WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanosecond laser impact

  1. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  2. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  3. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  4. Sub-nanosecond lasers for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Aleksandr A.; Chu, Hong

    2018-02-01

    We report about the development of two new subnanosecond solid-state laser models for application in dermatology and cosmetics. One model uses subnanosecond Nd: YAG microchip laser as a master oscillator and includes Nd: YAG double- and single-pass amplifiers. At 10 Hz this laser produces more than 600 mJ pulse energy with duration 500 +/- 5 ps. Another model (under development) is gain-switched Ti: Sapphire laser with short cavity. This laser produces 200 mJ, 560 ps pulses at 790 nm and uses standard Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser with nanosecond pulse duration as a pumping sourse.

  5. Amorphous Terfenol-D films using nanosecond pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, James; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of Terfenol-D were produced by nanosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at two fluences. Electron dispersive spectroscopy conducted using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes showed that the film compositions were similar to that of the PLD target. Contrary to previous assertions that suggested that nanosecond PLD results in crystalline films, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the films produced at both fluences were amorphous. Splatters present on the film had similar compositions to the overall film and were also amorphous. Magnetic measurements showed that the films had high saturation magnetization and magnetostriction, similar to high quality films produced using other physical vapor deposition methods.

  6. Laser ablation comparison by picosecond pulses train and nanosecond pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Filippov, M. N.; Bunkin, A. F.; Pershin, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of laser ablation by a train of picosecond pulses and nanosecond pulses revealed a difference in laser craters, ablation thresholds, plasma sizes and spectral line intensities. Laser ablation with a train of picosecond pulses resulted in improved crater quality while ablated mass decreased up to 30%. A reduction in laser plasma dimensions for picosecond train ablation was observed while the intensity of atomic/ionic lines in the plasma spectra was greater by a factor of 2-4 indicating an improved excitation and atomization in the plasma.

  7. Femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of silicon and germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reenaas, Turid Worren [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Lee, Yen Sian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Gupta, Manisha; Tsui, Ying Yin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Tou, Teck Yong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Ling [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kok, Soon Yie [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Seong Shan, E-mail: seongshan@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Ge and Si were deposited by fs and ns laser at room temperature and at vacuum. • Ion of 10{sup 4} ms{sup −1} and 30–200 eV was obtained for ns ablation for Ge and Si. • Highly energetic ions of 10{sup 5} ms{sup −1} with 2–7 KeV were produced in fs laser ablation. • Nanocrystalline Si and Ge were deposited by using fs laser. • Nanoparticles < 10 nm haven been obtained by fs laser. - Abstract: 150 fs Ti:Sapphire laser pulsed laser deposition of Si and Ge were compared to a nanosecond KrF laser (25 ns). The ablation thresholds for ns lasers were about 2.5 J cm{sup −2} for Si and 2.1 J cm{sup −2} for Ge. The values were about 5–10 times lower when fs laser were used. The power densities were 10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} W cm{sup −2} for ns but 10{sup 12} W cm{sup −2} for fs. By using an ion probe, the ions emission at different fluence were measured where the emitting ions achieving the velocity in the range of 7–40 km s{sup −1} and kinetic energy in the range of 30–200 eV for ns laser. The ion produced by fs laser was measured to be highly energetic, 90–200 km s{sup −1}, 2–10 KeV. Two ion peaks were detected above specific laser fluence for both ns and fs laser ablation. Under fs laser ablation, the films were dominated by nano-sized crystalline particles, drastically different from nanosecond pulsed laser deposition where amorphous films were obtained. The ions characteristics and effects of pulse length on the properties of the deposited films were discussed.

  8. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, V. P.; Samokhvalov, A. A., E-mail: samokhvalov.itmo@gmail.com; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N. [Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky Pr. 49, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lednev, V. N. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskyave., 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershin, S. M. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential “opening” radio pulses with a delay of 0.2–1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  9. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics

    OpenAIRE

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P.; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Picosecond absorption relaxation—central to many disciplines—is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, b...

  10. A thermal model for nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of aluminum, a novel model was presented for the target ablation and plume expansion. The simulation of the target ablation was based on one-dimensional heat conduction, taking into account temperature dependent material properties, phase transition, dielectric transition and phase explosion. While the simulation of the plume expansion was based on one-dimensional gas-dynamical equation, taking into account ionization, plume absorption and shielding. By coupling the calculations of the target ablation and plume expansion, the characteristics of the target and plume were obtained. And the calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental data, in terms of ablation threshold and depth within the fluence range of the tested laser. Subsequently, investigations were carried out to analyze the mechanisms of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation. The calculated results showed that the maximum surface temperature remained at about 90% of the critical temperature (0.9Tc due to phase explosion. Moreover, the plume shielding has significant effects on the laser ablation, and the plume shielding proportion increase as the laser fluence increasing. The ambient pressure belows 100 Pa is more suitable for laser ablation, which can obtained larger ablation depth.

  11. Picosecond absorption relaxation measured with nanosecond laser photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielli, Amos; Favazza, Christopher P; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V

    2010-10-18

    Picosecond absorption relaxation-central to many disciplines-is typically measured by ultrafast (femtosecond or picosecond) pump-probe techniques, which however are restricted to optically thin and weakly scattering materials or require artificial sample preparation. Here, we developed a reflection-mode relaxation photoacoustic microscope based on a nanosecond laser and measured picosecond absorption relaxation times. The relaxation times of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin molecules, both possessing extremely low fluorescence quantum yields, were measured at 576 nm. The added advantages in dispersion susceptibility, laser-wavelength availability, reflection sensing, and expense foster the study of natural-including strongly scattering and nonfluorescent-materials.

  12. Hybrid micromachining using a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sanha; Chung, Do Kwan; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is a well-known precise machining process that achieves micro structures of excellent quality for any conductive material. However, the slow machining speed and high tool wear are main drawbacks of this process. Though the use of deionized water instead of kerosene as a dielectric fluid can reduce the tool wear and increase the machine speed, the material removal rate (MRR) is still low. In contrast, laser ablation using a nanosecond pulsed laser is a fast and non-wear machining process but achieves micro figures of rather low quality. Therefore, the integration of these two processes can overcome the respective disadvantages. This paper reports a hybrid process of a nanosecond pulsed laser and micro EDM for micromachining. A novel hybrid micromachining system that combines the two discrete machining processes is introduced. Then, the feasibility and characteristics of the hybrid machining process are investigated compared to conventional EDM and laser ablation. It is verified experimentally that the machining time can be effectively reduced in both EDM drilling and milling by rapid laser pre-machining prior to micro EDM. Finally, some examples of complicated 3D micro structures fabricated by the hybrid process are shown

  13. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University “Gheorghe Asachi” of Iasi, No. ... molten material. One can identify local melting of circular shape, subsequently solidified with partial superimposing of molten alloy. The laser writing presents a ... Abbott–Firestone curve (Abbott and Firestone 1933), which.

  14. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedyalkov, N.N.; Imamova, S.E.; Atanasov, P.A.; Toshkova, R.A.; Gardeva, E.G.; Yossifova, L.S.; Alexandrov, M.T.; Obara, M.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  15. Interaction of gold nanoparticles with nanosecond laser pulses: Nanoparticle heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, N. N.; Imamova, S. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Toshkova, R. A.; Gardeva, E. G.; Yossifova, L. S.; Alexandrov, M. T.; Obara, M.

    2011-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental results on the heating process of gold nanoparticles irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses are presented. The efficiency of particle heating is demonstrated by in-vitro photothermal therapy of human tumor cells. Gold nanoparticles with diameters of 40 and 100 nm are added as colloid in the cell culture and the samples are irradiated by nanosecond pulses at wavelength of 532 nm delivered by Nd:YAG laser system. The results indicate clear cytotoxic effect of application of nanoparticle as more efficient is the case of using particles with diameter of 100 nm. The theoretical analysis of the heating process of nanoparticle interacting with laser radiation is based on the Mie scattering theory, which is used for calculation of the particle absorption coefficient, and two-dimensional heat diffusion model, which describes the particle and the surrounding medium temperature evolution. Using this model the dependence of the achieved maximal temperature in the particles on the applied laser fluence and time evolution of the particle temperature is obtained.

  16. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage threshold on hybrid mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Jan; Muresan, Mihai-George; Bilek, Vojtech; Sebek, Matej; Hanus, Martin; Lucianetti, Antonio; Rostohar, Danijela; Mocek, Tomas; Škoda, Václav

    2017-11-01

    So-called hybrid mirrors, consisting of broadband metallic surface coated with dielectric reflector designed for specific wavelength, becoming more important with progressing development of broadband mid-IR sources realized using parametric down conversion system. Multiple pulse nanosecond laser induced damage on such mirrors was tested by method s-on-1, where s stands for various numbers of pulses. We show difference in damage threshold between common protected silver mirrors and hybrid silver mirrors prepared by PVD technique and their variants prepared by IAD. Keywords: LIDT,

  17. Thermally assisted nanosecond laser generation of ferric nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurselis, K.; Kozheshkurt, V.; Kiyan, R.; Chichkov, B.; Sajti, L.

    2018-03-01

    A technique to increase nanosecond laser based production of ferric nanoparticles by elevating temperature of the iron target and controlling its surface exposure to oxygen is reported. High power near-infrared laser ablation of the iron target heated up to 600 °C enhances the particle generation efficiency by more than tenfold exceeding 6 μg/J. Temporal and thermal dependencies of the particle generation process indicate correlation of this enhancement with the oxidative processes that take place on the iron surface during the per spot interpulse delay. Nanoparticles, produced using the heat-assisted ablation technique, are examined using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy confirming the presence of 1-100 nm nanoparticles with an exponential size distribution that contain multiple randomly oriented magnetite nanocrystallites. The described process enables the application of high power lasers and facilitates precise, uniform, and controllable direct deposition of ferric nanoparticle coatings at the industry-relevant rates.

  18. Removal of Tattoos by Q-Switched Nanosecond Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Syrus

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo removal by Q-switched nanosecond laser devices is generally a safe and effective method, albeit a time-consuming one. Despite the newest developments in laser treatment, it is still not possible to remove every tattoo completely and without complications. Incomplete removal remains one of the most common challenges. As a consequence, particular restraint should be exercised when treating multicoloured tattoos, and patients need to be thoroughly informed about remaining pigment. Other frequent adverse effects include hyper- and hypopigmentation as well as ink darkening; the latter is particularly frequent in permanent make-up. Scarring is also possible, although it is rare when treatment is performed correctly. It is becoming more widespread for laser operators to encounter allergic reactions and even malignant tumours in tattoos, and treating these conditions requires a nuanced approach. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Li, Dayou [JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.

  20. Towards a laser fluence dependent nanostructuring of thin Au films on Si by nanosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, F.; Pugliara, A.; Carria, E.; Romano, L.; Bongiorno, C.; Fisicaro, G.; La Magna, A.; Spinella, C.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au nanoclusters are produced by nanosecond laser irradiations of thin Au film on Si. ► The shape, size, and surface density of the Au nanoclusters are tunable by laser fluence. ► The formation dynamic of the Au nanoclusters under nanosecond laser irradiation is analyzed. - Abstract: In this work, we study the nanostructuring effects of nanosecond laser irradiations on 5 nm thick Au film sputter-deposited on Si. After deposition of Au on Si substrate, nanosecond laser irradiations were performed increasing the laser fluence from 750 to 1500 mJ/cm 2 . Several analyses techniques, such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were crossed to study the morphological evolution of the Au film as a function of laser fluence. In particular, the formation of Au nanoparticles was observed. The analyses allowed a quantitative evaluation of the evolution of the nanoparticles size, surface density, and shape as a function of the laser fluence. Therefore, a control the structural properties of the Au nanoparticles is reached, for example, for applications in Si nanowires growth or plasmonics.

  1. Nanosecond laser-induced synthesis of nanoparticles with tailorable magneticanisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, H.; Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Strader, J.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling the magnetic orientation of nanoparticles is important for many applications. Recently, it has been shown that single domain ferromagnetic hemispherical Co nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond laser-induced self-organization, show magnetic orientation that was related to the negative sign of the magnetostrictive coefficient λ S [J. Appl. Phys. v103, p073902, 2008]. Here we have extended this work to the Fe 50 Co 50 alloy, which has a positive λ S and Ni, which has a negative λ S . Patterned arrays of ferromagnetic nanoparticles of Fe 50 Co 50 , Ni, (and Co) were synthesized from their ultrathin metal films on SiO 2 substrate by nanosecond laser-induced self-organization. The morphology, nanostructure, and magnetic behavior of the nanoparticle arrays were investigated by a combination of electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and magnetic force microscopy techniques. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed a granular polycrystalline nanostructure, with the number of grains inside the nanoparticle increasing with their diameter. Magnetic force measurements showed that the magnetization direction of the hemispherical Co and Ni nanoparticles was predominantly out-of-plane while those for the Fe 50 Co 50 alloy was in the plane of the substrate. Finite element analysis was used to estimate the average residual strain in the nanoparticles, following laser processing. The difference in behavior is due to the dominating influence of magnetostrictive energy on the magnetization as a result of residual thermal strain following fast laser processing. Since λ S is negative for polycrystalline Co and Ni, and positive for Fe 50 Co 50 , the tensile residual strain forces the magnetization direction to out-of-plane and in-plane, respectively. This work demonstrates a cost-effective non-epitaxial technique for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with tailored magnetization orientations. - Research Highlights: → Pulsed laser self

  2. Studies of multi-wavelength laser-induced damage on KDP crystals in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyne, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    This thesis interests in the laser-induced damage mechanisms of KDP and DKDP crystals in the nanosecond regime. KDP is a non-linear material particularly used in the frequency converters of the Laser MegaJoule, which is under construction at the CEA-Cesta in France. For this facility, the KDP laser damage resistance is one of the keystones and is still under investigations to fix this problem. This is why this manuscript presents different studies which highlight the two main aspects of the nanosecond laser-induced damage of KDP frequency converters: the precursor defects and the mechanisms to initiate damage. First, we propose a study based on the analysis of several photos obtained by DIC microscopy of damage initiated by different wavelengths. A comparison with a code coupling the energy deposition and hydrodynamic is also done. Then, we interest in the influence of the defects geometry through a study based on the laser polarization effect on the laser damage resistance. By the comparison with a CEA home-made code, this study particularly underlines the possibility to define a new geometry for the precursor defects. This geometry proposed has the shape of an ellipsoid and is supposed to keep the crystal structure properties. Finally, we enlarge on the physical mechanisms initiating laser damage with pump-pump experiments. These tests consist in combining two radiations of different wavelengths which impacting the crystal simultaneously or are delayed one by the other. We then observe the influence of this wavelengths mixing on the KDP laser damage resistance. In particular, a coupling effect between the wavelengths of the mixture may occur as a function of the fluences combination. Finally, the goal of these specific studies is to accumulate new data in order to improve the understanding in the initiation of the laser damage in KDP and DKDP crystals in the nanosecond regime. In the end, these data will allow us to develop predictive models to simulate the laser

  3. Molecular signatures in femtosecond laser-induced organic plasmas: comparison with nanosecond laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2016-01-28

    During the last few years, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has evolved significantly in the molecular sensing area through the optical monitoring of emissions from organic plasmas. Large efforts have been made to study the formation pathways of diatomic radicals as well as their connections with the bonding framework of molecular solids. Together with the structural and chemical-physical properties of molecules, laser ablation parameters seem to be closely tied to the observed spectral signatures. This research focuses on evaluating the impact of laser pulse duration on the production of diatomic species that populate plasmas of organic materials. Differences in relative intensities of spectral signatures from the plasmas of several organic molecules induced in femtosecond (fs) and nanosecond (ns) ablation regimes have been studied. Beyond the abundance and origin of diatomic radicals that seed the plasma, findings reveal the crucial role of the ablation regime in the breakage pattern of the molecule. The laser pulse duration dictates the fragments and atoms resulting from the vaporized molecules, promoting some formation routes at the expense of other paths. The larger amount of fragments formed by fs pulses advocates a direct release of native bonds and a subsequent seeding of the plasma with diatomic species. In contrast, in the ns ablation regime, the atomic recombinations and single displacement processes dominate the contribution to diatomic radicals, as long as atomization of molecules prevails over their progressive decomposition. Consequently, fs-LIBS better reflects correlations between strengths of emissions from diatomic species and molecular structure as compared to ns-LIBS. These new results entail a further step towards the specificity in the analysis of molecular solids by fs-LIBS.

  4. Studies on laser material processing with nanosecond and sub-nanosecond and picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, laser ablation of widely used metal (Al, Cu. stainless-steel), semiconductor (Si), transparent material (glass, sapphire), ceramic (Al2O3, AlN) and polymer (PI, PMMA) in industry were systematically studied with pulse width from nanosecond (5-100ns), picosecond (6-10ps) to sub-picosecond (0.8-0.95ps). A critical damage zone (CDZ) of up to 100um with ns laser, efficiency were also investigated. This is to explore how to provide industry users the best laser solution for device micro-fabrication with best price. Our studies of cutting and drilling with ns, ps, and sub-ps lasers indicate that it is feasible to achieve user accepted quality and speed with cost-effective and reliable laser by optimizing processing conditions.

  5. Formation of various types of nanostructures on germanium surface by nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolutskiy, S. I.; Khasaya, R. R.; Khomich, Yu V.; Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the formation of micro- and nanostructures in different parts of irradiation zone on germanium surface by multiple action of nanosecond pulses of ArF-laser. It proposes a simple method using only one laser beam without any optional devices and masks for surface treatment. Hexa- and pentagonal cells with submicron dimensions along the surface were observed in peripheral zone of irradiation spot by atomic-force microscopy. Nanostructures in the form of bulbs with rounded peaks with lateral sizes of 40-120 nm were obtained in peripheral low-intensity region of the laser spot. Considering experimental data on material processing by nanosecond laser pulses, a classification of five main types of surface reliefs formed by nanosecond laser pulses with energy density near or slightly above ablation threshold was proposed.

  6. Femtosecond versus nanosecond laser machining: comparison of induced stresses and structural changes in silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.S.; El-Ashry, M.A.; Dosser, L.R.; Hix, K.E.; Maguire, J.F.; Irwin, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Laser micromachining has proven to be a very successful tool for precision machining and microfabrication with applications in microelectronics, MEMS, medical device, aerospace, biomedical, and defense applications. Femtosecond (FS) laser micromachining is usually thought to be of minimal heat-affected zone (HAZ) local to the micromachined feature. The assumption of reduced HAZ is attributed to the absence of direct coupling of the laser energy into the thermal modes of the material during irradiation. However, a substantial HAZ is thought to exist when machining with lasers having pulse durations in the nanosecond (NS) regime. In this paper, we compare the results of micromachining a single crystal silicon wafer using a 150-femtosecond and a 30-nanosecond lasers. Induced stress and amorphization of the silicon single crystal were monitored using micro-Raman spectroscopy as a function of the fluence and pulse duration of the incident laser. The onset of average induced stress occurs at lower fluence when machining with the femtosecond pulse laser. Induced stresses were found to maximize at fluence of 44 J cm -2 and 8 J cm -2 for nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed lasers, respectively. In both laser pulse regimes, a maximum induced stress is observed at which point the induced stress begins to decrease as the fluence is increased. The maximum induced stress was comparable at 2.0 GPa and 1.5 GPa for the two lasers. For the nanosecond pulse laser, the induced amorphization reached a plateau of approximately 20% for fluence exceeding 22 J cm -2 . For the femtosecond pulse laser, however, induced amorphization was approximately 17% independent of the laser fluence within the experimental range. These two values can be considered nominally the same within experimental error. For femtosecond laser machining, some effect of the laser polarization on the amount of induced stress and amorphization was also observed

  7. Online Monitoring of Nanoparticles Formed during Nanosecond Laser Ablation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, H.; Holá, M.; Vojtíšek-Lomb, M.; Ondráček, Jakub; Kanický, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 125, NOV 1 (2016), s. 52-60 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : laser ablation * fast mobility particle sizer * inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.241, year: 2016

  8. Comparison of two picosecond lasers to a nanosecond laser for treating tattoos: a prospective randomized study on 49 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorgeou, A; Perrillat, Y; Gral, N; Lagrange, S; Lacour, J-P; Passeron, T

    2018-02-01

    Q-switched nanosecond lasers demonstrated their efficacy in treating most types of tattoos, but complete disappearance is not always achieved even after performing numerous laser sessions. Picosecond lasers are supposed to be more efficient in clearing tattoos than nanosecond lasers, but prospective comparative data remain limited. To compare on different types of tattoos the efficacy of a nanosecond laser with two types of picosecond lasers. We conducted a prospective randomized study performed from December 2014 to June 2016 on adult patients with all types of tattoos. The tattoos were divided into two halves of equal size. After randomization, half of the tattoo was treated with a picosecond laser and the other half with a nanosecond laser. The evaluation was performed on standardized pictures performed before treatment and 2 months after the last session, by two physicians, not involved in the treatment, blinded on the type of treatments received. The main end point was a clearance above 75% of the tattoos. A total of 49 patients were included. Professional tattoos represented 85.7%, permanent make-up 8.2% and non-professional tattoo 6.1%. The majority were black or blue and 10.2% were polychromatic. No patient was lost during follow-up. A reduction of 75% or more of the colour intensity was obtained for 33% of the tattoos treated with the picosecond lasers compared to 14% with the nanosecond laser (P = 0.008). An improvement superior to 75% was obtained in 34% monochromic black or blue tattoos with the picosecond lasers compared to 9% for the nanosecond laser. Only one of the five polychromic tattoos achieved more than 75% of improvement with the two types of laser. Our results show a statistically significant superiority of the picosecond lasers compared to the nanosecond laser for tattoo clearance. However, they do not show better efficacy for polychromic tattoos and the difference in terms of side-effects was also minimal with a tendency of picosecond

  9. Bombyx mori silk protein films microprocessing with a nanosecond ultraviolet laser and a femtosecond laser workstation: theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazare, S.; Sionkowska, A.; Zaborowicz, M.; Planecka, A.; Lopez, J.; Dijoux, M.; Louména, C.; Hernandez, M.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Laser microprocessing of several biopolymers from renewable resources is studied. Three proteinic materials were either extracted from the extracellular matrix like Silk Fibroin/Sericin and collagen, or coming from a commercial source like gelatin. All can find future applications in biomedical experimentation, in particular for cell scaffolding. Films of ˜hundred of microns thick were made by aqueous solution drying and laser irradiation. Attention is paid to the properties making them processable with two laser sources: the ultraviolet and nanosecond (ns) KrF (248 nm) excimer and the infrared and femtosecond (fs) Yb:KGW laser. The UV radiation is absorbed in a one-photon resonant process to yield ablation and the surface foaming characteristics of a laser-induced pressure wave. To the contrary, resonant absorption of the IR photons of the fs laser is not possible and does not take place. However, the high field of the intense I>˜1012 W/cm2 femtosecond laser pulse ionizes the film by the multiphoton absorption followed by the electron impact mechanism, yielding a dense plasma capable to further absorb the incident radiation of the end of the pulse. The theoretical model of this absorption is described in detail, and used to discuss the presented experimental effects (cutting, ablation and foaming) of the fs laser. The ultraviolet laser was used to perform simultaneous multiple spots experiments in which energetic foaming yields melt ejection and filament spinning. Airborne nanosize filaments "horizontally suspended by both ends" (0.25 μm diameter and 10 μm length) of silk biopolymer were observed upon irradiation with large fluences.

  10. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang [Keio University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN. (orig.)

  11. Shield gas induced cracks during nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hu; Noguchi, Jun; Yan, Jiwang

    2016-10-01

    Laser processing techniques have been given increasing attentions in the field of metallic glasses (MGs). In this work, effects of two kinds of shield gases, nitrogen and argon, on nanosecond-pulsed laser irradiation of Zr-based MG were comparatively investigated. Results showed that compared to argon gas, nitrogen gas remarkably promoted the formation of cracks during laser irradiation. Furthermore, crack formation in nitrogen gas was enhanced by increasing the peak laser power intensity or decreasing the laser scanning speed. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the reason for enhanced cracks in nitrogen gas was the formation of ZrN.

  12. Temporal shaping of nanosecond CO2 laser pulses in multiphoton saturable absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown that substantial temporal distortion of nanosecond 10.6 μm laser pulses occurs in traversing multiphoton saturable absorbers. The risetime and pulse delay effects appear to depend both on fluence and wavelength, and to be qualitatively consistent with predictions of a simple two-level absorption model

  13. High resolution selective multilayer laser processing by nanosecond laser ablation of metal nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seung H.; Pan Heng; Hwang, David J.; Chung, Jaewon; Ryu, Sangil; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    Ablation of gold nanoparticle films on polymer was explored using a nanosecond pulsed laser, with the goal to achieve feature size reduction and functionality not amenable with inkjet printing. The ablation threshold fluence for the unsintered nanoparticle deposit was at least ten times lower than the reported threshold for the bulk film. This could be explained by the combined effects of melting temperature depression, lower conductive heat transfer loss, strong absorption of the incident laser beam, and the relatively weak bonding between nanoparticles. The ablation physics were verified by the nanoparticle sintering characterization, ablation threshold measurement, time resolved ablation plume shadowgraphs, analysis of ablation ejecta, and the measurement and calculation of optical properties. High resolution and clean feature fabrication with small energy and selective multilayer processing are demonstrated

  14. Laser machining micro-structures on diamond surface with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Qingliang

    2018-02-01

    Micro-structure surface on diamond material is widely used in a series of industrial and scientific applications, such as micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), microelectronics, textured or micro-structured diamond machining tools. The efficient machining of micro-structure on diamond surface is urgently demanded in engineering. In this paper, laser machining square micro-structure on diamond surface was studied with a sub-nanosecond pulsed laser. The influences of laser machining parameters, including the laser power, scanning speed, defocusing quantity and scanning pitch, were researched in view of the ablation depth, material removal rate and machined surface topography. Both the ablation depth and material removal rate increased with average laser power. A reduction of the growth rate of the two parameters was induced by the absorption of the laser plasma plume at high laser power. The ablation depth non-linearly decreased with the increasing of the scanning speed while the material removal rate showed an opposite tendency. The increasing of the defocusing quantity induced complex variation of the ablation depth and the material removal rate. The maximum ablation depth and material removal rate were achieved at a defocusing position. The ablation depth and material removal rate oppositely varied about the scanning pitch. A high overlap ratio was meaningful for achieving a smooth micro-structure surface topography. Laser machining with a large defocusing quantity, high laser power and small scanning pitch was helpful for acquiring the desired micro-structure which had a large depth and smooth micro-structure surface topography.

  15. Microstructured silicon created with a nanosecond neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandeville, W.J. [MITRE Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Shaffer, M.K.; Lu, Yalin; O' Keefe, D.; Knize, R.J. [United States Air Force Academy, USAFA, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We produce microstructured silicon using frequency doubled, nanosecond Nd:YAG pulses in SF{sub 6} gas. The micro-penitentes formed are up to 20 {mu}m tall with a sulfur concentration of 0.5% near the surface. The infrared absorption is increased to near unity and extends well below the original bandgap far into the infrared. These data are similar to results reported by others using more complicated and less economical femtosecond titanium sapphire and picosecond and nanosecond excimer lasers. (orig.)

  16. Comparative study of femtosecond and nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, Luke A.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.; Cremers, David A.; Jones, C. Randy; Rudolph, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We present spectra of depleted uranium metal from laser plasmas generated by nanosecond Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and femtosecond Ti:sapphire (800 nm) laser pulses. The latter pulses produce short-lived and relatively cool plasmas in comparison to the longer pulses, and the spectra of neutral uranium atoms appear immediately after excitation. Evidence for nonequilibrium excitation with femtosecond pulses is found in the dependence of spectral line intensities on the pulse chirp.

  17. Visualization of nanosecond laser-induced dewetting, ablation and crystallization processes in thin silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dongfeng; Zhang, Zifeng; Yu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yawen

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, nanosecond pulsed laser crystallization, dewetting and ablation of thin amorphous silicon films are investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 7 ns temporal width are irradiated on silicon film. Below the dewetting threshold, crystallization process happens after 400 ns laser irradiation in the spot central region. With the increasing of laser fluence, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 300 ns after the laser irradiation, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to solidification of transported matter at about 500 ns following the laser pulse exposure.

  18. Nanosecond UV lasers stimulate transient Ca2+ elevations in human hNT astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, B J; Graham, E S; Unsworth, C P

    2017-06-01

    Astrocytes respond to various stimuli resulting in intracellular Ca 2+ signals that can propagate through organized functional networks. Recent literature calls for the development of techniques that can stimulate astrocytes in a fast and highly localized manner to emulate more closely the characteristics of astrocytic Ca 2+ signals in vivo. In this article we demonstrate, for the first time, how nanosecond UV lasers are capable of reproducibly stimulating Ca 2+ transients in human hNT astrocytes. We report that laser pulses with a beam energy of 4-29 µJ generate transient increases in cytosolic Ca 2+ . These Ca 2+ transients then propagate to adjacent astrocytes as intercellular Ca 2+ waves. We propose that nanosecond laser stimulation provides a valuable tool for enabling the study of Ca 2+ dynamics in human astrocytes at both a single cell and network level. Compared to previously developed techniques nanosecond laser stimulation has the advantage of not requiring loading of photo-caged or -sensitising agents, is non-contact, enables stimulation with a high spatiotemporal resolution and is comparatively cost effective.

  19. Nanosecond laser pulse stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, Alexander; Lenarz, Thomas; Reuter, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Optical stimulation of the inner ear has recently attracted attention, suggesting a higher frequency resolution compared to electrical cochlear implants due to its high spatial stimulation selectivity. Although the feasibility of the effect is shown in multiple in vivo experiments, the stimulation mechanism remains open to discussion. Here we investigate in single-cell measurements the reaction of spiral ganglion neurons and model cells to irradiation with a nanosecond-pulsed laser beam over a broad wavelength range from 420 nm up to 1950 nm using the patch clamp technique. Cell reactions were wavelength- and pulse-energy-dependent but too small to elicit action potentials in the investigated spiral ganglion neurons. As the applied radiant exposure was much higher than the reported threshold for in vivo experiments in the same laser regime, we conclude that in a stimulation paradigm with nanosecond-pulses, direct neuronal stimulation is not the main cause of optical cochlea stimulation.

  20. Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation

    KAUST Repository

    Paeng, Dongwoo

    2015-03-27

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Low-cost Cu flexible transparent conducting electrodes (FTCEs) are fabricated by facile nanosecond laser ablation. The fabricated Cu FTCEs show excellent opto-electrical properties (transmittance: 83%, sheet resistance: 17.48 Ω sq-1) with outstanding mechanical durability. Successful demonstration of a touch-screen panel confirms the potential applicability of Cu FTCEs to the flexible optoelectronic devices.

  1. Nanosecond pulsed laser induced self-organized nano-dots patterns on GaSb surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Yutaka, E-mail: yyoshida@cris.hokudai.ac.jp [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan); Creative Research Institution Sousei, Hokkaido University, N21, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021, Hokkaido (Japan); Oosawa, Kazuya; Wajima, Jyunya; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan); Matsuo, Yasutaka [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Takahiko [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika, Hitachi-shi 319-1292, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N8, W13, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We report a technique for formation of two-dimensional (2D) nanodot (ND) patterns on gaillium antimoide (GaSb) using a nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation with 532 nm wavelength. The patterns have formed because of the interference and the self-organization under energy deposition of the laser irradiation, which induced the growth of NDs on the local area. The NDs are grown and shrunken in the pattern by energy depositions. In the laser irradiation with average laser energy density of 35 mJ cm⁻², large and small NDs are formed on GaSb surface. The large NDs have grown average diameter from 160 to 200 nm with increase of laser pulses, and the small NDs have shrunken average diameter from 75 to 30 nm. The critical dot size is required about 107 nm for growth of the NDs in the patterns. Nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation can control the self-organized ND size on GaSb in air as a function of the laser pulses.

  2. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: nestankova@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nikov, Ru.G.; Nikov, R.G.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Center for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Ns-laser (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) processing of medical grade PDMS is performed. • Investigation of the optical transmittance as a function of the laser beam parameters. • Analyses of laser treated area by optical & laser microscope and μ-Raman spectrometry. • Application as (MEAs) neural interface for monitor and stimulation of neural activity. - Abstract: This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm{sup −2} for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm{sup −2} and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain

  3. Nanodrilling of fused silica using nanosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P., E-mail: pierre.lorenz@iom-leipzig.de; Zajadacz, J.; Bayer, L.; Ehrhardt, M.; Zimmer, K.

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low-fluence irradiation of 10 nm Mo on SiO{sub 2} results in the formation of Mo droplets. • High-fluence irradiation of droplets results in the formation of holes in the SiO{sub 2}. • The process allows the formation of randomly distributed and periodic holes. • The randomly distributed hole density ρ{sub h} depends on the fluence (ρ{sub h} ≤ 1.3 μm{sup −2}). • The interaction of the laser beam with Mo/SiO{sub 2} was simulated by FEM. - Abstract: The fast laser drilling of dielectric surfaces with hole diameters in the sub-μm range and a high aspect ratio is a challenge for laser methods. In this study, a novel laser structuring method for the production of randomly and periodically distributed holes in a fused silica surface will be presented using a self-assembling process. A fused silica surface was covered with a 10 nm thick magnetron-sputtered molybdenum film. The metal film was irradiated by a KrF excimer laser (wavelength λ = 248 nm, pulse duration Δt{sub p} = 25 ns) with low laser fluences (Φ < 1 J/cm{sup 2}) and the laser-induced heating resulting in a melting of the metal film and finally in a self-assembled formation of randomly distributed metal droplets due to the surface tension of the metal liquid phase using a top hat beam profile. Furthermore, the usage of a periodically modulated laser beam profile allows the fabrication of periodically distributed droplet pattern. The multi-pulse irradiation of the laser-generated metal droplets with higher laser fluences results in a stepwise evaporation of the metal and in a partial evaporation of the fused silica near the metal droplets. Finally, the laser-induced stepwise evaporation process results in a formation of cone-like holes in the fused silica surface where the resultant holes are dependent on the size of the generated metal droplets and on the laser parameters. The “drilling” process allows the fabrication of holes with a depth up to 1

  4. Periodic patterning of silicon by direct nanosecond laser interference ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, T.; Pérez, N.; Rodríguez, A.; Yurrita, P.; Olaizola, S.M.; Castaño, E.

    2011-01-01

    The production of periodic structures in silicon wafers by four-beam is presented. Because laser interference ablation is a single-step and cost-effective process, there is a great technological interest in the fabrication of these structures for their use as antireflection surfaces. Three different laser fluences are used to modify the silicon surface (0.8 J cm -2 , 1.3 J cm -2 , 2.0 J cm -2 ) creating bumps in the rim of the irradiated area. Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), in particular micro and nano-ripples, are also observed. Measurements of the reflectivity show a decrease in the reflectance for the samples processed with a laser fluence of 2.0 J cm -2 , probably caused by the appearance of the nano-ripples in the structured area, while bumps start to deteriorate.

  5. Mechanical response of agar gel irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Evans, Rodger; Camacho-López, Santiago; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2010-02-01

    Nanosecond long laser pulses are used in medical applications where precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal and mechanical collateral damage is required. When a laser pulse is incident on a material, optical energy will be absorbed by a combination of linear and nonlinear absorption according to both: laser light intensity and material properties. In the case of water or gels, the first results in heat generation and thermoelastic expansion; while the second results in an expanding plasma formation that launches a shock wave and a cavitation/boiling bubble. Plasma formation due to nonlinear absorption of nanosecond laser pulses is originated by a combination of multiphoton ionization and thermionic emission of free electrons, which is enhanced when the material has high linear absorption coefficient. In this work, we present measurements of pressure transients originated when 6 ns laser pulses are incident on agar gels with varying linear absorption coefficient, mechanical properties and irradiation geometry using laser radiant exposures above threshold for bubble formation. The underlying hypothesis is that pressure transients are composed of the superposition of both: shock wave originated by hot expanding plasma resulting from nonlinear absorption of optical energy and, thermoelastic expansion originated by heat generation due to linear absorption of optical energy. The objective of this work is to evaluate the relative contribution of each absorption mechanism to mechanical effects in agar gel. Real time pressure transients are recorded with PVDF piezoelectric sensors and time-resilved imaging from 50 μm to 10 mm away from focal point.

  6. Guiding of Long-Distance Electric Discharges by Combined Femtosecond and Nanosecond Pulses Emitted by Hybrid KrF Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    laser pulse initiated HV discharge with a time delay of tens nanoseconds – evidently it is developing due to an avalanche -like growth of electron...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0040 Guiding of long-distance electric discharges by combined femtosecond and nanosecond pulses emitted by...and guiding electric discharge , KrF laser, femtosecond pulse , nanosecond pulse , filamentation, plasma channel, lightning control, laser control of

  7. Nanosecond laser scribing of CIGS thin film solar cell based on ITO bottom contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seungkuk; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Shi; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Yi Yin; Choi, JaeMyung; Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Hwang, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films, a promising photovoltaic architecture, have mainly relied on Molybdenum for the bottom contact. However, the opaque nature of Molybdenum (Mo) poses limitations in module level fabrication by laser scribing as a preferred method for interconnect. We examined the P1, P2, and P3 laser scribing processes on CIGS photovoltaic architecture on the indium tin oxide (ITO) bottom contact with a cost-effective nanosecond pulsed laser of 532 nm wavelength. Laser illuminated from the substrate side, enabled by the transparent bottom contact, facilitated selective laser energy deposition onto relevant interfaces towards high-quality scribing. Parametric tuning procedures are described in conjunction with experimental and numerical investigation of relevant mechanisms, and preliminary mini-module fabrication results are also presented.

  8. Ionization processes in combined high-voltage nanosecond - laser discharges in inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starikovskiy, Andrey; Shneider, Mikhail; PU Team

    2016-09-01

    Remote control of plasmas induced by laser radiation in the atmosphere is one of the challenging issues of free space communication, long-distance energy transmission, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and standoff detection of trace gases and bio-threat species. Sequences of laser pulses, as demonstrated by an extensive earlier work, offer an advantageous tool providing access to the control of air-plasma dynamics and optical interactions. The avalanche ionization induced in a pre-ionized region by infrared laser pulses where investigated. Pre-ionization was created by an ionization wave, initiated by high-voltage nanosecond pulse. Then, behind the front of ionization wave extra avalanche ionization was initiated by the focused infrared laser pulse. The experiment was carried out in argon. It is shown that the gas pre-ionization inhibits the laser spark generation under low pressure conditions.

  9. Mono-energetic ions emission by nanosecond laser solid target irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoio, A., E-mail: Annamaria.Muoio@lns.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Tudisco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore”, Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Trifirò, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Sezione INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the acceleration mechanisms through laser–matter interaction in nanosecond domain has been carried out at the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS, Catania. Pure Al targets were irradiated by 6 ns laser pulses at different pumping energies, up to 2 J. Advanced diagnostics tools were used to characterize the plasma plume and ion production. We show the preliminary results of this experimental campaign, and especially the ones showing the production of multicharged ions having very narrow energy spreads.

  10. Nanosecond-laser induced crosstalk of CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Qianrong; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Ren, Guangsen; Cui, Longfei; Li, Hua; Hao, Daoliang

    2018-02-01

    The CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) is photoelectricity image device which focused the photosensitive array, amplifier, A/D transfer, storage, DSP, computer interface circuit on the same silicon substrate[1]. It has low power consumption, high integration,low cost etc. With large scale integrated circuit technology progress, the noise suppression level of CIS is enhanced unceasingly, and its image quality is getting better and better. It has been in the security monitoring, biometrice, detection and imaging and even military reconnaissance and other field is widely used. CIS is easily disturbed and damaged while it is irradiated by laser. It is of great significance to study the effect of laser irradiation on optoelectronic countermeasure and device for the laser strengthening resistance is of great significance. There are some researchers have studied the laser induced disturbed and damaged of CIS. They focused on the saturation, supersaturated effects, and they observed different effects as for unsaturation, saturation, supersaturated, allsaturated and pixel flip etc. This paper research 1064nm laser interference effect in a typical before type CMOS, and observring the saturated crosstalk and half the crosstalk line. This paper extracted from cmos devices working principle and signal detection methods such as the Angle of the formation mechanism of the crosstalk line phenomenon are analyzed.

  11. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetering, F. M. J. H. van de; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10 −6 %), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon–acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  12. Insight into electronic mechanisms of nanosecond-laser ablation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, Wladimir; Patrone, Lionel; Ozerov, Igor; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.

    2008-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of nanosecond ArF excimer laser desorption and ablation of silicon with insight into material removal mechanisms. The experimental studies involve a comprehensive analysis of the laser-induced plume dynamics and measurements of the charge gained by the target during irradiation time. At low laser fluences, well below the melting threshold, high-energy ions with a narrow energy distribution are observed. When the fluence is increased, a thermal component of the plume is formed superimposing on the nonthermal ions, which are still abundant. The origin of these ions is discussed on the basis of two modeling approaches, thermal and electronic, and we analyze the dynamics of silicon target excitation, heating, melting, and ablation. An electronic model is developed that provides insight into the charge-carrier transport in the target. We demonstrate that, contrary to a commonly accepted opinion, a complete thermalization between the electron and lattice subsystems is not reached during the nanosecond-laser pulse action. Moreover, the charging effects can retard the melting process and have an effect on the overall target behavior and laser-induced plume dynamics

  13. Nanosecond framing photography for laser-produced interstreaming plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, E.A.; Ripin, B.H.; Stamper, J.A.; Manka, C.K.; Peyser, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Using a fast-gated (120 psec-5 nsec) microchannel-plate optical camera (gated optical imager), framing photographs have been taken of the rapidly streaming laser plasma (∼ 5 x 10 7 cm/sec) passing through a vacuum or a background gas, with and without a magnetic field. Observations of Large-Larmor-Radius Interchange Instabilities are presented

  14. Analysis of material modifications caused by nanosecond pulsed UV laser processing of SiC and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Olaf; Wernicke, Tim; Wuerfl, Joachim; Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Hergenroeder, Roland [ISAS-Institute for Analytical Sciences, Dortmund (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of direct UV laser processing on single crystal SiC in ambient air were investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and measurements of the electrical resistance using the transfer length method (TLM). Scanning electron microscopy was applied to study the morphology and dimensions of the laser-treated regions. After laser processing using a nanosecond pulsed solid-state laser the debris consisting of silicon oxide was removed by etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid. A layer of resolidified material remains at the surface indicating the thermal impact of the laser process. The Si/C ratio is significantly disturbed at the surface of the resolidified layer and approaches unity in a depth of several tens of nanometers. A privileged oxidation of carbon leaves elementary resolidified silicon at the surface, where nanocrystalline silicon was detected. Oxygen and nitrogen were detected near the surface down to a depth of some tens of nanometers. A conductive surface film is formed, which is attributed to the thermal impact causing the formation of the silicon-rich surface layer and the incorporation of nitrogen as dopant. No indications for microcrack or defect formation were found beneath the layer of resolidified material. (orig.)

  15. Modeling of nanosecond pulsed laser processing of polymers in air and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2018-01-01

    radiation (λ = 1064 nm) of nanosecond pulse duration. The laser–polymer interaction at such wavelengths is purely photo-thermal in nature and the laser–plasma interaction is assumed to occur mainly by inverse-bremsstrahlung photon absorption. The computational model is based on the finite volume method......Laser ablation of polymers in water is known to generate distinct surface characteristics as compared to that in air. In order to understand the role of ambient media during laser ablation of polymers, this paper aims to develop a physics-based model of the process considering the effect of ambient...... media. Therefore, in the present work, models are developed for laser ablation of polymers in air and water considering all the relevant physical phenomena such as laser–polymer interaction, plasma generation, plasma expansion and plasma shielding. The current work focuses on near-infrared laser...

  16. Comparative study of ornamental granite cleaning using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.T.S. Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo Spain (Spain); Lopez, A.J.; Ramil, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas. Campus de Esteiro. Universidad de A Coruña 15403 Ferrol Spain (Spain); Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.T.S. Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo Spain (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas. Campus de Esteiro. Universidad de A Coruña 15403 Ferrol Spain (Spain); Silanes, M.E. López de [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.I. Forestales. Universidad de Vigo, Campus Pontevedra. 36005 Pontevedra Spain (Spain); García, A.; Aldana, J. R. Vazquez de; Romero, C.; Moreno, P. [Grupo de Investigación en Microprocesado de Materiales con Laser. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca Spain (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Granite has been widely used as a structural and ornamental element in public works and buildings. In damp climates it is almost permanently humid and its exterior surfaces are consequently biologically colonized and blackened We describe a comparative analysis of the performance of two different laser sources in removing biological crusts from granite surfaces: nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser (355 nm) and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at its fundamental wavelength (790 nm) and second harmonic (395 nm). The granite surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and profilometry, in order to assess the degree of cleaning and to characterize possible morphological and chemical changes caused by the laser sources.

  17. Comparative study of ornamental granite cleaning using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, T.; Lopez, A.J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Fiorucci, M.P.; Silanes, M.E. López de; García, A.; Aldana, J. R. Vazquez de; Romero, C.; Moreno, P.

    2013-01-01

    Granite has been widely used as a structural and ornamental element in public works and buildings. In damp climates it is almost permanently humid and its exterior surfaces are consequently biologically colonized and blackened We describe a comparative analysis of the performance of two different laser sources in removing biological crusts from granite surfaces: nanosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (355 nm) and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at its fundamental wavelength (790 nm) and second harmonic (395 nm). The granite surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and profilometry, in order to assess the degree of cleaning and to characterize possible morphological and chemical changes caused by the laser sources.

  18. Laser ablation of lysozyme with UV, visible and infrared femto- and nanosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    Lysozyme is an interesting molecule for laser ablation of organic materials, because the ablation has been comprehensively studied, it is a medium heavy molecule with a mass of 14305 Da, which can be detected by standard techniques, and because it is used as a bactericidal protein in the food...... industry. Lysozyme molecules do not absorb energy for wavelengths above 310 nm, but nevertheless there is a strong mass loss by ablation for laser irradiation in the visible regime. The total ablation yield of lysozyme at 355 nm and at 2 J/cm2 is about 155 µg/pulse, possibly one of the highest ablation...... the ablation process for different wavelengths and time duration. Measurements for 6-7-ns laser ablation were carried out at DTU on Risø Campus, while measurements with pulses of 300 fs were carried out at the University of Naples in a similar setup. For all wavelengths except at nanosecond laser pulses at 355...

  19. Applications of nanosecond, kilojoule lasers to the basic physics of waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas can sustain many normal modes of oscillation (waves), including both electromagnetic and electrostatic modes. These waves can interact by a wide variety of linear and nonlinear mechanisms, including mode coupling, mixing, and instabilities. Furthermore, such mechanisms compete, so that a given wave might be absorbed, might mode convert, or might decay by one of several instabilities, depending upon the specific circumstances in which it is produced. Moreover, such waves are important in many applications, including for example laser fusion, x-ray lasers, plasma accelerators, and ionospheric heating. Laser-produced plasmas can provide an effective medium for the studies of such waves and the related mechanisms. New opportunities will be made possible by the advent of comparatively inexpensive nanosecond, kilojoule lasers. One can now contemplate affordable experiments, not limited by programmatic constraints, that could study such the basic physics of the waves in such plasmas with unprecedented precision and in unprecedented detail

  20. Dynamic features of bubble induced by a nanosecond pulse laser in still and flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charee, Wisan; Tangwarodomnukun, Viboon

    2018-03-01

    Underwater laser ablation techniques have been developed and employed to synthesis nanoparticles, to texture workpiece surface and to assist the material removal in laser machining process. However, the understanding of laser-material-water interactions, bubble formation and effects of water flow on ablation performance has still been very limited. This paper thus aims at exploring the formation and collapse of bubbles during the laser ablation of silicon in water. The effects of water flow rate on bubble formation and its consequences to the laser disturbance and cut features obtained in silicon were observed by using a high speed camera. A nanosecond pulse laser emitting the laser pulse energy of 0.2-0.5 mJ was employed in the experiment. The results showed that the bubble size was found to increase with the laser pulse energy. The use of high water flow rate can importantly facilitate the ejection of ablated particles from the workpiece surface, hence resulting in less deposition to the work surface and minimizing any disturbance to the laser beam during the ablation in water. Furthermore, a clean micro-groove in silicon wafer can successfully be produced when the process was performed in the high water flow rate condition. The findings of this study could provide an essential guideline for process selection, control and improvement in the laser micro-/submicro-fabrication using the underwater technique.

  1. Nanosecond laser ablation processes in aluminum-doped zinc-oxide for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canteli, D.; Fernandez, S.; Molpeceres, C.; Torres, I.; Gandía, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A study of the ablation of AZO thin films deposited at different temperature conditions with nanosecond UV laser light for photovoltaic devices has been performed. ► The ablation threshold of AZO thin films was measured and related with the absorption coefficient of the films at the laser wavelength, showing a direct correspondence. ► A change in the material structure in the areas closest to the edges of laser grooves made in samples deposited at temperatures below 100 °C was observed and studied. - Abstract: Aiming to a future use in thin film solar modules, the processing of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films with good optoelectronic properties with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser has been studied. The ablation threshold fluence of the films has been determined and associated with the material properties. The ablation process has been optimized and grooves with good properties for photovoltaic devices have been obtained. The morphology of the ablated surfaces has been observed by confocal microscopy and its structure has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of ablation parameters like focus distance, pulse energy and repetition frequency in the groove morphology has been studied with special attention to the thermal effects on the material structure.

  2. Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Duong V.; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates superhydrophobic behavior on nanosecond laser patterned copper and brass surfaces. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such texturing, infrared nanosecond fiber lasers offer a lower cost and more robust system combined with potentially much higher processing rates. The wettability of the textured surfaces develops from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity over time when exposed to ambient conditions. The change in the wetting property is attributed to the partial deoxidation of oxides on the surface induced during laser texturing. Textures exhibiting steady state contact angles of up to ∼152° with contact angle hysteresis of around 3-4° have been achieved. Interestingly, the superhydrobobic surfaces have the self-cleaning ability and have potential for chemical sensing applications. The principle of these novel chemical sensors is based on the change in contact angle with the concentration of methanol in a solution. To demonstrate the principle of operation of such a sensor, it is found that the contact angle of methanol solution on the superhydrophobic surfaces exponentially decays with increasing concentration. A significant reduction, of 128°, in contact angle on superhydrophobic brass is observed, which is one order of magnitude greater than that for the untreated surface (12°), when percent composition of methanol reaches to 28%.

  3. Nanosecond laser pulses for mimicking thermal effects on nanostructured tungsten-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besozzi, E.; Maffini, A.; Dellasega, D.; Russo, V.; Facibeni, A.; Pazzaglia, A.; Beghi, M. G.; Passoni, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we exploit nanosecond laser irradiation as a compact solution for investigating the thermomechanical behavior of tungsten materials under extreme thermal loads at the laboratory scale. Heat flux factor thresholds for various thermal effects, such as melting, cracking and recrystallization, are determined under both single and multishot experiments. The use of nanosecond lasers for mimicking thermal effects induced on W by fusion-relevant thermal loads is thus validated by direct comparison of the thresholds obtained in this work and the ones reported in the literature for electron beams and millisecond laser irradiation. Numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress performed on a 2D thermomechanical code are used to predict the heat flux factor thresholds of the different thermal effects. We also investigate the thermal effect thresholds of various nanostructured W coatings. These coatings are produced by pulsed laser deposition, mimicking W coatings in tokamaks and W redeposited layers. All the coatings show lower damage thresholds with respect to bulk W. In general, thresholds decrease as the porosity degree of the materials increases. We thus propose a model to predict these thresholds for coatings with various morphologies, simply based on their porosity degree, which can be directly estimated by measuring the variation of the coating mass density with respect to that of the bulk.

  4. Nanosecond laser ablation processes in aluminum-doped zinc-oxide for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canteli, D., E-mail: david.canteli@ciemat.es [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Centro Laser, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ctra. de Valencia Km 7.3, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Torres, I.; Gandia, J.J. [Division de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A study of the ablation of AZO thin films deposited at different temperature conditions with nanosecond UV laser light for photovoltaic devices has been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ablation threshold of AZO thin films was measured and related with the absorption coefficient of the films at the laser wavelength, showing a direct correspondence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A change in the material structure in the areas closest to the edges of laser grooves made in samples deposited at temperatures below 100 Degree-Sign C was observed and studied. - Abstract: Aiming to a future use in thin film solar modules, the processing of aluminum doped zinc oxide thin films with good optoelectronic properties with a nanosecond-pulsed ultraviolet laser has been studied. The ablation threshold fluence of the films has been determined and associated with the material properties. The ablation process has been optimized and grooves with good properties for photovoltaic devices have been obtained. The morphology of the ablated surfaces has been observed by confocal microscopy and its structure has been characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of ablation parameters like focus distance, pulse energy and repetition frequency in the groove morphology has been studied with special attention to the thermal effects on the material structure.

  5. Comparative study of the dissociative ionization of 1,1,1-trichloroethane using nanosecond and femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available , but different fragmentation patterns. A general trend is that when using femtosecond laser pulses for ionization, the parent molecular ion is observed but not for nanosecond laser ionization. There is also a fundamental interest in laser...-molecule interactions at the high intensities available from femtosecond lasers [12,13]. These papers describe the multiphoton ionization mechanisms termed ladder climbing and ladder switching, which explain the presence of parent molecular ion in ultrashort pulse...

  6. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  7. Laser-assisted vacuum arc extreme ultraviolet source: a comparison of picosecond and nanosecond laser triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Girum A.; Tobin, Isaac; Juschkin, Larissa; Hayden, Patrick; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sokell, Emma; Zakharov, Vassily S.; Zakharov, Sergey V.; O'Reilly, Fergal

    2016-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light generation by hybrid laser-assisted vacuum arc discharge plasmas, utilizing Sn-coated rotating-disc-electrodes, was investigated. The discharge was initiated by localized ablation of the liquid tin coating of the cathode disc by a laser pulse. The laser pulse, at 1064 nm, was generated by Nd:YAG lasers with variable energy from 1 to 100 mJ per pulse. The impact of shortening the laser pulse from 7 ns to 170 ps on the EUV generation has been investigated in detail. The use of ps pulses resulted in an increase in emission of EUV radiation. With a fixed discharge energy of ~4 J, the EUV conversion efficiency tends to plateau at ~2.4  ±  0.25% for the ps laser pulses, while for the ns pulses, it saturates at ~1.7  ±  0.3%. Under similar discharge and laser energy conditions, operating the EUV source with the ps-triggering resulted also in narrower spectral profiles of the emission in comparison to ns-triggering. The results indicate an advantage in using ps-triggering in laser-assisted discharges to produce brighter plasmas required for applications such as metrology.

  8. Nanosecond laser ablation of target Al in a gaseous medium: explosive boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhukin, V. I.; Mazhukin, A. V.; Demin, M. M.; Shapranov, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    An approximate mathematical description of the processes of homogeneous nucleation and homogeneous evaporation (explosive boiling) of a metal target (Al) under the influence of ns laser radiation is proposed in the framework of the hydrodynamic model. Within the continuum approach, a multi-phase, multi-front hydrodynamic model and a computational algorithm are designed to simulate nanosecond laser ablation of the metal targets immersed in gaseous media. The proposed approach is intended for modeling and detailed analysis of the mechanisms of heterogeneous and homogeneous evaporation and their interaction with each other. It is shown that the proposed model and computational algorithm allow modeling of interrelated mechanisms of heterogeneous and homogeneous evaporation of metals, manifested in the form of pulsating explosive boiling. Modeling has shown that explosive evaporation in metals is due to the presence of a near-surface temperature maximum. It has been established that in nanosecond pulsed laser ablation, such exposure regimes can be implemented in which phase explosion is the main mechanism of material removal.

  9. Micromachining of glass by the third harmonic of nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramil, A. [Centro de Investigacions Tecnoloxicas, Universidade da Coruna, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)], E-mail: aramil@cdf.udc.es; Lamas, J.; Alvarez, J.C.; Lopez, A.J.; Saavedra, E.; Yanez, A. [Centro de Investigacions Tecnoloxicas, Universidade da Coruna, E-15403 Ferrol (A Coruna) (Spain)

    2009-03-01

    The ablation processing of glass was performed by using the third harmonic of nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. The objective of this work was the formation of deep holes with a high aspect ratio in soda lime glass; with this purpose different ways to raster the glass surface with the focused laser beam, i.e., single line, parallel lines and orthogonally crossing lines, have been tried and the effect of different parameters as the number of lines and number of scans in the depth and inclination of the sidewalls of the hole has been analyzed. Moreover, to reduce the time consumption in the laser processing of glass plates the relationship between penetration depths and overlapping factor has been studied and an optimum value of scan speed has been obtained for a particular case.

  10. Dynamics of the plume produced by nanosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of the ablation plume of a partially ionized plasma produced by a nanosecond UV laser with different irradiation spot geometries has been explored. We have used an ensemble of quartz crystal microbalances to make the first systematic and quantitative study of how the shape of the plume...... varies as the aspect ratio (b/a) of the elliptical laser spot is varied by about a factor of ten. The flip-over effect can be described by the adiabatic expansion model of Anisimov using a value of the adiabatic constant of about gamma = 1.4. We have also studied the forward peaking of the ablation plume...... for a large number of metals at the same laser fluence. Contrary to earlier reports, we find that the more refractory metals have the broader angular distributions....

  11. Thermodynamics of nanosecond nanobubble formation at laser-excited metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siems, A; Weber, S A L; Boneberg, J; Plech, A

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear thermal behavior of laser-heated gold nanoparticles in aqueous suspension is determined by time-resolved optical spectroscopy and x-ray scattering. The nanoparticles can be excited transiently to high lattice temperatures owing to their large absorption cross-section and slow heat dissipation to the surrounding. A consequence is the observation of lattice expansion, changed optical transmission, vapor bubble formation or particle melting. The heat transfer equations are solved for two limiting cases of heat pulses shorter and longer than the characteristic cooling time. The results of pulsed excitation with femtosecond and nanosecond lasers are explained by the theoretical prediction, and the bubble formation is interpreted by a spinodal decomposition at the particle-liquid interface. It is shown that both the laser spectroscopy and x-ray scattering results agree qualitatively and quantitatively, underlining the validity of the comprehensive model.

  12. Nanosecond laser therapy reverses pathologic and molecular changes in age-related macular degeneration without retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, A I; Guymer, R H; Vessey, K A; Greferath, U; Mills, S A; Brassington, K H; Luu, C D; Aung, K Z; Trogrlic, L; Plunkett, M; Fletcher, E L

    2015-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss, characterized by drusen deposits and thickened Bruch's membrane (BM). This study details the capacity of nanosecond laser treatment to reduce drusen and thin BM while maintaining retinal structure. Fifty patients with AMD had a single nanosecond laser treatment session and after 2 yr, change in drusen area was compared with an untreated cohort of patients. The retinal effect of the laser was determined in human and mouse eyes using immunohistochemistry and compared with untreated eyes. In a mouse with thickened BM (ApoEnull), the effect of laser treatment was quantified using electron microscopy and quantitative PCR. In patients with AMD, nanosecond laser treatment reduced drusen load at 2 yr. Retinal structure was not compromised in human and mouse retina after laser treatment, with only a discrete retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) injury, and limited mononuclear cell response observed. BM was thinned in the ApoEnull mouse 3 mo after treatment (ApoEnull treated 683 ± 38 nm, ApoEnull untreated 890 ± 60 nm, C57Bl6J 606 ± 43 nm), with the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -3 increased (>260%). Nanosecond laser resolved drusen independent of retinal damage and improved BM structure, suggesting this treatment has the potential to reduce AMD progression. © FASEB.

  13. Damage caused by a nanosecond UV laser on a heated copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henč-Bartolić, V., E-mail: visnja.henc@fer.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bončina, T. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Jakovljević, S., E-mail: suzana.jakovljevic@fsb.hr [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Panjan, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zupanič, F. [University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A Cu-plate was exposed to nanosecond UV laser with max. energy 1.1 J/cm{sup 2}. • Surface topography was studied on the cold and heated copper plate. • At room temperature, a crater formed, the melt was ejected from it. • Capillary waves formed in the vicinity of the crater at 360 °C. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of thin copper plate temperature on its surface morphology after irradiation using a pulsed nanosecond UV laser. The surface characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and stylus profilometry. When a target was at room temperature, a crater and the radial flow of molten Cu from the crater was observed. When the thin target was warm (about 360 °C ± 20 °C), a crater was smaller, and quasi-semicircular waves with the periodicity of around 3 μm appeared in its vicinity. The origin of the waves is Marangoni effect, causing thermocapillary waves, which in same occasions had a structure of final states of chaos in Rayleigh–Bénard convection.

  14. Influence of the shielding effect on the formation of a micro-texture on the cermet with nanosecond pulsed laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Liang, Liang; Jiang, Lelun; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The degree of laser pulse overlapping in a laser scanning path has a significant impact on the ablation regime in the laser machining of a micro-texture. In this Letter, a nanosecond pulsed laser is used to prepare the micro-scaled groove on WC-8Co cermet under different scanning speeds. It is observed that as the scanning speed increases, the ablated trace morphology in the first scanning pass transits from a succession of intermittent deep dimples to the consecutive overlapped shallow pits. The test result also indicates that ablated trace morphology with respect to the low scanning speed stems from a plume shielding effect. Moreover, the ablation regime considering the shielding effect in micro-groove formation process is clarified. The critical scanning speed that can circumvent the shielding effect is also summarized with respect to different laser powers.

  15. High pulse energy sub-nanosecond Tm-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserteg, Andras; Guillemet, Sebastien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-02-01

    We report a core pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifier that generates 1.4 μJ pulses at 1980 nm with a repetition rate of 3.6 MHz preserving the original spectral bandwidth of the oscillator. The amplifier chain is seeded by a passively modelocked fiber laser with 5 mW output power and the pulses are stretched to 800 picoseconds. The amplifier is core pumped by a single mode erbium fiber laser. The slope efficiency is 35%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of sub nanosecond pulses with energies higher than 1 μJ coming out of a thulium-doped fiber amplifier.

  16. Nanosecond laser ablation and deposition of silver, copper, zinc and tin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of different metals (Ag, Cu, Sn, Zn) has been studied in high vacuum at a laser wavelength of 355 nm and pulse length of 6 ns. The deposition rate is roughly similar for Sn, Cu and Ag, which have comparable cohesive energies, and much higher for the deposition...... of Zn which has a low cohesive energy. The deposition rate for all metals is strongly correlated with the total ablation yield, i.e., the total mass ablated per pulse, reported in the literature except for Sn, for which the deposition rate is low, but the total ablation yield is high. This may...... be explained by the continuous erosion by nanoparticles during deposition of the Sn films which appear to have a much rougher surface than those of the other metals studied in the present work....

  17. One - step nanosecond laser microstructuring, sulfur hyperdoping, and annealing of silicon surfaces in liquid carbondisulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luong, Nguyen; Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, P. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Saraeva, I. N.; Смirnov, H. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    We perform a single-shot IR nanosecond laser processing of commercial silicon wafers in ambient air and under a 2 mm thick carbon disulfide liquid layer. We characterize the surface spots modified in the liquid ambient and the spots ablated under the same conditions in air in terms of its surface topography, chemical composition, band-structure modification, and crystalline structure by means of SEM and EDX microscopy, as well as of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. These studies indicate that single-step microstructuring and deep (up to 2-3% on the surface) hyperdoping of the crystalline silicon in its submicron surface layer, preserving via pulsed laser annealing its crystallinity and providing high (103 - 104 cm-1) spectrally at near- and mid-IR absorption coefficients, can be obtained in this novel approach, which is very promising for thin - film silicon photovoltaic devices

  18. Surface morphological modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo, Gastón A.; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia I. [IMBIV (CONICET), Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba X5000HUA (Argentina); Pino, Gustavo A.; Ferrero, Juan C. [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina); Rossa, Maximiliano, E-mail: mrossa@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC (CONICET), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, and Centro Láser de Ciencias Moleculares, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba X5000IUS (Argentina)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser-induced surface modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by ns pulses. • Formation of ablation craters observed under most of the single-pulse experimental conditions. • UV laser foaming of dried hydrogel samples resulting from single- and multiple-pulse experiments. • Threshold values of the incident laser fluence reported for the observed surface modifications. • Lower threshold fluences for acrylate-based, compared to acrylamide-based hydrogels. - Abstract: This work reports an investigation of the surface modifications induced by irradiation with nanosecond laser pulses of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths on crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymeric materials, which have been functionalized with 1-vinylimidazole as a co-monomer. A comparison is made between hydrogels differing in the base co-monomer (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate and N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide) and in hydration state (both swollen and dried states). Formation of craters is the dominant morphological change observed by ablation in the visible at 532 nm, whereas additional, less aggressive surface modifications, chiefly microfoams and roughness, are developed in the ultraviolet at 266 nm. At both irradiation wavelengths, threshold values of the incident laser fluence for the observation of the various surface modifications are determined under single-pulse laser irradiation conditions. It is shown that multiple-pulse irradiation at 266 nm with a limited number of laser shots can be used alternatively for generating a regular microfoam layer at the surface of dried hydrogels based on N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. The observations are rationalized on the basis of currently accepted mechanisms for laser-induced polymer surface modification, with a significant contribution of the laser foaming mechanism. Prospective applications of the laser-foamed hydrogel matrices in biomolecule immobilization are suggested.

  19. Simultaneous high crystallinity and sub-bandgap optical absorptance in hyperdoped black silicon using nanosecond laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, Benjamin, E-mail: bafranta@gmail.com; Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Aziz, Michael J.; Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Rekemeyer, Paul H.; Gradečak, Silvija [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Hyperdoped black silicon fabricated with femtosecond laser irradiation has attracted interest for applications in infrared photodetectors and intermediate band photovoltaics due to its sub-bandgap optical absorptance and light-trapping surface. However, hyperdoped black silicon typically has an amorphous and polyphasic polycrystalline surface that can interfere with carrier transport, electrical rectification, and intermediate band formation. Past studies have used thermal annealing to obtain high crystallinity in hyperdoped black silicon, but thermal annealing causes a deactivation of the sub-bandgap optical absorptance. In this study, nanosecond laser annealing is used to obtain high crystallinity and remove pressure-induced phases in hyperdoped black silicon while maintaining high sub-bandgap optical absorptance and a light-trapping surface morphology. Furthermore, it is shown that nanosecond laser annealing reactivates the sub-bandgap optical absorptance of hyperdoped black silicon after deactivation by thermal annealing. Thermal annealing and nanosecond laser annealing can be combined in sequence to fabricate hyperdoped black silicon that simultaneously shows high crystallinity, high above-bandgap and sub-bandgap absorptance, and a rectifying electrical homojunction. Such nanosecond laser annealing could potentially be applied to non-equilibrium material systems beyond hyperdoped black silicon.

  20. Investigations into localized re-treatment of the retina with a 3-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidlow, Glyn; Plunkett, Malcolm; Casson, Robert J; Wood, John P M

    2016-08-01

    Subvisual retinal lasers necessarily cause clinically invisible lesions, hence, they could intentionally or inadvertently be targeted at precisely the same or an overlapping location during repeat laser treatment. Herein, we investigated the structural integrity and cellular responses of localized re-treatment using a nanosecond laser (2RT) currently in trials for early age-related macular degeneration. Rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: sham, subvisual 2RT, subvisual 2RT re-treatment, visual effect 2RT, visual effect 2RT re-treatment. Re-treatment groups were lasered on days 0 and 21; single laser groups were only lasered on day 21. All rats were euthanized at day 28 and eyes were then dissected and processed for immunohistochemistry. For re-treatment, the laser was targeted at precisely the same locations on both delivery occasions. Analytical endpoints included monitoring of retinal vascular integrity overlying lesions, investigation into any potential choroidal neovascularization, assessment of the RPE, quantification of collateral injury to photoreceptors or other neuronal classes, and delineation of glial reactivity. Repeat laser administration to rats caused ostensibly identical retinal-RPE-choroid responses to those obtained in age-matched rats that received only a single application. Specifically, 7 days after treatment, RPE cells were re-populating lesion sites. No obvious consistent differences were evident between the single and repeat laser groups. Moreover, repeat laser caused no (measurable) additive injury to photoreceptors or other retinal neuronal classes from single laser treatment. In re-lasered animals, there was no increase in microglial activity overlying and adjacent to lesion sites relative to single lasered rats. Finally, there was no evidence of choroidal neovascularization after repeat laser treatment. The overall results provide a measure of confidence that re-treatment of patients with 2RT should not provide any

  1. Decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles using parallel nanosecond pulsed laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yan P; Liu, Xian H; Du, Xi W; Lu, Yi R; Wang, Mei Y; Wang, Guang Y

    2013-01-01

    Using 532 nm parallel nanosecond pulsed laser, the decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous suspensions of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was studied. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, laser energy, and initial MB concentration on the decolorization rate were investigated. Experiments using real samples of textile dyeing wastewater were also carried out to examine the effectiveness of the method in more complex samples. From the results, the following conclusions may be drawn: (i) Under the optimum conditions (pH 7.19, 135 mJ laser energy, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 11.6 mg/L GNP concentration), the rate of MB decolorization could reach 94% in 15 min. The decolorization follows pseudo-first-order kinetics; (ii) The amount of MB decreased rapidly during the decolorization. No intermediates of the decolorization could be detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. These observations indicate that MB was decolorized through a very rapid degradation mechanism; (iii) The rate of MB decolorization increased with the increase in laser energy (at laser energies of 0 to 135 mJ); and, (iv) The efficient decolorization of MB in real samples of textile dyeing wastewater was achieved at a decolorization rate of about 85% in 15 min.

  2. Widely-duration-tunable nanosecond pulse Nd:YVO4 laser based on double Pockels cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Jiao; Liu, Ke; Bo, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Jing; Liu, Zhao; Zong, Qing-Shuang; Peng, Qin-Jun; Cui, Da-Fu; Xu, Zu-Yan

    2018-05-01

    The development of duration-tunable pulse lasers with constant output power is important for scientific research and materials processing. We present a widely-duration-tunable nanosecond (ns) pulse Nd:YVO4 laser based on double Pockels cells (PCs), i.e. inserting an extra PC into a conventional electro-optic Q-switched cavity dumped laser resonator. Under the absorbed pump power of 24.9 W, the pulse duration is adjustable from 31.9 ns to 5.9 ns by changing the amplitude of the high voltage on the inserted PC from 1100 V to 4400 V at the pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. The corresponding average output power is almost entirely maintained in the range of 3.5–4.1 W. This represents more than three times increase in pulse duration tunable regime and average power compared to previously reported results for duration-tunable ns lasers. The laser beam quality factor was measured to be M 2  <  1.18.

  3. Processing of Dielectric Optical Coatings by Nanosecond and Femtosecond UV Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihlemann, J.; Bekesi, J.; Klein-Wiele, J.H.; Simon, P.

    2008-01-01

    Micro processing of dielectric optical coatings by UV laser ablation is demonstrated. Excimer laser ablation at deep UV wavelengths (248 nm, 193 nm) is used for the patterning of thin oxide films or layer stacks. The layer removal over extended areas as well as sub-μm-structuring is possible. The ablation of SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, and Ta2O5 layers and layer systems has been investigated. Due to their optical, chemical, and thermal stability, these inorganic film materials are well suited for optical applications, even if UV-transparency is required. Transparent patterned films of SiO2 are produced by patterning a UV-absorbing precursor SiOx suboxide layer and oxidizing it afterwards to SiO2. In contrast to laser ablation of bulk material, in the case of thin films, the layer-layer or layer-substrate boundaries act as predetermined end points, so that precise depth control and a very smooth surface can be achieved. For large area ablation, nanosecond lasers are well suited; for patterning with submicron resolution, femtosecond excimer lasers are applied. Thus the fabrication of optical elements like dielectric masks, pixelated diffractive elements, and gratings can be accomplished.

  4. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-06-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2} is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm{sup −2} and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of Ge investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection technique and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, Nazish; Bashir, Shazia; Shabbir, Muhammad Kaif; Jalil, Sohail Abdul; Akram, Mahreen; Hayat, Asma; Mahmood, Khaliq; Haq, Faizan-ul; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation phenomena of single crystal Ge (100) has been investigated by employing photoacoustic deflection as well as SEM analysis techniques. Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 ns, 1–10 Hz) at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2 is employed as pump beam to ablate Ge targets. In order to evaluate in-situe ablation threshold fluence of Ge by photoacoustic deflection technique, Continuous Wave (CW) He–Ne laser (632 nm, power 10 mW) is employed as a probe beam. It travels parallel to the target surface at a distance of 3 mm and after passing through Ge plasma it causes deflection due to density gradient of acoustic waves. The deflected signal is detected by photodiode and is recorded by oscilloscope. The threshold fluence of Ge, the velocity of ablated species and the amplitude of the deflected signal are evaluated. The threshold fluence of Ge comes out to be 0.5 J cm"−"2 and is comparable with the analytical value. In order to compare the estimated value of threshold with ex-situe measurements, the quantitative analysis of laser irradiated Ge is performed by using SEM analysis. For this purpose Ge is exposed to single and multiple shots of 5, 10, 50 and 100 at various laser fluences ranging from 0.2 to 11 J cm"−"2. The threshold fluence for single and multiple shots as well as incubation coefficients are evaluated. It is observed that the value of incubation co-efficient decreases with increasing number of pulses and is therefore responsible for lowering the threshold fluence of Ge. SEM analysis also reveals the growth of various features such as porous structures, non-uniform ripples and blisters on the laser irradiated Ge. It is observed that both the fluence as well as number of laser shots plays a significant role for the growth of these structures.

  6. A scheme for recording a fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang

    2015-04-01

    A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.

  7. Nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling for certain area removal of metal coating on plastics surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Jia, Zhenyuan; Ma, Jianwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ling

    2014-12-01

    Metal coating with functional pattern on engineering plastics surface plays an important role in industry applications; it can be obtained by adding or removing certain area of metal coating on engineering plastics surface. However, the manufacturing requirements are improved continuously and the plastic substrate presents three-dimensional (3D) structure-many of these parts cannot be fabricated by conventional processing methods, and a new manufacturing method is urgently needed. As the laser-processing technology has many advantages like high machining accuracy and constraints free substrate structure, the machining of the parts is studied through removing certain area of metal coating based on the nanosecond multi-pulse laser milling. To improve the edge quality of the functional pattern, generation mechanism and corresponding avoidance strategy of the processing defects are studied. Additionally, a prediction model for the laser ablation depth is proposed, which can effectively avoid the existence of residual metal coating and reduces the damage of substrate. With the optimal machining parameters, an equiangular spiral pattern on copper-clad polyimide (CCPI) is machined based on the laser milling at last. The experimental results indicate that the edge of the pattern is smooth and consistent, the substrate is flat and without damage. The achievements in this study could be applied in industrial production.

  8. Surface modification induced by UV nanosecond Nd:YVO4 laser structuring on biometals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, M. Paula; López, Ana J.; Ramil, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Laser surface texturing is a promising tool for improving metallic biomaterials performance in dental and orthopedic bone-replacing applications. Laser ablation modifies the topography of bulk material and might alter surface properties that govern the interactions with the surrounding tissue. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of surface modifications in two biometals, stainless steel 316L and titanium alloy Ti6Al4V by UV nanosecond Nd:YVO4. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface textured by parallel micro-grooves reveals a thin layer of remelted material along the grooves topography. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction allowed us to appreciate a grain refinement of original crystal structure and consequently induced residual strain. Changes in the surface chemistry were determined by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; in this sense, generalized surface oxidation was observed and characterization of the oxides and other compounds such hydroxyl groups was reported. In case of titanium alloy, oxide layer mainly composed by TiO2 which is a highly biocompatible compound was identified. Furthermore, laser treatment produces an increase in oxide thickness that could improve the corrosion behavior of the metal. Otherwise, laser treatment led to the formation of secondary phases which might be detrimental to physical and biocompatibility properties of the material.

  9. XPS and μ-Raman study of nanosecond-laser processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armyanov, S., E-mail: armyanov@ipc.bas.bg [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stankova, N.E.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, E.; Kolev, K.; Georgieva, J. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Steenhaut, O.; Baert, K.; Hubin, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Faculty of Engineering, Research Group, SURF “Electrochemical and Surface Engineering” (Belgium)

    2015-10-01

    Data about the chemical status of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) after nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment with near infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation are presented. The μ-Raman spectroscopy analyses reveal as irradiation result a new sharp peak of crystalline silicon. In addition, broad bands appear assigned to D band of amorphous carbon and G band of microcrystalline and polycrystalline graphite. The μ-Raman spectra are variable taken in different inspected points in the trenches formed by laser treatment. The XPS surface survey spectra indicate the constituent elements of PDMS: carbon, oxygen and silicon. The spectra of detail XPS scans illustrate the influence of the laser treatment. The position of Si 2p peaks of the treated samples is close to the value of non-treated except that irradiated by 1064 nm 66 pulses, which is shifted by 0.9 eV. Accordingly, a shift by 0.4 eV is noticed of the O 1s peak, which reflects again a stronger oxidation of silicon. The curve fitting of Si 2p and O 1s peaks after this particular laser treatment shows the degree of conversion of organic to inorganic silicon that takes place during the irradiation.

  10. Lead extraction by selective operation of a nanosecond-pulsed 355nm laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Amir; Bogdan, Stefan; Glikson, Michael; Ishaaya, Amiel A.; Love, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Lead extraction (LE) is necessary for patients who are suffering from a related infection, or in opening venous occlusions that prevent the insertion of additional lead. In severe cases of fibrous encapsulation of the lead within a vein, laser-based cardiac LE has become one of the foremost methods of removal. In cases where the laser radiation (typically at 308 nm wavelength) interacts with the vein wall rather than with the fibrotic lesion, severe injury and subsequent bleeding may occur. Selective tissue ablation was previously demonstrated by a laser operating in the UV regime; however, it requires the use of sensitizers (e.g.: tetracycline). In this study, we present a preliminary examination of efficacy and safety aspects in the use of a nanosecond-pulsed solid-state laser radiation, at 355 nm wavelength, guided in a catheter consisting of optical fibers, in LE. Specifically, we demonstrate a correlation between the tissue elasticity and the catheter advancement rate, in ex-vivo experiments. Our results indicate a selectivity property for specific parameters of the laser radiation and catheter design. The selectivity is attributed to differences in the mechanical properties of the fibrotic tissue and a normal vein wall, leading to a different photomechanical response of the tissue's extracellular matrix. Furthermore, we performed successful in-vivo animal trials, providing a basic proof of concept for using the suggested scheme in LE. Selective operation using a 355 nm laser may reduce the risk of blood vessel perforation as well as the incidence of major adverse events.

  11. Balanced cross-rate model for saturated molecular fluorescence in flames using a nanosecond pulse length laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucht, R.P.; Sweeney, D.W.; Laurendeau, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The balanced cross-rate model is proposed to analyze laser-induced molecular fluorescence signals when the laser pulse length is of the order of nanoseconds. Nanosecond pulse length lasers. specifically Q-switched Nd:YAG-pumped dye lasers, are attractive for saturated molecular fluorescence spectroscopy because of their high peak power and because of their short pulse length minimizes the risk of laser-induced chemistry. In the balanced cross-rate model, single upper and lower rotational levels are assumed to be directly coupled by the laser radiation. Because the laser-induced processes which couple these levels are so fast at saturation intensities, a steady state is established between the two levels within picoseconds. Provided that the total population of the two laser-coupled rotational levels is constant during the laser pulse, the total molecular population can be calculated from the observed upper rotational level population using a two-level saturation model and Boltzmann statistics. Numerical simulation of the laser excitation dynamics of OH in an atmospheric pressure H 2 /O 2 /N 2 flame indicates that the balanced cross-rate model will give accurate results provided that the rotational relaxation rates in the upper and lower sets of rotational levels are approximately equal

  12. Comparison of acoustic shock waves generated by micro and nanosecond lasers for a smart laser surgery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguendon Kenhagho, Hervé K.; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; C. Cattin, Philippe; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    Characterization of acoustic shock wave will guarantee efficient tissue differentiation as feedback to reduce the probability of undesirable damaging (i.e. cutting) of tissues in laser surgery applications. We ablated hard (bone) and soft (muscle) tissues using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm and a microsecond pulsed Er:YAG laser at 2.94 μm. When the intense short ns-pulsed laser is applied to material, the energy gain causes locally a plasma at the ablated spot that expands and propagates as an acoustic shock wave with a rarefaction wave behind the shock front. However, when using a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser for material ablation, the acoustic shock wave is generated during the explosion of the ablated material. We measured and compared the emitted acoustic shock wave generated by a ns-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a μs-pulsed Er:YAG laser measured by a calibrated microphone. As the acoustic shock wave attenuates as it propagates through air, the distance between ablation spots and a calibrated microphone was at 5 cm. We present the measurements on the propagation characteristics of the laser generated acoustic shock wave by measuring the arrival time-of-flight with a calibrated microphone and the energy-dependent evolution of acoustic parameters such as peak-topeak pressure, the ratio of the peak-to-peak pressures for the laser induced breakdown in air, the ablated muscle and the bone, and the spectral energy.

  13. Study on processing parameters of glass cutting by nanosecond 532 nm fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Gao, Fan; Xiong, Baoxing; Zhang, Xiang; Yuan, Xiao

    2018-03-01

    The processing parameters of soda-lime glass cutting with several nanosecond 532 nm pulsed fiber laser are studied in order to obtain sufficiently large ablation rate and better processing quality. The influences of laser processing parameters on effective cutting speed and cutting quality of 1 2 mm thick soda-lime glass are studied. The experimental results show that larger laser pulse energy will lead to higher effective cutting speed and larger maximum edge collapse of the front side of the glass samples. Compared with that of 1.1 mm thick glass samples, the 2.0 mm thick glass samples is more difficult to cut. With the pulse energy of 51.2 μJ, the maximum edge collapse is more than 200 μm for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples. In order to achieve the high effective cutting speed and good cutting quality at the same time, the dual energy overlapping method is used to obtain the better cutting performance for the 2.0 mm thick glass samples, and the cutting speed of 194 mm/s and the maximum edge collapse of less than 132 μm are realized.

  14. A method for the formation of Pt metal nanoparticle arrays using nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Ansah, Ebenezer; Horwood, Corie A.; Birss, Viola I.; Shi, Yujun J., E-mail: shiy@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); El-Sayed, Hany A. [Institute for Technical Electrochemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films, deposited on a dimpled Ta (DT) surface, has been studied here in order to form ordered Pt nanoparticle (NP) arrays. The DT substrate was fabricated via a simple electrochemical anodization process in a highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HF solution. Pt thin films (3–5 nm) were sputter coated on DT and then dewetted under vacuum to generate NPs using a 355 nm laser radiation (6–9 ns, 10 Hz). The threshold laser fluence to fully dewet a 3.5 nm thick Pt film was determined to be 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our experiments have shown that shorter irradiation times (≤60 s) produce smaller nanoparticles with more uniform sizes, while longer times (>60 s) give large nanoparticles with wider size distributions. The optimum laser irradiation time of 1 s (10 pulses) has led to the formation of highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays with an average nanoparticle size of 26 ± 3 nm with no substrate deformation. At the optimum condition of 1 s and 500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, as many as 85% of the dewetted NPs were found neatly in the well-defined dimples. This work has demonstrated that pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films on a pre-patterned dimpled substrate is an efficient and powerful technique to produce highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays. This method can thus be used to produce arrays of other high-melting-point metal nanoparticles for a range of applications, including electrocatalysis, functionalized nanomaterials, and analytical purposes.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed laser nanostructuring of Au thin films: Comparison between irradiation at low and atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Aké, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, C. U., Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); Canales-Ramos, A. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, C. U., Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico); García-Fernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México (UACM), Prolongación San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, México D.F., C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, C. U., Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04510, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Background pressure plays an important role in NPs formation and its characteristics. • The NPs diameter and their size dispersion are smaller when irradiating in vacuum. • The plasmon resonance shifts ∼15 nm to higher frequencies when irradiating in vacuum. • Film partial ablation cannot be neglected for thickness in the range 40–80 nm. • In situ optical techniques monitor the timescale of the process and ablation dynamics. - Abstract: Au thin films with tens of nm in thickness deposited on glass substrates were irradiated with nanosecond UV (355 nm) laser pulses at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum conditions (∼600 and 10{sup −5} Torr). We studied the effect of the laser fluence (200–400 mJ/cm{sup 2}), thickness of the starting film (∼40–80 nm) and surrounding pressure on the partial ablation/evaporation of the films and the morphology of the produced nanoparticles (NPs). The dynamics of NPs formation was studied by measuring in real time the transmission of the samples upon continuous-wave laser exposure, and by means of probe beam deflection technique. The ejection of material from the film as a result of the irradiation was confirmed by time-resolved shadowgraphy technique. Experiments show that the NPs diameter and their size distribution are smaller when the irradiation is performed in vacuum regardless the laser fluence and thickness of the started film. It is also shown that the plasmon band shifts to higher frequencies with lower background pressure. The optical measurements show that the films melt and ablate during the laser pulse, but the transmission of the irradiated areas continues changing during tens of microseconds due to ejection of material and solidification of the remaining gold. Our results indicate that partial ablation cannot be neglected in nanostructuration by ns-pulsed irradiation of thin films when their thickness is in the studied range.

  16. Enhanced mass removal due to phase explosion during high irradiance nanosecond laser ablation of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jong Hyun [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    mechanism for high irradiance laser ablation. Laser processing parameters were also investigated for nanosecond laser ablation of silicon. Longer incident wavelengths and larger laser beam sizes were associated with higher values of a threshold irradiance.

  17. Effect of nanosecond UV laser irradiation on luminescence and absorption in silver- and copper-containing phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. A.; Sidorov, A. I.; Stoliarchuk, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    Experimental evidence is presented that nanosecond UV laser irradiation of silver- and copper-containing barium phosphate glasses leads to luminescence quenching in the visible range. Subsequent heat treatment induces an absorption in the range 350–500 nm. These effects are due to the ionisation and fragmentation of subnanometre molecular clusters by laser radiation and subsequent (heat treatment-induced) formation of nanoparticles possessing plasmon resonance. Our numerical modelling results demonstrate the feasibility of producing stable AgnCum hybrid molecular clusters in glass. Local modification of the optical properties of glass by laser light can be used for optical information recording.

  18. Sub-nanosecond cinematography in laser fusion research: current techniques and applications at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1985-01-10

    Progress in laser fusion research has increased the need for detail and precision in the diagnosis of experiments. This has spawned the development and use of sophisticated sub-nanosecond resolution diagnostic systems. These systems typically use ultrafast x-ray or optical streak cameras in combination with spatially imaging or spectrally dispersing elements. These instruments provide high resolution data essential for understanding the processes occurring in the interaction of high intensity laser light with targets. Several of these types of instruments and their capabilities will be discussed. The utilization of these kinds of diagnostics systems on the nearly completed 100 kJ Nova laser facility will be described.

  19. Mechanism of nanosecond laser drilling process of 4H-SiC for through substrate vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunggi; Iida, Ryoichi; Doan, Duc Hong; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Role of optical parameters on nanosecond laser drilling of 4H-SiC was experimentally studied. Using ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser, parametric studies on effects of wavelength (1064 nm or 532 nm), beam profile (Gaussian or Bessel), and ambient condition (air or water) were conducted. The wavelengths which have large optical penetration depth were selected as wavefront has to propagate through materials to generate Bessel beam. The experimental results showed that carbonization of SiC surface accelerates thermal ablation of the materials with fluence under the lattice melting threshold. Especially, pattern of side lobes with small fluence was formed by irradiation of Bessel beam. The pattern disturbed penetration of wavefronts through materials. Implementation of water environment was not effective to suppress carbonization and had slight effect on improvement of drilling quality. For this reason, deep drilling with small entrance was not achieved using Bessel beam. Irradiation of 1064 nm Gaussian beam with large fluence led to formation of critical amount of re-solidified silicon due to the large optical penetration depth. Carbonization and silicon formation had a significant effect on unique fluence dependence of drilling depth. Absorption mechanism was studied as well to discuss effect of wavelength on processing characteristics.

  20. Simulation of transformations of thin metal films heated by nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, V. Yu.; Niedrig, R.; Bostanjoglo, O.

    1995-01-01

    The ablation of free-standing thin aluminum films by a nanosecond laser pulse was investigated by time-resolved transmission electron microscopy and numerical simulation. It was established that thin film geometry is particularly suited to furnish information on the mechanism of evaporation and the surface tension of the melt. In the case of aluminum the surface tension sigma as function of temperature can be approximated by two linear sections with a coefficient -0.3 x 10(exp -3) N/K m from the melting point 933 K up to 3000 K and -0.02 x 10(exp -3) N/K m above 3000 K, respectively, with sigma(993 K) = 0.9 N/m and sigma(8500 K) = 0. At lower pulse energies the films disintegrated predominantly by thermocapillary flow. Higher pulse energies produced volume evaporation, and a nonmonotonous flow, explained by recoil from evaporating atoms and thermocapillarity. The familiar equations of energy and motion, which presuppose separate and coherent vapor and liquid phases, were not adequate to describe the ablation of the hottest zone. Surface evaporation seemed to be marginal at all laser pulse energies used.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence in nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges for CO2 conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L. M.; Gatti, N.; Dilecce, G.; Scotoni, M.; Tosi, P.

    2018-01-01

    A CO2 nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge (NRP) is a harsh environment for laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. The difficulties arise from it being a strongly collisional system in which the gas composition, pressure and temperature, have quick and strong variations. The relevant diagnostic problems are described and illustrated through the application of LIF to the measurement of the OH radical in three different discharge configurations, with gas mixtures containing CO2 + H2O. These range from a dielectric barrier NRP with He buffer gas, a less hostile case in which absolute OH density measurement is possible, to an NRP in CO2+H2O, where the full set of drawbacks is at work. In the last case, the OH density measurement is not possible with laser pulses and detector time resolution in the ns time scale. Nevertheless, it is shown that with a proper knowledge of the collisional rate constants involved in the LIF process, a collisional energy transfer-LIF methodology is still applicable to deduce the gas composition from the analysis of LIF spectra.

  2. Micro-processing of NiMnGa shape memory alloy by using a nanosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2016-04-01

    The interest on Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (FSMAs), such as NiMnGa, is growing up, thanks to their functional properties to be employed in a new class of micro-devices. The most evident critical issue, limiting the use of these systems in the production of industrial devices, is the brittleness of the bulk material; its workability by using convectional processing methods is very limited. Thus, alternative processing methods, including laser processing, are encouraged for the manufacture of FSMAs based new devices. In this work, the effect of the nanosecond laser microprocessing on Ni45Mn33Ga22 [at%] has been studied. Linear grooves were realized by a nanosecond 30 W fiber laser; the machined surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energetic dispersion spectroscopy for the composition analysis. The morphology of the grooves was affected by the laser scanning velocity and the number of laser pulses while the measured material removal rate appeared to be influenced mainly by the number of laser pulses. Compositional modification, associated to the loss of Ga content, was detected only for the lower scanning velocity, because of the high fluence. On the contrary, by increasing the velocity up to 1000 mm/s no Ga loss can be seen, making possible the laser processing of this functional alloy without its chemical modification. The use of short pulses allowed also to reduce the amount of recast material and the compositional change with respect to long pulses. Finally, the calorimetric analysis indicated that laser nanosecond microprocessing could affect the functional properties of this alloy: a larger decrease of the characteristic temperatures of the martensitic transformation was observed in correspondence of the low scanning velocity.

  3. Hybrid Ti:Sapphire / KrF laser facility GARPUN for combined subpicosecond/nanosecond laser-matter interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvorykin, V.D.; Ionin, A.A.; Konyashcenko, A.V.; Levchenko, A.O.; Krokhin, O.N.; Mesyats, G.A.; Molchanov, A.G.; Rorulev, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. Hybrid laser facility consisting of Ti:Sapphire front end, 3ω converter, and e-beam-pumped large-aperture KrF amplifiers is under construction to generate combined sub-picosecond/nanosecond pulses in UV spectral range at 248-nm wavelength. This is a part of the Petawatt excimer laser project started at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute. In comparison with commonly used solid-state chirped-pulse amplifiers (CPA), KrF amplifiers have following advantages: (i) low-density gaseous matter with three orders of magnitude lower non-linear refraction index has a small value of B-integral and negligible pulse distortion; (ii) short radiation lifetime τ r = 6 ns of the upper laser level of KrF(B-X) transition (with accounting for collisions τ c ∼ 2 ns), that means the population inversion is recovered each 2 ns during the pumping time, which is typically τ p ≥ 100 ns for technical reasons. Thus, it might be possible eliminating of very costly large-aperture compressor gratings and to amplify both short τ sh c and long τ long ≥ τ c pulses in the same amplifiers, as a short pulse does not affect the gain during the most of pumping. This gives a unique opportunity for realization of fast-ignition scheme in Inertial Confinement Fusion using large-scale KrF drivers. The Ti:Sapphire front end 'Start 248M' currently operates with the following parameters: rep rate 10 Hz, pulse energy and duration at fundamental wavelength (744 nm) > 8 mJ and 0.5 mJ and 0.4 mJ, 740 nm) and multi-pass amplifier (10 Hz, > 15 mJ, 740 nm), both pumped by 2ω pulsed Lotis LS-2134 Nd:YAG laser (10 Hz, 10 ns, 532 nm) with distributed energies of 5 and 70 mJ, two-gratings compressor, and 3ω converter with two BBO crystals and total efficiency 8%. EMG 150MSC Lambda Physik KrF laser is used afterwards to generate ns pulses and to amplify fs pulses in its two separate discharge chambers. Two e-beam pumped KrF amplifiers Berdysh and GARPUN with active volumes 10

  4. Comparison of treatment with an Alexandrite picosecond laser and Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengli; Huang, Yuqing; Lin, Tong; Wu, Qiuju

    2018-02-28

    To retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of an Alexandrite picosecond laser versus Nd:YAG nanosecond laser for removing blue-black eyeliner tattoos which have existed more than 10 years. A total of 40 patients were treated with an Alexandrite picosecond laser in our department from August 2015 to July 2017, with a fluence of 1.96-6.37J/cm 2 , spot size of 2.0-3.6 mm, and pulse width of 750 ps. Another 32 patients were treated with an Nd:YAG nanosecond laser, with a fluence of 2.80-7.00 J/cm 2 , spot size of 3 mm, and pulse width of 5-20 ns. All analysed patients completed at least one treatment and follow-up. The median number of treatment for all the patients was 1 (range, 1-4). After a single session, no difference was found between the two lasers for the eyeliner removal (p > 0.05). For the people who achieved an excellent response of tattoo clearance, there was still no difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). Transient side effects were observed in two groups, but neither group had significant adverse reactions. To treat blue-black Chinese eyeliner tattoos over 10 years, Alexandrite picosecond laser does not provide better clearance than the Nd:YAG nanosecond laser.

  5. Analysis of copper contamination in transformer insulating material with nanosecond- and femtosecond-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, N.; Vasa, N. J.; Sarathi, R.

    2018-06-01

    This work examines the oil-impregnated pressboard insulation of high-voltage power transformers, for the determination of copper contamination. Nanosecond- and femtosecond-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy revealed atomic copper lines and molecular copper monoxide bands due to copper sulphide diffusion. X-ray diffraction studies also indicated the presence of CuO emission. Elemental and molecular mapping compared transformer insulating material ageing in different media—air, N2, He and vacuum.

  6. Experimental study of mechanical response of artificial tissue models irradiated with Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, Francisco G.; Camacho-López, Santiago; Aguilar, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Nanosecond long laser pulses are used in medical applications where precise tissue ablation with minimal thermal and mechanical collateral damage is required. When a laser pulse is incident on a material, optical energy will be absorbed by a combination of linear and nonlinear absorption according to both: laser light irradiance and material properties. In the case of water or gels, the first results in heat generation and thermoelastic expansion; while the second results in an expanding plasma formation that launches a shock wave and a cavitation/boiling bubble. Plasma formation due to nonlinear absorption of nanosecond laser pulses is originated by a combination of multiphoton ionization and thermionic emission of free electrons, which is enhanced when the material has high linear absorption coefficient. In this work, we present three experimental approaches to study pressure transients originated when 6 ns laser pulses are incident on agar gels and water with varying linear absorption coefficient, using laser radiant exposures above and below threshold for bubble formation: (a) PVDF sensors, (b) Time-resolved shadowgraphy and (c) Time-resolved interferometry. The underlying hypothesis is that pressure transients are composed of the superposition of both: shock wave originated by hot expanding plasma resulting from nonlinear absorption of optical energy and, thermoelastic expansion originated by heat generation due to linear absorption of optical energy. The objective of this study is to carry out a comprehensive experimental analysis of the mechanical effects that result when tissue models are irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses to elucidate the relative contribution of linear and nonlinear absorption to bubble formation. Furthermore, we investigate cavitation bubble formation with temperature increments as low as 3 °C.

  7. Porcine skin damage thresholds for pulsed nanosecond-scale laser exposure at 1064-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Michael P.; Peterson, Amanda M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Boretsky, Adam R.; Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kumru, Semih S.; Thomas, Robert J.

    2018-02-01

    Pulsed high-energy lasers operating in the near-infrared (NIR) band are increasingly being used in medical, industrial, and military applications, but there are little available experimental data to characterize their hazardous effects on skin tissue. The current American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2014) defines the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) on the skin as either a single-pulse or total exposure time limit. This study determined the minimum visible lesion (MVL) damage thresholds in Yucatan miniature pig skin for the single-pulse case and several multiple-pulse cases over a wide range of pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) (10, 125, 2,000, and 10,000 Hz) utilizing nanosecond-scale pulses (10 or 60 ns). The thresholds are expressed in terms of the median effective dose (ED50) based on varying individual pulse energy with other laser parameters held constant. The results confirm a decrease in MVL threshold as PRF increases for exposures with a constant number of pulses, while also noting a PRF-dependent change in the threshold as a function of the number of pulses. Furthermore, this study highlights a change in damage mechanism to the skin from melanin-mediated photomechanical events at high irradiance levels and few numbers of pulses to bulk tissue photothermal additivity at lower irradiance levels and greater numbers of pulses. The observed trends exceeded the existing exposure limits by an average factor of 9.1 in the photothermally-damaged cases and 3.6 in the photomechanicallydamaged cases.

  8. Multiply ionization of diethyl ether clusters by 532 nm nanosecond laser: The influence of laser intensity and the electron energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Nazhen; Wang Weiguo; Zhao Wuduo; Han Fenglei; Li Haiyang

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The formation mechanism for multiply charged ions (C q+ and O q+ (q = 2-4)) were investigated experimentally and theoretically using a dual polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer when diethyl ether clusters interacted with nanosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: The formation mechanism for multiply charged ions (C q+ and O q+ (q = 2-4)) were investigated using a dual polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer when diethyl ether clusters interacted with nanosecond laser pulse. The signal intensity of multiply charged ions and electron energy was measured experimentally. It was shown that the intensity of multiply charged ions increased about 50 times when laser intensity increased from 7.6 x 10 9 to 7.0 x 10 10 W/cm 2 , then saturated as laser intensity increased further. It is interesting that the evolution of the mean value of electron energy was same to that of multiply charged ions. The theoretical calculation showed the ionization potential of atomic ions could be significantly decreased due to the effect of Coulomb screening especially at low laser intensity. It indicated that the electron ionization combined with Coulomb screening effect could explain the production of multiply charged ions in nanosecond laser field.

  9. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Judge, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dirmyer, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Campbell, Keri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Jhanis J. [Applied Spectra Inc., Fremont, CA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  10. Comparison of femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for uranium isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George Joseph; McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Judge, Elizabeth; Dirmyer, Matthew R.; Campbell, Keri; Gonzalez, Jhanis J.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibility tests were conducted using femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for rapid uranium isotopic measurements. The samples used in this study consisted of a range of pg quantities of known 235/238 U solutions as dried spot residues of 300 pL drops on silicon substrates. The samples spanned the following enrichments of 235 U: 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, and 15.1%. In this direct comparison using these particular samples both pulse durations demonstrated near equivalent data can be produced on either system with respect to accuracy and precision. There is no question that either LA-ICP-MS method offers the potential for rapid, accurate and precise isotopic measurements of U10Mo materials whether DU, LEU or HEU. The LA-ICP-MS equipment used for this work is commercially available. The program is in the process of validating this work for large samples using center samples strips from Y-12 MP-1 LEU-Mo Casting #1.

  11. Graphene quantum dot synthesis using nanosecond laser pulses and its comparison to Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, Khomidkhodza; Thomas, Zachary; Seyitliyev, Dovletgeldi; Smith, Skylar

    A biocompatible photodynamic therapy agent that generates a high amount of singlet oxygen with high water dispersibility and excellent photostability is desirable. In this work, a graphene based biomaterial which is a promising alternative to a standard photosensitizers was produced. Methylene blue was used as a reference photosensitizer. Bacteria deactivation by methylene blue was shown to be inhibited inside human blood due to protein binding. Graphene quantum dots (GQD) were synthesized by irradiating benzene and nickel oxide mixture using nanosecond laser pulses. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for characterization of GQDs. Initial results show graphene quantum dots whose size less than 5 nm were successfully obtained. UV-VIS spectra shows absorption peak around 310 nm. The results of these studies can potentially be used to develop therapies for the eradication of pathogens in open wounds, burns, or skin cancers. New therapies for these conditions are particularly needed when antibiotic-resistant infections are present. NIH KBRIN.

  12. Time-resolved dynamics of nanosecond laser-induced phase explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porneala, Cristian; Willis, David A

    2009-01-01

    Visualization of Nd : YAG laser ablation of aluminium targets was performed by a shadowgraph apparatus capable of imaging the dynamics of ablation with nanosecond time resolution. Direct observations of vaporization, explosive phase change and shock waves were obtained. The influence of vaporization and phase explosion on shock wave velocity was directly measured. A significant increase in the shock wave velocity was observed at the onset of phase explosion. However, the shock wave behaviour followed the form of a Taylor-Sedov spherical shock below and above the explosive phase change threshold. The jump in the shock wave velocity above phase explosion threshold is attributed to the release of stored enthalpy in the superheated liquid surface. The energy released during phase explosion was estimated by fitting the transient shock wave position to the Taylor scaling rules. Results of temperature calculations indicate that the vapour temperature at the phase explosion threshold is slightly higher than the critical temperature at the early stages of the shock wave formation. The shock wave pressure nearly doubled when transitioning from normal vaporization to phase explosion.

  13. Time-resolved analysis of thickness-dependent dewetting and ablation of silver films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Dongfeng; Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Kim, Eunpa; Wang, Letian; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Chen, Songyan

    2016-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting and ablation of thin silver films is investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 5 ns temporal width are irradiated on silver films of different thicknesses (50 nm, 80 nm, and 350 nm). Below the ablation threshold, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 630 ns after the laser irradiation for all samples, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to the solidification of transported matter at about 700 ns following the laser pulse exposure. In addition to these features, droplet fingers are superposed upon irradiation of 350-nm thick silver films with higher intensity.

  14. Time-resolved analysis of thickness-dependent dewetting and ablation of silver films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Dongfeng [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Kim, Eunpa; Wang, Letian; Grigoropoulos, Costas P., E-mail: cgrigoro@berkeley.edu [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Chen, Songyan [Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-05-23

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting and ablation of thin silver films is investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 5 ns temporal width are irradiated on silver films of different thicknesses (50 nm, 80 nm, and 350 nm). Below the ablation threshold, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 630 ns after the laser irradiation for all samples, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to the solidification of transported matter at about 700 ns following the laser pulse exposure. In addition to these features, droplet fingers are superposed upon irradiation of 350-nm thick silver films with higher intensity.

  15. Temporal dependence of the enhancement of material removal in femtosecond-nanosecond dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaffidi, Jon; Pearman, William; Carter, J. Chance; Colston, Bill W. Jr.; Angel, S. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Despite the large neutral atomic and ionic emission enhancements that have been noted in collinear and orthogonal dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, the source or sources of these significant signal and signal-to-noise ratio improvements have yet to be explained. In the research reported herein, the combination of a femtosecond preablative air spark and a nanosecond ablative pulse yields eightfold and tenfold material removal improvement for brass and aluminum, respectively, but neutral atomic emission is enhanced by only a factor of 3-4. Additionally, temporal correlation between enhancement of material removal and of atomic emission is quite poor, suggesting that the atomic-emission enhancements noted in the femtosecond-nanosecond pulse configuration result in large part from some source other than simple improvement in material removal

  16. Wavelength influence on nitrogen insertion into titanium by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, F.; Lavisse, L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Berger, P. [CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); SIS2M, UMR CEA-CNRS 3299, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Jouvard, J.-M.; Andrzejewski, H.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S.; Marco de Lucas, M.C. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2013-08-01

    We studied in this work the influence of the wavelength (532 vs. 1064 nm) on the insertion of nitrogen in titanium targets by surface laser treatments in air. The laser pulses were of 5 ns and the irradiance was lower than 25 × 10{sup 12} W/m{sup 2}. Results obtained using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm were compared with those previously reported for laser treatments at 1064 nm. Nuclear reaction analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy were used for determining the composition and the structure of the surface layers, respectively. Results showed the lower efficiency of irradiation at 532 nm for nitrogen insertion, which is possible only above threshold conditions depending on both the laser irradiance and the number of cumulated impacts per point. This was explained as being due to a higher ablative effect in the visible range. The insertion of oxygen giving rise to the growth of titanium oxynitrides was also discussed.

  17. Nanosecond-pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm with a gold nanotriangle saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohan; Li, Ping; Dun, Yangyang; Song, Teng; Ma, Baomin

    2018-06-01

    Gold nanotriangles (GNTs) were successfully employed as a saturable absorber (SA) to achieve passively Q-switched lasers for the first time. The performance of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm has been systematically investigated. The corresponding shortest pulsewidth, the threshold pump power and the maximum Q-switched average output power were 275.5 ns, 1.37 W, and 171 mW, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the shortest pulsewidth and the lowest threshold in a passively Q-switched laser at approximately 1.1 µm based on a gold nanoparticle SA (GNPs-SA). Our experimental results proved that the GNTs-SA can be used as a promising saturable absorber for nanosecond-pulsed lasers.

  18. Studies of the confinement at laser-induced backside dry etching using infrared nanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Bayer, L.; Han, B.; Zimmer, K.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, laser-induced backside etching of SiO2 at an interface to an organic material using laser pulses with a wavelength of λ = 1064 nm and a pulse length of τ = 7 ns have been performed in order to investigate selected processes involved in etching of the SiO2 at confined ablation conditions with wavelengths well below the band gap of SiO2. Therefore, in between the utilized metallic absorber layer and the SiO2 surface, a polymer interlayer with a thickness between 20 nm to 150 nm was placed with the aim, to separate the laser absorption process in the metallic absorber layer from the etching process of the SiO2 surface due to the provided organic interlayer. The influence of the confinement of the backside etching process was analyzed by the deposition of different thick polymer layers on top of the metallic absorber layer. In particular, it was found that the SiO2 etching depth decreases with higher polymer interlayer thickness. However, the etching depth increases with increasing the confinement layer thickness. SEM images of the laser processed areas show that the absorber and confinement layers are ruptured from the sample surface without showing melting, and suggesting a lift off process of these films. The driving force for the layers lift off and the etching of the SiO2 is probably the generated laser-induce plasma from the confined ablation that provides the pressure for lift off, the high temperatures and reactive organic species that can chemically attack the SiO2 surface at these conditions.

  19. Pattern analysis of laser-tattoo interactions for picosecond- and nanosecond-domain 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers in tissue-mimicking phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Keun Jae; Zheng, Zhenlong; Kwon, Tae Rin; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Hye Sun; Cho, Sung Bin

    2017-05-08

    During laser treatment for tattoo removal, pigment chromophores absorb laser energy, resulting in fragmentation of the ink particles via selective photothermolysis. The present study aimed to outline macroscopic laser-tattoo interactions in tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms treated with picosecond- and nanosecond-domain lasers. Additionally, high-speed cinematographs were captured to visualize time-dependent tattoo-tissue interactions, from laser irradiation to the formation of photothermal and photoacoustic injury zones (PIZs). In all experimental settings using the nanosecond or picosecond laser, tattoo pigments fragmented into coarse particles after a single laser pulse, and further disintegrated into smaller particles that dispersed toward the boundaries of PIZs after repetitive delivery of laser energy. Particles fractured by picosecond treatment were more evenly dispersed throughout PIZs than those fractured by nanosecond treatment. Additionally, picosecond-then-picosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-picosecond treatment) induced greater disintegration of tattoo particles within PIZs than picosecond-then-nanosecond laser treatment (5-pass-picosecond treatment + 5-pass-nanosecond treatment). High-speed cinematography recorded the formation of PIZs after repeated reflection and propagation of acoustic waves over hundreds of microseconds to a few milliseconds. The present data may be of use in predicting three-dimensional laser-tattoo interactions and associated reactions in surrounding tissue.

  20. Generation of nanosecond laser pulses at a 2.2-MHz repetition rate by a cw diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd3+:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghia, Nguyen T; Hao, Nguyen V; Orlovich, Valentin A; Hung, Nguyen D

    2011-01-01

    We report a new configuration of a high-repetition rate nanosecond laser based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The SESAM is conventional technical solution for passive mode-locking at 1064 nm and simultaneously used as a highly reflecting mirror and a saturable absorber in a high-Q and short cavity of a cw diode-end-pumped a-cut Nd 3+ :YVO 4 laser. Two laser beams are coupled out from the cavity using an intracavity low-reflection thin splitter. The laser characteristics are investigated as functions of pump and resonator parameters. Using a 1.8-W cw pump laser diode at 808 nm, the passively Q-switched SESAMbased laser generates 22-ns pulses with an average power of 275 mW at a pulse repetition rate of 2250 kHz.

  1. Differences in Nanosecond Laser Ablation and Deposition of Tungsten, Boron, and WB2/B Composite due to Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Moscicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first attempt to the deposition of WB3 films using nanosecond Nd:YAG laser demonstrated that deposited coatings are superhard. However, they have very high roughness. The deposited films consisted mainly of droplets. Therefore, in the present work, the explanation of this phenomenon is conducted. The interaction of Nd:YAG nanosecond laser pulse with tungsten, boron, and WB2/B target during ablation is investigated. The studies show the fundamental differences in ablation of those materials. The ablation of tungsten is thermal and occurs due to only evaporation. In the same conditions, during ablation of boron, the phase explosion and/or fragmentation due to recoil pressure is observed. The deposited films have a significant contribution of big debris with irregular shape. In the case of WB2/B composite, ablation is significantly different. The ablation seems to be the detonation in the liquid phase. The deposition mechanism is related mainly to the mechanical transport of the target material in the form of droplets, while the gaseous phase plays marginal role. The main origin of differences is optical properties of studied materials. A method estimating phase explosion occurrence based on material data such as critical temperature, thermal diffusivity, and optical properties is shown. Moreover, the effect of laser wavelength on the ablation process and the quality of the deposited films is discussed.

  2. Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laserna, J J; Reyes, R Fernández; González, R; Tobaria, L; Lucena, P

    2009-06-08

    We report on an experimental study of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The characteristics of the atmosphere dictate specific performance constraints to this technology. Unlike classical laboratory LIBS systems where the distance to the sample is well known and characterized, LIBS systems working at several tens of meters to the target have specific atmospheric propagation conditions that cause the quality of the LIBS signals to be affected to a significant extent. Using a new LIBS based sensor system fitted with a nanosecond laser emitting at 1064 nm, propagation effects at distances of up to 120 m were investigated. The effects observed include wander and scintillation in the outgoing laser beam and in the return atomic emission signal. Plasmas were formed on aluminium targets. Average signal levels and signal fluctuations are measured so the effect of atmospheric turbulence on LIBS measurements is quantified.

  3. High current, high energy proton beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Láska, Leoš; Velyhan, Andriy; Prokůpek, Jan; Ryc, L.; Parys, P.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 159-163 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA AV ČR IAA100100715; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser-acceleration * proton beam * high ion current * time -of-flight * proton energy distribution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  4. A large capacity time division multiplexed (TDM) laser beam combining technique enabled by nanosecond speed KTN deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Stuart (Shizhuo); Chao, Ju-Hung; Zhu, Wenbin; Chen, Chang-Jiang; Campbell, Adrian; Henry, Michael; Dubinskiy, Mark; Hoffman, Robert C.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel large capacity (a 1000+ channel) time division multiplexing (TDM) laser beam combining technique by harnessing a state-of-the-art nanosecond speed potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) electro-optic (EO) beam deflector as the time division multiplexer. The major advantages of TDM approach are: (1) large multiplexing capability (over 1000 channels), (2) high spatial beam quality (the combined beam has the same spatial profile as the individual beam), (3) high spectral beam quality (the combined beam has the same spectral width as the individual beam, and (4) insensitive to the phase fluctuation of individual laser because of the nature of the incoherent beam combining. The quantitative analyses show that it is possible to achieve over one hundred kW average power, single aperture, single transverse mode solid state and/or fiber laser by pursuing this innovative beam combining method, which represents a major technical advance in the field of high energy lasers. Such kind of 100+ kW average power diffraction limited beam quality lasers can play an important role in a variety of applications such as laser directed energy weapons (DEW) and large-capacity high-speed laser manufacturing, including cutting, welding, and printing.

  5. Industrial applications of high-average power high-peak power nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Paul M.; Ellwi, Samir

    2009-02-01

    Within the vast range of laser materials processing applications, every type of successful commercial laser has been driven by a major industrial process. For high average power, high peak power, nanosecond pulse duration Nd:YAG DPSS lasers, the enabling process is high speed surface engineering. This includes applications such as thin film patterning and selective coating removal in markets such as the flat panel displays (FPD), solar and automotive industries. Applications such as these tend to require working spots that have uniform intensity distribution using specific shapes and dimensions, so a range of innovative beam delivery systems have been developed that convert the gaussian beam shape produced by the laser into a range of rectangular and/or shaped spots, as required by demands of each project. In this paper the authors will discuss the key parameters of this type of laser and examine why they are important for high speed surface engineering projects, and how they affect the underlying laser-material interaction and the removal mechanism. Several case studies will be considered in the FPD and solar markets, exploring the close link between the application, the key laser characteristics and the beam delivery system that link these together.

  6. Nanosecond laser texturing of uniformly and non-uniformly wettable micro structured metal surfaces for enhanced boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupančič, Matevž, E-mail: matevz.zupancic@fs.uni-lj.si; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surfaces with periodically changed wettability were produced by a ns marking laser. • Heat transfer was investigated on uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces. • Microporous surfaces with non-uniform wettability enhance boiling heat transfer. • The most bubble nucleations were observed in the vicinity of the microcavities. • Results agree with the predictions of the nucleation criteria. - Abstract: Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20–40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.

  7. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  8. 100 J-level nanosecond pulsed diode pumped solid state laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banerjee, S.; Mason, P.D.; Ertel, K.; Phillips, P.J.; De Vido, M.; Chekhlov, O.; Divoký, Martin; Pilař, Jan; Smith, J.; Butcher, T.; Lintern, A.; Tomlinson, S.; Shaikh, W.; Hooker, Ch.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Mocek, Tomáš; Edwards, Ch.; Collier, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 9 (2016), s. 2089-2092 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high average power * efficiency * amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2016

  9. Spontaneous and artificial direct nanostructuring of solid surface by extreme ultraviolet laser with nanosecond pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koláček, Karel; Schmidt, Jiří; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr; Prukner, Václav; Melich, Radek; Psota, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2016), s. 11-22 ISSN 0263-0346 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer * Aspheric interferometer mirrors * Multilayer reflection coating for 46.9 nm * Ar8+ laser application * XUV direct nanostructuring Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0263034615000786

  10. Multiscale analysis: a way to investigate laser damage precursors in materials for high power applications at nanosecond pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, J. Y.; Wagner, F.; Ciapponi, A.; Capoulade, J.; Gallais, L.; Commandré, M.

    2010-11-01

    The mechanism of laser induced damage in optical materials under high power nanosecond laser irradiation is commonly attributed to the presence of precursor centers. Depending on material and laser source, the precursors could have different origins. Some of them are clearly extrinsic, such as impurities or structural defects linked to the fabrication conditions. In most cases the center size ranging from sub-micrometer to nanometer scale does not permit an easy detection by optical techniques before irradiation. Most often, only a post mortem observation of optics permits to proof the local origin of breakdown. Multi-scale analyzes by changing irradiation beam size have been performed to investigate the density, size and nature of laser damage precursors. Destructive methods such as raster scan, laser damage probability plot and morphology studies permit to deduce the precursor densities. Another experimental way to get information on nature of precursors is to use non destructive methods such as photoluminescence and absorption measurements. The destructive and non destructive multiscale studies are also motivated for practical reasons. Indeed LIDT studies of large optics as those used in LMJ or NIF projects are commonly performed on small samples and with table top lasers whose characteristics change from one to another. In these conditions, it is necessary to know exactly the influence of the different experimental parameters and overall the spot size effect on the final data. In this paper, we present recent developments in multiscale characterization and results obtained on optical coatings (surface case) and KDP crystal (bulk case).

  11. Study of photo-activated electron transfer reactions in the first excited singlet state by picosecond and nanosecond laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, Denis

    1983-01-01

    Picosecond laser spectroscopy has been used to study two photo-activated electron transfer reactions: - a bimolecular electron transfer reaction between a sensitizer, DODCI, and an electron acceptor, methylviologen. The two radical ions created with an electron transfer efficiency γ ≅ 0.07 have been identified in picosecond and nanosecond laser absorption spectroscopy by adding selective solutes such as para-benzoquinone (an electron acceptor) or L(+) ascorbic acid (an electron donor). - an intramolecular electron transfer reaction in a triad molecule consisting of a tetra-aryl-porphyrin covalently linked to both a carotenoid and a quinone. The photoinduced charge separation occurs within 30 ps and leads, with a yield of 25 pc, to the formation of a zwitterion whose half-life is 2.5 μs. The experimental results obtained in these two studies show an effective decrease in the recombination rate of the two radical ions created in the encounter pair. (author) [fr

  12. Unit for the nanosecond, laser, pulse photolysis in the ultraviolet region for a combination of photochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikel' ni, V F; Kolosov, V A; Kiryukhin, Yu I; Kondrat' ev, V A; Borovkova, V A; Tarasov, E N

    1976-06-01

    A description is given of a nanosecond laser unit for pulse photolysis in the ultraviolet region, by means of which it is possible to investigate the kinetics of the death of interstitial particles, their optical absorption and luminescence spectra, and also the photoconductivity induced by the laser radiation, at a time resolution of about 15 ns. As a source of powerful, stable uv-radiation, use is made of the fourth harmonic (266 nm) of radiation from an aluminum-yttrium garnet containing neodymium. The radiation power of the fourth harmonic attained 2 MW. The time of bringing the unit into the operating mode is considerably shortened because of the possibility of operating in a frequency mode. Absorption spectra of carbazole in hexane were obtained at 20/sup 0/C. (SJR)

  13. Study of the Wavelength Dependence in Laser Ablation of Advanced Ceramics and Glass-Ceramic Materials in the Nanosecond Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Daniel; Peña, Jose I

    2013-11-19

    In this work, geometrical dimensions and ablation yields as a function of the machining method and reference position were studied when advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials were machined with pulsed lasers in the nanosecond range. Two laser systems, emitting at 1064 and 532 nm, were used. It was shown that the features obtained depend on whether the substrate is processed by means of pulse bursts or by grooves. In particular, when the samples were processed by grooves, machined depth, removed volume and ablation yields reached their maximum, placing the sample out of focus. It was shown that these characteristics do not depend on the processing conditions, the wavelength or the optical configuration, and that this is intrinsic behavior of the processing method. Furthermore, the existence of a close relation between material hardness and ablation yields was demonstrated.

  14. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Barreiro, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Rivas, T. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medio Ambiente, ETSI Minas, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); González, P. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, University of Vigo, 36310 (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas (CIT), University of A Coruña, 15403, Ferrol (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  15. Synthesis of polycaprolactone-titanium oxide multilayer films by nanosecond laser pulses and electrospinning technique for better implant fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghshine, Babak B.; Cosman, James A.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a combination of electrospinning and laser texturing is introduced as a novel method for increasing the biocompatibility of metal implants. Besides having a rough laser treated surface, the implant benefits from the high porosity and better wettability of an electrospun fibrous structure, which is a more favorable environment for cell proliferation. Titanium samples were patterned using a nanosecond laser beam and were placed as collectors in an electrospinning machine. They were then soaked in simulated body fluid for four weeks. Energy Dispersive X-ray and X-Ray Diffraction results indicate significantly more hydroxyapatite formation on laser treated samples with nanoscale fibers deposited on their surface. This shows that having a laser treated surface underneath the fibrous layer can improve short-term biocompatibility even before degradation of fibers. The thermal conductivity of the electrospun layer, measured using a Hot Disk Transient Plane Source instrument and computer code, was shown to be considerably lower than that of titanium and very close to bone. The presence of this layer can therefore be beneficial in making the implant more compatible to a biological medium. In case of dental implants, it was shown that this layer can act as a thermal barrier while a hot beverage is consumed and it can decrease the temperature rise by about 60%, which avoids any possible damage to newly formed cells during the healing period.

  16. Cavitation and shock waves emission on the rigid boundary of water under mid-IR nanosecond laser pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, A. V.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Potemkin, F. V.

    2018-06-01

    The processes of conversion of light energy into mechanical energy under mid-IR nanosecond laser excitation on a rigid boundary of water are investigated. Strong water absorption of Q-switched Cr:Yb:Ho:YSGG (2.85 µm, 6 mJ, 45 ns) laser radiation provides rapid energy deposition of ~8 kJ cm‑3 accompanied with strong mechanical transients. The evolution of shock waves and cavitation bubbles is studied using the technique of shadowgraphy and acoustic measurements, and the conversion efficiency into these energy channels for various laser fluence (0.75–2.0 J cm‑2) is calculated. For 6 mJ laser pulse with fluence of 2.0 J cm‑2, the conversion into shock wave energy reaches 67%. The major part of the shock wave energy (92%) is dissipated when the shock front travels the first 250 µm, and the remaining 8% is transferred to the acoustic far field. The calculated pressure in the vicinity of water-silicon interface is 0.9 GPa. Cavitation efficiency is significantly less and reaches up to 5% of the light energy. The results of the current study could be used in laser parameters optimization for micromachining and biological tissue ablation.

  17. Effectiveness and harmful effects of removal sulphated black crust from granite using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, S.; Barreiro, P.; Rivas, T.; González, P.; Fiorucci, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sulphated black crust is a common form of deterioration affecting stone used in monuments, usually occurs in contaminated atmospheres or urban environments. Its origin and cleaning have been studied extensively, for decades, in the case of carbonate rocks. Recent studies show that this form of alteration also affects granites. Scientific research on laser removal effectiveness of gypsum-rich black crust on granites needs to be scientifically addressed considering the inexistent references. This paper assesses the removal by laser of sulphate-rich black crusts on granite using the different harmonics of a Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser (266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm and 1064 nm). Effectiveness was evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Infrared Transform Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). We also evaluated the effect of the radiation on granite-forming minerals and on the colour of the stone using Scanning Electron Microscopy and spectrophotometry colour measurements respectively. SEM–EDS, XRD and ATR-FTIR analyses show that the higher the wavelength, the more efficient the cleaning, so samples cleaned using 1064 nm pulsed laser recovered its original colour. Nevertheless, the Nd:YAG laser did not completely eliminate the crust, and gypsum crystals remaining on the rock surface are observed, even at the most effective wavelength.

  18. Synthesis of polycaprolactone-titanium oxide multilayer films by nanosecond laser pulses and electrospinning technique for better implant fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghshine, Babak B.; Cosman, James A.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh, E-mail: a.kiani@unb.ca [Silicon Hall: Laser Micro/Nano Fabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2016-08-28

    In this study, a combination of electrospinning and laser texturing is introduced as a novel method for increasing the biocompatibility of metal implants. Besides having a rough laser treated surface, the implant benefits from the high porosity and better wettability of an electrospun fibrous structure, which is a more favorable environment for cell proliferation. Titanium samples were patterned using a nanosecond laser beam and were placed as collectors in an electrospinning machine. They were then soaked in simulated body fluid for four weeks. Energy Dispersive X-ray and X-Ray Diffraction results indicate significantly more hydroxyapatite formation on laser treated samples with nanoscale fibers deposited on their surface. This shows that having a laser treated surface underneath the fibrous layer can improve short-term biocompatibility even before degradation of fibers. The thermal conductivity of the electrospun layer, measured using a Hot Disk Transient Plane Source instrument and computer code, was shown to be considerably lower than that of titanium and very close to bone. The presence of this layer can therefore be beneficial in making the implant more compatible to a biological medium. In case of dental implants, it was shown that this layer can act as a thermal barrier while a hot beverage is consumed and it can decrease the temperature rise by about 60%, which avoids any possible damage to newly formed cells during the healing period.

  19. Efficient neutron production from sub-nanosecond laser pulse accelerating deuterons on target front side

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klír, Daniel; Krása, Josef; Cikhardt, Jakub; Dudžák, Roman; Krouský, Eduard; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Řezáč, Karel; Sila, O.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Velyhan, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2015), s. 093117-093117 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant - others:LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * femtosecond laser * nuclear-fusion * ion-beams * hot-electrons Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/9/10.1063/1.4931460

  20. Interaction Of CO2 Laser Nanosecond Pulse Train With The Metallic Targets In Optical Breakdown Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.; Firsov, K. N.; Konov, V. I.; Nikitin, P. I.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Silenok, A. S.; Sorochenko, V. R.

    1986-11-01

    In the present paper the electric field and currents in the air-breakdown plasma, produced by the train of nanosecond pulses of TEA-002 - regenerative amplifier near the un-charged targets are studied. The breakdown thresholds and the efficiency of plasma-target heat transmission are also measured. The results of numerical calculations made for increasing of the pulse train contrast with respect to the background in a regenerative amplifier are advanced.

  1. Generation of 500-mJ nanosecond pulses from a diode-pumped Yb:YAG TRAM laser amplifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokita, S.; Divoký, Martin; Furuse, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Kawashima, T.; Kawanaka, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 10 (2014), s. 2122-2126 ISSN 2159-3930 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : active-mirror laser * ceramics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014

  2. Spectral and temporal characteristics of target current and electromagnetic pulse induced by nanosecond laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, Jakub; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Klír, Daniel; Řezáč, Karel; Limpouch, J.; Krouský, Eduard; Dostál, Jan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2017), 1-8, č. článku 065007. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR GA16-07036S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * target current * electromagnetic pulse Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  3. Real-time diagnostics of fast light ion beams accelerated by a sub-nanosecond laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Krása, Josef; Picciotto, A.; Prokůpek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 137-141 ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212105 - ELI-PP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-driven acceleration * ion beams * real-time diagnostics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2011 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol56_2011/v56n2p137f.pdf

  4. Laser Cutting of CFRP with a Fibre Guided High Power Nanosecond Laser Source - Influence of the Optical Fibre Diameter on Quality and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, S.; Bastick, S.; Staehr, R.; Jaeschke, P.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    For the development of a robot based laser cutting process of automotive 3D parts consisting of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP), investigations with a newly developed fibre guided nanosecond pulsed laser with an average power of PL = 1.5 kW were conducted. In order to investigate the best combination of quality and process time 2 different optical fibres were used, with diameters of df = 400 μm and df = 600 μm. The main differences between the two setups are the resulting focal diameter and the maximum available pulse energy up to EP = 80 mJ. In a first instance, a comparable investigation was performed with both fibres for a constant pulse overlap. For each fibre the minimum required line energy was investigated and cuts were performed, distributed over the complete parameter range of the laser source. The influences of the fibre diameter on the quality and efficiency of the cutting process are summarized and discussed.

  5. Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using nanosecond pulses from a mobile lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Rasmus; Lundqvist, Mats; Svanberg, Sune

    2006-08-01

    A mobile lidar system was used in remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments. Also, computer-controlled remote ablation of a chosen area was demonstrated, relevant to cleaning of cultural heritage items. Nanosecond frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed in experiments with a stand-off distance of 60 meters using pulse energies of up to 170 mJ. By coaxial transmission and common folding of the transmission and reception optical paths using a large computer-controlled mirror, full elemental imaging capability was achieved on composite targets. Different spectral identification algorithms were compared in producing thematic data based on plasma or fluorescence light.

  6. Velocimetry of fast microscopic liquid jets by nanosecond dual-pulse laser illumination for megahertz X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünbein, Marie Luise; Shoeman, Robert L; Doak, R Bruce

    2018-03-19

    To conduct X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) measurements at megahertz (MHz) repetition rates, sample solution must be delivered in a micron-sized liquid free-jet moving at up to 100 m/s. This exceeds by over a factor of two the jet speeds measurable with current high-speed camera techniques. Accordingly we have developed and describe herein an alternative jet velocimetry based on dual-pulse nanosecond laser illumination. Three separate implementations are described, including a small laser-diode system that is inexpensive and highly portable. We have also developed and describe analysis techniques to automatically and rapidly extract jet speed from dual-pulse images.

  7. Nanosecond laser surface modification of AISI 304L stainless steel: Influence the beam overlap on pitting corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacquentin, Wilfried; Caron, Nadège; Oltra, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Surface modifications of AISI 304L stainless steel by laser surface melting (LSM) were investigated using a nanosecond pulsed laser-fibre doped by ytterbium at different overlaps. The objective was to study the change in the corrosion properties induced by the treatment of the outer-surface of the stainless steel without modification of the bulk material. Different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) were used to characterize the laser-melted surface. The corrosion resistance was evaluated in a chloride solution at room temperature by electrochemical tests. The results showed that the crystallographic structure, the chemical composition, the properties of the induced oxide layer and consequently the pitting corrosion resistance strongly depend on the overlap rate. The most efficient laser parameters led to an increase of the pitting potential by more than 300 mV, corresponding to a quite important improvement of the corrosion resistance. This latter was correlated to chromium enrichment (47 wt.%) at the surface of the stainless steel and the induced absence of martensite and ferrite phases. However, these structural and chemical modifications were not sufficient to explain the change in corrosion behaviour: defects and adhesion of the surface oxide layer must have been taken into consideration.

  8. Gold nanoshell photomodification under a single-nanosecond laser pulse accompanied by color-shifting and bubble formation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, Garif; Khlebtsov, Boris; Akchurin, Georgy; Tuchin, Valery; Zharov, Vladimir; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Laser-nanoparticle interaction is crucial for biomedical applications of lasers and nanotechnology to the treatment of cancer or pathogenic microorganisms. We report on the first observation of laser-induced coloring of gold nanoshell solution after a one nanosecond pulse and an unprecedentedly low bubble formation (as the main mechanism of cancer cell killing) threshold at a laser fluence of about 4 mJ cm -2 , which is safe for normal tissue. Specifically, silica/gold nanoshell (140/15 nm) suspensions were irradiated with a single 4 ns (1064 nm) or 8 ns (900 nm) laser pulse at fluences ranging from 0.1 mJ cm -2 to 50 J cm -2 . Solution red coloring was observed by the naked eye confirmed by blue-shifting of the absorption spectrum maximum from the initial 900 nm for nanoshells to 530 nm for conventional colloidal gold nanospheres. TEM images revealed significant photomodification of nanoparticles including complete fragmentation of gold shells, changes in silica core structure, formation of small 20-30 nm isolated spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanoshells with central holes, and large and small spherical gold particles attached to a silica core. The time-resolved monitoring of bubble formation phenomena with the photothermal (PT) thermolens technique demonstrated that after application of a single 8 ns pulse at fluences 5-10 mJ cm -2 and higher the next pulse did not produce any PT response, indicating a dramatic decrease in absorption because of gold shell modification. We also observed a dependence of the bubble expansion time on the laser energy with unusually very fast PT signal rising (∼3.5 ns scale at 0.2 J cm -2 ). Application of the observed phenomena to medical applications is discussed, including a simple visual color test for laser-nanoparticle interaction

  9. A new nanosecond UV laser at 355 nm: early results of corneal flap cutting in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Andrea; Schrödl, Falk; Strohmaier, Clemens; Bogner, Barbara; Runge, Christian; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Krefft, Karolina; Vogel, Alfred; Linz, Norbert; Freidank, Sebastian; Hilpert, Andrea; Zimmermann, Inge; Grabner, Günther; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2013-12-03

    A new 355 nm UV laser was used for corneal flap cutting in an animal model and tested for clinical and morphologic alterations. Corneal flaps were created (Chinchilla Bastards; n = 25) with an UV nanosecond laser at 355 nm (150 kHz, pulse duration 850 ps, spot-size 1 μm, spot spacing 6 × 6 μm, side cut Δz 1 μm; cutting depth 130 μm) and pulse energies of 2.2 or 2.5 μJ, respectively. Following slit-lamp examination, animals were killed at 6, 12, and 24 hours after treatment. Corneas were prepared for histology (hematoxylin and eosin [HE], TUNEL-assay) and evaluated statistically, followed by ultrastructural investigations. Laser treatment was tolerated well, flap lift was easier at 2.5 μJ compared with 2.2 μJ. Standard HE at 24 hours revealed intact epithelium in the horizontal cut, with similar increase in corneal thickness at both energies. Irrespective of energy levels, TUNEL assay revealed comparable numbers of apoptotic cells in the horizontal and vertical cut at 6, 12, and 24 hours, becoming detectable in the horizontal cut as an acellular stromal band at 24 hours. Ultrastructural analysis revealed regular morphology in the epi- and endothelium, while in the stroma, disorganized collagen lamellae were detectable representing the horizontal cut, again irrespective of energy levels applied. This new UV laser revealed no epi- nor endothelial damage at energies feasible for corneal flap cutting. Observed corneal swelling was lower compared with existing UV laser studies, albeit total energy applied here was much higher. Observed loss of stromal keratinocytes is comparable with available laser systems. Therefore, this new laser is suitable for refractive surgery, awaiting its test in a chronic environment.

  10. Nanosecond laser ablated copper superhydrophobic surface with tunable ultrahigh adhesion and its renewability with low temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, An; Liu, Wenwen; Xue, Wei; Yang, Huan; Cao, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Recently, metallic superhydrophobic surfaces with ultrahigh adhesion have got plentiful attention on account of their significance in scientific researches and industrial applications like droplet transport, drug delivery and novel microfluidic devices. However, the long lead time and transience hindered its in-depth development and industrial application. In this work, nanosecond laser ablation was carried out to construct grid of micro-grooves on copper surface, whereafter, by applying fast ethanol assisted low-temperature annealing, we obtained surface with superhydrophobicity and ultrahigh adhesion within hours. And the ultrahigh adhesion force was found tunable by varying the groove spacing. Using ultrasonic cleaning as the simulation of natural wear and tear in service, the renewability of superhydrophobicity was also investigated, and the result shows that the contact angle can rehabilitate promptly by the processing of ethanol assisted low-temperature annealing, which gives a promising fast and cheap circuitous strategy to realize the long wish durable metallic superhydrophobic surfaces in practical applications.

  11. Cluster-assisted multiple ionization of methyl iodide by a nanosecond laser: Influence of laser intensity on the kinetic energy and peak profile of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lihua; Li Haiyang; Luo Xiaolin; Niu Dongmei; Xiao Xue; Wang Bin; Liang Feng; Hou Keyong; Shao Shiyong

    2006-01-01

    The dependences of kinetic energies and peak profiles of multicharged ions of I q+ (q = 2-3) and C 2+ on the laser intensity have been studied in detail by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, those multicharged ions are produced by irradiation of methyl iodide cluster beam with a nanosecond 532 nm Nd-YAG laser. Our experiments show that the kinetic energies released of multicharged ions increase linearly with the laser intensity in the range of 3 x 10 9 -2 x 10 11 W/cm 2 . The peaks of multicharged ions are split to forward ions and backward ions, and the ratio of the backward ions to forward ions decreases exponentially with laser intensity. The decreasing of backward ions is probably due to Coulomb scattering by the heavier I + ions when they turn around through the laser focus point. The linear dependence of kinetic energy of multicharged ions on laser intensity is interpreted by the ionization mechanism, in which the laser induced inverse bremsstrahlung heating of electron is the rate-limiting step

  12. Characterization of Aerosols Generated by nano-second Laser Ablation of an Acrylic Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle, P.; Vendel, J.; Dewalle, P.; Weulersse, J.M.; Dewalle, P.; Herve, Ph.; Dewalle, P.; Decobert, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on particles produced during laser ablation of a green colored acrylic wall paint, which is frequently used in industrial buildings and in particular in nuclear installations. Ablation is carried out with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse duration of 5 ns, in a cell at ambient pressure and temperature, which is ventilated by filtered air. The number of particles emitted was measured with a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and their size with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (or EEPS) for the nano-metric range, and an AEROSIZER (for the micrometric range). The mass and shape of particles were determined by sampling on filters as well as on the different impaction plates of a Low-Pressure Impactor (LPI). Two particle populations were detected: a population of aggregates of primary nano-particles with an electrical mobility diameter ranging from 30 to 150 nm, and a population of spherical submicron particles with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 400 to 1000 nm. The spherical particles are mainly composed of titanium dioxide, and the aggregates most likely of carbon. The presence of two types of particles with different size distributions, shapes, and chemical compositions, implies that particles originating from the ablation of paint are formed by two different mechanisms: agglomeration in the case of the nano-metric aggregates, which is preceded by steps of nucleation, condensation, and coagulation of the primary particles, while the submicron spheres result from a direct ejection mechanism. (authors)

  13. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  14. Darkening effect on AZ31B magnesium alloy surface induced by nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Y.C., E-mail: guan0013@e.ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Zhou, W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Zheng, H.Y.; Li, Z.L. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2013-09-01

    Permanent darkening effect was achieved on surface of AZ31B Mg alloy irradiated with nanosecond pulse Nd:YAG laser, and special attention was made to examine how surface structure as well as oxidation affect the darkening effect. Experiments were carried out to characterize morphological evolution and chemical composition of the irradiated areas by optical reflection spectrometer, Talysurf surface profiler, SEM, EDS, and XPS. The darkening effect was found to be occurred at the surface under high laser energy. Optical spectra showed that the induced darkening surface was uniform over the spectral range from 200 nm to 1100 nm. SEM and surface profiler showed that surface morphology of darkening areas consisted of large number of micron scale cauliflower-like clusters and protruding particles. EDS and XPS showed that compared to non-irradiated area, oxygen content at the darkening areas increased significantly. It was proposed a mechanism that involved trapping of light in the surface morphology and chemistry variation of irradiated areas to explain the laser-induced darkening effect on AZ31B Mg alloy.

  15. Influences on the Emissions of Bacterial Plasmas Generated through Nanosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Dylan J.

    In the past decade, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been shown to provide compositional data that can be used for discrimination between bacterial specimens at the strain level. This work demonstrates the viability of this technique in a clinical setting. Studies were conducted to investigate the impact of emissions generated by a nitrocellulose filter paper background on the classification of four species: E. coli, S. epidermidis, M. smegmatis, and P. aeruginosa. Limits of detection were determined as 48+/-12 kCFU per ablation event for new mounting procedures using standard diagnostic laboratory techniques, and a device for centrifuge filtration was designed for sampling from low-titer bacterial suspensions. Plasma emissions from samples grown at biological levels of magnesium, zinc, and glucose were shown not to deviate from controls. A limit of detection for environmental zinc was found to be 11 ppm. Discrimination with heat-killed samples was demonstrated, providing a sterile diagnostic environment.

  16. Stability of contamination-free gold and silver nanoparticles produced by nanosecond laser ablation of solid targets in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikov, R.G.; Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Dimitrov, I.G.; Atanasov, P.A.; Alexandrov, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Au and Ag colloids were prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of solids in water. ► The alteration of the produced colloids during one month was investigated. ► Optical transmission spectra of the samples were measured from 350 to 800 nm. ► TEM measurements were made of as-prepared colloids and on the 30-th day. ► Zeta potential measurements were performed of as-prepared samples. - Abstract: Preparation of noble metal nanoparticle (NPs) colloids using pulsed laser ablation in water has an inherent advantage compared to the different chemical methods used, especially when biological applications of the colloids are considered. The fabrication method is simple and the NPs prepared in this way are contamination free. The method of laser ablation of a solid target in water is applied in the present work in order to obtain gold and silver NP colloids. The experiment was preformed by using the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The target immersed in double distilled water was irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses with duration of 15 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The sedimentation and aggregation of NPs in the colloids, stored at constant temperature, as a function of the time after preparation were investigated. The analyses are based on optical transmission spectroscopy in UV and vis regions. The change of the plasmon resonance wavelength as a function of time was studied. Zeta potential measurement was also utilized to measure the charge of the NPs in the colloids. The size distribution of the NPs and its change in time was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal conditions of post fabrication manipulation with gold and silver colloids are defined in view of producing stable NPs with a narrow size distribution.

  17. Nanosecond (ns) laser transfer of silver nanoparticles from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to transparent soda-lime glass and shock waves formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sow, Mohamed Chérif; Blondeau, Jean-Philippe; Sagot, Nadine; Ollier, Nadège; Tite, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles growth by nanosecond laser irradiation of silver exchanged soda-lime glasses. • Silver nanoparticles transfer. • Nanosecond laser induced shock waves formation on glass. - Abstract: In this contribution, we showed for the first time in our knowledge a single-step process for silver clusters and nanoparticles growth and transfer from silver-exchanged soda-lime glass to un-exchanged soda-lime glass (transparent glass in visible and NIR domain) by nanosecond (ns) laser irradiation. The transferred silver nanoparticles in transparent glass are strongly linked to the glass surface. In addition, we point out the formation of shock waves, with selective silver clustering on the top wave. This technique provides an alternative and simple way to obtain metallic nanoparticles in different media which can be traversed by laser wavelength used. Moreover, this experiment is made at room temperature and air environment. It is worth noting that our technique requires a glass previously doped with the corresponding silver ions

  18. High level active n+ doping of strained germanium through co-implantation and nanosecond pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, David; Gandhi, Hemi H.; Monmeyran, Corentin P.; Akey, Austin J.; Milazzo, Ruggero; Cai, Yan; Napolitani, Enrico; Gwilliam, Russell M.; Crowe, Iain F.; Michel, Jurgen; Kimerling, L. C.; Agarwal, Anuradha; Mazur, Eric; Aziz, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining high level active n+ carrier concentrations in germanium (Ge) has been a significant challenge for further development of Ge devices. By ion implanting phosphorus (P) and fluorine (F) into Ge and restoring crystallinity using Nd:YAG nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM), we demonstrate 1020 cm-3 n+ carrier concentration in tensile-strained epitaxial germanium-on-silicon. Scanning electron microscopy shows that after laser treatment, samples implanted with P have an ablated surface, whereas P + F co-implanted samples have good crystallinity and a smooth surface topography. We characterize P and F concentration depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectrometry and spreading resistance profiling. The peak carrier concentration, 1020 cm-3 at 80 nm below the surface, coincides with the peak F concentration, illustrating the key role of F in increasing donor activation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of the co-implanted sample shows that the Ge epilayer region damaged during implantation is a single crystal after PLM. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements both indicate that the as-grown epitaxial layer strain is preserved after PLM. These results demonstrate that co-implantation and PLM can achieve the combination of n+ carrier concentration and strain in Ge epilayers necessary for next-generation, high-performance Ge-on-Si devices.

  19. Optical evidence for a self-propagating molten buried layer in germanium films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, F.; Chaoui, N.; Solis, J.; Armengol, J.; Afonso, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the phase transitions occurring at the film-substrate interface of amorphous germanium films upon nanosecond laser-pulse-induced melting of the surface. Films with thickness ranging from 50 to 130 nm deposited on glass substrates were studied. Real-time reflectivity measurements with subnanosecond time resolution performed both at the air-film and film-substrate interfaces were used to obtain both surface and in-depth information of the process. In the thicker films (≥80 nm), the enthalpy released upon solidification of a shallow molten surface layer induces a thin buried liquid layer that self-propagates in-depth towards the film-substrate interface. This buried liquid layer propagates with a threshold velocity of 16±1 m/s and causes, eventually, melting at the film-substrate interface. In the thinnest film (50 nm) there is no evidence of the formation of the buried layer. The presence of the self-propagating buried layer for films thicker than 80 nm at low and intermediate laser fluences is discussed in terms of the thermal gradient in the primary melt front and the heat released upon solidification

  20. Ion acceleration with a narrow energy spectrum by nanosecond laser-irradiation of solid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C., E-mail: altana@lns.infn.it [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    In laser-driven plasma, ion acceleration of aluminum with the production of a quasi-monoenergetic beam has occurred. A useful device to analyze the ions is the Thomson parabolas spectrometer, a well-known diagnostic that is able to obtain information on charge-to-mass ratio and energy distribution of the charged particles. At the LENS (Laser Energy for Nuclear Science) laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania, experimental measures were carried out; the features of LENS are: Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2 J laser energy, 1064 nm fundamental wavelengths, and 6 ns pulse duration.

  1. Multipulse nanosecond laser irradiation of silicon for the investigation of surface morphology and photoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Maryam; Chen, Jun; Ullah, Zaka; Jelani, Mohsan; Tabassum, Aasma; Cheng, Ju; Sun, Yuxiang; Lu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    We irradiate the single crystal boron-doped silicon (Si) with different number of laser pulses at constant fluence (7.5 J cm-2) in ambient air using Nd:YAG laser and examine its surface morphology and photoelectric properties in details. The results obtained from optical micrographs reveal the increase in heat affected zone (HAZ) and melted area of laser irradiated Si with increasing number of laser pulses. The SEM micrographs evidence the formation of various surface morphologies like laser induced periodic surface structures, crater, microcracks, clusters, cavities, pores, trapped bubbles, nucleation sites, micro-bumps, redeposited material and micro- and nano-particles on the surface of irradiated Si. The surface profilometry analysis informs that the depth of crater is increased with increase in number of incident laser pulses. The spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals that the multipulse irradiation of Si changes its optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves of laser irradiated Si show that although the multipulse laser irradiation produces considerable number of surface defects and damages, the electrical properties of Si are well sustained after the multipulse irradiation. The current findings suggest that the multipulse irradiation can be an effective way to tune the optical properties of Si for the fabrication of wide range of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Modelling of heating and photoexcitation of single-crystal silicon under multipulse irradiation by a nanosecond laser at 1.06 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, D. S.; Yakovlev, E. B.

    2018-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of heating and photoexcitation of single-crystal silicon by nanosecond laser radiation at a wavelength of 1.06 μm. The proposed physicomathematical model of heating takes into account the complex nonlinear dynamics of the interband absorption coefficient of silicon and the contribution of the radial heat removal to the cooling of silicon between pulses under multipulse irradiation, which allows one to obtain a satisfactory agreement between theoretical predictions of silicon melting thresholds at different nanosecond pulse durations and experimental data (both under single-pulse and multipulse irradiation). It is found that under irradiation by nanosecond pulses at a wavelength of 1.06 μm, the dynamic Burshtein–Moss effect can play an important role in processes of photoexcitation and heating. It is shown that with the regimes typical for laser multipulse microprocessing of silicon (the laser spot diameter is less than 100 μm, and the repetition rate of pulses is about 100 kHz), the radial heat removal cannot be neglected in the analysis of heat accumulation processes.

  3. Impact of mechanical stress induced in silica vacuum windows on laser-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingreau, Clémence; Lanternier, Thomas; Lamaignère, Laurent; Donval, Thierry; Courchinoux, Roger; Leymarie, Christophe; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    At the interface between vacuum and air, optical windows must keep their optical properties, despite being subjected to mechanical stress. In this Letter, we investigate the impact of such stress on the laser-induced damage of fused silica windows at the wavelength of 351 nm in the nanosecond regime. Different stress values, from 1 to 30 MPa, both tensile and compressive, were applied. No effect of the stress on the laser-induced damage was evidenced.

  4. Structure changes in steels and hard metal induced by nanosecond and femtosecond laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Gabriel; Romano, Valerio; Weber, Heinz P.; Haefke, Henry; Gerbig, Yvonne; Sentis, Marc L.; Hermann, Joerg; Bruneau, Sebastien

    2003-11-01

    Investigations on the occurrence of structure and hardness changes (for two sorts of steel and for a hard metal substrate) in the immediate vicinity of laser induced craters are presented in this work. Experiments with femtosecond pulses were performed in air with a Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 100 fs) at mean fluences of 2, 5 and 10 J/cm2. Series of microcraters were induced with 100 to 5,000 laser pulses per hole. Experiments with similar fluences, but 10 to 40 pules per hole, were performed on the same materials using a Nd:YAG delivering 100 ns pulese. After laser irradiation, cuts were made through the processed samples and the changes occurred in the crystalline structure of the target materials were evidenced by metallographical analysis of the resulting cross-sections. Hardness measurements were performed in points situated in the immediate vicinity of the laser-induced pores. Affected zones in the material surrounding laser induced pores were always found in the ns-regime, however with different properties for various laser parameters. In the fs-regime, zones of modified materials were also found and in such zones a significant hardness increasing was evidenced; the limit of the low fluences regime, where no structure changes occurred, was found to be slightly above 2 J/cm2.

  5. On the angular dependence of focused laser ablation by nanosecond pulses in solgel and polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. S.; Onischenko, A.; Holmes, A. S.

    2004-03-01

    Focused laser ablation by single laser pulses at varying angles of incidence is studied in two materials of interest: a solgel (Ormocer 4) and a polymer (SU8). For a range of angles (up to 70° from normal), and for low-energy (<20 μJ), 40 ns pulses at 266 nm wavelength, the ablation depth along the direction of the incident laser beam is found to be independent of the angle of incidence. This allows the crater profiles at oblique incidence to be generated directly from the crater profiles at normal incidence by a simple coordinate transformation. This result is of use in the development of simulation tools for direct-write laser ablation. A simple model based on the moving ablation front approach is shown to be consistent with the observed behavior.

  6. Permeabilisation de membranes cellulaires a l'aide d'un laser nanoseconde amplifie par nanoparticules plasmoniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis Lalonde, Bastien

    The plasmic membrane of eukaryot cells provides a selective permeability between the cytoplasm and the external environment. It regulates the passage of ions (O2, N 2, K, etc...) and molecules (H2 O, C2H6 O, etc...) by mechanisms like passive diffusion and active transport. In various fields like molecular biology or drug development, it is sometimes needed to bypass this selective permeability to introduce external molecules that are normally impermeable to cell membrane. Examples of external molecules may be DNA plasmid, RNA segment or drugs. We propose a method based on laser amplification by plasmonic nanoparticles to overcome this biological barrier. This non invasive method increases the membrane permeability of a large number of cells in a short time. Optoporation by laser amplified with plasmonic nanoparticles consists of pulsed laser irradiation on cells that have been previously incubated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The laser-AuNPs interactions will create a cavitation bubble which in turn will decrease the membrane permeability by disrupting the bilipid layer arrangement. Molecules in the external medium may then penetrate inside the cells and under the right experimental conditions, the cells will rapidly reseal their membrane and continue living without nefast effects. The feasibility of high throughput optical perforation amplified by plasmonic nanoparticles have been tested with a nanosecond pulsed laser working at 532 nm and 1064 nm. The plasma membrane of cancerous human fibroblast (melanoma wm278) have been successfully perforated while keeping an excellent viability rate. Up to 30% of cells are perforated in which the Lucifer Yellow fluorophore have been incorporated. The viability 2 h after the treatment was evaluated by PI exclusion and the long term vitality was tested by MTT essay. Under optimal conditions at 532 nm, the 2 h viability is 84% and the vitality start at 64% for 2h and reaches 88% after 72 h. With 1064 nm pusles, the 2 h

  7. Numerical investigation of heating of a gold nanoparticle and the surrounding microenvironment by nanosecond laser pulses for nanomedicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassaroli, E; Li, K C P; O' Neill, B E [Department of Radiology, Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, 77030 (United States)], E-mail: beoneill@tmhs.org

    2009-09-21

    We have modeled, by finite element analysis, the process of heating of a spherical gold nanoparticle by nanosecond laser pulses and of heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding medium, with no mass transfer. In our analysis, we have included thermal conductivity changes, vapor formation, and changes of the dielectric properties as a function of temperature. We have shown that such changes significantly affect the temperature reached by the particle and surrounding microenvironment and therefore the thermal and dielectric properties of the medium need to be known for a correct determination of the temperature elevation. We have shown that for sufficiently low intensity and long pulses, it is possible to establish a quasi-steady temperature profile in the medium with no vapor formation. As the intensity is increased, a phase-change with vapor formation takes place around the gold nanoparticle. As phase-transition starts, an additional increase in the intensity does not significantly increase the temperature of the gold nanoparticle and surrounding environment. The temperature starts to rise again above a given intensity threshold which is particle and environment dependent. The aim of this study is to provide useful insights for the development of molecular targeting of gold nanoparticles for applications such as remote drug release of therapeutics and photothermal cancer therapy.

  8. Angle-dependent tribological properties of AlCrN coatings with microtextures induced by nanosecond laser under dry friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Youqiang; Deng, Jianxin; Gao, Peng; Gao, Juntao; Wu, Ze

    2018-04-01

    Microtextures with different groove inclinations are fabricated on the AlCrN-coated surface by a nanosecond laser, and the tribological properties of the textured AlCrN samples sliding against AISI 1045 steel balls are investigated by reciprocating sliding friction tests under dry conditions. Results show that the microtextures can effectively improve the tribological properties of the AlCrN surface compared with the smooth surface. Meanwhile, the angle between the groove inclination and sliding direction has an important influence on the friction and wear properties. The textured sample with the small groove inclination may be beneficial to reducing the friction and adhesions, and the TC-0° sample exhibits the lowest friction coefficient and adhesions of the worn surface. The wear volume of the ball sliding against the TC-0° sample is smaller compared with the UTC sample and the sliding against the TC-45° and TC-90° samples is larger compared with the UTC sample. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the microtextures are discussed.

  9. Broadband supercontinuum generation in a telecommunication fibre pumped by a nanosecond Tm, Ho:YVO{sub 4} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ren-Lai; Ren Jian-Cun; Lou Shu-Li [Department of control engineering, Naval Aeronautical and Astronautical University, Yantai 264001 (China); Ju You-Lun; Wang Yue-Zhu [National Key Laboratory of Tunable Laser Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-07-31

    Broadband supercontinuum (SC) generation in a telecommunication fibre [8/125-μm single mode fibre (SMF) and 50/125-μm multimode fibre (MMF)] directly pumped by a nanosecond Q-switched Tm, Ho:YVO{sub 4} laser is demonstrated. At a 7-kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF), an output average power of 0.53 W in the 1.95 – 2.5-μm spectral band and 3.51 W in the 1.9 – 2.6-μm spectral band are achieved in SMF and MMF, respectively (the corresponding optic-to-optic conversion efficiencies are 34.6% and 73.7%). The output spectra have extremely high flat segments in the range 2070 – 2390 nm and 2070 – 2475 nm with negligible intensity variation (less than 2%). The SC average power is scalable from 2.1 to 4.2 W by increasing the PRF from 5 to 15 kHz, while maintaining pump power. Compared with the input pump pulse, the output SC pulse width is broadened, and no split is found. The stability of the output SC power has been monitored for a week and the fluctuations being less than 6%. (control of radiation parameters)

  10. Numerical investigation of heating of a gold nanoparticle and the surrounding microenvironment by nanosecond laser pulses for nanomedicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassaroli, E; Li, K C P; O'Neill, B E

    2009-01-01

    We have modeled, by finite element analysis, the process of heating of a spherical gold nanoparticle by nanosecond laser pulses and of heat transfer between the particle and the surrounding medium, with no mass transfer. In our analysis, we have included thermal conductivity changes, vapor formation, and changes of the dielectric properties as a function of temperature. We have shown that such changes significantly affect the temperature reached by the particle and surrounding microenvironment and therefore the thermal and dielectric properties of the medium need to be known for a correct determination of the temperature elevation. We have shown that for sufficiently low intensity and long pulses, it is possible to establish a quasi-steady temperature profile in the medium with no vapor formation. As the intensity is increased, a phase-change with vapor formation takes place around the gold nanoparticle. As phase-transition starts, an additional increase in the intensity does not significantly increase the temperature of the gold nanoparticle and surrounding environment. The temperature starts to rise again above a given intensity threshold which is particle and environment dependent. The aim of this study is to provide useful insights for the development of molecular targeting of gold nanoparticles for applications such as remote drug release of therapeutics and photothermal cancer therapy.

  11. Compact sub-nanosecond pulse seed source with diode laser driven by a high-speed circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Bo; Wang, Junhua; Cheng, Wenyong

    2018-06-01

    A compact sub-nanosecond pulse seed source with 1550 nm diode laser (DL) was obtained by employing a high-speed circuit. The circuit mainly consisted of a short pulse generator and a short pulse driver. The short pulse generator, making up of a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), a level translator, two programmable delay chips and an AND gate chip, output a triggering signal to control metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) switch of the short pulse driver. The MOSFET switch with fast rising time and falling time both shorter than 1 ns drove the DL to emit short optical pulses. Performances of the pulse seed source were tested. The results showed that continuously adjustable repetition frequency ranging from 500 kHz to 100 MHz and pulse duration in the range of 538 ps to 10 ns were obtained, respectively. 537 μW output was obtained at the highest repetition frequency of 100 MHz with the shortest pulse duration of 538 ps. These seed pulses were injected into an fiber amplifier, and no optical pulse distortions were found.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Superhydrophobicity and Oxidized Layers on Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Surface Textured by Nanosecond Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, Ludmila B; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Modestov, Alexander D; Domantovsky, Alexandr G; Emelyanenko, Kirill A

    2015-09-02

    We report a new efficient method for fabricating a superhydrophobic oxidized surface of aluminum alloys with enhanced resistance to pitting corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. The developed coatings are considered very prospective materials for the automotive industry, shipbuilding, aviation, construction, and medicine. The method is based on nanosecond laser treatment of the surface followed by chemisorption of a hydrophobic agent to achieve the superhydrophobic state of the alloy surface. We have shown that the surface texturing used to fabricate multimodal roughness of the surface may be simultaneously used for modifying the physicochemical properties of the thick surface layer of the substrate itself. Electrochemical and wetting experiments demonstrated that the superhydrophobic state of the metal surface inhibits corrosion processes in chloride solutions for a few days. However, during long-term contact of a superhydrophobic coating with a solution, the wetted area of the coating is subjected to corrosion processes due to the formation of defects. In contrast, the combination of an oxide layer with good barrier properties and the superhydrophobic state of the coating provides remarkable corrosion resistance. The mechanisms for enhancing corrosion protective properties are discussed.

  13. Nanosecond Q-switched operation of coupled Yb and Tm fibre lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Yuen H [Laser Photonics Research Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Qamar, Fadi [Laser Photonics Research Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); King, Terence A [Laser Photonics Research Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ko, Do-Kyeong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongmin [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-07

    A small scale coupled Yb-silica and Tm-silica fibre laser system is described with output at 1.9 {mu}m and with Q-switching using an acousto-optic modulator and also by mechanical optical modulation. The Yb-fibre laser pump source exhibited strong self-pulsation with high-intensity pulses due to stimulated Brillouin scattering. But regular Q-switched pulses were generated from the Tm-fibre laser with an energy of {approx}2.4 {mu}J and duration (FWHM) of {approx}280 ns for modulation frequencies of 1-20 kHz when using acousto-optic modulation. The main effects that limit the Q-switched pulse peak power are the onset of gain-switched pulsing during the low-Q state and strong pump excited state absorption.

  14. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of brass in a dry and liquid-confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Shazia; Vaheed, Hamza; Mahmood, Khaliq

    2013-02-01

    The effect of ambient environment (dry or wet) and overlapping laser pulses on the laser ablation performance of brass has been investigated. For this purpose, a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, pulse energy of 150 mJ, pulse width of 6 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz is employed. In order to explore the effect of ambient environments, brass targets have been exposed in deionized water, methanol and air. The targets are exposed for 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 succeeding pulses in each atmosphere. The surface morphology and chemical composition of ablated targets have been characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) techniques. In case of liquid environment, various features like nano- and micro-scale laser-induced periodic surface structures with periodicity 500 nm-1 μm, cavities of size few micrometers with multiple ablative layers and phenomenon of thermal stress cracking are observed. These features are originated by various chemical and thermal phenomena induced by laser heating at the liquid-solid interfaces. The convective bubble motion, explosive boiling, pressure gradients, cluster and colloid formation due to confinement effects of liquids are possible cause for such kind of features. The metal oxides and alcohol formed on irradiated surface are also playing the significant role for the formation of these kinds of structure. In case of air one huge crater is formed along with the redeposition of sputtered material and is ascribed to laser-induced evaporation and oxide formation.

  15. Ablation of (GeS2)0.3(Sb2S3)0.7 glass with an ultra-violet nano-second laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, P.; Navesnik, J.; Cernohorsky, T.; Kincl, M.; Vlcek, M.; Tichy, L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction of (GeS 2 ) 0.3 (Sb 2 S 3 ) 0.7 bulk glass and film with UV nanosecond laser. • Ablation process, topography of crater and structure of the material were studied. • Ablation threshold fluencies changed with the spot diameter and number of pulses. • The photo-thermal expansion of the material occurred for low laser fluency. • Laser direct writing process applicable for fabrication of passive optical elements. - Abstract: The results of an experimental study of the laser ablation of bulk and thin films of a GeSbS chalcogenide glass using UV nanosecond pulses are reported. The response of the samples to illumination conditions was studied through the use of atomic force spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The multi-pulse ablation thresholds were determined for both the bulk and thin film samples for varying number of pulses and illuminated spot diameter. The possible application of direct laser writing into the bulk and thin films of this material is presented

  16. Effect of advanced nanowire-based targets in nanosecond laser-matter interaction (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzalone, G., E-mail: Gaetano.Lanzalone@ct.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Altana, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D.; Tudisco, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Malferrari, L.; Odorici, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Malandrino, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche and INSTM UdR, Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the effects of innovative nanostructured targets based on Ag nanowires on laser energy absorption in the ns time domain has been carried out at the Laser Energy for Nuclear Science laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania. The tested targets were realized at INFN-Bologna by anodizing aluminium sheets in order to obtain layers of porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of different thicknesses, on which nanowires of various metals are grown by electro-deposition with different heights. Targets were then irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser at different pumping energies. Advanced diagnostic tools were used for characterizing the plasma plume and ion production. As compared with targets of pure Al, a huge enhancement (of almost two order of magnitude) of the X-ray flux emitted by the plasma has been observed when using the nanostructured targets, with a corresponding decrease of the “optical range” signal, pointing out that the energetic content of the laser produced plasma was remarkably increased. This analysis was furthermore confirmed from time-of-flight spectra.

  17. Effect of advanced nanowire-based targets in nanosecond laser-matter interaction (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzalone, G.; Altana, C.; Mascali, D.; Muoio, A.; Malferrari, L.; Odorici, F.; Malandrino, G.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate the effects of innovative nanostructured targets based on Ag nanowires on laser energy absorption in the ns time domain has been carried out at the Laser Energy for Nuclear Science laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania. The tested targets were realized at INFN-Bologna by anodizing aluminium sheets in order to obtain layers of porous Al2O3 of different thicknesses, on which nanowires of various metals are grown by electro-deposition with different heights. Targets were then irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser at different pumping energies. Advanced diagnostic tools were used for characterizing the plasma plume and ion production. As compared with targets of pure Al, a huge enhancement (of almost two order of magnitude) of the X-ray flux emitted by the plasma has been observed when using the nanostructured targets, with a corresponding decrease of the "optical range" signal, pointing out that the energetic content of the laser produced plasma was remarkably increased. This analysis was furthermore confirmed from time-of-flight spectra.

  18. Spatial confinement effects on spectroscopic and morphological studies of nanosecond laser-ablated Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Zaheer, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Spatial confinement effects on plasma parameters and surface morphology of laser ablated Zr (Zirconium) are studied by introducing a metallic blocker. Nd:YAG laser at various fluencies ranging from 8 J cm-2 to 32 J cm-2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements were performed in the presence of Ar under different pressures. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm from the target surface. It is revealed from LIBS analysis that both plasma parameters i.e. excitation temperature and electron number density increase with increasing laser fluence due to enhancement in energy deposition. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Zr plasma. This is true for all laser fluences and pressures of Ar. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 12,600 K and 14 × 1017 cm-3 respectively whereas, these values are enhanced to 15,000 K and 21 × 1017 cm-3 in the presence of blocker. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Zr plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser ablated Zr. It reveals the formation of cones, cavities and ripples. These features become more distinct and well defined in the presence of blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters for surface structuring.

  19. Important factors for cell-membrane permeabilization by gold nanoparticles activated by nanosecond-laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao CP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cuiping Yao,1,2,* Florian Rudnitzki,2,* Gereon Hüttmann,2,3 Zhenxi Zhang,1 Ramtin Rahmanzadeh2 1Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China; 2Institute of Biomedical Optics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Kiel, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Pulsed-laser irradiation of light-absorbing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs attached to cells transiently increases cell membrane permeability for targeted molecule delivery. Here, we targeted EGFR on the ovarian carcinoma cell line OVCAR-3 with AuNPs. In order to optimize membrane permeability and to demonstrate molecule delivery into adherent OVCAR-3 cells, we systematically investigated different experimental conditions. Materials and methods: AuNPs (30 nm were functionalized by conjugation of the antibody cetuximab against EGFR. Selective binding of the particles was demonstrated by silver staining, multiphoton imaging, and fluorescence-lifetime imaging. After laser irradiation, membrane permeability of OVCAR-3 cells was studied under different conditions of AuNP concentration, cell-incubation medium, and cell–AuNP incubation time. Membrane permeability and cell viability were evaluated by flow cytometry, measuring propidium iodide and fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran uptake. Results: Adherently growing OVCAR-3 cells can be effectively targeted with EGFR-AuNP. Laser irradiation led to successful permeabilization, and 150 kDa dextran was successfully delivered into cells with about 70% efficiency. Conclusion: Antibody-targeted and laser-irradiated AuNPs can be used to deliver molecules into adherent cells. Efficacy depends not only on laser parameters but also on AuNP:cell ratio, cell-incubation medium

  20. Deposition of Y thin films by nanosecond UV pulsed laser ablation for photocathode application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorusso, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Anni, M. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, A.P. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, F., E-mail: francisco.gontad@le.infn.it [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Perulli, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A. [National Research Council, Institute for Microelectronics & Microsystems, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Perrone, A. [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Chiadroni, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-03-31

    In this work, yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Ex-situ morphological, structural and optical characterisations of such films have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. Polycrystalline films with a thickness of 1.2 μm, homogenous with a root mean square roughness of about 2 nm, were obtained by optimised laser irradiation conditions. Despite the relatively high thickness, the films resulted very adherent to the substrates. The high quality of such thin films is important to the synthesis of metallic photocathodes based on Y thin film, which could be used as electron sources of high photoemission performance in radio-frequency guns. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of Yttrium thin films is investigated. • 1.2 μm thick films were deposited with very low RMS roughness. • The Y thin films were very adherent to the Si substrate • Optical characterisation showed a very high absorption coefficient for the films.

  1. Deposition of Y thin films by nanosecond UV pulsed laser ablation for photocathode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorusso, A.; Anni, M.; Caricato, A.P.; Gontad, F.; Perulli, A.; Taurino, A.; Perrone, A.; Chiadroni, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, yttrium (Y) thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Ex-situ morphological, structural and optical characterisations of such films have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry. Polycrystalline films with a thickness of 1.2 μm, homogenous with a root mean square roughness of about 2 nm, were obtained by optimised laser irradiation conditions. Despite the relatively high thickness, the films resulted very adherent to the substrates. The high quality of such thin films is important to the synthesis of metallic photocathodes based on Y thin film, which could be used as electron sources of high photoemission performance in radio-frequency guns. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser deposition of Yttrium thin films is investigated. • 1.2 μm thick films were deposited with very low RMS roughness. • The Y thin films were very adherent to the Si substrate • Optical characterisation showed a very high absorption coefficient for the films.

  2. Controlling the stainless steel surface wettability by nanosecond direct laser texturing at high fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorčič, P.; Šetina-Batič, B.; Hočevar, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work investigates the influence of the direct laser texturing at high fluences (DLT-HF) on surface morphology, chemistry, and wettability. We use a Nd:YAG laser ( λ = 1064 nm) with pulse duration of 95 ns to process stainless steel surface. The surface morphology and chemistry after the texturing is examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), while the surface wettability is evaluated by measuring the static contact angle. Immediately after the texturing, the surface is superhydrophilic in a saturated Wenzel regime. However, this state is not stable and the superhydrophilic-to-superhydrophobic transition happens if the sample is kept in atmospheric air for 30 days. After this period, the laser-textured stainless steel surface expresses lotus-leaf-like behavior. By using a high-speed camera at 10,000 fps, we measured that the water droplet completely rebound from this superhydrophobic surface after the contact time of 12 ms.

  3. Observation of repetitive bursts in emission of fast ions and neutrons in sub-nanosecond laser-solid experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Klír, D.; Velyhan, Andriy; Margarone, Daniele; Krouský, Eduard; Jungwirth, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, P.; Řezáč, K.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2013), s. 395-401 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:OPVK 3 Laser Zdroj(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Program:EE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-plasma interactions * neutron yield scaling * bursts in ion emission Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013

  4. Studies on nanosecond 532nm and 355nm and ultrafast 515nm and 532nm laser cutting super-hard materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Tao, Sha; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Jay

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, micro-processing of three kinds of super-hard materials of poly-crystal diamond (PCD)/tungsten-carbide (WC), CVD-diamond and cubic boron nitride (CNB) has been systematically studied using nanosecond laser (532nm and 355nm), and ultrafast laser (532nm and 515nm). Our purpose is to investigate a full laser micro-cutting solution to achieve a ready-to-use cutting tool insert (CTI). The results show a clean cut with little burns and recasting at edge. The cutting speed of 2-10mm/min depending on thickness was obtained. The laser ablation process was also studied by varying laser parameters (wavelength, pulse width, pulse energy, repetition rate) and tool path to improve cutting speed. Also, studies on material removal efficiency (MRE) of PCD/WC with 355nm-ns and 515nm-fs laser as a function of laser fluence show that 355nm-ns laser is able to achieve higher MRE for PCD and WC. Thus, ultrafast laser is not necessarily used for superhard material cutting. Instead, post-polishing with ultrafast laser can be used to clean cutting surface and improve smoothness.

  5. Study of laser-induced damage on the exit surface of silica components in the nanosecond regime in a multiple wavelengths configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambonneau, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, laser-induced damage phenomenon on the surface of fused silica components is investigated in the nanosecond regime. This phenomenon consists in an irreversible modification of the material. In the nanosecond regime, laser damage is tightly correlated to the presence of non-detectable precursor defects which are a consequence of the synthesis and the polishing of the components. In this thesis, we investigate laser damage in a multiple wavelengths configuration. In order to better understand this phenomenon in these conditions of irradiation, three studies are conducted. The first one focuses on damage initiation. The results obtained in the single wavelength configurations highlight a coupling in the multiple wavelengths one. A comparison between the experiments and a model developed during this thesis enables us to improve the knowledge of the fundamental processes involved during this damage phase. Then, we show that post mortem characterizations of damage morphology coupled to an accurate metrology allow us to understand both the nature and also the chronology of the physical mechanisms involved during damage formation. The proposed theoretical scenario is confirmed through various experiments. Finally, we study damage growth in both the single and the multiple wavelengths cases. Once again, this last configuration highlights a coupling between the wavelengths. We show the necessity to account for the spatial characteristics of the laser beams during a growth session. (author) [fr

  6. Quantitative analysis of manganese concentration in manganese-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, V.K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V.B.; Santhosh, C.; Sonavane, M.S.; Yeotikar, R.G.; Gupta, G.P.; Suri, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been well recognized as a simple, fast and direct analytical technique for the analysis of elemental analysis of multi-element materials by a number of research groups all over the world. It is based on the focusing of a high-power pulsed laser beam with a power density > 100 MW/cm 2 onto a sample surface followed by optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma produced over the surface. During the last two decades, LIBS has attracted a lot of attention, leading to an ever increasing list of applications, both in laboratory and in industry. In this work, the quantitative analysis of manganese in manganese-doped glass samples in air at atmospheric pressure has been carried out by the LIBS system assembled and optimized in the laboratory. The plasma is generated using a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser with an irradiance of 1x10 9 W/cm 2 on the sample surface. The spatially integrated plasma light emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fibre-based collection system. An Echelle spectrograph-ICCD system (Andor Mechelle ME5000-DH734-18U-03PS150) was used to record the emission spectrum. The spectrograph with an Echelle grating covers 200-975 nm spectral range in a single shot with a good wavelength resolution (0.05 nm). The detector was gated in synchronization with the laser pulse to get maximum signal-to-background (S/B) ratio. The detector gate width of 2 μs and the detector gate delay of 2 μs were chosen for recording the plasma emission signals, discriminating the continuum radiation which is intense at initial delay time less than 300 ns and decreases at later time

  7. Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses. I. Experimental. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report extensive laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics at 1053 and 526 mm for pulse durations, τ, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated τ 1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for τ≤10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for τ>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in good agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results

  8. [Cleavage of DNA fragments induced by UV nanosecond laser excitation at 193 nm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vtiurina, N N; Grokhovskiĭ, S L; Filimonov, I V; Medvedkov, O I; Nechipurenko, D Iu; Vasil'ev, S A; Nechipurenko, Iu D

    2011-01-01

    The cleavage of dsDNA fragments in aqueous solution after irradiation with UV laser pulses at 193 nm has been studied. Samples were investigated using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The intensity of damage of particular phosphodiester bond after hot alkali treatment was shown to depend on the base pair sequence. It was established that the probability of cleavage is twice higher for sites of DNA containing two or more successively running guanine residues. A possible mechanism of damage to the DNA molecule connected with the migration of holes along the helix is discussed.

  9. Locally formation of Ag nanoparticles in chalcogenide phase change thin films induced by nanosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Ze; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change matrix is described. The fine structures of the locally formed phase change chalcogenide nanocomposite are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite is discussed with temperature evolution and distribution simulations. This easy-prepared metal nano-particle-embedded phase change microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications, such as for plasmonic functional structures. This also provides a generalized approach to the preparation of well-dispersed nanoparticle-embedded composite thin films in principle. -- Highlights: ► We describe a method to prepare chalcogenide microstructures with Ag nanoparticles. ► We give the fine structural images of phase change nanocomposites. ► We discuss the laser-induced fusion mechanism by temperature simulation. ► This microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications.

  10. Electric field measurements in a dielectric barrier nanosecond pulse discharge with sub-nanosecond time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; O’Byrne, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of time-resolved electric field measurements in a nanosecond discharge between two plane electrodes covered by dielectric plates, using picosecond four-wave mixing diagnostics. For absolute calibration, the IR signal was measured in hydrogen at a pressure of 440 Torr, for electrostatic electric field ranging from 0 to 8 kV cm −1 . The calibration curve (i.e. the square root of IR signal intensity versus electric field) was shown to be linear. By measuring the intensities of the pump, Stokes, and IR signal beam for each laser shot during the time sweep across the high-voltage pulse, temporal evolution of the electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge was determined with sub-nanosecond time resolution. The results are compared to kinetic modeling predictions, showing good agreement, including non-zero electric field offset before the main high voltage pulse, breakdown moment, and reduction of electric field in the plasma after breakdown. The difference between the experimental results and model predictions is likely due to non-1D structure of the discharge. Comparison with the kinetic modeling predictions shows that electric field in the nanosecond pulse discharge is controlled primarily by electron impact excitation and charge accumulation on the dielectric surfaces. (paper)

  11. Effect of laser beam focus position on ion emission from plasmas produced by picosecond and sub-nanosecond laser pulses from solid targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Vankov, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2001), s. 791-798 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105 Grant - others:KBN(PL) 2 P03B 082 19 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * laser beam focus position influence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2001

  12. Nanoscale measurements of phosphorous-induced lattice expansion in nanosecond laser annealed germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boninelli, S.; Milazzo, R.; Carles, R.; Houdellier, F.; Duffy, R.; Huet, K.; La Magna, A.; Napolitani, E.; Cristiano, F.

    2018-05-01

    Laser Thermal Annealing (LTA) at various energy densities was used to recrystallize and activate amorphized germanium doped with phosphorous by ion implantation. The structural modifications induced during the recrystallization and the related dopant diffusion were first investigated. After LTA at low energy densities, the P electrical activation was poor while the dopant distribution was mainly localized in the polycrystalline Ge resulting from the anneal. Conversely, full dopant activation (up to 1 × 1020 cm-3) in a perfectly recrystallized material was observed after annealing at higher energy densities. Measurements of lattice parameters performed on the fully activated structures show that P doping results in a lattice expansion, with a perpendicular lattice strain per atom βPs = +0.7 ± 0.1 Å3. This clearly indicates that, despite the small atomic radius of P compared to Ge, the "electronic contribution" to the lattice parameter modification (due to the increased hydrostatic deformation potential in the conduction band of P doped Ge) is larger than the "size mismatch contribution" associated with the atomic radii. Such behavior, predicted by theory, is observed experimentally for the first time, thanks to the high sensitivity of the measurement techniques used in this work.

  13. Damage resistance of AR-coated germanium surfaces for nanosecond CO2 laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the state-of-the-art of AR coatings on gallium-doped germanium, used as a saturable absorber at 10.6 μm, has been conducted. Both 1-on-1 and N-on-1 laser damage thresholds were measured with 1.2 ns pulses on bare and coated surfaces. Only front surface damage was observed. With few exceptions, the thresholds for coated surfaces were centered at 0.49 +- 0.3 J/cm 2 . Bare Ge had a threshold ranging from 0.65 to 0.70 J/cm 2 . No significant differences due to substrate polish, crystallinity or doping level were evident and multiple-shot conditioning resulted in the same threshold as for single shot tests. From an analysis of standing-wave electric fields, damage for AR-coated Ge appeared to be limited by the surface properties of Ge. Measurements at both 1.2 and 70 ns indicated that the threshold (J/cm 2 ) of both coated and uncoated Ge increases as the square root of the pulse-width

  14. Research on the impacts of air temperature on the evolution of nanosecond pulse discharge products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jin-lu; He, Li-ming; Ding, Wei; Zhao, Zi-chen; Zhang, Hua-lei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Most of the O_2 particles become O_2(V1) in high temperature. • The O_3 molecules are produced mainly by decayed O atoms. • NO molecules are obtained by decayed N_2(A3), N(2D) and N(2P) at the first stage, NO molecules are obtained by decayed N atoms at last. - Abstract: Based on nonequilibrium plasma dynamics of air discharge, the kinetic model simulating plasma discharge products induced by nanosecond pulse discharge in air is presented in this work. Then the paper compares the calculation of model with experimental results of references, and verifies the accuracy of the model. The evolution characteristics of nanosecond pulse discharge plasma under different air temperatures are obtained. Because the O, O_3 and NO have close relationship with the combustion, their formation mechanisms are discussed especially. With increasing temperature, there is no significant addition in O atoms and O_3 molecules. It is found that most of the O_2 molecules become O_2(V1) in higher temperature. The decreasing time of the O atoms is in accordance with the increasing time of O_3 molecules. Thus, the O_3 molecules are produced mainly by decayed O atoms. Increased air temperature will not produce more active particles which could assist the combustion. With the increasing temperature, the particle number density of NO increases fast. At last, they have reached an equilibrium value of the same.

  15. Fabrication of Ta nanoparticles induced by nanosecond laser ablation in ethanol: the study of laser fluence effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi Kenari, Fariba; Moniri, Samira; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Dorranian, Davoud; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood

    2018-05-01

    Tantalum nanoparticles (Ta NPs) were synthesized in ethanol solution by ablation with a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. Prepared NPs were investigated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Photoluminescence measurement. The average sizes of NPs were calculated to be in the range of 12-18 nm. From the UV-visible studies, the plasmon peak position of Ta NPs was observed in the spectral range of 206-208 nm. The XRD spectra clearly showed the crystalline structure of NPs and various peaks of Ta and Ta2O5. Moreover, the UV region in the PL spectrum included the free exciton and the bound exciton emission correlated with the defect concentration. In fact, the laser ablation in the organic and inorganic solvents is a strong technique to obtain some NPs with particular structures, which are impossible to produce by conventional methods.

  16. Proton acceleration driven by a nanosecond laser from a cryogenic thin solid-hydrogen ribbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margarone, Daniele; Velyhan, Andriy; Dostál, Jan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Perin, J.P.; Chatain, D.; Garcia, S.; Bonnay, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Dudžák, Roman; Rosinski, M.; Krása, Josef; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Prokůpek, Jan; Scuderi, Valentina; Pšikal, Jan; Kucharik, M.; De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, Jakub; Krouský, Eduard; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Korn, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2016), 1-11, č. článku 041030. ISSN 2160-3308 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02964S; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma interaction * beams * energy * ions * system * target Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 12.789, year: 2016

  17. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1985-03-01

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  18. Selective removal of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 absorber layer with no edge melting using a nanosecond Nd : YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S H; Kim, C K; In, J H; Jeong, S H; Shim, H S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports that selective removal of a CuIn 1−x Ga x Se 2 (CIGS) thin film on a Mo-coated glass substrate can be achieved with no edge melting or damage of the Mo layer using a nanosecond Nd : YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm. It is shown that the two crucial parameters that determine the possibility of clean removal of only the CIGS layer are Ga concentration of the CIGS film and laser fluence. For CIGS films with Ga/(Ga+In) ratio greater than about 0.2 for which the band gap energy is close to or over the photon energy (1.17 eV), laser-induced thermal expansion proved to be the mechanism of film removal that drives an initial bulging of the film and then fracture into tens of micrometre sized fragments as observed in in situ shadowgraph images. The fracture-type removal of CIGS films was further verified by scanning electron micrographs of the craters showing that the original shapes of the CIGS polycrystals remain intact along the crater rim. A numerical simulation of film temperature under the irradiation conditions of selective removal was carried out to show that the magnitude of induced thermal stress within the film closely agreed to the yield strength of the CIGS thin film. The results confirmed that a nanosecond laser could be a better choice for P2 and P3 scribing of CIGS thin films if process conditions are properly determined. (paper)

  19. Post-processing of fused silica and its effects on damage resistance to nanosecond pulsed UV lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2016-04-10

    HF-based (hydrofluoric acid) chemical etching has been a widely accepted technique to improve the laser damage performance of fused silica optics and ensure high-power UV laser systems at designed fluence. Etching processes such as acid concentration, composition, material removal amount, and etching state (etching with additional acoustic power or not) may have a great impact on the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of treated sample surfaces. In order to find out the effects of these factors, we utilized the Taguchi method to determine the etching conditions that are helpful in raising the LIDT. Our results show that the most influential factors are concentration of etchants and the material etched away from the viewpoint of damage performance of fused silica optics. In addition, the additional acoustic power (∼0.6  W·cm-2) may not benefit the etching rate and damage performance of fused silica. Moreover, the post-cleaning procedure of etched samples is also important in damage performances of fused silica optics. Different post-cleaning procedures were, thus, experiments on samples treated under the same etching conditions. It is found that the "spraying + rinsing + spraying" cleaning process is favorable to the removal of etching-induced deposits. Residuals on the etched surface are harmful to surface roughness and optical transmission as well as laser damage performance.

  20. Electropermeabilization by uni- or bipolar nanosecond electric pulses: The impact of extracellular conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C; Casciola, Maura; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2018-02-01

    Cellular effects caused by nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can be reduced by an electric field reversal, a phenomenon known as bipolar cancellation. The reason for this cancellation effect remains unknown. We hypothesized that assisted membrane discharge is the mechanism for bipolar cancellation. CHO-K1 cells bathed in high (16.1mS/cm; HCS) or low (1.8mS/cm; LCS) conductivity solutions were exposed to either one unipolar (300-ns) or two opposite polarity (300+300-ns; bipolar) nsEP (4-40kV/cm) with increasing interpulse intervals (0.1-50μs). Time-lapse YO-PRO-1 (YP) uptake revealed enhanced membrane permeabilization in LCS compared to HCS at all tested voltages. The time-dependence of bipolar cancellation was similar in both solutions, using either identical (22kV/cm) or isoeffective nsEP treatments (12 and 32kV/cm for LCS and HCS, respectively). However, cancellation was significantly stronger in LCS when the bipolar nsEP had no, or very short (bipolar cancellation was still present with interpulse intervals as long as 50μs, beyond the time expected for membrane discharge. Our findings do not support assisted membrane discharge as the mechanism for bipolar cancellation. Instead they exemplify the sustained action of nsEP that can be reversed long after the initial stimulus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of boron incorporation on the structure and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, A. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sanchez-Lopez, J.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Rouzaud, J.-N. [Laboratoire de Geologie, UMR 8538 CNRS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 45 Rue d' Ulm, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rojas, T.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Avda. Americo Vespucio, 49 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Loir, A.-S. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Garden, J.-L. [Institut Neel, UPR 2940 CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Garrelie, F. [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Donnet, C., E-mail: christophe.donnet@univ-st-etienne.f [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Universite Jean Monnet, 18 Rue Pr. Benoit Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2009-12-31

    The influence of the incorporation of boron in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the microstructure of the coatings has been investigated. The boron-containing DLC films (a-C:B) have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature in high vacuum conditions, by ablating graphite and boron targets either with a femtosecond pulsed laser (800 nm, 150 fs, fs-DLC) or with a nanosecond pulsed laser (248 nm, 20 ns, ns-DLC). Alternative ablation of the graphite and boron targets has been carried out to deposit the a-C:B films. The film structure and composition have been highlighted by coupling Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Using the B K-edge, EELS characterization reveals the boron effect on the carbon bonding. Moreover, the plasmon energy reveals a tendency of graphitization associated to the boron doping. Pure boron particles have been characterized by HRTEM and reveal that those particles are amorphous or crystallized. The nanostructures of the boron-doped ns-DLC and the boron-doped fs-DLC are thus compared. In particular, the incorporation of boron in the DLC matrix is highlighted, depending on the laser used for deposition. Electrical measurements show that some of these films have potentialities to be used in low temperature thermometry, considering their conductivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) estimated within the temperature range 160-300 K.

  2. Low-threshold, nanosecond, high-repetition-rate vortex pulses with controllable helicity generated in Cr,Nd:YAG self-Q-switched microchip laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Sen; Chen, Zhen; Li, Hong-Bin; Dong, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A high repetition rate, nanosecond, pulsed optical vortex beam has been generated in a Cr,Nd:YAG self-Q-switched microchip laser pumped by the annular-beam formed with a hollow focus lens. The lasing threshold for vortex pulses is 0.9 W. A pulse width of 6.5 ns and a repetition rate of over 330 kHz have been achieved. The average output power of 1 W and the slope efficiency of 46.6% have been obtained. The helicity of the optical vortices has been controlled by adjusting the tilted angle between Cr,Nd:YAG crystal and output coupler. The work provides a new method for developing pulsed optical vortices for potential applications on quantum communication and optical trapping.

  3. Axial- and radial-resolved electron density and excitation temperature of aluminum plasma induced by nanosecond laser: Effect of the ambient gas composition and pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Dawood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation of the characteristics of an aluminum plasma induced by a pulsed nanosecond XeCl laser is studied in this paper. The electron density and the excitation temperature are deduced from time- and space- resolved Stark broadening of an ion line and from a Boltzmann diagram, respectively. The influence of the gas pressure (from vacuum up to atmospheric pressure and compositions (argon, nitrogen and helium on these characteristics is investigated. It is observed that the highest electron density occurs near the laser spot and decreases by moving away both from the target surface and from the plume center to its edge. The electron density increases with the gas pressure, the highest values being occurred at atmospheric pressure when the ambient gas has the highest mass, i.e. in argon. The excitation temperature is determined from the Boltzmann plot of line intensities of iron impurities present in the aluminum target. The highest temperature is observed close to the laser spot location for argon at atmospheric pressure. It decreases by moving away from the target surface in the axial direction. However, no significant variation of temperature occurs along the radial direction. The differences observed between the axial and radial direction are mainly due to the different plasma kinetics in both directions.

  4. Dependence of Parameters of Laser-Produced Au Plasmas on the Incident Laser Energy of Sub-Nanosecond and Picosecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woryna, E.; Badziak, J.; Makowski, J.; Parys, P.; Vankov, A.B.; Wolowski, J.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Rohlena, K.

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of Au plasma as functions of laser energy for ps pulses are presented and compared with the ones for sub-ns pulses at nearly the same densities of laser energy. The experiments were performed at the IPPLM with the use of CPA (chirped pulse amplification) Nd:glass laser system. Thick Au foil targets were irradiated by normally incident focused laser beams with maximum intensities of 8x10 16 and 2x10 14 W/cm 2 for ps and sub-ns laser pulses, respectively. The characteristics of ion streams were investigated with the use of ion diagnostics methods based on the time-of flight technique. In these experiments the laser energies were changed in the range from 90 to 700 mJ and the measurements were performed at a given focus position FP = 0 and along the target normal for both the laser pulses. The charge carried by the ions, the maximum ion velocities of fast and thermal ion groups, the maximum ion current density as well as the area of photopeak in dependence on the incident laser energy for sub-ns and ps pulses were investigated and discussed. (author)

  5. The influence of surface contamination on the ion emission from nanosecond-pulsed laser ablation of Al and Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, S.; Dogar, A. H.; Qayyum, H.; Rehman, Z. U.; Qayyum, A.

    2018-04-01

    Ions emitted from planar Al and Cu targets irradiated with a 1064 nm pulsed laser were investigated with the help of a time-resolving Langmuir probe. It was found that the intensity of the ions emitted from a target area rapidly decreases with the increasing number of laser shots, and seems to reach saturation after about 10 laser shots. The saturated intensity of Al and Cu ions was approximately 0.1 and 0.3 times the intensity of the respective ions measured at the first laser shot, respectively. The higher target ion intensity for the first few shots is thought to be due to the enhanced ionization of target atoms by vacuum-ultraviolet radiations emitted from the thermally excited/ionized surface contaminants. The reduction of target ion intensity with an increasing number of laser shots thus indicates the removal of contaminants from the irradiated surface area. Laser-cleaned Al and Cu surfaces were then allowed to be recontaminated with residual vacuum gases and the ion intensity was measured at various time delays. The prolonged exposure of the cleaned target to vacuum residual gases completely restores the ion intensity. Regarding surface contaminants removal, laser shots of higher intensities were found to be more effective than a higher number of laser shots having lower intensities.

  6. Nanosecond Nd-YAG laser induced plasma emission characteristics in low pressure CO{sub 2} ambient gas for spectrochemical application on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuou 2 choume, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan); Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Jakarta 11630 (Indonesia)

    2015-08-28

    An experimental study is conducted on the possibility and viability of performing spectrochemical analysis of carbon and other elements in trace amount in Mars, in particular, the clean detection of C, which is indispensible for tracking the sign of life in Mars. For this study, a nanosecond Nd-YAG laser is employed to generate plasma emission from a pure copper target in CO{sub 2} ambient gas of reduced pressure simulating the atmospheric condition of Mars. It is shown that the same shock wave excitation mechanism also works this case while exhibiting remarkably long cooling stage. The highest Cu emission intensities induced by 4 mJ laser ablation energy is attained in 600 Pa CO{sub 2} ambient gas. Meanwhile the considerably weaker carbon emission from the CO{sub 2} gas appears relatively featureless over the entire range of pressure variation, posing a serious problem for sensitive trace analysis of C contained in a solid sample. Our time resolved intensity measurement nevertheless reveals earlier appearance of C emission from the CO{sub 2} gas with a limited duration from 50 ns to 400 ns after the laser irradiation, well before the initial appearance of the long lasting C emission from the solid target at about 1 μs, due to the different C-releasing processes from their different host materials. The unwanted C emission from the ambient gas can thus be eliminated from the detected spectrum by a proper time gated detection window. The excellent spectra of carbon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen obtained from an agate sample are presented to further demonstrate and verify merit of this special time gated LIBS using CO{sub 2} ambient gas and suggesting its viability for broad ranging in-situ applications in Mars.

  7. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangmin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Tengfei; Han, Zhenchun

    2017-03-03

    Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.

  8. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangmin Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques, this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon.

  9. Nanosecond laser-induced back side wet etching of fused silica with a copper-based absorber liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Pierre; Zehnder, Sarah; Ehrhardt, Martin; Frost, Frank; Zimmer, Klaus; Schwaller, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Cost-efficient machining of dielectric surfaces with high-precision and low-roughness for industrial applications is still challenging if using laser-patterning processes. Laser induced back side wet etching (LIBWE) using UV laser pulses with liquid heavy metals or aromatic hydrocarbons as absorber allows the fabrication of well-defined, nm precise, free-form surfaces with low surface roughness, e.g., needed for optical applications. The copper-sulphatebased absorber CuSO4/K-Na-Tartrate/NaOH/formaldehyde in water is used for laser-induced deposition of copper. If this absorber can also be used as precursor for laser-induced ablation, promising industrial applications combining surface structuring and deposition within the same setup could be possible. The etching results applying a KrF excimer (248 nm, 25 ns) and a Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 20 ns) laser are compared. The topography of the etched surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), white light interferometry (WLI) as well as laser scanning microscopy (LSM). The chemical composition of the irradiated surface was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For the discussion of the etching mechanism the laser-induced heating was simulated with finite element method (FEM). The results indicate that the UV and IR radiation allows micro structuring of fused silica with the copper-based absorber where the etching process can be explained by the laser-induced formation of a copper-based absorber layer.

  10. Impact of external medium conductivity on cell membrane electropermeabilization by microsecond and nanosecond electric pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silve, Aude; Leray, Isabelle; Poignard, Clair; Mir, Lluis M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of external medium conductivity on the efficiency of the reversible permeabilisation caused by pulsed electric fields was investigated. Pulses of 12 ns, 102 ns or 100 μs were investigated. Whenever permeabilisation could be detected after the delivery of one single pulse, media of lower conductivity induced more efficient reversible permeabilisation and thus independently of the medium composition. Effect of medium conductivity can however be hidden by some saturation effects, for example when pulses are cumulated (use of trains of 8 pulses) or when the detection method is not sensitive enough. This explains the contradicting results that can be found in the literature. The new data are complementary to those of one of our previous study in which an opposite effect of the conductivity was highlighted. It stresses that the conductivity of the medium influences the reversible permeabilization by several ways. Moreover, these results clearly indicate that electropermeabilisation does not linearly depend on the energy delivered to the cells. PMID:26829153

  11. Cluster-assistant generation of multiply charged atomic ions in nanosecond laser ionization of seeded methyl iodide beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaolin; Niu Dongmei; Kong Xianglei; Wen Lihua; Liang Feng; Pei Kemei; Wang Bin; Li Haiyang

    2005-01-01

    The photoionization of methyl iodide beam seeded in argon and helium is studied by time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 25 ns, 532 nm Nd-YAG laser with intensities in the range of 2 x 10 10 -2 x 10 11 W/cm 2 . Multiply charged ions of I q+ (q = 2-3) and C 2+ with tens of eV kinetic energies have been observed when laser interacts with the middle part of the pulsed molecular beam, whose peak profiles are independent on the laser polarization directions. Strong evidences show that these ions are coming from the Coulomb explosion of multiply charged CH 3 I clusters, and laser induced inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of caged electrons plays a key role in the formation of multiply charged ions

  12. A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiangmin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Tengfei; Han, Zhenchun

    2017-01-01

    Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the ...

  13. Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

  14. Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

  15. Nanosecond high-power dense microplasma switch for visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataller, A., E-mail: bataller@physics.ucla.edu; Koulakis, J.; Pree, S.; Putterman, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Spark discharges in high-pressure gas are known to emit a broadband spectrum during the first 10 s of nanoseconds. We present calibrated spectra of high-pressure discharges in xenon and show that the resulting plasma is optically thick. Laser transmission data show that such a body is opaque to visible light, as expected from Kirchoff's law of thermal radiation. Nanosecond framing images of the spark absorbing high-power laser light are presented. The sparks are ideal candidates for nanosecond, high-power laser switches.

  16. Time-resolved imaging of filamentary damage on the exit surface of fused silica induced by 1064 nm nanosecond laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Shen; Xiang’ai, Cheng; Tian, Jiang; Zhiwu, Zhu; Yifan, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced damage on the exit surface of fused silica with a filament was observed. The filament has a central hollow core surrounded by molten materials and no obvious cracks could be observed. The critical intensity for the transition from pure surface damage (SD) to filamentary damage (FD) was measured. Time-resolved shadowgraphic microscopy with nanosecond time resolution was employed to compare the propagation of shock wave and material response in the SD and FD process. The main different features during the material response process include: (i) thermoelastic shock waves launched in FD were multiple and a column envelope was observed in the lateral direction; (ii) more energy is deposited in the bulk for FD resulting to a lower speed of shock wave in air; (iii) the overall time for establishing the main character of the damage site for FD was shorter because of the absence of crack expansion. Self-focusing and temperature-activated optical absorption enhancement of the bulk material are discussed to explain the morphology difference between SD and FD and the evolution of filament length under different incident intensities. (paper)

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic efficiency in zirconia buffered n-NiO/p-NiO single crystalline heterostructures by nanosecond laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, R.; Bayati, M. R.; Alipour, H. M.; Nori, S.; Narayan, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, NC State University, EB-1, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7907 (United States)

    2013-06-21

    We report the formation of NiO based single crystalline p-n junctions with enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by pulsed laser irradiation. The NiO epilayers were grown on Si(001) substrates buffered with cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (c-YSZ) by using pulsed laser deposition. The NiO/c-YSZ/Si heterostructures were subsequently laser treated by 5 pulses of KrF excimer laser (pulse duration = 25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} s) at lower energies. Microstructural studies, conducted by X-ray diffraction ({theta}-2{theta} and {phi} techniques) and high resolution transmission electron microscope, showed a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship at the c-YSZ/Si interface; the epitaxial relationship across the NiO/c-YSZ interface was established as NiO<111 > Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<001> and in-plane NiO<110> Double-Vertical-Line Double-Vertical-Line c-YSZ<100>. Electron microscopy studies showed that the interface between the laser annealed and the pristine region as well as the NiO/c-YSZ interface was atomically sharp and crystallographically continuous. The formation of point defects, namely oxygen vacancies and NiO, due to the coupling of the laser photons with the NiO epilayers was confirmed by XPS. The p-type electrical characteristics of the pristine NiO epilayers turned to an n-type behavior and the electrical conductivity was increased by one order of magnitude after laser treatment. Photocatalytic activity of the pristine (p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) and the laser-annealed (n-NiO/p-NiO/c-YSZ/Si) heterostructures were assessed by measuring the decomposition rate of 4-chlorophenol under UV light. The photocatalytic reaction rate constants were determined to be 0.0059 and 0.0092 min{sup -1} for the as-deposited and the laser-treated samples, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic efficiency was attributed to the suppressed charge carrier recombination in the NiO based p-n junctions and higher electrical conductivity. Besides, the oxygen vacancies

  18. Long-duration nano-second single pulse lasers for observation of spectra from bulk liquids at high hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Blair; Sakka, Tetsuo; Masamura, Tatsuya; Tamura, Ayaka; Takahashi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Ayumu

    2014-01-01

    The influence of laser pulse duration on the spectral emissions observed from bulk ionic solutions has been investigated for hydrostatic pressures between 0.1 and 30 MPa. Transient pressure, shadowgraph imaging and spectroscopic measurements were performed for single pulses of duration 20 and 150 ns. The transient pressure measurements show that for hydrostatic pressures up to 30 MPa, propagation of the high-pressure shockwave generated by the focused laser causes the local pressure to reduce below ambient levels during the time frame that spectroscopic measurements can be made. The pressure impulse and subsequent reduction in pressure are larger, with the latter lasting longer for the 150 ns pulse compared to a 20 ns pulse of the same energy. The 150 ns pulse generates larger cavities with significant enhancement of the spectral emissions observed compared to the 20 ns duration pulse for pressures up to 30 MPa. The results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown using a long ns duration pulse offers an advantage over conventional, short ns duration pulses for the analysis of bulk ionic solutions at hydrostatic pressures between 0.1 and 30 MPa. - Highlights: • Long-ns-duration laser pulses enhance the spectra observed from bulk solutions. • Laser-induced shockwaves momentarily reduce pressures to below ambient levels. • 150 ns pulses generate larger cavities than 20 ns pulses of the same energy. • Hydrostatic pressures < 30 MPa have no significant effect on the observed spectra

  19. Tungsten ditelluride for a nanosecond Ho,Pr:LiLuF4 laser at 2.95 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Jia; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Zhang, Shuaiyi; Li, Jian

    2018-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear absorption characteristics of a home-built multilayer tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) saturable absorber at ~3 µm were demonstrated for the first time. A passively Q-switched Ho,Pr:LiLuF4 laser was realized by inserting the WTe2-saturable absorber into a plane-concave laser cavity. A maximum average output power of 128 mW, with a pulse duration of 366 ns at a repetition rate of 92 kHz was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 3.67 W, corresponding to a pulse energy of 1.4 µJ.

  20. Nanosecond Tm:Y2O3 ceramic laser passively Q-switched by a Ho:LuAG ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Shiqiang; Shen, Deyuan

    2018-02-01

    A passively Q-switched 2.05-μm Tm:Y2O3 ceramic laser, employing Ho:LuAG ceramic as a saturable absorber, was demonstrated for the first time. Under the absorbed pump power of 20.5 W, a maximum output power of 497 mW was obtained. Pulses with a minimum pulse width of 642 ns under the repetition rate of 33 kHz were achieved. Our works validate that Ho-doped materials have good potential for passive Q-switching of Tm-doped lasers at 2-μm wavelength region.

  1. Ablation of (GeS{sub 2}){sub 0.3}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.7} glass with an ultra-violet nano-second laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, P., E-mail: petr.knotek@upce.cz [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of IMC and University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Navesnik, J.; Cernohorsky, T. [University of Pardubice, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Institute of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Kincl, M.; Vlcek, M.; Tichy, L. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 162 06 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The interaction of (GeS{sub 2}){sub 0.3}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 0.7} bulk glass and film with UV nanosecond laser. • Ablation process, topography of crater and structure of the material were studied. • Ablation threshold fluencies changed with the spot diameter and number of pulses. • The photo-thermal expansion of the material occurred for low laser fluency. • Laser direct writing process applicable for fabrication of passive optical elements. - Abstract: The results of an experimental study of the laser ablation of bulk and thin films of a GeSbS chalcogenide glass using UV nanosecond pulses are reported. The response of the samples to illumination conditions was studied through the use of atomic force spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The multi-pulse ablation thresholds were determined for both the bulk and thin film samples for varying number of pulses and illuminated spot diameter. The possible application of direct laser writing into the bulk and thin films of this material is presented.

  2. The Influence of spot size on the expansion dynamics of nanosecond-laser-produced copper plasmas in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xingwen; Wei, Wenfu; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli; Qiu, Aici

    2013-01-01

    Laser produced copper plasmas of different spot sizes in air were investigated using fast photography and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The laser energy was 33 mJ. There were dramatic changes in the plasma plume expansion into the ambient air when spot sizes changed from ∼0.1 mm to ∼0.6 mm. A stream-like structure and a hemispherical structure were, respectively, observed. It appeared that the same spot size resulted in similar expansion dynamics no matter whether the target was located in the front of or behind the focal point, although laser-induced air breakdown sometimes occurred in the latter case. Plasma plume front positions agree well with the classic blast wave model for the large spot-size cases, while an unexpected stagnation of ∼80 ns occurred after the laser pulse ends for the small spot size cases. This stagnation can be understood in terms of the evolution of enhanced plasma shielding effects near the plasma front. Axial distributions of plasma components by OES revealed a good confinement effect. Electron number densities were estimated and interpreted using the recorded Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) images.

  3. Process and application of shock compression by nanosecond pulses of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuji; Kimura, Motohiko; Mukai, Naruhiko; Yoda, Masaki; Obata, Minoru; Ogisu, Tatsuki

    2000-02-01

    The authors have developed a new process of laser-induced shock compression to introduce a residual compressive stress on material surface, which is effective for prevention of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and enhancement of fatigue strength of metal materials. The process developed is unique and beneficial. It requires no pre-conditioning for the surface, whereas the conventional process requires that the so-called sacrificial layer is made to protect the surface from damage. The new process can be freely applied to water- immersed components, since it uses water-penetrable green light of a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The process developed has the potential to open up new high-power laser applications in manufacturing and maintenance technologies. The laser-induced shock compression process (LSP) can be used to improve a residual stress field from tensile to compressive. In order to understand the physics and optimize the process, the propagation of a shock wave generated by the impulse of laser irradiation and the dynamic response of the material were analyzed by time-dependent elasto-plastic calculations with a finite element program using laser-induced plasma pressure as an external load. The analysis shows that a permanent strain and a residual compressive stress remain after the passage of the shock wave with amplitude exceeding the yield strength of the material. A practical system materializing the LSP was designed, manufactured, and tested to confirm the applicability to core components of light water reactors (LWRs). The system accesses the target component and remotely irradiates laser pulses to the heat affected zone (HAZ) along weld lines. Various functional tests were conducted using a full-scale mockup facility, in which remote maintenance work in a reactor vessel could be simulated. The results showed that the system remotely accessed the target weld lines and successfully introduced a residual compressive stress. After sufficient training

  4. Space-resolved analysis of trace elements in fresh vegetables using ultraviolet nanosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juve, Vincent; Portelli, Richard; Boueri, Myriam; Baudelet, Matthieu; Yu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to analyze trace elements contained in fresh vegetables. A quadrupled Nd:YAG laser is used in the experiments for ablation. Analyzed samples come from local markets and represent frequently consumed vegetables. For a typical root vegetable, such as potato, spectral analysis of the plasma emission reveals more than 400 lines emitted by 27 elements and 2 molecules, C 2 and CN. Among these species, one can find trace as well as ultra-trace elements. A space-resolved analysis of several trace elements with strong emissions is then applied to typical root, stem and fruit vegetables. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of an interesting tool for botanical and agricultural studies as well for food quality/safety and environment pollution assessment and control

  5. Influence of water content on the ablation of skin with a 532 nm nanosecond Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Eom, Tae Joong; Jeong, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    This work reports that the ablation volume and rate of porcine skin changed significantly with the change of skin water content. Under the same laser irradiation conditions (532 nm Nd:YAG laser, pulse width=11.5 ns, pulse energy=1.54 J, beam radius=0.54 mm), the ablation volume dropped by a factor of 4 as the skin water content decreased from 40 wt. % (native) to 19 wt. % with a change in the ablation rate below and above around 25 wt. %. Based on the ablation characteristics observed by in situ shadowgraph images and the calculated tissue temperatures, it is considered that an explosive rupture by rapid volumetric vaporization of water is responsible for the ablation of the high water content of skin, whereas thermal disintegration of directly irradiated surface layer is responsible for the low water content of skin.

  6. Improved patterning of ITO coated with gold masking layer on glass substrate using nanosecond fiber laser and etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Nguyen Ngoc; Hung, Duong Thanh; Anh, Vo Tran; BongChul, Kang; HyunChul, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new patterning method for ITO thin film is introduced. • Gold thin film is important in decrease spikes formed in ITO patterning process. • The laser pulse width occupies a significant effect the patterning surface quality. • Etching process is the effective method to remove the spikes at rims of pattern. • A considerable improvement over patterning quality is obtained by proposed method. - Abstract: In this paper, an indium–tin oxide (ITO) thin-film patterning method for higher pattern quality and productivity compared to the short-pulsed laser direct writing method is presented. We sputtered a thin ITO layer on a glass substrate, and then, plated a thin gold layer onto the ITO layer. The combined structure of the three layers (glass–ITO–gold) was patterned using laser-induced plasma generated by an ytterbium pulsed fiber laser (λ = 1064 nm). The results showed that the process parameters of 50 mm/s in scanning speed, 14 ns pulse duration, and a repetition rate of 7.5 kHz represented optimum conditions for the fabrication of ITO channels. Under these conditions, a channel 23.4 μm wide and 20 nm deep was obtained. However, built-up spikes (∼15 nm in height) resulted in a decrease in channel quality, and consequently, short circuit occurred at some patterned positions. These built-up spikes were completely removed by dipping the ITO layer into an etchant (18 wt.% HCl). A gold masking layer on the ITO surface was found to increase the channel surface quality without any decrease in ITO thickness. Moreover, the effects of repetition rate, scanning speed, and etching characteristics on surface quality were investigated

  7. Improved patterning of ITO coated with gold masking layer on glass substrate using nanosecond fiber laser and etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Nguyen Ngoc; Hung, Duong Thanh; Anh, Vo Tran [High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); BongChul, Kang, E-mail: kbc@kumoh.ac.kr [Department of Inteligent Mechanical Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); HyunChul, Kim, E-mail: mechkhc@inje.ac.kr [High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • A new patterning method for ITO thin film is introduced. • Gold thin film is important in decrease spikes formed in ITO patterning process. • The laser pulse width occupies a significant effect the patterning surface quality. • Etching process is the effective method to remove the spikes at rims of pattern. • A considerable improvement over patterning quality is obtained by proposed method. - Abstract: In this paper, an indium–tin oxide (ITO) thin-film patterning method for higher pattern quality and productivity compared to the short-pulsed laser direct writing method is presented. We sputtered a thin ITO layer on a glass substrate, and then, plated a thin gold layer onto the ITO layer. The combined structure of the three layers (glass–ITO–gold) was patterned using laser-induced plasma generated by an ytterbium pulsed fiber laser (λ = 1064 nm). The results showed that the process parameters of 50 mm/s in scanning speed, 14 ns pulse duration, and a repetition rate of 7.5 kHz represented optimum conditions for the fabrication of ITO channels. Under these conditions, a channel 23.4 μm wide and 20 nm deep was obtained. However, built-up spikes (∼15 nm in height) resulted in a decrease in channel quality, and consequently, short circuit occurred at some patterned positions. These built-up spikes were completely removed by dipping the ITO layer into an etchant (18 wt.% HCl). A gold masking layer on the ITO surface was found to increase the channel surface quality without any decrease in ITO thickness. Moreover, the effects of repetition rate, scanning speed, and etching characteristics on surface quality were investigated.

  8. Influence of physical properties and chemical composition of sample on formation of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond laser ablation at 213 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa, E-mail: mhola@sci.muni.c [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Konecna, Veronika [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kaiser, Jozef [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of sample properties and composition on the size and concentration of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser ablation at 213 nm was investigated for three sets of different materials, each containing five specimens with a similar matrix (Co-cemented carbides with a variable content of W and Co, steel samples with minor differences in elemental content and silica glasses with various colors). The concentration of ablated particles (particle number concentration, PNC) was measured in two size ranges (10-250 nm and 0.25-17 mum) using an optical aerosol spectrometer. The shapes and volumes of the ablation craters were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and by an optical profilometer, respectively. Additionally, the structure of the laser-generated particles was studied after their collection on a filter using SEM. The results of particle concentration measurements showed a significant dominance of particles smaller than 250 nm in comparison with larger particles, irrespective of the kind of material. Even if the number of particles larger than 0.25 mum is negligible (up to 0.1%), the volume of large particles that left the ablation cell can reach 50% of the whole particle volume depending on the material. Study of the ablation craters and the laser-generated particles showed a various number of particles produced by different ablation mechanisms (particle splashing or condensation), but the similar character of released particles for all materials was observed by SEM after particle collection on the membrane filter. The created aerosol always consisted of two main structures - spherical particles with diameters from tenths to units of micrometers originally ejected from the molten surface layer and mum-sized 'fibres' composed of primary agglomerates with diameters in the range between tens and hundreds of nanometers. The shape and structure of ablation craters were in good agreement with particle concentration

  9. Optical properties of p–i–n structures based on amorphous hydrogenated silicon with silicon nanocrystals formed via nanosecond laser annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krivyakin, G.K.; Volodin, V.; Kochubei, S.A.; Kamaev, G.N.; Purkrt, Adam; Remeš, Zdeněk; Fajgar, Radek; Stuchlíková, The-Ha; Stuchlík, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2016), s. 935-940 ISSN 1063-7826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12236 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrogenated amorphous silicon * nanocrystals * laser annealing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2016

  10. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablated sub-10 nm silicon nanoparticles for improving photovoltaic conversion efficiency of commercial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H. R.; Ghobadi, A.; Ulusoy Ghobadi, T. G.; Ates, H.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) solar cell efficiency using luminescent silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs). Sub-10 nm Si-NPs are synthesized via pulsed laser ablation technique. These ultra-small Si nanoparticles exhibit photoluminescence (PL) character tics at 425 and 517 nm upon excitation by ultra-violet (UV) light. Therefore, they can act as secondary light sources that convert high energetic photons to ones at visible range. This down-shifting property can be a promising approach to enhance PV performance of the solar cell, regardless of its type. As proof-of-concept, polycrystalline commercial solar cells with an efficiency of ca 10% are coated with these luminescent Si-NPs. The nanoparticle-decorated solar cells exhibit up to 1.64% increase in the external quantum efficiency with respect to the uncoated reference cells. According to spectral photo-responsivity characterizations, the efficiency enhancement is stronger in wavelengths below 550 nm. As expected, this is attributed to down-shifting via Si-NPs, which is verified by their PL characteristics. The results presented here can serve as a beacon for future performance enhanced devices in a wide range of applications based on Si-NPs including PVs and LED applications.

  11. Influence of surrounding gas, composition and pressure on plasma plume dynamics of nanosecond pulsed laser-induced aluminum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Dawood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a comprehensive study of the plume dynamics of plasmas generated by laser ablation of an aluminum target. The effect of both ambient gas composition (helium, nitrogen or argon and pressure (from ∼5 × 10−7 Torr up to atmosphere is studied. The time- and space- resolved observation of the plasma plume are performed from spectrally integrated images using an intensified Charge Coupled Device (iCCD camera. The iCCD images show that the ambient gas does not significantly influence the plume as long as the gas pressure is lower than 20 Torr and the time delay below 300 ns. However, for pressures higher than 20 Torr, the effect of the ambient gas becomes important, the shortest plasma plume length being observed when the gas mass species is highest. On the other hand, space- and time- resolved emission spectroscopy of aluminum ions at λ = 281.6 nm are used to determine the Time-Of-Flight (TOF profiles. The effect of the ambient gas on the TOF profiles and therefore on the propagation velocity of Al ions is discussed. A correlation between the plasma plume expansion velocity deduced from the iCCD images and that estimated from the TOF profiles is presented. The observed differences are attributed mainly to the different physical mechanisms governing the two diagnostic techniques.

  12. Spatial characterization of red and white skin potatoes using nano-second laser induced breakdown in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Imran; Rehan, Kamran; Sultana, S.; Haq, M. Oun ul; Niazi, Muhammad Zubair Khan; Muhammad, Riaz

    2016-01-01

    We presents spectroscopic study of the plasma generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser irradiation of the flesh of red and white skin potatoes. From the spectra recorded with spectrometer (LIBS2500+, Ocean Optics, USA) 11 elements were identified in red skin potato, whereas, the white skin potato was found to have nine elements. Their relative concentrations were estimated using CF-LIBS method for the plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The target was placed in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. The electron temperature and number density were calculated from Boltzmann plot and stark broadened line profile methods, respectively using Fe I spectral lines. The spatial distribution of plasma parameters were also studied which show a decreasing trend of 6770 K-4266 K and (3-2.0) × 1016 cm-3. Concentrations of the detected elements were monitored as a function of depth of the potatoes. Our study reveals a decreasing tendency in concentration of iron from top to the centre of potato's flesh, whereas, the concentrations of other elements vary randomly.

  13. Ultrastructural imaging and molecular modeling of live bacteria using soft x-ray contact microscopy with nanoseconds laser plasma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, M.; Richardson, M.C.; Gabel, K.; Torres, D.; Rajyaguru, J.; Muszynski, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    Detection for clinical diagnosis and study of microbial cell is performed by a combination of low magnification optical microscopy and direct and indirect labeling techniques. Visual ultrastructural studies on subcellular organelles are possible with variations of electron microscopy (thin section, scanning and freeze fracture), although specimen preparation steps such as fixation, dehydration, resin embedding, ultra-thin sectioning, coating and staining are very specialized, extensive and may introduce artifacts in the original sample. The development of high resolution x-ray microscopy is a new technique well suited to observe the intact structure of a biological specimen at high resolution without any artifacts. Here, x ray images of the various live bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and micromolecule such as chromosomal DNA from Escherichia coli, and Lipopolysaccharide from Burkholderia cepacia, are obtained with soft x-ray contact microscopy. A compact tabletop type glass laser system is used to produce x rays from Al, Si, and Au targets. The PMMA photoresists are used to record x-ray images. An AFM (atomic force microscope) is used to reproduce the x-ray images from the developed photoresists. The performance of the 50 nm spatial resolutions are achieved and images are able to be discussed on the biological view

  14. Quantitative analysis of chromium concentration in nickel based alloys by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure using a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Suri, B.M.; Verma, A.; Sundararaman, M.; Unnikrishnan, V.K.; Alti, K.; Kartha, V.B.; Santhosh, C.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been well recognized as a simple, fast and direct analytical technique of elemental analysis of multi-element materials by a number of research groups all over the world. It is based on the focusing of a high-power pulsed laser beam with a power density > 100 MW/cm 2 onto a sample surface followed by optical emission spectroscopy of the plasma produced over the surface. In the present work, they have carried out the quantitative analysis of chromium in nickel-based-alloys using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in air at atmospheric pressure. In the present work the quantitative analysis of chromium in nickel-based-alloys using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy (LIBS) in air at atmospheric pressure has been carried out

  15. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution

  16. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.

  17. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddi, M; Jiang, N; Adamovich, I V; Lempert, W R

    2009-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ∼8 x 10 12 cm -3 (∼4.14 ppm) occurring at ∼250 μs after the pulse, with decay time of ∼16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of ψ = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of ψ = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N 2 (C 3 Π) and NO(A 2 Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ∼20 ns and ∼1 μs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (∼100 μs) metastable states, such as N 2 (X 1 Σ,v) and O 2 (b 1 Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N 2 (A 3 Σ) state by ground electronic state O 2 , may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O 2 , as well as by conversion into NO 2 in a reaction

  18. Nitric oxide density measurements in air and air/fuel nanosecond pulse discharges by laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddi, M.; Jiang, N.; Adamovich, I. V.; Lempert, W. R.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence is used to measure absolute nitric oxide concentrations in air, methane-air and ethylene-air non-equilibrium plasmas, as a function of time after initiation of a single pulse, 20 kV peak voltage, 25 ns pulse duration discharge. A mixture of NO and nitrogen with known composition (4.18 ppm NO) is used for calibration. Peak NO density in air at 60 Torr, after a single pulse, is ~8 × 1012 cm-3 (~4.14 ppm) occurring at ~250 µs after the pulse, with decay time of ~16.5 ms. Peak NO atom mole fraction in a methane-air mixture with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5 is found to be approximately equal to that in air, with approximately the same rise and decay rate. In an ethylene-air mixture (also with equivalence ratio of phiv = 0.5), the rise and decay times are comparable to air and methane-air, but the peak NO concentration is reduced by a factor of approximately 2.5. Spontaneous emission measurements show that excited electronic states N2(C 3Π) and NO(A 2Σ) in air at P = 60 Torr decay within ~20 ns and ~1 µs, respectively. Kinetic modelling calculations incorporating air plasma kinetics complemented with the GRI Mech 3.0 hydrocarbon oxidation mechanism are compared with the experimental data using three different NO production mechanisms. It is found that NO concentration rise after the discharge pulse is much faster than predicted by Zel'dovich mechanism reactions, by two orders of magnitude, but much slower compared with reactions of electronically excited nitrogen atoms and molecules, also by two orders of magnitude. It is concluded that processes involving long lifetime (~100 µs) metastable states, such as N2(X 1Σ,v) and O2(b 1Σ), formed by quenching of the metastable N2(A 3Σ) state by ground electronic state O2, may play a dominant role in NO formation. NO decay, in all cases, is found to be dominated by the reverse Zel'dovich reaction, NO + O → N + O2, as well as by conversion into NO2 in a reaction of NO with ozone.

  19. Fiber Coupled Pulse Shaper for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Lidar, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II effort will develop an all-diode laser and fiber optic based, single frequency, sub-nanosecond pulsed laser source...

  20. Nanosecond neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, S.I.; Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Pukhov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    High-voltage nanosecond neutron generator for obtaining neutrons in D-T reaction is described. Yield of 6x10 6 neutron/pulse was generated in a sealed gas-filled diode with a target on the cathode by accelerating pulse voltage of approximately 0.5 MV and length at half-height of 0.5 ns and deuterium pressure of 6x10 -2 Torr. Ways of increasing neutron yield and possibilities of creating generators of nanosecond neutron pulses with great service life are considered

  1. A High-Power Laser-Driven Source of Sub-nanosecond Soft X-Ray Pulses for Single-Shot Radiobiology Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor; Bittner, Michal; Koptyaev, Sergey; Hájková, Věra; Krása, Josef; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Štísová, Viktorie; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Mikolajczyk, J.; Ryc, L.; Pína, L.; Horváth, M.; Babánková, Dagmar; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 3 (2007), s. 382-387 ISSN 0033-7587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2316; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk 1P04LA235; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : soft X-rays * radiation damage to DNA * laser-driven source Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2007

  2. Q-switched nanosecond Nd3+:Ca(NbO3)2 crystalline self-Raman laser with single-step cascade SE (λSE = 1.0615 μm of 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 channel) → SRS (λSt1 = 1.1741 μm of ωSRS ≈ 904 cm-1 promotion vibration mode) wavelength conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskii, A A; Dong, J; Ueda, K; Bettinelli, M; Grinberg, M; Jaque, D

    2009-01-01

    A passively Q-switched nanosecond Nd 3+ :Ca(NbO 3 ) 2 self-Raman laser with 0.808-μm laser-diode pumping has been demonstrated, operating by nonlinear cascaded scheme at converted wavelength of Nd 3+ one-micron stimulated emission

  3. Influence of the reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metallic targets at atmospheric pressure and high repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Le Garrec, J.-L.; Mitchell, J.B.A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Jouvard, J.-M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Carvou, E. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Menneveux, J.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ouf, F.-X. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN/PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA BP 68, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Carles, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Potin, V.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perez, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marco de Lucas, M.C., E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • NPs formed in a plasma-plume during laser irradiation of metals (Al, Ti, Ag) were studied. • In situ SAXS and ex situ TEM, XRD and Raman spectra were measured. • NPs size decreased when increasing the O{sub 2} fraction in a controlled O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} atmosphere. • The oxidation of metal NPs in the plasma restricts the increase of the size of the NPs. - Abstract: The influence of a reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the plasma plume generated by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metal targets (Ti, Al, Ag) was probed in situ using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Air and different O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixtures were used as reactive gas within atmospheric pressure. SAXS results showed the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume with a mean radius varying in the 2–5 nm range. A decrease of the NPs size with increasing the O{sub 2} percentage in the O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixture was also showed. Ex situ observations by transmission electron microscopy and structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were also performed for powders collected in experiments done using air as ambient gas. The stability of the different metal oxides is discussed as being a key parameter influencing the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume.

  4. Sub-nanosecond laser-induced structural changes in the phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 measured by an optical pump/x-ray probe technique: Structural snapshots with a 500 ps shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fons, P.; Brewe, D.; Stern, E.; Kolobov, A.V.; Fukaya, T.; Suzuki, M.; Uruga, T.; Kawamura, N.; Takagaki, M.; Ohsawa, H.; Tanida, H.; Tominaga, J.

    2007-01-01

    Phase-change alloys are characterized by reversible switching between amorphous and crystalline phases either by laser irradiation or by an electric programming current; the resulting changes in material properties can be used for non-volatile data storage. Switching typically occurs on nanosecond or less time scales. Considering the conflicting requirements for high-speed switching, yet long term data storage integrity, a deeper understanding of the switching processes in these materials is essential for insightful application development. Although, high-speed optical pump/probe observations have been made of reflectivity changes during the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 switching process, due to the nanosecond order time scales involved little is known about the corresponding changes in structure. In addition as the amorphous phase does not diffract, its structural analysis is not amenable to analysis by high-speed diffraction techniques. We have used synchrotron-based time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), a technique equally suitable for amorphous and crystalline phases to elaborate details in structural changes in the phase-change process. We report on two experiments using high-speed pulsed lasers that serve as optical pumps to induced material changes followed by synchrotron produced x-ray burst that serve as a time resolved structural probe. The first experiment carried out at the Advanced Photon source focuses on changes due to heating in the amorphous phase. Our experimental results indicate that the maximum temperature reached during the re-amorphization process are less than the melting point indicated in the bulk phase diagram of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 reaching a maximum temperature of 620 C and in addition, do not share the same bond length distribution of a true melt. These findings strongly suggest the possibility of non-thermal melting. In the second experiment, we have obtained near-edge x-ray absorption data for a Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 film in the

  5. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  6. Generation of Multicharged Krypton Ions in Nanosecond Laser Ionization of Krypton Beam%纳秒激光电离产生Kr17+的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓琳; 孔祥蕾; 牛冬梅; 渠洪波; 李海洋

    2004-01-01

    Up to Kr17+ muhicharged krypton ions have been observed in time-of-flight mass spectrum by a 25 ns Nd-YAG 1. 064 μm laser at laser intensity about 1012 W/cm2. Experimental results indicate that the muhicharged ions appear only when the laser interacts with the middle part of the pulsed beam, and the intensities of the multi charged ions increase dramatically by increasing the backing pressure of Kr gas, which indicates that the clusters in the beam is essential to the production of muhicharged ions. From the experimental results, it is concluded that the cluster is ionized via multiphoton ionization and forms a nanoplasma ball, which can absorb the laser resonantly to further ionize the single charge ion to the high charge state.

  7. Cracks growth behaviors of commercial pure titanium under nanosecond laser irradiation for formation of nanostructure-covered microstructures (with sub-5-μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, A. F.; Wang, W. J.; Mei, X. S.; Zheng, B. X.; Yan, Z. X.

    2016-11-01

    This study reported on the formation of sub-5-μm microstructures covered on titanium by cracks growth under 10-ns laser radiation at the wavelength of 532 nm and its induced light modification for production of nanostructures. The electric field intensity and laser power density absorbed by commercial pure titanium were computed to investigate the self-trapping introduced by cracks and the effect of surface morphology on laser propagation characteristics. It is found that nanostructures can form at the surface with the curvature radius below 20 μm. Meanwhile, variable laser fluences were applied to explore the evolution of cracks on commercial pure titanium with or without melt as spot overlap number increased. Experimental study was first performed at the peak laser fluence of 1.063 J/cm2 to investigate the microstructures induced only by cracks growth. The results demonstrated that angular microstructures with size between 1.68 μm and 4.74 μm was obtained and no nanostructure covered. Then, at the peak laser fluence of 2.126 J/cm2, there were some nanostructures covered on the melt-induced curved microstructured surface. However, surface molten material submerged in the most of cracks at the spot overlap number of 744, where the old cracks disappeared. The results indicated that there was too much molten material and melting time at the peak laser fluence of 2.126 J/cm2, which was not suitable for obtainment of perfect micro-nano structures. On this basis, peak laser fluence was reduced down to 1.595 J/cm2 and the sharp sub-5 μm microstructures with nanostructures covered was obtained at spot overlap number of 3720.

  8. Cracks growth behaviors of commercial pure titanium under nanosecond laser irradiation for formation of nanostructure-covered microstructures (with sub-5-μm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, A.F.; Wang, W.J., E-mail: wenjunwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Mei, X.S.; Zheng, B.X.; Yan, Z.X.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The sub-5-μm microstructures on commercial pure titanium are creatively obtained based on cracks growth under 10 ns laser irradiation. • The distribution modification of laser energy induced by cambered microstructures was theoretically analyzed to produce nanostructures. • The sharp micro-nano structures under combined action of crack growth and hot-melt are obtained. - Abstract: This study reported on the formation of sub-5-μm microstructures covered on titanium by cracks growth under 10-ns laser radiation at the wavelength of 532 nm and its induced light modification for production of nanostructures. The electric field intensity and laser power density absorbed by commercial pure titanium were computed to investigate the self-trapping introduced by cracks and the effect of surface morphology on laser propagation characteristics. It is found that nanostructures can form at the surface with the curvature radius below 20 μm. Meanwhile, variable laser fluences were applied to explore the evolution of cracks on commercial pure titanium with or without melt as spot overlap number increased. Experimental study was first performed at the peak laser fluence of 1.063 J/cm{sup 2} to investigate the microstructures induced only by cracks growth. The results demonstrated that angular microstructures with size between 1.68 μm and 4.74 μm was obtained and no nanostructure covered. Then, at the peak laser fluence of 2.126 J/cm{sup 2}, there were some nanostructures covered on the melt-induced curved microstructured surface. However, surface molten material submerged in the most of cracks at the spot overlap number of 744, where the old cracks disappeared. The results indicated that there was too much molten material and melting time at the peak laser fluence of 2.126 J/cm{sup 2}, which was not suitable for obtainment of perfect micro-nano structures. On this basis, peak laser fluence was reduced down to 1.595 J/cm{sup 2} and the sharp sub–5

  9. Effect of pulse repetition rate and number of pulses in the analysis of polypropylene and high density polyethylene by nanosecond infrared laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Flavio O. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica ' Henrique Bergamin Filho' , Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Godoi, Quienly [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica ' Henrique Bergamin Filho' , Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Kiyataka, Paulo H.M. [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Av. Brasil 2880, 13070-178 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Agnelli, Jose A.M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); and others

    2012-02-01

    Pulse repetition rates and the number of laser pulses are among the most important parameters that do affect the analysis of solid materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and the knowledge of their effects is of fundamental importance for suggesting analytical strategies when dealing with laser ablation processes of polymers. In this contribution, the influence of these parameters in the ablated mass and in the features of craters was evaluated in polypropylene and high density polyethylene plates containing pigment-based PbCrO{sub 4}. Surface characterization and craters profile were carried out by perfilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Area, volume and profile of craters were obtained using Taylor Map software. A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy system consisted of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 5 ns) and an Echelle spectrometer equipped with ICCD detector were used. The evaluated operating conditions consisted of 10, 25 and 50 laser pulses at 1, 5 and 10 Hz, 250 mJ/pulse (85 J cm{sup -2}), 2 {mu}s delay time and 6 {mu}s integration time gate. Differences in the topographical features among craters of both polymers were observed. The decrease in the repetition rate resulted in irregular craters and formation of edges, especially in polypropylene sample. The differences in the topographical features and ablated masses were attributed to the influence of the degree of crystallinity, crystalline melting temperature and glass transition temperature in the ablation process of the high density polyethylene and polypropylene. It was also observed that the intensities of chromium and lead emission signals obtained at 10 Hz were two times higher than at 5 Hz by keeping the number of laser pulses constant.

  10. Optical properties of p–i–n structures based on amorphous hydrogenated silicon with silicon nanocrystals formed via nanosecond laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivyakin, G. K.; Volodin, V. A., E-mail: volodin@isp.nsc.ru; Kochubei, S. A.; Kamaev, G. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Purkrt, A.; Remes, Z. [Institute of Physics ASCR (Czech Republic); Fajgar, R. [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR (Czech Republic); Stuchliková, T. H.; Stuchlik, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-15

    Silicon nanocrystals are formed in the i layers of p–i–n structures based on a-Si:H using pulsed laser annealing. An excimer XeCl laser with a wavelength of 308 nm and a pulse duration of 15 ns is used. The laser fluence is varied from 100 (below the melting threshold) to 250 mJ/cm{sup 2} (above the threshold). The nanocrystal sizes are estimated by analyzing Raman spectra using the phonon confinement model. The average is from 2.5 to 3.5 nm, depending on the laser-annealing parameters. Current–voltage measurements show that the fabricated p–i–n structures possess diode characteristics. An electroluminescence signal in the infrared (IR) range is detected for the p–i–n structures with Si nanocrystals; the peak position (0.9–1 eV) varies with the laser-annealing parameters. Radiative transitions are presumably related to the nanocrystal–amorphous-matrix interface states. The proposed approach can be used to produce light-emitting diodes on non-refractory substrates.

  11. Dynamics of a gain-switched distributed feedback ridge waveguide laser in nanoseconds time scale under very high current injection conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehr, A; Wenzel, H; Brox, O; Schwertfeger, S; Staske, R; Erbert, G

    2013-02-11

    We present detailed experimental investigations of the temporal, spectral and spatial behavior of a gain-switched distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Gain-switching is achieved by injecting nearly rectangular shaped current pulses having a length of 50 ns and a very high amplitude up to 2.5 A. The repetition frequency is 200 kHz. The laser has a ridge waveguide (RW) for lateral waveguiding with a ridge width of 3 µm and a cavity length of 1.5 mm. Time resolved investigations show, depending on the amplitude of the current pulses, that the optical power exhibits different types of oscillatory behavior during the pulses, accompanied by changes in the lateral near field intensity profiles and optical spectra. Three different types of instabilities can be distinguished: mode beating with frequencies between 25 GHz and 30 GHz, switching between different lateral intensity profiles with a frequency of 0.4 GHz and self-sustained oscillations with a frequency of 4 GHz. The investigations are of great relevance for the utilization of gain-switched DFB-RW lasers as seed lasers for fiber laser systems and in other applications, which require a high optical power.

  12. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser assisted nanosecond time-resolved T-jump transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Deyong; Li, Yunliang; Li, Hao; Weng, Yuxiang, E-mail: yxweng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Xianyou [Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, Qingxu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2, Linggong Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Knowledge of dynamical structure of protein is an important clue to understand its biological function in vivo. Temperature-jump (T-jump) time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy is a powerful tool in elucidating the protein dynamical structures and the folding/unfolding kinetics of proteins in solution. A home-built setup of T-jump time-resolved transient mid-IR absorbance spectroscopy with high sensitivity is developed, which is composed of a Q-switched Cr, Tm, Ho:YAG laser with an output wavelength at 2.09 μm as the T-jump heating source, and a continuous working CO laser tunable from 1580 to 1980 cm{sup −1} as the IR probe. The results demonstrate that this system has a sensitivity of 1 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for a single wavelength detection, and 2 × 10{sup −4} ΔOD for spectral detection in amide I′ region, as well as a temporal resolution of 20 ns. Moreover, the data quality coming from the CO laser is comparable to the one using the commercial quantum cascade laser.

  13. Table-top instrumentation for time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of solids excited by nanosecond pulse of soft X-ray source and/or UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, Petr; Fidler, Vlastimil; Nikl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The practical applicability of the rare-earth doped scintillators in high-speed detectors is limited by the slow decay components in the temporal response of a scintillator. The study of origin and properties of material defects that induce the slow decay components is of major importance for the development of new scintillation materials. We present a table-top, time-domain UV-VIS luminescence spectrometer, featuring extended time and input sensitivity ranges and two excitation sources. The combination of both soft X-ray/XUV and UV excitation source allows the comparative measurements of luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of scintillators to be performed under the same experimental conditions. The luminescence of emission centers of a doped scintillator can be induced by conventional N 2 laser pulse, while the complete scintillation process can be initiated by a soft X-ray/XUV pulse excitation from the laser-produced plasma in gas puff target of 4 ns duration. In order to demonstrate the spectrometer, the UV-VIS luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of cerium doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystal (LuAG:Ce) scintillator excited by XUV and UV radiation were acquired. Luminescence of the doped Ce 3+ ions was studied under 2.88 nm (430 eV) XUV excitation from the laser-produced nitrogen plasma, and compared with the luminescence under 337 nm (3.68 eV) UV excitation from nitrogen laser. In the former case the excitation energy is deposited in the LuAG host, while in the latter the 4f-5d 2 transition of Ce 3+ is directly excited. Furthermore, YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce single crystals luminescence decay profiles are compared and discussed.

  14. Interaction of nanosecond laser pulse with tetramethyl silane (Si(CH34 clusters: Generation of multiply charged silicon and carbon ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purav M. Badani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work reports significantly high levels of ionization, eventually leading to Coulomb explosion of Tetramethyl silane (TMS clusters, on interaction with laser pulses of intensity ∼109 W/cm2. Tetramethyl silane clusters, prepared by supersonic expansion were photoionized at 266, 355 or 532 nm and the resultant ions were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It is observed that wavelength of irradiation and the size of the cluster are crucial parameters which drastically affect the nature of charge species generated upon photoionization of cluster. The results show that clusters absorb significantly higher energy from the laser field at longer wavelengths (532 nm and generate multiply charged silicon and carbon ions which have large kinetic energies. Further, laser-cluster interaction at different wavelengths has been quantified and charge densities at 266, 355 and 532 nm are found to be 4x 1010, 5x 1010 and 5x 1011 charges/cm3 respectively. These unusual results have been rationalized based on dominance of secondary ionization processes at 532 nm ultimately leading to Coulomb explosion of clusters. In another set of experiments, multiply charged ions of Ar (up to +5 state and Kr (up to +6 state were observed when TMS doped inert gas clusters were photoionized at 532 and 355 nm. The extent of energy absorption at these two wavelengths is clearly manifested from the charge state of the atomic ions generated upon Coulomb disintegration of the doped cluster. These experiments thus demonstrate a novel method for generation of multiply charged atomic ions of inert gases at laser intensity of ∼ 109 W/cm2. The average size of the cluster exhibiting Coulomb explosion phenomena under giga watt intensity conditions has been estimated to be ∼ 6 nm. Experimental results obtained in the present work agree qualitatively with the model proposed earlier [D. Niu, H. Li, F. Liang, L. Wen, X. Luo, B. Wang, and H. Qu, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 151103

  15. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  16. Ablation of (GeS2)0.3(Sb2S3)0.7 glass with an ultra – violet nano-second laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knotek, P.; Návesník, J.; Černohorský, T.; Kincl, Miloslav; Vlček, Milan; Tichý, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, April (2015), s. 42-50 ISSN 0025-5408 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chalcogenides * glass * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025540814007843

  17. Impact toughness of laser surface alloyed Aluminium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available with intermetallic phases and metal matrix composites were achieved during laser alloying. Brittle fracture of the SiC particles and transgranular cracking of the intermetallic phases was observed for the laser alloyed samples, while ductile fracture was observed...

  18. Laser Prevention of Earth Impact Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today we are seeing the geological data base constantly expanding as new evidence from past impacts with the Earth are discovered and investigated. It is now commonly believed that a hypervelocity impact occurring approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area was the disaster responsible for the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including of course the dinosaurs. What is sobering is that we believe now that this was just one of several such disasters and that some of the others caused extinctions to even a greater extent. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important problem facing human civilization. While there are many global problems facing our planet including overpopulation, pollution, disease, and deforestation; none of these offer the potential of rapid, total extinction. Rapid is the operative word here in that many of the global problems we face may indeed, if not sufficiently addressed, pose a similar long-term threat. However, with the impact threat, a single, almost unpredictable event could lead to a chain reaction of disasters that would end everything mankind has worked to achieve over the centuries. Our chances of being hit are greater than our chance of winning the lottery. We now believe that while there are only about 2000-earth orbit crossing rocks great than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 100,000 rocks in the 100 m size range. The 1 kilometer rocks are difficult to detect and even harder to track. The 100 m class ones are almost impossible to find with today's technology. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing us? The answer is a resounding yes. By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with high-energy laser stations in orbit, we can deflect rocks from striking the Earth. This is accomplished by irradiating the surface of the rock with sufficiently intense

  19. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  20. Parametric investigations on the influence of nano-second Nd{sup 3+}:YAG laser wavelength and fluence in synthesizing NiTi nano-particles using liquid assisted laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Nandini, E-mail: nandinipatra2007@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Akash, K.; Shiva, S.; Gagrani, Rohit; Rao, H. Sai Pranesh; Anirudh, V.R. [Mechatronics and Instrumentation lab, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Palani, I.A., E-mail: palaniia@iiti.ac.in [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Mechatronics and Instrumentation lab, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India); Singh, Vipul [Centre for Material Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, Pin-453441 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Influence of laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) and fluences (40 J/cm{sup 2}, 30 J/cm{sup 2} and 20 J/cm{sup 2}) on generation of underwater laser ablated NiTi nanoparticles. • Particle size range of 140–10 nm was generated at varying laser wavelengths. • The alloy formation of NiTi nanoparticles was confirmed from XRD and TEM analysis where the crystalline peaks of NiTi, Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} and Ni{sub 3}Ti were observed from XRD. • Formation efficiency of NiTi nanoparticles was maximum at 1064 nm wavelength and 40 J/cm{sup 2} fluence. - Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of laser wavelengths and laser fluences on the size and quality of the NiTi nanoparticles, generated through underwater solid state Nd:YAG laser ablation technique. The experiments were performed on Ni55%–Ti45% sheet to synthesize NiTi nano-particles at three different wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm) with varying laser fluences ranging from 20 to 40 J/cm{sup 2}. Synthesized NiTi nano-particles were characterized through SEM, DLS, XRD, FT-IR, TEM and UV–vis spectrum. It was observed that, maximum particle size of 140 nm and minimum particle size of 10 nm were generated at varying laser wavelengths. The crystallinity and lattice spacing of NiTi alloy nanoparticles were confirmed from the XRD analysis and TEM images, respectively.

  1. Dynamical propagation of nanosecond pulses in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Quan, E-mail: qmiao2013@yahoo.com [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Liang, Min; Liu, Qixin [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Wang, Jing-Jing [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Sun, Erping; Xu, Yan [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We study the dynamical processes of nanoseconds lasers in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines. • We provide theoretical evidences of the main mechanism of optical power limiting. • The central metals play more important roles in the dynamical processes. • The main reason is the central metals enhance the spin–orbit coupling. - Abstract: Dynamical propagation and optical limiting of nanosecond pulses in peripherally substituted Naphthalocyanines (Npcs) and Phthalocyanines (Pcs) with central metals gallium and indium were theoretically studied using paraxial field and rate equations. The results demonstrated that both Npcs and Pcs have good optical limiting performances, and Npc with heavier central mental indium shows better optical limiting properities due to the stronger reverse saturable absorption, which is mainly strengthened by the larger one-photo absorption cross section of excited state and the faster intersystem crossing rate.

  2. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  3. Characterization of a multi-keV x-ray source produced by nanosecond laser irradiation of a solid target: The influence of laser focus spot and target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guangyue; Zheng Jian; Shen Baifei; Lei Anle; Xu Zhizhan; Liu Shenye; Zhang Jiyan; Yang Jiamin; Ding Yongkun; Hu Xin; Huang Yixiang; Du Huabing; Yi Rongqing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of focus spot and target thickness on multi-keV x-ray sources generated by 2 ns duration laser heated solid targets are investigated on the Shenguang II laser facility. In the case of thick-foil targets, the experimental data and theoretical analysis show that the emission volume of the x-ray sources is sensitive to the laser focus spot and proportional to the 3 power of the focus spot size. The steady x-ray flux is proportional to the 5/3 power of the focus spot size of the given laser beam in our experimental condition. In the case of thin-foil targets, experimental data show that there is an optimal foil thickness corresponding to the given laser parameters. With the given laser beam, the optimal thin-foil thickness is proportional to the -2/3 power of the focus spot size, and the optimal x-ray energy of thin foil is independent of focus spot size

  4. Comment on "Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications" by Duong V. Ta, Andrew Dunn, Thomas J. Wasley, Robert W. Kay, Jonathan Stringer, Patrick J. Smith, Colm Connaughton, Jonathan D. Shephard (Appl. Surf. Sci. 357 (2015) 248-254)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinovich, L. B.; Emelyanenko, A. M.; Emelyanenko, K. A.; Domantovsky, A. G.; Shiryaev, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays the problem of design of durable ecologically friendly superhydrophobic surfaces is of great importance for science and technology. A recent paper in Applied Surface Science reports the method of fabricating the superhydrophobic metallic surfaces by infrared nanosecond laser surface texturing without using hydrophobic agents. Since this method of surface texturing can be considered as one of the most suitable for various industrial applications, the nature of superhydrophobic state of surfaces produced by laser texturing in the abovementioned paper deserves to be analyzed in detail. Authors of the commented paper attributed the change in wettability to the partial deoxidation of CuO into Cu2O on the surface during storage in atmosphere. However, such interpretation of the results contradicts to the basic notions in the theory of wetting and to more accurate and detailed data. In our Comment we discuss these contradictions point by point.

  5. Phasing of independent laser channels under impact SBS excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, A A; Efimkov, V F; Zubarev, I G; Mikhailov, S I [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    It is shown experimentally that phasing of independent laser channels under impact SBS excitation calls for a stable difference in arm lengths, as in a classical Michelson interferometer. A scheme with automatic compensation for fluctuations of interferometer arm lengths has been proposed and experimentally implemented. This scheme makes it possible to perform stable phasing of two laser channels under standard laboratory conditions. (control of radiation parameters)

  6. Ion Production by Laser Impact on a Silver Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen

    Even at moderate fluence (0.6 -2.4 J/cm2) laser impact on metals in the UV regime results in a significant number of ions emitted from the surface. Even at this low fluence the particles ejected from a surface interact with each other in a so-called laser ablation plume. The ablated particles...... are largely neutrals at low fluence, but the fraction of ions increases strongly with fluence. We have irradiated silver in a vacuum chamber (~ 10-7 mbar) with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. The ion flow in different directions has been measured with a hemispherical array of Langmuir probes...... range considered is also a typical range for pulsed laser deposition (PLD), by which the material is collected on a suitable substrate for thin film growth. PLD has the advantage compared with other film deposition methods, that even a complicated stoichiometry, e.g. metal oxides or alloys, can...

  7. Nanosecond optical limiting response of sandwich-type neodymium dyphthalocyanine in a co-polymer host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Gopinath, P.; Thomas, J.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nanosecond optical limiting characteristics of sandwich-type neodymium diphthalocyanine in a co-polymer matrix of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and methyl-2-cyanoacrylate have been studied for the first time. The measurements were performed using 9 ns laser pulses generated from a

  8. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  9. Redox reaction studies by nanosecond pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.

    1979-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as intermediates in many chemical and biochemical reactions. An important type of reaction which they can undergo is a one electron or redox process. The direction and rate of such electron transfer reactions is governed by the relative redox potentials of the participating species. Because of the generally short lived nature of free radicals, evaluation of their redox potentials poses a number of problems. Two techniques are described for the experimental determination of the redox potentials of short lived species generated by either a nanosecond electron pulse or laser flash. In the first method, redox titration of the short lived species with stable molecules of known redox potential is carried out, employing the technique of fast kinetic spectrophotometry. Conversely, by the same method it is also possible to evaluate the one electron redox potentials of stable molecules by redox titration with free radicals of known redox potential produced as above. In the second method, electrochemical reduction or oxidation of the short lived species at an appropriate electrode (generally a mercury drop) is carried out at different fixed potentials, and the redox potential evaluated from the current-potential curves (polarograms). Full description of the experimental set up and theoretical considerations for interpretation of the raw data are given. The relative merits of the two methods and their practical applicability are discussed. (auth.)

  10. Nanosecond-resolved temperature measurements using magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Pu [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Wenzhong, E-mail: lwz7410@hust.edu.cn [School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Instantaneous and noninvasive temperature measurements are important when laser thermotherapy or welding is performed. A noninvasive nanosecond-resolved magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) temperature measurement system is described in which a transient change in temperature causes an instantaneous change in the magnetic susceptibilities of the MNPs. These transient changes in the magnetic susceptibilities are rapidly recorded using a wideband magnetic measurement system with an upper frequency limit of 0.5 GHz. The Langevin function (the thermodynamic model characterizing the MNP magnetization process) is used to obtain the temperature information. Experiments showed that the MNP DC magnetization temperature-measurement system can detect a 14.4 ns laser pulse at least. This method of measuring temperature is likely to be useful for acquiring the internal temperatures of materials irradiated with lasers, as well as in other areas of research.

  11. Photoemission in nanosecond and picosecond regimes obtained from macro and micro cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussoukaya, M.; Bergeret, H.; Chehab, R.; Leblond, B.; Franco, M.

    1987-03-01

    For Lasertron studies at LAL, results obtained from tests on different photocathodes are given below. Using respectively two Nd: YAG lasers (a nanosecond one and a picosecond one) we have determined the level and the intensity of pulsed photoemission and the photoelectric yield in UV, green and infrared lights. We obtained a total current of more than 1 A with nanosecond width from a single W needle, and photoconversion yield of more than 1 was reached in green and UV lights. In classical pulsed photoemission, obtained photoconversion yield from LaB 6 photocathode was of about 10 -3 in higher fields

  12. Plasma plume expansion dynamics in nanosecond Nd:YAG laserosteotome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Hamed; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; Cattin, Philippe C.; Zam, Azhar

    2018-02-01

    In minimal invasive laser osteotomy precise information about the ablation process can be obtained with LIBS in order to avoid carbonization, or cutting of wrong types of tissue. Therefore, the collecting fiber for LIBS needs to be optimally placed in narrow cavities in the endoscope. To determine this optimal placement, the plasma plume expansion dynamics in ablation of bone tissue by the second harmonic of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm has been studied. The laserinduced plasma plume was monitored in different time delays, from one nanosecond up to one hundred microseconds. Measurements were performed using high-speed gated illumination imaging. The expansion features were studied using illumination of the overall visible emission by using a gated intensified charged coupled device (ICCD). The camera was capable of having a minimum gate width (Optical FWHM) of 3 ns and the timing resolution (minimum temporal shift of the gate) of 10 ps. The imaging data were used to generate position-time data of the luminous plasma-front. Moreover, the velocity of the plasma plume expansion was studied based on the time-resolved intensity data. By knowing the plasma plume profile over time, the optimum position (axial distance from the laser spot) of the collecting fiber and optimal time delay (to have the best signal to noise ratio) in spatial-resolved and time-resolved laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be determined. Additionally, the function of plasma plume expansion could be used to study the shock wave of the plasma plume.

  13. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule; Impact de l'environnement sur l'endommagement laser des optiques de silice du Laser MegaJoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-15

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm{sup 2}, a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  14. Surface modifications induced by pulsed-laser texturing—Influence of laser impact on the surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costil, S., E-mail: sophie.costil@utbm.fr [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Lamraoui, A.; Langlade, C. [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Heintz, O.; Oltra, R. [ICB, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Laser cleaning technology provides a safe, environmentally friendly and very cost effective way to improve cleaning and surface preparation of metallic materials. Compared with efficient cleaning processes, it can avoid the disadvantages of ductile materials prepared by conventional technologies (cracks induced by sand-blasting for example) and treat only some selected areas (due to the optical fibers). By this way, laser technology could have several advantages and expand the range of thermal spraying. Moreover, new generations of lasers (fiber laser, disc laser) allow the development of new methods. Besides a significant bulk reduction, no maintenance, low operating cost, laser fibers can introduce alternative treatments. Combining a short-pulse laser with a scanner allows new applications in terms of surface preparation. By multiplying impacts using scanning laser, it is possible to shape the substrate surface to improve the coating adhesion as well as the mechanical behaviour. In addition, during the interactions of the laser beam with metallic surfaces, several modifications can be induced and particularly thermal effects. Indeed, under ambient conditions, a limited oxidation of the clean surface can occur. This phenomenon has been investigated in detail for silicon but few works have been reported concerning metallic materials. This paper aims at studying the surface modifications induced on aluminium alloy substrates after laser texturing. After morphological observations (SEM), a deeper surface analysis will be performed using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measures and microhardness testing.

  15. Laser - assisted multiphoton ionization of ground state Li{sup +} by electron and positron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, S Ghosh; Sinha, C, E-mail: srabanti.ghosh@gmail.co, E-mail: chand_sin@hotmail.co [Theoretical Physics Department, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata - 700032 (India)

    2009-11-01

    The influence of the laser field on the dynamics of (e, 2e) process of Li{sup +} ion by electron / positron impact is studied for coplanar geometry with laser polarization parallel to the incident momentum. The laser dressed projectile wavefunctions are chosen as Coulomb Volkov (CV) while for ejected electron, modified CV is considered. The target dressing is constructed using the time dependent perturbation theory. Laser field suppresses the FF cross-sections significantly for single photon exchange while for multiple photon exchanges the cross-sections are enhanced. TDCS is quite sensitive with respect to the initial phase of the laser field.

  16. One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1979-02-01

    At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

  17. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  18. Gas Discharge Produced by Strong Microwaves of Nanosecond Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the investigation of nanosecond microwave discharge are reviewed. Nanosecond microwave discharge is a new branch of gas discharge physics. The paper lists base types of microwave generators used to produce nanosecond discharge and classifies the discharges relative to their base parameters: the way the discharge gets localized in a limited space, amplitude and frequency of microwave field, gas pressure, duration of microwave pulses. The laboratory experiments performed and the new effects which appear in nanosecond microwave discharge are briefly summarized. Different applications of such a discharge are analyzed on the basis of the experimental modelling. (author)

  19. Impacts of ambient and ablation plasmas on short- and ultrashort-pulse laser processing of surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.; Panchenko, A.N.; Zhukov, V.P.; Kudryashov, S.I.; Pereira, A.; Marine, W.; Mocek, Tomáš; Bulgakov, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 1344-1372 ISSN 2072-666X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed laser ablation * laser material processing * laser plasma * ambient gas breakdown * material redeposition * plasma pipe formation * microstructures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2014

  20. The impact of treatment density and molecular weight for fractional laser-assisted drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, Christina S; Bhayana, Brijesh; Farinelli, William A

    2012-01-01

    Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) facilitate uptake of topically applied drugs by creating narrow open micro-channels into the skin, but there is limited information on optimal laser settings for delivery of specific molecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of laser...... treatment density (% of skin occupied by channels) and molecular weight (MW) for fractional CO(2) laser-assisted drug delivery. AFXL substantially increased intra- and transcutaneous delivery of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) in a MW range from 240 to 4300 Da (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, p...

  1. Nanosecond bipolar pulse generators for bioelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu; Zhou, Chunrong; Yang, Enbo; Rajulapati, Sambasiva R

    2018-04-26

    Biological effects caused by a nanosecond pulse, such as cell membrane permeabilization, peripheral nerve excitation and cell blebbing, can be reduced or cancelled by applying another pulse of reversed polarity. Depending on the degree of cancellation, the pulse interval of these two pulses can be as long as dozens of microseconds. The cancellation effect diminishes as the pulse duration increases. To study the cancellation effect and potentially utilize it in electrotherapy, nanosecond bipolar pulse generators must be made available. An overview of the generators is given in this paper. A pulse forming line (PFL) that is matched at one end and shorted at the other end allows a bipolar pulse to be produced, but no delay can be inserted between the phases. Another generator employs a combination of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor to form an RLC resonant circuit so that a bipolar pulse with a decaying magnitude can be generated. A third generator is a converter, which converts an existing unipolar pulse to a bipolar pulse. This is done by inserting an inductor in a transmission line. The first phase of the bipolar pulse is provided by the unipolar pulse's rising phase. The second phase is formed during the fall time of the unipolar pulse, when the inductor, which was previously charged during the flat part of the unipolar pulse, discharges its current to the load. The fourth type of generator uses multiple MOSFET switches stacked to turn on a pre-charged, bipolar RC network. This approach is the most flexible in that it can generate multiphasic pulses that have different amplitudes, delays, and durations. However, it may not be suitable for producing short nanosecond pulses (<100 ns), whereas the PFL approach and the RLC approach with gas switches are used for this range. Thus, each generator has its own advantages and applicable range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PNG-300 a nanosecond pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztaricskai, T.; Vasvary, L.; Petoe, G.C.; Devkin, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a nanosecond-pulse neutron generator is reported. It was constructed for the measurement of prompt neutron and gamma radiation in experimental studies of fast neutron reactions by time of flight techniques. The acceleration voltage is 300 kV and the total resolution of the generator-neutron spectrometer system is 2 ns. The ion-optical system, the vacuum system and the control of the neutron generator is described in detail. The equipment was used for prompt neutron and gamma radiation induced in construction materials. (R.P.)

  3. Laser vs bur for bone cutting in impacted mandibular third molar surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Deepak; Pal, Uma Shankar; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Manoj; Chellappa, Arul A L; Gupta, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of Er: YAG laser in bone cutting for removal of impacted lower third molar teeth and compare its outcomes with that of surgical bur. The study comprised 40 subjects requiring removal of impacted mandibular third molar, randomly categorized into two equal groups of 20 each, who had their impacted third molar removed either using Er: YAG laser or surgical bur as per their group, using standard methodology of extraction of impacted teeth. Clinical parameters like pain, bleeding, time taken for bone cutting, postoperative swelling, trismus, wound healing and complications were compared for both groups. Clinical parameters like pain, bleeding and swelling were lower in laser group than bur group, although the difference was statistically not significant. However, postoperative swelling showed significant difference in the two groups. Laser group required almost double the time taken for bone cutting with bur. Trismus persisted for a longer period in laser group. Wound healing and complications were assessed clinically and there was no significant difference in both the groups. Based on the results of our study, the possibility of bone cutting using lasers is pursued, the osteotomy is easily performed and the technique is better suited to minimally invasive surgical procedures. The use of Er: YAG laser may be considered as an alternative tool to surgical bur, specially in anxious patients.

  4. Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on laser-doped silicon with different surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Joon; Franklin, Evan; Fell, Andreas; Ernst, Marco; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Macdonald, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Low-temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy (μ-PLS) is applied to investigate shallow layers of laser-processed silicon for solar cell applications. Micron-scale measurement (with spatial resolution down to 1 μm) enables investigation of the fundamental impact of laser processing on the electronic properties of silicon as a function of position within the laser-processed region, and in particular at specific positions such as at the boundary/edge of processed and unprocessed regions. Low-temperature μ-PLS enables qualitative analysis of laser-processed regions by identifying PLS signals corresponding to both laser-induced doping and laser-induced damage. We show that the position of particular luminescence peaks can be attributed to band-gap narrowing corresponding to different levels of subsurface laser doping, which is achieved via multiple 248 nm nanosecond excimer laser pulses with fluences in the range 1.5-4 J/cm2 and using commercially available boron-rich spin-on-dopant precursor films. We demonstrate that characteristic defect PL spectra can be observed subsequent to laser doping, providing evidence of laser-induced crystal damage. The impact of laser parameters such as fluence and number of repeat pulses on laser-induced damage is also analyzed by observing the relative level of defect PL spectra and absolute luminescence intensity. Luminescence owing to laser-induced damage is observed to be considerably larger at the boundaries of laser-doped regions than at the centers, highlighting the significant role of the edges of laser-doped region on laser doping quality. Furthermore, by comparing the damage signal observed after laser processing of two different substrate surface conditions (chemically-mechanically polished and tetramethylammonium hydroxide etched), we show that wafer preparation can be an important factor impacting the quality of laser-processed silicon and solar cells.

  5. Luminous phase of nanosecond discharge in deionized water: morphology, propagation velocity and optical emission.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Pongrác, Branislav; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 7 (2017), č. článku 07LT01. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : water * nanosecond discharge * emission spectra * breakdown Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6595/aa758d

  6. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basting, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  7. New and Advanced Picosecond Lasers for Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatto, Maurice A; Amir, Ruthie; Bhawalkar, Jayant; Sierra, Rafael; Bankowski, Richard; Rozen, Doran; Dierickx, Christine; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Early methods of tattoo removal ultimately resulted in unacceptable cosmetic outcomes. While the introduction of laser technology was an improvement over the existing chemical, mechanical, and surgical procedures, the use of nonselective tattoo removal with carbon dioxide and argon lasers led to scarring. Q-switched lasers with nanosecond (10-9) pulse domains were considered to have revolutionized tattoo treatment, by selectively heating the tattoo particles, while reducing the adverse sequelae to adjacent normal skin. Theoretical considerations of restricting pulse duration, to heat tattoo particles to higher temperatures, proposed the use of sub-nanosecond pulses to target particles with thermal relaxation times lower than the nanosecond pulses in Q-switched lasers. Initial studies demonstrated that picosecond (10-12) pulses were more effective than nanosecond pulses in clearing black tattoos. Advances in picosecond technology led to the development of commercially available lasers, incorporating several different wavelengths, to further refine pigment targeting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Development of an electron momentum spectrometer for time-resolved experiments employing nanosecond pulsed electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaguo; Shan, Xu; Liu, Zhaohui; Niu, Shanshan; Wang, Enliang; Chen, Xiangjun

    2018-03-01

    The low count rate of (e, 2e) electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has long been a major limitation of its application to the investigation of molecular dynamics. Here we report a new EMS apparatus developed for time-resolved experiments in the nanosecond time scale, in which a double toroidal energy analyzer is utilized to improve the sensitivity of the spectrometer and a nanosecond pulsed electron gun with a repetition rate of 10 kHz is used to obtain an average beam current up to nA. Meanwhile, a picosecond ultraviolet laser with a repetition rate of 5 kHz is introduced to pump the sample target. The time zero is determined by photoionizing the target using a pump laser and monitoring the change of the electron beam current with time delay between the laser pulse and electron pulse, which is influenced by the plasma induced by the photoionization. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by the EMS measurement on argon using a pulsed electron beam, illustrating the potential abilities of the apparatus for investigating the molecular dynamics in excited states when employing the pump-probe scheme.

  9. Trends in nanosecond melanosome microcavitation up to 1540 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Noojin, Gary D.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-09-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of bovine and porcine melanosomes were previously reported, using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the visible (532 nm) and the near-infrared (NIR) from 1000 to 1319 nm. Here, we report average radiant exposure thresholds for bovine melanosome microcavitation at additional NIR wavelengths up to 1540 nm, which range from ˜0.159 J/cm2 at 800 nm to 4.5 J/cm2 at 1540 nm. Melanosome absorption coefficients were also estimated, and decreased with increasing wavelength. These values were compared to retinal pigment epithelium coefficients, and to water absorption, over the same wavelength range. Corneal total intraocular energy retinal damage threshold values were estimated and compared to the previous (2007) and recently changed (2014) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe levels. Results provide additional data that support the recent changes to the MPE levels, as well as the first microcavitation data at 1540 nm, a wavelength for which melanosome microcavitation may be an ns-pulse skin damage mechanism.

  10. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.; Bakker, R.J.; Gough, C.; Paraliev, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Le Pimpec, F.; Rivkin, L.; Wrulich, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 μm, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect

  11. Nanosecond field emitted and photo-field emitted current pulses from ZrC tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: romain.ganter@psi.ch; Bakker, R.J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Gough, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Paraliev, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Pedrozzi, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Le Pimpec, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Rivkin, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland); Wrulich, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH 5232 (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    In order to find electron sources with low thermal emittance, cathodes based on single tip field emitter are investigated. Maximum peak current, measured from single tip in ZrC with a typical apex radius around 1 {mu}m, are presented. Voltage pulses of 2 ns duration and up to 50 kV amplitude lead to field emission current up to 470 mA from one ZrC tip. Combination of high applied electric field with laser illumination gives the possibility to modulate the emission with laser pulses. Nanoseconds current pulses have been emitted with laser pulses at 1064 nm illuminating a ZrC tip under high-DC electric field. The dependence of photo-field emitted current with the applied voltage can be explained by the Schottky effect.

  12. Measurements and kinetic modeling of atomic species in fuel-oxidizer mixtures excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, C.; Eckert, Z.; Yin, Z.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the results of number density measurements of metastable Ar atoms and ground state H atoms in diluted mixtures of H2 and O2 with Ar, as well as ground state O atoms in diluted H2-O2-Ar, CH4-O2-Ar, C3H8-O2-Ar, and C2H4-O2-Ar mixtures excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge. The measurements have been made in a nanosecond pulse, double dielectric barrier discharge plasma sustained in a flow reactor between two plane electrodes encapsulated within dielectric material, at an initial temperature of 500 K and pressures ranging from 300 Torr to 700 Torr. Metastable Ar atom number density distribution in the afterglow is measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and used to characterize plasma uniformity. Temperature rise in the reacting flow is measured by Rayleigh scattering. H atom and O atom number densities are measured by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence. The results are compared with kinetic model predictions, showing good agreement, with the exception of extremely lean mixtures. O atoms and H atoms in the plasma are produced mainly during quenching of electronically excited Ar atoms generated by electron impact. In H2-Ar and O2-Ar mixtures, the atoms decay by three-body recombination. In H2-O2-Ar, CH4-O2-Ar, and C3H8-O2-Ar mixtures, O atoms decay in a reaction with OH, generated during H atom reaction with HO2, with the latter produced by three-body H atom recombination with O2. The net process of O atom decay is O  +  H  →  OH, such that the decay rate is controlled by the amount of H atoms produced in the discharge. In extra lean mixtures of propane and ethylene with O2-Ar the model underpredicts the O atom decay rate. At these conditions, when fuel is completely oxidized by the end of the discharge burst, the net process of O atom decay, O  +  O  →  O2, becomes nearly independent of H atom number density. Lack of agreement with the data at these conditions is

  13. The impact imperative: Laser ablation for deflecting asteroids, meteoroids, and comets from impacting the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jonathan W [Advanced Projects/FD02, National Space Science and Technology Center, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Phipps, Claude [Photonics Associates 200A Ojo de la Vaca Road Santa Fe, NM 87505 (United States); Smalley, Larry [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville (United States); Reilly, James [Northeast Science and Technology, East Sandwich, MA (United States); Boccio, Dona [Queensborough Community College of the City, University of New York, New York (United States)

    2003-05-14

    Impacting at hypervelocity, an asteroid struck the Earth approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area. This triggered the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including the dinosaurs. Other impacts prior to this one have caused even greater extinctions. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important immediate space challenge facing human civilization. This is the Impact Imperative. We now believe that while there are about 2000 earth orbit crossing rocks greater than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 200,000 or more objects in the 100 m size range. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing our civilization? The answer is a resounding yes{exclamation_point} By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with an infra-structure of high-energy laser stations and other secondary mitigation options, we can deflect inbound asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and prevent them from striking the Earth. This can be accomplished by irradiating the surface of an inbound rock with sufficiently intense pulses so that ablation occurs. This ablation acts as a small rocket incrementally changing the shape of the rock's orbit around the Sun. One-kilometer size rocks can be moved sufficiently in about a month while smaller rocks may be moved in a shorter time span.

  14. The impact imperative: Laser ablation for deflecting asteroids, meteoroids, and comets from impacting the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Phipps, Claude; Smalley, Larry; Reilly, James; Boccio, Dona

    2003-01-01

    Impacting at hypervelocity, an asteroid struck the Earth approximately 65 million years ago in the Yucatan Peninsula area. This triggered the extinction of almost 70% of the species of life on Earth including the dinosaurs. Other impacts prior to this one have caused even greater extinctions. Preventing collisions with the Earth by hypervelocity asteroids, meteoroids, and comets is the most important immediate space challenge facing human civilization. This is the Impact Imperative. We now believe that while there are about 2000 earth orbit crossing rocks greater than 1 kilometer in diameter, there may be as many as 200,000 or more objects in the 100 m size range. Can anything be done about this fundamental existence question facing our civilization? The answer is a resounding yes! By using an intelligent combination of Earth and space based sensors coupled with an infra-structure of high-energy laser stations and other secondary mitigation options, we can deflect inbound asteroids, meteoroids, and comets and prevent them from striking the Earth. This can be accomplished by irradiating the surface of an inbound rock with sufficiently intense pulses so that ablation occurs. This ablation acts as a small rocket incrementally changing the shape of the rock's orbit around the Sun. One-kilometer size rocks can be moved sufficiently in about a month while smaller rocks may be moved in a shorter time span

  15. The effect of polymer type on electric breakdown strength on a nanosecond time scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Liang; Su Jian-Cang; Pan Ya-Feng; Zhang Xi-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concepts of fast polarization,effective electric field and electron impact ionization criterion,the effect of polymer type on electric breakdown strength (EBD) on a nanosecond time scale is investigated,and a formula that qualitatively characterizes the relation between the electric breakdown strength and the polymer type is derived.According to this formula,it is found that the electric breakdown strength decreases with an increase in the effective relative dielectric constants of the polymers.By calculating the effective relative dielectric constants for different types of polymers,the theoretical relation for the electric breakdown strengths of common polymers is predicted.To verify the prediction,the polymers of PE (polyethylene),PTFE (polytetrafluoroethelene),PMMA (organic glass) and Nylon are tested with a nanosecond-pulse generator.The experimental result shows EBD (PTFE) > EBD (PMMA) > EBD (Nylon) > EBD (PE).This result is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  16. Experimental techniques for subnanosecond resolution of laser-launched plates and impact studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, D.L.; Warnes, R.H.; Stahl, D.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Dynamic Experimentation Div.

    1994-09-01

    Miniature laser-launched plates have applications in shock wave physics, studying dynamic properties of materials and can be used to generate experimental data in a manner similar to a laboratory gas gun for one-dimensional impact experiments. Laser-launched plates have the advantage of small size, low kinetic energy, and can be launched with ubiquitous laboratory lasers. Because of the small size and high accelerations (10{sup 7}--10{sup 10} g`s), improved temporal resolution and optical non-contact methods to collect data are required. Traditional mechanical in-situ gauges would significantly impair the data quality and do not have the required time response.

  17. Megavolt nanosecond generator with semiconductor current breaker

    CERN Document Server

    Bushlyakov, A I; Rukin, S N; Slovikovskij, B G; Timoshenkov, S P

    2002-01-01

    The heavy-current nanosecond generator with the pulse capacity up to 1.6 GW and output voltage of 0.5-1 MW is described. The generator contains four capacity storages, one induction storage and six solid body commutators: one thyristor, four magnetic commutators and a semiconductor current breaker on the SOS-diodes. The results of studies on the energy change-over efficiency through a semiconductor breaker by various external resistance loads as well as the results of the thermal and frequency tests are presented. It is established that selection of the optimal cooling system provides for the generator continuous mode of operation with the pulse sequence frequency from 300 Hz up to 850 Hz

  18. High-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapishnikov, N.K.; Muratov, V.M.; Shatanov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse shaper with an output of up to 250 kV, a base duration of ∼ 10 nsec, and a repetition frequency of 50 pulses/sec is described. The described high-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper is designed for one-orbit extraction of an electron beam from a betatron. A diagram of the pulse shaper, which employs a single-stage generator is shown. The shaping element is a low-inductance capacitor bank of series-parallel KVI-3 (2200 pF at 10 kV) or K15-10 (4700 pF at 31.5 kV) disk ceramic capacitors. Four capacitors are connected in parallel and up to 25 are connected in series

  19. Nanosecond Surface Microdischarges in Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinov, A. E.; Lyubimtseva, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    Multilayer structures in which nanosecond surface microdischarges are generated have been developed, fabricated, and investigated. In these structures, layers are made in the form of thin transparent films, and a plasma discharge channel is formed in thin spacings between the layers. Passage of the discharge channel from one layer into the neighboring layer is implemented via pre-fabricated microholes. Images of microdischarges were obtained which confirmed that their plasma channels are formed according to the route assigned by the holes. The route may follow a fairly complex scheme and have self-intersection points and portions in which the electrons are bound to move in opposition to the electric field. In studying the shape of channels in multilayer strictures, the authors have found a new physical effect which lies in the azimuthal self-orientation of the discharge channel as it passes from one microhole to another.

  20. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ),. 559-563. [2] T. Tomida, K. Nakata, S. Saji, T. Kubo, T, Formation of metal matrix composite layer on aluminium alloy with TiC-Cu powder by laser surface alloying process; Surface and Coatings Technology; vol. 142-144, 2001, 585-589. [3] L. A. B...

  1. [Mechanism of ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xin-hua; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation has been widely applied in clinical cancer treatment, while its molecular mechanism is still unclear. Researchers have revealed that nanosecond pulsed electric field generates nanopores in plasma membrane, leading to a rapid influx of Ca²⁺; it has specific effect on intracellular organelle membranes, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum injuries and mitochondrial membrane potential changes. In addition, it may also change cellular morphology through damage of cytoskeleton. This article reviews the recent research advances on the molecular mechanism of cell membrane and organelle changes induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation.

  2. The impact of external optical feedback on the degradation behavior of high-power diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Martin; Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...... unaffected, severe impact is observed to the cladding layers and the waveguide. Consequently hardening of diode lasers for operation under external optical feedback must necessarily involve claddings and waveguide, into which the quantum well is embedded.......The impact of external feedback on high-power diode laser degradation is studied. For this purpose early stages of gradual degradation are prepared by accelerated aging of 808-nm-emitting AlGaAs-based devices. While the quantum well that actually experiences the highest total optical load remains...

  3. Nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on dielectric wall accelerator technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Z.M.; Yuan, P.; Cao, S.C.; Shen, X.K.; Jing, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zong, Y.; Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-21

    An electron diode using a short section of dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been under development at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. Tests have been carried out with spark gap switches triggered by lasers. The stack voltage efficiency of a four-layer of Blumleins reached about 60–70% with gas filled spark gap switching. The generated pulse voltage of peak amplitude of 23 kV and pulse width of 5 ns is used to extract and accelerate an electron beam of 320 mA, measured by a fast current transformer. A nanosecond pulse width electron diode was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the principle of a DWA is well proven and the development details and discussions are presented in this article. -- Highlights: •The key technology of DWA, including switches and pulse forming lines were studied. •The SiC PCSS obtained from Shanghai Institute were tested. •Two layers ZIP lines (new structure) and four layers Blumlein lines were studied with laser triggered spark gap switches. •A nanosecond pulse-width electron diode based on DWA technologies is achieved and studied experimentally. •The principle of DWA is also proved by the diode.

  4. Impact of laser pulse duration on the reduction of intraocular pressure during selective laser trabeculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunf Pukl, Spela; Drnovšek-Olup, Brigita

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or ocular hypertension (OHT), when performed with laser pulse duration of 1 ns compared with standard 3-5 ns. Bilateral SLT with a 532 nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser was conducted in 30 patients (60 eyes) with POAG (n = 5), NTG (n = 2) or OHT (n = 23). Pulse duration was 1 ns in the right eye (30 eyes; cases) and 3-5 ns in all left eyes (controls). Main outcome measures were IOP at 1 h, 1 day, 8 weeks and 6 months, and the rate of adverse ocular tissue reactions in all eyes. Mean 1 ns and 3-5 ns SLT IOPs were 24.1 and 24.3 mmHg, respectively, at baseline. No statistically significant difference in mean 1 ns and 3-5 ns SLT IOP was observed at 1 h (P = 0.761), 1 day (P = 0.758), 8 weeks (P = 0.352) and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.879). No significant difference in postoperative anterior chamber inflammation was observed between the eyes (P = 0.529). Treatment with both laser pulse durations resulted in minor ultrastructural changes in the drainage angle. SLT performed with a 1 ns laser pulse duration does not appear to be inferior to SLT performed with the standard 3-5 ns duration at lowering IOP in treatment-naïve patients with POAG, NTG or OHT.

  5. Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Markus J; Pongratz, Thomas; Khoder, Wael; Stief, Christian G; Herrmann, Thomas; Nagele, Udo; Sroka, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    In vitro investigations of Ho:YAG laser-induced stone fragmentation were performed to identify potential impacts of different pulse durations on stone fragmentation characteristics. A Ho:YAG laser system (Swiss LaserClast, EMS S.A., Nyon, Switzerland) with selectable long or short pulse mode was tested with regard to its fragmentation and laser hardware compatibility properties. The pulse duration is depending on the specific laser parameters. Fragmentation tests (hand-held, hands-free, single-pulse-induced crater) on artificial BEGO stones were performed under reproducible experimental conditions (fibre sizes: 365 and 200 µm; laser settings: 10 W through combinations of 0.5, 1, 2 J/pulse and 20, 10, 5 Hz, respectively). Differences in fragmentation rates between the two pulse duration regimes were detected with statistical significance for defined settings. Hand-held and motivated Ho:YAG laser-assisted fragmentation of BEGO stones showed no significant difference between short pulse mode and long pulse mode, neither in fragmentation rates nor in number of fragments and fragment sizes. Similarly, the results of the hands-free fragmentation tests (with and without anti-repulsion device) showed no statistical differences between long pulse and short pulse modes. The study showed that fragmentation rates for long and short pulse durations at identical power settings remain at a comparable level. Longer holmium laser pulse duration reduces stone pushback. Therefore, longer laser pulses may result in better clinical outcome of laser lithotripsy and more convenient handling during clinical use without compromising fragmentation effectiveness.

  6. Impacts of Ambient and Ablation Plasmas on Short- and Ultrashort-Pulse Laser Processing of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda M. Bulgakova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that more than five decades have passed since the invention of laser, some topics of laser-matter interaction still remain incompletely studied. One of such topics is plasma impact on the overall phenomenon of the interaction and its particular features, including influence of the laser-excited plasma re-radiation, back flux of energetic plasma species, and massive material redeposition, on the surface quality and processing efficiency. In this paper, we analyze different plasma aspects, which go beyond a simple consideration of the well-known effect of plasma shielding of laser radiation. The following effects are considered: ambient gas ionization above the target on material processing with formation of a “plasma pipe”; back heating of the target by both laser-driven ambient and ablation plasmas through conductive and radiative heat transfer; plasma chemical effects on surface processing including microstructure growth on liquid metals; complicated dynamics of the ablation plasma flow interacting with an ambient gas that can result in substantial redeposition of material around the ablation spot. Together with a review summarizing our main to-date achievements and outlining research directions, we present new results underlining importance of laser plasma dynamics and photoionization of the gas environment upon laser processing of materials.

  7. Impact of laser excitation intensity on deep UV fluorescence detection in microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Philipp; Ludwig, Martin; Belder, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    A high intensity 266 nm continuous wave (cw-) laser developed for material processing was utilised as an excitation source for sensitive native fluorescence detection of unlabelled compounds in MCE. This 120 mW laser was attached via an optical fibre into a commercial epifluorescence microscope. With this MCE set-up we evaluated the impact of laser power on the S/N of aromatic compounds as well as of proteins. Compared with a previous work which used a 4 mW pulsed laser for excitation, improved S/N for small aromatics and to a lesser extent for proteins could be attained. The LOD of the system was determined down to 24 ng/mL for serotonin (113 nM), 24 ng/mL for propranolol (81 nM), 80 ng/mL for tryptophan (392 nM) and 80 ng/mL for an aromatic diol (475 nM). Sensitive protein detection was obtained at concentrations of 5 microg/mL for lysocyme, trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen (340, 208 and 195 nM, respectively). Finally, a comparison of the cw- with a pulsed 266 nm laser, operating at the same average power, showed a higher attainable sensitivity of the cw-laser. This can be attributed to fluorescence saturation and photobleaching effects of the pulsed laser at high pulse energies.

  8. Impact of mismatched and misaligned laser light sheet profiles on PIV performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, K.; de Silva, C. M.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of mismatched or misaligned laser light sheet profiles on the quality of particle image velocimetry (PIV) results is considered in this study. Light sheet profiles with differing widths, shapes, or alignment can reduce the correlation between PIV images and increase experimental errors. Systematic PIV simulations isolate these behaviours to assess the sensitivity and implications of light sheet mismatch on measurements. The simulations in this work use flow fields from a turbulent boundary layer; however, the behaviours and impacts of laser profile mismatch are highly relevant to any fluid flow or PIV application. Experimental measurements from a turbulent boundary layer facility are incorporated, as well as additional simulations matched to experimental image characteristics, to validate the synthetic image analysis. Experimental laser profiles are captured using a modular laser profiling camera, designed to quantify the distribution of laser light sheet intensities and inform any corrective adjustments to an experimental configuration. Results suggest that an offset of just 1.35 standard deviations in the Gaussian light sheet intensity distributions can cause a 40% reduction in the average correlation coefficient and a 45% increase in spurious vectors. Errors in measured flow statistics are also amplified when two successive laser profiles are no longer well matched in alignment or intensity distribution. Consequently, an awareness of how laser light sheet overlap influences PIV results can guide faster setup of an experiment, as well as achieve superior experimental measurements.

  9. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-06-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  10. Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed Ziauddin; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.; Khashan, Saud A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of maskless lithography technique on negative photoresist material is investigated in this study. The equipment used in this work is designed and built especially for maskless lithography applications. The UV laser of 405 nm wavelength with 0.85 Numerical Aperture is selected for direct laser writing. All the samples are prepared on a glass substrate. Samples are tested at different UV laser intensities and different stage velocities in order to study the impact on patterned line width. Three cases of spin coated layers of thickness 90 μm, 40 μm, and 28 μm on the substrate are studied. The experimental results show that line width has a generally increasing trend with intensity. However, a decreasing trend was observed for increasing velocity. The overall performance shows that the mr-DWL material is suitable for direct laser writing systems.

  11. Impact of laser power density on tribological properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited DLC films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, S.; Kumar, N.; Krishnan, R.; AmirthaPandian, S.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sridharan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fabrication of wear resistant and low friction carbon films on the engineered substrates is considered as a challenging task for expanding the applications of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. In this paper, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique is used to deposit DLC films on two different types of technologically important class of substrates such as silicon and AISI 304 stainless steel. Laser power density is one of the important parameter used to tailor the fraction of sp2 bonded amorphous carbon (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) made by sp3 domain in the DLC film. The I(D)/I(G) ratio decreases with the increasing laser power density which is associated with decrease in fraction of a-C/ta-C ratio. The fraction of these chemical components is quantitatively analyzed by EELS which is well supported to the data obtained from the Raman spectroscopy. Tribological properties of the DLC are associated with chemical structure of the film. However, the super low value of friction coefficient 0.003 is obtained when the film is predominantly constituted by a-C and sp2 fraction which is embedded within the clusters of ta-C. Such a particular film with super low friction coefficient is measured while it was deposited on steel at low laser power density of 2 GW/cm2. The super low friction mechanism is explained by low sliding resistance of a-C/sp2 and ta-C clusters. Combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties of wear resistance and super low friction coefficient of DLC films is desirable for engineering applications. Moreover, the high friction coefficient of DLC films deposited at 9GW/cm2 is related to widening of the intergrain distance caused by transformation from sp2 to sp3 hybridized structure.

  12. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  13. Multichannel fiber laser Doppler vibrometer studies of low momentum and hypervelocity impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E.; Jackson, David A.; Cole, Mike J.; Garcia-Souto, Jose A.

    2017-12-01

    A multichannel optical fiber laser Doppler vibrometer was demonstrated with the capability of making simultaneous non-contact measurements of impacts at 3 different locations. Two sets of measurements were performed, firstly using small ball bearings (1 mm-5.5 mm) falling under gravity and secondly using small projectiles (1 mm) fired from an extremely high velocity light gas gun (LGG) with speeds in the range 1 km/s-8 km/s. Determination of impact damage is important for industries such as aerospace, military and rail, where the effect of an impact on the structure can result in a major structural damage. To our knowledge the research reported here demonstrates the first trials of a multichannel fiber laser Doppler vibrometer being used to detect hypervelocity impacts.

  14. Laser technology for high precision satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Fixed and mobile laser ranging stations have been developed to track satellites equipped with retro-reflector arrays. These have operated consistently at data rates of once per second with range precision better than 50 cm, using Q-switched ruby lasers with pulse durations of 20 to 40 nanoseconds. Improvements are being incorporated to improve the precision to 10 cm, and to permit ranging to more distant satellites. These include improved reflector array designs, processing and analysis of the received reflection pulses, and use of sub-nanosecond pulse duration lasers.

  15. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  16. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  17. Energy coupling to the plasma in repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Nishihara, Munetake; Choi, Inchul; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Lempert, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    A new analytic quasi-one-dimensional model of energy coupling to nanosecond pulse discharge plasmas in plane-to-plane geometry has been developed. The use of a one-dimensional approach is based on images of repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge plasmas in dry air demonstrating that the plasma remains diffuse and uniform on a nanosecond time scale over a wide range of pressures. The model provides analytic expressions for the time-dependent electric field and electron density in the plasma, electric field in the sheath, sheath boundary location, and coupled pulse energy. The analytic model predictions are in very good agreement with numerical calculations. The model demonstrates that (i) the energy coupled to the plasma during an individual nanosecond discharge pulse is controlled primarily by the capacitance of the dielectric layers and by the breakdown voltage and (ii) the pulse energy coupled to the plasma during a burst of nanosecond pulses decreases as a function of the pulse number in the burst. This occurs primarily because of plasma temperature rise and resultant reduction in breakdown voltage, such that the coupled pulse energy varies approximately proportionally to the number density. Analytic expression for coupled pulse energy scaling has been incorporated into the air plasma chemistry model, validated previously by comparing with atomic oxygen number density measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges. The results of kinetic modeling using the modified air plasma chemistry model are compared with time-resolved temperature measurements in a repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharge in air, by emission spectroscopy, and purely rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy showing good agreement.

  18. High power atomic iodine photodissociation lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.E.; Padrick, T.D.; Jones, E.D.

    1976-01-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has developed into a system capable of producing nanosecond or shorter pulses of near infrared radiation with energies well in excess of a hundred J. Discussed are the operating characteristics, advantages, and potential problem areas associated with this laser

  19. Experiment and simulation study of laser dicing silicon with water-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jiading; Long, Yuhong, E-mail: longyuhong@guet.edu.cn; Tong, Youqun; Yang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Zupeng

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with ns-pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating. • Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. • SPH modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining. - Abstract: Water-jet laser processing is an internationally advanced technique, which combines the advantages of laser processing with water jet cutting. In the study, the experiment of water-jet laser dicing are conducted with ns pulsed laser of 1064 nm irradiating, and Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) technique by AUTODYN software was modeled to research the fluid dynamics of water and melt when water jet impacting molten material. The silicon surface morphology of the irradiated spots has an appearance as one can see in porous formation. The surface morphology exhibits a large number of cavities which indicates as bubble nucleation sites. The observed surface morphology shows that the explosive melt expulsion could be a dominant process for the laser ablating silicon in liquids with nanosecond pulse laser of 1064 nm irradiating. Self-focusing phenomenon was found and its causes are analyzed. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) modeling technique was employed to understand the effect of water and water-jet on debris removal during water-jet laser machining.

  20. Laser ablation of the protein lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Amoruso, Salvatore

    produced thin films of average thickness up to 300 nm, which not only contained a significant amount of intact molecules, but also maintained the bioactivity. These films were produced by a nanosecond laser in the UV regime at 355 nm with 2 J/cm2. The surprising fact that these molecules can be transferred......Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bactericidal properties. The mass (14307 amu) is in the range in which it easily can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization). We have recently...... to a substrate as intact molecules by the violent laser impact ( up to 50 mJ/pulse) has not yet been understood. One issue is that up to 150 ng/pulse is removed by the laser, and much of the material is ejected from the target in relatively large chunks. We have explored as well the excitation mechanics by laser...

  1. High-Voltage, Multiphasic, Nanosecond Pulses to Modulate Cellular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Hollie A; Hirakawa, Shinji; Yang, Enbo; Zhou, Chunrong; Xiao, Shu

    2018-04-01

    Nanosecond electric pulses are an effective power source in plasma medicine and biological stimulation, in which biophysical responses are governed by peak power and not energy. While uniphasic nanosecond pulse generators are widely available, the recent discovery that biological effects can be uniquely modulated by reversing the polarity of nanosecond duration pulses calls for the development of a multimodal pulse generator. This paper describes a method to generate nanosecond multiphasic pulses for biomedical use, and specifically demonstrates its ability to cancel or enhance cell swelling and blebbing. The generator consists of a series of the fundamental module, which includes a capacitor and a MOSFET switch. A positive or a negative phase pulse module can be produced based on how the switch is connected. Stacking the modules in series can increase the voltage up to 5 kV. Multiple stacks in parallel can create multiphase outputs. As each stack is independently controlled and charged, multiphasic pulses can be created to produce flexible and versatile pulse waveforms. The circuit topology can be used for high-frequency uniphasic or biphasic nanosecond burst pulse production, creating numerous opportunities for the generator in electroporation applications, tissue ablation, wound healing, and nonthermal plasma generation.

  2. Energy efficiency in nanoscale synthesis using nanosecond plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, David Z; Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Kumar, Shailesh; Lacoste, Deanna A; Levchenko, Igor; Laux, Christophe O

    2013-01-01

    We report a nanoscale synthesis technique using nanosecond-duration plasma discharges. Voltage pulses 12.5 kV in amplitude and 40 ns in duration were applied repetitively at 30 kHz across molybdenum electrodes in open ambient air, generating a nanosecond spark discharge that synthesized well-defined MoO₃ nanoscale architectures (i.e. flakes, dots, walls, porous networks) upon polyamide and copper substrates. No nitrides were formed. The energy cost was as low as 75 eV per atom incorporated into a nanostructure, suggesting a dramatic reduction compared to other techniques using atmospheric pressure plasmas. These findings show that highly efficient synthesis at atmospheric pressure without catalysts or external substrate heating can be achieved in a simple fashion using nanosecond discharges.

  3. Diode Laser Clinical Efficacy and Mini-Invasivity in Surgical Exposure of Impacted Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, Mario; Rizzi, Manuela; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Renò, Filippo

    2016-11-01

    The gold standard to arrange impacted teeth in the dental arch is represented by a surgical approach followed by orthodontic traction force application. In the literature, many surgical approaches are proposed to reach such a scope. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate how laser technique could positively assist surgical approaches.Study population was composed by 16 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment of 20 impacted teeth. In 10 patients (population A) surgical exposure of the impacted teeth was performed using a 980 nm diode laser, while in the other 10 patients (population B), surgical incision was performed using a traditional lancet.Only 3 patients of the population A needed local anesthesia for surgical procedure while the remaining 7 patients reported only faint pain during surgery. Two patients referred postsurgical pain (numerical rating scale average value = 2) and needed to take analgesics. None of the patients showed other postsurgical side effects (bleeding, edema).All population B patients needed infiltrative anesthesia and referred postsurgical pain (numerical rating scale average value >4) treated with analgesics. Moreover, in such population, 4 patients referred lips edema while 4 showed bleeding and 6 needed surgical sutures of soft tissues.The lack of side effects of laser surgical approach to expose impacted teeth must persuade dental practitioners to choose such a clinical approach to closed surgical approach every time it is possible.

  4. Nanosecond time-resolved characterization of a pentacene-based room-temperature MASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Enrico; Breeze, Jonathan D.; Tan, Ke-Jie; Sathian, Juna; Richards, Benjamin; Fung, Mei Wai; Wolfowicz, Gary; Oxborrow, Mark; Alford, Neil McN.; Kay, Christopher W. M.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a room temperature, zero-field MASER operating at 1.45 GHz has been examined. Nanosecond laser pulses, which are essentially instantaneous on the timescale of the spin dynamics, allow the visible-to-microwave conversion efficiency and temporal response of the MASER to be measured as a function of excitation energy. It is observed that the timing and amplitude of the MASER output pulse are correlated with the laser excitation energy: at higher laser energy, the microwave pulses have larger amplitude and appear after shorter delay than those recorded at lower laser energy. Seeding experiments demonstrate that the output variation may be stabilized by an external source and establish the minimum seeding power required. The dynamics of the MASER emission may be modeled by a pair of first order, non-linear differential equations, derived from the Lotka-Volterra model (Predator-Prey), where by the microwave mode of the resonator is the predator and the spin polarization in the triplet state of pentacene is the prey. Simulations allowed the Einstein coefficient of stimulated emission, the spin-lattice relaxation and the number of triplets contributing to the MASER emission to be estimated. These are essential parameters for the rational improvement of a MASER based on a spin-polarized triplet molecule. PMID:28169331

  5. Nanosecond and femtosecond mass spectroscopic analysis of a molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hidenori; Kamikado, Toshiya; Okuno, Yoshishige; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Mashiko, Shinro; Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The spray-jet molecular beam apparatus enabled us to produce a molecular beam of non-volatile molecules under high vacuum from a sprayed mist of sample solutions. The apparatus has been used in spectroscopic studies and as a means of molecular beam deposition. We analyzed the molecular beam, consisting of non-volatile, solvent, and carrier-gas molecules, by using femtosecond- and nanosecond- laser mass spectroscopy. The information thus obtained provided insight into the molecular beam produced by the spray-jet technique

  6. Combined Impact of Gamma and Laser Radiation on Peripheral Blood of Rats in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Batay, L. E.; Koshlan, I. V.; Nasek, V. M.; Zilberman, R. D.; Milevich, T. I.; Govorun, R. D.; Koshlan, N. A.; Blaga, P.

    2017-11-01

    The impact of γ radiation of 137Cs (doses of 1 and 3 Gy), low-intensity laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, 5.3 or 10.6 J/cm2) as well as the influence of consecutive laser and γ radiation on peripheral blood and blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes) were studied by analyzing the number of blood cells, blood absorption spectra, and activity of antioxidant defense enzymes. Two series of experiments were performed on four groups of rats. The rats of the control group (group 1) were not exposed to γ or laser radiation. In the experimental groups, single irradiation of the whole body of rats with γ radiation (group 2), three- or four-day over-vein irradiation of blood in the tail vein by low-intensity laser radiation (group 3), and successive three- or four-day irradiation of blood by laser and then a single irradiation of the whole body with γ radiation (group 4) were performed. It was shown that changes of the blood cell content in the experimental groups are accompanied by changes in the spectral characteristics of the blood and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes. The radioprotective effect of low-intensity laser radiation is manifested as an increase in the average number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the group as compared with the postradiation, as well as an increase in the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes. The possibility of using low-intensity optical radiation for correction of hematological disorders caused by ionizing radiation is discussed.

  7. Impact of initial surface parameters on the final quality of laser micro-polished surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Knopf, George K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser micro-polishing (LμP) is a new laser-based microfabrication technology for improving surface quality during a finishing operation and for producing parts and surfaces with near-optical surface quality. The LμP process uses low power laser energy to melt a thin layer of material on the previously machined surface. The polishing effect is achieved as the molten material in the laser-material interaction zone flows from the elevated regions to the local minimum due to surface tension. This flow of molten material then forms a thin ultra-smooth layer on the top surface. The LμP is a complex thermo-dynamic process where the melting, flow and redistribution of molten material is significantly influenced by a variety of process parameters related to the laser, the travel motions and the material. The goal of this study is to analyze the impact of initial surface parameters on the final surface quality. Ball-end micromilling was used for preparing initial surface of samples from H13 tool steel that were polished using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The height and width of micromilled scallops (waviness) were identified as dominant parameter affecting the quality of the LμPed surface. By adjusting process parameters, the Ra value of a surface, having a waviness period of 33 μm and a peak-to-valley value of 5.9 μm, was reduced from 499 nm to 301 nm, improving the final surface quality by 39.7%.

  8. Effect of low-level laser therapy after extraction of impacted lower third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Maurizio; Petrini, Morena; Trentini, Paolo; Perfetti, Giorgio; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the control of pain, swelling, and trismus associated with surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups, each with 15 patients-group test (LLLT) and a group control (no-LLLT)-and were told to avoid any analgesics 12 h before the procedure. In group test, the 980-nm diode-laser (G-Laser 25 Galbiati, Italy) was applied, using a 600-μm handpiece, intraorally (lingual and vestibular) at 1 cm from the involved area and extraoral at the insertion point of the masseter muscle immediately after surgery and at 24 h. The group control received only routine management. Parameters used for LLLT were: continuous mode, at 300 mW (0.3 W) for a total of 180 s (60 s × 3) (0.3 W × 180 s=54 J). Group test showed improvement in the interincisal opening and remarkable reduction of trismus, swelling and intensity of pain on the first and the seventh postoperative days. Although LLLT has been reported to prevent swelling and trismus following the removal of impacted third molars, some of these studies reported a positive laser effect while others did not. All references to the use of laser therapy in the postoperative management of third molar surgery employ different methodologies and, in some, explanations as to selection of their respective radiation parameters are not given. This study has demonstrated that LLLT, with these parameters, is useful for the reduction of postoperative discomfort after third-molar surgery.

  9. Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Bates, J. W.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Watari, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Sakaiya, T.; Murakami, M.; Azechi, H.; Oh, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Nike krypton fluoride laser [S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] is used to accelerate planar plastic foils to velocities that for the first time reach 1000 km/s. Collision of the highly accelerated deuterated polystyrene foil with a stationary target produces ∼Gbar shock pressures and results in heating of the foil to thermonuclear temperatures. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with ∼10 6 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2-3 keV.

  10. Performance of the Fitch generator in a nanosecond electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyj, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the Fitch generator in the nanosecond electron accelerator is discussed. The operating principle of the generator is based on the inversion of the voltage at the storage capacitances. Only one discharger is employed in the discharge circuit of the generator which provides for decreasing the generator impedance to 24 Ohms. The maximum accelerating voltage equals 0.6 MV

  11. High power semiconductor switching in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.S.; Long, J.R.; Smith, V.L.; Page, D.J.; Roberts, J.S.

    1975-12-01

    Light activated multilayered silicon semiconductor devices have been used to switch at megawatt power levels with nanosecond turnon time. Current rate of rise of 700 kA/μs at 10 kA, with 1 kV across the load have been achieved. Recovery time of 1 millisec has been obtained. Applicability to fusion research needs is discussed

  12. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, D.; Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies

  13. Multiphoton effects in laser-assisted ionization of a helium atom by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh Deb, S.; Sinha, C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kokata (India)

    2010-11-15

    The dynamics of the electron impact multiphoton ionization of a He atom in the presence of an intense laser field (n{gamma}{sub e}, 2e) is studied theoretically for laser polarization (||{sup l}) and perpendicular to the incident momentum. The triple differential (TDCS) as well as the double differential (DDCS) cross sections are studied for the coplanar asymmetric geometry. The results are compared with the only available kinematically complete experiment at high incident energy (1000 eV). Significant laser modification (enhancement) is noted due to multiphoton effects in the present binary and recoil peak intensities of the TDCS for both the geometries, in qualitative agreement with the experiment. In the single photon case, the net effect of the laser field is to suppress the field free (FF) TDCS as well as the DDCS in the zeroth order approximation of the ejected electron wave function (CV), while in the first order (MCV), the cross sections are found to be enhanced. The CV multiphoton cross sections obey the famous Kroll Watson (KW) sum rule while the latter does not hold good in the corresponding MCV approximation. (authors)

  14. Time Biases in laser ranging measurements; impacts on geodetic products (Reference Frame and Orbitography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, A.; Exertier, P.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The GGOS objectives are to maintain a geodetic network with an accuracy of 1 mm and a stability of 0.1 mm per year. For years, the laser ranging technique, which provide very accurate absolute distances to geodetic targets enable to determine the scale factor as well as coordinates of the geocenter. In order to achieve this goal, systematic errors appearing in the laser ranging measurements must be considered and solved. In addition to Range Bias (RB), which is the primary source of uncertainty of the technique, Time Bias (TB) has been recently detected by using the Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) space instrument capability on-board the satellite Jason-2. Instead of determining TB through the precise orbit determination that is applied to commonly used geodetic targets like LAGEOS to estimate global geodetic products, we have developed, independently, a dedicated method to transfer time between remote satellite laser ranging stations. As a result, the evolving clock phase shift to UTC of around 30 stations has been determined under the form of time series of time bias per station from 2008 to 2016 with an accuracy of 3-4 ns. It demonstrated the difficulty, in terms of Time & Frequency used technologies, to locally maintain accuracy and long term stability at least in the range of 100 ns that is the current requirement for time measurements (UTC) for the laser ranging technique. Because some laser ranging stations oftently exceed this limit (from 100 ns to a few μs) we have been studying these effects first on the precision orbit determination itself, second on the station positioning. We discuss the impact of TB on LAGEOS and Jason-2 orbits, which appears to affect the along-track component essentially. We also investigate the role of TB in global geodetic parameters as the station coordinates. Finally, we propose to provide the community with time series of time bias of laser ranging stations, under the form of a data- handling-file in order to be included in

  15. Relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaourti, Y.; Taj, S.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of the coplanar binary geometry where it is justified to use plane wave solutions for the study of the (e,2e) reaction and in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field, we introduce as a first step the Dirac-Volkov plane wave Born approximation 1 where we take into account only the relativistic dressing of the incident and scattered electrons. Then, we introduce the Dirac-Volkov plane wave Born approximation 2 where we take totally into account the relativistic dressing of the incident, scattered, and ejected electrons. We then compare the corresponding triple differential cross sections for laser-assisted ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact both for the nonrelativistic and the relativistic regime

  16. Laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar Ages of Darwin Impact Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Hua; Howard, Kieren T.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Meffre, Sebastien

    2002-11-01

    Three samples of Darwin Glass, an impact glass found in Tasmania, Australia at the edge of the Australasian tektite strewn field were dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-grain laser fusion technique, yielding isochron ages of 796-815 ka with an overall weighted mean of 816 ± 7 ka. These data are statistically indistinguishable from those recently reported for the Australasian tektites from Southeast Asia and Australia (761-816 ka; with a mean weighted age of 803 ± 3 ka). However, considering the compositional and textural differences and the disparity from the presumed impact crater area for Australasian tektites, Darwin Glass is more likely to have resulted from a distinct impact during the same period of time.

  17. Amplified spontaneous emission and thermal management on a high average-power diode-pumped solid-state laser - the Lucia laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the laser triggered the birth of numerous fields in both scientific and industrial domains. High intensity laser pulses are a unique tool for light/matter interaction studies and applications. However, current flash-pumped glass-based systems are inherently limited in repetition-rate and efficiency. Development within recent years in the field of semiconductor lasers and gain media drew special attention to a new class of lasers, the so-called Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL). DPSSLs are highly efficient lasers and are candidates of choice for compact, high average-power systems required for industrial applications but also as high-power pump sources for ultra-high intense lasers. The work described in this thesis takes place in the context of the 1 kilowatt average-power DPSSL program Lucia, currently under construction at the 'Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Laser Intenses' (LULI) at the Ecole Polytechnique, France. Generation of sub-10 nanosecond long pulses with energies of up to 100 joules at repetition rates of 10 hertz are mainly limited by Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and thermal effects. These limitations are the central themes of this work. Their impact is discussed within the context of a first Lucia milestone, set around 10 joules. The developed laser system is shown in detail from the oscillator level to the end of the amplification line. A comprehensive discussion of the impact of ASE and thermal effects is completed by related experimental benchmarks. The validated models are used to predict the performances of the laser system, finally resulting in a first activation of the laser system at an energy level of 7 joules in a single-shot regime and 6.6 joules at repetition rates up to 2 hertz. Limitations and further scaling approaches are discussed, followed by an outlook for the further development. (author) [fr

  18. Acceleration to High Velocities and Heating by Impact Using Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max

    2009-11-01

    Shock ignition, impact ignition, as well as higher intensity conventional hot spot ignition designs reduce driver energy requirement by pushing the envelope in laser intensity and target implosion velocities. This talk will describe experiments that for the first time reach target velocities in the range of 700 -- 1000 km/s. The highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene, some with bromine doping, are made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Target acceleration and collision are diagnosed using large field of view monochromatic x-ray imaging with backlighting as well as bremsstrahlung self-emission. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with over 10^6 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2 -- 3 keV. The experiments are performed on the Nike facility, reconfigured specifically for high intensity operation. The short wavelength and high illumination uniformity of Nike KrF laser uniquely enable access to this new parameter regime. Intensities of (0.4 -- 1.2) x 10^15 W/cm^2 and pulse durations of 0.4 -- 2 ns were utilized. Modeling of the target acceleration, collision, and neutron production is performed using the FAST3D radiation hydrodynamics code with a non-LTE radiation model. Work is supported by US Department of Energy.

  19. Nanosecond formation of diamond and lonsdaleite by shock compression of graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, D; Ravasio, A; Gauthier, M; Gericke, D O; Vorberger, J; Frydrych, S; Helfrich, J; Fletcher, L B; Schaumann, G; Nagler, B; Barbrel, B; Bachmann, B; Gamboa, E J; Göde, S; Granados, E; Gregori, G; Lee, H J; Neumayer, P; Schumaker, W; Döppner, T; Falcone, R W; Glenzer, S H; Roth, M

    2016-03-14

    The shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond has been of great scientific and technological interest since the discovery of microscopic diamonds in remnants of explosively driven graphite. Furthermore, shock synthesis of diamond and lonsdaleite, a speculative hexagonal carbon polymorph with unique hardness, is expected to happen during violent meteor impacts. Here, we show unprecedented in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of diamond formation on nanosecond timescales by shock compression of pyrolytic as well as polycrystalline graphite to pressures from 19 GPa up to 228 GPa. While we observe the transition to diamond starting at 50 GPa for both pyrolytic and polycrystalline graphite, we also record the direct formation of lonsdaleite above 170 GPa for pyrolytic samples only. Our experiment provides new insights into the processes of the shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond and uniquely resolves the dynamics that explain the main natural occurrence of the lonsdaleite crystal structure being close to meteor impact sites.

  20. LASER PLASMA: Experimental confirmation of the erosion origin of pulsed low-threshold surface optical breakdown of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min'ko, L. Ya; Chumakou, A. N.; Chivel', Yu A.

    1988-08-01

    Nanosecond kinetic spectroscopy techniques were used to identify the erosion origin of pulsed low-threshold surface optical breakdown of air as a result of interaction of microsecond neodymium and CO2 laser pulses with some metals (indium, lead).

  1. Electron impact excitation and ionization of laser-excited sodium atoms Na*(7d)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, J.; Dorn, A.; Mehlhorn, W.; Zatsarinny, O.I.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the ejected-electron spectrum following impact excitation and ionization of laser-excited Na * (nl) atoms by 1.5 keV electrons. By means of two-laser excitation 3s → 3p 3/2 → 7d and subsequent cascading transitions about 8% (4%) of the target atoms were in excited states with n > 3 (7d). The experimental ejected-electron spectrum due to the decay of Auger and autoionization states of laser-excited atoms Na * (nl) with n = 4-7 has been fully interpreted by comprehensive calculations of the energies, cross sections and decay probabilities of the corresponding states. The various processes contributing to the ejected-electron spectrum are with decreasing magnitude: 2s ionization leading to 2s2p 6 nl Auger states, 2p → 3s excitation leading to 2p 5 3s( 1 P)nl autoionization states and 2s → 3l' excitation leading to 2s2p 6 3l'( 1 L)nl autoionization states. (Author)

  2. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.

    2009-07-01

    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  3. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  4. Laser induced magnetization switching in a TbFeCo ferrimagnetic thin film: discerning the impact of dipolar fields, laser heating and laser helicity by XPEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierster, L.; Ünal, A.A.; Pape, L.; Radu, F.; Kronast, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate laser induced magnetic switching in a ferrimagnetic thin film of Tb_2_2Fe_6_9Co_9 by PEEM. Using a small laser beam with a spot size of 3–5 µm in diameter in combination with high resolution magnetic soft X-ray microscopy we are able to discriminate between different effects that govern the microscopic switching process, namely the influence of the laser heating, of the helicity dependent momentum transfer, and of the dipolar coupling. Applying a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses to a previously saturated TbFeCo film leads to the formation of ring shaped magnetic structures in which all three effects can be observed. Laser helicity assisted switching is only observed in a narrow region within the Gaussian profile of the laser spot. Whereas in the center of the laser spot we find clear evidence for thermal demagnetization and in the outermost areas magnetic switching is determined by dipolar coupling with the surrounding film. Our findings demonstrate that by reducing the laser spot size the influence of dipolar coupling on laser induced switching is becoming increasingly important. - Highlights: • With a new PEEM sample holder a laser spot size of 3–5 µm in diameter is reached. • Spatial resolved imaging of laser induced magnetization reversal. • A single femtosecond laser pulse leads to a multi-domain state in TbFeCo. • A pulse sequence results in a ring-shaped magnetic pattern caused by dipolar fields. • Laser helicity dependent effects appear only in a narrow fluence region.

  5. Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirov, R.H.; Asinovsky, E.I.; Samoilov, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of pure ozone by nanosecond discharge at cryogenic temperatures was experimentally examined. The average ozone concentration in the volume of the discharge tube was less at cryogenic temperatures than at room temperatures. The production of condensed ozone have been determined by measuring the ozone concentration when the walls was heated and ozone evaporated. The energy yield of ozone generation at cryogenic temperatures has been calculated. The maximum value was 200 g/kWh

  6. Laser ablation dynamics and production of thin films of lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Amoruso, S.

    produced thin films of average thickness up to 300 nm, which not only contained a significant amount of intact molecules, but also maintained the bioactivity. These films were produced by a nanosecond laser in the UV regime at 355 nm with 2 J/cm2. The surprising fact that these molecules can be transferred......Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bactericidal properties. The mass (14307 amu) is in the range in which it easily can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization). We have recently...... to a substrate as intact molecules by the violent laser impact (~up to 50 mJ/pulse) has not yet been understood. One issue is that up to 150 ng/pulse is removed by the laser, and much of the material is ejected from the target in relatively large chunks. We have explored as well the excitation mechanics by laser...

  7. Laser Peening Process and Its Impact on Materials Properties in Comparison with Shot Peening and Ultrasonic Impact Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujba, Abdullahi K.; Medraj, Mamoun

    2014-01-01

    The laser shock peening (LSP) process using a Q-switched pulsed laser beam for surface modification has been reviewed. The development of the LSP technique and its numerous advantages over the conventional shot peening (SP) such as better surface finish, higher depths of residual stress and uniform distribution of intensity were discussed. Similar comparison with ultrasonic impact peening (UIP)/ultrasonic shot peening (USP) was incorporated, when possible. The generation of shock waves, processing parameters, and characterization of LSP treated specimens were described. Special attention was given to the influence of LSP process parameters on residual stress profiles, material properties and structures. Based on the studies so far, more fundamental understanding is still needed when selecting optimized LSP processing parameters and substrate conditions. A summary of the parametric studies of LSP on different materials has been presented. Furthermore, enhancements in the surface micro and nanohardness, elastic modulus, tensile yield strength and refinement of microstructure which translates to increased fatigue life, fretting fatigue life, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion resistance were addressed. However, research gaps related to the inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Current status, developments and challenges of the LSP technique were discussed. PMID:28788284

  8. Characteristics of 2-heptanone decomposition using nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Yuki; Fukuchi, Yuichi; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) evaporate at room temperature. VOCs typically consist of toluene, benzene and ethyl acetate, which are used in cosmetics, dry cleaning products and paints. Exposure to elevated levels of VOCs may cause headaches, dizziness and irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat; they may also cause environmental problems such as air pollution, acid rain and photochemical smog. As such, they require prompt removal. Nanosecond pulsed discharge is a kind of non-thermal plasma consisting of a streamer discharge. Several advantages of nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma have been demonstrated by studies of our research group, including low heat loss, highly energetic electron generation, and the production of highly active radicals. These advantages have shown ns pulsed discharge plasma capable of higher energy efficiency for processes, such as air purification, wastewater treatment and ozone generation. In this research, nanosecond pulsed discharge plasma was employed to treat 2-heptanone, which is a volatile organic compound type and presents several harmful effects. Characteristics of treatment dependent on applied voltage, gas flow rate and input energy density were investigated. Furthermore, byproducts generated by treatment were also investigated.

  9. High resolution imaging of impacted CFRP composites with a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pelivanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Damage induced in polymer composites by various impacts must be evaluated to predict a component’s post-impact strength and residual lifetime, especially when impacts occur in structures related to human safety (in aircraft, for example. X-ray tomography is the conventional standard to study an internal structure with high resolution. However, it is of little use when the impacted area cannot be extracted from a structure. In addition, X-ray tomography is expensive and time-consuming. Recently, we have demonstrated that a kHz-rate laser-ultrasound (LU scanner is very efficient both for locating large defects and evaluating the material structure. Here, we show that high-quality images of damage produced by the LU scanner in impacted carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP composites are similar to those produced by X-ray tomograms; but they can be obtained with only single-sided access to the object under study. Potentially, the LU method can be applied to large components in-situ.

  10. High resolution imaging of impacted CFRP composites with a fiber-optic laser-ultrasound scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelivanov, Ivan; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Khomenko, Anton; Koricho, Ermias G; Cloud, Gary L; Haq, Mahmoodul; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Damage induced in polymer composites by various impacts must be evaluated to predict a component's post-impact strength and residual lifetime, especially when impacts occur in structures related to human safety (in aircraft, for example). X-ray tomography is the conventional standard to study an internal structure with high resolution. However, it is of little use when the impacted area cannot be extracted from a structure. In addition, X-ray tomography is expensive and time-consuming. Recently, we have demonstrated that a kHz-rate laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner is very efficient both for locating large defects and evaluating the material structure. Here, we show that high-quality images of damage produced by the LU scanner in impacted carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are similar to those produced by X-ray tomograms; but they can be obtained with only single-sided access to the object under study. Potentially, the LU method can be applied to large components in-situ.

  11. Reflectors and tuning elements for widely-tunable GaAs-based sampled grating DBR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, O.; Wenzel, H.; Della Case, P.; Tawfieq, M.; Sumpf, B.; Weyers, M.; Knigge, A.

    2018-02-01

    Widely-tunable lasers without moving parts are attractive light sources for sensors in industry and biomedicine. In contrast to InP based sampled grating (SG) distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) diode lasers which are commercially available, shorter wavelength GaAs SG-DBR lasers are still under development. One reason is the difficulty to integrate gratings with coupling coefficients that are high enough for functional grating bursts with lengths below 10 μm. Recently we have demonstrated > 20 nm wide quasi-continuous tuning with a GaAs based SG-DBR laser emitting around 975 nm. Wavelength selective reflectors are realized with SGs having different burst periods for the front and back mirrors. Thermal tuning elements (resistors) which are placed on top of the SG allow the control of the spectral positions of the SG reflector combs and hence to adjust the Vernier mode. In this work we characterize subsections of the developed SG-DBR laser to further improve its performance. We study the impact of two different vertical structures (with vertical far field FWHMs of 41° and 24°) and two grating orders on the coupling coefficient. Gratings with coupling coefficients above 350 cm-1 have been integrated into SG-DBR lasers. We also examine electronic tuning elements (a technique which is typically applied in InP based SG-DBR lasers and allows tuning within nanoseconds) and discuss the limitations in the GaAs material system

  12. 100J-level nanosecond pulsed Yb:YAG cryo-cooled DPSSL amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. M.; Butcher, T. J.; Mason, P. D.; Ertel, K.; Phillips, P. J.; Banerjee, S.; De Vido, M.; Chekhlov, O.; Divoky, M.; Pilar, J.; Shaikh, W.; Hooker, C.; Lucianetti, A.; Hernandez Gomez, C.; Mocek, T.; Edwards, C.; Collier, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of the world's first kW average power, 100 Joule-class, high-energy, nanosecond pulsed diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL), DiPOLE100. Results from the first long-term test for amplification will be presented; the system was operated for 1 hour with 10 ns duration pulses at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate and an average output energy of 105 J and RMS energy stability of approximately 1%. The laser system is based on scalable cryogenic gas-cooled multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG amplifier technology. The DiPOLE100 system comprises three major sub-systems, a spatially and temporally shaped front end, a 10 J cryo-amplifier and a 100 J cryo-amplifier. The 10 J cryo-amplifier contain four Yb:YAG ceramic gain media slabs, which are diode pumped from both sides, while a multi-pass architecture configured for seven passes enables 10 J of energy to be extracted at 10 Hz. This seeds the 100 J cryo-amplifier, which contains six Yb:YAG ceramic gain media slabs with the multi-pass configured for four passes. Our future development plans for this architecture will be introduced including closed-loop pulse shaping, increased energy, higher repetition rates and picosecond operation. This laser architecture unlocks the potential for practical applications including new sources for industrial materials processing and high intensity laser matter studies as envisioned for ELI [1], HiLASE [2], and the European XFEL [3]. Alternatively, it can be used as a pump source for higher repetition rate PW-class amplifiers, which can themselves generate high-brightness secondary radiation and ion sources leading to new remote imaging and medical applications.

  13. Corrosion behaviour of AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to massive laser shock peening impacts with different pulse energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Z.; Qi, H.; Luo, K.Y.; Luo, M.; Cheng, X.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Laser shock peening caused an obvious increase of corrosion resistance of 304 steel. •Corrosion resistance of stainless steel increased with increasing pulse energy. •Mechanism of laser shock peening on corrosion behaviour was also entirely determined. -- Abstract: Effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) impacts with different pulse energies on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility, fracture appearance and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by slow strain rate test, potentiodynamic polarisation test and scanning electron microscope observation. The influence mechanism of massive LSP impacts with different pulse energies on corrosion behaviour was also determined. Results showed that massive LSP impacts effectively caused a significant improvement on UTS, SCC resistance, and electrochemical corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel. Increased pulse energy can also gradually improve its corrosion resistance

  14. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  15. Laser-driven planar impact of miniature specimens of HY-100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, David J.; Robbins, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The deformation and fracture behavior of HY-100, a high-strength steel, under high strain-rate planar-impact conditions, has been studied with the Laser-Driven Miniflyer apparatus. Cold-rolled copper flyers 3 mm in diameter and either 50 or 100 microns thick have been laser-launched against HY-100 targets, 200 microns thick and nominally 10 mm square. The target specimens were sectioned from the 25-mm-thick HY-100 plate in three mutually perpendicular orientations, either parallel or perpendicular to the plate rolling direction. The back-surface response of the HY-100 targets was monitored with dual VISARs. The flyer velocity was varied to produce a range of behavior, from deformation at low velocities, to damage formation at intermediate velocities, and finally to complete spall failure at the highest velocities. The target specimens were sectioned after testing to examine the microstructure and failure processes of the deformed material. Spall strengths were calculated from the VISAR signals. The VISAR traces showed well-defined elastic precursors, which were similar for all orientations of the specimens. The spall strengths, as estimated from the magnitude of the pullback signal, were also similar for all three orientations. The spall strength increased as the flyer impact velocity increased, to values of about 4.6 GPa. Metallographic examination revealed that damage occurred at lower impact velocities in specimens loaded in the through-thickness direction of the plate, as compared to specimens oriented parallel to the plate thickness, but this difference was not reflected in the pull-back signal or the spall strengths

  16. Impact of grain sizes on the quantitative concrete analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, C.; Günther, T.; Wilsch, G.

    2018-04-01

    In civil engineering concrete is the most used building material for making infrastructures like bridges and parking decks worldwide. It is as a porous and multiphase material made of aggregates with a defined grain size distribution, cement and water as well as different additives and admixtures depending on the application. Different grain sizes are important to ensure the needed density and compressive strength. The resulting porous cement matrix contains a mixture of flour grains (aggregates with a grain size below 125 μm) and cement particles (particle size ≈ 50μm). Harmful species like chlorides may penetrate together with water through the capillary pore space and may trigger different damage processes. The damage assessment of concrete structures in Germany is estimated due to the quantification of harmful elements regarding to the cement content only. In the evaluation of concrete using LIBS a two-dimensional scanning is necessary to consider the heterogeneity caused by the aggregates. Therefore, a LIBS system operating with a low energy NdCr:YAG laser, a pulse energy of 3 mJ, a wavelength of 1064 nm, a pulse width of 1.5 ns and a repetition rate of 100 Hz has been used. Different Czerny-Turner spectrometers with CCD detectors in the UV and NIR range have been used for the detection. Large aggregates (macro-heterogeneity) can be excluded from the evaluation, whereas small aggregates in the range of the laser spot size (flour grains) cannot be spatially resolved. In this work the micro heterogeneity caused by flour grains and their impact on the quantification with LIBS will be discussed. To analyze the effect of changing grain sizes and ratios, the ablation behavior has been determined and compared. Samples with defined grain sizes were made and analyzed using LIBS. The grain size distributions were analyzed with laser diffraction (LDA).

  17. Impact of the cavitation bubble on a plasma emission following laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilović, Marijana R.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the impact of the cavitation bubble on a plasma emission produced after the interaction of the strong focused laser radiation with the target in the liquid was studied. Several experimental techniques were applied to assess different aspects of the complex phenomena of the laser induced breakdown in the liquid media. The results of the fast photography, Schlieren and shadowgraphy techniques were compared with the results of simpler probe beam techniques, transmission and scattering. In addition, emission from the plasma was analysed using optical emission spectroscopy, with aim to relate the quality of the recorded spectral lines to the bubble properties. Bubble had proved to be more convenient surrounding than the liquid for the long lasting plasma emission, due to the high temperature and pressure state inside of it and significantly lower density, which causes less confined plasma. Changes in refractive index of the bubble were also monitored, although in the limited time interval, when the bubble was sufficiently expanded and the refractive index difference between the bubble and the water was large enough to produce glory rings and the bright spot in the bubble's centre. Reshaping of the plasma emission due to the optical properties of the bubble was detected and the need for careful optimization of the optical system was stressed. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Physics of Ionized Gases (SPIG 2016)", edited by Goran Poparic, Bratislav Obradovic, Dragana Maric and Aleksandar Milosavljevic.

  18. Impact of Raman scattering on pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with narrow gain bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthayakumar, T.; Alsaleh, M.; Igbonacho, J.; Tchomgo Felenou, E.; Tchofo Dinda, P.; Grelu, Ph; Porsezian, K.

    2018-06-01

    We examine theoretically the multi-pulse dynamics in a dispersion-managed fiber laser, in which the pulse’s spectral width is controlled by a pass-band filter. We show that in the domain of stable states with very narrow spectral width, i.e. which is one order of magnitude smaller than the bandwidth of the Raman gain of the intra-cavity fiber system, the Raman scattering (RS) significantly alters the multi-pulse dynamics. RS is found to have a greater impact in the immediate vicinity of some critical values of the pump power of the intra-cavity gain medium, where processes of pulse fragmentation occur. As a result, all the borders between the zones of stability of the multi-pulse states are altered, i.e. either shifted or suppressed.

  19. Dynamic of ozone formation in nanosecond microwave discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nanosecond gas discharges are efficient sources of chemically active plasma. Studies of the nanosecond microwave discharge are interesting for remote modification of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in term of its purification, for diagnostics of impurities and ozone replenishment in the regions of local open-quotes ozone holesclose quotes. In this connection a study of plasma chemical processes in such a discharge seems appropriate, as well as modeling of ecological consequences of the effect of powerful microwave radiation on the atmosphere. The present paper contains generalized results of studying the process of ozone formation in a pulse-periodic freely localized nanosecond microwave discharge. The experiments were performed in a wide range of parameters: microwave radiation wavelength λ = 0.8 and 3cm, pulse duration τ = 6 and 500ns, pulse power P = 50kW and 20MW, pulse repetition rate F = 1-10 3 Hz. The working gases were air and oxygen under pressure P = 10-100Torr. As a source of the microwave radiation a pulse magnetron was used with a device for pulse compression based on the waveguide resonator, and a relativistic microwave generator. The discharge was produced in the focus of the parabolic mirror and had the form of homogeneous cylinder. The plasma chemical processes were studied in two cases. The discharge was created either in the quartz tube placed along the focal line of the mirror or in the free air. Dynamics of formation of ozone and nitrogen oxides in the discharge was studied by means of absorption spectroscopy in the regime of accumulation of the products of chemical reactions (in a closed volume) and their diffusion spreading

  20. Free-electron laser emission architecture impact on extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Erik R.; Wood, Obert R.; Barletta, William A.

    2017-10-01

    Laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV sources have demonstrated ˜125 W at customer sites, establishing confidence in EUV lithography (EUVL) as a viable manufacturing technology. However, for extension to the 3-nm technology node and beyond, existing scanner/source technology must enable higher-NA imaging systems (requiring increased resist dose and providing half-field exposures) and/or EUV multipatterning (requiring increased wafer throughput proportional to the number of exposure passes). Both development paths will require a substantial increase in EUV source power to maintain the economic viability of the technology, creating an opportunity for free-electron laser (FEL) EUV sources. FEL-based EUV sources offer an economic, high-power/single-source alternative to LPP EUV sources. Should FELs become the preferred next-generation EUV source, the choice of FEL emission architecture will greatly affect its operational stability and overall capability. A near-term industrialized FEL is expected to utilize one of the following three existing emission architectures: (1) self-amplified spontaneous emission, (2) regenerative amplifier, or (3) self-seeding. Model accelerator parameters are put forward to evaluate the impact of emission architecture on FEL output. Then, variations in the parameter space are applied to assess the potential impact to lithography operations, thereby establishing component sensitivity. The operating range of various accelerator components is discussed based on current accelerator performance demonstrated at various scientific user facilities. Finally, comparison of the performance between the model accelerator parameters and the variation in parameter space provides a means to evaluate the potential emission architectures. A scorecard is presented to facilitate this evaluation and provides a framework for future FEL design and enablement for EUVL applications.

  1. Generation of nanosecond S band microwave pulses based on superradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Zotova, I.V.; Rozental, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling carried out demonstrates possibility of generation of gigawatt power level S band microwave pulse with duration of several nanoseconds using superradiation of short electron beam moving along slow-wave periodical structure. A 10 ns / 500 keV / 5 kA accelerator of Kanazawa University can be used in such experiments. It is shown that significant increasing peak power can be obtained by optimization of voltage and current pulses waveforms. Required increasing of electron energy and current by the end of electron pulse can be achieved by using self-acceleration of a short beam passing through a system of passive cavities. (author)

  2. Generation of nanosecond S band microwave pulses based on superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Zotova, I.V.; Rozental, R.M. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (RU)] [and others

    2002-06-01

    Modeling carried out demonstrates possibility of generation of gigawatt power level S band microwave pulse with duration of several nanoseconds using superradiation of short electron beam moving along slow-wave periodical structure. A 10 ns / 500 keV / 5 kA accelerator of Kanazawa University can be used in such experiments. It is shown that significant increasing peak power can be obtained by optimization of voltage and current pulses waveforms. Required increasing of electron energy and current by the end of electron pulse can be achieved by using self-acceleration of a short beam passing through a system of passive cavities. (author)

  3. Laser ablation dynamics and production of thin films of lysozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela; Matei, Andreea

    at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) produced thin films of average thickness up to 300 nm, which not only contained a significant amount of intact molecules, but also maintained the bioactivity. These films were produced by a nanosecond laser in the UV regime at 355 nm with 2 J/cm2. The surprising fact......Lysozyme is a well-known protein, which is used in food processing because of its bacteriocidal properties. The mass (14307 u) is in the range, in which it easily can be controlled by mass spectrometric methods, for example by MALDI (Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation). We have recently...... that these molecules can be transferred to a substrate as intact molecules by the violent laser impact ( ~up to 50 mJ/pulse) has not yet been understood. One issue is that up to 150 ng/pulse is removed by the laser, and much of the material is ejected from the target in relatively large chunks. We have continued...

  4. Nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkin, B.V.; Gaponov-Grekhov, A.V.; Eltchaninov, A.S.; Zagulov, F.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Osipov, M.L.; Otlivantchik, E.A.; Petelin, M.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO. A pulsed power repetitive accelerator producing electron beams of electron energy 500-700 keV and current 5 kA in pulses of duraction 10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 pps is described. The results of experiments with a high-voltage gas-filled spark gap and a cold-cathode vacuum diode under the conditions of high repetition rates are given. Also presented are the results of studies of a relativistic BWO operating with a wavelength of 3 cm. It is shown that for a high-current beam electron energy of 500-700 keV, the BWO efficiency can reach 35%, the microwave power being 10 9 W. A superconducting solenoid creating a magnetic field of 30 kOe was used for the formation and transportation of the high-current electron beam. In conclusion, the outcome of tests of a nanosecond radar station based on a pulsed power repetitive accelerator and a relativistic BWO is reported

  5. A note on supersonic flow control with nanosecond plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J. G.; Cui, Y. D.; Li, J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-04-01

    A concept study on supersonic flow control using nanosecond pulsed plasma actuator is conducted by means of numerical simulation. The nanosecond plasma discharge is characterized by the generation of a micro-shock wave in ambient air and a residual heat in the discharge volume arising from the rapid heating of near-surface gas by the quick discharge. The residual heat has been found to be essential for the flow separation control over aerodynamic bodies like airfoil and backward-facing step. In this study, novel experiment is designed to utilize the other flow feature from discharge, i.e., instant shock wave, to control supersonic flow through shock-shock interaction. Both bow shock in front of a blunt body and attached shock anchored at the tip of supersonic projectile are manipulated via the discharged-induced shock wave in an appropriate manner. It is observed that drag on the blunt body is reduced appreciably. Meanwhile, a lateral force on sharp-edged projectile is produced, which can steer the body and give it an effective angle of attack. This opens a promising possibility for extending the applicability of this flow control technique in supersonic flow regime.

  6. Evaluation of material dispersion using a nanosecond optical pulse radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, M; Ohmori, Y; Miya, T

    1979-07-01

    To study the material dispersion effects on graded-index fibers, a method for measuring the material dispersion in optical glass fibers has been developed. Nanosecond pulses in the 0.5-1.7-microm region are generated by a nanosecond optical pulse radiator and grating monochromator. These pulses are injected into a GeO(2)-P(2)0(5)-doped silica graded-index fiber. Relative time delay changes between different wavelengths are used to determine material dispersion, core glass refractive index, material group index, and optimum profile parameter of the graded-index fiber. From the measured data, the optimum profile parameter on the GeO(2)-P(2)O(5)-doped silica graded-index fiber could be estimated to be 1.88 at 1.27 microm of the material dispersion free wavelength region and 1.82 at 1.55 microm of the lowest-loss wavelength region in silica-based optical fiber waveguides.

  7. Current-Voltage Characteristic of Nanosecond - Duration Relativistic Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Andrey

    2005-10-01

    The pulsed electron-beam accelerator SINUS-6 was used to measure current-voltage characteristic of nanosecond-duration thin annular relativistic electron beam accelerated in vacuum along axis of a smooth uniform metal tube immersed into strong axial magnetic field. Results of these measurements as well as results of computer simulations performed using 3D MAGIC code show that the electron-beam current dependence on the accelerating voltage at the front of the nanosecond-duration pulse is different from the analogical dependence at the flat part of the pulse. In the steady-state (flat) part of the pulse), the measured electron-beam current is close to Fedosov current [1], which is governed by the conservation law of an electron moment flow for any constant voltage. In the non steady-state part (front) of the pulse, the electron-beam current is higher that the appropriate, for a giving voltage, steady-state (Fedosov) current. [1] A. I. Fedosov, E. A. Litvinov, S. Ya. Belomytsev, and S. P. Bugaev, ``Characteristics of electron beam formed in diodes with magnetic insulation,'' Soviet Physics Journal (A translation of Izvestiya VUZ. Fizika), vol. 20, no. 10, October 1977 (April 20, 1978), pp.1367-1368.

  8. Laser Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Shocked Plagioclase from the Lonar Impact Crater, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Basu, A. R.; Peterson, J.; Misra, S.

    2004-12-01

    We report Raman spectra of shocked plagioclase grains from the Lonar impact Crater of India. The Lonar Crater, located in the Buldana district of Maharashtra, India (19° 58'N, 76° 31'E), is an almost circular depression in the 65Ma old basalt flows of the Deccan Traps. Age estimates of this impact crater range from 10-50ka. Tektite and basalt samples were collected for this study from the rim of the crater, which is raised about 20 meters above the surrounding plains. For comparison, a Manicouagan maskelynite and an unaltered mid-oceanic ridge basalt with plagioclase laths were also analyzed. Polished thin sections of all these samples were first petrographically studied. The MORB plagioglase as well as the plagioclase from Lonar host-basalts show first order interference colors and distinct multiple lamellar twinning. The Manicouagan maskelynite is isotropic under crossed-polars. The Lonar tektite samples characteristically demonstrate spherules which are identified by their perfectly circular cross-section and isotropic nature. The spherules also contain fragments of the host basalt with plagioclase laths showing lamellar twinning. The groundmass within the spherules shows lath shaped plagioclase grains, most of which show varying degrees of isotropism due to maskelynitization. Raman scattering measurements were performed using the 514.5 nm line of an argon ion laser at an intensity of 40 kW/cm2. An inverted microscope (Nikon TE3000) with 50x objective (NA 0.55) was used for confocal imaging. A holographic notch filter removed residual laser scatter and the Raman scattering was detected by a silicon CCD at -90° C (Princeton Instruments Spec10-400R). Raman spectra were collected from ~250 cm-1 through 2000 cm-1. Raman spectra of crystalline unshocked plagioclase feldspars from the MORB and the Lonar host basalt show strongest peaks at 265 cm-1, 410 cm-1, 510 cm-1 and 1110 cm-1. The results remain the same for different points in a single grain but vary slightly

  9. Clinical impact of confocal laser endomicroscopy in the management of gastrointestinal lesions with an uncertain diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Medranda, Carlos; Vargas, Maria; Ospina, Jesenia; Puga-Tejada, Miguel; Valero, Manuel; Soria, Miguel; Bravo, Gladys; Robles-Jara, Carlos; Lukashok, Hannah Pitanga

    2017-08-16

    To evaluate the clinical impact of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in the diagnosis and management of patients with an uncertain diagnosis. A retrospective chart review was performed. Patients who underwent CLE between November 2013 and October 2015 and exhibited a poor correlation between endoscopic and histological findings were included. Baseline characteristics, indications, previous diagnostic studies, findings at the time of CLE, clinical management and histological results were analyzed. Interventions based on CLE findings were also analyzed. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of CLE and target biopsies of surgical specimens. A total of 144 patients were included. Of these, 51% (74/144) were female. The mean age was 51 years old. In all, 41/144 (28.4%) lesions were neoplastic (13 bile duct, 10 gastric, 8 esophageal, 6 colonic, 1 duodenal, 1 rectal, 1 ampulloma and 1 pancreatic). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and observed agreement when CLE was used to detect N-lesions were 85.37%, 87.38%, 72.92%, 93.75% and 86.81%, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 69.20%, thus indicating good agreement. Changes in management were observed in 54% of the cases. CLE is a new diagnostic tool that has a significant clinical impact on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with uncertain diagnosis.

  10. Plate-impact loading of cellular structures formed by selective laser melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, R E; Cotton, M; Harris, E J; Maw, J R; Chapman, D J; Eakins, D E; McShane, G

    2014-01-01

    Porous materials are of great interest because of improved energy absorption over their solid counterparts. Their properties, however, have been difficult to optimize. Additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential technique to closely define the structure and properties of porous components, i.e. density, strut width and pore size; however, the behaviour of these materials at very high impact energies remains largely unexplored. We describe an initial study of the dynamic compression response of lattice materials fabricated through additive manufacturing. Lattices consisting of an array of intersecting stainless steel rods were fabricated into discs using selective laser melting. The resulting discs were impacted against solid stainless steel targets at velocities ranging from 300 to 700 m s −1 using a gas gun. Continuum CTH simulations were performed to identify key features in the measured wave profiles, while 3D simulations, in which the individual cells were modelled, revealed details of microscale deformation during collapse of the lattice structure. The validated computer models have been used to provide an understanding of the deformation processes in the cellular samples. The study supports the optimization of cellular structures for application as energy absorbers. (paper)

  11. Nanosecond and femtosecond ablation of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3: a comparison between plume dynamics and composition of the films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Papadopoulou, E.; Anglos, D.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 were grown by pulsed laser ablation with nanosecond and femtosecond pulses. The films deposited with femtosecond pulses (248 nm, 500 fs pulse duration) exhibit a higher surface roughness and deficiency in the cobalt content compared to the films deposited with nanosec......Thin films of La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 were grown by pulsed laser ablation with nanosecond and femtosecond pulses. The films deposited with femtosecond pulses (248 nm, 500 fs pulse duration) exhibit a higher surface roughness and deficiency in the cobalt content compared to the films deposited...... and in a background pressure of 60 Pa of oxygen. The ns-induced plume in vacuum exhibits a spherical shape, while for femtosecond ablation the plume is more elongated along the expansion direction, but with similar velocities for ns and fs laser ablation. In the case of ablation in the background gas similar...

  12. Study of emission of a volume nanosecond discharge plasma in xenon, krypton and argon at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksht, E Kh; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Rybka, D V; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    2006-01-01

    The emission properties of a volume nanosecond discharge plasma produced in xenon, krypton and argon at high pressures in a discharge gap with a cathode having a small radius of curvature are studied. Spectra in the range 120-850 nm and amplitude-time characteristics of xenon emission at different regimes and excitation techniques are recorded and analysed. It is shown that upon excitation of the volume discharge initiated by a beam of avalanche electrons, at least 90% of the energy in the spectral range 120-850 nm is emitted by xenon dimers. For xenon at a pressure of 1.2 atm, ∼45 mJ of the spontaneous emission energy was obtained in the full solid angle in a pulse with the full width at half-maximum ∼130 ns. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Nanosecond electrical explosion of thin aluminum wire in vacuum: experimental and computational investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Struve, Kenneth William; Rosenthal, Stephen Edgar; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich; Deeney, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The experimental and computational investigations of nanosecond electrical explosion of thin Al wire in vacuum are presented. We have demonstrated that increasing the current rate leads to increased energy deposited before voltage collapse. Laser shadowgrams of the overheated Al core exhibit axial stratification with a ∼100 (micro)m period. The experimental evidence for synchronization of the wire expansion and light emission with voltage collapse is presented. Two-wavelength interferometry shows an expanding Al core in a low-ionized gas condition with increasing ionization toward the periphery. Hydrocarbons are indicated in optical spectra and their influence on breakdown physics is discussed. The radial velocity of low-density plasma reaches a value of ∼100 km/s. The possibility of an overcritical phase transition due to high pressure is discussed. 1D MHD simulation shows good agreement with experimental data. MHD simulation demonstrates separation of the exploding wire into a high-density cold core and a low-density hot corona as well as fast rejection of the current from the wire core to the corona during voltage collapse. Important features of the dynamics for wire core and corona follow from the MHD simulation and are discussed.

  14. Nanosecond time-resolved investigations using the in situ of dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGrange, Thomas; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Reed, B.W.; Taheri, Mitra; Pesavento, J. Bradley; Kim, Judy S.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2008-01-01

    Most biological processes, chemical reactions and materials dynamics occur at rates much faster than can be captured with standard video rate acquisition methods in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Thus, there is a need to increase the temporal resolution in order to capture and understand salient features of these rapid materials processes. This paper details the development of a high-time resolution dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) that captures dynamics in materials with nanosecond time resolution. The current DTEM performance, having a spatial resolution <10 nm for single-shot imaging using 15 ns electron pulses, will be discussed in the context of experimental investigations in solid state reactions of NiAl reactive multilayer films, the study of martensitic transformations in nanocrystalline Ti and the catalytic growth of Si nanowires. In addition, this paper will address the technical issues involved with high current, electron pulse operation and the near-term improvements to the electron optics, which will greatly improve the signal and spatial resolutions, and to the laser system, which will allow tailored specimen and photocathode drive conditions

  15. Nanosecond time-resolved investigations using the in situ of dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGrange, Thomas [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: lagrange@llnl.gov; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Reed, B.W.; Taheri, Mitra; Pesavento, J. Bradley [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kim, Judy S.; Browning, Nigel D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Most biological processes, chemical reactions and materials dynamics occur at rates much faster than can be captured with standard video rate acquisition methods in transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Thus, there is a need to increase the temporal resolution in order to capture and understand salient features of these rapid materials processes. This paper details the development of a high-time resolution dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) that captures dynamics in materials with nanosecond time resolution. The current DTEM performance, having a spatial resolution <10 nm for single-shot imaging using 15 ns electron pulses, will be discussed in the context of experimental investigations in solid state reactions of NiAl reactive multilayer films, the study of martensitic transformations in nanocrystalline Ti and the catalytic growth of Si nanowires. In addition, this paper will address the technical issues involved with high current, electron pulse operation and the near-term improvements to the electron optics, which will greatly improve the signal and spatial resolutions, and to the laser system, which will allow tailored specimen and photocathode drive conditions.

  16. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  17. Boron-Proton Nuclear-Fusion Enhancement Induced in Boron-Doped Silicon Targets by Low-Contrast Pulsed Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Picciotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that a spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon target allows the production of a high yield of alpha particles of around 10^{9} per steradian using a nanosecond, low-contrast laser pulse with a nominal intensity of approximately 3×10^{16}  W cm^{−2}. This result can be ascribed to the nature of the long laser-pulse interaction with the target and with the expanding plasma, as well as to the optimal target geometry and composition. The possibility of an impact on future applications such as nuclear fusion without production of neutron-induced radioactivity and compact ion accelerators is anticipated.

  18. Application of Advanced Laser Diagnostics to High-Impact Technologies: Science and Applications of Ultrafast, Ultraintense Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    near the dense spray region of a fuel nozzle that is used in diesel engines [Powell et al., 2003]. Several years ago we made an unsuccessful attempt...12: Drilled and shaped Silicon Carbide. The cutting of nozzle shapes for fuel injectors was also investigated. The machining algorithm was...possible previously [Poola et al., 2000]. The problem has been that conventional laser diagnostics could not penetrate the near- nozzle opaque region of

  19. Magnetic Cavitation and the Reemergence of Nonlocal Transport in Laser Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgers, C. P.; Kingham, R. J.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first fully kinetic Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of nanosecond laser-plasma interactions including self-consistent magnetic fields and hydrodynamic plasma expansion. For the largest magnetic fields externally applied to long-pulse laser-gas-jet experiments (12 T) a significant degree of cavitation of the B field (>40%) will be shown to occur from the laser-heated region in under half a nanosecond. This is due to the Nernst effect and leads to the reemergence of nonlocality even if the initial value of the magnetic field strength is sufficient to localize the transport

  20. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant. This technique consists in spraying an Eu-solution on stainless steel samples. The specimens are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser after which the steel samples are placed in a 873 K furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, as well as by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm–4.5 μm depending on the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides had a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean concentration of the order of 6 × 1016 atoms/cm2 (15 μg/cm2 of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevented the oxide growth in the furnace. Nevertheless, the presence of the contamination had no impact on the thickness of the oxide layers obtained by preliminary laser treatment. These oxide layers were used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  1. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luisa; Pacquentin, Wilfried; Tabarant, Michel; Maskrot, Hicham; Semerok, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu) as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a `duplex structure' with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  2. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  3. Fundamentals of laser pulse irradiation of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimini, E.; Baeri, P.; Russo, G.

    1985-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to describe the space and time evolution of carrier concentration, carrier energy and lattice temperature during nanosecond and picosecond laser pulse irradiation of Si single crystals. In particular the dynamic response has been evaluated for energy density of the ps laser pulse below and above the density threshold for surface melting. The obtained data allow a comparison with time-resolved reflectivity measurements reported in the literature. The available data are fitted by the computer model assuming a relaxation time for the energy transfer from the carriers to the lattice of 1 ps. The validity of the thermal model used to describe laser annealing in the nanosecond regime is assessed. (author)

  4. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Petar A., E-mail: paatanas@ie.bas.bg; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  5. Numerical simulation of nanosecond-pulse electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggie, J.; Adamovich, I.; Bisek, N.; Nishihara, M.

    2013-02-01

    Recent experiments with a nanosecond-pulse, dielectric barrier discharge at the stagnation point of a Mach 5 cylinder flow have demonstrated the formation of weak shock waves near the electrode edge, which propagate upstream and perturb the bow shock. This is a promising means of flow control, and understanding the detailed physics of the conversion of electrical energy into gas motion will aid in the design of efficient actuators based on the concept. In this work, a simplified configuration with planar symmetry was chosen as a vehicle to develop a physics-based model of nanosecond-pulse discharges, including realistic air kinetics, electron energy transport, and compressible bulk gas flow. A reduced plasma kinetic model (23 species and 50 processes) was developed to capture the dominant species and reactions for energy storage and thermalization in the discharge. The kinetic model included electronically and vibrationally excited species, and several species of ions and ground state neutrals. The governing equations included the Poisson equation for the electric potential, diffusion equations for each neutral species, conservation equations for each charged species, and mass-averaged conservation equations for the bulk gas flow. The results of calculations with this model highlighted the path of energy transfer in the discharge. At breakdown, the input electrical energy was transformed over a time scale on the order of 1 ns into chemical energy of ions, dissociation products, and vibrationally and electronically excited particles. About 30% of this energy was subsequently thermalized over a time scale of 10 µs. Since the thermalization time scale was faster than the acoustic time scale, the heat release led to the formation of weak shock waves originating near the sheath edge, consistent with experimental observations. The computed translational temperature rise (40 K) and nitrogen vibrational temperature rise (370 K) were of the same order of magnitude as

  6. PHELIX: A petawatt-class laser recently commissioned for experiments in plasma and atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, V; Blazevic, A; Borneis, S; Eisenbarth, U; Fils, J; Goette, S; Kuehl, Th; Onkels, E; Stoehlker, T; Tauschwitz, A; Zimmer, D; Witte, K

    2009-01-01

    The PHELIX facility is available to users since 2008. Nanosecond pulses up to 500 J are utilized at present for experiments combining the heavy ions accelerated at the GSI LINAC facility, while sub-picosecond 200-TW pulses are used in laser stand-alone experiments. A review of the laser performance and future developments is shown.

  7. PHELIX: A petawatt-class laser recently commissioned for experiments in plasma and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnoud, V; Blazevic, A; Borneis, S; Eisenbarth, U; Fils, J; Goette, S; Kuehl, Th; Onkels, E; Stoehlker, T; Tauschwitz, A; Zimmer, D; Witte, K, E-mail: v.bagnoud@gsi.d [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    The PHELIX facility is available to users since 2008. Nanosecond pulses up to 500 J are utilized at present for experiments combining the heavy ions accelerated at the GSI LINAC facility, while sub-picosecond 200-TW pulses are used in laser stand-alone experiments. A review of the laser performance and future developments is shown.

  8. Generation of sub-gigabar-pressure shocks by a hyper-velocity impact in the collider driven by laser-induced cavity pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badziak, J.; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.

    2018-02-01

    The generation of high-pressure shocks in the newly proposed collider in which the projectile impacting a solid target is driven by the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) mechanism is investigated using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of parameters of the shock generated in the target by the impact of a gold projectile on the impacted target material and the laser driver energy is examined. It is found that both in case of low-density (CH, Al) and high-density (Au, Cu) solid targets the shock pressures in the sub-Gbar range can be produced in the LICPA-driven collider with the laser energy of only a few hundreds of joules, and the laser-to-shock energy conversion efficiency can reach values of 10 - 20 %, by an order of magnitude higher than the conversion efficiencies achieved with other laser-based methods used so far.

  9. A review of laser electrode processing for development and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm

    2018-02-01

    Laser processes for cutting, annealing, structuring, and printing of battery materials have a great potential in order to minimize the fabrication costs and to increase the electrochemical performance and operational lifetime of lithium-ion cells. Hereby, a broad range of applications can be covered such as micro-batteries, mobile applications, electric vehicles, and stand-alone electric energy storage devices. Cost-efficient nanosecond (ns)-laser cutting of electrodes was one of the first laser technologies which were successfully transferred to industrial high-energy battery production. A defined thermal impact can be useful in electrode manufacturing which was demonstrated by laser annealing of thin-film electrodes for adjusting of battery active crystalline phases or by laser-based drying of composite thick-film electrodes for high-energy batteries. Ultrafast or ns-laser direct structuring or printing of electrode materials is a rather new technical approach in order to realize three-dimensional (3D) electrode architectures. Three-dimensional electrode configurations lead to a better electrochemical performance in comparison to conventional 2D one, due to an increased active surface area, reduced mechanical tensions during electrochemical cycling, and an overall reduced cell impedance. Furthermore, it was shown that for thick-film composite electrodes an increase of electrolyte wetting could be achieved by introducing 3D micro-/nano-structures. Laser structuring can turn electrodes into superwicking. This has a positive impact regarding an increased battery lifetime and a reliable battery production. Finally, laser processes can be up-scaled in order to transfer the 3D battery concept to high-energy and high-power lithium-ion cells.

  10. Universal pulse generator with a nanosecond fast responce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Nguen Kuang Min'.

    1977-01-01

    A pulse generator with nanosecond action is described; it is mainly designed for testing and tuning fast electronic devices operating with pulses in the N/1/M standard. The generator is principally based on integral circuits and has wide functional potentialities: it includes a main-pulse channel, a delayed-pulse channel, and an overall output, which sums up these pulses; in addition to the logic pulse outputs it includes a linear pulse output with an amplitude smoothly regulated in the range from 0.3 to 6.0 V; it can operate in the self-oscillation mode, in the pulse series formation mode, in the starting mode, and in the single-start mode. Two generators are placed in a double-width CAMAC cell. The generation frequency is from 3 Hz to 75 MHz, pulse duration from 8 to 320 ns, and pulse front duration 2 ns

  11. Method for integrating a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method used to integrate a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses. The pulses come from current transformers in a RF LINAC beamline. Because they are ac signals and have no dc component, true mathematical integration would yield zero over the pulse train period or an equally erroneous value because of a dc baseline shift. The circuit used to integrate the pulse train first stretches the pulses to 35 ns FWHM. The signals are then fed into a high-speed, precision rectifier which restores a true dc baseline for the following stage - a fast, gated integrator. The rectifier is linear over 55dB in excess of 25 MHz, and the gated integrator is linear over a 60 dB range with input pulse widths as short as 16 ns. The assembled system is linear over 30 dB with a 6 MHz input signal

  12. Modulation doping of quantum dot laser active area and its impact on lasing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplev, S. S.; Savelyev, A. V.; Korenev, V. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Zhukov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of modulation doping of active region in the quantum dot (QD) laser and corresponding issues of QD charge neutrality violation, a band diagram of the laser and charge carriers distribution in the structure. Modulation doping is discussed as a possible technique to control laser output characteristics. It was shown that modulation doping leads to an increase of threshold current of lasing through excited QD optical transition together with power emission from QD ground state.

  13. Modulation doping of quantum dot laser active area and its impact on lasing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, S S; Savelyev, A V; Korenev, V V; Maximov, M V; Zhukov, A E

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of modulation doping of active region in the quantum dot (QD) laser and corresponding issues of QD charge neutrality violation, a band diagram of the laser and charge carriers distribution in the structure. Modulation doping is discussed as a possible technique to control laser output characteristics. It was shown that modulation doping leads to an increase of threshold current of lasing through excited QD optical transition together with power emission from QD ground state. (paper)

  14. Ultra high-speed x-ray imaging of laser-driven shock compression using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, Margie P.; Cantelli, Valentina; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Grenzer, Joerg; Pelka, Alexander; Roedel, Melanie; Prencipe, Irene; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Helbig, Uwe; Kraus, Dominik; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom; Scheel, Mario; Pradel, Pierre; De Resseguier, Thibaut; Rack, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    A high-power, nanosecond pulsed laser impacting the surface of a material can generate an ablation plasma that drives a shock wave into it; while in situ x-ray imaging can provide a time-resolved probe of the shock-induced material behaviour on macroscopic length scales. Here, we report on an investigation into laser-driven shock compression of a polyurethane foam and a graphite rod by means of single-pulse synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging with MHz frame rate. A 6 J, 10 ns pulsed laser was used to generate shock compression. Physical processes governing the laser-induced dynamic response such as elastic compression, compaction, pore collapse, fracture, and fragmentation have been imaged; and the advantage of exploiting the partial spatial coherence of a synchrotron source for studying low-density, carbon-based materials is emphasized. The successful combination of a high-energy laser and ultra high-speed x-ray imaging using synchrotron light demonstrates the potentiality of accessing complementary information from scientific studies of laser-driven shock compression.

  15. Optimization of the fiber laser parameters for local high-temperature impact on metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsko, Dmitrii S.; Polonik, Marina V.; Dudko, Olga V.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the local laser heating process of surface layer of the metal sample. The aim is to create the molten pool with the required depth by laser thermal treatment. During the heating the metal temperature at any point of the molten zone should not reach the boiling point of the main material. The laser power, exposure time and the spot size of a laser beam are selected as the variable parameters. The mathematical model for heat transfer in a semi-infinite body, applicable to finite slab, is used for preliminary theoretical estimation of acceptable parameters values of the laser thermal treatment. The optimization problem is solved by using an algorithm based on the scanning method of the search space (the zero-order method of conditional optimization). The calculated values of the parameters (the optimal set of "laser radiation power - exposure time - spot radius") are used to conduct a series of natural experiments to obtain a molten pool with the required depth. A two-stage experiment consists of: a local laser treatment of metal plate (steel) and then the examination of the microsection of the laser irradiated region. According to the experimental results, we can judge the adequacy of the ongoing calculations within the selected models.

  16. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from

  17. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-04-01

    A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  18. Microstructural response and grain refinement mechanism of commercially pure titanium subjected to multiple laser shock peening impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.Z.; Wu, L.J.; Sun, G.F.; Luo, K.Y.; Zhang, Y.K.; Cai, J.; Cui, C.Y.; Luo, X.M.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructural response and grain subdivision process in commercially pure (CP) titanium subjected to multiple laser shock peening (LSP) impacts were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The micro-hardness curves as a function of the impact time were also determined. The deformation-induced grain refinement mechanism of the close-packed hexagonal (hcp) material by laser shock wave was subsequently analyzed. Experimental results showed that uniform equiaxed grains with an average size of less than 50 nm were generated due to the ultra-high plastic strain induced by multiple LSP impacts. Special attention was paid to four types of novel deformation-induced microstructural features, including a layered slip band in the tension deformation zone, and inverse-transformation martensite, micro-twin grating and micro-twin collision in the compression deformation zone. Furthermore, the grain refinement mechanism in the near-surface layer of CP titanium subjected to multiple LSP impacts contains two types of simultaneous subdivision modes: multi-directional mechanical twin (MT)-MT intersections at (sub)micrometer scale, and the intersection between longitudinal secondary MTs and transverse dislocation walls at nanometer scale. In addition, both grain refinement (nanocrystallization) and the existence of a small amount of inverse-transformation martensite induced by multiple LSP impacts contribute to an increase in the micro-hardness of the near-surface layer.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  20. Upgrade of the LLNL Nova laser for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.; Trenholme, J.B.; Hunt, J.T.; Frank, D.N.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Storm, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has proposed to construct an upgrade to the Nova glass laser facility to give an output energy of 1.5-2 megajoules at 350 nanometers wavelength in a nominally 3--5 nanosecond shaped pulse. The Nova Upgrade will be suitable for driving inertial fusion targets to ignition. This paper reviews the design proposed for the laser. 14 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  1. Enthalpy model for heating, melting, and vaporization in laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilios Alexiades; David Autrique

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation is used in a growing number of applications in various areas including medicine, archaeology, chemistry, environmental and materials sciences. In this work the heat transfer and phase change phenomena during nanosecond laser ablation of a copper (Cu) target in a helium (He) background gas at atmospheric pressure are presented. An enthalpy model is outlined, which accounts for heating, melting, and vaporization of the target. As far as we know, this is the first model th...

  2. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C; Dalzell, Danielle R; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (2  nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2  kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  3. Transient Features in Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Differentially Modulate Mitochondria and Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen J.; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Xiao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0–80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ΔΨm and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. PMID:23284682

  4. OH density measured by PLIF in a nanosecond atmospheric pressure diffuse discharge in humid air under steep high voltage pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaras, K.; Magne, L.; Pasquiers, S.; Tardiveau, P.; Jeanney, P.; Bournonville, B.

    2018-04-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of the OH radical density are measured using planar laser induced fluorescence in the afterglow of a nanosecond diffuse discharge at atmospheric pressure in humid air. The diffuse discharge is generated between a pin and a grounded plate electrodes within a gap of 18 mm. The high voltage pulse applied to the pin ranges from 65 to 85 kV with a rise time of 2 ns. The specific electrical energy transferred to the gas ranges from 5 to 40 J l‑1. The influence of H2O concentration is studied from 0.5% to 1.5%. An absolute calibration of OH density is performed using a six-level transient rate equation model to simulate the dynamics of OH excitation by the laser, taking into account collisional processes during the optical pumping and the fluorescence. Rayleigh scattering measurements are used to achieve the geometrical part of the calibration. A local maximum of OH density is found in the pin area whatever the operating conditions. For 85 kV and 1% of H2O, this peak reaches a value of 2.0 × 1016 cm‑3 corresponding to 8% of H2O dissociation. The temporal decay of the spatially averaged OH density is found to be similar as in the afterglow of a homogeneous photo-triggered discharge for which a self-consistent modeling is done. These tools are then used to bring discussion elements on OH kinetics.

  5. Nanosecond electric pulses modulate skeletal muscle calcium dynamics and contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Chris; Jirjis, Michael B.; Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2017-02-01

    Irreversible electroporation therapy is utilized to remove cancerous tissues thru the delivery of rapid (250Hz) and high voltage (V) (1,500V/cm) electric pulses across microsecond durations. Clinical research demonstrated that bipolar (BP) high voltage microsecond pulses opposed to monophasic waveforms relieve muscle contraction during electroporation treatment. Our group along with others discovered that nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can activate second messenger cascades, induce cytoskeletal rearrangement, and depending on the nsEP duration and frequency, initiate apoptotic pathways. Of high interest across in vivo and in vitro applications, is how nsEP affects muscle physiology, and if nuances exist in comparison to longer duration electroporation applications. To this end, we exposed mature skeletal muscle cells to monopolar (MP) and BP nsEP stimulation across a wide range of electric field amplitudes (1-20 kV/cm). From live confocal microscopy, we simultaneously monitored intracellular calcium dynamics along with nsEP-induced muscle movement on a single cell level. In addition, we also evaluated membrane permeability with Yo-PRO-1 and Propidium Iodide (PI) across various nsEP parameters. The results from our findings suggest that skeletal muscle calcium dynamics, and nsEP-induced contraction exhibit exclusive responses to both MP and BP nsEP exposure. Overall the results suggest in vivo nsEP application may elicit unique physiology and field applications compared to longer pulse duration electroporation.

  6. Ignition modes of nanosecond discharge with bubbles in distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the microscopic physical characteristics of nanosecond discharges with an array of bubbles in distilled water. In particular, applying a single high-voltage pulse, four delayed intensified charge-coupled device cameras successfully visualized four successive images during a single discharge event. We identified three distinctive modes of ignition inside a bubble, depending on the relative location of the bubble with respect to pin-to-hollow needle electrodes when a single bubble was located in an inter-electrode gap of 1 mm: anode-driven ignition, cathode-driven ignition, and co-ignition near both electrodes. Anode- and cathode-driven ignitions evolved into either a complete propagation of the streamer or an incomplete propagation, which were limited in location by proximity to an ignition location, while co-ignitions consistently showed complete propagation. When we increased the gap to 2 mm to accommodate multiple bubbles in the gap, an ignited bubble near the cathode was able to cause the ignition of an upper adjacent bubble. Bubble–bubble interface zones can also be spots of ignition, such that we observed simultaneous co-ignitions in the zones of bubble–bubble interfaces and near electrodes with triple bubbles. We compared the experimental results of discharge propagation with different ignition modes between Ar, He, and N 2 bubbles. In addition, numerical simulations for static electric fields reasonably supported observed ignition behavior such that field intensity was locally enhanced. (paper)

  7. Nanosecond pulsed electric field ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Xinhua; Liu, Jie A; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma often evades effective therapy and recurrences are frequent. Recently, nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) ablation using pulse power technology has emerged as a local-regional, non-thermal, and non-drug therapy for skin cancers. In the studies reported here we use nsPEFs to ablate murine, rat and human HCCs in vitro and an ectopic murine Hepa 1-6 HCC in vivo. Using pulses with 60 or 300 ns and electric fields as high as 60 kV/cm, murine Hepa 1-6, rat N1S1 and human HepG2 HCC are readily eliminated with changes in caspase-3 activity. Interestingly caspase activities increase in the mouse and human model and decrease in the rat model as electric field strengths are increased. In vivo, while sham treated control mice survived an average of 15 days after injection and before humane euthanasia, Hepa 1-6 tumors were eliminated for longer than 50 days with 3 treatments using one hundred pulses with 100 ns at 55 kV/cm. Survival was 40% in mice treated with 30 ns pulses at 55 kV/cm. This study demonstrates that nsPEF ablation is not limited to effectively treating skin cancers and provides a rationale for treating orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in pre-clinical applications and ultimately in clinical trials.

  8. Absorption and luminescence of crystalline quartz under electron nanosecond irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, B P; Lisitsyn, V M; Stepanchuk, V N [Tomskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of the study is continuation of investigations of principal regularities of production and destruction of short-lived defects in quartz and accompanying luminescence under electron pulse irradiation. For investigation purposes samples of crystalline synthetic quartz have been used. The irradiation has been performed at 80-400 K temperatures by means of an electron pulse accelerator with parameters: electron flow pulse duration 10 ns, pulse current density up to 1000 A/cm/sup 2/, electron mean energy 200 keV. Temperature-time characteristics of absorption and luminescence spectrum are studied. It has been found that quartz irradiation by electron pulses of nanosecond duration leads to appearance of short-lived bands of optical absorption at 4.1 and 5.15 eV to which by kinetic parameters correspond luminescence bands at 2.6 and 3.1 eV, respectively. The enumerated absorption bands are induced by quartz irradiation independently of the prehistory and phase state of the sample and are caused obviously by intrinsic radiation defects. Possible models of such defects are suggested.

  9. Parametric study of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambonneau, M., E-mail: maxime.chambonneau@hotmail.fr; Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Lamaignère, L. [CEA CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, CS 60001, 33116 Le Barp Cedex (France); Natoli, J.-Y. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France)

    2015-03-14

    With the use of multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm, laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica clearly and systematically exhibit ring patterns. It has been shown in our previous works that the apparent chronology of rings was closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This particular correspondence had suggested an explanation of the ring morphology formation based on the displacement of an ionization front in the surrounding air. To provide a former basis for this hypothesis and deeper understanding of ring pattern formation, additional experiments have been performed. First, the impact of fluence has been investigated, revealing that a wide variety of damage sites are produced within a very narrow fluence range; this fact involves the chronology of appearance of a surface plasma during the laser pulse. The sizes of the damage sites are proportional to the fluence of their expansion occurring between the beginning of the plasma and the end of the laser pulse. Second, specific experiments have been carried out at different angles of incidence, resulting in egg-shaped patterns rather than circular ones. This behavior can be explained by our previous hypothesis of creation of a plasma in air, its expansion being tightly conditioned by the illumination angle. This series of experiments, in which the angle of incidence is varied up to 80°, permits us to link quantitatively the working hypothesis of ionization front propagation with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling.

  10. Ultra-fast movies of thin-film laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Rapp, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael; Huber, Heinz P.

    2012-11-01

    Ultra-short-pulse laser irradiation of thin molybdenum films from the glass substrate side initiates an intact Mo disk lift off free from thermal effects. For the investigation of the underlying physical effects, ultra-fast pump-probe microscopy is used to produce stop-motion movies of the single-pulse ablation process, initiated by a 660-fs laser pulse. The ultra-fast dynamics in the femtosecond and picosecond ranges are captured by stroboscopic illumination of the sample with an optically delayed probe pulse of 510-fs duration. The nanosecond and microsecond delay ranges of the probe pulse are covered by an electronically triggered 600-ps laser. Thus, the setup enables an observation of general laser ablation processes from the femtosecond delay range up to the final state. A comparison of time- and space-resolved observations of film and glass substrate side irradiation of a 470-nm molybdenum layer reveals the driving mechanisms of the Mo disk lift off initiated by glass-side irradiation. Observations suggest that a phase explosion generates a liquid-gas mixture in the molybdenum/glass interface about 10 ps after the impact of the pump laser pulse. Then, a shock wave and gas expansion cause the molybdenum layer to bulge, while the enclosed liquid-gas mixture cools and condenses at delay times in the 100-ps range. The bulging continues for approximately 20 ns, when an intact Mo disk shears and lifts off at a velocity of above 70 m/s. As a result, the remaining hole is free from thermal effects.

  11. High resolution laser patterning of ITO on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Di; Park, Hee K.; Yu, Dong X.; Hwang, David J.

    2013-03-01

    Cost-effective laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film coated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate for touch panel was studied. The target scribing width was set to the order of 10 μm in order to examine issues involved with higher feature resolution. Picosecond-pulsed laser and Q-switched nanosecond-pulsed laser at the wavelength of 532nm were applied for the comparison of laser patterning in picosecond and nanosecond regimes. While relatively superior scribing quality was achieved by picosecond laser, 532 nm wavelength showed a limitation due to weaker absorption in ITO film. In order to seek for cost-effective solution for high resolution ITO scribing, nanosecond laser pulses were applied and performance of 532nm and 1064nm wavelengths were compared. 1064nm wavelength shows relatively better scribing quality due to the higher absorption ratio in ITO film, yet at noticeable substrate damage. Through single pulse based scribing experiments, we inspected that reduced pulse overlapping is preferred in order to minimize the substrate damage during line patterning.

  12. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MSmeasurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.

    2007-06-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets of standard reference materials using femtosecond (150fs) and nanosecond (4ns) laser pulses with identical fluences of 50 J cm{sup -2}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the collected particles revealed that there are more and larger agglomerations of particles produced by nanosecond laser ablation. In contrast to the earlier findings for metal alloy samples, no correlation between the concentration of major elements and the median particle size was found. When the current data on glass were compared with the metal alloy data, there were clear differences in terms of particle size, crater depth, heat affected zone, and ICP-MS response. For example, glass particles were larger than metal alloy particles, the craters in glass were less deep than craters in metal alloys, and damage to the sample was less pronounced in glass compared to metal alloys samples. The femtosecond laser generated more intense ICP-MS signals compared to nanosecond laser ablation for both types of samples, although glass sample behavior was more similar between ns and fs-laser ablation than for metals alloys.

  13. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm -1 and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm -1 , the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence

  14. Impact of in situ polymer coating on particle dispersion into solid laser-generated nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Philipp; Brandes, Gudrun; Schwenke, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-03-21

    The crucial step in the production of solid nanocomposites is the uniform embedding of nanoparticles into the polymer matrix, since the colloidal properties or specific physical properties are very sensitive to particle dispersion within the nanocomposite. Therefore, we studied a laser-based generation method of a nanocomposite which enables us to control the agglomeration of nanoparticles and to increase the single particle dispersion within polyurethane. For this purpose, we ablated targets of silver and copper inside a polymer-doped solution of tetrahydrofuran by a picosecond laser (using a pulse energy of 125 μJ at 33.3 kHz repetition rate) and hardened the resulting colloids into solid polymers. Electron microscopy of these nanocomposites revealed that primary particle size, agglomerate size and particle dispersion strongly depend on concentration of the polyurethane added before laser ablation. 0.3 wt% polyurethane is the optimal polymer concentration to produce nanocomposites with improved particle dispersion and adequate productivity. Lower polyurethane concentration results in agglomeration whereas higher concentration reduces the production rate significantly. The following evaporation step did not change the distribution of the nanocomposite inside the polyurethane matrix. Hence, the in situ coating of nanoparticles with polyurethane during laser ablation enables simple integration into the structural analogue polymer matrix without additives. Furthermore, it was possible to injection mold these in situ-stabilized nanocomposites without affecting particle dispersion. This clarifies that sufficient in situ stabilization during laser ablation in polymer solution is able to prevent agglomeration even in a hot polymer melt.

  15. Characteristics of Droplets Ejected from Liquid Propellants Ablated by Laser Pulses in Laser Plasma Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zhiyuan; Gao Hua; Fan Zhenjun; Xing Jie

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution and pressure force of droplets ejected from liquid water and glycerol ablated by nanosecond laser pulses are investigated under different viscosities in laser plasma propulsion. It is shown that with increasing viscosity, the distribution angles present a decrease tendency for two liquids, and the angular distribution of glycerol is smaller than that of water. A smaller distribution leads to a higher pressure force generation. The results indicate that ablation can be controlled by varying the viscosity of liquid propellant in laser plasma propulsion

  16. Application of laser peening with a composite-type optical fiberscope for pancreatic calculus fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Norio; Ishikawa, Noriko; Ito, Fuyumi; Nishimura, Akihiko; Oka, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    For low infestation treatment on pancreatolithiasis, we propose that laser peening phenomena by use of a composite-type optical fiberscope are useful to crush pancreatic a calculus into fragments, Nanosecond laser pulses go through the composite-type optical fiberscope and are focused on the surface of the pancreatic calculus. Laser processed fracture shapes on the calculus were observed and the pulse energy dependence were measured. The essential points for system integration were discussed. (author)

  17. Resonant laser mass spectrometry for environmental and industrial chemical trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesl, Ulrich; Rink, Joerg; Distelrath, Volker; Pueffel, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A promising new method for pollutant trace analysis is resonant laser mass spectrometry. It combines selectivity, sensitivity, and speed of measurement. In this paper, two examples of application are presented: exhaust analysis of combustion engines and analysis of polycylcic aromatic compounds in soil samples. The sensitivity of small, mobile instruments is discussed as well as alternative laser-based techniques in the case formation of cations by nanosecond lasers is improbable

  18. Formation of nanoparticles from thin silver films irradiated by laser pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Smirnov, N. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Busleev, N. I.; Rudenko, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Some specific features of the transport of silver nanoparticles onto a SiO2 substrate under focused nanosecond IR laser pulses is experimentally investigated. A possibility of obtaining silver coatings is demonstrated. The formation of silver nanostructures as a result of pulsed laser ablation in air is studied. Nanoparticles are formed by exposing a silver film to radiation of an HTF MARK (Bulat) laser marker (λ = 1064 nm). The thus prepared nanoparticles are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy.

  19. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target.

  20. Imaging femtosecond laser-induced electronic excitation in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial progress has been achieved in understanding laser ablation on the nanosecond and picosecond time scales, it remains a considerable challenge to elucidate the underlying mechanisms during femtosecond laser material interactions. We present experimental observations of electronic excitation inside a wide band gap glass during single femtosecond laser pulse (100 fs, 800 nm) irradiation. Using a femtosecond time-resolved imaging technique, we measured the evolution of a laser-induced electronic plasma inside the glass and calculated the electron number density to be on the order of 10 19 cm -3

  1. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  2. AN INDUCTION SENSOR FOR MEASURING CURRENTS OF NANOSECOND RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Shalamov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A current meter based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is designed to register the current flowing in the rod lightning. The aim of the article is to describe the way of increasing the sensitivity of the converter by means of their serial communication. Methodology. The recorded current is in the nanosecond range. If compared with other methods, meters based on the principle of electromagnetic induction have several advantages, such as simplicity of construction, reliability, low cost, no need in a power source, relatively high sensitivity. Creation of such a meter is necessary, because in some cases there is no possibility to use a shunt. Transient properties of a meter are determined by the number of turns and the constant of integration. Sensitivity is determined by measuring the number of turns, the coil sectional area, the core material and the integration constant. For measuring the magnetic field pulses with a rise time of 5 ns to 50 ns a meter has turns from 5 to 15. The sensitivity of such a meter is low. When the number of turns is increased, the output signal and the front increase. Earlier described dependencies were used to select the main parameters of the converter. It was based on generally accepted and widely known equivalent circuit. The experience of created earlier pulse magnetic field meters was considered both for measuring the magnetic fields, and large pulse current. Originality. Series connection of converters has the property of a long line. The level of the transient response of the meter is calculated. The influence of parasitic parameters on the type of meter transient response is examined. The shown construction was not previously described. Practical value. The results of meter implementation are given. The design peculiarities of the given measuring instruments are shown.

  3. A trial of ignition innovation of gasoline engine by nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Taisuke; Urushihara, Tomonori; Gundersen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma as an ignition technique for automotive gasoline engines, which require a discharge under conditions of high back pressure, has been studied experimentally using a single-cylinder engine. The nanosecond pulsed plasma refers to the transient (non-equilibrated) phase of a plasma before the formation of an arc discharge; it was obtained by applying a high voltage with a nanosecond pulse (FWHM of approximately 80 or 25 ns) between coaxial cylindrical electrodes. It was confirmed that nanosecond pulsed plasma can form a volumetric multi-channel streamer discharge at an energy consumption of 60 mJ cycle -1 under a high back pressure of 1400 kPa. It was found that the initial combustion period was shortened compared with the conventional spark ignition. The initial flame visualization suggested that the nanosecond pulsed plasma ignition results in the formation of a spatially dispersed initial flame kernel at a position of high electric field strength around the central electrode. It was observed that the electric field strength in the air gap between the coaxial cylindrical electrodes was increased further by applying a shorter pulse. It was also clarified that the shorter pulse improved ignitability even further.

  4. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  5. A trial of ignition innovation of gasoline engine by nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Taisuke; Urushihara, Tomonori; Gundersen, Martin

    2009-07-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed low temperature plasma as an ignition technique for automotive gasoline engines, which require a discharge under conditions of high back pressure, has been studied experimentally using a single-cylinder engine. The nanosecond pulsed plasma refers to the transient (non-equilibrated) phase of a plasma before the formation of an arc discharge; it was obtained by applying a high voltage with a nanosecond pulse (FWHM of approximately 80 or 25 ns) between coaxial cylindrical electrodes. It was confirmed that nanosecond pulsed plasma can form a volumetric multi-channel streamer discharge at an energy consumption of 60 mJ cycle-1 under a high back pressure of 1400 kPa. It was found that the initial combustion period was shortened compared with the conventional spark ignition. The initial flame visualization suggested that the nanosecond pulsed plasma ignition results in the formation of a spatially dispersed initial flame kernel at a position of high electric field strength around the central electrode. It was observed that the electric field strength in the air gap between the coaxial cylindrical electrodes was increased further by applying a shorter pulse. It was also clarified that the shorter pulse improved ignitability even further.

  6. New-laser research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Two new-laser research efforts were initiated during the reporting period; the chemically pumped iodine laser and HgXe exciplex excitation by electric discharge. The chemically pumped iodine laser was recently discovered by personnel at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. The laser offers exciting possibilities as an ICF driver because it does not require a capital-intensive pulse power source to drive it, and up to 10% efficiency may be possible. Modeling studies of the laser are in progress and its potential as a high-average power laser seems to be very favorable at this time. The HgXe exciplex radiates in a band centered at 265 nm. This system is being studied because it could be used to pump an iodine laser. Its potential as a high-power laser candidate will be assessed. An advanced oscillator system based upon a microprocessor-controlled Nd:YAG-pumped pulsed dye laser is being developed so that it can be used as the front end of new laser-fusion lasers and utilized in testing and making germane laser amplifier measurements of candidate laser systems for the wavelength region of 4000 A to 8000 A and extended range with frequency doubling and mixing. The operating requirements of the oscillator system include long-term stability, high reliability, absolute wavelength calibration and control, tunability, hands-off operation, and variable pulse width generation in the nanosecond regime

  7. Impact of an extended source in laser ablation using pulsed digital holographic interferometry and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, E., E-mail: eynas.amer@ltu.se [Lulea University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Gren, P.; Kaplan, A.F.H.; Sjoedahl, M. [Lulea University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)

    2009-08-15

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the effect of the laser spot diameter on the shock wave generated in the ablation process of an Nd:YAG laser pulse on a Zn target under atmospheric pressure. For different laser spot diameters and time delays, the propagation of the expanding vapour and of the shock wave were recorded by intensity maps calculated using the recorded digital holograms. From the latter, the phase maps, the refractive index and the density field can be derived. A model was developed that approaches the density distribution, in particular the ellipsoidal expansion characteristics. The induced shock wave has an ellipsoid shape that approaches a sphere for decreasing spot diameter. The ellipsoidal shock waves have almost the same centre offset towards the laser beam and the same aspect ratio for different time steps. The model facilitates the derivation of the particle velocity field. The method provides valuable quantitative results that are discussed, in particular in comparison with the simpler point source explosion theory.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of model photo-receptors: validation of a nanosecond time-resolved micro-spectrophotometer design using photoactive yellow protein and α-phycoerythrocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Namrta; Tenboer, Jason; Tripathi, Shailesh; Schmidt, Marius

    2013-09-13

    Time-resolved spectroscopic experiments have been performed with protein in solution and in crystalline form using a newly designed microspectrophotometer. The time-resolution of these experiments can be as good as two nanoseconds (ns), which is the minimal response time of the image intensifier used. With the current setup, the effective time-resolution is about seven ns, determined mainly by the pulse duration of the nanosecond laser. The amount of protein required is small, on the order of 100 nanograms. Bleaching, which is an undesirable effect common to photoreceptor proteins, is minimized by using a millisecond shutter to avoid extensive exposure to the probing light. We investigate two model photoreceptors, photoactive yellow protein (PYP), and α-phycoerythrocyanin (α-PEC), on different time scales and at different temperatures. Relaxation times obtained from kinetic time-series of difference absorption spectra collected from PYP are consistent with previous results. The comparison with these results validates the capability of this spectrophotometer to deliver high quality time-resolved absorption spectra.

  9. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Liang; Sun Jizhong; Feng Chunlei; Bai Jing; Ding Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density can achieve a value in the order of 10 9 cm -3 . The N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  10. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3 Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Sun, Jizhong; Feng, Chunlei; Bai, Jing; Ding, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density can achieve a value in the order of 109 cm-3. The N2(A3 Σu+) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  11. Spectroscopic characteristics of H-alpha/O-I atomic lines generated by nanosecond pulsed corona-like discharge in deionized water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pongrác, Branislav; Šimek, Milan; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Lukeš, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 12 (2018), č. článku 124001. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12987S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : underwater discharge * nanosecond pulsed discharge * time-resolved emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/aaabb1/meta

  12. Impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave laser vapoenucleation of the prostate on sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Shao, Jinkai; Lu, Yongning; Lü, Yongan; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of 120-W 2-μm continuous wave (cw) laser vapoenucleation of the prostate in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on sexual function. One hundred twenty-two consecutive patients with BPH were retrospectively collected in this study and were classified into two groups for surgical treatment with 2-μm cw laser vapoenucleation or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and general assessment questions were completed before and 12 months after treatment to determine the impact on sexual function. A total of 33 patients (52.4%) in group 1 and 31 (52.5%) in group 2 reported various degrees of erectile dysfunction before surgery. Interestingly, an increase in IIEF-EF score by 2 points was reported by 16 (25.4%) and 14 (23.7%) patients, respectively, and mean EF score did show a marginal but not significant increase postoperatively in both group. Differences about orgasmic intercourse satisfaction, sexual desire domain, and overall satisfaction scores in each group were not significant between preoperative and postoperative, but there was a significant decrease in the orgasmic function domain score at 12 months postoperation in both groups (p function. No significant erectile function improvement was observed after surgery, but these two techniques significantly lowered the IIEF orgasmic function domain and this was mainly caused by retrograde ejaculation.

  13. Trends in laser-plasma-instability experiments for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Laser-plasma instability experiments for laser fusion have followed three developments. These are advances in the technology and design of experiments, advances in diagnostics, and evolution of the design of high-gain targets. This paper traces the history of these three topics and discusses their present state. Today one is substantially able to produce controlled plasma conditions and to diagnose specific instabilities within such plasmas. Experiments today address issues that will matter for future laser facilities. Such facilities will irradiate targets with ∼1 MJ of visible or UV light pulses that are tens of nanoseconds in duration, very likely with a high degree of spatial and temporal incoherence. 58 refs., 4 figs

  14. Laser-assisted shape selective fragmentation of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, P.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru; Viau, G. [ITODYS, UMR 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, case 7090, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Soumare, Y. [ITODYS, UMR 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, case 7090, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bozon-Verduraz, F. [ITODYS, UMR 7086, Universite Paris 7-Denis Diderot, case 7090, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-07-31

    Experimental results are presented on laser-assisted fragmentation of gold-containing nanoparticles suspended in liquids (either ethanol or water). Two kinds of nanoparticles are considered: (i) elongated Au nanorods synthesized by laser ablation of a gold target immersed in liquid phase; (ii) gold-covered NiCo nanorods with high aspect ratio ({theta} {approx} 10) synthesized by wet chemistry processes. The shape selectivity induced by laser fragmentation of these nanorods is gained via tuning the wavelength of laser radiation into different parts of the spectrum of their plasmon resonance corresponding to different aspect ratios {theta}. Fragmentation is performed using three laser wavelengths, involving a Cu vapour laser (510 and 578 nm) and a Nd:YAG (1064 nm). Nanoparticles are characterized by UV-vis spectrometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The effect of laser pulse duration (nanosecond against picosecond range) is also studied in the case of fragmentation with an IR laser radiation.

  15. Transmembrane molecular transport during versus after extremely large, nanosecond electric pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle C; Weaver, James C

    2011-08-19

    Recently there has been intense and growing interest in the non-thermal biological effects of nanosecond electric pulses, particularly apoptosis induction. These effects have been hypothesized to result from the widespread creation of small, lipidic pores in the plasma and organelle membranes of cells (supra-electroporation) and, more specifically, ionic and molecular transport through these pores. Here we show that transport occurs overwhelmingly after pulsing. First, we show that the electrical drift distance for typical charged solutes during nanosecond pulses (up to 100 ns), even those with very large magnitudes (up to 10 MV/m), ranges from only a fraction of the membrane thickness (5 nm) to several membrane thicknesses. This is much smaller than the diameter of a typical cell (∼16 μm), which implies that molecular drift transport during nanosecond pulses is necessarily minimal. This implication is not dependent on assumptions about pore density or the molecular flux through pores. Second, we show that molecular transport resulting from post-pulse diffusion through minimum-size pores is orders of magnitude larger than electrical drift-driven transport during nanosecond pulses. While field-assisted charge entry and the magnitude of flux favor transport during nanosecond pulses, these effects are too small to overcome the orders of magnitude more time available for post-pulse transport. Therefore, the basic conclusion that essentially all transmembrane molecular transport occurs post-pulse holds across the plausible range of relevant parameters. Our analysis shows that a primary direct consequence of nanosecond electric pulses is the creation (or maintenance) of large populations of small pores in cell membranes that govern post-pulse transmembrane transport of small ions and molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of solvent mixture on iron nanoparticles generated by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakif, M.; Prymak, O.; Slota, M.; Heintze, E.; Gurevich, E. L.; Esen, C.; Bogani, L.; Epple, M.; Ostendorf, A.

    2014-03-01

    The present work reveals the structural and magnetic properties of iron oxide (FexOy) nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by femtosecond laser ablation. The FexOy-NPs were produced in solutions consisting of different ratios of water and acetone. Laser ablation in water yields agglomerates and that in acetone yields chain structures whereas that in water/acetone show a mixture of both. We observe significant fabrication dependent properties such as different crystallinities and magnetic behaviors. The structural characterization shows a change from iron (Fe) to a FexOy state of the NPs which depends on the solution composition. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy measurements exhibit a broad particle size distribution in all samples but with significant differences in the mean sizes. Using magnetic measurements we show that nanoparticles fabricated in pure acetone have lower coercive fields which come along with a smaller mean particle size and therefore increasing superparamagnetic behavior.

  17. On metal fracture induced by laser radiation and impact pinched plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultanov, M.A.; Olejnikov, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Dependences of erosion of metals (Mo, W, Fe, Ta, Cr, Cd and etc.) on thermal physical properties and the place of laser radiation focusing are investigated. The radiation output energy has reached 10G, the impulse durability - 10 -3 sec. It is shown that the lense focus shift causes the change in the form and dimensions of a crater fracture. It is noted that there are shock waves in the laser plasma structure of fracture products, which are indicative of supersonic velocities of outflow of plasma microjets. A greater fracture degree of refractory metals (W, Mo, Ta) under the investigated conditions is noted. The erosion parameters of a great number of the metals under investigation are given

  18. The impact of laser ablation on optical soft tissue differentiation for tissue specific laser surgery-an experimental ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzle Florian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optical diffuse reflectance can remotely differentiate various bio tissues. To implement this technique in an optical feedback system to guide laser surgery in a tissue-specific way, the alteration of optical tissue properties by laser ablation has to be taken into account. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the general feasibility of optical soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy under the influence of laser ablation, comparing the tissue differentiation results before and after laser intervention. Methods A total of 70 ex vivo tissue samples (5 tissue types were taken from 14 bisected pig heads. Diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded before and after Er:YAG-laser ablation. The spectra were analyzed and differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA, followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA. To assess the potential of tissue differentiation, area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity and specificity was computed for each pair of tissue types before and after laser ablation, and compared to each other. Results Optical tissue differentiation showed good results before laser exposure (total classification error 13.51%. However, the tissue pair nerve and fat yielded lower AUC results of only 0.75. After laser ablation slightly reduced differentiation results were found with a total classification error of 16.83%. The tissue pair nerve and fat showed enhanced differentiation (AUC: 0.85. Laser ablation reduced the sensitivity in 50% and specificity in 80% of the cases of tissue pair comparison. The sensitivity of nerve–fat differentiation was enhanced by 35%. Conclusions The observed results show the general feasibility of tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy even under conditions of tissue alteration by laser ablation. The contrast enhancement for the differentiation between nerve and fat tissue after ablation is assumed to be due to laser removal of the

  19. Method of the nanosecond microstructure creation of the negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov-Borodin, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the nanosecond microstructure creation of the negative ion beam with nanosecond edge times is presented. The method of creation does not destroy the beam compensation by the residual gas,so it available for low-energy beams. Such effects as a beam divergence and,therefore,a bad beam transport are overcome. The two plate travelling wave chopper is used.The special shape of the plate deflecting voltage is needed. The estimations and a comparison with the existing methods of a beam deflection are presented

  20. Laser Propulsion - Quo Vadis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2008-01-01

    First, an introductory overview of the different types of laser propulsion techniques will be given and illustrated by some historical examples. Second, laser devices available for basic experiments will be reviewed ranging from low power lasers sources to inertial confinement laser facilities. Subsequently, a status of work will show the impasse in which the laser propulsion community is currently engaged. Revisiting the basic relations leads to new avenues in ablative and direct laser propulsion for ground based and space based applications. Hereby, special attention will be devoted to the impact of emerging ultra-short pulse lasers on the coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In particular, laser sources and laser propulsion techniques will be tested in microgravity environment. A novel approach to debris removal will be discussed with respect to the Satellite Laser Ranging (SRL) facilities. Finally, some non technical issues will be raised aimed at the future prospects of laser propulsion in the international community

  1. Development of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor to assess groundwater quality impacts resulting from geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G.; Goueguel, Christian; Jain, Jinesh; McIntyre, Dustin

    2015-05-01

    The injection of CO2 into deep aquifers can potentially affect the quality of groundwater supplies were leakage to occur from the injection formation or fluids. Therefore, the detection of CO2 and/or entrained contaminants that migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers is important both to assess storage permanence and to evaluate impacts on water resources. Naturally occurring elements (i.e., Li, Sr) in conjunction with isotope ratios can be used to detect such leakage. We propose the use of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique to detect a suite of elements in water samples. LIBS has real time monitoring capabilities and can be applied for elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of probe design and use of fiber optics make it a suitable technique for real time measurements in harsh conditions and in hard to reach places. The laboratory scale experiments to measure Li, K, Ca, and Sr composition of water samples indicate that the technique produces rapid and reliable data. Since CO2 leakage from saline aquifers may accompany a brine solution, we studied the effect of sodium salts on the accuracy of LIBS analysis. This work specifically also details the fabrication and application of a miniature ruggedized remotely operated diode pumped solid state passively Q-switched laser system for use as the plasma excitation source for a real time LIBS analysis. This work also proposes the optical distribution of many laser spark sources across a wide area for widespread leak detection and basin monitoring.

  2. Two-stage optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier using sub-nanosecond pump pulse generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Jumpei; Miyamoto, Sho; Matsuyama, Takahiro; Sueda, Keiichi; Yoshida, Hidetsugu; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) based on two-beam pumping, using sub-nanosecond pulses generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering compression. Seed pulse energy, duration, and center wavelength were 5 nJ, 220 ps, and ˜1065 nm, respectively. The 532 nm pulse from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was compressed to ˜400 ps in heavy fluorocarbon FC-40 liquid. Stacking of two time-delayed pump pulses reduced the amplifier gain fluctuation. Using a walk-off-compensated two-stage OPCPA at a pump energy of 34 mJ, a total gain of 1.6 × 105 was obtained, yielding an output energy of 0.8 mJ. The amplified chirped pulse was compressed to 97 fs.

  3. Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C G Jr; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  4. Impact of crystalline lens opacification on effective phacoemulsification time in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Wolfgang J; Klaproth, Oliver K; Hengerer, Fritz H; Kohnen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare effective phacoemulsification time in cataract surgery performed by manual phacoemulsification vs femtosecond laser-assisted lens fragmentation. Retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized, comparative case series. The setting was the Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe-University, Frankfurt, Germany. The study population included 150 eyes of 86 patients with senile cataract. In the intervention, 88 eyes (group 1) underwent femtosecond laser-assisted surgery (corneal incisions, capsulotomy, lens fragmentation) using the LenSx platform (Alcon) and residual lens work-up with pulsed ultrasound energy (Infiniti Vision System; Alcon). In 62 eyes (group 2), complete cataract removal was performed with phacoemulsification only, using pulsed ultrasound energy with the same device (Infiniti). Nucleus staging (Pentacam nucleus staging; PNS) was evaluated using Pentacam HR (Oculus); endothelial cell density was measured using specular microscopy (NonCon Robo). The main outcome measures were as follows. Mean preoperative PNS staging was assessed using an automatic ordinal scaling (PNS-O, grades 0-5) and a manually defined density grid derived from Scheimpflug imaging (PNS-P [%]). Effective phacoemulsification time and endothelial cell loss were evaluated in both groups. Preoperative PNS-O and PNS-P showed no significant difference between groups (P = 0.267). Overall mean effective phacoemulsification time was significantly lower in group 1 (1.58 ± 1.02 seconds) compared to 4.17 ± 2.06 seconds in group 2 (P = 0.001). Effective phacoemulsification time was significantly lower in group 1 for all PNS-O stages (P < 0.001). With increasing preoperative PNS-P, effective phacoemulsification time increased in both groups; however, this gain was noticeably, but not significantly, lower in group 2. Endothelial cell loss was significantly lower in group 1 (P = 0.02). Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery allows a significant reduction in effective phacoemulsification time

  5. Characteristics of OMVPE grown GaAsBi QW lasers and impact of post-growth thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Honghyuk; Guan, Yingxin; Babcock, Susan E.; Kuech, Thomas F.; Mawst, Luke J.

    2018-03-01

    Laser diodes employing a strain-compensated GaAs1-xBix/GaAs1-yPy single quantum well (SQW) active region were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). High resolution x-ray diffraction, room temperature photoluminescence, and real-time optical reflectance measurements during the OMVPE growth were used to find the optimum process window for the growth of the active region material. Systematic post-growth in situ thermal anneals of various lengths were carried out in order to investigate the impacts of thermal annealing on the laser device performance characteristics. While the lowest threshold current density was achieved after the thermal annealing for 30 min at 630 °C, a gradual decrease in the external differential quantum efficiency was observed as the annealing time increases. It was observed that the temperature sensitivities of the threshold current density increase while those of lasing wavelength and slope efficiency remain nearly constant with increasing annealing time. Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopic) analysis revealed inhomogeneous Bi distribution within the QW active region.

  6. Impact of Angioscopic Evaluation for Femoropopliteal In-Stent Restenosis Before and After Excimer Laser Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemoto, Akiko; Okamoto, Naotaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Mori, Naoki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Yano, Masamichi; Makino, Nobuhiko; Egami, Yasuyuki; Shutta, Ryu; Tanouchi, Jun; Nishino, Masami

    2017-07-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR) is a prevalent problem following stenting of femoropopliteal lesions. A potential novel treatment modality for ISR including excimer laser atherectomy (ELA) has become available. We performed ELA for in-stent chronic total occlusion (CTO) of femoropopliteal lesions and evaluated lesion morphology before and after ELA by angioscopy in 2 patients. The angioscopic findings clearly showed removal of in-stent thrombi after ELA. Thus, ELA may be effective for in-stent CTO of femoropopliteal lesions. This is the first report describing the direct visualization of ELA effect for vaporization of thrombi in femoropopliteal in-stent lesions by angioscopy.

  7. Tolerance of laser-driven microshell targets to fluorescence and prepulse energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, T.; Moncur, N.K.; Sullivan, D.

    1976-01-01

    Glass-shell targets currently being used for laser-fusion experiments are susceptible to damage by preenergy from the laser. This energy can result from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) throughout the laser chain during the period of high-population inversion or it can take the form of a short prepulse nanoseconds before the main laser pulse. We point out the energy levels which a typical target can tolerate in the form of ASE and prepulses. These energies are low enough that special precautions must be taken to prevent significant perturbations of the target or its environment before the main laser pulse

  8. Energy balance of a laser ablation plume expanding in a background gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The energy balance of a laser ablation plume in an ambient gas for nanosecond pulses has been investigated on the basis of the model of Predtechensky and Mayorov (PM), which provides a relatively simple and clear description of the essential hydrodynamics. This approach also leads to an insightfu...

  9. Formation of carbon quantum dots and nanodiamonds in laser ablation of a carbon film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, A. I.; Lebedev, V. F.; Kobranova, A. A.; Nashchekin, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    We have experimentally shown that nanosecond near-IR pulsed laser ablation of a thin amorphous carbon film produces carbon quantum dots with a graphite structure and nanodiamonds with a characteristic size of 20 - 500 nm on the substrate surface. The formation of these nanostructures is confirmed by electron microscopic images, luminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The mechanisms explaining the observed effects are proposed.

  10. Phonon populations by nanosecond-pulsed Raman scattering in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compaan, A.; Lee, M.C.; Trott, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Since the first time-resolved Raman studies of phonon populations under pulsed-laser-annealing conditions, a number of cw Raman studies have been performed which provide a much improved basis for interpreting the pulsed Raman data. Here we present new pulsed Raman results and interpret them with reference to temperature-dependent resonance effects, high-carrier-density effects, phonon anharmonicity, and laser-induced strain effects. The pulsed Raman data: Stokes to anti-Stokes ratios, shift and shape of the first-order peak, and second-order spectra: indicate the existence of a phase in which the Raman signal disappears followed by a rapidly cooling solid which begins within 300 K of the 1685 K normal melting temperature of Si. We identify a major difficulty in pulsed Raman studies in Si to be the decrease in Raman intensity at high temperatures

  11. Impact of optical feedback on current-induced polarization behavior of 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Mao; Xie, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Jia-Gui; Tang, Xi; Fan, Li; Panajotov, Krassimir; Xia, Guang-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    Polarization switching (PS) between two orthogonal linearly polarized fundamental modes is experimentally observed in commercial free-running 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) (Raycan). The characteristics of this PS are strongly modified after introducing a polarization-preserved (PP) or polarization-orthogonal (PO) optical feedback. Under the case that the external cavity is approximately 30 cm, the PP optical feedback results in the PS point shifting toward a lower injection current, and the region within which the two polarization modes coexist is enlarged with the increase of the PP feedback strength. Under too-strong PP feedback levels, the PS disappears. The impact of PO optical feedback on VCSEL polarization behavior is quite similar to that of PP optical feedback, but larger feedback strength is needed to obtain similar results.

  12. Diagnostics of plasma produced by femtosecond laser pulse impact upon a target with an internal nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Gasilov, S. V.; Pikuz, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Magunov, A. I.; Boldarev, A. S.; Gasilov, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray diagnostics of the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 16 -10 18 W/cm 2 with CO 2 clusters and frozen nanosize water particles is carried out. The stage of cluster expansion and the formation of a plasma channel, which governs the parameters of the formed X-ray radiation source and accelerated ion flows, is studied. The measurements are based on recording spatially resolved X-ray spectra of H- and He-like oxygen ions. Utilization of Rydberg transitions for spectra diagnostics makes it possible to determine plasma parameters on a time scale of t ∼ 10 ps after the beginning of a femtosecond pulse. The role of the rear edge of the laser pulse in sustaining the plasma temperature at a level of ∼100 eV in the stage of a nonadiabatic cluster expansion is shown. The analysis of the profiles and relative intensities of spectral lines allows one to determine the temperature and density of plasma electrons and distinguish the populations of 'thermal' ions and ions that are accelerated up to energies of a few tens of kiloelectronvolts. It is shown that the use of solid clusters made of frozen nanoscale water droplets as targets leads to a substantial increase in the number of fast He-like ions. In this case, however, the efficiency of acceleration of H-like ions does not increase, because the time of their ionization in plasma exceeds the time of cluster expansion.

  13. Bulk and surface laser damage of silica by picosecond and nanosecond pulses at 1064 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Arlee V.; Do, Binh T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured bulk and surface dielectric breakdown thresholds of pure silica for 14 ps and 8 ns pulses of 1064 nm light. The thresholds are sharp and reproducible. For the 8 ns pulses the bulk threshold irradiance is 4.75 ± 0.25 kW/μm 2 . The threshold is approximately three times higher for 14 ps pulses. For 8 ns pulses the input surface damage threshold can be made equal to the bulk threshold by applying an alumina or silica surface polish

  14. New methods of generation of ultrashort laser pulses for ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Kubecek, V.; Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    To reach the millimeter satellite laser ranging accuracy, the goal for nineties, new laser ranging techniques have to be applied. To increase the laser ranging precision, the application of the ultrashort laser pulses in connection with the new signal detection and processing techniques, is inevitable. The two wavelength laser ranging is one of the ways to measure the atmospheric dispersion to improve the existing atmospheric correction models and hence, to increase the overall system ranging accuracy to the desired value. We are presenting a review of several nonstandard techniques of ultrashort laser pulses generation, which may be utilized for laser ranging: compression of the nanosecond pulses using stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscattering; compression of the mode-locked pulses using Raman backscattering; passive mode-locking technique with nonlinear mirror; and passive mode-locking technique with the negative feedback.

  15. Sodium current inhibition by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF)--fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In two recent publications in Bioelectromagnetics it has been demonstrated that the voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) is inhibited in response to a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). At the same time, there was an increase in a non-inactivating "leak" current (I(leak)), which was

  16. Low-dielectric layer increases nanosecond electric discharges in distilled water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    decreasing of the energy consumption are the main goals of today’s research. Here we present an experimental study of nanosecond discharge in distilled water covered by a layer of dielectric material. We demonstrate through this paper that the discharge

  17. Efficient temporal compression of coherent nanosecond pulses in compact SBS generator-amplifier setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemann, S.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A pulse compressor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in liquids is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It allows for the compression of Fourier-transform limited nanosecond pulses of several hundreds of millijoules of energy with both high conversion efficiency and a high

  18. Spin-on nanostructured silicon-silica film displaying room-temperature nanosecond lifetime photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y.; Hatton, B.; Miguez, H.; Coombs, N.; Fournier-Bidoz, S.; Ozin, G.A. [Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Lash Miller Chemical Laboratories, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Grey, J.K.; Beaulac, R.; Reber, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2003-04-17

    A yellow transparent mesoporous silica film has been achieved by the incorporation of silicon nanoclusters into its channels. The resulting nanocomposite - fabricated using a combination of evaporation induced self- assembly and chemical vapor deposition - emits light brightly at visible wavelengths and has nanosecond radiative lifetimes at room temperature when excited by ultraviolet light (see Figure). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, R.M.; Verreycken, T.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed discharges in N2 and N2/H2O at atmospheric pressure between two pin-shaped electrodes are studied. The evolution of the discharge is investigated with time-resolved imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The discharge consists of three phases, the ignition (mainly molecular

  20. Nano-Second Isomers in Neutron-Rich Ni Region Produced by Deep-Inelastic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Asai, M.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Makishima, A.; Hossain, I.; Kleinheinz, P.; Ogawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear structure of the doubly magic 68 Ni and its neighbors has been studied by spectroscopic techniques. Developing a new instrument isomer-scope, we have measured γ rays from nano-second isomers produced in heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions with great sensitivity. (author)

  1. Integrated circuits with emitter coupling and their application in nanosecond nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Principal static and dynamic characteristics are considered of integrated circuits with emitter coupling, as well as problems of signal transmission. Diagrams are given of amplifiers, discriminators, time interval drivers, generators, etc. Systems and units of nanosecond electronics employing integrated circuits with emitter coupling are briefly described

  2. Generation of fast-rise time, repetitive, (sub) nanosecond, high-voltage pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we present our fast-rise time nanosecond pulse generator, capable of generating up to 50 kV (positive and negative) rectangular pulses at a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz and with a rise time of less than 200 picoseconds. We focus on the general concepts involved in the design

  3. Sub-nanosecond time-of-flight for segmented silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.T. de; Alexander, A.; Brown, K.; Floyd, B.; Gosser, Z.Q.; Hudan, S.; Poehlman, J.; Rudolph, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a multichannel time-of-flight system for readout of a segmented, ion-passivated, ion-implanted silicon detector is described. This system provides sub-nanosecond resolution (δt∼370ps) even for low energy α particles which deposit E≤7.687MeV in the detector.

  4. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  5. A nanosecond high voltage pulse device for accelerator time analytical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Binqiao; Ding Furong; Xue Zhihua; Wang Xuemei; Shen Dingyu

    2002-01-01

    A nanosecond high voltage pulse device has been designed. The pulse rise time is 10 ns. The pulse voltage reached 16000 V. This device has been used to accelerator time analytical system, its resolution time is less than 0.8%

  6. Enhancing cell proliferation by non-contact nanosecond PEF treatment of cell culture vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van J.W.M.; Geysen, J.J.G.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) has been focused on killing of cells by means of direct contact between the nsPEF electrodes and tissue or liquid, such as in melanoma destruction [1] and sterilization of fluids. Here we present a novel, tabletop device that induces

  7. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umebidai Kidugawa Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Applied Laser Technology Institute, Tsuruga Head Office, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 65-20 Kizaki Tsuruga Fukui 914-8585 (Japan); Technical Research and Development Institute, Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd., 2-1 Tsukudo, Shinjuku Tokyo 162-8557 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  8. Novel Laser Ignition Technique Using Dual-Pulse Pre-Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Ciprian

    Recent advances in the development of compact high power laser sources and fiber optic delivery of giant pulses have generated a renewed interest in laser ignition. The non-intrusive nature of laser ignition gives it a set of unique characteristics over the well-established capacitive discharge devices (or spark plugs) that are currently used as ignition sources in engines. Overall, the use of laser ignition has been shown to have a positive impact on engine operation leading to a reduction in NOx emission, fuel saving and an increased operational envelope of current engines. Conventionally, laser ignition is achieved by tightly focusing a high-power q-switched laser pulse until the optical intensity at the focus is high enough to breakdown the gas molecules. This leads to the formation of a spark that serves as the ignition source in engines. However, there are certain disadvantages associated with this ignition method. This ionization approach is energetically inefficient as the medium is transparent to the laser radiation until the laser intensity is high enough to cause gas breakdown. As a consequence, very high energies are required for ignition (about an order of magnitude higher energy than capacitive plugs at stoichiometric conditions). Additionally, the fluid flow induced during the plasma recombination generates high vorticity leading to high rates of flame stretching. In this work, we are addressing some of the aforementioned disadvantages of laser ignition by developing a novel approach based on a dual-pulse pre-ionization scheme. The new technique works by decoupling the effect of the two ionization mechanisms governing plasma formation: multiphoton ionization (MPI) and electron avalanche ionization (EAI). An UV nanosecond pulse (lambda = 266 nm) is used to generate initial ionization through MPI. This is followed by an overlapped NIR nanosecond pulse (lambda = 1064 nm) that adds energy into the pre-ionized mixture into a controlled manner until the

  9. Lasers in tattoo and pigmentation control: role of the PicoSure(®) laser system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeck, Richard; Bankowski, Richard; Henize, Sarah; Saedi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    The use of picosecond lasers to remove tattoos has greatly improved due to the long-standing outcomes of nanosecond lasers, both clinically and histologically. The first aesthetic picosecond laser available for this use was the PicoSure(®) laser system (755/532 nm). Now that a vast amount of research on its use has been conducted, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to validate the continued application of the PicoSure(®) laser system for tattoo removal. A PubMed search was conducted using the term "picosecond" combined with "laser", "dermatology", and "laser tattoo removal". A total of 13 articles were identified, and ten of these met the inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies showed that picosecond lasers are an effective and safe treatment mode for the removal of tattoo pigments. Several studies also indicated potential novel applications of picosecond lasers in the removal of various tattoo pigments (eg, black, red, and yellow). Adverse effects were generally mild, such as transient hypopigmentation or blister formation, and were rarely more serious, such as scarring and/or textural change. Advancements in laser technologies and their application in cutaneous medicine have revolutionized the field of laser surgery. Computational modeling provides evidence that the optimal pulse durations for tattoo ink removal are in the picosecond domain. It is recommended that the PicoSure(®) laser system continue to be used for safe and effective tattoo removal, including for red and yellow pigments.

  10. Assessing the quantum physics impacts on future x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-06

    A new quantum mechanical theory of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) has been successfully developed that has placed LANL at the forefront of the understanding of quantum effects in XFELs. Our quantum theory describes the interaction of relativistic electrons with x-ray radiation in the periodic magnetic field of an undulator using the same mathematical formalism as classical XFEL theory. This places classical and quantum treatments on the same footing and allows for a continuous transition from one regime to the other eliminating the disparate analytical approaches previously used. Moreover, Dr. Anisimov, the architect of this new theory, is now considered a resource in the international FEL community for assessing quantum effects in XFELs.

  11. Sub-nanosecond periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator and amplifier pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Wang, H. Y.; Ning, Y.; Shen, C.; Si, L.; Yang, Y.; Bao, Q. L.; Ren, G.

    2017-05-01

    A sub-nanosecond seeded optical parametric generator (OPG) based on magnesium oxide-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) crystal is presented. Pumped by an actively Q-switched diode-pumped 1 kHz, 1064 nm, Nd:YAG microlaser and seeded with a low power distributed feedback (DFB) diode continuous-wave (CW) laser, the OPG generated an output energy of 41.4 µJ and 681 ps pulse duration for the signal at 1652.4 nm, achieving a quantum conversion efficiency of 61.2% and a slope efficiency of 41.8%. Signal tuning was achieved from 1651.0 to 1652.4 nm by tuning the seed-laser current. The FWHM of the signal spectrum was approximately from 35 nm to 0.5 nm by injection seed laser. The SHG doubled the frequency of OPG signal to produce a output energy of 12 µJ with the energy conversion efficiency of 29.0% and tunanble wavelength near 826 nm.

  12. Laser processing of ceramics for microelectronics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposili, Robert S.; Bovatsek, James; Patel, Rajesh

    2017-03-01

    Ceramic materials are used extensively in the microelectronics, semiconductor, and LED lighting industries because of their electrically insulating and thermally conductive properties, as well as for their high-temperature-service capabilities. However, their brittleness presents significant challenges for conventional machining processes. In this paper we report on a series of experiments that demonstrate and characterize the efficacy of pulsed nanosecond UV and green lasers in machining ceramics commonly used in microelectronics manufacturing, such as aluminum oxide (alumina) and aluminum nitride. With a series of laser pocket milling experiments, fundamental volume ablation rate and ablation efficiency data were generated. In addition, techniques for various industrial machining processes, such as shallow scribing and deep scribing, were developed and demonstrated. We demonstrate that lasers with higher average powers offer higher processing rates with the one exception of deep scribes in aluminum nitride, where a lower average power but higher pulse energy source outperformed a higher average power laser.

  13. Thermonuclear fusion plasma produced by lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Nakai, S.; Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, K.; Matoba, M.; Yamabe, C.; Tschudi, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Mizui, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Nishikawa, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on laser fusion schemes using high-density plasmas produced by implosion. Scientific-feasibility laser-fusion experiments are now in time. But the physics of interaction between laser and plasma, the high-compression technique and the development of high-power lasers are still important problems to be solved if laser fusion is to make some progress. In the field of laser-plasma coupling, experiments were carried out in which hydrogen and deuterium sticks were bombarded by laser beams; in these experiments, a glass-laser system, LETKKO-I, with an energy of 50 J in a nanosecond pulse, and a double-discharge TEA CO 2 laser system with an energy of 100 J in a 100-ns pulse were used. A decrease in reflectivity occurred at a laser intensity one order of magnitude higher than the parametric-instability threshold. Self-phase modulation of scattered light due to modulational instability was found. A Brillouin-backscattering isotope effect due to the hydrogen and deuterium plasma has also been observed in the red-side part of the SHG-light. Preliminary compression experiments have been carried out using a glass-laser system LETKKO-II, with an energy of 250-1000 J in a ns-pulse. A hologram has been used to study shock waves in the plasma due to the SHG-light converted from the main laser beam. Development of high-power lasers has been promoted, such as disc-glass lasers, E-beam CO 2 lasers and excimer lasers. (author)

  14. Excitation of the hydrogen atom by fast-electron impact in the presence of a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Sinha, C.; Sil, N.C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach has been developed to study the excitation of a ground-state H atom to the n=2 level under the simultaneous action of fast-electron impact and a monochromatic, linearly polarized, homogeneous laser beam. The laser frequency is assumed to be low (soft-photon limit) so that a stationary-state perturbation theory can be applied as is done in the adiabatic theory. An elegant method has been developed in the present work to construct the dressed excited-state wave functions of the H atom using first-order perturbation theory in the parabolic coordinate representation. By virtue of this method, the problem arising due to the degeneracy of the excited states of the H atom has been successfully overcome. The main advantage of the present approach is that the dressed wave function has been obtained in terms of a finite number of Laguerre polynomials instead of an infinite summation occurring in the usual perturbative treatment. The amplitude for direct excitation (without exchange) has been obtained in closed form. Numerical results for differential cross sections are presented for individual excitations to different Stark manifolds as well as for excitations to the n=2 level at high energies (100 and 200 eV) and for field directions both parallel and perpendicular to the incident electron momentum. Extension to a higher order of perturbation is also possible in the present approach for the construction of the dressed states, and the electron-exchange effect can also be taken into account without any further approximation

  15. Excitation of the hydrogen atom by fast-electron impact in the presence of a laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Manabesh; Sinha, C.; Sil, N. C.

    1991-08-01

    An approach has been developed to study the excitation of a ground-state H atom to the n=2 level under the simultaneous action of fast-electron impact and a monochromatic, linearly polarized, homogeneous laser beam. The laser frequency is assumed to be low (soft-photon limit) so that a stationary-state perturbation theory can be applied as is done in the adiabatic theory. An elegant method has been developed in the present work to construct the dressed excited-state wave functions of the H atom using first-order perturbation theory in the parabolic coordinate representation. By virtue of this method, the problem arising due to the degeneracy of the excited states of the H atom has been successfully overcome. The main advantage of the present approach is that the dressed wave function has been obtained in terms of a finite number of Laguerre polynomials instead of an infinite summation occurring in the usual perturbative treatment. The amplitude for direct excitation (without exchange) has been obtained in closed form. Numerical results for differential cross sections are presented for individual excitations to different Stark manifolds as well as for excitations to the n=2 level at high energies (100 and 200 eV) and for field directions both parallel and perpendicular to the incident electron momentum. Extension to a higher order of perturbation is also possible in the present approach for the construction of the dressed states, and the electron-exchange effect can also be taken into account without any further approximation.

  16. Drop weight impact strength measurement method for porous concrete using laser doppler velocimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agar-Ozbek, A.S.; Weerheijm, J.; Schlangen, E.; Breugel, K. van

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an experimental configuration that reveals the dynamic response of porous concretes in a drop weight impact test was introduced. Through the measurement of particle velocity at the interface, between the impactor and the concrete target, the dynamic response was obtained in an easily

  17. Impact of the Femtosecond Laser in Line with the Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS) on the Anterior Chamber Characteristics in Comparison to the Manual Phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Torun, Necip; Pahlitzsch, Marie Luise; Klamann, Matthias K J; Gonnermann, Johannes; Bertelmann, Eckart; Pahlitzsch, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To assess the alterations of the anterior chamber conditions including laser flare photometry after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) compared to the manual phacoemulsification. Data of n=70 FLACS (mean age 67.2 ± 8.9 years) and n=40 manual phacoemulsification (mean age 69.5 ± 9.6 years) were analyzed. The procedures were performed by LenSx Alcon, USA, and Alcon Infiniti Vision System, USA. The following parameters were recorded: laser flare photometry (Kowa FM 700, Japan), anterior chamber (AC) depth, AC volume, AC angle (Pentacam, Oculus Inc., Germany), lens density, pupil diameter, endothelial cell count and pachymetry. The analysis was performed preoperatively, immediately after femtosecond laser procedure and one day postoperatively. Between FLACS and the phaco control group, there was a significant difference in the AC depth (p=0.023, 3.77 mm vs. 4.05 mm) one day postoperatively. The AC angle (p=0.016) showed a significant difference immediately after the femto laser treatment. The central and thinnest pachymetry and endothelial cell count did not show a significant difference between the two study cohorts (p=0.165, p=0.291, p=0.979). The phaco cohort (n=40) demonstrated a non-statistically significant difference in the flare photometry of 15.80 photons/ms one postoperative day compared to the FLACS group 26.62 photons/ms (p=0.322). In this study population, no evidence for an additive damage caused by the use of the femtosecond laser was demonstrated. Furthermore, no increase in the central and thinnest corneal thickness and no increased endothelial cell loss was demonstrated by the laser energy.

  18. Layered surface structure of gas-atomized high Nb-containing TiAl powder and its impact on laser energy absorption for selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Lin, S. F.; Hou, Y. H.; Wang, D. W.; Zhou, P.; Han, P. L.; Li, Y. L.; Yan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Ti45Al8Nb alloy (in at.%) is designed to be an important high-temperature material. However, its fabrication through laser-based additive manufacturing is difficult to achieve. We present here that a good understanding of the surface structure of raw material (i.e. Ti45Al8Nb powder) is important for optimizing its process by selective laser melting (SLM). Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were conducted to determine the surface structure of Ti45Al8Nb powder. An envelope structure (∼54.0 nm in thickness) was revealed for the powder, consisting of TiO2 + Nb2O5 (as the outer surface layer)/Al2O3 + Nb2O5 (as the intermediate layer)/Al2O3 (as the inner surface layer)/Ti45Al8Nb (as the matrix). During SLM, this layered surface structure interacted with the incident laser beam and improved the laser absorptivity of Ti45Al8Nb powder by ∼32.21%. SLM experiments demonstrate that the relative density of the as-printed parts can be realized to a high degree (∼98.70%), which confirms good laser energy absorption. Such layered surface structure with appropriate phase constitution is essential for promoting SLM of the Ti45Al8Nb alloy.

  19. Pulsed CO laser for isotope separation of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, Igor Y.; Koptev, Andrey V. [Rocket-Space Technics Department, Baltic State Technical University, 1, 1st Krasnoarmeyskaya st.,St. Petersburg, 190005 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-30

    This article proposes a technical solution for using a CO laser facility for the industrial separation of uranium used in the production of fuel for nuclear power plants, employing a method of laser isotope separation of uranium with condensation repression in a free jet. The laser operation with nanosecond pulse irradiation can provide an acceptable efficiency in the separating unit and a high efficiency of the laser with the wavelength of 5.3 {mu}m. In the present work we also introduce a calculation model and define the parameters of a mode-locked CO laser with a RF discharge in the supersonic stream. The average pulsed CO laser power of 3 kW is sufficient for efficient industrial isotope separation of uranium in one stage.

  20. Laser-plasma accelerators, acceleration of particles through laser-matter interaction at ultra-high intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, E.

    2010-01-01

    This series of slides overviews the development of powerful lasers for inertial confinement fusion (Icf) at NIF (National Ignition Facility, Usa) and LMJ (Laser Megajoule, France) facilities. Then the principle of laser wakefield acceleration is presented and the possibility of designing compact accelerators delivering 200 GeV/m while conventional RF accelerators reach only 50 MeV/m, is considered. This technical breakthrough will bring important gains in terms of size, cost and new uses for accelerators. While Icf will use nanosecond (10 -9 s) laser pulses, wakefield accelerators will use femtosecond (10 -15 s) laser pulses which means more power but less energy. The electrons accelerated by laser can produce a multi-MeV X radiation useful for industrial radiography or cancer treatment. (A.C.)

  1. Breakdown plasma and vortex flow control for laser ignition using a combination of nano- and femto-second lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Eiichi; Furutani, Hirohide

    2014-01-13

    The breakdown plasma and successive flow leading to combustion are controlled by the combination of a nano-second Nd:YAG laser and a femto-second Ti:Sapphire (TiS) laser. The behaviors are captured by an intensified charged coupled device (ICCD) camera and a high-speed schlieren optical system. The TiS laser determines the initial position of the breakdown by supplying the initial electrons in the optical axis of focusing YAG laser pulses. We show that the initial position of the breakdown can be controlled by the incident position of the TiS laser. In addition, the ignition lean limit of the flammable mixture changes depending on the TiS laser incident position, which is influenced by hot gas distribution and the flow in the flame kernel.

  2. Electroporation of Mammalian Cells by Nanosecond Electric Field Oscillations and its Inhibition by the Electric Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-08

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March 2013 to July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electroporation of mammalian cells by nanosecond electric field...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1Scientific RepoRts | 5:13818 | DOi: 10.1038/srep13818 www.nature.com/scientificreports Electroporation of mammalian cells...first to demonstrate that mammalian cells can be electroporated by damped sine wave electric stimuli of nanosecond duration. By comparing the

  3. Lasers '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Shay, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: XUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, high power gas lasers, solid state lasers, laser spectroscopy. The paper presented include: Development of KrF lasers for fusion and Nuclear driven solid-state lasers

  4. Characterization of Stone Cleaning by Nd:YAG Lasers with Different Pulse Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, L.; Siano, S.; Salimbeni, R.; Pouli, P.; Fotakis, C.

    2006-01-01

    The present work is a comparative study on the laser cleaning of stonework using Nd:YAG lasers at different pulse durations. The ablation rate, the degree of cleaning, and the appearance of the treated surface were studied irradiating a simulated sample and a real stone artefact using three different Nd:YAG laser systems with pulse duration of 90 microseconds, 15 nanoseconds, and 150 picoseconds. To our knowledge, the picosecond laser is here used for the first time in stone conservation. Differences in efficiency and in cleaning result are shown and discussed.

  5. Controlling the alignment of neutral molecules by a strong laser field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, H.; Hilligsøe, Karen Marie; Hald, K.

    1999-01-01

    by lowering the initial rotational energy of the molecules or by increasing the laser intensity. The alignment is measured by photodissociating the molecules with a femtosecond laser pulse and detecting the direction of the photofragments by imaging techniques. The strongest degree of alignment observed......A strong nonresonant nanosecond laser pulse is used to align neutral iodine molecules. The technique, applicable to both polar and nonpolar molecules, relies on the interaction between the strong laser field and the induced dipole moment of the molecules. The degree of alignment is enhanced...

  6. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  7. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of AERA using a beacon reference transmitter and commercial airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huege Tim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers requires time synchronization of detectors on a nanosecond level, especially for advanced reconstruction algorithms based on the wavefront curvature and for interferometric analysis approaches. At the Auger Engineering Radio Array, the distributed, autonomous detector stations are time-synchronized via the Global Positioning System which, however, does not provide sufficient timing accuracy. We thus employ a dedicated beacon reference transmitter to correct for eventby-event clock drifts in our offline data analysis. In an independent cross-check of this “beacon correction” using radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, we have shown that the combined timing accuracy of the two methods is better than 2 nanoseconds.

  8. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, V F; Baksht, E H; Kostyrya, I D; Lomaev, M I; Rybka, D V

    2008-01-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ∼ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF 6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  9. Radial Distribution of the Nanosecond Dielectric Barrier Discharge Current in Atmospheric-Pressure Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malashin, M. V.; Moshkunov, S. I.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Shershunova, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental results on the radial distribution of the nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) current in flat millimeter air gaps under atmospheric pressure and natural humidity of 40-60% at a voltage rise rate at the electrodes of 250 V/ns are presented. The time delay of the appearance of discharge currents was observed to increase from the center to the periphery of the air gap at discharge gap heights above 3 mm, which correlated with the appearance of constricted channels against the background of the volume DBD plasma. Based on the criterion of the avalanche-streamer transition, it is found out that the development of a nanosecond DBD in air gaps of 1-3 mm occurs by the streamer mechanism.

  10. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of AERA using a beacon reference transmitter and commercial airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim

    2017-03-01

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray air showers requires time synchronization of detectors on a nanosecond level, especially for advanced reconstruction algorithms based on the wavefront curvature and for interferometric analysis approaches. At the Auger Engineering Radio Array, the distributed, autonomous detector stations are time-synchronized via the Global Positioning System which, however, does not provide sufficient timing accuracy. We thus employ a dedicated beacon reference transmitter to correct for eventby-event clock drifts in our offline data analysis. In an independent cross-check of this "beacon correction" using radio pulses emitted by commercial airplanes, we have shown that the combined timing accuracy of the two methods is better than 2 nanoseconds.

  11. Ultraviolet versus infrared: Effects of ablation laser wavelength on the expansion of laser-induced plasma into one-atmosphere argon gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qianli; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Laye, Fabrice; Yu Jin; Lei Wenqi; Bai Xueshi; Zheng Lijuan; Zeng Heping

    2012-01-01

    Laser-induced plasma from an aluminum target in one-atmosphere argon background has been investigated with ablation using nanosecond ultraviolet (UV: 355 nm) or infrared (IR: 1064 nm) laser pulses. Time- and space-resolved emission spectroscopy was used as a diagnostics tool to have access to the plasma parameters during its propagation into the background, such as optical emission intensity, electron density, and temperature. The specific feature of nanosecond laser ablation is that the pulse duration is significantly longer than the initiation time of the plasma. Laser-supported absorption wave due to post-ablation absorption of the laser radiation by the vapor plume and the shocked background gas plays a dominant role in the propagation and subsequently the behavior of the plasma. We demonstrate that the difference in absorption rate between UV and IR radiations leads to different propagation behaviors of the plasma produced with these radiations. The consequence is that higher electron density and temperature are observed for UV ablation. While for IR ablation, the plasma is found with lower electron density and temperature in a larger and more homogenous axial profile. The difference is also that for UV ablation, the background gas is principally evacuated by the expansion of the vapor plume as predicted by the standard piston model. While for IR ablation, the background gas is effectively mixed to the ejected vapor at least hundreds of nanoseconds after the initiation of the plasma. Our observations suggest a description by laser-supported combustion wave for the propagation of the plasma produced by UV laser, while that by laser-supported detonation wave for the propagation of the plasma produced by IR laser. Finally, practical consequences of specific expansion behavior for UV or IR ablation are discussed in terms of analytical performance promised by corresponding plasmas for application with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  12. Electrosensitization Increases Antitumor Effectiveness of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, Claudia; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Heller, Loree; Casciola, Maura; Gianulis, Elena; Grigoryev, Sergey; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields are emerging as a new modality for tissue and tumor ablation. We previously reported that cells exposed to pulsed electric fields develop hypersensitivity to subsequent pulsed electric field applications. This phenomenon, named electrosensitization, is evoked by splitting the pulsed electric field treatment in fractions (split-dose treatments) and causes in vitro a 2- to 3-fold increase in cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to show the benefit of split-d...

  13. High-voltage nanosecond Marx generator with quasi-rectangular pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulan, V.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Gribov, A.N.; Luzhnov, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    The automated high-voltage nanosecond generator, forming single pulses of any polarity on the load of 17 Ohm with polarity voltage from 100 up to 300 kV at the semiheight of 80 ns and the front of 7 ns is described. The generator is assembled on the basis of low-inductive capacitors, which by discharge form the pulse, close by form to rectangular one [ru

  14. Efficient temporal compression of coherent nanosecond pulses in compact SBS generator-amplifier setup

    OpenAIRE

    Schiemann, S.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A pulse compressor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in liquids is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It allows for the compression of Fourier-transform limited nanosecond pulses of several hundreds of millijoules of energy with both high conversion efficiency and a high temporal compression factor. The two-cell generator-amplifier arrangement is of a compact design not requiring external attenuation of the generator cell input energy. Pulses from an injection-seeded,...

  15. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  16. Characterization of Pressure Transients Generated by Nanosecond Electrical Pulse (nsEP) Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Caleb C. Roth; Ronald A. Barnes Jr.; Bennett L. Ibey; Hope T. Beier; L. Christopher Mimun; Saher M. Maswadi; Mehdi Shadaram; Randolph D. Glickman

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism(s) responsible for the breakdown (nanoporation) of cell plasma membranes after nanosecond pulse (nsEP) exposure remains poorly understood. Current theories focus exclusively on the electrical field, citing electrostriction, water dipole alignment and/or electrodeformation as the primary mechanisms for pore formation. However, the delivery of a high-voltage nsEP to cells by tungsten electrodes creates a multitude of biophysical phenomena, including electrohydraulic cavitation, el...

  17. Explosive Processes on Cathode while Forming Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge of High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hashimov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of cathode surfaces with different curvature radius (r = 1–8 mm while forming nanosecond pulsed discharge in dense air. Influence of field and air pressure heterogeneity rate in gas gap on size of micro-craters being formed on working cathode surface after pulsed effect has been shown in the paper. The paper reveals a maximum expansion of separate micro-crater size on cathode surface with small curvature radius.

  18. Analysis of materials modifications caused by UV laser micro drilling of via holes in AlGaN/GaN transistors on SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Tim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: tim.wernicke@fbh-berlin.de; Krueger, Olaf [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Herms, Martin [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wuerfl, Joachim [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kirmse, Holm [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Neumann, Wolfgang [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstr. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Behm, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Irmer, Gert [Technische Universitaet Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Traenkle, Guenther [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-31

    Pulsed UV laser drilling can be applied to fabricate vertical electrical interconnects (vias) for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor devices on single-crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. Through-wafer micro holes with a diameter of 50-100 {mu}m were formed in 400 {mu}m thick bulk 4H-SiC by a frequency-tripled solid-state laser (355 nm) with a pulse width of {<=}30 ns and a focal spot size of {approx}15 {mu}m. The impact of laser machining on the material system in the vicinity of micro holes was investigated by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After removing the loosely deposited debris by etching in buffered hydrofluoric acid, a layer of <4 {mu}m resolidified material remains at the side walls of the holes. The thickness of the resolidified layer depends on the vertical distance to the hole entry as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micro-Raman spectra indicate a change of internal strain due to laser drilling and evidence the formation of nanocrystalline silicon (Si). Microstructure analysis of the vias' side walls using cross sectional TEM reveals altered degree of crystallinity in SiC. Layers of heavily disturbed SiC, and nanocrystalline Si are formed by laser irradiation. The layers are separated by 50-100 nm thick interface regions. No evidence of extended defects, micro cracking or crystal damage was found beneath the resolidified layer. The precision of UV laser micro ablation of SiC using nanosecond pulses is not limited by laser-induced extended crystal defects.

  19. Review of laser produced multi-keV X-ray sources from metallic foils, cylinders with liner, and low density aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Frédéric [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2016-04-15

    Experimental results obtained within the last fifteen years on multi-keV X-ray sources irradiated with nanosecond scale pulse duration 3ω laser light at TW power levels by CEA and collaborators are discussed in this review paper. Experiments were carried out on OMEGA and GEKKO XII laser facilities where emitting materials in the 5–10 keV multi-keV energy range are intermediate Z value metals from titanium to germanium. Results focused on conversion efficiency improvement by a factor of 2 when an underdense plasma is created using a laser pre-pulse on a metallic foil, which is then heated by a second laser pulse delayed in time. Metal coated inner surface walls of plastic cylindrical tube ablated by laser beam impacts showed that plasma confinement doubles X-ray emission duration as it gives adequate plasma conditions (electron temperature and density) over a long period of time. Low-density aerogels (doped with metal atoms uniformly distributed throughout their volume or metal oxides) contained in a plastic cylinder have been developed and their results are comparable to gas targets. A hybrid target concept consisting of a thin metal foil placed at the end of a cylinder filled with low density aerogel has emerged as it could collect benefits from pre-exploded thin foils, efficient laser absorption in aerogel, and confinement by cylinder walls. All target geometry performances are relatively close together at a given photon energy and mainly depend on laser irradiation condition optimizations. Results are compared with gas target performances from recent NIF experiments allowing high electron temperatures over large dimension low density plasmas, which are the principal parameters for efficient multi-keV X-ray production.

  20. Simulation of the impact of refractive surgery ablative laser pulses with a flying-spot laser beam on intrasurgery corneal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraiki, Mario; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate ablation algorithms and temperature changes in laser refractive surgery. The model (virtual laser system [VLS]) simulates different physical effects of an entire surgical process, simulating the shot-by-shot ablation process based on a modeled beam profile. The model is comprehensive and directly considers applied correction; corneal geometry, including astigmatism; laser beam characteristics; and ablative spot properties. Pulse lists collected from actual treatments were used to simulate the temperature increase during the ablation process. Ablation efficiency reduction in the periphery resulted in a lower peripheral temperature increase. Steep corneas had lesser temperature increases than flat ones. The maximum rise in temperature depends on the spatial density of the ablation pulses. For the same number of ablative pulses, myopic corrections showed the highest temperature increase, followed by myopic astigmatism, mixed astigmatism, phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), hyperopic astigmatism, and hyperopic treatments. The proposed model can be used, at relatively low cost, for calibration, verification, and validation of the laser systems used for ablation processes and would directly improve the quality of the results.