diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which encode the image information into mid-infrared optical spectrum. This work reports the design and optimization of mid-infrared DOE with high diffraction-efficiency, broad bandwidth and large field of view. Using various typical materials with their refractive indices ranging from 1.32 to 4.06 in ? mid-infrared band, diffraction efficiencies of single-layer and double-layer DOEs have been studied in different wavelength bands with different field of views. More importantly, by replacing the air gap of double-layer DOE with carefully selected optical materials, one optimized ? triple-layer DOE, with efficiency higher than 95% in the whole ? mid-infrared window and field of view greater than ?, is designed and analyzed. This new DOE device holds great potential in ultrafast mid-infrared time stretch imaging and spectroscopy.

  13. European agreement on James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    secure the successful and timely completion of scientific space projects. ESA’s co-ordination of the MIRI European consortium represents the first time such an approach has been used, which will be applied to the future missions of the ESA long-term Science Programme - the ‘Cosmic Vision’. The technology package for LISA (LTP), an ESA/NASA mission to detect gravitational waves, is already being prepared under the same scheme. Sergio Volonte, ESA Co-ordinator for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics Missions, comments: “I’m delighted for such an achievement between ESA and its Member States. With MIRI we will start an even more effective co-ordination on developing our scientific instruments, setting a new framework to further enhance their excellence.” Note to Editors The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is a partnership between ESA, NASA and the Canadian Space Agency. Formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), it is due to be launched in August 2011, and it is considered the successor of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is three times larger and more powerful than its predecessor and it is expected to shed light on the 'Dark Ages of the Universe' by studying the very distant Universe, observing infrared light from the first stars and galaxies that ever emerged. MIRI (Mid-Infrared Camera-Spectrograph) is essential for the study of the old and distant stellar population; regions of obscured star formation; hydrogen emission from previously unthinkable distances; the physics of protostars; and the sizes of ‘Kuiper belt’ objects and faint comets. Further to the contribution to MIRI, Europe through ESA is contributing to JWST with the NIRSPEC (Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph) instrument (fully funded and managed by ESA) and, as agreed in principle with NASA, with the Ariane 5 launcher. The ESA financial contribution to JWST will be about 300 million Euros, including the launcher. The European institutions involved in MIRI

  14. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbi, Zulfikar; Ho, D. B.; Ren, H.-W.; Le, Han Q.; Pei, Shin Shem

    2002-09-01

    Demonstration of short-range multispectral remote sensing, using 3 to 4-micrometers mid- infrared Sb semiconductor lasers based on code-division multiplexing (CDM) architecture, is described. The system is built on a principle similar to intensity- modulated/direct-detection optical-CDMA for communications, but adapted for sensing with synchronous, orthogonal codes to distinguish different wavelength channels with zero interchannel correlation. The concept is scalable for any number of channels, and experiments with a two-wavelength system are conducted. The CDM-signal processing yielded a white-Gaussian-like system noise that is found to be near the theoretical level limited by the detector fundamental intrinsic noise. With sub-mW transmitter average power, the system was able to detect an open-air acetylene gas leak of 10-2 STP ft3/hr from 10-m away with time-varying, random, noncooperative backscatters. A similar experiment detected and positively distinguished hydrocarbon oil contaminants on water from bio-organic oils and detergents. Projection for more advanced systems suggests a multi-kilometer-range capability for watt-level transmitters, and hundreds of wavelength channels can also be accommodated for active hyperspectral remote sensing application.

  15. Authentication of Whey Protein Powders by Portable Mid-Infrared Spectrometers Combined with Pattern Recognition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow Ying; Mutilangi, William; Aykas, Didem P; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to differentiate whey protein types (WPC, WPI, and WPH) used for beverage manufacturing by combining the spectral signature collected from portable mid-infrared spectrometers and pattern recognition analysis. Whey protein powders from different suppliers are produced using a large number of processing and compositional variables, resulting in variation in composition, concentration, protein structure, and thus functionality. Whey protein powders including whey protein isolates, whey protein concentrates and whey protein hydrolysates were obtained from different suppliers and their spectra collected using portable mid-infrared spectrometers (single and triple reflection) by pressing the powder onto an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) diamond crystal with a pressure clamp. Spectra were analyzed by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) generating a classification model showing the ability to differentiate whey protein types by forming tight clusters with interclass distance values of >3, considered to be significantly different from each other. The major bands centered at 1640 and 1580 cm(-1) were responsible for separation and were associated with differences in amide I and amide II vibrations of proteins, respectively. Another important band in whey protein clustering was associated with carboxylate vibrations of acidic amino acids (∼1570 cm(-1)). The use of a portable mid-IR spectrometer combined with pattern recognition analysis showed potential for discriminating whey protein ingredients that can help to streamline the analytical procedure so that it is more applicable for field-based screening of ingredients. A rapid, simple and accurate method was developed to authenticate commercial whey protein products by using portable mid-infrared spectrometers combined with chemometrics, which could help ensure the functionality of whey protein ingredients in food applications. © 2015

  16. Mid-infrared volume diffraction gratings in IG2 chalcogenide glass: fabrication, characterization, and theoretical verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Helen L.; MacLachlan, David G.; Lee, David; Brownsword, Richard A.; Thomson, Robert R.; Weidmann, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) has previously been employed to fabricate volume diffraction gratings in chalcogenide glasses, which operate in transmission mode in the mid-infrared spectral region. Prior gratings were manufactured for applications in astrophotonics, at wavelengths around 2.5 μm. Rugged volume gratings also have potential use in remote atmospheric sensing and molecular spectroscopy; for these applications, longer wavelength operation is required to coincide with atmospheric transparency windows (3-5 μm) and intense ro-vibrational molecular absorption bands. We report on ULI gratings inscribed in IG2 chalcogenide glass, enabling access to the full 3-5 μm window. High-resolution broadband spectral characterization of fabricated gratings was performed using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The zeroth order transmission was characterized to derive the diffraction efficiency into higher orders, up to the fourth orders in the case of gratings optimized for first order diffraction at 3 μm. The outcomes imply that ULI in IG2 is well suited for the fabrication of volume gratings in the mid infrared, providing the impact of the ULI fabrication parameters on the grating properties are well understood. To develop this understanding, grating modeling was conducted. Parameters studied include grating thickness, refractive index modification, and aspect ratio of the modulation achieved by ULI. Knowledge of the contribution and sensitivity of these parameters was used to inform the design of a 4.3 μm grating expected to achieve > 95% first order efficiency. We will also present the characterization of these latest mid-infrared diffraction gratings in IG2.

  17. Proposal of ultrasonic-assisted mid-infrared spectroscopy for incorporating into daily life like smart-toilet and non-invasive blood glucose sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Tomoya; Mori, Keita; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Wang, Congtao; Kawashima, Natsumi; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    We proposed the extremely compact beans-size snap-shot mid-infrared spectroscopy that will be able to be built in smartphones. And also the easy preparation method of thin-film samples generated by ultrasonic standing wave is proposed. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is able to identify material components and estimate component concentrations quantitatively from absorption spectra. But conventional spectral instruments were very large-size and too expensive to incorporate into daily life. And preparations of thin-film sample were very troublesome task. Because water absorption in mid-infrared lights is very strong, moisture-containing-sample thickness should be less than 100[μm]. Thus, midinfrared spectroscopy has been utilized only by analytical experts in their laboratories. Because ultrasonic standing wave is compressional wave, we can generate periodical refractive-index distributions inside of samples. A high refractiveindex plane is correspond to a reflection boundary. When we use a several MHz ultrasonic transducer, the distance between sample surface and generated first node become to be several ten μm. Thus, the double path of this distance is correspond to sample thickness. By combining these two proposed methods, as for liquid samples, urinary albumin and glucose concentrations will be able to be measured inside of toilet. And as for solid samples, by attaching these apparatus to earlobes, the enhancement of reflection lights from near skin surface will create a new path to realize the non-invasive blood glucose sensor. Using the small ultrasonic-transducer whose diameter was 10[mm] and applied voltage 8[V], we detected the internal reflection lights from colored water as liquid sample and acrylic board as solid sample.

  18. Optical Activation of Germanium Plasmonic Antennas in the Mid-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marco P.; Schmidt, Christian; Sakat, Emilie; Stock, Johannes; Samarelli, Antonio; Frigerio, Jacopo; Ortolani, Michele; Paul, Douglas J.; Isella, Giovanni; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Brida, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive interband excitation with femtosecond near-infrared pulses establishes a plasma response in intrinsic germanium structures fabricated on a silicon substrate. This direct approach activates the plasmonic resonance of the Ge structures and enables their use as optical antennas up to the mid-infrared spectral range. The optical switching lasts for hundreds of picoseconds until charge recombination redshifts the plasma frequency. The full behavior of the structures is modeled by the electrodynamic response established by an electron-hole plasma in a regular array of antennas.

  19. Indirect absorption spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marcel; Ruf, Alexander; Fischer, Peer

    2013-11-04

    We record vibrational spectra with two indirect schemes that depend on the real part of the index of refraction: mid-infrared refractometry and photothermal spectroscopy. In the former, a quantum cascade laser (QCL) spot is imaged to determine the angles of total internal reflection, which yields the absorption line via a beam profile analysis. In the photothermal measurements, a tunable QCL excites vibrational resonances of a molecular monolayer, which heats the surrounding medium and changes its refractive index. This is observed with a probe laser in the visible. Sub-monolayer sensitivities are demonstrated.

  20. Synergy Effect of Combining Fluorescence and Mid Infrared Fiber Spectroscopy for Kidney Tumor Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Bogomolov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Matching pairs of tumor and non-tumor kidney tissue samples of four patients were investigated ex vivo using a combination of two methods, attenuated total reflection mid infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, through respectively prepared and adjusted fiber probes. In order to increase the data information content, the measurements on tissue samples in both methods were performed in the same 31 preselected positions. Multivariate data analysis revealed a synergic effect of combining the two methods for the diagnostics of kidney tumor compared to individual techniques.

  1. EVIDENCE FOR DYNAMICAL CHANGES IN A TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H.; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori; Muench, August; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S. Thomas; Sherry, William H.

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr old star-forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.

  2. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, L. M.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  3. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, I: Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieke, G. H.; Wright, G. S.; Böker, T.

    2015-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope [JWST]) operates from 5 to 28: 5 μm and combines over this range: (1) unprecedented sensitivity levels; (2) subarcsecond angular resolution; (3) freedom from atmospheric interference; (4) the inherent stability of observing...... in space; and (5) a suite of versatile capabilities including imaging, low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy (with an integral field unit), and coronagraphy. We illustrate the potential uses of this unique combination of capabilities with various science examples: (1) imaging exoplanets; (2) transit...

  4. 2 W high efficiency PbS mid-infrared surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, A.; Sugiyama, Y.; Isaji, Y.; Kodama, K.; Takano, Y.; Sakata, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-09-01

    High efficiency laser operation with output power exceeding 2 W was obtained for vertical external-cavity PbS based IV-VI compound surface emitting quantum-well structures. The laser showed external quantum efficiency as high as 16%. Generally, mid-infrared III-V or II-VI semiconductor laser operation utilizing interband electron transitions are restricted by Auger recombination and free carrier absorption. Auger recombination is much lower in the IV-VI semiconductors, and the free-carrier absorption is significantly reduced by an optically pumped laser structure including multi-step optical excitation layers.

  5. Complementary periodic diffracting metallic nanohole and nanodipole arrays in the mid-infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Feng Ma, Hui; Yao, Jie; Wang, Xudong

    2012-10-01

    Metallic nanohole arrays and metallic nanodipole arrays are fabricated and experimentally characterized. A complementary response is observed in both transmission and reflection. For the metallic nanohole arrays, a peak (dip) in transmission (reflection) is observed at resonance whereas the metallic nanodipole arrays display a dip (peak) in transmission (reflection). The resonant frequency of both the metallic nanohole arrays and the nanodipole arrays depends on the dipole arm length, the incident angle, and the period. The resonant position of the nanohole arrays matches that of its complement, which means that Babinet's principle nearly holds for these structures in the mid-infrared region.

  6. Single-label kinase and phosphatase assays for tyrosine phosphorylation using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-12-26

    The collision-induced fluorescence quenching of a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) by hydrogen atom abstraction from the tyrosine residue in peptide substrates was introduced as a single-labeling strategy to assay the activity of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. The assays were tested for 12 different combinations of Dbo-labeled substrates and with the enzymes p60c-Src Src kinase, EGFR kinase, YOP protein tyrosine phosphatase, as well as acid and alkaline phosphatases, thereby demonstrating a broad application potential. The steady-state fluorescence changed by a factor of up to 7 in the course of the enzymatic reaction, which allowed for a sufficient sensitivity of continuous monitoring in steady-state experiments. The fluorescence lifetimes (and intensities) were found to be rather constant for the phosphotyrosine peptides (ca. 300 ns in aerated water), while those of the unphosphorylated peptides were as short as 40 ns (at pH 7) and 7 ns (at pH 13) as a result of intramolecular quenching. Owing to the exceptionally long fluorescence lifetime of Dbo, the assays were alternatively performed by using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection, which leads to an improved discrimination of background fluorescence and an increased sensitivity. The potential for inhibitor screening was demonstrated through the inhibition of acid and alkaline phosphatases by molybdate.

  7. THE EXTENDED HIGH A ( V ) QUASAR SURVEY: SEARCHING FOR DUSTY ABSORBERS TOWARD MID-INFRARED-SELECTED QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Noterdaeme, P. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Heintz, K. E.; Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Geier, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Møller, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-20

    We present the results of a new spectroscopic survey for dusty intervening absorption systems, particularly damped Ly α absorbers (DLAs), toward reddened quasars. The candidate quasars are selected from mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer combined with optical and near-infrared photometry. Out of 1073 candidates, we secure low-resolution spectra for 108 using the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Spain. Based on the spectra, we are able to classify 100 of the 108 targets as quasars. A large fraction (50%) is observed to have broad absorption lines (BALs). Moreover, we find six quasars with strange breaks in their spectra, which are not consistent with regular dust reddening. Using template fitting, we infer the amount of reddening along each line of sight ranging from A ( V ) ≈ 0.1 to 1.2 mag (assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve). In four cases, the reddening is consistent with dust exhibiting the 2175 Å feature caused by an intervening absorber, and for two of these, an Mg ii absorption system is observed at the best-fit absorption redshift. In the rest of the cases, the reddening is most likely intrinsic to the quasar. We observe no evidence for dusty DLAs in this survey. However, the large fraction of BAL quasars hampers the detection of absorption systems. Out of the 50 non-BAL quasars, only 28 have sufficiently high redshift to detect Ly α in absorption.

  8. RISING FROM THE ASHES: MID-INFRARED RE-BRIGHTENING OF THE IMPOSTOR SN 2010da IN NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Ressler, Michael E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Jencson, Jacob [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States); Fox, Ori D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carlon, Robert; Dykhoff, Devin; Gehrz, Robert [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cody, Ann Marie [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Contreras, Carlos [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Hsiao, Eric [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Khan, Rubab [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Masci, Frank [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Monard, L. A. G. [Bronberg and Kleinkaroo Observatories, P.O. Box 281, Calitzdorp 6660, Western Cape (South Africa); Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina el Pino, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2016-10-20

    We present multi-epoch mid-infrared (IR) photometry and the optical discovery observations of the “impostor” supernova (SN) 2010da in NGC 300 using new and archival Spitzer Space Telescope images and ground-based observatories. The mid-infrared counterpart of SN 2010da was detected as Spitzer Infrared Intensive Transient Survey (SPIRITS) 14bme in the SPIRITS, an ongoing systematic search for IR transients. Before erupting on 2010 May 24, the SN 2010da progenitor exhibited a constant mid-IR flux at 3.6 and only a slight ∼10% decrease at 4.5 μ m between 2003 November and 2007 December. A sharp increase in the 3.6 μ m flux followed by a rapid decrease measured ∼150 days before and ∼80 days after the initial outburst, respectively, reveal a mid-IR counterpart to the coincident optical and high luminosity X-ray outbursts. At late times, after the outburst (∼2000 days), the 3.6 and 4.5 μ m emission increased to over a factor of two times the progenitor flux and is currently observed (as of 2016 Feb) to be fading, but still above the progenitor flux. We attribute the re-brightening mid-IR emission to continued dust production and increasing luminosity of the surviving system associated with SN 2010da. We analyze the evolution of the dust temperature ( T {sub d} ∼ 700–1000 K), mass ( M {sub d} ∼ 0.5–3.8 × 10{sup −7} M {sub ⊙}), luminosity ( L {sub IR} ∼ 1.3–3.5 × 10{sup 4} L {sub ⊙}), and the equilibrium temperature radius ( R {sub eq} ∼ 6.4–12.2 au) in order to resolve the nature of SN 2010da. We address the leading interpretation of SN 2010da as an eruption from a luminous blue variable high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) system. We propose that SN 2010da is instead a supergiant (sg)B[e]-HMXB based on similar luminosities and dust masses exhibited by two other known sgB[e]-HMXB systems. Additionally, the SN 2010da progenitor occupies a similar region on a mid-IR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) with known sgB[e] stars in the Large

  9. Subwavelength engineered fiber-to-chip silicon-on-sapphire interconnects for mid-infrared applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Han, Zhaohong; Le Roux, Xavier; Lin, Hongtao; Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Tan, Dawn; Cassan, Eric; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vivien, Laurent; Wada, Kazumi; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2016-05-01

    The mid-Infrared wavelength range (2-20 µm), so-called fingerprint region, contains the very sharp vibrational and rotational resonances of many chemical and biological substances. Thereby, on-chip absorption-spectrometry-based sensors operating in the mid-Infrared (mid-IR) have the potential to perform high-precision, label-free, real-time detection of multiple target molecules within a single sensor, which makes them an ideal technology for the implementation of lab-on-a-chip devices. Benefiting from the great development realized in the telecom field, silicon photonics is poised to deliver ultra-compact efficient and cost-effective devices fabricated at mass scale. In addition, Si is transparent up to 8 µm wavelength, making it an ideal material for the implementation of high-performance mid-IR photonic circuits. The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, typically used in telecom applications, relies on silicon dioxide as bottom insulator. Unfortunately, silicon dioxide absorbs light beyond 3.6 µm, limiting the usability range of the SOI platform for the mid-IR. Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) has been proposed as an alternative solution that extends the operability region up to 6 µm (sapphire absorption), while providing a high-index contrast. In this context, surface grating couplers have been proved as an efficient means of injecting and extracting light from mid-IR SOS circuits that obviate the need of cleaving sapphire. However, grating couplers typically have a reduced bandwidth, compared with facet coupling solutions such as inverse or sub-wavelength tapers. This feature limits their feasibility for absorption spectroscopy applications that may require monitoring wide wavelength ranges. Interestingly, sub-wavelength engineering can be used to substantially improve grating coupler bandwidth, as demonstrated in devices operating at telecom wavelengths. Here, we report on the development of fiber-to-chip interconnects to ZrF4 optical fibers and integrated SOS

  10. Subaru/COMICS Mid-Infrared Observation of the Near-Nucleus Region of Comet 17P/Holmes at the Early Phase of an Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Kadono, Toshihiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Takato, Naruhisa; Furusho, Reiko

    2009-08-01

    Mid-infrared 8--25μm imaging and spectroscopic observations of the comet 17P/Holmes in the early phase of its outburst in brightness were performed on 2007 October 25--28UT using the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) on the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope. We detected an isolated dust cloud that moved toward the south-west direction from the nucleus. The 11.2μm peak of a crystalline silicate feature onto a broad amorphous silicate feature was also detected both in the central condensation of the nucleus and an isolated dust cloud. The color temperature of the isolated dust cloud was estimated to be ˜200K, which is slightly higher than the black-body temperature. Our analysis of the motion indicates that the isolated cloud moved anti-sunward. We propose several possibilities for the motion of the cloud: fluffy dust particles in the isolated cloud started to depart from the nucleus due to radiation pressure almost as soon as the main outburst occurred, or dust particles moved by some other anti-sunward forces, such as a rocket effect and photophoresis when the surrounding dust coma became optically thin. The origin and the nature of the isolated dust cloud are discussed in this paper.

  11. Reduced graphene oxide mid-infrared photodetector at 300 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Kim, Jin Ho; Oller, Declan; Xu, Jimmy [School of Engineering, Brown University, Box D, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    We report on uncooled mid-infrared photovoltaic responses at 300 K arising in heterojunctions of reduced graphene oxide with p-Si. Two major photoresponse spectral peaks are observed, one in the near infrared starting at 1.1 μm corresponding to electron-hole pair generation in the Si substrate, and another at wavelengths below 2.5 μm, arising from properties of the reduced graphene oxide-Si heterojunction. Our analysis of the current-voltage characteristics at various temperatures suggests that the two materials form a type-II (broken-gap) heterojunction, with a characteristic transition between direct tunneling to field emission, to over-the-barrier excitation with increasing reverse voltage. Illumination was found to affect the onset of the transition between direct tunneling and field-emission, suggesting that the mid infrared response results from the excitation of minority carriers (electrons) from the Si and their collection in the reduced graphene oxide contact. The photoresponse near 1.1 μm showed a time constant at least five times faster than the one at 2.5 μm, which points to surface defects as well as high series resistance and capacitance as potentially limiting factors in this mode of operation. With proper device engineering considerations, these devices could be promising as a graphene-based platform for infrared sensing.

  12. Comparative study of wine tannin classification using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Labarca, Ximena; Bordeu, Edmundo; Guesalaga, Andrés; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    Wine tannins are fundamental to the determination of wine quality. However, the chemical and sensorial analysis of these compounds is not straightforward and a simple and rapid technique is necessary. We analyzed the mid-infrared spectra of white, red, and model wines spiked with known amounts of skin or seed tannins, collected using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) transmission spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The spectral data were classified according to their tannin source, skin or seed, and tannin concentration by means of discriminant analysis (DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to obtain a probabilistic classification. Wines were also classified sensorially by a trained panel and compared with FT-MIR. SIMCA models gave the most accurate classification (over 97%) and prediction (over 60%) among the wine samples. The prediction was increased (over 73%) using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Sensory classification of the wines was less accurate than that obtained with FT-MIR and SIMCA. Overall, these results show the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy, in combination with adequate statistical tools, to discriminate wines with different tannin levels.

  13. Wireless Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy Sensor Network for Automatic Carbon Dioxide Fertilization in a Greenhouse Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a wireless mid-infrared spectroscopy sensor network was designed and implemented for carbon dioxide fertilization in a greenhouse environment. A mid-infrared carbon dioxide (CO2 sensor based on non-dispersive infrared (NDIR with the functionalities of wireless communication and anti-condensation prevention was realized as the sensor node. Smart transmission power regulation was applied in the wireless sensor network, according to the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI, to realize high communication stability and low-power consumption deployment. Besides real-time monitoring, this system also provides a CO2 control facility for manual and automatic control through a LabVIEW platform. According to simulations and field tests, the implemented sensor node has a satisfying anti-condensation ability and reliable measurement performance on CO2 concentrations ranging from 30 ppm to 5000 ppm. As an application, based on the Fuzzy proportional, integral, and derivative (PID algorithm realized on a LabVIEW platform, the CO2 concentration was regulated to some desired concentrations, such as 800 ppm and 1200 ppm, in 30 min with a controlled fluctuation of <±35 ppm in an acre of greenhouse.

  14. Mid-infrared GaSb-based resonant tunneling diode photodetectors for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmayr, F.; Pfenning, A.; Kistner, C.; Koeth, J.; Knebl, G.; Schade, A.; Krueger, S.; Worschech, L.; Hartmann, F.; Höfling, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present resonant tunneling diode-photodetectors (RTD-PDs) with GaAs0.15Sb0.85/AlAs0.1Sb0.9 double barrier structures combined with an additional quaternary Ga0.64In0.36As0.33Sb0.67 absorption layer covering the fingerprint absorption lines of various gases in the mid-infrared wavelength spectral region. The absorption layer cut-off wavelength is determined to be 3.5 μm, and the RTD-PDs show peak-to-valley current ratios up to 4.3 with a peak current density of 12 A/cm-2. The incorporation of the quaternary absorption layer enables the RTD-PDs to be sensitive to illumination with light up to the absorption lines of HCl at 3395 nm. At this wavelength, the detector shows a responsivity of 6.3 mA/W. At the absorption lines of CO2 and CO at 2004 nm and 2330 nm, respectively, the RTD-PDs reach responsivities up to 0.97 A/W. Thus, RTD-PDs pave the way towards high sensitive mid-infrared detectors that can be utilized in tunable laser absorption spectroscopy.

  15. A Tunable Mid-Infrared Solid-State Laser with a Compact Thermal Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunable mid-infrared lasers are widely used in laser spectroscopy, gas sensing and many other related areas. In order to solve heat dissipation problems and improve the environmental temperature adaptability of solid-state laser sources, a tunable all-fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO was established, and a compact thermal control system based on thermoelectric coolers, an automatic temperature control circuit, cooling fins, fans and heat pipes was integrated and designed for the laser. This system is compact, light and air-cooling which satisfies the demand for miniaturization of lasers. A mathematical model and method was established to estimate the cooling capacity of this thermal control system under different ambient environments. A finite-element model was built and simulated to analyze the thermal transfer process. Experiments in room and high temperature environments were carried out and showed that the substrate temperature of a pump module could be maintained at a stable value with controlled precision to 0.2 degrees, while the output power stability of the laser was within ±1%. The experimental results indicate that this compact air-cooling thermal control system could effectively solve the heat dissipation problem of mid-infrared solid-state lasers with a one hundred watts level pump module in room and high temperature environments.

  16. Bio-analytical applications of mid-infrared spectroscopy using silver halide fiber-optic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H.M.; Kuepper, L.; Butvina, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared-spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful method for the study of various biomedical samples, in particular for in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and for non-invasive diagnostics. In general, the analysis of biofluids such as whole blood, urine, microdialysates and bioreactor broth media takes advantage of the fact that a multitude of analytes can be quantified simultaneously and rapidly without the need for reagents. Progress in the quality of infrared silver halide fibers enabled us to construct several flexible fiber-optic probes of different geometries, which are particularly suitable for the measurement of small biosamples. Recent trends show that dry film measurements by mid-infrared spectroscopy could revolutionize analytical tools in the clinical chemistry laboratory, and an example is given. Infrared diagnostic tools show a promising potential for patients, and minimal-invasive blood glucose assays or skin tissue pathology in particular cannot be left out using mid-infrared fiber-based probes. Other applications include the measurement of skin samples including penetration studies of vitamins and constituents of cosmetic cream formulations. A further field is the micro-domain analysis of biopsy samples from bog mummified corpses, and recent results on the chemistry of dermis and hair samples are reported. Another field of application, for which results are reported, is food analysis and bio-reactor monitoring

  17. High energy eye-safe and mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J; Liu, Q; Huang, L; Gong, M

    2010-01-01

    A high energy eye-safe and mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is demonstrated. The nonlinear media is a Y-cut KTA crystal with the length of 20 mm, which is pumped by a Nd:YAG laser. Both eye-safe and mid-infrared laser are output with high energy. When the pump energy is 1 J and the pulse duration is 10 ns, we get 53 mJ idler at 3.632 μm and 151 mJ signal at 1.505 μm. As we know, the idler energy is the highest at the wavelength beyond 3.5 μm and the signal energy is the highest with Y-cut KTA. The results prove that the Y-cut KTA crystal can produce the signal and idler with the energies as high as these in the paper. We have tested the temperature-tuning characters and the coefficient of the idler is 0.26 nm/°C

  18. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for determination of tetracycline residues in cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Mariel Casarrubias-Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis were tested to determine tetracycline's residues in cow's milk. Cow's milk samples (n = 30 were spiked with tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in the range of 10-400 µg/l. Chemometric models to quantify each of the tetracycline's residues were developed by applying Partial Components Regression and Partial Least Squares algorithms. The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model was used to differentiate between pure milk and milk sample with tetracycline residues. The best models for predicting the levels of these antibiotics were obtained using Partial Least Square 1 algorithm (coefficient of determination between 0.997-0.999 and the standard error of calibration from 1.81 to 2.95. The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model showed well-separated groups allowing classification of milk samples and milk sample with antibiotics. The obtained results demonstrate the great analytical potential of chemometrics coupled with mid-infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of antibiotic in cow's milk at a concentration of microgram per litre (µg/l. This technique can be used to verify the safety of the milk rapidly and reliably.

  19. Attenuated Total Reflection Mid-Infrared (ATR-MIR) Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Identification and Classification of Commercial Tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Arianna; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Olejar, Kenneth J; Kilmartin, Paul A; Versari, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize 40 commercial tannins, including condensed and hydrolyzable chemical classes, provided as powder extracts from suppliers. Spectral data were processed to detect typical molecular vibrations of tannins bearing different chemical groups and of varying botanical origin (univariate qualitative analysis). The mid-infrared region between 4000 and 520 cm(-1) was analyzed, with a particular emphasis on the vibrational modes in the fingerprint region (1800-520 cm(-1)), which provide detailed information about skeletal structures and specific substituents. The region 1800-1500 cm(-1) contained signals due to hydrolyzable structures, while bands due to condensed tannins appeared at 1300-900 cm(-1) and exhibited specific hydroxylation patterns useful to elucidate the structure of the flavonoid monomeric units. The spectra were investigated further using principal component analysis for discriminative purposes, to enhance the ability of infrared spectroscopy in the classification and quality control of commercial dried extracts and to enhance their industrial exploitation.

  20. Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in a photoreaction chamber with a tunable mid-infrared laser and ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Matthew T; Sydoryk, Ihor; Lim, Alan; McIntyre, Thomas J; Tulip, John; Jäger, Wolfgang; McDonald, Karen

    2011-02-01

    We describe the implementation of a mid-infrared laser-based trace gas sensor with a photoreaction chamber, used for reproducing chemical transformations of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTX) gases that may occur in the atmosphere. The system performance was assessed in the presence of photoreaction products including aerosol particles. A mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL)-tunable from 9.41-9.88 μm (1012-1063 cm(-1))-was used to monitor gas phase concentrations of BTX simultaneously and in real time during chemical processing of these compounds with hydroxyl radicals in a photoreaction chamber. Results are compared to concurrent measurements using ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV DOAS). The EC-QCL based system provides quantitation limits of approximately 200, 200, and 600 parts in 10(9) (ppb) for benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, respectively, which represents a significant improvement over our previous work with this laser system. Correspondingly, we observe the best agreement between the EC-QCL measurements and the UV DOAS measurements with benzene, followed by toluene, then p-xylene. Although BTX gas-detection limits are not as low for the EC-QCL system as for UV DOAS, an unidentified by-product of the photoreactions was observed with the EC-QCL, but not with the UV DOAS system.

  1. Simultaneous generation of tunable giant dispersive waves in the visible and mid-infrared regions based on photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Si-Gang; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shi-Zhong; Han, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation (CR) in both the visible and mid-infrared regions is simultaneously generated experimentally based on a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The generation of CR in the visible region originates from solitons located in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime which are perturbed by positive third order dispersion. Conversely, the generation of CR in the mid-infrared region requires that the solitons in the anomalous GVD regime are perturbed by negative third order dispersion. The peak wavelength of the CR in the visible region can be tuned from 498 to 425 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 400 mW, while the peak wavelength of the CR in the mid-infrared region can be tuned from 1986 to 2279 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 320 mW. (paper)

  2. AN INTERFEROMETRIC STUDY OF THE FOMALHAUT INNER DEBRIS DISK. II. KECK NULLER MID-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Colavita, M. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109-8099 (United States); Absil, O. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du Six Aout, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C. [IPAG, UMR 5274, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Millan-Gabet, R. [Michelson Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Liu, W. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Thebault, P. [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France)

    2013-02-15

    We report on high-contrast mid-infrared observations of Fomalhaut obtained with the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) showing a small resolved excess over the level expected from the stellar photosphere. The measured null excess has a mean value of 0.35% {+-} 0.10% between 8 and 11 {mu}m and increases from 8 to 13 {mu}m. Given the small field of view of the instrument, the source of this marginal excess must be contained within 2 AU of Fomalhaut. This result is reminiscent of previous VLTI K-band ({approx_equal}2{mu}m) observations, which implied the presence of a {approx}0.88% excess, and argued that thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut was the most plausible explanation. Using a parametric two-dimensional radiative transfer code and a Bayesian analysis, we examine different dust disk structures to reproduce both the near- and mid-infrared data simultaneously. While not a definitive explanation of the hot excess of Fomalhaut, our model suggests that the most likely inner few AU disk geometry consists of a two-component structure, with two different and spatially distinct grain populations. The 2-11 {mu}m data are consistent with an inner hot ring of very small ({approx_equal}10-300 nm) carbon-rich grains concentrating around 0.1 AU. The second dust population-inferred from the KIN data at longer mid-infrared wavelengths-consists of larger grains (size of a few microns to a few tens of microns) located further out in a colder region where regular astronomical silicates could survive, with an inner edge around 0.4 AU-1 AU. From a dynamical point of view, the presence of the inner concentration of submicron-sized grains is surprising, as such grains should be expelled from the inner planetary system by radiation pressure within only a few years. This could either point to some inordinate replenishment rates (e.g., many grazing comets coming from an outer reservoir) or to the existence of some braking mechanism preventing the grains

  3. Detection of explosives and other illicit materials by a single nanosecond neutron pulses - Monte-Carlo simulations of the detection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklaszewski, R.; Drozdowicz, K.; Wiacek, U.; Dworak, D.; Gribkov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects (explosives and other illicit materials) by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method is based on the well know fact that nuclide-specific information is present in the scattered neutron field. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of few nanoseconds, generated by a dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with a pure deuterium or deuterium-tritium mixture as a working gas. Very short duration of the neutron pulse, its high brightness and mono-chromaticity allow to use the time-of-flight method with bases of about few meters to distinguish signals from neutrons scattered by different elements. Results of the Monte Carlo simulations of the scattered neutron field from several compounds (explosives and everyday use materials) are presented in the paper. The MCNP5 code has been used to get information on the angular and energy distributions of the neutrons scattered by the above mentioned compounds assuming the initial neutron energy equal to 2.45 MeV (D-D). A new input has been elaborated that allows the modelling of not only a spectrum of the neutrons scattered at different angles but also their time history from the moment of generation up to detection. Such an approach allows getting approximate signals as registered by scintillator + photomultiplier probes placed at various distances from the scattering object, demonstrating a principal capability of the method to identify an elemental content of the inspected objects. Preliminary results of the MCNP modelling of the interrogation process of the airport luggage containing several illicit objects are presented as well. (authors)

  4. Dielectric properties of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the terahertz and mid-infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark D.; Zouaghi, Wissem; Meng, Fanqi; Wiecha, Matthias M.; Rabia, Kaneez; Heinlein, Thorsten; Hussein, Laith; Babu, Deepu; Yadav, Sandeep; Engstler, Jörg; Schneider, Jörg J.; Nicoloso, Norbert; Rychetský, Ivan; Kužel, Petr; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the broadband dielectric properties of vertically aligned, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (VACNT), over both the terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared spectral ranges. The nominally undoped, metallic VACNT samples are probed at normal incidence, i.e. the response is predominantly due to polarisation perpendicular to the CNT axis. A detailed comparison of various conductivity models and previously reported results is presented for the non-Drude behaviour we observe in the conventional THz range (up to 2.5 THz). Extension to the mid-infrared range reveals an absorption peak at \

  5. Mid-infrared optical properties of chalcogenide glasses within tin-antimony-selenium ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruiqiang; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yicong; Song, Baoan; Dai, Shixun; Zhang, Xianghua; Ji, Wei

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we investigated the mid-infrared (MIR) optical properties of selenide (Se-based) chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) within an As- and Ge-free system, namely the environment-friendly and low-cost tin-antimony-selenium (Sn-Sb-Se, SSS) ternary system, which has not been systematically studied to the best of our knowledge. As compared to ChGs within those conventional Se-based systems, SSS ChGs were found to exhibit extended infrared transmittance range as well as larger linear refractive index (n 0 ). Femtosecond Z-scan measurements show the presence of evident three-photon absorption from Urbach absorption of the SSS ChGs at MIR wavelength, which resonantly enhanced the nonlinear refractive behavior and resulted in large nonlinear refractive index (n 2 ).

  6. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yang; Chen, Longqing; Syed, Ahad A.; Wang, Xianbin

    2014-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  7. Visible and Mid-Infrared Gypsum Optical Constants for Modeling of Martian Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Ted L.; Esposito, Francesca; Rossmann, George R.; Colangeli, Luigi

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: Recent and on-going remote and in situ observations indicate that sulfates are present in significant abundances at various locations on Mars [1-7]. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaging spectrometer (CRISM) is returning hyperspectral data at higher spatial resolution [8] than the OMEGA instrument on the Mars Express Mission [3]. Data from both OMEGA and CRISM have provided spectral evidence for the presence of gypsum and various hydrated sulfates on the Martian surface [e.g. 3-7] Thus, the optical properties of sulfates, in general, are of interest to quantitative interpretation of this increasing volume of remotely sensed data. This is because optical constants describe how a material interacts with electromagnetic radiation and represent the fundamental values used in radiative transfer calculations describing a variety of physical environments. Such environments include atmospheres where aerosols are present, planetary and satellite regoliths, and circumstellar dust clouds. Here we focus upon gypsum because of its applicability due to its identification on Mars. Also, gypsum is a mineral that is readily available in samples sizes that are suitable for study using a variety of spectral measurements. In the infrared (>5 μm) several studies reporting the optical constants of gypsum can be used in evaluating the approach used here. Most importantly, there is a general lack of data regarding the optical constants for gypsum at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) that are being observed by OMEGA and CRISM. Background: In the infrared, there have been several studies focused at determining the optical constants of gypsum using classical dispersion models [9-11]. These have used a variety of samples including; crystals, compressed pellets of pure materials, and grains suspended in a KBr matrix. Spectral measurements of gypsum, and other sulfates, have existed for about 100 years at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths (0.4-5 μm) [e

  8. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TP-AGB STARS TO THE MID-INFRARED COLORS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D., E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We study the mid-infrared color space of 30 galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) survey for which Sloan Digital Sky Survey data are also available. We construct two-color maps for each galaxy and compare them to results obtained from combining Maraston evolutionary synthesis models, galactic thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) colors, and smooth star formation histories. For most of the SINGS sample, the spatially extended mid-IR emission seen by Spitzer in normal galaxies is consistent with our simple model in which circumstellar dust from TP-AGB stars dominates at 8 and 24 {mu}m. There is a handful of exceptions that we identify as galaxies that have high star formation rates presumably with star formation histories that cannot be assumed to be smooth, or anemic galaxies, which were depleted of their H I at some point during their evolution and have very low ongoing star formation rates.

  9. Extraordinary mid-infrared transmission of subwavelength holes in gold films

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2014-04-01

    Gold (Au) nanoholes are fabricated with electron-beam lithography and used for the investigation of extraordinary transmission in mid-infrared regime. Transmission properties of the nanoholes are studied as the dependence on hole-size. Transmittance spectra are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and enhanced transmittance through the subwavelength holes is observed. The transmission spectra exhibit well-defined maximum and minimum of which the position are determined by the lattice of the hole array. The hole-size primarily influence the transmission intensity and bandwidth of the resonance peak. With an increase of hole-size, while keep lattice constant fixed, the intensity of the resonance peak and the bandwidth increases, which are due to the localized surface plasmons. Numerical simulation for the transmission through the subwavelength holes is performed and the simulated results agree with the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers.

  10. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TP-AGB STARS TO THE MID-INFRARED COLORS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisari, Nora E.; Kelson, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared color space of 30 galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) survey for which Sloan Digital Sky Survey data are also available. We construct two-color maps for each galaxy and compare them to results obtained from combining Maraston evolutionary synthesis models, galactic thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) colors, and smooth star formation histories. For most of the SINGS sample, the spatially extended mid-IR emission seen by Spitzer in normal galaxies is consistent with our simple model in which circumstellar dust from TP-AGB stars dominates at 8 and 24 μm. There is a handful of exceptions that we identify as galaxies that have high star formation rates presumably with star formation histories that cannot be assumed to be smooth, or anemic galaxies, which were depleted of their H I at some point during their evolution and have very low ongoing star formation rates.

  11. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2016-01-11

    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  12. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  13. Resonance control of mid-infrared metamaterials using arrays of split-ring resonator pairs

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng; Wang, Zhihong; Whittaker, John; Schedin, Fredrik; Wu, Zhipeng; Han, Jiaguang

    2016-01-01

    We present our design, fabrication and characterization of resonance-controllable metamaterials operating at mid-infrared wavelengths. The metamaterials are composed of pairs of back-to-back or face-to-face U-shape split-ring resonators (SRRs). Transmission spectra of the metamaterials are measured using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the transmission resonance is dependent on the distance between the two SRRs in each SRR pair. The dips in the transmission spectrum shift to shorter wavelengths with increasing distance between the two SRRs for both the back-to-back and face-to-face SRR pairs. The position of the resonance dips in the spectrum can hence be controlled by the relative position of the SRRs. This mechanism of resonance control offers a promising way of developing metamaterials with tunability for optical filters and bio/chemical sensing devices in integrated nano-optics.

  14. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  15. The influence of melt purification and structure defects on mid-infrared light emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Krier, A

    2003-01-01

    Mid-infrared light emitting diodes which exhibit more than 7 mW (pulsed) and 0.35 mW dc output power at 3.3 mu m and at room temperature have been fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy using Pb as a neutral solvent. Using Pb solution an increase in pulsed output power of between two and three times was obtained compared with InAs light emitting diodes (LEDs) made using rare-earth gettering. The performance improvements were attributed to a reduction in residual carrier concentration arising from the removal of un-intentional donors and structure defects in the InAs active region material. These LEDs are well matched to the CH sub 4 absorption spectrum and potentially could form the basis of a practical infrared CH sub 4 gas sensor.

  16. Mid-infrared fiber-coupled supercontinuum spectroscopic imaging using a tapered chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg Petersen, Christian; Prtljaga, Nikola; Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Napier, Bruce; Lloyd, Gavin Rhys; Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Stone, Nick; Bang, Ole

    2018-02-01

    We present the first demonstration of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of human tissue using a fiber-coupled supercontinuum source spanning from 2-7.5 μm. The supercontinuum was generated in a tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber in order to obtain broad bandwidth, high average power, and single-mode output for good imaging properties. Tissue imaging was demonstrated in transmission by raster scanning over a sub-mm region of paraffinized colon tissue on CaF2 substrate, and the signal was measured using a fiber-coupled grating spectrometer. This demonstration has shown that we can distinguish between epithelial and surrounding connective tissues within a paraffinized section of colon tissue by imaging at discrete wavelengths related to distinct chemical absorption features.

  17. Validation of mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient analysis of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Groh-Wargo, S; Merlino, S; Wijers, C; Super, D M

    2017-07-01

    Human milk has considerable variation in its composition. Hence, the nutrient profile is only an estimate and can result in under- or over-estimation of the intake of preterm infants. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is an evolving technique for analyzing human milk but needs validation before use in clinical practice. Human milk samples from 35 mothers delivering at 35 weeks to term gestation were analyzed for macronutrients by MIR spectroscopy and by standard laboratory methods using Kjeldahl assay for protein, Mojonnier assay for fat and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay for lactose. MIR analysis of the macronutrients in human milk correlated well with standard laboratory tests with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.997 for fat, 0.839 for protein and 0.776 for lactose. Agreement between the two methods was excellent for fat, and moderate for protein and lactose (Pmilk. Agreement between the methodologies varies by macronutrient.

  18. Mid-infrared emission and Raman spectra analysis of Er(3+)-doped oxyfluorotellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangze; Xu, Shaoqiong; Wei, Tao; Wang, Fengchao; Cai, Muzhi; Tian, Ying; Xu, Shiqing

    2015-04-10

    This paper reports on the spectroscopic and structural properties in Er(3+)-doped oxyfluorotellurite glasses. The compositional variation accounts for the evolutions of Raman spectra, Judd-Ofelt parameters, radiative properties, and fluorescent emission. It is found that, when maximum phonon energy changes slightly, phonon density plays a crucial role in quenching the 2.7 μm emission generated by the Er(3+):(4)I11/2→(4)I13/2 transition. The comparative low phonon density contributes strong 2.7 μm emission intensity. The high branching ratio (18.63%) and large emission cross section (0.95×10(-20)  cm(2)) demonstrate that oxyfluorotellurite glass contained with 50 mol.% TeO2 has potential application in the mid-infrared region laser.

  19. Prospective for graphene based thermal mid-infrared light emitting devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Lawton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD graphene, transferred onto SiO2/Si, and show that the emission is broadly that of a grey-body emitter, with emissivity values of approximately 2% and 6% for mono- and multilayer graphene. For the currents used, which could be sustained for over one hundred hours, the emission peaked at a wavelength of around 4 μm and covered the characteristic absorption of many important gases. A measurable modulation of thermal emission was obtained even when the drive current was modulated at frequencies up to 100 kHz.

  20. A High-Power Continuous-Wave Mid-Infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate here a compact optical parametric oscillator module for mid-infrared generation via nonlinear frequency conversion. This module weighs only 2.5 kg and fits within a small volume of 220 × 60 × 55 mm3. The module can be easily aligned to various pump laser sources, and here we use a 50 W ytterbium (Yb-doped fiber laser as an example. With a two-channel MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal (MgO:PPLN, our module covers a tuning range of 2416.17–2932.25 nm and 3142.18–3452.15 nm. The highest output power exceeds 10.4 W at 2.7 μm, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 24%. The measured power stability is 2.13% Root Meat Square (RMS for a 10 h duration under outdoor conditions.

  1. Non-destructive testing of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S. C.; Qi, Hong; An, X. Y.; Ren, Y. T.; Qiao, Y. B.; Ruan, Liming M.

    2018-04-01

    The non-destructive testing (NDT) of ceramic materials using mid-infrared ultrashort-pulse laser is investigated in this study. The discrete ordinate method is applied to solve the transient radiative transfer equation in 2D semitransparent medium and the emerging radiative intensity on boundary serves as input for the inverse analysis. The sequential quadratic programming algorithm is employed as the inverse technique to optimize objective function, in which the gradient of objective function with respect to reconstruction parameters is calculated using the adjoint model. Two reticulated porous ceramics including partially stabilized zirconia and oxide-bonded silicon carbide are tested. The retrieval results show that the main characteristics of defects such as optical properties, geometric shapes and positions can be accurately reconstructed by the present model. The proposed technique is effective and robust in NDT of ceramics even with measurement errors.

  2. Mid-infrared pulsed laser ultrasonic testing for carbon fiber reinforced plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Hatano, Hideki; Watanabe, Makoto; Takekawa, Shunji; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Oguchi, Kanae; Enoki, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) can realize contactless and instantaneous non-destructive testing, but its signal-to-noise ratio must be improved in order to measure carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). We have developed a mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser source optimal for generating ultrasonic waves in CFRPs by using a wavelength conversion device based on an optical parametric oscillator. This paper reports a comparison of the ultrasonic generation behavior between the mid-IR laser and the Nd:YAG laser. The mid-IR laser generated a significantly larger ultrasonic amplitude in CFRP laminates than a conventional Nd:YAG laser. In addition, our study revealed that the surface epoxy matrix of CFRPs plays an important role in laser ultrasonic generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Chigrin, Dmitry N; Maß, Tobias W W; Schönauer, Kathrin; Salinga, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas

    2013-08-14

    We show tuning of the resonance frequency of aluminum nanoantennas via variation of the refractive index n of a layer of phase-change material. Three configurations have been considered, namely, with the antennas on top of, inside, and below the layer. Phase-change materials offer a huge index change upon the structural transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state, both stable at room temperature. Since the imaginary part of their permittivity is negligibly small in the mid-infrared spectral range, resonance damping is avoided. We present resonance shifting to lower as well as to higher wavenumbers with a maximum shift of 19.3% and a tuning figure of merit, defined as the resonance shift divided by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the resonance peak, of 1.03.

  4. Continuously tunable monomode mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Hobrecker, F.; Zogg, H.

    2010-10-01

    A tunable PbTe based mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser is described. The active part is a ˜1 μm thick PbTe layer grown epitaxially on a Bragg mirror on the Si-substrate. The cavity is terminated with a curved Si/SiO Bragg top mirror and pumped optically with a 1.55 μm laser. Cavity length is <100 μm in order that only one longitudinal mode is supported. By changing the cavity length, up to 5% wavelength continuous and mode-hop free tuning is achieved at fixed temperature. The total tuning extends from 5.6 to 4.7 μm at 100-170 K operation temperature.

  5. IV-VI mid-infrared VECSEL on Si-substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Zogg, H.; Ishida, A.

    2012-03-01

    Optically pumped VECSEL (vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers) based on IV-VI semiconductors grown on Si cover the entire wavelength range between 3.0 and 10 μm. Thanks to their simple structure and large wavelength coverage they are an interesting alternative laser technology to access the mid-infrared wavelength region. The active layers consist either of homogeneous "bulk" layers, double heterostructures or quantum well structures of the PbSe, PbTe or PbS material system. Maximum operation temperatures of 325 K are achieved with output powers above 200 mWp. Further, continuously tunable VECSEL are presented, emitting between 3.2 and 5.4 μm. The single emission mode is continuously tunable over 50-100 nm around the center wavelength, yielding an output power > 10 mWp. The axial symmetric emission beam has a half divergence angle of < 3.3°.

  6. High spatial resolution observations of the T Tau system - II. Interferometry in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzka, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Each time the resolution was improved, observations of the young low-mass star T Tau led to new insights. Initially classified as the prototype of low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, measurements with high resolution techniques in the near-infrared revealed the existence of a deeply embedded companion only 0.7 arcsec to the south. Later on, this companion itself has been resolved into two sources with a separation of only about 50 mas. We investigated both the optically bright northern component and the embedded southern binary with the MID-infrared Interferometric instrument (MIDI). The resulting visibilities of the northern component decrease with wavelength, independent of the baseline's position angle. This is a clear sign of the large face-on circumstellar disc. With a simultaneous fit of a radiative transfer model to both the interferometric results and the spectral energy distribution, the properties of this disc can be determined without the high degeneracy of fits to the spectral energy distribution alone. Since the visibilities of the southern binary are clearly dominated by the typical sinusoidal binary signal, we could for the first time in the mid-infrared derive separate spectra for both components together with a very precise relative position. This position is in excellent agreement with the orbit found from a fit to the near-infrared adaptive optics measurements. The orbit with its small periastron distance indicates tidally truncated discs, which are consistent with the interferometric measurements. The peculiar properties of the infrared companion can be explained by the model of an intermediate mass star extincted by an almost edge-on disc.

  7. ENHANCED WARM H2 EMISSION IN THE COMPACT GROUP MID-INFRARED ''GREEN VALLEY''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluver, M. E.; Ogle, P.; Guillard, P.; Appleton, P. N.; Jarrett, T. H.; Rasmussen, J.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Antonucci, R.; Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Boulanger, F.; Egami, E.; Xu, C. K.; Yun, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy study of a sample of 74 galaxies located in 23 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), chosen to be at a dynamically active stage of H I depletion. We find evidence for enhanced warm H 2 emission (i.e., above that associated with UV excitation in star-forming regions) in 14 galaxies (∼20%), with 8 galaxies having extreme values of L(H 2 S(0)-S(3))/L(7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), in excess of 0.07. Such emission has been seen previously in the compact group HCG 92 (Stephan's Quintet), and was shown to be associated with the dissipation of mechanical energy associated with a large-scale shock caused when one group member collided, at high velocity, with tidal debris in the intragroup medium. Similarly, shock excitation or turbulent heating is likely responsible for the enhanced H 2 emission in the compact group galaxies, since other sources of heating (UV or X-ray excitation from star formation or active galactic nuclei) are insufficient to account for the observed emission. The group galaxies fall predominantly in a region of mid-infrared color-color space identified by previous studies as being connected to rapid transformations in HCG galaxy evolution. Furthermore, the majority of H 2 -enhanced galaxies lie in the optical ''green valley'' between the blue cloud and red sequence, and are primarily early-type disk systems. We suggest that H 2 -enhanced systems may represent a specific phase in the evolution of galaxies in dense environments and provide new insight into mechanisms which transform galaxies onto the optical red sequence.

  8. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  9. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  10. Narrowband widely tunable CW mid-infrared generator based on difference frequency generation in periodically poled KTP and KTA crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baravets, Yauhen; Honzátko, Pavel; Todorov, Filip; Gladkov, Petar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 5 (2016), May ISSN 0306-8919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14112 Grant - others:COST(XE) MP1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber optics amplifiers * Difference-frequency generation * Mid-infrared tunable laser source Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2016

  11. Novel mid-infrared imaging system based on single-mode quantum cascade laser illumination and upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomko, Jan; Junaid, Saher; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the visible or near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions, there is a lack of very high sensitivity detectors in the mid-infrared (MIR) that operate near room temperature. Upconversion of the MIR light to NIR light that is imaged using affordable, fast, and sensitive NIR detectors or camera...

  12. BRIGHTNESS AND FLUCTUATION OF THE MID-INFRARED SKY FROM AKARI OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We present the smoothness of the mid-infrared sky from observations by the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. AKARI monitored the north ecliptic pole (NEP) during its cold phase with nine wave bands covering from 2.4 to 24 μm, out of which six mid-infrared bands were used in this study. We applied power-spectrum analysis to the images in order to search for the fluctuation of the sky brightness. Observed fluctuation is explained by fluctuation of photon noise, shot noise of faint sources, and Galactic cirrus. The fluctuations at a few arcminutes scales at short mid-infrared wavelengths (7, 9, and 11 μm) are largely caused by the diffuse Galactic light of the interstellar dust cirrus. At long mid-infrared wavelengths (15, 18, and 24 μm), photon noise is the dominant source of fluctuation over the scale from arcseconds to a few arcminutes. The residual fluctuation amplitude at 200'' after removing these contributions is at most 1.04 ± 0.23 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.05% of the brightness at 24 μm and at least 0.47 ± 0.14 nW m –2 sr –1 or 0.02% at 18 μm. We conclude that the upper limit of the fluctuation in the zodiacal light toward the NEP is 0.03% of the sky brightness, taking 2σ error into account.

  13. Mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of the arterial wall. Mechanical origin of "acoustic" wall damage and its effect on wall healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erven, L.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Post, M. J.; van der Veen, M. J.; Velema, E.; Borst, C.

    1992-01-01

    Pulsed mid-infrared lasers are an alternative to excimer lasers for transluminal angioplasty. The mid-infrared lasers, however, were reported to produce "acoustic" wall damage that might impair the immediate and long-term results. To study the immediate and long-term effects on the arterial wall,

  14. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantavini, Mário S; Pontes, Flávia L D; Uber, Caroline P; Stremel, Dile P; Sena, Marcelo M; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2014-05-05

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm(-1), preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. THE MID-INFRARED AND NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET EXCESS EMISSIONS OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES ON THE RED SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2013-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared (IR) and near-ultraviolet (UV) excess emissions of spectroscopically selected quiescent galaxies on the optical red sequence. We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR and Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-UV data for a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the possible connection between quiescent red-sequence galaxies with and without mid-IR/near-UV excess. Among 648 12 μm detected quiescent red-sequence galaxies without Hα emission, 26% and 55% show near-UV and mid-IR excess emissions, respectively. When we consider only bright (M r n 4000 than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess emissions. We also find that mid-IR weighted mean stellar ages of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR excess are larger than those with near-UV excess, and smaller than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess. The environmental dependence of the fraction of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR and near-UV excess seems strong even though the trends of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess differ from those with mid-IR excess. These results indicate that the recent star formation traced by near-UV (∼< 1 Gyr) and mid-IR (∼< 2 Gyr) excess is not negligible among nearby, quiescent, red, early-type galaxies. We suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of quiescent red-sequence galaxies from quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess to those with mid-IR excess to those without near-UV and mid-IR excess.

  16. OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND BAND STRENGTHS OF CH4:C2H6 ICES IN THE NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molpeceres, Germán; Ortigoso, Juan; Escribano, Rafael; Maté, Belén; Satorre, Miguel Angel; Millán, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of methane–ethane ice mixtures. We have grown CH 4 :C 2 H 6 mixtures with ratios 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 at 18 and 30 K, plus pure methane and ethane ices, and have studied them in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) ranges. We have determined densities of all species mentioned above. For amorphous ethane grown at 18 and 30 K we have obtained a density of 0.41 and 0.54 g cm −3 , respectively, lower than a previous measurement of the density of the crystalline species, 0.719 g cm −3 . As far as we know this is the first determination of the density of amorphous ethane ice. We have measured band shifts of the main NIR methane and ethane features in the mixtures with respect to the corresponding values in the pure ices. We have estimated band strengths of these bands in the NIR and MIR ranges. In general, intensity decay in methane modes was detected in the mixtures, whereas for ethane no clear tendency was observed. Optical constants of the mixtures at 30 and 18 K have also been evaluated. These values can be used to trace the presence of these species in the surface of trans-Neptunian objects. Furthermore, we have carried out a theoretical calculation of these ice mixtures. Simulation cells for the amorphous solids have been constructed using a Metropolis Monte Carlo procedure. Relaxation of the cells and prediction of infrared spectra have been carried out at density functional theory level.

  17. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantavini, Mário S.; Pontes, Flávia L. D.; Uber, Caroline P.; Stremel, Dile P.; Sena, Marcelo M.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm-1, preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones.

  18. [Development of a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water based on MEMS linear sensor array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhi-fan; Zeng, Li-bo; Shi, Lei; Li, Kai; Yang, Yuan-zhou; Wu, Qiong-shui

    2014-06-01

    Aiming at the existing problems such as weak environmental adaptability, low analytic efficiency and poor measuring repeatability in the traditional spectral oil analyzers, the present paper designed a portable mid-infrared rapid analyzer for oil concentration in water. To reduce the volume of the instrument, the non-symmetrical folding M-type Czerny-Turner optical structure was adopted in the core optical path. With a periodically rotating chopper, controlled by digital PID algorithm, applied for infrared light modulation, the modulating accuracy reached ±0.5%. Different from traditional grating-scanning spectrophotometers, this instrument used a fixed grating for light dispersion and avoided rotating error in the course of the measuring procedures. A new-type MEMS infrared linear sensor array was applied for modulated spectral signals detection, which improved the measuring efficiency remarkably. Optical simulation and experimental results indicate that the spectral range is 2 800 - 3 200 cm(-1), the spectral resolution is 6 cm(-1) (@3 130 cm(-1)), and the signal to noise ratio is up to 5 200 : 1. The acquisition time is 13 milliseconds per spectrogram, and the standard deviation of absorbance is less than 3 x 10(-3). These performances meet the standards of oil concentration measurements perfectly. Compared with traditional infrared spectral analyzers for oil concentration, the instrument demonstrated in this paper has many advantages such as smaller size, more efficiency, higher precision, and stronger vibration & moisture isolation. In addition, the proposed instrument is especially suitable for the environmental monitoring departments to implement real-time measurements in the field for oil concentration in water, hence it has broad prospects of application in the field of water quality monitoring.

  19. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  20. Electron effective mass in Sn-doped monoclinic single crystal β-gallium oxide determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sean; Mock, Alyssa; Korlacki, Rafał; Darakchieva, Vanya; Monemar, Bo; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Goto, Ken; Higashiwaki, Masataka; Schubert, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    The isotropic average conduction band minimum electron effective mass in Sn-doped monoclinic single crystal β-Ga2O3 is experimentally determined by the mid-infrared optical Hall effect to be (0.284 ± 0.013)m0 combining investigations on (010) and ( 2 ¯01 ) surface cuts. This result falls within the broad range of values predicted by theoretical calculations for undoped β-Ga2O3. The result is also comparable to recent density functional calculations using the Gaussian-attenuation-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional, which predict an average effective mass of 0.267m0. Within our uncertainty limits, we detect no anisotropy for the electron effective mass, which is consistent with most previous theoretical calculations. We discuss upper limits for possible anisotropy of the electron effective mass parameter from our experimental uncertainty limits, and we compare our findings with recent theoretical results.

  1. Suspended mid-infrared fiber-to-chip grating couplers for SiGe waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favreau, Julien; Durantin, Cédric; Fédéli, Jean-Marc; Boutami, Salim; Duan, Guang-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Silicon photonics has taken great importance owing to the applications in optical communications, ranging from short reach to long haul. Originally dedicated to telecom wavelengths, silicon photonics is heading toward circuits handling with a broader spectrum, especially in the short and mid-infrared (MIR) range. This trend is due to potential applications in chemical sensing, spectroscopy and defense in the 2-10 μm range. We previously reported the development of a MIR photonic platform based on buried SiGe/Si waveguide with propagation losses between 1 and 2 dB/cm. However the low index contrast of the platform makes the design of efficient grating couplers very challenging. In order to achieve a high fiber-to-chip efficiency, we propose a novel grating coupler structure, in which the grating is locally suspended in air. The grating has been designed with a FDTD software. To achieve high efficiency, suspended structure thicknesses have been jointly optimized with the grating parameters, namely the fill factor, the period and the grating etch depth. Using the Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) method we obtained a configuration where the fiber-to-waveguide efficiency is above 57 %. Moreover the optical transition between the suspended and the buried SiGe waveguide has been carefully designed by using an Eigenmode Expansion software. Transition efficiency as high as 86 % is achieved.

  2. Near-infrared to Mid-infrared Observations of Galaxy Mergers: NGC 2782 and NGC 7727

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Sakon, Itsuki; Wu, Ronin; Ohsawa, Ryou; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Roellig, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of near-infrared-to-mid-infrared (NIR-to-MIR) imaging and NIR spectroscopic observations of two galaxy mergers, NGC 2782 (Arp 215) and NGC 7727 (Arp 222), with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. NGC 2782 shows extended MIR emission in the eastern side of the galaxy, which corresponds to the eastern tidal tail seen in the H I 21 cm map, while NGC 7727 shows extended MIR emission in the north of the galaxy, which is similar to the plumes seen in the residual image at the K-band after subtracting a galaxy model. Both extended structures are thought to have formed in association with their merger events. They show excess emission at 7–15 μm, which can be attributed to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) decline longward of 24 μm, suggesting that very small grains (VSGs) are deficient. These characteristics of the observed MIR SED may be explained if PAHs are formed by fragmentation of VSGs during merger events. The star formation rate is estimated from the MIR PAH emission in the eastern tail region of NGC 2782 and it is in fair agreement with those estimated from Hα and [C II] 158 μm. MIR observations are efficient for the study of dust processing and structures formed during merger events.

  3. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  4. Primary experimental studies on mid-infrared FEL irradiation on dental substances at BFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Biao, Z J; Gao Xue Ju; He Wei; Huang Yu Ying; Li Yong Gui; LiuNianQing; Wang Min Kai; Wu Gan; Yan Xue Pin; Zhang Guo Qing

    2001-01-01

    A free electron laser (FEL) with its characteristics of wide wavelength tunability, ultrashort pulse time structure, and high peak power density is predominantly superior to all other conventional lasers in applications. Several experimental studies on mid-infrared FEL irradiation on dental enamel and dentine were performed at the Beijing FEL. Experimental aims were to investigate changes in the hardness, ratios of P to Ca and Cs before and after irradiation on samples with a characteristic absorption wavelength of 9.66 mu m, in the colors of these sample surfaces after irradiation with different wavelengths around the peak wavelength. The time dependence of temperature of the dentine sample was measured with its ps pulse effects compared to that with a continuous CO sub 2 laser. FTIR absorption spectra in the range of 2.5-15.4 mu m for samples of these hard dental substances and pure hydroxyapatite were first examined to decide their chemical components and absorption maximums. Primary experimental results w...

  5. Ultrafast Mid-Infrared Intra-Excitonic Response of Individualized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jigang; Graham, Matt W.; Ma, Yingzhong; Fleming, Graham R.; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-1D confinement and reduced screening of photoexcited charges in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) entails strongly-enhanced Coulomb interactions and exciton binding energies. Such amplified electron-hole (e-h) correlations have important implications for both fundamental physics and optoelectronic applications of nanotubes. The availability of 'individualized' SWNT ensembles with bright and structured luminescence has rendered specific tube chiralities experimentally accessible. In these samples, evidence for excitonic behavior was found in absorption-luminescence maps, two-photon excited luminescence, or ultrafast carrier dynamics. Here, we report ultrafast mid-infrared (mid-IR) studies of individualized SWNTs, evidencing strong photoinduced absorption around 200 meV in semiconducting tubes of (6,5) and (7,5) chiralities. This manifests the observation of quasi-1D intra-excitonic transitions between different relative-momentum states, in agreement with the binding energy and calculated oscillator strength. Our measurements further reveal a saturation of the photoinduced absorption with increasing phase-space filling of the correlated e-h pairs. The transient mid-IR response represents a new tool, unhindered by restrictions of momentum or interband dipole moment, to investigate the density and dynamics of SWNT excitons.

  6. An experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers of different designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilt, Stéphane; Tombez, Lionel; Tardy, Camille; Bismuto, Alfredo; Blaser, Stéphane; Maulini, Richard; Terazzi, Romain; Rochat, Michel; Südmeyer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present an experimental study of noise in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) of different designs. By quantifying the high degree of correlation occurring between fluctuations of the optical frequency and voltage between the QCL terminals, we show that electrical noise is a powerful and simple mean to study noise in QCLs. Based on this outcome, we investigated the electrical noise in a large set of 22 QCLs emitting in the range of 7.6-8 μm and consisting of both ridge-waveguide and buried-heterostructure (BH) lasers with different geometrical designs and operation parameters. From a statistical data processing based on an analysis of variance, we assessed that ridge-waveguide lasers have a lower noise than BH lasers. Our physical interpretation is that additional current leakages or spare injection channels occur at the interface between the active region and the lateral insulator in the BH geometry, which induces some extra noise. In addition, Schottky-type contacts occurring at the interface between the n-doped regions and the lateral insulator, i.e., iron-doped InP, are also believed to be a potential source of additional noise in some BH lasers, as observed from the slight reduction in the integrated voltage noise observed at the laser threshold in several BH-QCLs.

  7. Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.

  8. Quantitative analysis of red wine tannins using Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Katherina; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-09-05

    Tannin content and composition are critical quality components of red wines. No spectroscopic method assessing these phenols in wine has been described so far. We report here a new method using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and chemometric techniques for the quantitative analysis of red wine tannins. Calibration models were developed using protein precipitation and phloroglucinolysis as analytical reference methods. After spectra preprocessing, six different predictive partial least-squares (PLS) models were evaluated, including the use of interval selection procedures such as iPLS and CSMWPLS. PLS regression with full-range (650-4000 cm(-1)), second derivative of the spectra and phloroglucinolysis as the reference method gave the most accurate determination for tannin concentration (RMSEC = 2.6%, RMSEP = 9.4%, r = 0.995). The prediction of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the tannins also gave a reasonable prediction (RMSEC = 6.7%, RMSEP = 10.3%, r = 0.958). These results represent the first step in the development of a spectroscopic methodology for the quantification of several phenolic compounds that are critical for wine quality.

  9. Recent advances in mid-infrared (3--6 micron) emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-06-01

    The authors describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of InAsSb/InAs multiple quantum well (MQW) and InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. They have made gain-guided, injection lasers using undoped, p-type AlAs{sub 0.16}Sb{sub 0.84} for optical confinement and both strained InAsSb/InAs MQW and InAsSb/InAsP SLS active regions. The lasers and LEDs utilize the semi-metal properties of a p-GaAsSb/n-InAs heterojunction as a source for electrons injected into active regions. A multiple-stage LED utilizing this semi-metal injection scheme is reported. Gain-guided, injected lasers with a strained InAsSb/InAs MQW active region operated up to 210 K in pulsed mode with an emission wavelength of 3.8--3.9 {micro}m and a characteristic temperature of 29--40 K. They also present results for both optically pumped and injection lasers with InAsSb/InAsP SLS active regions. The maximum operating temperature of an optically pumped 3.7 {micro}m SLS laser was 240 K. An SLS LED emitted at 4.0 {micro}m with 80 {micro}W of power at 300 K.

  10. Low-luminosity Blazars in Wise: A Mid-infrared View of Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, S. F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, S.; Shemmer, O.; Wu, J.

    2012-01-01

    We use the preliminary data release from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform the first statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ( 102) of BL Lac objects -- low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and the shape of their SEDs in the IR correlates well with SED peak frequency. In other BL Lac objects, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN, and we do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. While at odds with simple unification, the missing torus is consistent with recent suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion flows. We discuss implications on the ``nature vs. nurture" debate for FR I and FR II galaxies, and also on the standard orientation-based AGN unification model.

  11. Two-color mid-infrared spectroscopy of optically doped semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcales, M.; Klik, M.A.J.; Vinh, N.Q.; Phillips, J.; Wells, J-P.R.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    Optical doping is an attractive method to tailor photonic properties of semiconductor matrices for development of solid-state electroluminescent structures. For practical applications, thermal stability of emission obtained from these materials is required. Thermal processes can be conveniently investigated by two-color spectroscopy in the visible and the mid-infrared. Free-electron laser is a versatile high-brilliance source of radiation in the latter spectral range. In this contribution, we briefly review some of the results obtained recently by the two-color spectroscopy with a free-electron laser in different semiconductors optically doped with rare earth and transition metal ions. Effects leading to both enhancement and quenching of emission from optical dopants will be presented. For InP:Yb, Si:Er, and Si:Cu activation of particular optically induced non-radiative recombination paths will be shown. For Si:Er and Si:Ag, observation of a low temperature optical memory effect will be reported

  12. Development of a rapid "fingerprinting" system for wine authenticity by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevin, Christopher J; Fergusson, Allison J; Perry, Wade B; Janik, Leslie J; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2006-12-27

    This paper reports on the development of a rapid and simple method for red wine authenticity confirmation during transport and processing; namely, a wine "fingerprinting" system. When wine is transported between two sites, a sample is taken and a mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum is obtained. One hundred sixty-one (n = 161) samples of three main red wine varieties grown in Australia, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot, were collected from six commercial wineries across Australia and scanned in transmission on two MIR spectrophotometers located at The Hardy Wine Company's main site at Reynella, South Australia (Foss WineScan FT 120) (926-5012 cm-1). A similarity index (SI) method was used as a tool to classify wine samples on the basis of their spectral data. The results showed that high rates of classification were obtained when wine samples scanned in different instruments were analyzed. The SI has been proven to provide an acceptable measurement for authentication of red wine integrity during transportation. In five of the six winery data sets, the SI correctly classified 98% of the wines. It was also observed that less than 1% of wines were misclassified between the different wineries investigated. Further studies are needed in order to test the applicability of the SI in a commercial situation and to evaluate its potential as a rapid quality control tool for routine use to authenticate wine samples during transport.

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  14. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  15. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Meng, H. Y. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Parks, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place South, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  16. Mesoscopic modeling of the response of human dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Ramos, Marta; Stoneham, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Ablation of human dental enamel, a composite biomaterial with water pores, is of significant importance in minimally invasive laser dentistry but progress in the area is hampered by the lack of optimal laser parameters. We use mesoscopic finite element models of this material to study its response to mid-infrared radiation. Our results indicate that the cost-effective, off-the-shelf CO2 laser at λ = 10.6 μm may in fact ablate enamel precisely, reproducibly and with limited unwanted side effects such as cracking or heating, provided that a pulse duration of 10 μs is used. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm), currently popular for laser dentistry, may in fact cause unwanted deep cracking in the enamel when regions with unusually high water content are irradiated, and also provide an explanation for the large range of ablation threshold values observed for this material. The model may be easily adapted to study the response of any composite material to infrared radiation and thus may be useful for the scientific community.

  17. Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Lin, Pao Tai; Patel, Neil; Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Zou, Yi; Deng, Fei; Ni, Chaoying; Hu, Juejun; Giammarco, James; Soliani, Anna Paola; Zdyrko, Bogdan; Luzinov, Igor; Novak, Spencer; Novak, Jackie; Wachtel, Peter; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Kimerling, Lionel C; Agarwal, Anuradha M

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review our recent work on mid-infrared (mid-IR) photonic materials and devices fabricated on silicon for on-chip sensing applications. Pedestal waveguides based on silicon are demonstrated as broadband mid-IR sensors. Our low-loss mid-IR directional couplers demonstrated in SiNx waveguides are useful in differential sensing applications. Photonic crystal cavities and microdisk resonators based on chalcogenide glasses for high sensitivity are also demonstrated as effective mid-IR sensors. Polymer-based functionalization layers, to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of our sensor devices, are also presented. We discuss the design of mid-IR chalcogenide waveguides integrated with polycrystalline PbTe detectors on a monolithic silicon platform for optical sensing, wherein the use of a low-index spacer layer enables the evanescent coupling of mid-IR light from the waveguides to the detector. Finally, we show the successful fabrication processing of our first prototype mid-IR waveguide-integrated detectors. PMID:27877641

  18. Young massive stars and their environment in the mid-infrared at high angular resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wit, W J de; Hoare, M G; Oudmaijer, R D; Fujiyoshi, T

    2008-01-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish mid-infrared observations of a sample of massive young stellar objects (BN-type objects), using VLTI-MIDI (10μm) and Subaru-COMICS (24.5 μm). We discuss the regions S140, Mon R2, M8E-IR, and W33A. The observations probe the inner regions of the dusty envelope at scales of 50 milli arcsecond and 0.6'' (∼100-1000 AU), respectively. Simultaneous model fits to spectral energy distributions and spatial data are achieved using self-consistent spherical envelope modelling. We conclude that those MYSO envelopes that are best described by a spherical geometry, the commensurate density distribution is a powerlaw with index -1.0. Such a powerlaw is predicted if the envelope is supported by turbulence on the 100-1000 AU scales probed with MIDI and COMICS, but the role of rotation at these spatial scales need testing.

  19. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  20. "Slow-scanning" in Ground-based Mid-infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Ryou; Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Okada, Kazushi; Mori, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Masahito S.; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Morii, Mikio; Ikeda, Shiro

    2018-04-01

    Chopping observations with a tip-tilt secondary mirror have conventionally been used in ground-based mid-infrared observations. However, it is not practical for next generation large telescopes to have a large tip-tilt mirror that moves at a frequency larger than a few hertz. We propose an alternative observing method, a "slow-scanning" observation. Images are continuously captured as movie data, while the field of view is slowly moved. The signal from an astronomical object is extracted from the movie data by a low-rank and sparse matrix decomposition. The performance of the "slow-scanning" observation was tested in an experimental observation with Subaru/COMICS. The quality of a resultant image in the "slow-scanning" observation was as good as in a conventional chopping observation with COMICS, at least for a bright point-source object. The observational efficiency in the "slow-scanning" observation was better than that in the chopping observation. The results suggest that the "slow-scanning" observation can be a competitive method for the Subaru telescope and be of potential interest to other ground-based facilities to avoid chopping.

  1. A MID-INFRARED CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Evans, Neal J. II; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Urquhart, James

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for mid-infrared signs of star formation activity in the 1.1 mm sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). We have correlated the BGPS catalog with available mid-IR Galactic plane catalogs based on the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE legacy survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey. We find that 44% (3712 of 8358) of the BGPS sources contain at least one mid-IR source, including 2457 of 5067 (49%) within the area where all surveys overlap (10 deg. s tarlessBGPS sources which were not matched to any mid-IR sources. The mean 1.1 mm flux of each group increases with increasing probability of active star formation. We also find that the 'starless' BGPS sources are the most compact, while the sources with the highest probability of star formation activity are on average more extended with large skirts of emission. A subsample of 280 BGPS sources with known distances demonstrates that mass and mean H 2 column density also increase with probability of star formation activity.

  2. Band Gap Distortion in Semiconductors Strongly Driven by Intense Mid-Infrared Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, J.; Chin, A. H.

    2000-03-01

    Crystalline solids non-resonantly driven by intense time-periodic electric fields are predicted to exhibit unusual band-gap distortion.(e.g., Y. Yacoby, Phys. Rev. 169, 610 (1968); L.C.M. Miranda, Solid State Commun. 45, 783 (1983); J.Z. Kaminski, Acta Physica Polonica A 83, 495(1993).) Such non-perturbative effects have not been observed to date because of the unavoidable sample damage due to the very high intensity required using conventional lasers ( 1 eV photon energy). Here, we report the first clear evidence of laser-induced bandgap shrinkage in semiconductors under intense mid-infrared (MIR) laser fields. The use of long-wavelength light reduces the required intensity and prohibits strong interband absorption, thereby avoiding the damage problem. The significant sub-bandgap absorption persists only during the existence of the MIR laser pulse, indicating the virtual nature of the effect. We show that this particular example of non-perturbative behavior, known as the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect, occurs when the effective ponderomotive potential energy is comparable to the photon energy of the applied field. This work was supported by ONR, NSF, JST and NEDO.

  3. Far-and mid-infrared properties of carbon layers elaborated by plasma sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.rousseau@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, CNRS, LTN UMR6607, La Chantrerie, Rue Christian Pauc, B.P. 50609, F-44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Ammar, Mohamed Ramzi; Bormann, Denis; Simon, Patrick [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Université d' Orléans, F-55071 (France); Rabat, Hervé; Brault, Pascal [Université d' Orléans, CNRS, GREMI UMR7344, BP 6744, F-45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Magnetron sputtering deposition of columnar, disordered carbon films. • Sputtered carbon films infrared properties are dependent on the local order. • Film texture at the micro-nanoscale explains difference of optical properties. - Abstract: The far-and mid-infrared reflectivity spectra of two carbon layers deposited on pure (100) silicon substrates by DC magnetron sputtering were investigated at room temperature in the 10–5000 cm{sup −1} wavenumber range. Their structural and textural features were also studied by combining Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). The set of results was used to discuss afterwards the influence of the texture on the infrared properties at varying length scale. Thereby, the two layers were found to be heterogeneous as assessed by RBS, XRR and FESEM and their thicknesses had been measured by XRR and FESEM. The information on the structural organization and “crystallite” size was given by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of both the textural and structural parameters on the measured infrared reflectivity spectra was discussed. Finally, a methodology was proposed to recover the intrinsic index of refraction and the intrinsic index of absorption of each layer.

  4. Demonstration of a mid-infrared NO molecular Faraday optical filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuijun; Feng, Yutao; Li, Juan; Yu, Guangbao; Liu, Linmei; Xiong, Yuanhui; Li, Faquan

    2017-12-11

    A molecular Faraday optical filter (MFOF) working in the mid-infrared region is realized for the first time. NO molecule was used as the working material of the MFOF for potential applications in atmospheric remote sensing and combustion diagnosis. We develop a complete theory to describe the performance of MFOF by taking both Zeeman absorption and Faraday rotation into account. We also record the Faraday rotation transmission (FRT) signal using a quantum cascade laser over the range of 1,820 cm -1 to 1,922 cm -1 and calibrate it by using a 101.6 mm long solid germanium etalon with a free spectral range of 0.012 cm -1 . Good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data is achieved. The NO-MFOF's transmission characteristics as a function of magnetic field and pressure are studied in detail. Both Comb-like FRT spectrum and single branch transmission spectrum are obtained by changing the magnetic field. The diversity of FRT spectrum expands the range of potential applications in infrared optical remote sensing. This filtering method can also be extended to the lines of other paramagnetic molecules.

  5. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon

    2014-07-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  6. Generation of 70-fs pulses at 286 μm from a mid-infrared fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Hudson, D. D.; Fuerbach, A.; Jackson, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple route to few-optical-cycle pulse generation from a mid-infrared fiber laser through nonlinear compression of pulses from a holmium-doped fiber oscillator using a short length of chalcogenide fiber and a grating pair. Pulses from the oscillator with 265-fs duration at 2.86 {\\mu}m are spectrally broadened through self-phase modulation in step-index As2S3 fiber to 141-nm bandwidth and then re-compressed to 70 fs (7.3 optical cycles). These are the shortest pulses from a mid-infrared fiber system to date, and we note that our system is compact, robust, and uses only commercially available components. The scalability of this approach is also discussed, supported by numerical modeling.

  7. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  8. Heuristic modelling of laser written mid-infrared LiNbO3 stressed-cladding waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martínez, Javier; Chen, Feng; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2016-04-04

    Mid-infrared lithium niobate cladding waveguides have great potential in low-loss on-chip non-linear optical instruments such as mid-infrared spectrometers and frequency converters, but their three-dimensional femtosecond-laser fabrication is currently not well understood due to the complex interplay between achievable depressed index values and the stress-optic refractive index changes arising as a function of both laser fabrication parameters, and cladding arrangement. Moreover, both the stress-field anisotropy and the asymmetric shape of low-index tracks yield highly birefringent waveguides not useful for most applications where controlling and manipulating the polarization state of a light beam is crucial. To achieve true high performance devices a fundamental understanding on how these waveguides behave and how they can be ultimately optimized is required. In this work we employ a heuristic modelling approach based on the use of standard optical characterization data along with standard computational numerical methods to obtain a satisfactory approximate solution to the problem of designing realistic laser-written circuit building-blocks, such as straight waveguides, bends and evanescent splitters. We infer basic waveguide design parameters such as the complex index of refraction of laser-written tracks at 3.68 µm mid-infrared wavelengths, as well as the cross-sectional stress-optic index maps, obtaining an overall waveguide simulation that closely matches the measured mid-infrared waveguide properties in terms of anisotropy, mode field distributions and propagation losses. We then explore experimentally feasible waveguide designs in the search of a single-mode low-loss behaviour for both ordinary and extraordinary polarizations. We evaluate the overall losses of s-bend components unveiling the expected radiation bend losses of this type of waveguides, and finally showcase a prototype design of a low-loss evanescent splitter. Developing a realistic waveguide

  9. Determination of carbohydrates present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression

    OpenAIRE

    Plata, Maria R.; Koch, Cosima; Wechselberger, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A fast and simple method to control variations in carbohydrate composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast, during fermentation was developed using mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy. The method allows for precise and accurate determinations with minimal or no sample preparation and reagent consumption based on mid-IR spectra and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PLS models were developed employing the results from reference analysis of the yeast cells. The reference anal...

  10. Confronting Standard Models of Proto-planetary Disks with New Mid-infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Day, Amanda N.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inne...

  11. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    McParland, S.; Banos, G.; McCarthy, B.; Lewis, E.; Coffey, M. P.; O'Neill, B.; O'Donovan, M.; Wall, E.; Berry, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk ...

  12. Study on the mechanism of human blood glucose concentration measuring using mid-infrared spectral analysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. Blood glucose monitoring is of great importance for controlling diabetes procedure, preventing the complications and improving the patient's life quality. At present, the clinical blood glucose concentration measurement is invasive and could be replaced by noninvasive spectroscopy analytical techniques. The mid-infrared spectral region contains strong characteristic and well-defined absorption bands. Therefore, mid-infrared provides an opportunity for monitoring blood glucose invasively with only a few discrete bonds. Although the blood glucose concentration measurement using mid-infrared spectroscopy has a lot of advantages, the disadvantage is also obvious. The absorption in this infrared region is fundamental molecular group vibration. Absorption intensity is very strong, especially for biological molecules. In this paper, it figures out that the osmosis rate of glucose has a certain relationship with the blood glucose concentration. Therefore, blood glucose concentration could be measured indirectly by measuring the glucose exudate in epidermis layer. Human oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out to verify the correlation of glucose exudation in shallow layer of epidermis layer and blood glucose concentration. As it has been explained above, the mid-infrared spectral region contains well-defined absorption bands, the intensity of absorption peak around 1123 cm-1 was selected to measure the glucose and that around 1170 cm-1 was selected as reference. Ratio of absorption peak intensity was recorded for each set of measurement. The effect and importance of the cleaning the finger to be measured before spectrum measuring are discussed and also verified by experiment.

  13. Use of photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy to characterize soil properties and soil organic matter stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltre, Clement; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen; Stoumann Jensen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized as a major ecosystem property due to its key role in earth carbon cycling, soil quality and ecosystem services. SOM stability is typically studied using biological methods such as measuring CO2-C evolution from microbial decomposition of SOM during laboratory incubation or by physical or chemical fractionation methods, allowing the separation of a labile fraction of SOM. However these methods are time consuming and there is still a need for developing reliable techniques to characterize SOM stability, providing both quantitative measurements and qualitative information, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling SOM persistence. Several spectroscopic techniques have been used to characterize and predict SOM stability, such as near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). The latter allows a proper identification of spectral regions corresponding to vibrations of specific molecular or functional groups associated with SOM lability. However, reflectance spectroscopy for soil analyses raises some difficulties related to the low reflectance of soils, and to the high influence of particle size. In the last three decades, the progresses in microphone sensitivity dramatically increased the performance of photoacoustic Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). This technique offers benefits over reflectance spectroscopy techniques, because particle size and the level of sample reflectance have little effect of on the PAS signal, since FTIR-PAS is a direct absorption technique. Despite its high potential for soil analysis, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS for soil characterization and its potential for determining SOM degradability still needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterization of SOM decomposability during

  14. Mid-infrared mapping of Jupiter's temperatures, aerosol opacity and chemical distributions with IRTF/TEXES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Greathouse, T. K.; Orton, G. S.; Sinclair, J. A.; Giles, R. S.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Encrenaz, T.

    2016-11-01

    Global maps of Jupiter's atmospheric temperatures, gaseous composition and aerosol opacity are derived from a programme of 5-20 μm mid-infrared spectroscopic observations using the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES) on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). Image cubes from December 2014 in eight spectral channels, with spectral resolutions of R ∼2000 - 12 , 000 and spatial resolutions of 2-4° latitude, are inverted to generate 3D maps of tropospheric and stratospheric temperatures, 2D maps of upper tropospheric aerosols, phosphine and ammonia, and 2D maps of stratospheric ethane and acetylene. The results are compared to a re-analysis of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) observations acquired during Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter in December 2000, demonstrating that this new archive of ground-based mapping spectroscopy can match and surpass the quality of previous investigations, and will permit future studies of Jupiter's evolving atmosphere. The visibility of cool zones and warm belts varies from channel to channel, suggesting complex vertical variations from the radiatively-controlled upper troposphere to the convective mid-troposphere. We identify mid-infrared signatures of Jupiter's 5-μm hotspots via simultaneous M, N and Q-band observations, which are interpreted as temperature and ammonia variations in the northern Equatorial Zone and on the edge of the North Equatorial Belt (NEB). Equatorial plumes enriched in NH3 gas are located south-east of NH3-desiccated 'hotspots' on the edge of the NEB. Comparison of the hotspot locations in several channels across the 5-20 μm range indicate that these anomalous regions tilt westward with altitude. Aerosols and PH3 are both enriched at the equator but are not co-located with the NH3 plumes. The equatorial temperature minimum and PH3/aerosol maxima have varied in amplitude over time, possibly as a result of periodic equatorial brightenings and the fresh updrafts of

  15. Directly imaged L-T transition exoplanets in the mid-infrared {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Close, Laird M.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Defrere, Denis; Follette, Katherine B.; Males, Jared R.; Rodigas, Timothy J. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Briguglio, Runa; Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio; Xompero, Marco [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri Largo E. Fermi 5 50125 Firenze (Italy); Hill, John M. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Gas-giant planets emit a large fraction of their light in the mid-infrared (≳3 μm), where photometry and spectroscopy are critical to our understanding of the bulk properties of extrasolar planets. Of particular importance are the L- and M-band atmospheric windows (3-5 μm), which are the longest wavelengths currently accessible to ground-based, high-contrast imagers. We present binocular LBT adaptive optics (AO) images of the HR 8799 planetary system in six narrow-band filters from 3 to 4 μm, and a Magellan AO image of the 2M1207 planetary system in a broader 3.3 μm band. These systems encompass the five known exoplanets with luminosities consistent with L → T transition brown dwarfs. Our results show that the exoplanets are brighter and have shallower spectral slopes than equivalent temperature brown dwarfs in a wavelength range that contains the methane fundamental absorption feature (spanned by the narrow-band filters and encompassed by the broader 3.3 μm filter). For 2M1207 b, we find that thick clouds and non-equilibrium chemistry caused by vertical mixing can explain the object's appearance. For the HR 8799 planets, we present new models that suggest the atmospheres must have patchy clouds, along with non-equilibrium chemistry. Together, the presence of a heterogeneous surface and vertical mixing presents a picture of dynamic planetary atmospheres in which both horizontal and vertical motions influence the chemical and condensate profiles.

  16. MID-INFRARED EVIDENCE FOR ACCELERATED EVOLUTION IN COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Lisa May; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Hibbard, John E.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Charlton, Jane C.; Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Compact galaxy groups are at the extremes of the group environment, with high number densities and low velocity dispersions that likely affect member galaxy evolution. To explore the impact of this environment in detail, we examine the distribution in the mid-infrared (MIR) 3.6-8.0 μm color space of 42 galaxies from 12 Hickson compact groups (HCGs) in comparison with several control samples, including the LVL+SINGS galaxies, interacting galaxies, and galaxies from the Coma Cluster. We find that the HCG galaxies are strongly bimodal, with statistically significant evidence for a gap in their distribution. In contrast, none of the other samples show such a marked gap, and only galaxies in the Coma infall region have a distribution that is statistically consistent with the HCGs in this parameter space. To further investigate the cause of the HCG gap, we compare the galaxy morphologies of the HCG and LVL+SINGS galaxies, and also probe the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the HCG galaxies. While galaxy morphology in HCG galaxies is strongly linked to position with MIR color space, the more fundamental property appears to be the SSFR, or star formation rate normalized by stellar mass. We conclude that the unusual MIR color distribution of HCG galaxies is a direct product of their environment, which is most similar to that of the Coma infall region. In both cases, galaxy densities are high, but gas has not been fully processed or stripped. We speculate that the compact group environment fosters accelerated evolution of galaxies from star-forming and neutral gas-rich to quiescent and neutral gas-poor, leaving few members in the MIR gap at any time.

  17. Ion irradiation of the Murchison meteorite: Visible to mid-infrared spectroscopic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, C.; Brunetto, R.; Barucci, M. A.; Dartois, E.; Duprat, J.; Engrand, C.; Godard, M.; Ledu, D.; Quirico, E.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: The goal of this study is to simulate space weathering processes on primitive bodies. We use ion implantation as a simulation of solar wind irradiation, which has been suggested by several authors to be the major component of space weathering on main belt asteroids. The laboratory analogs we irradiate and analyze are carbonaceous chondrites; we started the study with the Allende CV meteorite and in this companion paper we present results on the Murchison CM meteorite. Methods: We performed irradiations on pressed pellets of Murchison with 40 keV He+ and Ar+ ions using fluences up to 3 × 1016 ions/cm2. Reflectance spectra were acquired ex situ before and after irradiation in the visible to mid-infrared range (0.4-16 μm). A Raman analysis was also performed to investigate the modifications of the aromatic carbonaceous component. Results: Our results indicate that spectral variations after irradiation within the visible range are smaller than spectral variations due to sample grain size or viewing geometry of the Murchison meteorite. The aqueous alteration band profile near 3 μm changes after irradiation, as adsorbed water is removed, and phyllosilicates are affected. Raman spectroscopy highlights the insoluble organic matter (IOM) modification under irradiation. We observe a shift of the silicates band at 9.9 μm, probably due to a preferential loss of Mg (compared to Fe, the lighter Mg is more easily sputtered backward) and/or amorphization of Mg-rich materials. We compare our results to previous experiments on organic-rich materials (like asphaltite or carbonaceous chondrites), and on ordinary chondrites and olivine grains. We find that the reddening/darkening trend observed on silicate-rich surfaces is not valid for all carbonaceous chondrites, and that the spectral modifications after irradiation are a function of the initial albedo.

  18. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Berné, O.; Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Keller, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s −1 and an age of ≃10 5 years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ 1 Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  19. Nuclear mid-infrared properties of nearby low-luminosity AGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D; Duschl, W J; Hönig, S F; Gandhi, P; Smette, A

    2012-01-01

    We present ground-based high-spatial resolution mid-infrared (MIR) observations of 20 nearby low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) with VLT/VISIR and the preliminary analysis of a new sample of 10 low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Gemini/Michelle. LLAGN are of great interest because these objects are the most common among active galaxies, especially in the nearby universe. Studying them in great detail makes it possible to investigate the AGN evolution over cosmic timescale. Indeed, many LLAGN likely represent the final stage of an AGN's lifetime. We show that even at low luminosities and accretion rates nuclear unresolved MIR emission is present in most objects. Compared to lower spatial resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra, the high-resolution MIR photometry exhibits significantly lower fluxes and different PAH emission feature properties in many cases. By using scaled Spitzer/IRS spectra of typical starburst galaxies, we show that the star formation contribution to the 12 μm emission is minor in the central parsecs of most LLAGN. Therefore, the observed MIR emission in the VISIR and Michelle data is most likely emitted by the AGN itself, which, for higher luminosity AGN, is interpreted as thermal emission from a dusty torus. Furthermore, the 12 /amemission of the LLAGN is strongly correlated with the absorption corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the MIR- X-ray correlation found previously for AGN is extended to a range from 10 40 to 10 45 erg/s. This correlation is independent of the object type, and in particular the low-luminosity Seyferts observed with Michelle fall exactly on the power-law fit valid for brighter AGN. In addition, no dependency of the MIR-X-ray ratio on the accretion rate is found. These results are consistent with the unification model being applicable even in the probed low-luminosity regime.

  20. Novel search algorithms for a mid-infrared spectral library of cotton contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudermilk, J Brian; Himmelsbach, David S; Barton, Franklin E; de Haseth, James A

    2008-06-01

    During harvest, a variety of plant based contaminants are collected along with cotton lint. The USDA previously created a mid-infrared, attenuated total reflection (ATR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral library of cotton contaminants for contaminant identification as the contaminants have negative impacts on yarn quality. This library has shown impressive identification rates for extremely similar cellulose based contaminants in cases where the library was representative of the samples searched. When spectra of contaminant samples from crops grown in different geographic locations, seasons, and conditions and measured with a different spectrometer and accessories were searched, identification rates for standard search algorithms decreased significantly. Six standard algorithms were examined: dot product, correlation, sum of absolute values of differences, sum of the square root of the absolute values of differences, sum of absolute values of differences of derivatives, and sum of squared differences of derivatives. Four categories of contaminants derived from cotton plants were considered: leaf, stem, seed coat, and hull. Experiments revealed that the performance of the standard search algorithms depended upon the category of sample being searched and that different algorithms provided complementary information about sample identity. These results indicated that choosing a single standard algorithm to search the library was not possible. Three voting scheme algorithms based on result frequency, result rank, category frequency, or a combination of these factors for the results returned by the standard algorithms were developed and tested for their capability to overcome the unpredictability of the standard algorithms' performances. The group voting scheme search was based on the number of spectra from each category of samples represented in the library returned in the top ten results of the standard algorithms. This group algorithm was able to identify

  1. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Berné, O. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s{sup −1} and an age of ≃10{sup 5} years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ {sup 1} Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  2. Mineral abundances of comet 17P/Holmes derived from the mid-infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, MItsuru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Sakon, Itsuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2017-10-01

    Dust grains of crystalline silicate, which is rarely presented in an interstellar space, were found in cometary nuclei (Messenger et al. 1996, LPI, 27, 867; Wooden et al. 1999, ApJ, 517, 1058, references therein). It is thought that these crystalline silicates had formed by annealing or condensations of amorphous grains near the Sun in the solar nebula, and incorporated into a cometary nucleus in a cold region (farther than formation regions of the crystalline silicates) by radial transportation in the solar nebula. It is considered that transportation mechanisms to outside of the solar nebula were turbulent and/or X-wind. An abundance of the crystalline dust grains was therefore expected to be smaller as far from the Sun (Gail, 2001, A&A, 378, 192; Bockelée-Morvan et al. 2002, A&A, 384, 1107). Namely, the abundance ratio of the crystalline silicate in cometary dust grains relates a degree of mass transportation and a distance from the Sun when cometary nucleus formed in the Solar nebula. The mass ratio of crystalline silicates of dust grains is determined from by Si-O stretching vibrational bands of silicate grains around 10 μm using difference of spectral band features between crystalline and amorphous grains. We present the crystalline-to-amorphous mass ratio of silicate grains in the comet 17P/Holmes by using the thermal emission mode of the dust grains (Ootsubo et al. 2007, P&SS, 55, 1044) applied to the mid-infrared spectra of the comet. These spectra were taken by the COMICS mounted on the Subaru Telescope on 2007 October 25, 26, 27 and 28 immediately after the great outburst of the comet (started on October 23). We discuss about formation conditions of the nucleus of the comet based on the derived mass ratio of silicate grains of the comet.

  3. Mid - infrared transmission of polycrystalline (LaSr) (MnNi)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laksanawati, W. D.; Kurniawan, B.; Saptari, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline (LaSr)(MnNi)O 3 was shintesized using sol gel methods with nitrat precursors La(NO 3 ) 3 , Sr(NO 3 ) 2 , Mn(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O, and Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and the different heating process. Sample (LaSr)(MnNi)O 3 with chemical formulation La 0,67 Sr 0,33 Mn 1-x Ni x O 3 with × = 0,05 and 0,10. We report the crystallite structure of La 0,67 Sr 0,33 Mn 1-x Ni x O 3 with x= 0,00 and 0,10 are single phase with characterization by X-ray diffraction. Refinement has result that crystallite size of La 0,67 Sr 0,33 Mn 0,95 Ni 0,05 O 3 is 24,67 and La 0,67 Sr 0,33 Mn 0,9 Ni 0,1 O 3 is 21,84 with crystallite system rombohedral, it show us that increasing at Ni composition influence of decreased crystallite size. Sampel (LaSr)(MnNi)O3 has been characterization with Fourier Transform Infrared with range of wave number from 450 to 4000 cm -1 were chategories at mid infrared wave. The FTIR pattern show to us that the Mn-O-Mn bounded has absorp infrared at wave number 605 cm -1 and the dominant peak at wave number 3750 cm -1 caused the hidroxy compound in sampel La 0,67 Sr 0,33 Mn 0,95 Ni 0,05 O 3 . (paper)

  4. Graphene-based mid-infrared room-temperature pyroelectric bolometers with ultrahigh temperature coefficient of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, U; Parret, R; Nanot, S; Bruna, M; Borini, S; De Fazio, D; Zhao, Z; Lidorikis, E; Koppens, F H L; Ferrari, A C; Colli, A

    2017-01-31

    There is a growing number of applications demanding highly sensitive photodetectors in the mid-infrared. Thermal photodetectors, such as bolometers, have emerged as the technology of choice, because they do not need cooling. The performance of a bolometer is linked to its temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR, ∼2-4% K -1 for state-of-the-art materials). Graphene is ideally suited for optoelectronic applications, with a variety of reported photodetectors ranging from visible to THz frequencies. For the mid-infrared, graphene-based detectors with TCRs ∼4-11% K -1 have been demonstrated. Here we present an uncooled, mid-infrared photodetector, where the pyroelectric response of a LiNbO 3 crystal is transduced with high gain (up to 200) into resistivity modulation for graphene. This is achieved by fabricating a floating metallic structure that concentrates the pyroelectric charge on the top-gate capacitor of the graphene channel, leading to TCRs up to 900% K -1 , and the ability to resolve temperature variations down to 15 μK.

  5. Analysis of energy transfer process based emission spectra of erbium doped germanate glasses for mid-infrared laser materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Muzhi; Wei, Tao; Zhou, Beier; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing, E-mail: shiqingxu@cjlu.edu.cn; Zhang, Junjie, E-mail: jjzhang@cjlu.edu.cn

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Er{sup 3+} doped germanate glass with good thermal stability were prepared. • Ionic boding nature was proved by bonding parameter calculation. • Mid-infrared fluorescent behaviors and energy transfer were investigated. • Rate equation and Dexter’s theory were utilized to elucidate 2.7 μm emission. - Abstract: Er{sup 3+} activated germanate glass with good thermal stability was prepared. Bonding parameters have been calculated and the nature of ionic bonding of the germanate glass has been determined. Mid-infrared fluorescence was observed and corresponding radiative properties were investigated. For Er{sup 3+}:{sup 4}I{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transition, high spontaneous radiative transition probability (30.09 s{sup −1}), large emission cross section ((14.84 ± 0.10) × 10{sup −21} cm{sup 2}) and superior gain performance were obtained from the prepared glass. Besides, energy transfer processes concerning the 2.7 μm emission were also discussed in detail. According to simplified rate equation and Dexter’s theory, energy transfer microscopic parameters were computed to elucidate observed 2.7 μm emissions. Results demonstrate that the prepared germanate glass possessing excellent spectroscopic properties might be an attractive candidate for mid-infrared laser or amplifier.

  6. Analysis of energy transfer process based emission spectra of erbium doped germanate glasses for mid-infrared laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Muzhi; Wei, Tao; Zhou, Beier; Tian, Ying; Zhou, Jiajia; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Er 3+ doped germanate glass with good thermal stability were prepared. • Ionic boding nature was proved by bonding parameter calculation. • Mid-infrared fluorescent behaviors and energy transfer were investigated. • Rate equation and Dexter’s theory were utilized to elucidate 2.7 μm emission. - Abstract: Er 3+ activated germanate glass with good thermal stability was prepared. Bonding parameters have been calculated and the nature of ionic bonding of the germanate glass has been determined. Mid-infrared fluorescence was observed and corresponding radiative properties were investigated. For Er 3+ : 4 I 11/2 → 4 I 13/2 transition, high spontaneous radiative transition probability (30.09 s −1 ), large emission cross section ((14.84 ± 0.10) × 10 −21 cm 2 ) and superior gain performance were obtained from the prepared glass. Besides, energy transfer processes concerning the 2.7 μm emission were also discussed in detail. According to simplified rate equation and Dexter’s theory, energy transfer microscopic parameters were computed to elucidate observed 2.7 μm emissions. Results demonstrate that the prepared germanate glass possessing excellent spectroscopic properties might be an attractive candidate for mid-infrared laser or amplifier

  7. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk for dairy metabolomics: a comparison of two sampling techniques and effect of homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, Ben; Polshin, Evgeny; Saeys, Wouter; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-10-31

    Milk production is a dominant factor in the metabolism of dairy cows involving a very intensive interaction with the blood circulation. As a result, the extracted milk contains valuable information on the metabolic status of the cow. On-line measurement of milk components during milking two or more times a day would promote early detection of systemic and local alterations, thus providing a great input for strategic and management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy to measure the milk composition using two different measurement modes: micro attenuated total reflection (μATR) and high throughput transmission (HTT). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for prediction of fat, crude protein, lactose and urea after preprocessing IR data and selecting the most informative wavenumber variables. The prediction accuracies were determined separately for raw and homogenized copies of a wide range of milk samples in order to estimate the possibility for on-line analysis of the milk. In case of fat content both measurement modes resulted in an excellent prediction for homogenized samples (R(2)>0.92) but in poor results for raw samples (R(2)protein and lactose with both μATR and HTT, and urea with μATR spectroscopy. Excellent results were obtained for prediction of crude protein, lactose and urea content (R(2)>0.99, 0.98 and 0.86 respectively) in raw and homogenized milk using μATR IR spectroscopy. These results were significantly better than those obtained by HTT IR spectroscopy. However, the prediction performance of HTT was still good for crude protein and lactose content (R(2)>0.86 and 0.78 respectively) in raw and homogenized samples. However, the detection of urea in milk with HTT spectroscopy was significantly better (R(2)=0.69 versus 0.16) after homogenization of the milk samples. Based on these observations it can be concluded that μATR approach is most suitable for rapid at line

  8. Modeling of dispersion engineered chalcogenide rib waveguide for ultraflat mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in all-normal dispersion regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Karim, M. R.; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2018-03-01

    A rigorous numerical investigation has been carried out through dispersion engineering of chalcogenide rib waveguide for near-infrared to mid-infrared ultraflat broadband supercontinuum generation in all-normal group-velocity dispersion regime. We propose a novel design of a 1-cm-long air-clad rib waveguide which is made from {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {Se}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as the core with either silica or {Ge}_{11.5} {As}_{24} {S}_{64.5} chalcogenide glass as a lower cladding separately. A broadband ultraflat supercontinuum spanning from 1300 to 1900 nm could be generated when pumped at 1.55 μ {m} with a low input peak power of 100 W. Shifting the pump to 2 μ {m}, the supercontinuum spectra extended in the mid-infrared region up to 3400 nm with a moderate-input peak power of 500 W. To achieve further extension in mid-infrared, we excite our optimized rib waveguide in both the anomalous and all-normal dispersion pumping regions at 3.1 μ {m} with a largest input peak power of 3 kW. In the case of anomalous dispersion region pumping, numerical analysis shows that supercontinuum spectrum can be extended in the mid-infrared up to 10 μ {m}, although this contains high spectral amplitude fluctuations over the entire bandwidth which limits the supercontinuum sources in the field of high precision measurement applications. On the other hand, by optimizing a rib waveguide geometry for pumping in all-normal dispersion region, we are able to generate a smooth and flat-top coherent supercontinuum spectrum with a moderate bandwidth spanning the wavelength range 2-5.5 μ {m} with less than 5 dB spectral fluctuation over the entire output bandwidth. Our proposed design is highly suitable for making on-chip SC light sources for a variety of applications such as biomedical imaging, and environmental and industrial sensing in the mid-infrared region.

  9. Modelling the mid-infrared drying of sweet potato: kinetics, mass and heat transfer parameters, and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I.; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the drying kinetics, mass and heat transfer characteristics of sweet potato slices (0.4-0.6 cm thickness) during drying based on mid-infrared experimental set-up (intensity of 1100-1400 W/m2). Thin layer drying models were used to evaluate the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices. Two analytical models (Fick's diffusion model, and Dincer and Dost model) were used to study the mass transfer behaviour of sweet potato slices with and without shrinkage during mid-infrared drying. The heat transfer flux between the emitter and sweet potato slices was also investigated. Results demonstrated that an increase in infrared intensity from 1100 W/m2 to 1400 W/m2 resulted in increased in average radiation heat flux by 3.4 times and a 15% reduction in the overall drying time. The two-term exponential model was found to be the best in predicting the drying kinetics of sweet potato slices during mid-infrared drying. The specific heat consumption varied from 0.91-4.82 kWh/kg. The effective moisture diffusivity with and without shrinkage using the Fick's diffusion model varied from 2.632 × 10-9 to 1.596 × 10-8 m2/s, and 1.24 × 10-8 to 2.4 × 10-8 m2/s using Dincer and Dost model, respectively. The obtained values of mass transfer coefficient, Biot number and activation energy varied from 5.99 × 10-6 to 1.17 × 10-5 m/s, 0.53 to 2.62, and 12.83 kJ/mol to 34.64 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained for Biot number implied the existence of simultaneous internal and external resistances. The findings further explained that mid-infrared intensity of 1100 W/m2 did not significantly affect the quality of sweet potato during drying, demonstrating a great potential of applying low intensity mid-infrared radiation in the drying of agricultural crops.

  10. High Power Mid-Infrared Generation with a Quasi-Phase Matched GaAs Guided-wave Optical Parametric Oscillator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, J

    2000-01-01

    ...-power coherent mid-infrared sources. Considerable effort has been devoted over the past decade to the development of mid-IR coherent sources based on nonlinear optical frequency conversion, e.g...

  11. THE DARKEST SHADOWS: DEEP MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF A MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Michael J. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Kainulainen, Jouni [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-20

    We use deep 8 μm Spitzer-IRAC imaging of massive Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07 to construct a mid-infrared (MIR) extinction map that probes mass surface densities up to Σ ∼ 1 g cm{sup –2} (A{sub V} ∼ 200 mag), amongst the highest values yet probed by extinction mapping. Merging with an NIR extinction map of the region creates a high dynamic range map that reveals structures down to A{sub V} ∼ 1 mag. We utilize the map to: (1) measure a cloud mass ∼7 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} within a radius of ∼8 pc. {sup 13}CO kinematics indicate that the cloud is gravitationally bound. It thus has the potential to form one of the most massive young star clusters known in the Galaxy. (2) Characterize the structures of 16 massive cores within the IRDC, finding they can be fit by singular polytropic spheres with ρ∝r{sup −k{sub ρ}} and k {sub ρ} = 1.3 ± 0.3. They have Σ-bar ≃0.1--0.4 g cm{sup −2}—relatively low values that, along with their measured cold temperatures, suggest that magnetic fields, rather than accretion-powered radiative heating, are important for controlling fragmentation of these cores. (3) Determine the Σ (equivalently column density or A{sub V} ) probability distribution function (PDF) for a region that is nearly complete for A{sub V} > 3 mag. The PDF is well fit by a single log-normal with mean A-bar {sub V}≃9 mag, high compared to other known clouds. It does not exhibit a separate high-end power law tail, which has been claimed to indicate the importance of self-gravity. However, we suggest that the PDF does result from a self-similar, self-gravitating hierarchy of structures present over a wide range of scales in the cloud.

  12. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Xue, M. Y. [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: jiangao@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Based on photometric data from the Spitzer/SAGE survey, using red giants as extinction tracers, the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction laws in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are derived for the first time in the form of A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}}. This quantity refers to the extinction in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (i.e., [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm) relative to the Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub S} band at 2.16 μm. We obtain the near-infrared extinction coefficient to be E(J – H)/E(H – K{sub S} ) ≈ 1.29 ± 0.04 and E(J – K{sub S} )/E(H – K{sub S} ) ≈ 1.94 ± 0.04. The wavelength dependence of the MIR extinction A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}} in the LMC varies from one sightline to another. The overall mean MIR extinction is A{sub [3.6]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.72±0.03, A{sub [4.5]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.94±0.03, A{sub [5.8]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.58±0.04, and A{sub [8.0]}/A{sub K{sub S}}∼0.62±0.05. Except for the extinction in the IRAC [4.5] μm band, which may be contaminated by the 4.6 μm CO gas absorption of red giants used to trace LMC extinction, the extinction in the other three IRAC bands show a flat curve, close to the Milky Way R{sub V} = 5.5 model extinction curve, where R{sub V} is the optical total-to-selective extinction ratio. The possible systematic bias caused by the correlated uncertainties of K{sub S} – λ and J – K{sub S} is explored in terms of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that this bias could lead to an overestimation of A{sub λ}/A{sub K{sub S}} in the MIR.

  13. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW AND ITS VARIATION IN THE COALSACK NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shu; Gao Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Chen Yang; Li Aigen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near- and mid-infrared (IR) has been studied extensively. Although it is well established that the UV/optical extinction law varies significantly among the different lines of sight, it is not clear how IR extinction varies among various environments. In this work, using the color-excess method and taking red giants as the extinction tracer, we determine interstellar extinction A λ in the four Spitzer/IRAC bands in [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0] μm (relative to A K s , extinction in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) K s band at 2.16 μm) of the Coalsack nebula, a nearby starless dark cloud, based on the data obtained from the 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE surveys. We select five individual regions across the nebula that span a wide variety of physical conditions ranging from diffuse and translucent to dense environments, as traced by the visual extinction, the Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm emission, and CO emission. We find that A λ /A K s , mid-IR extinction relative to A K s , decreases from diffuse to dense environments, which may be explained in terms of ineffective dust growth in dense regions. The mean extinction (relative to A K s ) is calculated for the four IRAC bands as well and exhibits a flat mid-IR extinction law consistent with previous determinations for other regions. Extinction in the IRAC 4.5 μm band is anomalously high, much higher than that of the other three IRAC bands, and cannot be explained in terms of CO and CO 2 ice. Mid-IR extinction in the four IRAC bands has also been derived for four representative regions in the Coalsack Globule 2, which respectively exhibit strong ice absorption, moderate or weak ice absorption, and very weak or no ice absorption. The derived mid-IR extinction curves are all flat, with A λ /A K s increasing with the decrease of the 3.1 μm H 2 O ice absorption optical depth τ ice

  14. Standardization of milk mid-infrared spectrometers for the transfer and use of multiple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelet, C; Pierna, J A Fernández; Dardenne, P; Soyeurt, H; Vanlierde, A; Colinet, F; Bastin, C; Gengler, N; Baeten, V; Dehareng, F

    2017-10-01

    An increasing number of models are being developed to provide information from milk Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectra on fine milk composition, technological properties of milk, or even cows' physiological status. In this context, and to take advantage of these existing models, the purpose of this work was to evaluate whether a spectral standardization method can enable the use of multiple equations within a network of different FT-MIR spectrometers. The piecewise direct standardization method was used, matching "slave" instruments to a common reference, the "master." The effect of standardization on network reproducibility was assessed on 66 instruments from 3 different brands by comparing the spectral variability of the slaves and the master with and without standardization. With standardization, the global Mahalanobis distance from the slave spectra to the master spectra was reduced on average from 2,655.9 to 14.3, representing a significant reduction of noninformative spectral variability. The transfer of models from instrument to instrument was tested using 3 FT-MIR models predicting (1) the quantity of daily methane emitted by dairy cows, (2) the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, and (3) the fresh cheese yield. The differences, in terms of root mean squared error, between master predictions and slave predictions were reduced after standardization on average from 103 to 17 g/d, from 0.0315 to 0.0045 g/100 mL of milk, and from 2.55 to 0.49 g of curd/100 g of milk, respectively. For all the models, standard deviations of predictions among all the instruments were also reduced by 5.11 times for methane, 5.01 times for polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 7.05 times for fresh cheese yield, showing an improvement of prediction reproducibility within the network. Regarding the results obtained, spectral standardization allows the transfer and use of multiple models on all instruments as well as the improvement of spectral and prediction

  15. Low-mass Stars with Extreme Mid-Infrared Excesses: Potential Signatures of Planetary Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher; West, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    I investigate the occurrence of extreme mid-infrared (MIR) excesses, a tracer of large amounts of dust orbiting stars, in low-mass stellar systems. Extreme MIR excesses, defined as an excess IR luminosity greater than 1% of the stellar luminosity (LIR/L* ≥ 0.01), have previously only been observed around a small number of solar-mass (M⊙) stars. The origin of this excess has been hypothesized to be massive amounts of orbiting dust, created by collisions between terrestrial planets or large planetesimals. Until recently, there was a dearth of low-mass (M* ≤ 0.6M⊙) stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, even though low-mass stars are ubiquitous (~70% of all stars), and known to host multiple terrestrial planets (≥ 3 planets per star).I combine the spectroscopic sample of low-mass stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (70,841 stars) with MIR photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), to locate stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses. I find the occurrence frequency of low-mass field stars (stars with ages ≥ 1 Gyr) exhibiting extreme MIR excesses is much larger than that for higher-mass field stars (0.41 ± 0.03% versus 0.00067 ± 0.00033%, respectively).In addition, I build a larger sample of low-mass stars based on stellar colors and proper motions using SDSS, WISE, and the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (8,735,004 stars). I also build a galactic model to simulate stellar counts and kinematics to estimate the number of stars missing from my sample. I perform a larger, more complete study of low-mass stars exhibiting extreme MIR excesses, and find a lower occurrence frequency (0.020 ± 0.001%) than found in the spectroscopic sample but that is still orders of magnitude larger than that for higher-mass stars. I find a slight trend for redder stars (lower-mass stars) to exhibit a higher occurrence frequency of extreme MIR excesses, as well as a lower frequency with increased stellar age. These samples probe important

  16. Carnegie Hubble Program: A Mid-Infrared Calibration of the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Burns, Chris; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. Eric; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Using a mid-infrared calibration of the Cepheid distance scale based on recent observations at 3.6 micrometers with the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained a new, high-accuracy calibration of the Hubble constant. We have established the mid-IR zero point of the Leavitt law (the Cepheid period-luminosity relation) using time-averaged 3.6 micrometers data for 10 high-metallicity, MilkyWay Cepheids having independently measured trigonometric parallaxes. We have adopted the slope of the PL relation using time-averaged 3.6micrometers data for 80 long-period Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids falling in the period range 0.8 < log(P) < 1.8.We find a new reddening-corrected distance to the LMC of 18.477 +/- 0.033 (systematic) mag. We re-examine the systematic uncertainties in H(sub 0), also taking into account new data over the past decade. In combination with the new Spitzer calibration, the systematic uncertainty in H(sub 0) over that obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project has decreased by over a factor of three. Applying the Spitzer calibration to the Key Project sample, we find a value of H(sub 0) = 74.3 with a systematic uncertainty of +/-2.1 (systematic) kilometers per second Mpc(sup -1), corresponding to a 2.8% systematic uncertainty in the Hubble constant. This result, in combination with WMAP7measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and assuming a flat universe, yields a value of the equation of state for dark energy, w(sub 0) = -1.09 +/- 0.10. Alternatively, relaxing the constraints on flatness and the numbers of relativistic species, and combining our results with those of WMAP7, Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations yield w(sub 0) = -1.08 +/- 0.10 and a value of N(sub eff) = 4.13 +/- 0.67, mildly consistent with the existence of a fourth neutrino species.

  17. Combining mid infrared and total X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for prediction of soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towett, Erick; Shepherd, Keith; Sila, Andrew; Aynekulu, Ermias; Cadisch, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (MIR) can predict many soil properties but extractable nutrients are often predicted poorly. We evaluated the potential of MIR and total elemental analysis using total X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF), both individually and combined, to predict results of conventional soil tests. Total multi-elemental analysis provides a fingerprint of soil mineralogy and could predict some soil properties and help improve MIR predictions. A set of 700 georeferenced soil samples associated with the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) (www.africasoils.net) from 44 stratified randomly-located 100-km2 sentinel sites distributed across sub-Saharan Africa were analysed for physico-chemical composition using conventional reference methods, and compared to MIR and TXRF spectra using the Random Forests regression algorithm and an internal out-of-bag validation. MIR spectra resulted in good prediction models (R2 >0.80) for organic C and total N, Mehlich-3 Ca and Al, and pH. To test the combined spectroscopic approach, TXRF element concentration data was included as a property predictor along with the first derivative of MIR spectral data using the RF algorithm. Including TXRF did not improve prediction of these properties. TXRF was poorer (R2 0.86) as these elements are not directly determined with TXRF, however the variance explained is still quite high and may be attributable to TXRF signatures relating to mineralogy correlated with protection of soil organic matter. TXRF model for Mehlich-3 Al had excellent prediction capability explaining 81% of the observed variation in extractable Al content and was comparable to that of MIR (R2 = 0.86). However, models for pH and Mehlich-3 exchangeable Ca exhibited R2 values of 0.74 and 0.79 respectively and thus had moderate predictive accuracy, compared to MIR alone with R2 values of 0.82 and 0.84 respectively. Both MIR and TXRF methods predicted soil properties that relate to nutrient

  18. Fiber-delivered mid-infrared (6-7) laser ablation of retinal tissue under perfluorodecalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A.; Joos, Karen M.; Jansen, E. Duco

    2003-07-01

    The Er:YAG laser (l=2.94mm) is an effective tool in vitreo-retinal surgery. Pulsed mid-infrared (l=6.45 mm) radiation from the Free Electron Laser has been touted as a potentially superior cutting tool. To date, use of this laser has been limited to applications in an air environment. The goal of this study was: 1) determine feasibility of fiberoptic delivery of 6.45mm using silverhalide fibers (d=700mm); 2) use infrared transparent vitreous substitute (perfluorodecalin) to allow non-contact ablation of the retina at 6.45mm. Fiber damage threshold=7.8J/cm2 (0.54GW/cm2) while transmission loss=0.54dB/m, allowing supra-ablative radiant exposures to the target. FTIR measurements of perfluorodecalin at 6.45mm yielded ma=3mm-1. Pump-probe imaging of ablation of a tissue-phantom through perfluorodecalin showed feasibility of non-contact ablation at l=6.45mm. Ablation of the retinal membranes of enucleated pig eyes was carried out under perfluorodecalin (5 Hz, 1.3 J/cm2). Each eye was cut along its equator to expose the retina. Vitreous was replaced by perfluorodecalin and laser radiation was delivered to the retina via the silverhalide fiber. The eye was rotated (at 2 rpm) using a stepper motor (0.9o/step) to create an ablation circle around the central axis of the retina (50% spot-to-spot overlap). Histological analysis of ablation yield and collateral damage will be presented. We have shown that using l=6.45mm delivered via silver halide fibers through perfluorodecalin allowed non-contact laser ablation. Remote structures are shielded, as the radiant exposure falls below the ablation threshold owing non-negligible absorption of perfluorodecalin at 6.45mm. This may optimize efficacy and safety of laser-based vitreoretinal surgery.

  19. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Xue, M. Y.; Li, Aigen

    2013-01-01

    Based on photometric data from the Spitzer/SAGE survey, using red giants as extinction tracers, the mid-infrared (MIR) extinction laws in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are derived for the first time in the form of A λ /A K S . This quantity refers to the extinction in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands (i.e., [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], and [8.0] μm) relative to the Two Micron All Sky Survey K S band at 2.16 μm. We obtain the near-infrared extinction coefficient to be E(J – H)/E(H – K S ) ≈ 1.29 ± 0.04 and E(J – K S )/E(H – K S ) ≈ 1.94 ± 0.04. The wavelength dependence of the MIR extinction A λ /A K S in the LMC varies from one sightline to another. The overall mean MIR extinction is A [3.6] /A K S ∼0.72±0.03, A [4.5] /A K S ∼0.94±0.03, A [5.8] /A K S ∼0.58±0.04, and A [8.0] /A K S ∼0.62±0.05. Except for the extinction in the IRAC [4.5] μm band, which may be contaminated by the 4.6 μm CO gas absorption of red giants used to trace LMC extinction, the extinction in the other three IRAC bands show a flat curve, close to the Milky Way R V = 5.5 model extinction curve, where R V is the optical total-to-selective extinction ratio. The possible systematic bias caused by the correlated uncertainties of K S – λ and J – K S is explored in terms of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that this bias could lead to an overestimation of A λ /A K S in the MIR

  20. THE MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW AND ITS VARIATION IN THE COALSACK NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shu; Gao Jian; Jiang, B. W.; Chen Yang [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Aigen, E-mail: shuwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jiangao@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: cheny@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    In recent years, the wavelength dependence of interstellar extinction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near- and mid-infrared (IR) has been studied extensively. Although it is well established that the UV/optical extinction law varies significantly among the different lines of sight, it is not clear how IR extinction varies among various environments. In this work, using the color-excess method and taking red giants as the extinction tracer, we determine interstellar extinction A{sub {lambda}} in the four Spitzer/IRAC bands in [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0] {mu}m (relative to A{sub K{sub s}}, extinction in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) K{sub s} band at 2.16 {mu}m) of the Coalsack nebula, a nearby starless dark cloud, based on the data obtained from the 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE surveys. We select five individual regions across the nebula that span a wide variety of physical conditions ranging from diffuse and translucent to dense environments, as traced by the visual extinction, the Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m emission, and CO emission. We find that A{sub {lambda}}/A{sub K{sub s}}, mid-IR extinction relative to A{sub K{sub s}}, decreases from diffuse to dense environments, which may be explained in terms of ineffective dust growth in dense regions. The mean extinction (relative to A{sub K{sub s}}) is calculated for the four IRAC bands as well and exhibits a flat mid-IR extinction law consistent with previous determinations for other regions. Extinction in the IRAC 4.5 {mu}m band is anomalously high, much higher than that of the other three IRAC bands, and cannot be explained in terms of CO and CO{sub 2} ice. Mid-IR extinction in the four IRAC bands has also been derived for four representative regions in the Coalsack Globule 2, which respectively exhibit strong ice absorption, moderate or weak ice absorption, and very weak or no ice absorption. The derived mid-IR extinction curves are all flat, with A{sub {lambda}}/A{sub K{sub s}} increasing with the decrease of the

  1. THE SPATIAL EXTENT OF (U)LIRGs IN THE MID-INFRARED. I. THE CONTINUUM EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DIaz-Santos, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Petric, A. O.; Howell, J. H.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Haan, S.; Marshall, J. A.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Veilleux, S.; Bothun, G.; Appleton, P. N.; Evans, A. S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the extended mid-infrared (MIR) emission of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey sample based on 5-15 μm low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. We calculate the fraction of extended emission (FEE) as a function of wavelength for the galaxies in the sample, FEE λ , defined as the fraction of the emission which originates outside of the unresolved component of a source at a given distance. We find that the FEE λ varies from one galaxy to another, but we can identify three general types of FEE λ : one where FEE λ is constant, one where features due to emission lines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons appear more extended than the continuum, and a third which is characteristic of sources with deep silicate absorption at 9.7 μm. More than 30% of the galaxies have a median FEE λ larger than 0.5, implying that at least half of their MIR emission is extended. Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) display a wide range of FEE in their warm dust continuum (0 ∼ 13.2 μ m ∼ 13.2 μ m that we find in many LIRGs suggest that the extended component of their MIR continuum emission originates in scales up to 10 kpc and may contribute as much as the nuclear region to their total MIR luminosity. The mean size of the LIRG cores at 13.2 μm is 2.6 kpc. However, once the IR luminosity of the systems reaches the threshold of L IR ∼ 10 11.8 L sun , slightly below the regime of Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), all sources become clearly more compact, with FEE 13.2 μ m ∼ IR ∼> 10 11.25 L sun strongly increases in those classified as mergers in their final stage of interaction. The FEE 13.2 μ m is also related to the contribution of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the MIR emission. Galaxies which are more AGN dominated are less extended, independently of their L IR . We finally find that the extent of the MIR continuum emission is correlated with the far-IR IRAS log(f 60 μ m /f 100 μ m

  2. Recent progress in diode-pumped mid-infrared vibronic solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokina, I.T.; Sorokin, E.; Mirov, S.; Schaffers, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The last few years were marked by the increased interest of researchers towards the new class of transition-metal doped zinc chalcogenides. In particular Cr:ZnSe attracts a lot of attention as broadly tunable continuous-wave (cw), mode-locked and diode-pumped lasers operating around 2.5 mm. This interest is explained by the absence of other comparable tunable room-temperature laser sources in this spectral region. However, another member of the II-VI compounds family Cr:ZnS, has yet remained barely studied as a laser medium. Recently we demonstrated the first continuous-wave room-temperature tunable over more than 280 nm around 2.3 μm Cr 2+ :ZnS laser, pumped with a Co:MgF2 laser and yielding over 100 mW of output power. The most recent result is the development of a compact tunable over 700 nm continuous-wave room-temperature Cr 2+ :ZnS laser, pumped by the diode-pumped Er-fiber laser at 1.6 μm and generating 0.7 W of the linearly polarized radiation. We also demonstrated direct diode-pumping at 1.6 μm of the Cr 2+ :ZnS. Although the Cr:ZnS exhibited lower (relatively to the Cr:ZnSe) efficiency and output power due to the higher passive losses of the available Cr:ZnS samples, the analysis of the spectroscopic and laser data indicates the high potential of Cr:ZnS for compact broadly tunable mid-infrared systems, as well as for high power applications. The physics of the novel diode-pumped laser systems is highly interesting. It comprises the features of the ion-doped dielectric crystalline lasers and semiconductors. For example, we observe in these media, for the first time to our knowledge, a new nonlinear phenomenon, which is analogous to the opto-optical switching process, where the laser output of the diode-pumped continuous-wave Cr:ZnSe and Cr:ZnS lasers around 2.5 μm is modulated by only a few milliwatt of the visible (470-500 nm) and near-infrared radiation (740-770 nm). We present a physical explanation of the observed effect. Refs. 4 (author)

  3. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ridgway, S. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gates, E. L. [UCO/Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Nielsen, D. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sajina, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tuffs University, 212 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Cox Drews, S. [946 Mangrove Avenue 102, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Harrison, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Seymour, N. [CSIRO, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Storrie-Lombardi, L. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 μm flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ∼> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ∼ 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  4. Real-Time and Label-Free Chemical Sensor-on-a-chip using Monolithic Si-on-BaTiO3 Mid-Infrared waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiening; Li, Leigang; Zhang, Bruce; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Pao Tai

    2017-07-19

    Chip-scale chemical detection is demonstrated by using mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) waveguides on an epitaxial barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BTO) thin film. The highly c-axis oriented BTO film was grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and it exhibits a broad transparent window from λ = 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The waveguide structure was fabricated by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and a sharp fundamental waveguide mode has been observed. By scanning the spectrum within the characteristic absorption regime, our mid-IR waveguide successfully perform label-free monitoring of various organic solvents. The real-time heptane detection is accomplished by measuring the intensity attenuation at λ = 3.0-3.2 μm, which is associated with -CH absorption. While for methanol detection, we track the -OH absorption at λ = 2.8-2.9 μm. Our monolithic Si-on-BTO waveguides establish a new sensor platform that enables integrated photonic device for label-free chemical detection.

  5. Non-invasive identification of metal-oxalate complexes on polychrome artwork surfaces by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Rosi, Francesca; Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G

    2013-12-01

    In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution from the surface component of the reflected light. In order to provide insights in the interpretation of theses spectral distortions, reflection spectra were compared with conventional transmission ones. The Kramers-Kronig (KK) algorithm, employed to correct for the surface reflection distortions, worked properly only for the derivative-like bands. Therefore, to pay attention to the use of this algorithm when interpreting the reflection spectra is recommended. The outcome of this investigation was exploited to discriminate among different oxalates on thirteen polychrome artworks analyzed in situ by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The visualization of the νs(CO) modes (1400-1200 cm(-1)) and low wavenumber bands (below 900 cm(-1)) in the raw reflection profiles allowed Ca, Cu and Zn oxalates to be identified. Further information about the speciation of different hydration forms of calcium oxalates were obtained by using the KK transform. The work proves reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy to be a reliable and sensitive spectro-analytical method for identifying and mapping different metal-oxalate alteration compounds on the surface of artworks, thus providing conservation scientists with a non-invasive tool to obtain information on the state of conservation and causes of alteration of artworks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preferential flow pathways revealed by field based stable isotope analysis of CO2 by mid-infrared laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Nowak, Martin; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra; Myrttinen, Anssi; Barth, Johannes A. C.; Jost, Hj

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed and commercially available isotope ratio laser spectrometer for CO2 analyses has been tested during a 10-day field monitoring campaign at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in northern Germany. The laser instrument is based on tunable laser direct absorption in the mid-infrared. The instrument recorded a continuous 10-day carbon stable isotope data set with 30 minutes resolution directly on-site in a field-based laboratory container during a tracer experiment. To test the instruments performance and accuracy the monitoring campaign was accompanied by daily CO2 sampling for laboratory analyses with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The carbon stable isotope ratios measured by conventional IRMS technique and by the new mid-infrared laser spectrometer agree remarkably well within 2σ analytical precision (<0.3 ‰). This proves the capability of the new mid-infrared direct absorption technique to measure high precision and accurate real-time table isotope data directly in the field. The injected CO2 tracer had a distinct δ13C value that was largely different from the reservoir background value. The laser spectroscopy data revealed a prior to this study unknown, intensive dynamic with fast changing δ13C values. The arrival pattern of the tracer suggest that the observed fluctuations were probably caused by migration along separate and distinct preferential flow paths between injection well and observation well. The new technique might contribute to a better tracing of the migration of the underground CO2 plume and help to ensure the long-term integrity of the reservoir.

  7. Mid-infrared spectroscopic characterisation of an ultra-broadband tunable EC-QCL system intended for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlsing, T.; Moser, H.; Grafen, M.; Nalpantidis, K.; Brandstetter, M.; Heise, H. M.; Lendl, B.; Leonhardt, S.; Ihrig, D.; Ostendorf, A.

    2015-07-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been successfully applied for reagent-free clinical chemistry applications. Our aim is to design a portable bed-side system for ICU patient monitoring, based on mid-infrared absorption spectra of continuously sampled body-fluids. Robust and miniature bed-side systems can be achieved with tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). Previously, single EC-QCL modules covering a wavenumber interval up to 250 cm-1 have been utilized. However, for broader applicability in biomedical research an extended interval around the mid-infrared fingerprint region should be accessible, which is possible with at least three or four EC-QCL modules. For such purpose, a tunable ultra-broadband system (1920 - 780 cm-1, Block Engineering) has been studied with regard to its transient emission characteristics in ns time resolution during different laser pulse widths using a VERTEX 80v FTIR spectrometer with step-scan option. Furthermore, laser emission line profiles of all four incorporated EC-QCL modules have been analysed at high spectral resolution (0.08 cm-1) and beam profiles with few deviations from the TEM 00 spatial mode have been manifested. Emission line reproducibility has been tested for various wavenumbers in step tune mode. The overall accuracy of manufacturer default wavenumber setting has been found between ± 3 cm-1 compared to the FTIR spectrometer scale. With regard to an application in clinical chemistry, theoretically achievable concentration accuracies for different blood substrates based on blood plasma and dialysate spectra previously recorded by FTIRspectrometers have been estimated taking into account the now accessible extended wavenumber interval.

  8. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential

  9. Mid-infrared studies of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keightley, Peter Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of GaAs/AIGaAs Quantum Cascade (QC) structures. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques are employed to study several QC LED and laser structures, in order to investigate the fundamental principles underlying the operation of these state of the art devices. The results presented in this thesis include the demonstration of intersubband lasing in a GaAs/AIGaAs QC laser, which closely followed the first report of QC lasing using this materials system in 1998, and form a basis from which further research into QC lasers can be built upon. Initially, a spectroscopic investigation of several QC LEDs is presented, beginning with a comparison of the performance of two designs incorporating an active region based on a diagonal transition. These devices have single quantum well (SQW), or multi-quantum well (MQW) bridging regions and are investigated using intersubband electroluminescence (EL) spectroscopy. It is found that although growth and design are simplified by the use of a SQW bridging region, superior performance is obtained by the use of MQW bridging regions, intersubband EL and photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy are employed to study the operating characteristics of a QC LED incorporating a graded superlattice active region. EL is observed at 9 and 11μm arising from interminiband radiative transitions. Complementary intersubband and interband spectroscopic techniques have been employed to study the evolution of the electron distribution within a QC LED, with increasing bias. Below the device turn on, the transfer of electrons from the donors to the active region ground state is observed. As the bias is increased the redistribution of electrons through the bridging region is observed, in conjunction with an alignment of energy levels within the structure, close to the operating bias. Intersubband lasing has been demonstrated from a GaAs/AIGaAs QC laser at λ∼9μm. Reciprocal gain measurements have been performed to determine the

  10. Few-cycle high energy mid-infrared pulse from Ho:YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murari, Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade, development of high-energy ultrafast laser sources has led to important breakthroughs in attoscience and strong-field physics study in atoms and molecules. Coherent pulse synthesis of few-cycle high-energy laser pulse is a promising tool to generate isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonics generation (HHG). An effective way to extend the HHG cut-off energy to higher values is making use of long mid-infrared (MIR) driver wavelength, as the ponderomotive potential scales quadratically with wavelength. If properly scaled in energy to multi-mJ level and few-cycle duration, such pulses provide a direct path to intriguing attoscience experiments in gases and solids, which even permit the realization of bright coherent table-top HHG sources in the water-window and keV X-ray region. However, the generation of high-intensity long-wavelength MIR pulses has always remained challenging, in particular starting from high-energy picosecond 2-μm laser driver, that is suitable for further energy scaling of the MIR pulses to multi-mJ energies by utilizing optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). In this thesis, a front-end source for such MIR OPA is presented. In particular, a novel and robust strong-field few-cycle 2-μm laser driver directly from picosecond Ho:YLF laser and utilizing Kagome fiber based compression is presented. We achieved: a 70-fold compression of 140-μJ, 3.3-ps pulses from Ho:YLF amplifier to 48 fs with 11 μJ energy. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates a straightforward path towards generation of few-cycle MIR pulses and we believe that in the future the ultrafast community will benefit from this enabling technology. The results are summarized in mainly four parts: The first part is focused on the development of a 2-μm, high-energy laser source as the front-end. Comparison of available technology in general and promising gain media at MIR wavelength are discussed. Starting from the basics of an OPA, the design criteria

  11. Tracing dust in old stellar populations : the mid-infrared spectrum of globular cluster AGB stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    2010-01-01

    Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are considered to be the main stellar dust producers in the universe. Their dusty circumstellar shells leave fingerprints in the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of AGB stars and in unresolved old stellar populations. Bressan et al. (2007) showed that co-added MIR-spectra of AGB stars of known luminosity, metallicity and age (like those found in the Galactic globular cluster NGC104) can be used to model the dust excess in early-type galaxies. This work aims to improve our understanding of the MIR-spectra of old stellar populations with respect to their metallicities by studying a large sample of AGB stars in Galactic globular clusters. A sample of AGB stars (taken from Lebzelter et al. 2006 and Sloan et al. 2010) is used to produce co-added MIR-spectra of globular cluster combinations for three metallicity groups. Each group consists of several globular clusters with similar age and metallicity. Combining the clusters leads to a higher number of AGB stars with available Spitzer spectra in each group. The low metallicity group (Z=0.0038) consists of five globular clusters with 18 AGB star spectra, the intermediate (Z=0.0058) and high (Z=0.01) metallicity groups both include three clusters with eight and seven available MIR-spectra, respectively. Stars within the 90% mass radius of each globular cluster are used to generate 2MASS Color- Magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of each cluster combination. Binning the stars in the CMDs with respect to their MK-values results in Luminosity Functions (LFs) for the cluster combinations. The LFs based on 2MASS data are compared to LFs obtained using theoretical isochrones from the Padova group (Bertelli et al. 2008, Marigo et al. 2008). Using the 2MASS LFs integrated MIR-spectra of the three globular cluster combinations are derived by weighting the existing spectra with the total number of AGB stars within each MK-bin of the LFs along the upper giant branch. This relies on the assumption that stars that

  12. Generation and application of ultrashort coherent mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Scott

    Particle accelerators are useful instruments that help address critical issues for the future development of nuclear energy. Current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency (rf) cavities are too large and expensive for widespread commercial use, and alternative designs must be considered for supplying relativistic beams to small-scale applications, including medical imaging, secu- rity screening, and scientific research in a university-scale laboratory. Laser-driven acceleration using micro-fabricated dielectric photonic structures is an attractive approach because such photonic microstructures can support accelerating fields that are 10 to 100 times higher than that of rf cavity-based accelerators. Dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) use commercial lasers as a driving source, which are smaller and less expensive than the klystrons used to drive current rf-based accelerators. Despite the apparent need for compact and economical laser sources for laser-driven acceleration, the availability of suitable high-peak-power lasers that cover a broad spectral range is currently limited. To address the needs of several innovative acceleration mechanisms like DLA, it is proposed to develop a coherent source of mid-infrared (IR) electromagnetic radiation that can be implemented as a driving source of laser accelerators. The use of ultrashort mid-IR high peak power laser systems in various laser-driven acceleration schemes has shown the potential to greatly reduce the optical pump intensities needed to realize high acceleration gradients. The optical intensity needed to achieve a given ponderomotive potential is 25 times less when using a 5-mum mid-IR laser as compared to using a 1-mum near-IR solid-state laser. In addition, dielectric structure breakdown caused by multiphoton ionization can be avoided by using longer-wavelength driving lasers. Current mid-IR laser sources do not produce sufficiently short pulse durations, broad spectral bandwidths

  13. Few-cycle high energy mid-infrared pulse from Ho:YLF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murari, Krishna

    2017-04-15

    Over the past decade, development of high-energy ultrafast laser sources has led to important breakthroughs in attoscience and strong-field physics study in atoms and molecules. Coherent pulse synthesis of few-cycle high-energy laser pulse is a promising tool to generate isolated attosecond pulses via high harmonics generation (HHG). An effective way to extend the HHG cut-off energy to higher values is making use of long mid-infrared (MIR) driver wavelength, as the ponderomotive potential scales quadratically with wavelength. If properly scaled in energy to multi-mJ level and few-cycle duration, such pulses provide a direct path to intriguing attoscience experiments in gases and solids, which even permit the realization of bright coherent table-top HHG sources in the water-window and keV X-ray region. However, the generation of high-intensity long-wavelength MIR pulses has always remained challenging, in particular starting from high-energy picosecond 2-μm laser driver, that is suitable for further energy scaling of the MIR pulses to multi-mJ energies by utilizing optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs). In this thesis, a front-end source for such MIR OPA is presented. In particular, a novel and robust strong-field few-cycle 2-μm laser driver directly from picosecond Ho:YLF laser and utilizing Kagome fiber based compression is presented. We achieved: a 70-fold compression of 140-μJ, 3.3-ps pulses from Ho:YLF amplifier to 48 fs with 11 μJ energy. The work presented in this thesis demonstrates a straightforward path towards generation of few-cycle MIR pulses and we believe that in the future the ultrafast community will benefit from this enabling technology. The results are summarized in mainly four parts: The first part is focused on the development of a 2-μm, high-energy laser source as the front-end. Comparison of available technology in general and promising gain media at MIR wavelength are discussed. Starting from the basics of an OPA, the design criteria

  14. Comparison of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared, Near Infrared, and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopies for the Determination of Coffee’s Geographical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensorial properties of Colombian coffee are renowned worldwide, which is reflected in its market value. This raises the threat of fraud by adulteration using coffee grains from other countries, thus creating a demand for robust and cost-effective methods for the determination of geographical origin of coffee samples. Spectroscopic techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, near infrared (NIR, and mid-infrared (mIR have arisen as strong candidates for the task. Although a body of work exists that reports on their individual performances, a faithful comparison has not been established yet. We evaluated the performance of 1H-NMR, Attenuated Total Reflectance mIR (ATR-mIR, and NIR applied to fraud detection in Colombian coffee. For each technique, we built classification models for discrimination by species (C. arabica versus C. canephora (or robusta and by origin (Colombia versus other C. arabica using a common set of coffee samples. All techniques successfully discriminated samples by species, as expected. Regarding origin determination, ATR-mIR and 1H-NMR showed comparable capacity to discriminate Colombian coffee samples, while NIR fell short by comparison. In conclusion, ATR-mIR, a less common technique in the field of coffee adulteration and fraud detection, emerges as a strong candidate, faster and with lower cost compared to 1H-NMR and more discriminating compared to NIR.

  15. Development of Fourier transform mid-infrared calibrations to predict acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, and citrate contents in bovine milk through a European dairy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelet, C; Bastin, C; Gelé, M; Davière, J-B; Johan, M; Werner, A; Reding, R; Fernandez Pierna, J A; Colinet, F G; Dardenne, P; Gengler, N; Soyeurt, H; Dehareng, F

    2016-06-01

    To manage negative energy balance and ketosis in dairy farms, rapid and cost-effective detection is needed. Among the milk biomarkers that could be useful for this purpose, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) have been proved as molecules of interest regarding ketosis and citrate was recently identified as an early indicator of negative energy balance. Because Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry can provide rapid and cost-effective predictions of milk composition, the objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of this technology to predict these biomarkers in milk. Milk samples were collected in commercial and experimental farms in Luxembourg, France, and Germany. Acetone, BHB, and citrate contents were determined by flow injection analysis. Milk mid-infrared spectra were recorded and standardized for all samples. After edits, a total of 548 samples were used in the calibration and validation data sets for acetone, 558 for BHB, and 506 for citrate. Acetone content ranged from 0.020 to 3.355mmol/L with an average of 0.103mmol/L; BHB content ranged from 0.045 to 1.596mmol/L with an average of 0.215mmol/L; and citrate content ranged from 3.88 to 16.12mmol/L with an average of 9.04mmol/L. Acetone and BHB contents were log-transformed and a part of the samples with low values was randomly excluded to approach a normal distribution. The 3 edited data sets were then randomly divided into a calibration data set (3/4 of the samples) and a validation data set (1/4 of the samples). Prediction equations were developed using partial least square regression. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of cross-validation was 0.73 for acetone, 0.71 for BHB, and 0.90 for citrate with root mean square error of 0.248, 0.109, and 0.70mmol/L, respectively. Finally, the external validation was performed and R(2) obtained were 0.67 for acetone, 0.63 for BHB, and 0.86 for citrate, with respective root mean square error of validation of 0.196, 0.083, and 0.76mmol/L. Although

  16. AN IN-DEPTH VIEW OF THE MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF POINT SOURCES AND THE DIFFUSE ISM IN THE SMC GIANT H II REGION, N66

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Rémy; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Galliano, Frédéric; Peeters, Els; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Brandl, Bernhard R.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this work is to study mid-infrared point sources and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) in the low-metallicity (∼0.2 Z ☉ ) giant H II region N66 in order to determine properties that may shed light on star formation in these conditions. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph, we study polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dust continuum, silicate, and ionic line emission from 14 targeted infrared point sources as well as spectra of the diffuse ISM that is representative of both the photodissociation regions (PDRs) and the H II regions. Among the point source spectra, we spectroscopically confirm that the brightest mid-infrared point source is a massive embedded young stellar object, we detect silicates in emission associated with two young stellar clusters, and we see spectral features of a known B[e] star that are commonly associated with Herbig Be stars. In the diffuse ISM, we provide additional evidence that the very small grain population is being photodestroyed in the hard radiation field. The 11.3 μm PAH complex emission exhibits an unexplained centroid shift in both the point source and ISM spectra that should be investigated at higher signal-to-noise and resolution. Unlike studies of other regions, the 6.2 μm and 7.7 μm band fluxes are decoupled; the data points cover a large range of I 7.7 /I 11.3 PAH ratio values within a narrow band of I 6.2 /I 11.3 ratio values. Furthermore, there is a spread in PAH ionization, being more neutral in the dense PDR where the radiation field is relatively soft, but ionized in the diffuse ISM/PDR. By contrast, the PAH size distribution appears to be independent of local ionization state. Important to unresolved studies of extragalactic low-metallicity star-forming regions, we find that emission from the infrared-bright point sources accounts for only 20%-35% of the PAH emission from the entire region. These results make a comparative data set to other star-forming regions with

  17. Mid-Infrared Interferometry on Spectral Lines. II. Continuum (Dust) Emission Around IRC +10216 and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Lipman, E. A.; Tuthill, P. G.; Townes, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    The University of California Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has measured the mid-infrared visibilities of the carbon star IRC +10216 and the red supergiant VY CMa. The dust shells around these sources have been previously shown to be time variable, and these new data are used to probe the evolution of the dust shells on a decade timescale, complementing contemporaneous studies at other wavelengths. Self-consistent, spherically symmetric models at maximum and minimum light both show the inner radius of the IRC +10216 dust shell to be much larger (150 mas) than expected from the dust-condensation temperature, implying that dust production has slowed or stopped in recent years. Apparently, dust does not form every pulsational cycle (638 days), and these mid-infrared results are consistent with recent near-infrared imaging, which indicates little or no new dust production in the last 3 yr. Spherically symmetric models failed to fit recent VY CMa data, implying that emission from the inner dust shell is highly asymmetric and/or time variable.

  18. Fabrication of Shatter-Proof Metal Hollow-Core Optical Fibers for Endoscopic Mid-Infrared Laser Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Iwai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for fabricating robust and thin hollow-core optical fibers that carry mid-infrared light is proposed for use in endoscopic laser applications. The fiber is made of stainless steel tubing, eliminating the risk of scattering small glass fragments inside the body if the fiber breaks. To reduce the inner surface roughness of the tubing, a polymer base layer is formed prior to depositing silver and optical-polymer layers that confine light inside the hollow core. The surface roughness is greatly decreased by re-coating thin polymer base layers. Because of this smooth base layer surface, a uniform optical-polymer film can be formed around the core. As a result, clear interference peaks are observed in both the visible and mid-infrared regions. Transmission losses were also low for the carbon dioxide laser used for medical treatments as well as the visible laser diode used for an aiming beam. Measurements of bending losses for these lasers demonstrate the feasibility of the designed fiber for endoscopic applications.

  19. Seasonal variation of the radial brightness contrast of Saturn's rings viewed in mid-infrared by Subaru/COMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Hideaki; Morishima, Ryuji; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Yamashita, Takuya

    2017-03-01

    Aims: This paper investigates the mid-infrared (MIR) characteristics of Saturn's rings. Methods: We collected and analyzed MIR high spatial resolution images of Saturn's rings obtained in January 2008 and April 2005 with the COoled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, and investigated the spatial variation in the surface brightness of the rings in multiple bands in the MIR. We also composed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the C, B, and A rings and the Cassini Division, and estimated the temperatures of the rings from the SEDs assuming the optical depths. Results: We found that the C ring and the Cassini Division were warmer than the B and A rings in 2008, which could be accounted for by their lower albedos, lower optical depths, and smaller self-shadowing effect. We also fonud that the C ring and the Cassini Division were considerably brighter than the B and A rings in the MIR in 2008 and the radial contrast of the ring brightness is the inverse of that in 2005, which is interpreted as a result of a seasonal effect with changing elevations of the Sun and observer above the ring plane. The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A29

  20. Effect of microbiological testing on subsequent mid-infrared milk component analysis of the same milk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2014-09-01

    Our objectives were to determine if mixing and sampling of a raw milk sample at 4°C for determination of total bacteria count (TBC) and if incubation at 14°C for 18h and sampling for a preliminary incubation (PI) count influenced the accuracy of subsequent fat, protein, or lactose measurement by mid-infrared (IR) analysis of milk from the same sample container due to either nonrepresentative sampling or the presence of microbial metabolites produced by microbial growth in the milk from the incubation. Milks of 4 fat levels (2.2, 3, 4, and 5%) reflected the range of fat levels encountered in producer milks. If the portion of milk removed from a cold sample was not representative, then the effect on a milk component test would likely be larger as fat content increases. Within the milks at each fat level, 3 treatments were used: (1) 20 vials of the same milk sampled for testing TBC using a BactoScan FC and then used for a milk component test; (2) 20 vials for testing TBC plus PI count followed by component test; and (3) 20 vials to run for IR component test without a prior micro sampling and testing. This was repeated in 3 different weeks using a different batch of milk each week. No large effect on the accuracy of component milk testing [IR fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch) and fat A (carbonyl stretch)] due to the cold milk sample handling and mixing procedures used for TBC was detected, confirming the fact that the physical removal of milk from the vial by the BactoScan FC (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) was a representative portion of the milk. However, the representativeness of any other sampling procedure (manual or automated) of a cold milk sample before running milk component testing on the same container of milk should be demonstrated and verified periodically as a matter of routine laboratory quality assurance. Running TBC with a BactoScan FC first and then IR milk analysis after had a minimal effect on milk component tests by IR when milk bacteria counts

  1. Strategy for high-accuracy-and-precision retrieval of atmospheric methane from the mid-infrared FTIR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a strategy (MIR-GBM v1.0 for the retrieval of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4 with a precision <0.3% (1-σ diurnal variation, 7-min integration and a seasonal bias <0.14% from mid-infrared ground-based solar FTIR measurements of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, comprising 22 FTIR stations. This makes NDACC methane data useful for satellite validation and for the inversion of regional-scale sources and sinks in addition to long-term trend analysis. Such retrievals complement the high accuracy and precision near-infrared observations of the younger Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON with time series dating back 15 years or so before TCCON operations began.

    MIR-GBM v1.0 is using HITRAN 2000 (including the 2001 update release and 3 spectral micro windows (2613.70–2615.40 cm−1, 2835.50–2835.80 cm−1, 2921.00–2921.60 cm−1. A first-order Tikhonov constraint is applied to the state vector given in units of per cent of volume mixing ratio. It is tuned to achieve minimum diurnal variation without damping seasonality. Final quality selection of the retrievals uses a threshold for the goodness of fit (χ2 < 1 as well as for the ratio of root-mean-square spectral noise and information content (<0.15%. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions are calculated using the retrieved methane profiles and four-times-daily pressure-temperature-humidity profiles from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP interpolated to the time of measurement.

    MIR-GBM v1.0 is the optimum of 24 tested retrieval strategies (8 different spectral micro-window selections, 3 spectroscopic line lists: HITRAN 2000, 2004, 2008. Dominant errors of the non-optimum retrieval strategies are systematic HDO/H2O-CH4 interference errors leading to a seasonal bias up to ≈5%. Therefore interference

  2. A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderover, Jeremy

    A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental band it is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than most of the previously developed CO combustion sensors which utilized absorption in the near-IR overtone bands and mature traditional telecommunications-based diode lasers. The sensor has been demonstrated and validated under operation in both scanned-wavelength absorption and wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) modes in room-temperature gas cell and high-temperature shock tube experiments with known and specified gas conditions. The sensor has also been demonstrated for CO and temperature measurements in an atmospheric premixed ethylene/air McKenna burner flat flame for a range of equivalence ratios (phi = 0.7-1.4). Demonstration of the sensor under scanned-wavelength direct absorption operation was performed in a room-temperature gas cell (297 K and 0.001-1 atm) allowing validation of the line strengths and line shapes predicted by the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Application of the sensor in scanned-wavelength mode, at 1-2 kHz acquisition bandwidths, to specified high-temperature shock-heated gases (950-3400 K, 1 atm) provided validation of the sensor for measurements under the high-temperature conditions found in combustion devices. The scanned-wavelength shock tube measurements yielded temperature determinations that deviated by only +/-1.2% (1-sigma deviation) with the reflected shock temperatures and CO mole fraction determinations that deviated by that specified CO mole fraction by only +/-1.5% (1-sigma deviation). These deviations are in fact smaller

  3. Using mid infrared technology as new method for the determination of the dwell time of salivary substitutes on three dimensional gingiva models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Engelhart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people suffer from dry mouth (xerostomia due to radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancer, diseases like Sjogren’s syndrome or as adverse effects to prescribed medications. Salivary substitute products like gels or sprays are often used for treatment. Efficacy of those oral care products are regularly assessed by validated or even not validated questionnaires. To determine the adhesion effect over time more objectively a new and sensitive method was established. The following study was designed to assess the dwell time of different oral care products in vitro. Method Two different types of surfaces were covered with oral care products and washed using a definite protocol with artificial saliva salt solution. First, oral care gels or oral care sprays were spread to a polystyrene surface of 2.25 cm2, then onto cell based three-dimensional gingiva models. The surfaces were washed ten times with artificial saliva salt solution. The resulting washing solutions were examined using mid infrared spectroscopy in order to detect ingredients of the oral care products. Results All assessed oral care gels or oral care sprays and their components were detected very sensitive. Even traces of the products were detected in the eluent and thus enabled to differentiate the dwell times of the different products. In general, the dwell time of oral care gels on polystyrene or gingiva models was longer than that of oral care sprays. The use of gingiva models improved the differentiation between different products. Conclusions MIR spectroscopy turned out to be a sensitive method to detect salivary substitutes. Differences between single components and different products can be detected. The described method is a simple, reliable and easy process to evaluate the dwell time of oral care products in vitro and thus a useful tool to design optimised salivary substitute products. Ethics This is an in vitro study. No ethics or consent was

  4. SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MID-INFRARED LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES BASED ON InAs (Sb,P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Zhumashev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. We consider spectral characteristics of mid-infrared light-emitting diodes with heterostructures based on InAs(Sb,P emitting at T=300 K in the wavelength range 3.4–4.1 micrometers. The aim of the study was to search for the ways of increasing the diode efficiency. Methods. The heterostructures were grown from metal-organic chemical compounds with the use of vapor-phase epitaxial technique. The spectra were recorded under pulse excitation with the use of computer-controlled installation employing MDR-23 grating monochromator and a lock-in amplifier. InSb photodiode was used as a detector. Comparative study of electroluminescence spectra of the diodes was carried out at the temperatures equal to 300 K and 77 K. We compared the obtained data with the calculation results of the band diagrams of the heterostructures. Main Results. As a result of comparative study of the electroluminescence spectra of the diodes recorded at 300 K and 77 K we have established that increasing of their efficiency is hindered by substantial influence of Auger recombination. For the first time at 77 К we have observed the effect of stimulated emission from InAsSb active layer in light-emitting structures made of InAs/InAsSb/InAsSbP. For heterostructures with quantum wells InAs/(InAs/InAsSb/InAsSbP we have found out that at 77 К the carrier recombination occurs outside quantum wells, which points out to the insufficient carrier localization in the active layer. Thus, we have shown that the efficiency of mid-infrared light-emitting diodes based on InAs(Sb,P can be increased via suppression of Auger-recombination and improvement of carrier localization in the active region. Practical Relevance. The results of the study can be used for development of heterostructures for mid-infrared light-emitting diodes.

  5. Nanosecond neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, S.I.; Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Pukhov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    High-voltage nanosecond neutron generator for obtaining neutrons in D-T reaction is described. Yield of 6x10 6 neutron/pulse was generated in a sealed gas-filled diode with a target on the cathode by accelerating pulse voltage of approximately 0.5 MV and length at half-height of 0.5 ns and deuterium pressure of 6x10 -2 Torr. Ways of increasing neutron yield and possibilities of creating generators of nanosecond neutron pulses with great service life are considered

  6. Mid-infrared two-photon absorption in an extended-wavelength InGaAs photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, Marco; Rubin, Noah A.; Meadowcroft, Lauren; Chevalier, Paul; Yuan, Henry; Kimchi, Joseph; Capasso, Federico

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical response of a commercial extended-wavelength In0.81Ga0.19As uncooled photodetector. Degenerate two-photon absorption in the mid-infrared range is observed using a quantum cascade laser emitting at λ = 4.5 μm as the excitation source. From the measured two-photon photocurrent signal, we extract a two-photon absorption coefficient β(2) = 0.6 ± 0.2 cm/MW, in agreement with the theoretical value obtained from the Eg-3 scaling law. Considering the wide spectral range covered by extended-wavelength InxGa1-xAs alloys, this result holds promise for applications based on two-photon absorption for this family of materials at wavelengths between 1.8 and 5.6 μm.

  7. Identification of Spectral Regions for Quantification of Red Wine Tannins with Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S.

    2008-01-01

    Accomplishment of fast tannin measurements is receiving increased interest as tannins are important for the mouthfeel and color properties of red wines. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy allows fast measurement of different wine components, but quantification of tannins is difficult due...... to interferences from spectral responses of other wine components. Four different variable selection tools were investigated for the identification of the most important spectral regions which would allow quantification of tannins from the spectra using partial least-squares regression. The study included...... to be particularly important for tannin quantification. The spectral regions identified from the variable selection methods were used to develop calibration models. All four variable selection methods identified regions that allowed an improved quantitative prediction of tannins (RMSEP = 69−79 mg of CE/L; r = 0...

  8. Thermal effects of an ICL-based mid-infrared CH4 sensor within a wide atmospheric temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weilin; Zheng, Chuantao; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Girija, Aswathy V.; He, Qixin; Zheng, Huadan; Griffin, Robert J.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2018-03-01

    The thermal effects of an interband cascade laser (ICL) based mid-infrared methane (CH4) sensor that uses long-path absorption spectroscopy were studied. The sensor performance in the laboratory at a constant temperature of ∼25 °C was measured for 5 h and its Allan deviation was ∼2 ppbv with a 1 s averaging time. A LabVIEW-based simulation program was developed to study thermal effects on infrared absorption and a temperature compensation technique was developed to minimize these effects. An environmental test chamber was employed to investigate the thermal effects that occur in the sensor system with variation of the test chamber temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The thermal response of the sensor in a laboratory setting was observed using a 2.1 ppm CH4 standard gas sample. Indoor/outdoor CH4 measurements were conducted to evaluate the sensor performance within a wide atmospheric temperature range.

  9. Gain and Threshold Current in Type II In(AsSb Mid-Infrared Quantum Dot Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we improved the performance of mid-infrared type II InSb/InAs quantum dot (QD laser diodes by incorporating a lattice-matched p-InAsSbP cladding layer. The resulting devices exhibited emission around 3.1 µm and operated up to 120 K in pulsed mode, which is the highest working temperature for this type of QD laser. The modal gain was estimated to be 2.9 cm−1 per QD layer. A large blue shift (~150 nm was observed in the spontaneous emission spectrum below threshold due to charging effects. Because of the QD size distribution, only a small fraction of QDs achieve threshold at the same injection level at 4 K. Carrier leakage from the waveguide into the cladding layers was found to be the main reason for the high threshold current at higher temperatures.

  10. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Distance and Structure of the SMC as Revealed by Mid-Infrared Observations of Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andy; Persson, S. E.; Rich, Jeff; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    Using Spitzer observations of classical Cepheids we have measured the true average distance modulus of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) to be18.96 +/- 0.01 stat +/- 0.03sys mag (corresponding to 62+/- 0.3kpc), which is 0.48 +/- 0.01 mag more distant than the LMC. This is in agreement with previous results from Cepheid observations, as well as with measurements from other indicators such as RR Lyrae stars and the tip of the red giant branch. Utilizing the properties of the mid-infrared Leavitt Law we measured precise distances to individual Cepheids in the SMC, and have confirmed that the galaxy is tilted and elongated such that its eastern side is up to20 kpc closer than its western side. This is in agreement with the results from red clump stars and dynamical simulations of the Magellanic Clouds and Stream.

  11. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Matthias; Debernardi, Pierluigi; Felder, Ferdinand; Zogg, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  12. Modular PbSrS/PbS mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.; Cao, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Ishida, A.

    2011-07-01

    A mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) based on undoped PbS is described herein. A 200 nm-thick PbS active layer embedded between PbSrS cladding layers forms a double heterostructure. The layers are grown on a lattice and thermal expansion mismatched Si-substrate. The substrate is placed onto a flat bottom Bragg mirror again grown on a Si substrate, and the VECSEL is completed with a curved top mirror. Pumping is done optically with a 1.55 μm laser diode. This leads to an extremely simple modular fabrication process. Lasing wavelengths range from 3-3.8 μm at 100-260 K heat sink temperature. The lowest threshold power is ˜210 mWp and highest output power is ˜250 mWp. The influence of the different recombination mechanism as well as free carrier absorption on the threshold power is modeled.

  13. Lead-chalcogenide mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers with improved threshold: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fill, Matthias [ETH Zurich, Laser Spectroscopy and Sensing Lab, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Debernardi, Pierluigi [IEIIT-CNR, Torino 10129 (Italy); Felder, Ferdinand [Phocone AG, 8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Zogg, Hans [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-11

    Mid-infrared Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VECSEL) based on narrow gap lead-chalcogenide (IV-VI) semiconductors exhibit strongly reduced threshold powers if the active layers are structured laterally for improved optical confinement. This is predicted by 3-d optical calculations; they show that lateral optical confinement is needed to counteract the anti-guiding features of IV-VIs due to their negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. An experimental proof is performed with PbSe quantum well based VECSEL grown on a Si-substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and emitting around 3.3 μm. With proper mesa-etching, the threshold intensity is about 8-times reduced.

  14. PbSe quantum well mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, M.; Khiar, A.; Rahim, M.; Felder, F.; Zogg, H.

    2011-05-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers based on PbSe/PbSrSe multi-quantum-well structures on Si-substrates are realized. A modular design allows growing the active region and the bottom Bragg mirror on two different Si-substrates, thus facilitating comparison between different structures. Lasing is observed from 3.3 to 5.1 μm wavelength and up to 52 °C heat sink temperature with 1.55 μm optical pumping. Simulations show that threshold powers are limited by Shockley-Read recombination with lifetimes as short as 0.1 ns. At higher temperatures, an additional threshold power increase occurs probably due to limited carrier diffusion length and carrier leakage, caused by an unfavorable band alignment.

  15. Study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the mid-infrared with the ISOCAM instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the mid-infrared between 3 and 16 μm with the ISOCAM instrument. The study of nearby prototypical galaxies such as NGC 1068 and M 82 lead me to decompose the emission into three components. The star forming regions are characterized by (1) the infrared bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 μm originating from the photo-dissociation regions and also by (2) a continuum at 15 μm produced by the very small grains in HII regions. I show that AGNs have (3) strong continuum with an important contribution between 3 and 10 μm arising from hot dust heated to high temperatures of the order of 1000 K. I present two diagnostic diagrams based on the spectral properties of the three components allowing me to distinguish AGNs from starburst regions. In interacting galaxies, I show that some extra-nuclear regions harboring starburst activity can dominate the emission at 15 μm as in the Cartwheel and the Antennae galaxies. Using mid-infrared spectral features, I also define two prototypes of ultra-luminous galaxies dominated either by starburst activity in the case of Arp 220 or by the AGN in the Super-Antennae galaxy (IRAS 19254-7245). I explain how this diagram and the selection criteria evolve according to redshift. Finally, I show how we can develop new diagnostics using filters of the IRAC instrument on board the next infrared space observatory SIRTF. (author) [fr

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE SEARCH FOR STELLAR BOWSHOCK NEBULAE IN THE MILKY WAY: A CATALOG OF 709 MID-INFRARED SELECTED CANDIDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Chick, William T.; Schurhammer, Danielle P.; Andrews, Julian E.; Munari, Stephan A.; Olivier, Grace M.; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Wernke, Heather N.; Dale, Daniel A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82070 (United States); Povich, Matthew S.; Dixon, Don M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We identify 709 arc-shaped mid-infrared nebula in 24 μ m Spitzer Space Telescope or 22 μ m Wide Field Infrared Explorer surveys of the Galactic Plane as probable dusty interstellar bowshocks powered by early-type stars. About 20% are visible at 8 μ m or at shorter mid-infrared wavelengths. The vast majority (660) have no previous identification in the literature. These extended infrared sources are strongly concentrated near the Galactic mid-plane, with an angular scale height of ∼0.°6. All host a symmetrically placed star implicated as the source of a stellar wind sweeping up interstellar material. These are candidate “runaway” stars potentially having high velocities in the reference frame of the local medium. Among the 286 objects with measured proper motions, we find an unambiguous excess with velocity vectors aligned with the infrared morphology—kinematic evidence that many of these are “runaway” stars with large peculiar motions responsible for the bowshock signature. We discuss a population of “in situ” bowshocks (∼103 objects) that face giant H ii regions where the relative motions between the star and ISM may be caused by bulk outflows from an overpressured bubble. We also identify ∼58 objects that face 8 μ m bright-rimmed clouds and apparently constitute a sub-class of in situ bowshocks where the stellar wind interacts with a photoevaporative flow (PEF) from an eroding molecular cloud interface (i.e., “PEF bowshocks”). Orientations of the arcuate nebulae exhibit a correlation over small angular scales, indicating that external influences such as H ii regions are responsible for producing some bowshock nebulae. However, the vast majority of the nebulae in this sample appear to be isolated (499 objects) from obvious external influences.

  17. Application of mid-infrared free-electron laser tuned to amide bands for dissociation of aggregate structure of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayasu; Yaji, Toyonari; Ohta, Toshiaki; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared free-electron laser (FEL) is a linearly polarized, high-peak powered pulse laser with tunable wavelength within the mid-infrared absorption region. It was recently found that pathogenic amyloid fibrils could be partially dissociated to the monomer form by the irradiation of the FEL targeting the amide I band (C=O stretching vibration), amide II band (N-H bending vibration) and amide III band (C-N stretching vibration). In this study, the irradiation effect of the FEL on keratin aggregate was tested as another model to demonstrate an applicability of the FEL for dissociation of protein aggregates. Synchrotron radiation infrared microscopy analysis showed that the α-helix content in the aggregate structure decreased to almost the same level as that in the monomer state after FEL irradiation tuned to 6.06 µm (amide I band). Both irradiations at 6.51 µm (amide II band) and 8.06 µm (amide III band) also decreased the content of the aggregate but to a lesser extent than for the irradiation at the amide I band. On the contrary, the irradiation tuned to 5.6 µm (non-absorbance region) changed little the secondary structure of the aggregate. Scanning-electron microscopy observation at the submicrometer order showed that the angular solid of the aggregate was converted to non-ordered fragments by the irradiation at each amide band, while the aggregate was hardly deformed by the irradiation at 5.6 µm. These results demonstrate that the amide-specific irradiation by the FEL was effective for dissociation of the protein aggregate to the monomer form.

  18. MID-INFRARED HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF HD 114174 B: AN APPARENT AGE DISCREPANCY IN A ''SIRIUS-LIKE'' BINARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Christopher T.; Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Skemer, Andrew; Hinz, Philip M.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Defrere, Denis; Leisenring, Jarron [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 993 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Esposito, Simone; Puglisi, Alfio [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri Largo E. Fermi I-550125 Firenze (Italy)

    2014-03-10

    We present new observations of the faint ''Sirius-like'' companion discovered to orbit HD 114174. Previous attempts to image HD 114174 B at mid-infrared wavelengths using NIRC2 at Keck have resulted in a non-detection. Our new L'-band observations taken with the Large Binocular Telescope and L/M-band InfraRed Camera recover the companion (ΔL = 10.15 ± 0.15 mag, ρ = 0.''675 ± 0.''016) with a high signal-to-noise ratio (10σ). This measurement represents the deepest L' high-contrast imaging detection at subarcsecond separations to date, including extrasolar planets. We confirm that HD 114174 B has near-infrared colors consistent with the interpretation of a cool white dwarf (WD; J – L' = 0.76 ± 0.19 mag, K – L' = 0.64 ± 0.20). New model fits to the object's spectral energy distribution indicate a temperature T {sub eff} = 4260 ± 360 K, surface gravity log g = 7.94 ± 0.03, a cooling age t{sub c} ≈ 7.8 Gyr, and mass M = 0.54 ± 0.01 M {sub ☉}. We find that the cooling ages given by theoretical atmospheric models do not agree with the age of HD 114174 A derived from both isochronological and gyrochronological analyses. We speculate on possible scenarios to explain the apparent age discrepancy between the primary and secondary. HD 114174 B is a nearby benchmark WD that will ultimately enable a dynamical mass estimate through continued Doppler and astrometric monitoring. Efforts to characterize its physical properties in detail will test theoretical atmospheric models and improve our understanding of WD evolution, cooling, and progenitor masses.

  19. Star-forming Galaxies as AGN Imposters? A Theoretical Investigation of the Mid-infrared Colors of AGNs and Extreme Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas P.; Secrest, Nathan J.

    2018-05-01

    We conduct for the first time a theoretical investigation of the mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) produced by dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an extreme starburst. These models employ an integrated modeling approach using photoionization and stellar population synthesis models in which both the line and emergent continuum is predicted from gas exposed to the ionizing radiation from a young starburst and an AGN. In this work, we focus on the infrared colors from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, predicting the dependence of the colors on the input radiation field, the interstellar medium conditions, the obscuring column, and the metallicity. We find that an extreme starburst can mimic an AGN in two band mid-infrared color cuts employed in the literature. However, the three-band color cuts employed in the literature require starbursts with extremely high ionization parameters or gas densities. We show that the extreme mid-infrared colors seen in some blue compact dwarf galaxies are not due to metallicity but rather a combination of high ionization parameters and high column densities. Based on our theoretical calculations, we present a theoretical mid-infrared color cut that will exclude even the most extreme starburst that we have modeled in this work. The theoretical AGN demarcation region presented here can be used to identify elusive AGN candidates for future follow-up studies with the James Webb Space Telescope. The full suite of simulated SEDs are available online.

  20. High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ycas, Gabriel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Baumann, Esther; Coddington, Ian; Herman, Daniel; Diddams, Scott A.; Newbury, Nathan R.

    2018-04-01

    Mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy has the potential to supplant conventional Fourier-transform spectroscopy in applications requiring high resolution, accuracy, signal-to-noise ratio and speed. Until now, mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy has been limited to narrow optical bandwidths or low signal-to-noise ratios. Using digital signal processing and broadband frequency conversion in waveguides, we demonstrate a mid-infrared dual-comb spectrometer covering 2.6 to 5.2 µm with comb-tooth resolution, sub-MHz frequency precision and accuracy, and a spectral signal-to-noise ratio as high as 6,500. As a demonstration, we measure the highly structured, broadband cross-section of propane from 2,840 to 3,040 cm-1, the complex phase/amplitude spectra of carbonyl sulfide from 2,000 to 2,100 cm-1, and of a methane, acetylene and ethane mixture from 2,860 to 3,400 cm-1. The combination of broad bandwidth, comb-mode resolution and high brightness will enable accurate mid-infrared spectroscopy in precision laboratory experiments and non-laboratory applications including open-path atmospheric gas sensing, process monitoring and combustion.

  1. Quantification of SOC and Clay Content Using Visible Near-Infrared Reflectance–Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy With Jack-Knifing Partial Least Squares Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Knadel, Maria; Gislum, René

    2014-01-01

    A total of 125 soil samples were collected from a Danish field varying in soil texture from sandy to loamy. Visible near-infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR) and mid-infrared reflectance (MIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods were used to predict soil organic carbon (SOC) and clay content...

  2. Generating Efficient Femtosecond Mid-infrared Pulse by Single Near-infrared Pump Wavelength in Bulk Nonlinear Crystal Without Phase-matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8-2.92 μm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25-1.45 μm. © 2014 Optical Society of America...

  3. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Benford, Dominic J.; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin; Dey, Arjun; Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 – W2 ≥ 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]–[4.6] ≥0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 ± 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg 2 to a depth of W2 ∼ 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 μJy at 4.6 μm, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  4. Ultrasensitive Mid-Infrared In Situ Spectrometer for Planetary Atmospheric Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact, robust in situ spectrometer capable of detecting multiple gas-phase species in...

  5. Determination of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Water Using Highly Sensitive Mid-Infrared Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rui; Mizaikoff, Boris; Li, Wen-Wei; Qian, Chen; Katzir, Abraham; Raichlin, Yosef; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (CHCs) are toxic and carcinogenic contaminants commonly found in environmental samples, and efficient online detection of these contaminants is still challenging at the present stage. Here, we report an advanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) sensor for in-situ and simultaneous detection of multiple CHCs, including monochlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, and chloroform. The polycrystalline silver halide sensor fiber had a unique integrated planar-cylindric geometry, and was coated with an ethylene/propylene copolymer membrane to act as a solid phase extractor, which greatly amplified the analytical signal and contributed to a higher detection sensitivity compared to the previously reported sensors. This system exhibited a high detection sensitivity towards the CHCs mixture at a wide concentration range of 5~700 ppb. The FTIR-ATR sensor described in this study has a high potential to be utilized as a trace-sensitive on-line device for water contamination monitoring.

  6. The mid-infrared properties and gas content of active galaxies over large lookback times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.

    2018-05-01

    Upon an expansion of all of the searches for redshifted H I 21-cm absorption (0.002 1 ≤ z ≤ 5.19), we update recent results regarding the detection of 21-cm in the non-local Universe. Specifically, we confirm that photo-ionization of the gas is the mostly likely cause of the low detection rate at high redshift, in addition to finding that at z ≲ 0.1 there may also be a decrease in the detection rate, which we suggest is due to the dilution of the absorption strength by 21-cm emission. By assuming that associated and intervening absorbers have similar cosmological mass densities, we find evidence that the spin temperature of the gas evolves with redshift, consistent with heating by ultraviolet photons. From the near-infrared (λ = 3.4, 4.6 and 12 μm) colours, we see that radio galaxies become more quasar-like in their activity with increasing redshift. We also find that the non-detection of 21-cm absorption at high redshift is not likely to be due to the selection of gas-poor ellipticals, in addition to a strong correlation between the ionizing photon rate and the [3.4] - [4.6] colour, indicating that the UV photons arise from AGN activity. Like previous studies, we find a correlation between the detection of 21-cm absorption and the [4.6] - [12] colour, which is a tracer of star-forming activity. However, this only applies at the lowest redshifts (z ≲ 0.1), the range considered by the other studies.

  7. GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE IRAC DARK FIELD. II. MID-INFRARED SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, J. E.; Surace, J. A.; Yan, L.; Thompson, D.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Hora, J. L.; Gorjian, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) luminosities, star formation rates (SFR), colors, morphologies, locations, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) properties of 24 μm detected sources in photometrically detected high-redshift clusters in order to understand the impact of environment on star formation (SF) and AGN evolution in cluster galaxies. We use three newly identified z = 1 clusters selected from the IRAC dark field; the deepest ever mid-IR survey with accompanying, 14 band multiwavelength data including deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging and deep wide-area Spitzer MIPS 24 μm imaging. We find 90 cluster members with MIPS detections within two virial radii of the cluster centers, of which 17 appear to have spectral energy distributions dominated by AGNs and the rest dominated by SF. We find that 43% of the star-forming sample have IR luminosities L IR > 10 11 L sun (luminous IR galaxies). The majority of sources (81%) are spirals or irregulars. A large fraction (at least 25%) show obvious signs of interactions. The MIPS-detected member galaxies have varied spatial distributions as compared to the MIPS-undetected members with one of the three clusters showing SF galaxies being preferentially located on the cluster outskirts, while the other two clusters show no such trend. Both the AGN fraction and the summed SFR of cluster galaxies increase from redshift zero to one, at a rate that is a few times faster in clusters than over the same redshift range in the field. Cluster environment does have an effect on the evolution of both AGN fraction and SFR from redshift one to the present, but does not affect the IR luminosities or morphologies of the MIPS sample. SF happens in the same way regardless of environment making MIPS sources look the same in the cluster and field, however the cluster environment does encourage a more rapid evolution with time as compared to the field.

  8. Mid-infrared coincidence measurements on twin photons at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancinelli, M.; Trenti, A.; Piccione, S.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum measurements using single-photon detectors are opening interesting new perspectives in diverse fields such as remote sensing, quantum cryptography and quantum computing. A particularly demanding class of applications relies on the simultaneous detection of correlated single photons...... pave the way to quantum measurements in the MIR by the demonstration of a room temperature coincidence measurement with non-degenerate twin photons at about 3.1 mu m. The experiment is based on the spectral translation of MIR radiation into the visible region, by means of efficient up-converter modules...

  9. MID-INFRARED IMAGING OF THE TRANSITIONAL DISK OF HD 169142: MEASURING THE SIZE OF THE GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Science, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Maaskant, Koen; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Okamoto, Y. K. [Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kataza, H. [Department of Infrared Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Fukagawa, M. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Min, M. [Astronomical Institute Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Yamashita, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T.; Fujiwara, H. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Miyata, T.; Sako, S. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Sakon, I.; Onaka, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    The disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 169142 was imaged and resolved at 18.8 and 24.5 {mu}m using Subaru/COMICS. We interpret the observations using a two-dimensional radiative transfer model and find evidence for the presence of a large gap. The mid-infrared images trace dust that is emitted at the onset of a strong rise in the spectral energy distribution (SED) at 20 {mu}m, and are therefore very sensitive to the location and characteristics of the inner wall of the outer disk and its dust. We determine the location of the wall to be 23{sup +3}{sub -5} AU from the star. An extra component of hot dust must exist close to the star. We find that a hydrostatic optically thick inner disk does not produce enough flux in the near-infrared, and an optically thin, geometrically thick component is our solution to fit the SED. Considering the recent findings of gaps and holes in a number of Herbig Ae/Be group I disks, we suggest that such disk structures may be common in group I sources. Classification as group I should be considered a strong case for classification as a transitional disk, though improved imaging surveys are needed to support this speculation.

  10. Discovery of a Mid-infrared Echo from the TDE Candidate in the Nucleus of ULIRG F01004−2237

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Liming [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Ning; Yang, Chenwei; Peng, Bo [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yan, Lin [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M. [IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, Amy, E-mail: doulm@gzhu.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) light curves (LCs) of a tidal disruption event candidate in the center of a nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy F01004−2237 using archival WISE and NEOWISE data from 2010 to 2016. At the peak of the optical flare, F01004−2237 was IR quiescent. About three years later, its MIR fluxes have shown a steady increase, rising by 1.34 and 1.04 mag in 3.4 and 4.6 μ m up to the end of 2016. The host-subtracted MIR peak luminosity is 2–3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. We interpret the MIR LCs as an infrared echo, i.e., dust reprocessed emission of the optical flare. Fitting the MIR LCs using our dust model, we infer a dust torus of the size of a few parsecs at some inclined angle. The derived dust temperatures range from 590–850 K, and the warm dust mass is ∼7 M {sub ⊙}. Such a large mass implies that the dust cannot be newly formed. We also derive the UV luminosity of 4–11 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}. The inferred total IR energy is 1–2 × 10{sup 52} erg, suggesting a large dust covering factor. Finally, our dust model suggests that the long tail of the optical flare could be due to dust scattering.

  11. On a New Theoretical Framework for RR Lyrae Stars. II. Mid-infrared Period–Luminosity–Metallicity Relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeley, Jillian R.; Marengo, Massimo; Trueba, Nicolas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bono, Giuseppe; Braga, Vittorio F.; Magurno, Davide [Department of Physics, Università di Roma Tor Vergara, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Dall’Ora, Massimo; Marconi, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiarello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Tognelli, Emanuele; Moroni, Pier G. Prada [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Lago Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127, Pisa (Italy); Beaton, Rachael L.; Madore, Barry F.; Seibert, Mark [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Freedman, Wendy L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Monson, Andrew J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Scowcroft, Victoria [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Stetson, Peter B., E-mail: jrneeley@iastate.edu [NRC-Herzberg, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    We present new theoretical period–luminosity–metallicity (PLZ) relations for RR Lyræ stars (RRLs) at Spitzer and WISE wavelengths. The PLZ relations were derived using nonlinear, time-dependent convective hydrodynamical models for a broad range of metal abundances ( Z = 0.0001–0.0198). In deriving the light curves, we tested two sets of atmospheric models and found no significant difference between the resulting mean magnitudes. We also compare our theoretical relations to empirical relations derived from RRLs in both the field and in the globular cluster M4. Our theoretical PLZ relations were combined with multi-wavelength observations to simultaneously fit the distance modulus, μ {sub 0}, and extinction, A {sub V}, of both the individual Galactic RRL and of the cluster M4. The results for the Galactic RRL are consistent with trigonometric parallax measurements from Gaia ’ s first data release. For M4, we find a distance modulus of μ {sub 0} = 11.257 ± 0.035 mag with A {sub V}= 1.45 ± 0.12 mag, which is consistent with measurements from other distance indicators. This analysis has shown that, when considering a sample covering a range of iron abundances, the metallicity spread introduces a dispersion in the PL relation on the order of 0.13 mag. However, if this metallicity component is accounted for in a PLZ relation, the dispersion is reduced to ∼0.02 mag at mid-infrared wavelengths.

  12. Generation of a mid-infrared broadband polarized supercontinuum in As2Se3 photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Yan; Li Shu-Guang; Liu Shuo; Yin Guo-Bing; Li Jian-She

    2012-01-01

    A simplified structure of birefringent chalcogenide As 2 Se 3 photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is designed. Properties of birefringence, polarization extinction ratio, chromatic dispersion, nonlinear coefficient, and transmission are studied by using the multipole method, the finite-difference beam propagation method, and the adaptive split-step Fourier method. Considering that the zero dispersion wavelength of our proposed fiber is about 4 μm, we have analysed the mechanism of spectral broadening in PCFs with different pitches in detail, with femtosecond pulses at a wavelength of 4 μm as the pump pulses. Especially, mid-infrared broadband polarized supercontinuums are obtained in a 3-cm PCF with an optimal pitch of 2 μm. Their spectral width at −20 dB reaches up to 12 μm. In the birefringent PCF, we find that the supercontinuum generation changes with the pump alignment angle. Research results show that no coupling between eigenpolarization modes are observed at the maximum average power (i.e., 37 mW), which indicates that the polarization state is well maintained. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Rapid estimation of the biochemical methane potential of plant biomasses using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Triolo, Jin M; Peltre, Clément; Pedersen, Lene; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) is a very important characteristic of a given feedstock for optimisation of its use in biogas production. However, the long digestion time needed to determine BMP is the main limitation for the use of this assay during the operation of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to predict the BMP of 87 plant biomasses. The developed calibration model was able to explain 81% of the variance in the measured BMP of a selected test set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 40NLCH4kg(-1) of volatile solids (VS) and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 2.38. The interpretation of the regression coefficients used in the calibration revealed a positive correlation of BMP with easily degradable compounds (amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose and aliphatic compounds) and a negative correlation with inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis (lignin, hemicellulose). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Boundary conditions for 3D dynamic models of ablation of ceramics by pulsed mid-infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila Verde, A. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ramos, Marta M.D. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)]. E-mail: marta@fisica.uminho.pt

    2005-07-15

    We present and discuss a set of boundary conditions (BCs) to use in three-dimensional, mesoscopic, finite element models of mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of brittle materials. These models allow the study of the transient displacement and stress fields generated at micrometer scales during and after one laser pulse, where using conventional BCs may lead to some results without physical significance that can be considered an artefact of the calculations. The proposed BCs are tested and applied to a micrometer-scale continuous model of human dental enamel under CO{sub 2} radiation (10.6 {mu}m, 0.35 {mu}s pulse, sub-ablative fluence), giving rise to the following results: the highest stress is obtained at the irradiated surface of the model, at the end of the laser pulse, but afterwards it decreases rapidly until it becomes significantly lower than the stress in a region 2.5 {mu}m deep in the model; a thermally induced vibration in the material is predicted. This non-intuitive dynamics in stress and displacement distribution cannot be neglected and has to be considered in dynamic laser ablation models, since it may have serious implications in the mechanisms of ablation.

  15. Identification of spectral regions for the quantification of red wine tannins with fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob S; Egebo, Max; Meyer, Anne S

    2008-05-28

    Accomplishment of fast tannin measurements is receiving increased interest as tannins are important for the mouthfeel and color properties of red wines. Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy allows fast measurement of different wine components, but quantification of tannins is difficult due to interferences from spectral responses of other wine components. Four different variable selection tools were investigated for the identification of the most important spectral regions which would allow quantification of tannins from the spectra using partial least-squares regression. The study included the development of a new variable selection tool, iterative backward elimination of changeable size intervals PLS. The spectral regions identified by the different variable selection methods were not identical, but all included two regions (1485-1425 and 1060-995 cm(-1)), which therefore were concluded to be particularly important for tannin quantification. The spectral regions identified from the variable selection methods were used to develop calibration models. All four variable selection methods identified regions that allowed an improved quantitative prediction of tannins (RMSEP = 69-79 mg of CE/L; r = 0.93-0.94) as compared to a calibration model developed using all variables (RMSEP = 115 mg of CE/L; r = 0.87). Only minor differences in the performance of the variable selection methods were observed.

  16. Mid-Infrared Interferometry on Spectral Lines. III. Ammonia and Silane around IRC +10216 and VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, J. D.; Danchi, W. C.; Hale, D. S.; Tuthill, P. G.; Townes, C. H.

    2000-11-01

    Using the University of California Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer with a radio frequency (RF) filter bank, the first interferometric observations of mid-infrared molecular absorption features of ammonia (NH3) and silane (SiH4) with very high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ~105) were made. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and uniform outflow, these new data permitted the molecular stratification around carbon star IRC +10216 and red supergiant VY CMa to be investigated. For IRC +10216, both ammonia and silane were found to form in the dusty outflow significantly beyond both the dust formation and gas acceleration zones. Specifically, ammonia was found to form before silane in a region of decaying gas turbulence (>~20R*), while the silane is produced in a region of relatively smooth gas flow much farther from the star (>~80R*). The depletion of gas-phase SiS onto grains soon after dust formation may fuel silane-producing reactions on the grain surfaces. For VY CMa, a combination of interferometric and spectral observations suggest that NH3 is forming near the termination of the gas acceleration phase in a region of high gas turbulence (~40R*).

  17. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verde, A Vila [Department of Chemical Engineering, Fenske Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ramos, M M D [Department of Physics, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Stoneham, A M [London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-21

    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO{sub 2} at 10.6 {mu}m and Er:YAG at 2.94 {mu}m). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO{sub 2} and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of {approx}10 {mu}s are used, the CO{sub 2} laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 {mu}s duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking.

  18. Determination of carbohydrates present in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least squares regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Maria R; Koch, Cosima; Wechselberger, Patrick; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    A fast and simple method to control variations in carbohydrate composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast, during fermentation was developed using mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy. The method allows for precise and accurate determinations with minimal or no sample preparation and reagent consumption based on mid-IR spectra and partial least squares (PLS) regression. The PLS models were developed employing the results from reference analysis of the yeast cells. The reference analyses quantify the amount of trehalose, glucose, glycogen, and mannan in S. cerevisiae. The selection and optimization of pretreatment steps of samples such as the disruption of the yeast cells and the hydrolysis of mannan and glycogen to obtain monosaccharides were carried out. Trehalose, glucose, and mannose were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a refractive index detector and total carbohydrates were measured using the phenol-sulfuric method. Linear concentration range, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ were examined to check the reliability of the chromatographic method for each analyte.

  19. QUANTIFYING THE HEATING SOURCES FOR MID-INFRARED DUST EMISSIONS IN GALAXIES: THE CASE OF M 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bendo, G. J. [Jordrell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Baes, M.; De Looze, I. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Wu, H.; Lam, M. I. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Madden, S. C.; Rémy-Ruyer, A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA, Université Paris VII, IRFU/Service d' Ástrophysique, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boquien, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Wilson, C. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Spinoglio, L., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-12-20

    With the newly available photometric images at 250 and 500 μm from the Herschel Space Observatory, we study quantitative correlations over a sub-kiloparsec scale among three distinct emission components in the interstellar medium of the nearby spiral galaxy M 81 (NGC 3031): (1) I {sub 8} or I {sub 24}, the surface brightness of the mid-infrared emission observed in the Spitzer Space Telescope 8 or 24 μm band, with I {sub 8} and I {sub 24} being dominated by the emissions from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains (VSGs) of dust, respectively; (2) I {sub 500}, that of the cold dust continuum emission in the Herschel Space Observatory 500 μm band, dominated by the emission from large dust grains heated by evolved stars; and (3) I {sub Hα}, a nominal surface brightness of the Hα line emission, from gas ionized by newly formed massive stars. The results from our correlation study, free from any assumption on or modeling of dust emissivity law or dust temperatures, present solid evidence for significant heating of PAHs and VSGs by evolved stars. In the case of M 81, about 67% (48%) of the 8 μm (24 μm ) emission derives its heating from evolved stars, with the remainder attributed to radiation heating associated with ionizing stars.

  20. Self-organized, effective medium black silicon antireflection structures for silicon optics in the mid-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steglich, Martin; Käsebier, Thomas; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to its high quality and low cost, silicon is the material of choice for optical devices operating in the mid-infrared (MIR; 2 μm to 6 μm wavelength). Unfortunately in this spectral region, the refractive index is comparably high (about 3.5) and leads to severe reflection losses of about 30% per interface. In this work, we demonstrate that self-organized, statistical Black Silicon structures, fabricated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Reactive Ion Etching (ICP-RIE), can be used to effectively suppress interface reflection. More importantly, it is shown that antireflection can be achieved in an image-preserving, non-scattering way. This enables Black Silicon antireflection structures (ARS) for imaging applications in the MIR. It is demonstrated that specular transmittances of 97% can be easily achieved on both flat and curved substrates, e.g. lenses. Moreover, by a combined optical and morphological analysis of a multitude of different Black Silicon ARS, an effective medium criterion for the examined structures is derived that can also be used as a design rule for maximizing sample transmittance in a desired wavelength range. In addition, we show that the mechanical durability of the structures can be greatly enhanced by coating with hard dielectric materials like diamond-like carbon (DLC), hence enabling practical applications. Finally, the distinct advantages of statistical Black Silicon ARS over conventional AR layer stacks are discussed: simple applicability to topological substrates, absence of thermal stress and cost-effectiveness.

  1. Comparison of Portable and Bench-Top Spectrometers for Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Measurements of Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutengs, Christopher; Ludwig, Bernard; Jung, András; Eisele, Andreas; Vohland, Michael

    2018-03-27

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has received widespread interest as a method to complement traditional soil analysis. Recently available portable MIR spectrometers additionally offer potential for on-site applications, given sufficient spectral data quality. We therefore tested the performance of the Agilent 4300 Handheld FTIR (DRIFT spectra) in comparison to a Bruker Tensor 27 bench-top instrument in terms of (i) spectral quality and measurement noise quantified by wavelet analysis; (ii) accuracy of partial least squares (PLS) calibrations for soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), pH, clay and sand content with a repeated cross-validation analysis; and (iii) key spectral regions for these soil properties identified with a Monte Carlo spectral variable selection approach. Measurements and multivariate calibrations with the handheld device were as good as or slightly better than Bruker equipped with a DRIFT accessory, but not as accurate as with directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) data collected with an integrating sphere. Variations in noise did not markedly affect the accuracy of multivariate PLS calibrations. Identified key spectral regions for PLS calibrations provided a good match between Agilent and Bruker DHR data, especially for SOC and N. Our findings suggest that portable FTIR instruments are a viable alternative for MIR measurements in the laboratory and offer great potential for on-site applications.

  2. Comparison of mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy with biochemical methods for the determination of macronutrients in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Dolores; Fraga, Miriam; Gormaz, María; Torres, Ester; Vento, Máximo

    2014-07-01

    The variability of human milk (HM) composition renders analysis of its components essential for optimal nutrition of preterm fed either with donor's or own mother's milk. To fulfil this requirement, various analytical instruments have been subjected to scientific and clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a rapid method for the analysis of macronutrients in HM as compared with the analytical methods applied by cow's milk industry. Mature milk from 39 donors was analysed using an infrared human milk analyser (HMA) and compared with biochemical reference laboratory methods. The statistical analysis was based on the use of paired data tests. The use of an infrared HMA for the analysis of lipids, proteins and lactose in HM proved satisfactory as regards the rapidity, simplicity and the required sample volume. The instrument afforded good linearity and precision in application to all three nutrients. However, accuracy was not acceptable when compared with the reference methods, with overestimation of the lipid content and underestimation of the amount of proteins and lactose contents. The use of mid-infrared HMA might become the standard for rapid analysis of HM once standardisation and rigorous and systematic calibration is provided. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of chemical parameters in soft mold-ripened cheese during ripening by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-del-Campo, S T; Picque, D; Cosío-Ramírez, R; Corrieu, G

    2007-06-01

    The suitability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) to follow the evolution throughout ripening of specific physicochemical parameters in Camembert-type cheeses was evaluated. The infrared spectra were obtained directly from raw cheese samples deposited on an attenuated total reflectance crystal. Significant correlations were observed between physicochemical data, pH, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, ammonia (NH4+), lactose, and lactic acid. Dry matter showed significant correlation only with lactose and nonprotein nitrogen. Principal components analysis factorial maps of physicochemical data showed a ripening evolution in 2 steps, from d 1 to d 7 and from d 8 to d 27, similar to that observed previously from infrared spectral data. Partial least squares regressions made it possible to obtain good prediction models for dry matter, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, lactic acid, and NH4+ values from spectral data of raw cheese. The values of 3 statistical parameters (coefficient of determination, root mean square error of cross validation, and ratio prediction deviation) are satisfactory. Less precise models were obtained for pH.

  4. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, A.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Stoneham, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO2 at 10.6 µm and Er:YAG at 2.94 µm). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO2 and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of ap10 µs are used, the CO2 laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 µs duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking.

  5. The role of mesoscopic modelling in understanding the response of dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, A Vila; Ramos, M M D; Stoneham, A M

    2007-01-01

    Human dental enamel has a porous mesostructure at the nanometre to micrometre scales that affects its thermal and mechanical properties relevant to laser treatment. We exploit finite-element models to investigate the response of this mesostructured enamel to mid-infrared lasers (CO 2 at 10.6 μm and Er:YAG at 2.94 μm). Our models might easily be adapted to investigate ablation of other brittle composite materials. The studies clarify the role of pore water in ablation, and lead to an understanding of the different responses of enamel to CO 2 and Er:YAG lasers, even though enamel has very similar average properties at the two wavelengths. We are able to suggest effective operating parameters for dental laser ablation, which should aid the introduction of minimally-invasive laser dentistry. In particular, our results indicate that, if pulses of ∼10 μs are used, the CO 2 laser can ablate dental enamel without melting, and with minimal damage to the pulp of the tooth. Our results also suggest that pulses with 0.1-1 μs duration can induce high stress transients which may cause unwanted cracking

  6. Comparison of Portable and Bench-Top Spectrometers for Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Measurements of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hutengs

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared (MIR spectroscopy has received widespread interest as a method to complement traditional soil analysis. Recently available portable MIR spectrometers additionally offer potential for on-site applications, given sufficient spectral data quality. We therefore tested the performance of the Agilent 4300 Handheld FTIR (DRIFT spectra in comparison to a Bruker Tensor 27 bench-top instrument in terms of (i spectral quality and measurement noise quantified by wavelet analysis; (ii accuracy of partial least squares (PLS calibrations for soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (N, pH, clay and sand content with a repeated cross-validation analysis; and (iii key spectral regions for these soil properties identified with a Monte Carlo spectral variable selection approach. Measurements and multivariate calibrations with the handheld device were as good as or slightly better than Bruker equipped with a DRIFT accessory, but not as accurate as with directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR data collected with an integrating sphere. Variations in noise did not markedly affect the accuracy of multivariate PLS calibrations. Identified key spectral regions for PLS calibrations provided a good match between Agilent and Bruker DHR data, especially for SOC and N. Our findings suggest that portable FTIR instruments are a viable alternative for MIR measurements in the laboratory and offer great potential for on-site applications.

  7. MID-INFRARED IMAGING OF THE TRANSITIONAL DISK OF HD 169142: MEASURING THE SIZE OF THE GAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Maaskant, Koen; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Kataza, H.; Fukagawa, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Min, M.; Yamashita, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Sakon, I.; Onaka, T.

    2012-01-01

    The disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 169142 was imaged and resolved at 18.8 and 24.5 μm using Subaru/COMICS. We interpret the observations using a two-dimensional radiative transfer model and find evidence for the presence of a large gap. The mid-infrared images trace dust that is emitted at the onset of a strong rise in the spectral energy distribution (SED) at 20 μm, and are therefore very sensitive to the location and characteristics of the inner wall of the outer disk and its dust. We determine the location of the wall to be 23 +3 –5 AU from the star. An extra component of hot dust must exist close to the star. We find that a hydrostatic optically thick inner disk does not produce enough flux in the near-infrared, and an optically thin, geometrically thick component is our solution to fit the SED. Considering the recent findings of gaps and holes in a number of Herbig Ae/Be group I disks, we suggest that such disk structures may be common in group I sources. Classification as group I should be considered a strong case for classification as a transitional disk, though improved imaging surveys are needed to support this speculation.

  8. The gas-rich circumbinary disk of HR 4049. I. A detailed study of the mid-infrared spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J., E-mail: sarahemalek@gmail.com, E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of the peculiar evolved object HR 4049. The full Spitzer-IRS high-resolution spectrum shows a wealth of emission with prominent features from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and possible contributions from HCN and OH. We model the molecular emission and find that it originates from a massive (M ≳ 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉}), warm (T {sub ex} ≈ 500 K) and radially extended gas disk that is optically thick at infrared wavelengths. We also report less enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O than previously found and a comparison of the Spitzer observations to earlier data obtained by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory reveals that the CO{sub 2} flux has more than doubled in 10 yr time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. If the gas originates from interaction between the stellar wind and the dust, this suggests that the dust could be oxygen-rich in nature. The molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the infrared photons emitted by the dust. This results in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk.

  9. Mid-infrared spectra of cometary dust: the evasion of its silicate mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H.; Chigai, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2008-04-01

    Infrared spectra of dust in cometary comae provide a way to identify its silicate constituents, and this is crucial for correctly understanding the condition under which our planetary system is formed. Recent studies assign a newly detected peak at a wavelength of 9.3 μm to pyroxenes and regard them as the most abundant silicate minerals in comets. Here we dispense with this pyroxene hypothesis to numerically reproduce the infrared features of cometary dust in the framework of our interstellar dust models. Presolar interstellar dust in a comet is modeled as fluffy aggregates consisting of submicrometer-sized organic grains with an amorphous-silicate core that undergoes nonthermal crystallization in a coma. We assert that forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is the carrier of all the observed features, including the 9.3 μm peak and that the major phase of iron is sulfides rather than iron-rich silicates.

  10. Improved mid infrared detector for high spectral or spatial resolution and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, Mbaye; Bordessoule, Michel; Kanouté, Brahim; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manceron, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire MONARIS, CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 8233, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    When using bright, small effective size sources, such as synchrotron radiation light beam, for broadband spectroscopy at spectral or spatial high resolution for mid-IR FTIR measurements, a marked detectivity improvement can be achieved by setting up a device matching the detector optical étendue to that of the source. Further improvement can be achieved by reducing the background unmodulated flux and other intrinsic noise sources using a lower temperature cryogen, such as liquid helium. By the combined use of cooled apertures, cold reimaging optics, filters and adapted detector polarization, and preamplification electronics, the sensitivity of a HgCdTe photoconductive IR detector can be improved by a significant factor with respect to standard commercial devices (more than one order of magnitude on average over 6–20 μm region) and the usable spectral range extended to longer wavelengths. The performances of such an optimized detector developed on the AILES Beamline at SOLEIL are presented here.

  11. Methane concentration and isotopic composition measurements with a mid-infrared quantum-cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Gmachl, C.; Capasso, F.; Sivco, D. L.; Baillargeon, J. N.; Hutchinson, A. L.; Cho, A. Y.

    1999-01-01

    A quantum-cascade laser operating at a wavelength of 8.1 micrometers was used for high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy of methane (CH4). The laser frequency was continuously scanned with current over more than 3 cm-1, and absorption spectra of the CH4 nu 4 P branch were recorded. The measured laser linewidth was 50 MHz. A CH4 concentration of 15.6 parts in 10(6) ( ppm) in 50 Torr of air was measured in a 43-cm path length with +/- 0.5-ppm accuracy when the signal was averaged over 400 scans. The minimum detectable absorption in such direct absorption measurements is estimated to be 1.1 x 10(-4). The content of 13CH4 and CH3D species in a CH4 sample was determined.

  12. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainline, Laura J.; Blain, A. W.; Smail, Ian; Frayer, D. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer-IRAC and MIPS mid-IR observations of a sample of 73 radio-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) with spectroscopic redshifts, the largest such sample published to date. From our data, we find that IRAC colors of SMGs are much more uniform as compared with rest-frame UV and optical colors, and z>1.5 SMGs tend to be redder in their mid-IR colors than both field galaxies and lower-z SMGs. However, the IRAC colors of the SMGs overlap those of field galaxies sufficiently that color-magnitude and color-color selection criteria suggested in the literature to identify SMG counterparts produce ambiguous counterparts within an 8'' radius in 20%-35% of cases. We use a rest-frame J-H versus H-K color-color diagram and a S 24 /S 8.0 versus S 8.0 /S 4.5 color-color diagram to determine that 13%-19% of our sample are likely to contain active galactic nuclei which dominate their mid-IR emission. We observe in the rest-frame JHK colors of our sample that the rest-frame near-IR emission of SMGs does not resemble that of the compact nuclear starburst observed in local ultraluminous IR galaxies and is consistent with more widely distributed star formation. We take advantage of the fact that many high-z galaxy populations selected at different wavelengths are detected by Spitzer to carry out a brief comparison of mid-IR properties of SMGs to UV-selected high-z galaxies, 24 μm-selected galaxies, and high-z radio galaxies, and find that SMGs have mid-IR fluxes and colors which are consistent with being more massive and more reddened than UV-selected galaxies, while the IRAC colors of SMGs are most similar to powerful high-z radio galaxies.

  13. Mid-infrared spectroscopy using optical waveguides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.

    2000-05-01

    As part of the European research project SOFIE - 'Spectroscopy using Optical Fibers in the Marine Environment', a portable sensor system for chlorinated hydrocarbons and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater has been developed. A robust, miniaturized FT-IR spectrometer for in-situ underwater pollution monitoring applications was designed and built, based on parts from a Bruker Vector 22 FT-IR instrument. The assembled instrument, enclosed in a sealed aluminum pressure vessel is capable of maintenance-free operation in the oceans down to depths of 300 meters. It can be incorporated either in a tow frame or a remotely operated vehicle. A suitable sensor head geometry, optimized in terms of sensitivity and hydrodynamics alike, was developed and connected to the underwater FT-IR spectrometer. Due to the modular design, various sensor head configurations can be realized, ensuring easy adaptation of the instrument to future tasks. In a laboratory set-up using an ATR-crystal as a simplified sensor head, the sensor performance was investigated. The sensor is capable of detecting a wide range of chlorinated hydrocarbons and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sea- and river water down to the low ppb-range. Varying amounts of salinity, turbidity or humin acids, as well as seawater pollutants like aliphatic hydrocarbons or phenols, do not influence the sensor characteristics. In addition, the sensor exhibits a good long-time stability and a low susceptibility to sensor fouling. (author)

  14. Mid-infrared study of the molecular structure variability of insoluble organic matter from primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Quirico, E.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.; Dartois, E.; Pino, T.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-03-01

    Insoluble Organic Matter (IOM) found in primitive meteorites was formed in the Early Solar System and subsequently processed on the parent asteroids. The location, temporal sequence and processes of formation of this IOM are still a matter of debate. In particular, there is no consensus on the actual effect of post-accretional aqueous alteration processes on the chemical composition and structure of IOM. In the most primitive chondrites (types 1 and 2), these alterations have so far been either neglected or generically assigned to oxidation processes induced by fluid circulation. A series of IOM samples extracted from 14 chondrites with extensively documented post-accretional histories have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Aqueous alteration shows no detectable effect on the chemical composition and structure of IOM within or across chondrite classes. Indeed, the most effective post-accretional process appears to be a high-temperature short-duration heating event and concerns essentially type 2 chondrites. In any case, post-accretional processes cannot account for all the chemical and structural variations of IOM. Chondrites from the CI, CR and CM classes accreted IOM precursors with moderately variable compositions, suggesting a chemical heterogeneity of the protosolar disk. The 3.4 μm band, and possibly its overtones and combinations in the near-infrared range, appear to be tracer(s) of the chemical class and possibly of surface heating processes triggered by impacts.

  15. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ∼44 deg 2 map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ∼20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  16. The physical properties of galaxies with unusually red mid-infrared colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate the physical nature of galaxies in the redshift range 0.02 Survey Explorer, W1 - W2 band) colours is sharply peaked, with a long tail to much redder W1 - W2 colours. We introduce a procedure to pull out the red outlier population based on a combination of three stellar population diagnostics. When compared with optically selected active galactic nucleus (AGN), red outliers are more likely to be found in massive galaxies, and they tend to have lower stellar mass densities, younger stellar ages and higher dust content than optically selected AGN hosts. They are twice as likely to be detected at radio wavelengths. We examine W1 - W2 colour profiles for a subset of the nearest, reddest outliers and find that most are not centrally peaked, indicating that the hot dust emission is spread throughout the galaxy. We find that radio luminosity is the quantity that is most predictive of a redder central W1 - W2 colour. Radio-loud galaxies with centrally concentrated hot dust emission are almost always morphologically disturbed, with compact, unresolved emission at 1.4 GHz. The 80 per cent of such systems are identifiable as AGN using optical emission line diagnostics.

  17. How dead are dead galaxies? Mid-infrared fluxes of quiescent galaxies at redshift 0.3 < z < 2.5: implications for star formation rates and dust heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Dokkum, Pieter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maseda, Michael [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Wake, David; Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate star formation rates (SFRs) of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 < z < 2.5) using 3D-HST WFC3 grism spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-infrared data. We select quiescent galaxies on the basis of the widely used UVJ color-color criteria. Spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting (rest-frame optical and near-IR) indicates very low SFRs for quiescent galaxies (sSFR ∼ 10{sup –12} yr{sup –1}). However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS 24 μm images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 μm detections, we find sSFR ∼ 10{sup –11.9} × (1 + z){sup 4} yr{sup –1}. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star-forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well below that at lower redshifts.

  18. How dead are dead galaxies? Mid-infrared fluxes of quiescent galaxies at redshift 0.3 < z < 2.5: implications for star formation rates and dust heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Brammer, Gabriel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maseda, Michael; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Wake, David; Lundgren, Britt; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates (SFRs) of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 < z < 2.5) using 3D-HST WFC3 grism spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-infrared data. We select quiescent galaxies on the basis of the widely used UVJ color-color criteria. Spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting (rest-frame optical and near-IR) indicates very low SFRs for quiescent galaxies (sSFR ∼ 10 –12 yr –1 ). However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS 24 μm images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 μm detections, we find sSFR ∼ 10 –11.9 × (1 + z) 4 yr –1 . These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star-forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well below that at lower redshifts.

  19. Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Andrew W.; McAulay, Edith A.J.; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David; Lynch, Thomas P.; Lancaster, J. Steven; Wright, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High efficiency thermal vaporiser designed and used for on-line reaction monitoring. • Concentration profiles of all reactants and products obtained from mass spectra. • By-product formed from the presence of an impurity detected by MS but not MIR. • Mass spectrometry can detect trace and bulk components unlike molecular spectrometry. - Abstract: A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150 mL flask and a 1 L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0 mL min −1 , respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40 °C and 20 °C, respectively, at the 1 L scale. Reactions in the 1 L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2 min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate

  20. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  1. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er:CaF2 mid-infrared laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Liu, Jie; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Ma, Weiwei; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Xiaodong; Su, Liangbi

    2018-01-01

    A multilayer black phosphorus, as a novel two dimensional saturable absorber, has superb saturable absorption properties for a Er:CaF2 solid-state pulse laser. The pulse laser is realized at mid-infrared region with the passively Q-switched technology by a diode-pumping. The high-quality black phosphorus saturable absorber is fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation method. The pulse laser generates the pulses operation with the pulse duration of 954.8 ns, the repetition rate of 41.93 kHz, the pulse energy of 4.25 μJ and the peak power of 4.45 W. Our work demonstrates that black phosphorus could be used as a kind of efficient mid-infrared region optical absorber for ultrafast photonics.

  2. Towards strong light-matter coupling at the single-resonator level with sub-wavelength mid-infrared nano-antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malerba, M.; De Angelis, F., E-mail: francesco.deangelis@iit.it [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego, 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Ongarello, T.; Paulillo, B.; Manceau, J.-M.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.; Colombelli, R., E-mail: raffaele.colombelli@u-psud.fr [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (C2N Orsay), CNRS UMR9001, Univ. Paris Sud, Univ. Paris Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-07-11

    We report a crucial step towards single-object cavity electrodynamics in the mid-infrared spectral range using resonators that borrow functionalities from antennas. Room-temperature strong light-matter coupling is demonstrated in the mid-infrared between an intersubband transition and an extremely reduced number of sub-wavelength resonators. By exploiting 3D plasmonic nano-antennas featuring an out-of-plane geometry, we observed strong light-matter coupling in a very low number of resonators: only 16, more than 100 times better than what reported to date in this spectral range. The modal volume addressed by each nano-antenna is sub-wavelength-sized and it encompasses only ≈4400 electrons.

  3. Potential and limitation of mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for real time analysis of raw milk in milking lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Raphael; Etzion, Yael

    2009-02-01

    Real-time information about milk composition would be very useful for managing the milking process. Mid-infrared spectroscopy, which relies on fundamental modes of molecular vibrations, is routinely used for off-line analysis of milk and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy for real-time analysis of milk in milking lines. The study was conducted with 189 samples from over 70 cows that were collected during an 18 months period. Principal component analysis, wavelets and neural networks were used to develop various models for predicting protein and fat concentration. Although reasonable protein models were obtained for some seasonal sub-datasets (determination errors protein), the models lacked robustness and it was not possible to develop a model suitable for all the data. Determination of fat concentration proved even more problematic and the determination errors remained unacceptably large regardless of the sub-dataset analyzed or of the spectral intervals used. These poor results can be explained by the limited penetration depth of the mid-infrared radiation that causes the spectra to be very sensitive to the presence of fat globules or fat biofilms in the boundary layer that forms at the interface between the milk and the crystal that serves both as radiation waveguide and sensing element. Since manipulations such as homogenisation are not permissible for in-line analysis, these results show that the potential of mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for in-line milk analysis is indeed quite limited.

  4. Probing the mid-infrared spectrum of YBa2Cu3O6.0 with high magnetic fields and Zink doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruninger, M; vanderMarel, D; vanBentum, PJM; Erb, A; Wolf, T; Kopp, T

    1996-01-01

    The mid-infrared phonon and spin-wave spectrum of antiferromagnetic YBa2Cu3O6.0 was investigated by infrared transmission measurements (k(-->) parallel to c-axis) at T=4K. Peaks at 178 meV, 346 meV and 470 meV were previously interpreted as excitations of single magnons of the optical branch and of

  5. Determination of protein concentration in raw milk by mid-infrared fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzion, Y; Linker, R; Cogan, U; Shmulevich, I

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the potential use of attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range for determining protein concentration in raw cow milk. The determination of protein concentration is based on the characteristic absorbance of milk proteins, which includes 2 absorbance bands in the 1500 to 1700 cm(-1) range, known as the amide I and amide II bands, and absorbance in the 1060 to 1100 cm(-1) range, which is associated with phosphate groups covalently bound to casein proteins. To minimize the influence of the strong water band (centered around 1640 cm(-1)) that overlaps with the amide I and amide II bands, an optimized automatic procedure for accurate water subtraction was applied. Following water subtraction, the spectra were analyzed by 3 methods, namely simple band integration, partial least squares (PLS) and neural networks. For the neural network models, the spectra were first decomposed by principal component analysis (PCA), and the neural network inputs were the spectra principal components scores. In addition, the concentrations of 2 constituents expected to interact with the protein (i.e., fat and lactose) were also used as inputs. These approaches were tested with 235 spectra of standardized raw milk samples, corresponding to 26 protein concentrations in the 2.47 to 3.90% (weight per volume) range. The simple integration method led to very poor results, whereas PLS resulted in prediction errors of about 0.22% protein. The neural network approach led to prediction errors of 0.20% protein when based on PCA scores only, and 0.08% protein when lactose and fat concentrations were also included in the model. These results indicate the potential usefulness of Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for rapid, possibly online, determination of protein concentration in raw milk.

  6. RESOLVING THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND HOST EMISSION IN THE MID-INFRARED USING A MODEL-INDEPENDENT SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005, Santander (Spain); Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Spoon, Henrik W. W. [Cornell University, CRSR, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Santos, Tanio Díaz [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO18 1BJ (United Kingdom); González-Martín, Omaira [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (CRyA-UNAM), 3-72 (Xangari), 8701, Morelia (Mexico); Esquej, Pilar, E-mail: ahernan@ifca.unican.es [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at http://denebola.org/ahc/deblendIRS.

  7. Yb-fiber-pumped mid-infrared picosecond optical parametric oscillator tunable across 6.2-6.7 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Chaitanya; Casals, J. Canals; Parsa, S.; Zawilski, K. T.; Schunemann, P. G.; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M.

    2018-06-01

    We report a high-average-power picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) tunable in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) based on CdSiP2 synchronously pumped by an Yb-fiber laser at 80 MHz repetition rate. Successful operation of this high-repetition-rate singly-resonant picosecond OPO has been enabled by the improved CSP crystal quality over a long interaction length. The OPO can be tuned across 1264-1284 nm in the near-IR signal and 6205-6724 nm in the mid-IR idler by temperature tuning the CSP crystal over 39-134 °C. By deploying a 5% output coupler for the resonant signal, we have extracted up to 44 mW of average power in the near-IR and up to 95 mW of non-resonant idler power at 6205 nm at 6.3% total conversion efficiency, with > 50 mW over > 55% of the mid-IR tuning range. We have investigated temperature-tuning characteristics of the OPO and compared the data with the theoretical calculations using the recent Sellmeier and thermo-optic coefficients for CdSiP2. The signal pulses from the OPO exhibit a Gaussian pulse duration of 19 ps centered at 1284 nm. We have also studied the output power stability of the OPO, resulting in a passive stability better than 1.9% rms for the near-IR signal and 2.4% rms for the mid-IR idler, measured over > 17 h, with both beams in high spatial quality.

  8. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  9. Confronting Standard Models of Proto-planetary Disks with New Mid-infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Day, Amanda N.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-08-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and MIR disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the MIR disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used “star + inner dust rim + flared disk” class of models strongly fails to reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved MIR data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of MIR emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore the viability of a modification to the model whereby a second dust rim containing smaller dust grains is added, and find that the 2-rim model leads to significantly improved fits in most cases. This complexity is largely missed when carrying out SED modeling alone, although detailed silicate feature fitting by McClure et al. recently came to a similar conclusion. As has been suggested recently by Menu et al., the difficulty in predicting MIR sizes from the SED alone might hint at “transition disk”-like gaps in the inner au; however, the relatively high correlation found in our MIR disk size versus stellar luminosity relation favors layered disk morphologies and points to missing disk model ingredients instead.

  10. Spectroscopic (far or terahertz, mid-infrared and Raman) investigation, thermal analysis and biological activity of piplartine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Karthick, T.; Joshi, B. D.; Mishra, Rashmi; Tandon, Poonam; Ayala, A. P.; Ellena, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Research in the field of medicinal plants including Piper species like long pepper (Piper longum L.- Piperaceae) is increasing all over the world due to its use in traditional and Ayurvedic medicine. Piplartine (piperlongumine, 5,6-dihydro-1-[(2E)-1-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone), a biologically active alkaloid/amide was isolated from the phytochemical investigations of Piper species, as long pepper. This alkaloid has cytotoxic, anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-tumoral, anxiolytic, anti-depressant, anti-leishmanial, and genotoxic activities, but, its anticancer property is the most promising and has been widely explored. The main purpose of the work is to present a solid state characterization of PPTN using thermal analysis and vibrational spectroscopy. Quantum mechanical calculations based on the density functional theory was also applied to investigate the molecular conformation and vibrational spectrum, which was compared with experimental results obtained by Raman scattering, far (terahertz) and mid-infrared adsorption spectroscopy. NBO analysis has been performed which predict that most intensive interactions in PPTN are the hyperconjugative interactions between n(1) N6 and π*(O1sbnd C7) having delocalization energy of 50.53 kcal/mol, Topological parameters have been analyzed using 'AIM' analysis which governs the three bond critical points (BCPs), one di-hydrogen, and four ring critical points (RCPs). MEP surface has been plotted which forecast that the most negative region is associated with the electronegative oxygen atoms (sites for nucleophilic activity). Theoretically, to confirm that the title compound has anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-platelet aggregation activities, it was analyzed by molecular docking interactions with the corresponding target receptors. The obtained values of H-bonding parameters and binding affinity prove that its anti-cancer activity is the more prominent than the

  11. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E; Légaré, François; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S; Litvinyuk, Igor V; Tong, Xiao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H 2 and D 2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm. (paper)

  12. CONTINUOUS MID-INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS: DIAGNOSTICS FOR 0 < z < 3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Johnson, B. D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Elbaz, D., E-mail: abattist@astro.umass.edu [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-02-20

    We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer–SDSS–GALEX Spectroscopic Survey at z < 0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40–70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum and Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Our local composite template and continuous SFR diagnostics are made available for public use through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) and have typical dispersions of 30% or less. We discuss the validity and range of applicability for our SFR indicators in the context of unveiling the formation and evolution of galaxies. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z ∼ 3.

  13. Validation of mid-infrared spectrometry in milk for predicting body energy status in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Banos, G; McCarthy, B; Lewis, E; Coffey, M P; O'Neill, B; O'Donovan, M; Wall, E; Berry, D P

    2012-12-01

    Cow energy balance is known to be associated with cow health and fertility; therefore, routine access to data on energy balance can be useful in both management and breeding decisions to improve cow performance. The objective of this study was to determine if individual cow milk mid-infrared spectra (MIR) could be useful to predict cow energy balance across contrasting production systems. Direct energy balance was calculated as the differential between energy intake and energy output in milk and maintenance (maintenance was predicted using body weight). Body energy content was calculated from (change in) body weight and body condition score. Following editing, 2,992 morning, 2,742 midday, and 2,989 evening milk MIR records from 564 lactations on 337 Scottish cows, managed in a confinement system on 1 of 2 diets, were available. An additional 844 morning and 820 evening milk spectral records from 338 lactations on 244 Irish cows offered a predominantly grazed grass diet were also available. Equations were developed to predict body energy status using the milk spectral data and milk yield as predictor variables. Several different approaches were used to test the robustness of the equations calibrated in one data set and validated in another. The analyses clearly showed that the variation in the validation data set must be represented in the calibration data set. The accuracy (i.e., square root of the coefficient of multiple determinations) of predicting, from MIR, direct energy balance, body energy content, and energy intake was 0.47 to 0.69, 0.51 to 0.56, and 0.76 to 0.80, respectively. This highlights the ability of milk MIR to predict body energy balance, energy content, and energy intake with reasonable accuracy. Very high accuracy, however, was not expected, given the likely random errors in the calculation of these energy status traits using field data. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CONFRONTING STANDARD MODELS OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS WITH NEW MID-INFRARED SIZES FROM THE KECK INTERFEROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael [California Institute of Technology, NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Aarnio, Alicia N. [University of Michigan Astronomy Department, 1085 S. University Avenue 303B West Hall University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221 (United States); Russell, Ray W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Perry, R. B. [NASA Langley Research Center, MS 160, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Harries, Tim J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Colavita, Mark M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien, E-mail: R.Millan-Gabet@caltech.edu [Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and MIR disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the MIR disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used “star + inner dust rim + flared disk” class of models strongly fails to reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved MIR data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of MIR emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore the viability of a modification to the model whereby a second dust rim containing smaller dust grains is added, and find that the 2-rim model leads to significantly improved fits in most cases. This complexity is largely missed when carrying out SED modeling alone, although detailed silicate feature fitting by McClure et al. recently came to a similar conclusion. As has been suggested recently by Menu et al., the difficulty in predicting MIR sizes from the SED alone might hint at “transition disk”-like gaps in the inner au; however, the relatively high correlation found in our MIR disk size versus stellar luminosity relation favors layered disk morphologies and points to missing disk model ingredients instead.

  15. CONFRONTING STANDARD MODELS OF PROTO-PLANETARY DISKS WITH NEW MID-INFRARED SIZES FROM THE KECK INTERFEROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Che, Xiao; Monnier, John D.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Perry, R. B.; Harries, Tim J.; Colavita, Mark M.; Wizinowich, Peter L.; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the infrared telescope facilities (IRTFs) of 11 well-known young stellar objects, several of which were observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With au-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and MIR disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the MIR disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used “star + inner dust rim + flared disk” class of models strongly fails to reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) and spatially resolved MIR data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of MIR emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore the viability of a modification to the model whereby a second dust rim containing smaller dust grains is added, and find that the 2-rim model leads to significantly improved fits in most cases. This complexity is largely missed when carrying out SED modeling alone, although detailed silicate feature fitting by McClure et al. recently came to a similar conclusion. As has been suggested recently by Menu et al., the difficulty in predicting MIR sizes from the SED alone might hint at “transition disk”-like gaps in the inner au; however, the relatively high correlation found in our MIR disk size versus stellar luminosity relation favors layered disk morphologies and points to missing disk model ingredients instead.

  16. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of ∼150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  17. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  18. Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    -power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation have precluded mid-infrared applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular ‘fingerprint region’, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics3, gas sensing and food quality control....

  19. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    gamma-gamma optical channel and radio fading channels in determining the joint hybrid channel outage capacity provides the best performance estimate under any given set of operating conditions. It is shown that, unlike traditional physical layer performance monitoring techniques, the objective function based upon the outage capacity of the hybrid channel at any combination of OSNR and SIR, is able to predict channel degradation and failure well in advance of the actual outage. An outage in the information-theoretic definition occurs when the offered load exceeds the outage capacity under the current conditions of OSNR and SIR. The optical channel is operated at the "long" mid-infrared wavelength of 10000 nm. which provides improved resistance to scattering compared to shorter wavelengths such as 1550 nm.

  20. Infrared galaxies evolution. From cosmological observations with ISO to a mid-infrared to sub-millimetric modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, Herve

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the analysis of the FIRBACK deep survey performed in the far infrared at λ=170 μm with the Infrared Space Observatory whose aim is the study of the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background, and with the modelling of galaxy evolution in the mid-infrared to submillimeter range. The FIRBACK survey covers 3. 89 Sq. Deg. in 3 high galactic latitude and low foreground emission fields (2 of which are in the northern sky). I first present the techniques of reduction, processing and calibration of the ISOPHOT cosmological data. I show that there is a good agreement between PHOT and DIRBE on extended emission, thanks to the derivation of the PHOT footprint. Final maps are created, and the survey is confusion limited at σc=45 mJy. I present then the techniques of source extraction and the simulations for photometry needed to build the final catalog of 106 sources between 180 mJy (4σ) and 2.4 Jy. The complementary catalog is made of 90 sources between 135 and 180 mJy. Galaxy counts show a large excess with respect to local counts or models (with and without evolution), only compatible with strong evolution scenarios. The Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) is resolved at 4 % at 170 μm. The identifications of the sources at other wavelengths suggest that most of the sources are local, but a non-negligible part lies above redshift 1. I have developed a phenomenological model of galaxy evolution in order to constrain galaxy evolution in the infrared and to have a better understanding of what the FIRBACK sources are. Using the local Luminosity Function (LF), and template spectra of starburst galaxies, it is possible to constrain the evolution of the LF using all the available data: deep source counts at 15, 170 and 850 μm and the CIB spectrum. I show that galaxy evolution is dominated by a high infrared luminosity population, peaking at L=2.0*10"1"1 Redshift distributions are in agreement with available observations. Predictions are

  1. Optical–Mid-infrared Period–Luminosity Relations for W UMa-type Contact Binaries Based on Gaia DR 1: 8% Distance Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Wang, Shu; Feng, Yuting

    2018-06-01

    W Ursa Majoris (W UMa)-type contact binary systems (CBs) are useful statistical distance indicators because of their large numbers. Here, we establish (orbital) period–luminosity relations (PLRs) in 12 optical to mid-infrared bands (GBVRIJHK s W1W2W3W4) based on 183 nearby W UMa-type CBs with accurate Tycho–Gaia parallaxes. The 1σ dispersion of the PLRs decreases from optical to near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. The minimum scatter, 0.16 mag, implies that W UMa-type CBs can be used to recover distances to 7% precision. Applying our newly determined PLRs to 19 open clusters containing W UMa-type CBs demonstrates that the PLR and open cluster CB distance scales are mutually consistent to within 1%. Adopting our PLRs as secondary distance indicators, we compiled a catalog of 55,603 CB candidates, of which 80% have distance estimates based on a combination of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared photometry. Using Fourier decomposition, 27,318 high-probability W UMa-type CBs were selected. The resulting 8% distance accuracy implies that our sample encompasses the largest number of objects with accurate distances within a local volume with a radius of 3 kpc available to date. The distribution of W UMa-type CBs in the Galaxy suggests that in different environments, the CB luminosity function may be different: larger numbers of brighter (longer-period) W UMa-type CBs are found in younger environments.

  2. Static and time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of Hg0.95Cd0.05Cr2Se4 spinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsaume, S; Telegin, A V; Sukhorukov, Yu P; Stavrias, N; Fedorov, V A; Menshchikova, T K; Kimel, A V

    2017-08-16

    Static and time-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy of ferromagnetic single crystal Hg 0.95 Cd 0.05 Cr 2 Se 4 was performed below the absorption edge, in order to reveal the origin of the electronic transitions contributing to the magneto-optical properties of this material. The mid-infrared spectroscopy reveals a strong absorption peak around 0.236 eV which formerly was assigned to a transition within the selenide-chromium complexes ([Formula: see text] Se -Cr 2+ ). To reveal the sensitivity of the transition to the magnetic order, we performed the studies in a temperature range across the Curie temperature and magnetic fields across the value at which the saturation of ferromagnetic magnetization occurs. Despite the fact that the Curie temperature of this ferromagnetic semiconductor is around 107 K, the intensity of the mid-infrared transition reduces substantially increasing the temperature, so that already at 70 K the absorption peak is hardly visible. Such a dramatic decrease of the oscillator strength is observed simultaneously with the strong red-shift of the absorption edge in the magnetic semiconductor. Employing a time-resolved pump-and-probe technique enabled us to determine the lifetime of the electrons in the excited state of this optical transition. In the temperature range from 7 K to 80 K, the lifetime changes from 3 ps to 6 ps. This behavior agrees with the phenomenon of giant oscillator strength described earlier for weakly bound excitons in nonmagnetic semiconductors.

  3. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  4. Toward power scaling in an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser: effects of pressure, fiber length, and pump power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, H. W. Kushan; Dadashzadeh, Neda; Thirugnanasambandam, Manasadevi P.; Debord, Benoît.; Chafer, Matthieu; Gérôme, Frédéric; Benabid, Fetah; Corwin, Kristan L.; Washburn, Brian R.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of gas pressure, fiber length, and optical pump power on an acetylene mid-infrared hollow-core optical fiber gas laser (HOFGLAS) is experimentally determined in order to scale the laser to higher powers. The absorbed optical power and threshold power are measured for different pressures providing an optimum pressure for a given fiber length. We observe a linear dependence of both absorbed pump energy and lasing threshold for the acetylene HOFGLAS, while maintaining a good mode quality with an M-squared of 1.15. The threshold and mode behavior are encouraging for scaling to higher pressures and pump powers.

  5. Mid-infrared source with 0.2 J pulse energy based on nonlinear conversion of Q-switched pulses in ZnGeP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakestad, Magnus W; Fonnum, Helge; Lippert, Espen

    2014-04-07

    Mid-infrared (3-5 μm) pulses with high energy are produced using nonlinear conversion in a ZnGeP(2)-based master oscillator-power amplifier, pumped by a Q-switched cryogenic Ho:YLF oscillator. The master oscillator is based on an optical parametric oscillator with a V-shaped 3-mirror ring resonator, and the power amplifier is based on optical parametric amplification in large-aperture ZnGeP(2) crystals. Pulses with up to 212 mJ energy at 1 Hz repetition rate are obtained, with FWHM duration 15 ns and beam quality M(2) = 3.

  6. DO WE REALLY KNOW THE DUST? SYSTEMATICS AND UNCERTAINTIES OF THE MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ANALYSIS METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, A.; Henning, Th.; Bouwman, J.; Dullemond, C. P.; Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.

    2009-01-01

    disk. The effect of different noise levels on the results has also been tested. We find that for a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 100 one can expect an absolute uncertainty in the value of the crystallinity of about 11% using ground-based observations (8-13 μm). For space-based observations (7-17 μm) the expected uncertainty is about 5% for the same S/N value. Moreover, the average value of the estimated crystallinity increases toward lower S/N in general. On the basis of our results, we propose a recipe for the analysis and interpretation of dust spectroscopy data in the mid-infrared which should be especially valuable for analyzing Spitzer spectroscopy data and ground-based infrared spectroscopy data in the 10 μm window.

  7. Efficient and broadband Stokes wave generation by degenerate four-wave mixing at the mid-infrared wavelength in a silica photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Guiyao; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Kuiru; Yan, Binbin; Han, Ying; Farrell, Gerald; Hou, Lantian

    2013-12-15

    Based on degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM), the broadband Stokes waves are efficiently generated at the mid-infrared wavelength above 2 μm, for the first time to our knowledge, by coupling the femtosecond pulses into the fundamental mode of a silica photonic crystal fiber designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Influences of the power and wavelength of pump pulses on the phase-matched frequency conversion process are discussed. When pump pulses with central wavelength of 815 nm and average power of 300 mW are used, the output power ratio of the Stokes wave generated at 2226 nm and the residual pump wave P(s)/P(res) is estimated to be 10.8:1, and the corresponding conversion efficiency η(s) and bandwidth B(s) of the Stokes wave can be up to 26% and 33 nm, respectively. The efficient and broadband Stokes waves can be used as the ultrashort pulse sources for mid-infrared photonics and spectroscopy.

  8. Characterization and control of the electro-optic phase dispersion in lithium niobate modulators for wide spectral band interferometry applications in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, S; Ulliac, G; Courjal, N; Martin, G

    2017-05-10

    Mid-infrared wideband modulation (3.2-3.7 μm) is achieved in an electro-optic Y-junction using lithium niobate waveguides in TE polarized light. Comparison between external (scanning mirror) and internal (electro-optical) modulation allows studying the chromatic polynomial dependence of the relative phase. Internal modulation consists on a V AC ramp up to 370 V at 0.25 Hz, applied over 14 mm long electrodes with 14 μm separation. The overall V π L π obtained is 17.5 V·cm, meaning that using a 300 V generator we can actively scan and track the whole L-band (3.4-4.1 μm) wideband fringes. We observe a dramatic reduction of the coherence length under electro-optic modulation, which is attributed to a strong nonlinear dependence of the electro-optic effect on the wavelength upon application of such high voltages. We study the effect of applying a V DC offset, from -50  V to 200 V (50 V step). We characterize this dispersion and propose an improved dispersion model that is used to show active dispersion compensation in wideband fringe modulation in the mid-infrared. This can be useful for long baseline interferometry or pulse compression applications when light propagates along fibers, in order to compensate for chromatic effects that induce differential dispersion or pulse spreading, respectively.

  9. A dense plasma focus-based neutron source for a single-shot detection of illicit materials and explosives by a nanosecond neutron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V A; Latyshev, S V; Miklaszewski, R A; Chernyshova, M; Drozdowicz, K; Wiacek, U; Tomaszewski, K; Lemeshko, B D

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of 10 ns only, which are generated by dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or DT mixture as a working gas. The small size occupied by the neutron bunch in space, number of neutrons per pulse and mono-chromaticity (ΔE/E∼1%) of the neutron spectrum provides the opportunity to use a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with flying bases of about a few metres. In our researches we used DPF devices having bank energy in the range 2-7 kJ. The devices generate a neutron yield of the level of 10 8 -10 9 2.45 MeV and 10 10 -10 11 14 MeV neutrons per pulse with pulse duration ∼10-20 ns. TOF base in the tests was 2.2-18.5 m. We have demonstrated the possibility of registering of neutrons scattered by the substances under investigation-1 litre bottles with methanol (CH 3 OH), phosphoric (H 2 PO 4 ) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acids as well as a long object-a 1 m gas tank filled with deuterium at high pressure. It is shown that the above mentioned short TOF bases and relatively low neutron yields are enough to distinguish different elements' nuclei composing the substance under interrogation and to characterize the geometry of lengthy objects in some cases. The wavelet technique was employed to 'clean' the experimental data registered. The advantages and restrictions of the proposed and tested NINIS technique in comparison with other methods are discussed.

  10. Seeing red in M32: Constraints on the stellar content from near- and mid-infrared observations and applications for studies of more distant galaxies {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidge, T. J. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2014-08-10

    The properties of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Local Group galaxy M32 are investigated using ground- and space-based observations that span the 1-8 μm wavelength interval, with the goal of demonstrating the utility of infrared observations as probes of stellar content. Comparisons with isochrones indicate that the brightest resolved stars in M32 have ages of a few gigayears and are younger on average than AGB stars with the same intrinsic brightness in the outer disk of M31. Accounting for stellar variability is shown to be essential for modeling AGB luminosity functions (LFs). Model LFs that assume the star-forming history measured by Monachesi et al. and the variability properties of Galactic AGB stars match both the K and [5.8] LFs of M32. Models also suggest that the slope of the [5.8] LF between M{sub [5.8]} = –8.5 and –10.0 is sensitive to the mix of stellar ages, and a sizeable fraction of the stars in M32 must have an age older than 7 Gyr in order to match the [5.8] LF. The structural properties of M32 in the infrared are also investigated. The effective radii that are computed from near-infrared and mid-infrared isophotes are similar to those measured at visible wavelengths, suggesting that the stellar content of M32 is well mixed. However, isophotes at radii >16'' (>60 pc) in the near- and mid-infrared are flatter than those at visible wavelengths. The coefficient of the fourth-order cosine term in the Fourier expansion of isophotes changes from 'boxy' values at r < 16'' to 'disky' values at r > 48''in [3.6] and [4.5]. The mid-infrared colors near the center of M32 do not vary systematically with radius, providing evidence of a well mixed stellar content in this part of the galaxy.

  11. A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite--a mid-infrared and near-infrared study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongfei; Yang, Jing; Liu, Qinfu; Zhang, Jinshan; Frost, Ray L

    2010-11-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been compared and evaluated for differentiating kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite. Kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite are the three relative abundant minerals of the kaolin group, especially in China. In the MIR spectra, the differences are shown in the 3000-3600 cm⁻¹ between kaolinite and halloysite. It cannot obviously differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, leaving alone kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. However, NIR, together with MIR, gives us the sufficient evidence to differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, especially kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. There are obvious differences between kaolinite and halloysite in all range of their spectra, and they also show some difference between kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement, signal to noise ratio and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for mineral analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite - A mid-infrared and near-infrared study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.F.; Yang, J.; Liu, Q.F.; Zhang, J.S.; Frost, R.L. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Faculty of Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been compared and evaluated for differentiating kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite. Kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite are the three relative abundant minerals of the kaolin group, especially in China. In the MIR spectra, the differences are shown in the 3000-3600 cm{sup -1} between kaolinite and halloysite. It cannot obviously differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, leaving alone kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. However, NIR, together with MIR, gives us the sufficient evidence to differentiate the kaolinite and halloysite, especially kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. There are obvious differences between kaolinite and halloysite in all range of their spectra, and they also show some difference between kaolinite and coal bearing kaolinite. Therefore, the reproducibility of measurement, signal to noise ratio and richness of qualitative information should be simultaneously considered for proper selection of a spectroscopic method for mineral analysis.

  13. Highly-efficient mid-infrared CW laser operation in a lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF2 single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liangbi; Guo, Xinsheng; Jiang, Dapeng; Wu, Qinghui; Qin, Zhipeng; Xie, Guoqiang

    2018-03-05

    3 at.% Er:SrF 2 laser crystals with high optical quality were successfully grown using the temperature gradient technique (TGT). The intense mid-infrared emission was observed around 2.7 μm with excitation by a 970 nm LD. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the emission cross-sections of the 4 I 13/2 - 4 I 11/2 transition were calculated by using the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) method. Efficient continuous-wave laser operation at 2.8 µm was achieved with the lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF 2 crystal pumped by a 970 nm laser diode. The laser output power reached up to 1.06 W with a maximum slope efficiency of 26%.

  14. Dual-channel operation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator for the generation of broadband mid-infrared coherent light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Wang, Sicong; He, Puyuan; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2018-05-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, a novel approach for generating broadband mid-infrared (mid-IR) light by implementing a dual-channel scheme in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO). Two-channel operation was achieved by inserting a prism pair and two reflection mirrors inside an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) cavity. Pumped by a Yb-fiber laser, the OPO generated an idler wave at ∼3150  nm with a -10  dB bandwidth of ∼13.2  THz, which was twice as much as that of the pump source. This scheme represents a promising technical route to transform conventional SPOPOs into a device capable of generating mid-IR light with very broad instantaneous bandwidth.

  15. Influence of temperature on water and aqueous glucose absorption spectra in the near- and mid-infrared regions at physiologically relevant temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.S.; Bak, J.; Andersson-Engels, S.

    2003-01-01

    transmission cell controlled within 0.02 degreesC. Pathlengths of 50 mum and 0.4 mm were used in the mid- and near-infrared spectral region, respectively. Difference spectra were used to determine the effect of temperature on the water spectra quantitatively. These spectra were obtained by subtracting the 37...... degreesC water spectrum from the spectra measured at other temperatures. The difference spectra reveal that the effect of temperature is highest in the vicinity of the strong absorption bands, with a number of isosbestic points with no temperature dependence and relatively flat plateaus in between......Near- and mid-infrared absorption spectra of pure water and aqueous 1.0 g/dL glucose solutions in the wavenumber range 8000-950 cm(-1) were measured in the temperature range 30-42 C in steps of 2 degreesC. Measurements were carried out with an FT-IR spectrometer and a variable pathlength...

  16. High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Razeghi, M., E-mail: razeghi@eecs.northwestern.edu; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, W. J.; Chen, M.; Heydari, D.; Haddadi, A.; McClintock, R. [Center for Quantum Devices, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Amanti, M.; Sirtori, C. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot and CNRS, UMR7162, 75205 Paris (France)

    2015-02-02

    We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm{sup −1} and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes.

  17. The growth of mid-infrared emitting InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R.; Burkhart, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition os InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500 degrees C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using trimethylindium, triethylantimony, AsH 3 , and PH 3 . By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature (≤20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 5.0 μm. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS light emitting diode (LED) and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS layers. An InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.3 μm at 80 K with peak power of 100 mW

  18. High power frequency comb based on mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Q. Y.; Razeghi, M.; Slivken, S.; Bandyopadhyay, N.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, W. J.; Chen, M.; Heydari, D.; Haddadi, A.; McClintock, R.; Amanti, M.; Sirtori, C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a frequency comb source based on a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser at λ ∼ 9 μm with high power output. A broad flat-top gain with near-zero group velocity dispersion has been engineered using a dual-core active region structure. This favors the locking of the dispersed Fabry-Pérot modes into equally spaced frequency lines via four wave mixing. A current range with a narrow intermode beating linewidth of 3 kHz is identified with a fast detector and spectrum analyzer. This range corresponds to a broad spectral coverage of 65 cm −1 and a high power output of 180 mW for ∼176 comb modes

  19. Enhancing mid-infrared spectral response at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xin; Zhao, Kun; Xi, Jian-Feng; Xiang, Wen-Feng; Lu, Zhi-Qing; Sun, Qi; Wu, Shi-Xiang; Ni, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Many unexpected properties have been found in the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 heterostructure, but the interaction of the many ground states at its interface remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate an optical property of this n-type heterostructure where the mid-infrared spectral responsivity at the interface is enhanced by an external magnetic field. The field intensity ranged from 0.8 to 6 kOe at a low temperature (19 K) as measured with our spectral response measurement system. Two spectral peaks related to the spin-orbit coupling effect were also observed at wavelengths 2400 nm and 3700 nm. The intriguing phenomena relate to changes in the crystallographic structure and subband structure at the interface

  20. Broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in novel As2Se3-As2Se2 S step-index fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingying; Dai, Shixun; Han, Xin; Zhang, Peiqing; Liu, Yongxing; Wang, Xunsi; Sun, Shaochao

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a chalcogenide step-index fiber consisting of an As2Se3 core and an As2Se2 S cladding. The fiber with the core diameter of 21 μm was fabricated through the rod-in-tube technique and fiber-drawing process. The effect of pump wavelength, fiber length, and pump power on the spectral bandwidth and output power of the supercontinuum spectra generated from the fiber pumped by the ultrashort pulses of ∼ 150 fs with a repetition rate of 1000 Hz was systematically investigated. When pumping a 12-cm-long fiber at a wavelength of 6 . 5 μm with 14 mW pump laser power, a broadband supercontinuum spanning from 2 . 0 μm to 12 . 7 μm with an output power of 300 μW was obtained.

  1. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 12.5μm in large NA chalcogenide step-index fibres pumped at 4.5μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Agger, Christian; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2014-01-01

    We present numerical modeling of mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum generation (SCG) in dispersion-optimized chalcogenide (CHALC) step-index fibres (SIFs) with exceptionally high numerical aperture (NA) around one, pumped with mode-locked praseodymium-doped (Pr3+) chalcogenide fibre lasers. The 4...... for the highest NA considered but required pumping at 4.7kW as well as up to 3m of fibre to compensate for the lower nonlinearities. The amount of power converted into the 8-10 μm band was 7.5 and 8.8mW for the 8 and 10μm fibres, respectively. For the 20μm core fibres up to 46mW was converted....

  2. Multivariate curve resolution using a combination of mid-infrared and near-infrared spectra for the analysis of isothermal epoxy curing reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hideki; Morita, Shigeaki

    2018-05-01

    Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) was applied to a hetero-spectrally combined dataset consisting of mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra collected during the isothermal curing reaction of an epoxy resin. An epoxy monomer, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and a hardening agent, 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM), were used for the reaction. The fundamental modes of the Nsbnd H and Osbnd H stretches were highly overlapped in the MIR region, while their first overtones could be independently identified in the NIR region. The concentration profiles obtained by MCR using the hetero-spectral combination showed good agreement with the results of calculations based on the Beer-Lambert law and the mass balance. The band assignments and absorption sites estimated by the analysis also showed good agreement with the results using two-dimensional (2D) hetero-correlation spectroscopy.

  3. Phenomenological scattering-rate model for the simulation of the current density and emission power in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlov, S. S. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev-03028 (Ukraine); Flores, Y. V.; Elagin, M.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Tarasov, G. G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev-03028 (Ukraine)

    2016-04-07

    A phenomenological scattering-rate model introduced for terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) [Schrottke et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 045025 (2010)] is extended to mid-infrared (MIR) QCLs by including the energy dependence of the intersubband scattering rates for energies higher than the longitudinal optical phonon energy. This energy dependence is obtained from a phenomenological fit of the intersubband scattering rates based on published lifetimes of a number of MIR QCLs. In our approach, the total intersubband scattering rate is written as the product of the exchange integral for the squared moduli of the envelope functions and a phenomenological factor that depends only on the transition energy. Using the model to calculate scattering rates and imposing periodical boundary conditions on the current density, we find a good agreement with low-temperature data for current-voltage, power-current, and energy-photon flux characteristics for a QCL emitting at 5.2 μm.

  4. Two-colour mid-infrared absorption in an InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X F; Xu, W; Zeng, Z

    2007-01-01

    We examine contributions from different transition channels to optical absorption in an InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap quantum well (QW). In such a structure, because both electron and hole subbands are occupied by the conducting carriers, new channels open up for electronic transition via intra- and inter-layer scattering mechanisms. We find that two absorption peaks can be observed through inter-subband transitions within the same material layer. The absorption induced by the inter-layer transition is rather weak due to a small overlap of electron and hole wavefunctions. The results suggest that InAs/GaSb-based type II and broken-gap QWs can be employed as two-colour photodetectors working at mid-infrared bandwidth at relatively high temperatures up to room-temperature

  5. Mid-infrared PbTe vertical external cavity surface emitting laser on Si-substrate with above 1 W output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Chappuis, D.; Corda, M.; Zogg, H.

    2009-12-01

    Mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) emitting above 1 W output power in pulsed mode and up to 17 mW in continuous mode at -172 °C were realized. Emission wavelength changes from 5 μm at -172 °C to 3.6 μm at 20 °C heat sink temperature. The active medium is a one wavelength thick PbTe layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a Si-substrate. It is followed by a 2.5 pair Pb1-yEuyTe/EuTe epitaxial Bragg mirror. The cavity is completed with an external curved Pb1-yEuyTe/BaF2 mirror. The VECSEL is optically pumped with 1.55 μm wavelength laser and In-soldered to Cu heat sink. No microstructural processing is needed.

  6. WISE TF: A MID-INFRARED, 3.4 μm EXTENSION OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION USING WISE PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagattuta, David J.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Hong Tao; Springob, Christopher M.; Masters, Karen L.; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Jones, D. Heath

    2013-01-01

    We present a mid-infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometry from the 3.4 μm W1 band of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The WISE TF relation is formed from 568 galaxies taken from the all-sky 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) galaxy catalog, spanning a range of environments including field, group, and cluster galaxies. This constitutes the largest mid-infrared TF relation constructed to date. After applying a number of corrections to galaxy magnitudes and line widths, we measure a master TF relation given by M corr = –22.24 – 10.05[log (W corr ) – 2.5], with an average dispersion of σ WISE = 0.686 mag. There is some tension between WISE TF and a preliminary 3.6 μm relation, which has a shallower slope and almost no intrinsic dispersion. However, our results agree well with a more recent relation constructed from a large sample of cluster galaxies. We additionally compare WISE TF to the near-infrared 2MTF template relations, finding a good agreement between the TF parameters and total dispersions of WISE TF and the 2MTF K-band template. This fact, coupled with typical galaxy colors of (K – W1) ∼ 0, suggests that these two bands are tracing similar stellar populations, including the older, centrally-located stars in the galactic bulge which can (for galaxies with a prominent bulge) dominate the light profile.

  7. IRAS 15099-5856: REMARKABLE MID-INFRARED SOURCE WITH PROMINENT CRYSTALLINE SILICATE EMISSION EMBEDDED IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH15-52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Myungshin; McKee, Christopher F.; Suh, Kyung-Won; Moon, Dae-Sik; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi; Burton, Michael G.; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Bessell, Michael S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime; Kohno, Kotaro; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    We report new mid-infrared (MIR) observations of the remarkable object IRAS 15099-5856 using the space telescopes AKARI and Spitzer, which demonstrate the presence of prominent crystalline silicate emission in this bright source. IRAS 15099-5856 has a complex morphology with a bright central compact source (IRS1) surrounded by knots, spurs, and several extended (∼4') arc-like filaments. The source is seen only at ≥10 μm. The Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of IRS1 shows prominent emission features from Mg-rich crystalline silicates, strong [Ne II] 12.81 μm, and several other faint ionic lines. We model the MIR spectrum as thermal emission from dust and compare with the Herbig Be star HD 100546 and the luminous blue variable R71, which show very similar MIR spectra. Molecular line observations reveal two molecular clouds around the source, but no associated dense molecular cores. We suggest that IRS1 is heated by UV radiation from the adjacent O star Muzzio 10 and that its crystalline silicates most likely originated in a mass outflow from the progenitor of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-52. IRS1, which is embedded in the SNR, could have been shielded from the SN blast wave if the progenitor was in a close binary system with Muzzio 10. If MSH 15-52 is a remnant of Type Ib/c supernova (SN Ib/c), as has been previously proposed, this would confirm the binary model for SN Ib/c. IRS1 and the associated structures may be the relics of massive star death, as shaped by the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind, and the intense ionizing radiation of the embedded O star.

  8. WISE TF: A MID-INFRARED, 3.4 {mu}m EXTENSION OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION USING WISE PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagattuta, David J.; Mould, Jeremy R. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Staveley-Smith, Lister; Hong Tao; Springob, Christopher M. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Redfern, NSW (Australia); Masters, Karen L. [Institute for Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Koribalski, Baerbel S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jones, D. Heath, E-mail: dlagattu@astro.swin.edu.au [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2013-07-10

    We present a mid-infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometry from the 3.4 {mu}m W1 band of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The WISE TF relation is formed from 568 galaxies taken from the all-sky 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) galaxy catalog, spanning a range of environments including field, group, and cluster galaxies. This constitutes the largest mid-infrared TF relation constructed to date. After applying a number of corrections to galaxy magnitudes and line widths, we measure a master TF relation given by M{sub corr} = -22.24 - 10.05[log (W{sub corr}) - 2.5], with an average dispersion of {sigma}{sub WISE} = 0.686 mag. There is some tension between WISE TF and a preliminary 3.6 {mu}m relation, which has a shallower slope and almost no intrinsic dispersion. However, our results agree well with a more recent relation constructed from a large sample of cluster galaxies. We additionally compare WISE TF to the near-infrared 2MTF template relations, finding a good agreement between the TF parameters and total dispersions of WISE TF and the 2MTF K-band template. This fact, coupled with typical galaxy colors of (K - W1) {approx} 0, suggests that these two bands are tracing similar stellar populations, including the older, centrally-located stars in the galactic bulge which can (for galaxies with a prominent bulge) dominate the light profile.

  9. Mid-infrared emissions of Pr{sup 3+}-doped GeS{sub 2}–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CdI{sub 2} chalcohalide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); Guo, Haitao, E-mail: guoht_001@opt.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); Xu, Yantao; Hou, Chaoqi; Lu, Min [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); He, Xin [School of Applied Physics and Materials, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, Guangdong 529020 (China); Wang, Pengfei; Li, Weinan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China); Peng, Bo, E-mail: bpeng@opt.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi’an Institute of Optics and precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Xi’an, Shaanxi 710119 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: ∼4.6 μm mid-infrared fluorescence emission from Pr{sup 3+} in the sulfide glass is successfully observed at room temperature excited by a 2.01 μm Tm{sup 3+}:YAG ceramic laser system. - Highlights: • Serial Pr{sup 3+}-doped GeS{sub 2}–Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CdI{sub 2} chalcohalide glasses were synthesized. • ∼4.6 μm mid-infrared fluorescence from Pr{sup 3+} was observed at room temperature. • The compositional dependence of luminescence properties was studied. • Radiative properties have been determined using the Judd–Ofelt theory. - Abstract: For elucidation of the glass composition’s influence on the spectroscopic properties in the chalcohalide system and the discovery of a new material for applications in mid-infrared fiber-lasers, a serial Pr{sup 3+}-doped (100 − x)(0.8GeS{sub 2}·0.2Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3})xCdI{sub 2} (x = 5, 10, 15 and 20) chalcohalide glasses were prepared. ∼4.6 μm mid-infrared fluorescence emission from Pr{sup 3+} in the sulfide glass is successfully observed at room temperature excited by a 2.01 μm Tm{sup 3+}:YAG ceramic laser system, and the effective line-width of fluorescence band is 106–227 nm. Intense compositional dependence of mid-infrared emissions is found. The radiative rates of Pr{sup 3+} ions in these glasses were calculated by using the Judd–Ofelt theory.

  10. Unsupervised explorative data analysis of normal human leukocytes and BCR/ABL positive leukemic cells mid-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellisola, G.; Bolomini-Vittori, M.; Cinque, G.; Dumas, P.; Fiorini, Z.; Laudanna, C.; Mirenda, M.; Sandt, C.; Silvestri, G.; Tomasello, L.; Vezzalini, M.; Wehbe, K.; Sorio, C.

    2015-01-01

    We proved the ability of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy (microFTIR) complemented by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to detect protein phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in mammalian cells. We analyzed by microFTIR human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) leukocytes, mouse-derived

  11. Mid-Infrared Interferometric Monitoring of Evolved Stars: The Dust Shell Around the Mira Variable RR Aquilae at 13 Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    photometric and interferometric data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF...λ = 2.2 μm, Δλ = 0.4 μm) angular size with the Infrared Optical Telescope Array ( IOTA ). The uniform disk diameter (UD) of θUD = 10.73 ± 0.66 mas at...with IOTA in the H-band, and classified RR Aql as a target with no detectable asymmetries. The IRAS flux at 12 μm is 332 Jy. The light curve in the V

  12. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. II. A LARGE-SCALE STUDY OF THE GALACTIC INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Indebetouw, R.

    2009-01-01

    We combine near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) photometry to characterize the IR extinction law (1.2-8 μm) over nearly 150 deg. of contiguous Milky Way midplane longitude. The relative extinctions in five passbands across these wavelength and longitude ranges are derived by calculating color excess ratios for G and K giant red clump stars in contiguous midplane regions and deriving the wavelength dependence of extinction in each one. Strong, monotonic variations in the extinction law shape are found as a function of angle from the Galactic center, symmetric on either side of it. These longitudinal variations persist even when dense interstellar regions, known a priori to have a shallower extinction curve, are removed. The increasingly steep extinction curves toward the outer Galaxy indicate a steady decrease in the absolute-to-selective extinction ratio (R V ) and in the mean dust grain size at greater Galactocentric angles. We note an increasing strength of the 8 μm extinction inflection at high Galactocentric angles and, using theoretical dust models, show that this behavior is consistent with the trend in R V . Along several lines of sight where the solution is most feasible, A λ /A K s as a function of Galactic radius (R GC ) is estimated and shown to have a Galactic radial dependence. Our analyses suggest that the observed relationship between extinction curve shape and Galactic longitude is due to an intrinsic dependence of the extinction law on Galactocentric radius.

  13. Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Qian, Xiaobo; Wang, Jingya; Liu, Jingjing; Fan, Xiuwei; Liu, Jie; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-01

    The spectral properties and laser performance of Er:SrF2 single crystals were investigated and compared with Er:CaF2. Er:SrF2 crystals have larger absorption cross-sections at the pumping wavelength, larger mid-infrared stimulated emission cross-sections and much longer fluorescence lifetimes of the upper laser level (Er3+:4I11/2 level) than those of Er:CaF2 crystals. Dual-wavelength continuous-wave (CW) lasers around 2.8 μm were demonstrated in both 4at.% and 10at.% Er:SrF2 single crystals under 972 nm laser diode (LD) end pumping. The laser wavelengths are 2789.3 nm and 2791.8 nm in the former, and 2786.4 nm and 2790.7 nm in the latter, respectively. The best laser performance has been demonstrated in lightly doped 4at.% Er:SrF2 with a low threshold of 0.100 W, a high slope efficiency of 22.0%, an maximum output power of 0.483 W.

  14. Rapid measurement of human milk macronutrients in the neonatal intensive care unit: accuracy and precision of fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Gho, Deborah S; Mirmiran, Majid; German, J Bruce; Underwood, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    Although it is well established that human milk varies widely in macronutrient content, it remains common for human milk fortification for premature infants to be based on historic mean values. As a result, those caring for premature infants often underestimate protein intake. Rapid precise measurement of human milk protein, fat, and lactose to allow individualized fortification has been proposed for decades but remains elusive due to technical challenges. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of a Fourier transform (FT) mid-infrared (IR) spectroscope in the neonatal intensive care unit to measure human milk fat, total protein, lactose, and calculated energy compared with standard chemical analyses. One hundred sixteen breast milk samples across lactation stages from women who delivered at term (n = 69) and preterm (n = 5) were analyzed with the FT mid-IR spectroscope and with standard chemical methods. Ten of the samples were tested in replicate using the FT mid-IR spectroscope to determine repeatability. The agreement between the FT mid-IR spectroscope analysis and reference methods was high for protein and fat and moderate for lactose and energy. The intra-assay coefficients of variation for all outcomes were less than 3%. The FT mid-IR spectroscope demonstrated high accuracy in measurement of total protein and fat of preterm and term milk with high precision.

  15. Quantitative in situ monitoring of an elevated temperature reaction using a water-cooled mid-infrared fiber-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaurin, P; Crabb, N C; Wells, I; Worsfold, P J; Coombs, D

    1996-04-01

    A novel water-cooled mid-infrared fiber-optic probe is described which is heatable to 230 °C. The probe has chalcogenide fibers and a ZnSe internal reflection element and is compact and fully flexible, allowing access to a wide range of standard laboratory reaction vessels and fume cupboard arrangements. Performance is demonstrated via the in situ analysis of an acid-catalyzed esterification reaction in toluene at 110 °C, and the results are compared with those from a conventional extractive sampling loop flow cell arrangement. Particular emphasis is given to the quantitative interpretation of the spectroscopic data, using gas chromatographic reference data. Calibration data are presented for univariate and partial least squares models, with an emphasis on procedures for improving the quality of interpreparation calibration and prediction through the use of focused reference analysis regimes. Subset univariate procedures are presented that yield relative errors of spectroscopy combined with bias correction partial least squares procedures for the efficient in situ quantitative analysis of laboratory scale reactions.

  16. Differentiation of Organically and Conventionally Grown Tomatoes by Chemometric Analysis of Combined Data from Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mid-infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Monakhova, Yulia; Erich, Sarah; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-11-04

    Because the basic suitability of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) to differentiate organic versus conventional tomatoes was recently proven, the approach to optimize (1)H NMR classification models (comprising overall 205 authentic tomato samples) by including additional data of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(18)O) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was assessed. Both individual and combined analytical methods ((1)H NMR + MIR, (1)H NMR + IRMS, MIR + IRMS, and (1)H NMR + MIR + IRMS) were examined using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and common components and specific weight analysis (ComDim). With regard to classification abilities, fused data of (1)H NMR + MIR + IRMS yielded better validation results (ranging between 95.0 and 100.0%) than individual methods ((1)H NMR, 91.3-100%; MIR, 75.6-91.7%), suggesting that the combined examination of analytical profiles enhances authentication of organically produced tomatoes.

  17. Low-loss 3D-laser-written mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index cladding waveguides for both TE and TM polarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Ródenas, Airán; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Martín, Guillermo; Martínez, Javier; Aguiló, Magdalena; Pujol, Maria Cinta; Díaz, Francesc

    2017-02-20

    We report mid-infrared LiNbO3 depressed-index microstructured cladding waveguides fabricated by three-dimensional laser writing showing low propagation losses (~1.5 dB/cm) at 3.68 µm wavelength for both the transverse electric and magnetic polarized modes, a feature previously unachieved due to the strong anisotropic properties of this type of laser microstructured waveguides and which is of fundamental importance for many photonic applications. Using a heuristic modeling-testing iteration design approach which takes into account cladding induced stress-optic index changes, the fabricated cladding microstructure provides low-loss single mode operation for the mid-IR for both orthogonal polarizations. The dependence of the localized refractive index changes within the cladding microstructure with post-fabrication thermal annealing processes was also investigated, revealing its complex dependence of the laser induced refractive index changes on laser fabrication conditions and thermal post-processing steps. The waveguide modes properties and their dependence on thermal post-processing were numerically modeled and fitted to the experimental values by systematically varying three fundamental parameters of this type of waveguides: depressed refractive index values at sub-micron laser-written tracks, track size changes, and piezo-optic induced refractive index changes.

  18. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  19. The Carnegie Chicago Hubble Program: The Mid-Infrared Colours of Cepheids and the Effect of Metallicity on the CO Band-Head at 4.6 Micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark; Freedman, Wendy L.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffery A.; Rigby, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    We compare mid-infrared (IR) 3.6 and 4.5 micron Warm Spitzer observations for Cepheids in the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Using models, we explore in detail the effect of the CO rotation-vibration band-head at 4.6 micron on the mid-IR photometry. We confirm the temperature sensitivity of the CO band-head at 4.6 micron and find no evidence for an effect at 3.6 micron. We compare the ([3.6]-[4.5]) period-colour relations in the MW, LMC and SMC. The slopes of the period-colour relations for the three galaxies are in good agreement, but there is a trend in zero-point with metallicity, with the lowest metallicity Cepheids having redder mid-IR colours. Finally, we present a colour-[Fe/H] relation based on published spectroscopic metallicities. This empirical relation, calibrated to the metallicity system of Genovali et al., demonstrates that the ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour provides a reliable metallicity indicator for Cepheids, with a precision comparable to current spectroscopic determinations.

  20. A multi-model fusion strategy for multivariate calibration using near and mid-infrared spectra of samples from brewing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Chen, Hui; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Wanping; Wu, Tong; Diao, Yuanbo

    2013-03-01

    Near and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) spectroscopy techniques have gained great acceptance in the industry due to their multiple applications and versatility. However, a success of application often depends heavily on the construction of accurate and stable calibration models. For this purpose, a simple multi-model fusion strategy is proposed. It is actually the combination of Kohonen self-organizing map (KSOM), mutual information (MI) and partial least squares (PLSs) and therefore named as KMICPLS. It works as follows: First, the original training set is fed into a KSOM for unsupervised clustering of samples, on which a series of training subsets are constructed. Thereafter, on each of the training subsets, a MI spectrum is calculated and only the variables with higher MI values than the mean value are retained, based on which a candidate PLS model is constructed. Finally, a fixed number of PLS models are selected to produce a consensus model. Two NIR/MIR spectral datasets from brewing industry are used for experiments. The results confirms its superior performance to two reference algorithms, i.e., the conventional PLS and genetic algorithm-PLS (GAPLS). It can build more accurate and stable calibration models without increasing the complexity, and can be generalized to other NIR/MIR applications.

  1. Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for rapid quality assessment of Chinese medicine preparation Honghua Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Leung, Hei-Wun

    2008-02-13

    Honghua Oil (HHO), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) oil preparation, is a mixture of several plant essential oils. In this text, the extended ranges of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) and near infrared (FT-NIR) were recorded for 48 commercially available HHOs of different batches from nine manufacturers. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of three marker components, alpha-pinene, methyl salicylate and eugenol, in different HHO products were performed rapidly by the two vibrational spectroscopic methods, i.e. MIR with horizontal attenuated total reflection (HATR) accessory and NIR with direct sampling technique, followed by partial least squares (PLS) regression treatment of the set of spectra obtained. The results indicated that it was successful to identify alpha-pinene, methyl salicylate and eugenol in all of the samples by simple inspection of the MIR-HATR spectra. Both PLS models established with MIR-HATR and NIR spectral data using gas chromatography (GC) peak areas as calibration reference showed a good linear correlation for each of all three target substances in HHO samples. The above spectroscopic techniques may be the promising methods for the rapid quality assessment/quality control (QA/QC) of TCM oil preparations.

  2. Quantitative analysis of active compounds in pharmaceutical preparations by use of attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrophotometry and the internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre Toraño, J; van Hattum, S H

    2001-10-01

    A new method is presented for the quantitative analysis of compounds in pharmaceutical preparations Fourier transform (FT) mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflection (ATR) module. Reduction of the quantity of overlapping absorption bands, by interaction of the compound of interest with an appropriate solvent, and the employment of an internal standard (IS), makes MIR suitable for quantitative analysis. Vigabatrin, as active compound in vigabatrin 100-mg capsules, was used as a model compound for the development of the method. Vigabatrin was extracted from the capsule content with water after addition of a sodium thiosulfate IS solution. The extract was concentrated by volume reduction and applied to the FTMIR-ATR module. Concentrations of unknown samples were calculated from the ratio of the vigabatrin band area (1321-1610 cm(-1)) and the IS band area (883-1215 cm(-1)) using a calibration standard. The ratio of the area of the vigabatrin peak to that of the IS was linear with the concentration in the range of interest (90-110 mg, in twofold; n=2). The accuracy of the method in this range was 99.7-100.5% (n=5) with a variability of 0.4-1.3% (n=5). The comparison of the presented method with an HPLC assay showed similar results; the analysis of five vigabatrin 100-mg capsules resulted in a mean concentration of 102 mg with a variation of 2% with both methods.

  3. Mid-infrared Fe2+:ZnSe semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shougui Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A mid-infrared (mid-IR semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM based on Fe2+:ZnSe for passively Q-switched Er3+-doped ZBLAN fiber laser has been demonstrated. Fe2+:ZnSe SESAM was fabricated by electron beam evaporation method. Fe2+ was innovatively doped into the reflective Bragg stack, in which ZnSe layer served as both doped matrix and high refractive layer during the fabricating process. By using the Fe2+:ZnSe SESAM, stable passively Q-switched pulses with the minimum pulse width of 0.43 μs under a repetition rate of 160.82 kHz were obtained. The recorded maximum average output power of 873 mW with a peak power of 12.59 W and pulse energy of 5.43 μJ were achieved. The results demonstrated a new method for fabricating Fe2+:ZnSe SESAM, which can be used in compact mid-IR Q-switched fiber laser.

  4. Mechanisms of browning development in aggregates of marine organic matter formed under anoxic conditions: A study by mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Acquistucci, Rita; Nisini, Laura; Conti, Marcelo Enrique

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze some chemical aspects concerning the browning development associated to the aggregation of marine organic matter (MOM) occurring in anoxic conditions. Organic matter samples obtained by the degradation of different algal samples were daily taken to follow the evolution of the aggregation process and the associated browning process. These samples were examined by Fourier transform mid infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) spectroscopy and the colour changes occurring during the above mentioned aggregation process were measured by means of Colour Indices (CIs). Spectral Cross Correlation Analysis (SCCA) was applied to correlate changes in CI values to the structural changes of MOM observed by FTIR and FTNIR spectra which were also submitted to Two-Dimensional Hetero Correlation Analysis (2HDCORR). SCCA results showed that all biomolecules present in MOM aggregates such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are involved in the browning development. In particular, SCCA results of algal mixtures suggest that the observed yellow-brown colour can be linked to the development of non enzymatic (i.e. Maillard) browning reactions. SCCA results for MOM furthermore suggest that aggregates coming from brown algae also showed evidence of browning related to enzymatic reactions. In the end 2HDCORR results indicate that hydrogen bond interactions among different molecules of MOM can play a significant role in the browning development.

  5. The automated sample preparation system MixMaster for investigation of volatile organic compounds with mid-infrared evanescent wave spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, F; Karlowatz, M; Jakusch, M; Mizaikoff, B

    2003-04-01

    For efficient development assessment, and calibration of new chemical analyzers a large number of independently prepared samples of target analytes is necessary. Whereas mixing units for gas analysis are readily available, there is a lack of instrumentation for accurate preparation of liquid samples containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Manual preparation of liquid samples containing VOCs at trace concentration levels is a particularly challenging and time consuming task. Furthermore, regularly scheduled calibration of sensors and analyzer systems demands for computer controlled automated sample preparation systems. In this paper we present a novel liquid mixing device enabling extensive measurement series with focus on volatile organic compounds, facilitating analysis of water polluted by traces of volatile hydrocarbons. After discussing the mixing system and control software, first results obtained by coupling with an FT-IR spectrometer are reported. Properties of the mixing system are assessed by mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy of methanol-acetone mixtures and by investigation of multicomponent samples containing volatile hydrocarbons such as 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Obtained ATR spectra are evaluated by principal component regression (PCR) algorithms. It is demonstrated that the presented sample mixing device provides reliable multicomponent mixtures with sufficient accuracy and reproducibility at trace concentration levels.

  6. Biomedical Applications of Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging and Multivariate Data Analysis: Contribution to the Understanding of Diabetes Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboualizadeh, Ebrahim

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a microvascular complication of diabetes and a leading cause of adult vision loss. Although a great deal of progress has been made in ophthalmological examinations and clinical approaches to detect the signs of retinopathy in patients with diabetes, there still remain outstanding questions regarding the molecular and biochemical changes involved. To discover the biochemical mechanisms underlying the development and progression of changes in the retina as a result of diabetes, a more comprehensive understanding of the bio-molecular processes, in individual retinal cells subjected to hyperglycemia, is required. Animal models provide a suitable resource for temporal detection of the underlying pathophysiological and biochemical changes associated with DR, which is not fully attainable in human studies. In the present study, I aimed to determine the nature of diabetes-induced, highly localized biochemical changes in the retinal tissue from Ins2Akita/+ (Akita/+; a model of Type I diabetes) male mice with different duration of diabetes. Employing label-free, spatially resolved Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging engaged with chemometric tools enabled me to identify temporal-dependent reproducible biomarkers of the diabetic retinal tissue from mice with 6 or 12 weeks, and 6 or 10 months of diabetes. I report, for the first time, the origin of molecular changes in the biochemistry of individual retinal layers with different duration of diabetes. A robust classification between distinctive retinal layers - namely photoreceptor layer (PRL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) - and associated temporal-dependent spectral biomarkers, were delineated. Spatially-resolved super resolution chemical images revealed oxidative stress-induced structural and morphological alterations within the nucleus of the photoreceptors. Comparison among the PRL, OPL, INL, and IPL suggested that the

  7. THE MID-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD CEPHEIDS DERIVED FROM SPITZER ARCHIVAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the Spitzer IRAC band period-luminosity (P-L) relations for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) Cepheids, by matching the Spitzer archival SAGE-SMC data with the OGLE-III SMC Cepheids. We find that the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm band P-L relations can be better described using two P-L relations with a break period at log(P) = 0.4: this is consistent with similar results at optical wavelengths for SMC P-L relations. The 5.8 μm and 8.0 μm band P-L relations do not extend to sufficiently short periods to enable a similar detection of a slope change at log(P) = 0.4. The slopes of the SMC P-L relations, for log(P) > 0.4, are consistent with their Large Magellanic Cloud counterparts that were derived from a similar data set. They are also in agreement with those obtained from a small sample of Galactic Cepheids with parallax measurements.

  8. In situ mid-infrared analyses of reactive gas-phase intermediates in TEOS/Ozone SAPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whidden, Thomas K.; Doiron, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present in situ characterizations of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactors used in silicon dioxide thin film depositions. The characterizations are based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The infrared absorption data are interpreted within the context of process and thin film properties and the bearing of the spectroscopic data upon the chemical mechanisms extant in the deposition reaction. The relevance of the interpretations to real-time process control is discussed. The process under study in this work is TEOS/ozone-based deposition of silicon dioxide thin films at subatmospheric pressures. This process exhibits many desirable properties but has fundamental problems that may be solvable by reaction control based on in situ analyses and the real-time manipulation of reagent concentrations and process conditions. Herein we discuss our preliminary data on characterizations of TEOS/ozone chemistries in commercial reactor configurations. Reaction products and reactive intermediate species are detected and identified. Quantitative in situ measurements of the reagent materials are demonstrated. Preliminary correlations of these data with process and thin film properties are discussed

  9. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, S.; Ballabio, D.; Giovanelli, G.; Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga; Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N.

    2011-01-01

    NIR and MIR spectroscopies are useful to investigate molecular changes involved in wine fermentation while electronic nose and electronic tongue can be applied to detect the evolution of taste and aroma profile. Moreover, as demonstrated through the modeling of NIR, MIR, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, these non destructive methods are suitable for the monitoring of must-wine fermentation giving crucial information about the quality of the final product in agreement with chemical parameters. Although in this study the measurements were carried out in off-line mode, in future these non destructive techniques could be valid and simple tools, able to provide in-time information about the fermentation process and to assure the quality of wine.

  10. Monitoring of alcoholic fermentation using near infrared and mid infrared spectroscopies combined with electronic nose and electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratti, S., E-mail: susanna.buratti@unimi.it [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ballabio, D. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Giovanelli, G. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dominguez, C.M. Zuluanga [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Bogota (Colombia); Moles, A.; Benedetti, S.; Sinelli, N. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-07-04

    spectroscopies are useful to investigate molecular changes involved in wine fermentation while electronic nose and electronic tongue can be applied to detect the evolution of taste and aroma profile. Moreover, as demonstrated through the modeling of NIR, MIR, electronic nose and electronic tongue data, these non destructive methods are suitable for the monitoring of must-wine fermentation giving crucial information about the quality of the final product in agreement with chemical parameters. Although in this study the measurements were carried out in off-line mode, in future these non destructive techniques could be valid and simple tools, able to provide in-time information about the fermentation process and to assure the quality of wine.

  11. Mid-infrared picosecond pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe experiments to resolve a ground-state intermediate in cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; van Thor, Jasper J

    2009-12-24

    Multipulse picosecond mid-infrared spectroscopy has been used to study photochemical reactions of the cyanobacterial phytochrome photoreceptor Cph1. Different photophysical schemes have been discussed in the literature to describe the pathways after photoexcitation, particularly, to identify reaction phases that are linked to photoisomerisation and electronic decay in the 1566-1772 cm(-1) region that probes C=C and C=O stretching modes of the tetrapyrrole chromophore. Here, multipulse spectroscopy is employed, where, compared to conventional visible pump-mid-infrared probe spectroscopy, an additional visible pulse is incorporated that interacts with populations that are evolving on the excited- and ground-state potential energy surfaces. The time delays between the pump and the dump pulse are chosen such that the dump pulse interacts with different phases in the reaction process. The pump and dump pulses are at the same wavelength, 640 nm, and are resonant with the Pr ground state as well as with the excited state and intermediates. Because the dump pulse additionally pumps the remaining, partially recovered, and partially oriented ground-state population, theory is developed for estimating the fraction of excited-state molecules. The calculations take into account the model-dependent ground-state recovery fraction, the angular dependence of the population transfer resulting from the finite bleach that occurs with linearly polarized intense femtosecond optical excitation, and the partially oriented population for the dump field. Distinct differences between the results from the experiments that use a 1 or a 14 ps dump time favor a branching evolution from S1 to an excited state or reconfigured chromophore and to a newly identified ground-state intermediate (GSI). Optical dumping at 1 ps shows the instantaneous induced absorption of a delocalized C=C stretching mode at 1608 cm(-1), where the increased cross section is associated with the electronic ground

  12. THE DUST CLOUD AROUND THE WHITE DWARF G 29-38. II. SPECTRUM FROM 5 TO 40 μm AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reach, William T.; Lisse, Carey; Von Hippel, Ted; Mullally, Fergal

    2009-01-01

    We model the mineralogy and distribution of dust around the white dwarf G29-39 using the infrared spectrum from 1 to 35 μm. The spectral model for G29-38 dust combines a wide range of materials based on spectral studies of comets and debris disks. In order of their contribution to the mid-infrared emission, the most abundant minerals around G29-38 are amorphous carbon (λ || = 5, and the radial density profile ∝r -2.7 ; the total mass of this model disk is 2 x 10 19 g. A physically thin (less than the white dwarf radius) and optically thick disk can contribute to the near-infrared continuum only; such a disk cannot explain the longer-wavelength continuum or strong emission features. The combination of a physically thin, optically thick inner disk and an outer, physically thick and moderately optically thin cloud or disk produces a reasonably good fit to the spectrum and requires only silicates in the outer cloud. We discuss the mineralogical results in comparison to planetary materials. The silicate composition contains minerals found from cometary spectra and meteorites, but Fe-rich pyroxene is more abundant than enstatite (Mg-rich pyroxene) or forsterite (Mg-rich olivine) in G29-38 dust, in contrast to what is found in most comet or meteorite mineralogies. Enstatite meteorites may be the most similar solar system materials to G29-38 dust. Finally, we suggest the surviving core of a h ot Jupiteras an alternative (neither cometary nor asteroidal) origin for the debris, though further theoretical work is needed to determine if this hypothesis is viable.

  13. STAR-FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF W–R 1503-160L STAR IN THE MID-INFRARED BUBBLE N46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Janardhan, P. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad—380 009 (India); Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ninan, J. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Luna, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Luis Enrique Erro #1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, C.P. 72840, México (Mexico); Zinchenko, I., E-mail: lokeshd@prl.res.in [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-20

    In order to investigate star-formation (SF) processes in extreme environments, we have carried out a multi-wavelength analysis of the mid-infrared bubble N46, which hosts a WN7 Wolf–Rayet (W–R) star. We have used {sup 13}CO line data to trace an expanding shell surrounding the W–R star containing about five condensations within the molecular cloud associated with the bubble. The W–R star is associated with a powerful stellar wind having a mechanical luminosity of ∼4 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup 1}. A deviation of the H -band starlight mean polarization angles around the bubble has also been traced, indicating the impact of stellar wind on the surroundings. The Herschel temperature map shows a temperature range of ∼18–24 K toward the five molecular condensations. The photometric analysis reveals that these condensations are associated with the identified clusters of young stellar objects, revealing ongoing SF process. The densest among these five condensations (peak N(H{sub 2}) ∼9.2 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} and A{sub V} ∼ 98 mag) is associated with a 6.7 GHz methanol maser, an infrared dark cloud, and the CO outflow, tracing active massive SF within it. At least five compact radio sources (CRSs) are physically linked with the edges of the bubble, and each of them is consistent with the radio spectral class of a B0V–B0.5V-type star. The ages of the individual infrared counterparts of three CRSs (∼1–2 Myr) and a typical age of WN7 W–R star (∼4 Myr) indicate that the SF activities around the bubble are influenced by the feedback of the W–R star.

  14. Development of infrared Echelle spectrograph and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer on a small telescope at Haleakala, Hawaii for planetary observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kagitani, Masato; Nakagawa, Hiromu; Kuhn, Jeff; Okano, Shoichi

    2014-08-01

    We report the development of infrared Echelle spectrograph covering 1 - 4 micron and mid-infrared heterodyne spectrometer around 10 micron installed on the 60-cm telescope at the summit of Haleakala, Hawaii (alt.=3000m). It is essential to carry out continuous measurement of planetary atmosphere, such as the Jovian infrared aurora and the volcanoes on Jovian satellite Io, to understand its time and spatial variations. A compact and easy-to-use high resolution infrared spectrometer provide the good opportunity to investigate these objects continuously. We are developing an Echelle spectrograph called ESPRIT: Echelle Spectrograph for Planetary Research In Tohoku university. The main target of ESPRIT is to measure the Jovian H3+ fundamental line at 3.9 micron, and H2 nu=1 at 2.1 micron. The 256x256 pixel CRC463 InSb array is used. An appropriate Echelle grating is selected to optimize at 3.9 micron and 2.1 micron for the Jovian infrared auroral observations. The pixel scale corresponds to the atmospheric seeing (0.3 arcsec/pixel). This spectrograph is characterized by a long slit field-of-view of ~ 50 arcsec with a spectral resolution is over 20,000. In addition, we recently developed a heterodyne spectrometer called MILAHI on the 60 cm telescope. MILAHI is characterized by super high-resolving power (more than 1,500,000) covering from 7 - 13 microns. Its sensitivity is 2400 K at 9.6 micron with a MCT photo diode detector of which bandwidth of 3000 MHz. ESPRIT and MILAHI is planned to be installed on 60 cm telescope is planned in 2014.

  15. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. I. DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS OF THE RAYLEIGH-JEANS COLOR EXCESS METHOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Zasowski, Gail; Nidever, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The Milky Way (MW) remains a primary laboratory for understanding the structure and evolution of spiral galaxies, but typically we are denied clear views of MW stellar populations at low Galactic latitudes because of extinction by interstellar dust. However, the combination of Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) near-infrared (NIR) and Spitzer-IRAC mid-infrared (MIR) photometry enables a powerful method for determining the line-of-sight reddening to any star: the sampled wavelengths lie in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the spectral energy distribution of most stars, where, to first order, all stars have essentially the same intrinsic color. Thus, changes in stellar NIR-MIR colors due to interstellar reddening are readily apparent, and (under an assumed extinction law) the observed colors and magnitudes of stars can be easily and accurately restored to their intrinsic values, greatly increasing their usefulness for Galactic structure studies. In this paper, we explore this 'Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess' (RJCE) method and demonstrate that use of even a simple variant of the RJCE method based on a single reference color, (H -[4.5μ]), can rather accurately remove dust effects from previously uninterpretable 2MASS color-magnitude diagrams of stars in fields along the heavily reddened Galactic midplane, with results far superior to those derived from application of other dereddening methods. We also show that 'total' Galactic midplane extinction looks rather different from that predicted using 100μ emission maps from the IRAS/ISSA and COBE/DIRBE instruments as presented by Schlegel et al. Instead, the Galactic midplane extinction strongly resembles the distribution of 13 CO (J = 1→0) emission. Future papers will focus on refining the RJCE method and applying the technique to understand better not only dust and its distribution but also the distribution of stars intermixed with the dust in the low-latitude Galaxy.

  16. Quantification of whey proteins by reversed phase-HPLC and effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy for their rapid prediction in sweet whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, Alba; De Marchi, Massimo; Masi, Antonio; Cassandro, Martino

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, membrane filtration is used to reduce the amount of whey waste and, simultaneously, to recover whey proteins (WP). The composition of WP can strongly affect the filtration treatment of whey, and rapid determination of WP fractions would be of interest for dairy producers to monitor WP recovery. This study aimed to develop mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) prediction models for the rapid quantification of protein in sweet whey, using a validated rapid reversed phase (RP)-HPLC as a reference method. Quantified WP included α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) A and B, bovine serum albumin, caseinomacropeptides, and proteose peptone. Validation of RP-HPLC was performed by calculating the relative standard deviation (RSD) in repeatability and reproducibility tests for WP retention time and peak areas. Samples of liquid whey (n=187) were analyzed by RP-HPLC and scanned through MIRS to collect spectral information (900 to 4,000 cm(-1)); statistical analysis was carried out through partial least squares regression and random cross-validation procedure. Retention times in RP-HPLC method were stable (RSD between 0.03 and 0.80%), whereas the RSD of peak area (from 0.25 to 8.48%) was affected by WP relative abundance. Higher coefficients of determination in validation for MIRS model were obtained for protein fractions present in whey in large amounts, such as β-LG (0.58), total identified WP (0.58), and α-LA (0.56). Results of this study suggest that MIRS is an easy method for rapid quantification of detail protein in sweet whey, even if better resolution was achieved with the method based on RP-HPLC. The prediction of WP in sweet whey by MIRS might be used for screening and for classifying sweet whey according to its total and individual WP contents. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation and benchmarking of an EC-QCL-based mid-infrared spectrometer for monitoring metabolic blood parameters in critical care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, M.; Delbeck, S.; Busch, H.; Heise, H. M.; Ostendorf, A.

    2018-02-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy hyphenated with micro-dialysis is an excellent method for monitoring metabolic blood parameters as it enables the concurrent, reagent-free and precise measurement of multiple clinically relevant substances such as glucose, lactate and urea in micro-dialysates of blood or interstitial fluid. For a marketable implementation, quantum cascade lasers (QCL) seem to represent a favourable technology due to their high degree of miniaturization and potentially low production costs. In this work, an external cavity (EC) - QCL-based spectrometer and two Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers were benchmarked with regard to the precision, accuracy and long-term stability needed for the monitoring of critically ill patients. For the tests, ternary aqueous solutions of glucose, lactate and mannitol (the latter for dialysis recovery determination) were measured in custom-made flow-through transmission cells of different pathlengths and analyzed by Partial Least Squares calibration models. It was revealed, that the wavenumber tuning speed of the QCL had a severe impact on the EC-mirror trajectory due to matching the digital-analog-converter step frequency with the mechanical resonance frequency of the mirror actuation. By selecting an appropriate tuning speed, the mirror oscillations acted as a hardware smoothing filter for the significant intensity variations caused by mode hopping. Besides the tuning speed, the effects of averaging over multiple spectra and software smoothing parameters (Savitzky-Golay-filters and FT-smoothing) were investigated. The final settings led to a performance of the QCL-system, which was comparable with a research FTIR-spectrometer and even surpassed the performance of a small FTIR-mini-spectrometer.

  18. Influence of composition and roughness on the pigment mapping of paintings using mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Clarimma; Bagán, Héctor; García, Jose Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) is a very interesting technique for artwork characterization purposes. However, the fact that the spectra obtained are a mixture of surface (specular) and volume (diffuse) reflection is a significant drawback. The physical and chemical features of the artwork surface may produce distortions in the spectra that hinder comparison with reference databases acquired in transmission mode. Several studies attempted to understand the influence of the different variables and propose procedures to improve the interpretation of the spectra. This article is focused on the application of mid-IR FORS and multivariate calibration to the analysis of easel paintings. The objectives are the evaluation of the influence of the surface roughness on the spectra, the influence of the matrix composition for the classification of unknown spectra, and the capability of obtaining pigment composition mappings. A first evaluation of a fast procedure for spectra management and pigment discrimination is discussed. The results demonstrate the capability of multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), to model the distortions of the reflectance spectra and to delimitate and discriminate areas of uniform composition. The roughness of the painting surface is found to be an important factor affecting the shape and relative intensity of the spectra. A mapping of the major pigments of a painting is possible using mid-IR FORS and PLS-DA when the calibration set is a palette that includes the potential pigments present in the artwork mixed with the appropriate binder and that shows the different paint textures.

  19. Selection of discriminant mid-infrared wavenumbers by combining a naïve Bayesian classifier and a genetic algorithm: Application to the evaluation of lignocellulosic biomass biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Abbas; Perrin, Eric; Vrabie, Valeriu; Assaf, Rabih; Fenniri, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    Infrared spectroscopy provides useful information on the molecular compositions of biological systems related to molecular vibrations, overtones, and combinations of fundamental vibrations. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy is sensitive to organic and mineral components and has attracted growing interest in the development of biomarkers related to intrinsic characteristics of lignocellulose biomass. However, not all spectral information is valuable for biomarker construction or for applying analysis methods such as classification. Better processing and interpretation can be achieved by identifying discriminating wavenumbers. The selection of wavenumbers has been addressed through several variable- or feature-selection methods. Some of them have not been adapted for use in large data sets or are difficult to tune, and others require additional information, such as concentrations. This paper proposes a new approach by combining a naïve Bayesian classifier with a genetic algorithm to identify discriminating spectral wavenumbers. The genetic algorithm uses a linear combination of an a posteriori probability and the Bayes error rate as the fitness function for optimization. Such a function allows the improvement of both the compactness and the separation of classes. This approach was tested to classify a small set of maize roots in soil according to their biodegradation process based on their MIR spectra. The results show that this optimization method allows better discrimination of the biodegradation process, compared with using the information of the entire MIR spectrum, the use of the spectral information at wavenumbers selected by a genetic algorithm based on a classical validity index or the use of the spectral information selected by combining a genetic algorithm with other methods, such as Linear Discriminant Analysis. The proposed method selects wavenumbers that correspond to principal vibrations of chemical functional groups of compounds that undergo degradation

  20. STAR-FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF W–R 1503-160L STAR IN THE MID-INFRARED BUBBLE N46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Janardhan, P.; Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ninan, J. P.; Luna, A.; Zinchenko, I.

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate star-formation (SF) processes in extreme environments, we have carried out a multi-wavelength analysis of the mid-infrared bubble N46, which hosts a WN7 Wolf–Rayet (W–R) star. We have used 13 CO line data to trace an expanding shell surrounding the W–R star containing about five condensations within the molecular cloud associated with the bubble. The W–R star is associated with a powerful stellar wind having a mechanical luminosity of ∼4 × 10 37 erg s 1 . A deviation of the H -band starlight mean polarization angles around the bubble has also been traced, indicating the impact of stellar wind on the surroundings. The Herschel temperature map shows a temperature range of ∼18–24 K toward the five molecular condensations. The photometric analysis reveals that these condensations are associated with the identified clusters of young stellar objects, revealing ongoing SF process. The densest among these five condensations (peak N(H 2 ) ∼9.2 × 10 22 cm 2 and A V ∼ 98 mag) is associated with a 6.7 GHz methanol maser, an infrared dark cloud, and the CO outflow, tracing active massive SF within it. At least five compact radio sources (CRSs) are physically linked with the edges of the bubble, and each of them is consistent with the radio spectral class of a B0V–B0.5V-type star. The ages of the individual infrared counterparts of three CRSs (∼1–2 Myr) and a typical age of WN7 W–R star (∼4 Myr) indicate that the SF activities around the bubble are influenced by the feedback of the W–R star.

  1. In situ mid-infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite with water in supercritical CO2: Dependence of mineral carbonation on quantitative water speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, J. S.; Thompson, C. J.; Wang, Z.; Schaef, H. T.; Martin, P.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide holds promise for helping mitigate CO2 emissions generated from the burning of fossil fuels. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) plumes containing variable water concentrations (wet scCO2) will displace aqueous solution and dominate the pore space adjacent to caprocks. It is important to understand possible mineral reactions with wet scCO2 to better predict long-term caprock integrity. We introduce novel in situ instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2 at temperatures and pressures relevant to target geologic reservoirs. The system includes both transmission and attenuated total reflection mid-infrared optics. Transmission infrared spectroscopy is used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2, adsorbed on mineral surfaces, and incorporated into precipitated carbonates. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor water adsorption, mineral dissolution, and carbonate precipitation reactions. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titration of forsterite (Mg2SiO4), a model divalent metal silicate, with water in scCO2 at 100 bar and at both 50 and 75°C. The spectral data demonstrate that the quantitative speciation of water as either dissolved or adsorbed is important for understanding the types, growth rates, and amounts of carbonate precipitates formed. Relationships between dissolved/adsorbed water, water concentrations, and the role of liquid-like adsorbed water are discussed. Our results unify previous in situ studies from our laboratory based on infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

  2. The Optical-Mid-infrared Extinction Law of the l = 165° Sightline in the Galactic Plane: Diversity of the Extinction Law in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Jiang, B. W.; Zhao, He; Chen, Xiaodian; de Grijs, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effects of dust extinction is important to properly interpret observations. The optical total-to-selective extinction ratio, {R}V={A}V/E(B-V), is widely used to describe extinction variations in ultraviolet and optical bands. Since the {R}V=3.1 extinction curve adequately represents the average extinction law of diffuse regions in the Milky Way, it is commonly used to correct observational measurements along sightlines toward diffuse regions in the interstellar medium. However, the {R}V value may vary even along different diffuse interstellar medium sightlines. In this paper, we investigate the optical-mid-infrared (mid-IR) extinction law toward a very diffuse region at l=165^\\circ in the Galactic plane, which was selected based on a CO emission map. Adopting red clump stars as extinction tracers, we determine the optical-mid-IR extinction law for our diffuse region in two APASS bands (B,V), three XSTPS-GAC bands (g,r,I), three 2MASS bands (J,H,{K}s), and two WISE bands (W1,W2). Specifically, 18 red clump stars were selected from the APOGEE-RC catalog based on spectroscopic data in order to explore the diversity of the extinction law. We find that the optical extinction curves exhibit appreciable diversity. The corresponding {R}V ranges from 1.7 to 3.8, while the mean {R}V value of 2.8 is consistent with the widely adopted average value of 3.1 for Galactic diffuse clouds. There is no apparent correlation between {R}V value and color excess E(B-V) in the range of interest, from 0.2 to 0.6 mag, or with specific visual extinction per kiloparsec, {A}V/d.

  3. Short communication: Prediction of milk coagulation and acidity traits in Mediterranean buffalo milk using Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuelian, C L; Visentin, G; Boselli, C; Giangolini, G; Cassandro, M; De Marchi, M

    2017-09-01

    Milk coagulation and acidity traits are important factors to inform the cheesemaking process. Those traits have been deeply studied in bovine milk, whereas scarce information is available for buffalo milk. However, the dairy industry is interested in a method to determine milk coagulation and acidity features quickly and in a cost-effective manner, which could be provided by Fourier-transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of FT-MIR to predict coagulation and acidity traits of Mediterranean buffalo milk. A total of 654 records from 36 herds located in central Italy with information on milk yield, somatic cell score, milk chemical composition, milk acidity [pH, titratable acidity (TA)], and milk coagulation properties (rennet coagulation time, curd firming time, and curd firmness) were available for statistical analysis. Reference measures of milk acidity and coagulation properties were matched with milk spectral information, and FT-MIR prediction models were built using partial least squares regression. The data set was divided into a calibration set (75%) and a validation set (25%). The capacity of FT-MIR spectroscopy to correctly classify milk samples based on their renneting ability was evaluated by a canonical discriminant analysis. Average values for milk coagulation traits were 13.32 min, 3.24 min, and 39.27 mm for rennet coagulation time, curd firming time, and curd firmness, respectively. Milk acidity traits averaged 6.66 (pH) and 7.22 Soxhlet-Henkel degrees/100 mL (TA). All milk coagulation and acidity traits, except for pH, had high variability (17 to 46%). Prediction models of coagulation traits were moderately to scarcely accurate, whereas the coefficients of determination of external validation were 0.76 and 0.66 for pH and TA, respectively. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that information on milk coagulating ability is present in the MIR spectra, and the model correctly classified as

  4. AKARI OBSERVATION OF THE NORTH ECLIPTIC POLE (NEP) SUPERCLUSTER AT z = 0.087: MID-INFRARED VIEW OF TRANSITION GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jongwan; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Kim, Seong Jin; Jeon, Yiseul; Shim, Hyunjin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Papovich, Casey; Matsuhara, Hideo; Takagi, Toshinobu; Oyabu, Shinki

    2012-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of galaxies within a supercluster in the north ecliptic pole region at z ∼ 0.087 observed with the AKARI satellite. We use data from the AKARI NEP-Wide (5.4 deg 2 ) IR survey and the CLusters of galaxies EVoLution studies (CLEVL) mission program. We show that near-IR (3 μm)-mid-IR (11 μm) color can be used as an indicator of the specific star formation rate and the presence of intermediate-age stellar populations. From the MIR observations, we find that red-sequence galaxies consist not only of passively evolving red early-type galaxies, but also of (1) 'weak-SFGs' (disk-dominated star-forming galaxies that have star formation rates lower by ∼4 × than blue-cloud galaxies) and (2) 'intermediate-MXGs' (bulge-dominated galaxies showing stronger MIR dust emission than normal red early-type galaxies). These two populations can be a set of transition galaxies from blue, star-forming, late-type galaxies evolving into red, quiescent, early-type ones. We find that the weak-SFGs are predominant at intermediate masses (10 10 M ☉ * 10.5 M ☉ ) and are typically found in local densities similar to the outskirts of galaxy clusters. As much as 40% of the supercluster member galaxies in this mass range can be classified as weak-SFGs, but their proportion decreases to * > 10 10.5 M ☉ ) at any galaxy density. The fraction of the intermediate-MXG among red-sequence galaxies at 10 10 M ☉ * 11 M ☉ also decreases as the density and mass increase. In particular, ∼42% of the red-sequence galaxies with early-type morphologies are classified as intermediate-MXGs at intermediate densities. These results suggest that the star formation activity is strongly dependent on the stellar mass, but that the morphological transformation is mainly controlled by the environment.

  5. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kucharski; Łukasz Janicki; Marcin Zajac; Monika Welna; Marcin Motyka; Czesław Skierbiszewski; Robert Kudrawiec

    2017-01-01

    GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type) on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples) or dopant ionization (p-type samples). In the mid-in...

  6. An attempt at predicting blood β-hydroxybutyrate from Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectra of milk using multivariate mixed models in Polish dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, T K; Dagnachew, B S; Kowalski, Z M; Ådnøy, T

    2017-08-01

    Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectra of milk are commonly used for phenotyping of traits of interest through links developed between the traits and milk FT-MIR spectra. Predicted traits are then used in genetic analysis for ultimate phenotypic prediction using a single-trait mixed model that account for cows' circumstances at a given test day. Here, this approach is referred to as indirect prediction (IP). Alternatively, FT-MIR spectral variable can be kept multivariate in the form of factor scores in REML and BLUP analyses. These BLUP predictions, including phenotype (predicted factor scores), were converted to single-trait through calibration outputs; this method is referred to as direct prediction (DP). The main aim of this study was to verify whether mixed modeling of milk spectra in the form of factors scores (DP) gives better prediction of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) than the univariate approach (IP). Models to predict blood BHB from milk spectra were also developed. Two data sets that contained milk FT-MIR spectra and other information on Polish dairy cattle were used in this study. Data set 1 (n = 826) also contained BHB measured in blood samples, whereas data set 2 (n = 158,028) did not contain measured blood values. Part of data set 1 was used to calibrate a prediction model (n = 496) and the remaining part of data set 1 (n = 330) was used to validate the calibration models, as well as to evaluate the DP and IP approaches. Dimensions of FT-MIR spectra in data set 2 were reduced either into 5 or 10 factor scores (DP) or into a single trait (IP) with calibration outputs. The REML estimates for these factor scores were found using WOMBAT. The BLUP values and predicted BHB for observations in the validation set were computed using the REML estimates. Blood BHB predicted from milk FT-MIR spectra by both approaches were regressed on reference blood BHB that had not been used in the model development. Coefficients of determination in cross

  7. A Study of Hypergiant Mass Loss in the Near-To-Mid Infrared: VY CMa, IRC +10420, mu Cep and rho Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Stars of initial mass greater than 9 M_sun become red supergiants (RSGs), a short-lived stage during which they experience mass-loss that strongly influences their post-RSG evolution and end state. The highest luminosity RSGs, referred to here as hypergiants, experience episodic mass-loss whose mechanism remains poorly understood and motivates observations to help constrain it. This thesis studies mass loss from hypergiant stars with near-to-mid infrared imaging over a range of angular scales. The recent mass-loss history of the extreme red supergiant VY Canis Majoris and the warm hypergiant star IRC +10420 are studied at the sub-arcsecond scale with adaptive optics imaging and imaging polarimetry from 1 - 5 micron using LMIRCam on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and MMT-Pol at the MMT Observatory. The nebular features of VY CMa are found to be highly polarized at 1.3 and 3.1 micron, with optically thick scattering required to reproduce the observed surface brightness. The flux of VY CMa's peculiar ``Southwest Clump'' is demonstrated to be due almost entirely to optically thick scattering, with little thermal emission, and with a lower limit mass of 5E-03 M_sun in this single feature. The imaging polarimetry of IRC +10420 at 2.2 micron resolves nebular emission with intrinsic polarization of 30%, with a high surface brightness indicating optically thick scattering largely in the plane of the sky. Using the polarimetry to constrain the scattered light emission, it is shown that the nebula's the emission is mostly thermal with a color temperature well above that for typical astrophysical dust. To probe further into hypergiants' history of mass-loss, mid-IR imaging with MMT/ MIRAC and SOFIA/FORCAST is used to study VY CMa, IRC +10420 and two additional hypergiants: the RSG mu Cep and the warm hypergiant rho Cas. Using DUSTY 1-D radiative transfer models, mu Cep's mass-loss rate is found to have declined by about a factor of 5 over a 13,000 history, ranging from 5E

  8. Transparency of Semi-Insulating, n-Type, and p-Type Ammonothermal GaN Substrates in the Near-Infrared, Mid-Infrared, and THz Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kucharski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GaN substrates grown by the ammonothermal method are analyzed by Fast Fourier Transformation Spectroscopy in order to study the impact of doping (both n- and p-type on their transparency in the near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz spectral range. It is shown that the introduction of dopants causes a decrease in transparency of GaN substrates in a broad spectral range which is attributed to absorption on free carriers (n-type samples or dopant ionization (p-type samples. In the mid-infrared the transparency cut-off, which for a semi-insulating GaN is at ~7 µm due to an absorption on a second harmonic of optical phonons, shifts towards shorter wavelengths due to an absorption on free carriers up to ~1 µm at n ~ 1020 cm−3 doping level. Moreover, a semi-insulating GaN crystal shows good transparency in the 1–10 THz range, while for n-and p-type crystal, the transparency in this spectral region is significantly quenched below 1%. In addition, it is shown that in the visible spectral region n-type GaN substrates with a carrier concentration below 1018 cm−3 are highly transparent with the absorption coefficient below 3 cm−1 at 450 nm, a satisfactory condition for light emitting diodes and laser diodes operating in this spectral range.

  9. Detecting proxima b's atmosphere with JWST targeting CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, I. A G; Désert, J. M.; Waters, L. B.F.M.; Robinson, T; Meadows, V.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Brandl, B.R.; Henning, T.; Bouwman, J.; Lahuis, F.; Min, M.; Lovis, C.; Dominik, C.; Van Eylen, V.; Sing, D.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Birkby, J. L.; Brogi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Exoplanet Proxima b will be an important laboratory for the search for extraterrestrial life for the decades ahead. Here, we discuss the prospects of detecting carbon dioxide at 15 μm using a spectral filtering technique with the Medium Resolution Spectrograph (MRS) mode of the Mid-Infrared

  10. A compact, CW mid-infrared intra-cavity Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4∖KTA-OPO at 3.5 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Y M; Zhu, H Y; Feng, Z R; Xu, C W; Tang, D Y; Zhang, J; Wang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    We report a continuous-wave (CW) KTA (KTiOAsO 4 )-OPO (optical parametric oscillator) with a compact linear cavity utilizing an LD pumped mixed crystal Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser as the pump source for the first time. A singly resonant oscillator with low signal light loss was designed to reduce the OPO’s threshold. Maximum output powers of 630 mW at 3475 nm and 190 mW at 1536 nm were obtained at a pump power of 13.2 W. A total conversion efficiency of 6.2% was achieved with respect to the incident diode pump power. The performance of this work demonstrates that a CW KTA-OPO derived by an LD pumped Nd 3+ doped solid laser can also produce efficient mid-infrared light. (letter)

  11. Characterization of a ZnxCd1-xSe/Znx'Cdy'Mg1-x'-y'Se multiple quantum well structure for mid-infrared device applications by contactless electroreflectance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J D; Lin, J W; Huang, Y S; Charles, W O; Shen, A; Zhang, Q; Tamargo, M C

    2009-01-01

    Contactless electroreflectance (CER) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to study the intersubband transitions of a Zn x Cd 1-x Se/Zn x' Cd y' Mg 1-x'-y' Se multiple quantum well (MQW) structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy for mid-infrared device applications. The CER spectrum revealed a wide range of possible optical transitions in the MQW structure. The ground state transition was assigned by comparison with the photoluminescence emission signal taken from the same structure. A comprehensive analysis of the CER spectrum led to the identification of various interband transitions. The intersubband transitions were estimated and confirmed by FTIR measurements. The results demonstrate the potential of using CER as a complementary technique for the contactless and nondestructive characterization of the wide band gap II-VI MQW structures for mid-IR intersubband device applications.

  12. One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1979-02-01

    At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

  13. Gas Discharge Produced by Strong Microwaves of Nanosecond Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the investigation of nanosecond microwave discharge are reviewed. Nanosecond microwave discharge is a new branch of gas discharge physics. The paper lists base types of microwave generators used to produce nanosecond discharge and classifies the discharges relative to their base parameters: the way the discharge gets localized in a limited space, amplitude and frequency of microwave field, gas pressure, duration of microwave pulses. The laboratory experiments performed and the new effects which appear in nanosecond microwave discharge are briefly summarized. Different applications of such a discharge are analyzed on the basis of the experimental modelling. (author)

  14. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Pu [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Wenzhong, E-mail: lwz7410@hust.edu.cn [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  15. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  16. Nanosecond bipolar pulse generators for bioelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu; Zhou, Chunrong; Yang, Enbo; Rajulapati, Sambasiva R

    2018-04-26

    Biological effects caused by a nanosecond pulse, such as cell membrane permeabilization, peripheral nerve excitation and cell blebbing, can be reduced or cancelled by applying another pulse of reversed polarity. Depending on the degree of cancellation, the pulse interval of these two pulses can be as long as dozens of microseconds. The cancellation effect diminishes as the pulse duration increases. To study the cancellation effect and potentially utilize it in electrotherapy, nanosecond bipolar pulse generators must be made available. An overview of the generators is given in this paper. A pulse forming line (PFL) that is matched at one end and shorted at the other end allows a bipolar pulse to be produced, but no delay can be inserted between the phases. Another generator employs a combination of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor to form an RLC resonant circuit so that a bipolar pulse with a decaying magnitude can be generated. A third generator is a converter, which converts an existing unipolar pulse to a bipolar pulse. This is done by inserting an inductor in a transmission line. The first phase of the bipolar pulse is provided by the unipolar pulse's rising phase. The second phase is formed during the fall time of the unipolar pulse, when the inductor, which was previously charged during the flat part of the unipolar pulse, discharges its current to the load. The fourth type of generator uses multiple MOSFET switches stacked to turn on a pre-charged, bipolar RC network. This approach is the most flexible in that it can generate multiphasic pulses that have different amplitudes, delays, and durations. However, it may not be suitable for producing short nanosecond pulses (<100 ns), whereas the PFL approach and the RLC approach with gas switches are used for this range. Thus, each generator has its own advantages and applicable range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PNG-300 a nanosecond pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztaricskai, T.; Vasvary, L.; Petoe, G.C.; Devkin, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a nanosecond-pulse neutron generator is reported. It was constructed for the measurement of prompt neutron and gamma radiation in experimental studies of fast neutron reactions by time of flight techniques. The acceleration voltage is 300 kV and the total resolution of the generator-neutron spectrometer system is 2 ns. The ion-optical system, the vacuum system and the control of the neutron generator is described in detail. The equipment was used for prompt neutron and gamma radiation induced in construction materials. (R.P.)

  18. Femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of silicon and germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reenaas, Turid Worren [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lee, Yen Sian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Gupta, Manisha; Tsui, Ying Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Tou, Teck Yong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Ling [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kok, Soon Yie [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan, E-mail: seongshan@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Ge and Si were deposited by fs and ns laser at room temperature and at vacuum. • Ion of 10{sup 4} ms{sup −1} and 30–200 eV was obtained for ns ablation for Ge and Si. • Highly energetic ions of 10{sup 5} ms{sup −1} with 2–7 KeV were produced in fs laser ablation. • Nanocrystalline Si and Ge were deposited by using fs laser. • Nanoparticles < 10 nm haven been obtained by fs laser. - Abstract: 150 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulsed laser deposition of Si and Ge were compared to a nanosecond KrF laser (25 ns). The ablation thresholds for ns lasers were about 2.5 J cm{sup −2} for Si and 2.1 J cm{sup −2} for Ge. The values were about 5–10 times lower when fs laser were used. The power densities were 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2} for ns but 10{sup 12} W cm{sup −2} for fs. By using an ion probe, the ions emission at different fluence were measured where the emitting ions achieving the velocity in the range of 7–40 km s{sup −1} and kinetic energy in the range of 30–200 eV for ns laser. The ion produced by fs laser was measured to be highly energetic, 90–200 km s{sup −1}, 2–10 KeV. Two ion peaks were detected above specific laser fluence for both ns and fs laser ablation. Under fs laser ablation, the films were dominated by nano-sized crystalline particles, drastically different from nanosecond pulsed laser deposition where amorphous films were obtained. The ions characteristics and effects of pulse length on the properties of the deposited films were discussed.

  19. Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Krishnan R; Rosen, David I; Allen, Mark G; Ganz, Alan M; Risby, Terence H

    2009-02-01

    Cavity-enhanced tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is an attractive method for measuring small concentrations of gaseous species. Ethane is a breath biomarker of lipid peroxidation initiated by reactive oxygen species. A noninvasive means of quickly quantifying oxidative stress status has the potential for broad clinical application. We present a simple, compact system using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with an interband cascade laser and demonstrate its use in real-time measurements of breath ethane. We demonstrate a detection sensitivity of 0.48 ppb/Hz(1/2).

  20. Influence of the nature of soil organic matter on the sorption behaviour of pentadecane as determined by PLS analysis of mid-infrared DRIFT and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark Ehlers, G.A. [Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln A-3430 (Austria); Forrester, Sean T. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Rd, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia); Scherr, Kerstin E. [Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln A-3430 (Austria); Loibner, Andreas P., E-mail: andreas.loibner@boku.ac.a [Institute of Environmental Biotechnology, Department IFA-Tulln, The University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 20, Tulln A-3430 (Austria); Janik, Les J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Rd, Urrbrae SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    The nature of soil organic matter (SOM) functional groups associated with sorption processes was determined by correlating partitioning coefficients with solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared (DRIFT) spectral features using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis. Partitioning sorption coefficients for n-pentadecane (n-C{sub 15}) were determined for three alternative models: the Langmuir model, the dual distributed reactive domain model (DRDM) and the Freundlich model, where the latter was found to be the most appropriate. NMR-derived constitutional descriptors did not correlate with Freundlich model parameters. By contrast, PLS analysis revealed the most likely nature of the functional groups in SOM associated with n-C{sub 15} sorption coefficients (K{sub F}) to be aromatic, possibly porous soil char, rather than aliphatic organic components for the presently investigated soils. High PLS cross-validation correlation suggested that the model was robust for the purpose of characterising the functional group chemistry important for n-C{sub 15} sorption. - NMR/IR spectroscopy and chemometrics reveal the aromatic fraction of soil organic matter being responsible for alkane sorption.

  1. Computational assessment of promising mid-infrared nonlinear optical materials Mg–IV–V2 (IV = Si, Ge, Sn; V = P, As): a first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianping; Zhu, Shifu; Zhao, Beijun; Chen, Baojun; Liu, Hui; He, Zhiyu

    2018-03-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR) nonlinear optical (NLO) capabilities of Mg–IV–V2 (IV = Si, Ge, Sn; V = P, As) are systematically assessed by the first-principles calculation. The results show that the compounds in this group except MgSiP2 and MgSnP2 have moderate birefringence values to fulfill the phase-matching conditions. In particular, MgGeP2 and MgSiAs2 possess relatively large band gaps and almost three to four times larger static SHG coefficients than the benchmark material AgGaSe2, exhibiting good potential for mid-IR NLO application. According to the detailed analysis of the electronic structures, it is found that the dominant SHG contributions are from the orbitals of the asymmetry anionic unit [IV–V2]2‑. Moreover, the further evaluation reveals that MgSiAs2, MgGeAs2, MgSnP2 and MgSnAs2 are not thermodynamically stable and the new synthesis strategy (i.e. synthesis under non-equilibrium conditions) should be considered.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance (1.40 T) and mid infrared (FTIR-ATR) associated with chemometrics as analytical methods for the analysis of methyl ester yield obtained by esterification reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollar, Sara R.M.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z., E-mail: psuarez@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasília, DF (Brazil). Instituto de Química; Novotny, Etelvino H. [Embrapa Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Claudia J. do [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, (Brazil). Instituto de Biociências

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we compared 1.40 T nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to 7.05 T (60 and 300 MHz for proton, respectively), and mid-infrared with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), associated with chemometrics methods, for the quantification of the reaction yield during esterification of fatty acids with methanol. The results showed that the integrated intensities of the ester C=O stretching region, relative to the total C=O stretching region, is useful to quantify the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) concentration. Comparing the results obtained by the different final models: NMR (1.40 T and 7.05 T), FTIR-ATR using multivariate partial last squares regression (PLS) with orthogonal signal correction (OSC), and univariate ordinary least squares (OLS), the NMR of 1.40 T (60 MHz for proton) showed more advantages when compared to a high field spectrometer, due to the non-use of cryogenic and solvents and less laborious work for obtaining results. (author)

  3. Preparation and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-ZnO-ZnF2 fluoro-tellurite glass for mid-infrared fiber Raman laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xiao, Xusheng; Gu, Shaoxuan; Xu, Yantao; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Haitao

    2017-04-01

    A serial of novel fluoro-tellurite glasses with compositions of 60TeO2-20BaO-(20-x)ZnO-xZnF2 (x = 0, 2, 4, 5 and 6 mol%) were prepared. The compositional dependences of glass structural evaluation, Raman gain coefficient, UV-Vis transmission spectrum, IR transmission spectrum, linear refractive index and third-order nonlinearity were analyzed. The results showed that the addition of 6 mol% ZnF2 can further improve the Raman gain coefficient to as well as 52 × 10-11 cm/W and effectively decrease around 73% and 57% absorption coefficients respectively caused by free Osbnd H groups (@3.3 μm) and hydrogen-bonded Osbnd H groups (@4.5 μm) in glass. Addition of ZnF2 does not change the UV-Vis absorption edge, optical band gap energy and infrared region cut-off edge almost, while the linear refraction index and ultrafast third-nonlinearity show unmonotonic changes. These novel fluoro-tellurite glasses may be suitable candidates for using in mid-infrared Raman fiber laser and/or amplifier.

  4. Mid-infrared, long wave infrared (4-12 μm) molecular emission signatures from pharmaceuticals using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Clayton S-C; Brown, Ei E; Kumi-Barimah, Eric; Hommerich, Uwe H; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir B; Samuels, Alan C; Snyder, A Peter

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to augment the atomic emission spectra of conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and to provide an increase in selectivity, mid-wave to long-wave infrared (IR), LIBS studies were performed on several organic pharmaceuticals. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signature molecular emissions of target organic compounds are observed for the first time in the IR fingerprint spectral region between 4-12 μm. The IR emission spectra of select organic pharmaceuticals closely correlate with their respective standard Fourier transform infrared spectra. Intact and/or fragment sample molecular species evidently survive the LIBS event. The combination of atomic emission signatures derived from conventional ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared LIBS with fingerprints of intact molecular entities determined from IR LIBS promises to be a powerful tool for chemical detection.

  5. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of AERA using a beacon reference transmitter and commercial airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huege Tim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers requires time synchronization of detectors on a nanosecond level, especially for advanced reconstruction algorithms based on the wavefront curvature and for interferometric analysis approaches. At the Auger Engineering Radio Array, the distributed, autonomous detector stations are time-synchronized via the Global Positioning System which, however, does not provide sufficient timing accuracy. We thus employ a dedicated beacon reference transmitter to correct for eventby-event clock drifts in our offline data analysis. In an independent cross-check of this “beacon correction” using radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, we have shown that the combined timing accuracy of the two methods is better than 2 nanoseconds.

  6. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of AERA using a beacon reference transmitter and commercial airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim

    2017-03-01

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers requires time synchronization of detectors on a nanosecond level, especially for advanced reconstruction algorithms based on the wavefront curvature and for interferometric analysis approaches. At the Auger Engineering Radio Array, the distributed, autonomous detector stations are time-synchronized via the Global Positioning System which, however, does not provide sufficient timing accuracy. We thus employ a dedicated beacon reference transmitter to correct for eventby-event clock drifts in our offline data analysis. In an independent cross-check of this "beacon correction" using radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, we have shown that the combined timing accuracy of the two methods is better than 2 nanoseconds.

  7. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in chalcogenide step-index fibers pumped at 2.9 and 4.5µm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Agger, Christian; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    The Mid-InfraRed (MIR) spectral range (2-12µm) contains the spectral fingerprint of many organic molecules, which can be probed nondestructively for e.g. detection of skin cancer. For this SuperContinuum (SC) laser sources are good candidates since they can have broadband bandwidths together...... with high spectral densities. Here we consider a MIR SC laser sources based on chalcogenide step-index fibers with exceptionally high numerical aperture of ~1 pumped either with Er:ZBLAN and Pr:CHALC fiber laser operating at 2.9 and 4.5µm, respectively, having P0=1kW, T0=50ps, ν_R=4MHz and Pavg=200m......W. The optical properties of fibers (dispersion, nonlinearity and confinement loss) are modeled using the finite element tools based on measured refractive indices of the core and the cladding chalcogenide compositions. Generation of MIR SC is investigated using the Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation...

  8. Megavolt nanosecond generator with semiconductor current breaker

    CERN Document Server

    Bushlyakov, A I; Rukin, S N; Slovikovskij, B G; Timoshenkov, S P

    2002-01-01

    The heavy-current nanosecond generator with the pulse capacity up to 1.6 GW and output voltage of 0.5-1 MW is described. The generator contains four capacity storages, one induction storage and six solid body commutators: one thyristor, four magnetic commutators and a semiconductor current breaker on the SOS-diodes. The results of studies on the energy change-over efficiency through a semiconductor breaker by various external resistance loads as well as the results of the thermal and frequency tests are presented. It is established that selection of the optimal cooling system provides for the generator continuous mode of operation with the pulse sequence frequency from 300 Hz up to 850 Hz

  9. High-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapishnikov, N.K.; Muratov, V.M.; Shatanov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse shaper with an output of up to 250 kV, a base duration of ∼ 10 nsec, and a repetition frequency of 50 pulses/sec is described. The described high-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper is designed for one-orbit extraction of an electron beam from a betatron. A diagram of the pulse shaper, which employs a single-stage generator is shown. The shaping element is a low-inductance capacitor bank of series-parallel KVI-3 (2200 pF at 10 kV) or K15-10 (4700 pF at 31.5 kV) disk ceramic capacitors. Four capacitors are connected in parallel and up to 25 are connected in series

  10. Nanosecond Surface Microdischarges in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinov, A. E.; Lyubimtseva, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    Multilayer structures in which nanosecond surface microdischarges are generated have been developed, fabricated, and investigated. In these structures, layers are made in the form of thin transparent films, and a plasma discharge channel is formed in thin spacings between the layers. Passage of the discharge channel from one layer into the neighboring layer is implemented via pre-fabricated microholes. Images of microdischarges were obtained which confirmed that their plasma channels are formed according to the route assigned by the holes. The route may follow a fairly complex scheme and have self-intersection points and portions in which the electrons are bound to move in opposition to the electric field. In studying the shape of channels in multilayer strictures, the authors have found a new physical effect which lies in the azimuthal self-orientation of the discharge channel as it passes from one microhole to another.

  11. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  12. Nanosecond high-power dense microplasma switch for visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataller, A., E-mail: bataller@physics.ucla.edu; Koulakis, J.; Pree, S.; Putterman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Spark discharges in high-pressure gas are known to emit a broadband spectrum during the first 10 s of nanoseconds. We present calibrated spectra of high-pressure discharges in xenon and show that the resulting plasma is optically thick. Laser transmission data show that such a body is opaque to visible light, as expected from Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Nanosecond framing images of the spark absorbing high-power laser light are presented. The sparks are ideal candidates for nanosecond, high-power laser switches.

  13. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  14. Comment on "A spectroscopic comparison of selected Chinese kaolinite, coal bearing kaolinite and halloysite--a mid-infrared and near-infrared study" and "Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of typical Chinese kaolinite and halloysite" by Hongfei Cheng et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloprogge, J Theo

    2015-02-05

    In two papers Cheng et al. (2010) reported in this journal on the mid-infrared, near-infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy of a halloysite from Hunan Xianrenwan, China. This halloysite contains around 8% of quartz (SiO2) and nearly 9% gibbsite (Al(OH)3). In their interpretation of the spectra these impurities were completely ignored. Careful comparison with a phase pure halloysite from Southern Belgium, synthetic gibbsite, gibbsite from Minas Gerais, and quartz show that these impurities do have a marked influence on the mid-infrared and infrared emission spectra. In the near-infrared, the effect is much less pronounced. Quartz does not show bands in this region and the gibbsite bands will be very weak. Comparison still show that the presence of gibbsite does contribute to the overall spectrum and bands that were ascribed to the halloysite alone do coincide with those of gibbsite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-dimensional temperature and carbon dioxide concentration profiles in atmospheric laminar diffusion flames measured by mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy at 4.2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.

  16. Unstable Resonator Mid-Infrared Laser Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    effective refractive indices of the guided mode at the grating ridge and groove were calcu- lated using a 4-layer slab waveguide model with a top clad... waterfall plot of the spectra. This DFB laser device demonstrated a continuous, mode-hop-free, tuning range of 80 nm, from 3057 to 3137 nm at ~2.5...curve is a quadratic fit. The inset shows the grating normal pump configuration (GNC). (b) Waterfall plot of the individual spectra vs. pump position

  17. Mid infrared upconversion spectroscopy using diffuse reflectance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Kehlet, Louis M.; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2014-01-01

    specifically that upconversion methods can be deployed using a diffuse reflectance setup where the test sample is irradiated by a thermal light source, i.e. a globar. The diffuse reflectance geometry is particularly well suited when a transmission setup cannot be used. This situation may happen for highly...

  18. Lidar extinction measurement in the mid infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Babichenko, S.; Borelli, R.; Fiorani, L.; Grigorov, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, Ad.; Rebane, Ott; Santoro, S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a lidar measurement of atmospheric extinction coefficient. The measurement is performed by inversion of the backscatter lidar signal at wavelengths 3'000nm and 3'500nm. The inversion of the backscatter lidar signal was performed with constant extinction-to-backscatter ration values of 104 and exponential factor 0.1.

  19. Mid-infrared upconversion based hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junaid, Saher; Tomko, Jan; Semtsiv, Mykhaylo P.

    2018-01-01

    quantum cascade laser illumination. AgGaS2 is used as the nonlinear medium for sum frequency generation using a 1064 nm mixing laser. Angular scanning of the nonlinear crystal provides broad spectral coverage at every spatial position in the image. This study demonstrates the retrieval of series...

  20. The role of nanosecond electric pulse-induced mechanical stress in cellular nanoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.

    , fluorescent confocal microscopy, microarray analysis and or real time polymerase chain reaction. To investigate the physical interaction(s) of the electrical pulse with the aqueous environment, optical techniques such as pump-probe imaging, schlieren imaging, and probe beam deflection were used. Finally, electrochemistry was employed to modify the electrical parameters of the exposures such that different biophysical phenomena could be detected. Results: Approximately 500 genes were selectively up-regulated in each of the assayed cells. Validation of the microarray data indicated genes such as the putative transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus 17, commonly known as jun proto-oncogene, and the Finkel--Biskis--Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog were significantly up-regulated in response to the exposure. Many of the genes selectively up-regulated in each cell type are biomarkers of mechanical stress. Proteomic analysis indicated proteins responsible for mitigation of reactive oxygen species were produced in response to nanosecond electrical pulse exposure. Analysis using the Probe Beam Deflection Technique identified the generation of an acoustic pressure transient emanating from the electrodes immediately after the application of the pulse. This acoustic pressure transient traveled at approximately 1500 meters per second, had a frequency bandwidth of 2.5 megahertz and was capable of delivering 13 kilopascals of pressure at 5 millimeters distance from the generating electrodes. Visual confirmation of the acoustic pressure transients was accomplished using pump-probe, schlieren and ultrasonic imaging techniques. Modification of the bathing media in which the cells were exposed indicated that acoustic pressure transient formation was directly dependent on the amount of electrical current induced by the exposure. Confocal microscopy revealed that, in the absence of the acoustic pressure transients, nanoporation, as detected by a green fluorescent carbocyanine

  1. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  2. Redox reaction studies by nanosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as intermediates in many chemical and biochemical reactions. An important type of reaction which they can undergo is a one electron or redox process. The direction and rate of such electron transfer reactions is governed by the relative redox potentials of the participating species. Because of the generally short lived nature of free radicals, evaluation of their redox potentials poses a number of problems. Two techniques are described for the experimental determination of the redox potentials of short lived species generated by either a nanosecond electron pulse or laser flash. In the first method, redox titration of the short lived species with stable molecules of known redox potential is carried out, employing the technique of fast kinetic spectrophotometry. Conversely, by the same method it is also possible to evaluate the one electron redox potentials of stable molecules by redox titration with free radicals of known redox potential produced as above. In the second method, electrochemical reduction or oxidation of the short lived species at an appropriate electrode (generally a mercury drop) is carried out at different fixed potentials, and the redox potential evaluated from the current-potential curves (polarograms). Full description of the experimental set up and theoretical considerations for interpretation of the raw data are given. The relative merits of the two methods and their practical applicability are discussed. (auth.)

  3. Explosives trace detection in the process of biometrical fingerprint identification for access control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertseva, Elena V.; Savin, Andrey V.

    2007-02-01

    A method for trace detection of explosives on the surface of biometric fingerprint scanner is proposed and its sensitivity explored. The method is based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The detection limit is about several microgram and the detectivity increases with the wavelength used for scanning. The advantages of the proposed method include high selectivity and thus low false alarm level, applicability to low vapor pressure explosives and low cost.

  4. Energy coupling to the plasma in repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Nishihara, Munetake; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Lempert, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    A new analytic quasi-one-dimensional model of energy coupling to nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas in plane-to-plane geometry has been developed. The use of a one-dimensional approach is based on images of repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge plasmas in dry air demonstrating that the plasma remains diffuse and uniform on a nanosecond time scale over a wide range of pressures. The model provides analytic expressions for the time-dependent electric field and electron density in the plasma, electric field in the sheath, sheath boundary location, and coupled pulse energy. The analytic model predictions are in very good agreement with numerical calculations. The model demonstrates that (i) the energy coupled to the plasma during an individual nanosecond discharge pulse is controlled primarily by the capacitance of the dielectric layers and by the breakdown voltage and (ii) the pulse energy coupled to the plasma during a burst of nanosecond pulses decreases as a function of the pulse number in the burst. This occurs primarily because of plasma temperature rise and resultant reduction in breakdown voltage, such that the coupled pulse energy varies approximately proportionally to the number density. Analytic expression for coupled pulse energy scaling has been incorporated into the air plasma chemistry model, validated previously by comparing with atomic oxygen number density measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. The results of kinetic modeling using the modified air plasma chemistry model are compared with time-resolved temperature measurements in a repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in air, by emission spectroscopy, and purely rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy showing good agreement.

  5. High-Voltage, Multiphasic, Nanosecond Pulses to Modulate Cellular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hollie A; Hirakawa, Shinji; Yang, Enbo; Zhou, Chunrong; Xiao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing. The generator consists of a series of the fundamental module, which includes a capacitor and a MOSFET switch. A positive or a negative phase pulse module can be produced based on how the switch is connected. Stacking the modules in series can increase the voltage up to 5 kV. Multiple stacks in parallel can create multiphase outputs. As each stack is independently controlled and charged, multiphasic pulses can be created to produce flexible and versatile pulse waveforms. The circuit topology can be used for high-frequency uniphasic or biphasic nanosecond burst pulse production, creating numerous opportunities for the generator in electroporation applications, tissue ablation, wound healing, and nonthermal plasma generation.

  6. Uv-bright Nearby Early-type Galaxies Observed in the Mid-infrared: Eidence for a Multi-stage Formation History by Way of WISE and GALEX Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Neill, J. D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Blain, A. W.; Farrah, D. G.; Rich, R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Benford, D. J.; Bridge, C. R.; Lake, S. E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by approx.1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 +/- 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 +/- 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed approx. 1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the approx. 0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  7. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G.; Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R.; Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W.; Blain, A. W.; Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L.; Benford, D. J.; Masci, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by ∼1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 ± 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 ± 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed ∼1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the ∼0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early epochs (>4 Gyr ago

  8. UV-BRIGHT NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE MID-INFRARED: EVIDENCE FOR A MULTI-STAGE FORMATION HISTORY BY WAY OF WISE AND GALEX IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, S. M.; Farrah, D. G. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Neill, J. D.; Bridge, C. R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H.; Tsai, C.-W. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M.; Lake, S. E.; Wright, E. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Benford, D. J. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Masci, F. J. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In the local universe, 10% of massive elliptical galaxies are observed to exhibit a peculiar property: a substantial excess of ultraviolet emission than what is expected from their old, red stellar populations. Several origins for this ultraviolet excess (UVX) have been proposed including a population of hot young stars and a population of old, blue horizontal branch or extended horizontal branch (BHB or EHB) stars that have undergone substantial mass loss from their outer atmospheres. We explore the radial distribution of UVX in a selection of 49 nearby E/S0-type galaxies by measuring their extended photometry in the UV through mid-infrared (mid-IR) with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We compare UV/optical and UV/mid-IR colors with the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis models, which allow for the inclusion of EHB stars. We find that combined WISE mid-IR and GALEX UV colors are more effective in distinguishing models than optical colors, and that the UV/mid-IR combination is sensitive to the EHB fraction. There are strong color gradients, with the outer radii bluer than the inner half-light radii by {approx}1 mag. This color difference is easily accounted for with an increase in the BHB fraction of 0.25 with radius. We estimated that the average ages for the inner and outer radii are 7.0 {+-} 0.3 Gyr, and 6.2 {+-} 0.2 Gyr, respectively, with the implication that the outer regions are likely to have formed {approx}1 Gyr after the inner regions. Additionally, we find that metallicity gradients are likely not a significant factor in the color difference. The separation of color between the inner and outer regions, which agrees with a specific stellar population difference (e.g., higher EHB populations), and the {approx}0.5-2 Gyr age difference suggests multi-stage formation. Our results are best explained by inside-out formation: rapid star formation within the core at early

  9. Energy efficiency in nanoscale synthesis using nanosecond plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David Z; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Kumar, Shailesh; Lacoste, Deanna A; Levchenko, Igor; Laux, Christophe O

    2013-01-01

    We report a nanoscale synthesis technique using nanosecond-duration plasma discharges. Voltage pulses 12.5 kV in amplitude and 40 ns in duration were applied repetitively at 30 kHz across molybdenum electrodes in open ambient air, generating a nanosecond spark discharge that synthesized well-defined MoO₃ nanoscale architectures (i.e. flakes, dots, walls, porous networks) upon polyamide and copper substrates. No nitrides were formed. The energy cost was as low as 75 eV per atom incorporated into a nanostructure, suggesting a dramatic reduction compared to other techniques using atmospheric pressure plasmas. These findings show that highly efficient synthesis at atmospheric pressure without catalysts or external substrate heating can be achieved in a simple fashion using nanosecond discharges.

  10. Amorphous Terfenol-D films using nanosecond pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, James; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of Terfenol-D were produced by nanosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at two fluences. Electron dispersive spectroscopy conducted using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes showed that the film compositions were similar to that of the PLD target. Contrary to previous assertions that suggested that nanosecond PLD results in crystalline films, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the films produced at both fluences were amorphous. Splatters present on the film had similar compositions to the overall film and were also amorphous. Magnetic measurements showed that the films had high saturation magnetization and magnetostriction, similar to high quality films produced using other physical vapor deposition methods.

  11. Performance of the Fitch generator in a nanosecond electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyj, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the Fitch generator in the nanosecond electron accelerator is discussed. The operating principle of the generator is based on the inversion of the voltage at the storage capacitances. Only one discharger is employed in the discharge circuit of the generator which provides for decreasing the generator impedance to 24 Ohms. The maximum accelerating voltage equals 0.6 MV

  12. High power semiconductor switching in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.S.; Long, J.R.; Smith, V.L.; Page, D.J.; Roberts, J.S.

    1975-12-01

    Light activated multilayered silicon semiconductor devices have been used to switch at megawatt power levels with nanosecond turnon time. Current rate of rise of 700 kA/μs at 10 kA, with 1 kV across the load have been achieved. Recovery time of 1 millisec has been obtained. Applicability to fusion research needs is discussed

  13. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  14. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  15. Ultrasensitive Detection of Infrared Photon Using Microcantilever: Theoretical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Xin, Cao; Feng-Xin, Zhang; Yin-Fang, Zhu; Jin-Ling, Yang

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for detecting near-infrared, mid-infrared, and far-infrared photons with an ultrahigh sensitivity. The infrared photon detection was carried out by monitoring the displacement change of a vibrating microcantilever under light pressure using a laser Doppler vibrometer. Ultrathin silicon cantilevers with high sensitivity were produced using micro/nano-fabrication technology. The photon detection system was set up. The response of the microcantilever to the photon illumination is theoretically estimated, and a nanowatt resolution for the infrared photon detection is expected at room temperature with this method

  16. Dynamical propagation of nanosecond pulses in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Quan, E-mail: qmiao2013@yahoo.com [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Liang, Min; Liu, Qixin [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Wang, Jing-Jing [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Sun, Erping; Xu, Yan [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We study the dynamical processes of nanoseconds lasers in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines. • We provide theoretical evidences of the main mechanism of optical power limiting. • The central metals play more important roles in the dynamical processes. • The main reason is the central metals enhance the spin–orbit coupling. - Abstract: Dynamical propagation and optical limiting of nanosecond pulses in peripherally substituted Naphthalocyanines (Npcs) and Phthalocyanines (Pcs) with central metals gallium and indium were theoretically s