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Sample records for nanoscale silver thin

  1. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray. This report represents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant spr...

  2. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  3. Surface microtopography of thin silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present ne applications for the recently developed nori-contact optical inicrotopographer emphasizing the results of topographic inspections of thin silver films edges. These films were produced by sputtering of silver through different masks, using a planar magnetron source. The results show the influence ot the thickness and position of the masks on the topography of the film near its edge. Topographic information is obtained from the horizontal shift incurred by the bright spot on an horizontal surface, which is displaced vertically, when this is illuminated by an oblique collimated laser beam. The laser beam is focused onto the surface into a diffraction limited spot and is made to sweep the surface to be examined.. The horizontal position of the bright spot is continuously imaged onto a light detector array and the information about individual detectors that are activated is used to compute the corresponding horizontal shift on the reference plane. Simple trignometric calculations are used to relate the horizontal shift to the distance between the surface and a reference plane at each sampling point and thus a map of the surface topography can be built.

  4. Adhesion Dynamics in Probing Micro- and Nanoscale Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on modeling the probe dynamics in scratching and indenting thin solid films at micro- and nanoscales. The model identifies bifurcation conditions that define the stick-slip oscillation patterns of the tip. It is found that the local energy fluctuations as a function of the inelastic deformation, defect formation, material properties, and contact parameters determine the oscillation behavior. The transient variation of the localized function makes the response nonlinear at the adhesion junction. By quantifying the relation between the bifurcation parameters and the oscillation behavior, this model gives a realistic representation of the complex adhesion dynamics. Specifically, the model establishes the link between the stick-slip behavior and the inelastic deformation and the local potentials. This model justifies the experimental observations and the molecular dynamics simulation of the adhesion and friction dynamics in both the micro- and nanoscale contact.

  5. Properties of electropolymerised polypyrrole thin film on silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadade, Shivaji A.; Puri, Vijaya

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the properties of electropolymerised polypyrrole thin film on silver. The transmission, reflection, conductivity and dielectric behavior of polypyrrole coated silver has been studied in the 8-12 GHz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The polypyrrole thin film makes silver a better conductor for microwaves. The microwave conductivity is larger than the DC conductivity by many orders of magnitude. The real and imaginary part of dielectric constant increases in magnitude with increasing doping level and also it decreases in magnitude with increasing frequency.

  6. In vitro behaviour of nanocrystalline silver-sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedade, A P; Vieira, M T; Martins, A; Silva, F

    2007-01-01

    Silver thin films were deposited with different preferential orientations and special attention was paid to the bioreactivity of the surfaces. The study was essentially focused on the evaluation of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and contact angle measurements. The deposited thin films were characterized before and after immersion in S-enriched simulated human plasma in order to estimate the influence of the preferential crystallographic orientation on the in vitro behaviour. Silver thin films with and without (111) preferential crystallographic orientation were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering to yield nanocrystalline coatings, high compact structures, very hydrophobic surfaces and low roughness. These properties reduce the chemisorption of reactive species onto the film surface. The in vitro tests indicate that silver thin films can be used as coatings for biomaterials applications

  7. Sintering of nanoscale silver coated textiles, a new approach to attain conductive fabrics for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardarian, Kasra [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Busani, Tito [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Osório, Inês [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Domingos, Helena; Igreja, Rui [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Franco, Ricardo [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cortez, João, E-mail: j.cortez@fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    The demand for conductive textiles is increasing, owing to the need for lightweight and flexible conductive materials for a variety of applications, including electromagnetic shielding of electronic equipment. Herein we propose a process that combines the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles at the textile fibre surface followed by sintering of the nanoparticles to obtain highly conductive fabrics. The formation of silver particles at the nanoscale allowed for sintering to be performed efficiently, at reduced temperature and time, bestowing fabrics with high conductivity and capability of shielding electromagnetic radiation. The nanoparticle synthesis method entailed the precipitation of 2.0 g L{sup −1} silver nitrate and further reduction with citrate, with the formation of a deposit of silver nanoparticles at the fabric surface. The amount of silver deposited (up to 195 mg of silver per g of fabric) resulted in moderate electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 803 Ω/sq. Upon sintering, this value decreased dramatically to 5.2 Ω/sq. The sintering process was monitored by SEM, which showed that sintering at 200 °C for 30 min resulted in maximal electrical conductivity with the lowest amount of silver deposited, while forming a homogenous surface. Fabrics submitted to these sintering conditions maintained their sheet resistance and shielding effectiveness values, even after eight washing cycles. - Highlights: • Assembly of highly conductive textiles capable of shielding electromagnetic radiation. • Procedure combines in situ synthesis of AgNPs at the textile surface and sintering. • AgNPs formed by precipitation of AgNO{sub 3} and reduction with citrate, as observed by SEM. • Sintering increased dramatically conductivity and shielding effectiveness. • Treated fabrics maintained conductivity and shielding effectiveness after 8 washes.

  8. Sintering of nanoscale silver coated textiles, a new approach to attain conductive fabrics for electromagnetic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardarian, Kasra; Busani, Tito; Osório, Inês; Domingos, Helena; Igreja, Rui; Franco, Ricardo; Cortez, João

    2014-01-01

    The demand for conductive textiles is increasing, owing to the need for lightweight and flexible conductive materials for a variety of applications, including electromagnetic shielding of electronic equipment. Herein we propose a process that combines the in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles at the textile fibre surface followed by sintering of the nanoparticles to obtain highly conductive fabrics. The formation of silver particles at the nanoscale allowed for sintering to be performed efficiently, at reduced temperature and time, bestowing fabrics with high conductivity and capability of shielding electromagnetic radiation. The nanoparticle synthesis method entailed the precipitation of 2.0 g L −1 silver nitrate and further reduction with citrate, with the formation of a deposit of silver nanoparticles at the fabric surface. The amount of silver deposited (up to 195 mg of silver per g of fabric) resulted in moderate electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 803 Ω/sq. Upon sintering, this value decreased dramatically to 5.2 Ω/sq. The sintering process was monitored by SEM, which showed that sintering at 200 °C for 30 min resulted in maximal electrical conductivity with the lowest amount of silver deposited, while forming a homogenous surface. Fabrics submitted to these sintering conditions maintained their sheet resistance and shielding effectiveness values, even after eight washing cycles. - Highlights: • Assembly of highly conductive textiles capable of shielding electromagnetic radiation. • Procedure combines in situ synthesis of AgNPs at the textile surface and sintering. • AgNPs formed by precipitation of AgNO 3 and reduction with citrate, as observed by SEM. • Sintering increased dramatically conductivity and shielding effectiveness. • Treated fabrics maintained conductivity and shielding effectiveness after 8 washes

  9. Structural and surface compositional characterization of silver thin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silver thin films were deposited on microscope glass slides by the electroless Solution Growth Technique (SGT). The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The films were found to exhibit a random orientation with peak positions ...

  10. Simulations of quantum transport in nanoscale systems: application to atomic gold and silver wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.; Brandbyge, Mads

    2002-01-01

    . The potential drop profile and induced electronic current (and therefore the conductance) are obtained from first principles. The method takes into account the atomic structure of both the nanoscale structure and the semi-infinite electrodes through which the potential is applied. Non-equilibrium Green......'s function techniques are used to calculate the quantum conductance. Here we apply the method to the study of the electronic transport in wires of gold and silver with atomic thickness. We show the results of our calculations, and compare with some of the abundant experimental data on these systems....

  11. Nanoscale strengthening mechanisms in metallic thin film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeppner, Rachel Lynn

    Nano-scale strengthening mechanisms for thin films were investigated for systems governed by two different strengthening techniques: nano-laminate strengthening and oxide dispersion strengthening. Films were tested under elevated temperature conditions to investigate changes in deformation mechanisms at different operating temperatures, and the structural stability. Both systems exhibit remarkable stability after annealing and thus long-term reliability. Nano-scale metallic multilayers with smaller layer thicknesses show a greater relative resistance to decreasing strength at higher temperature testing conditions than those with larger layer thicknesses. This is seen in both Cu/Ni/Nb multilayers as well as a similar tri-component bi-layer system (Cu-Ni/Nb), which removed the coherent interface from the film. Both nanoindentation and micro-pillar compression tests investigated the strain-hardening ability of these two systems to determine what role the coherent interface plays in this mechanism. Tri-layer films showed a higher strain-hardening ability as the layer thickness decreased and a higher strain-hardening exponent than the bi-layer system: verifying the presence of a coherent interface increases the strain-hardening ability of these multilayer systems. Both systems exhibited hardening of the room temperature strength after annealing, suggesting a change in microstructure has occurred, unlike that seen in other multilayer systems. Oxide dispersion strengthened Au films showed a marked increase in hardness and wear resistance with the addition of ZnO particles. The threshold for stress-induced grain-refinement as opposed to grain growth is seen at concentrations of at least 0.5 vol%. These systems exhibited stable microstructures during thermal cycling in films containing at least 1.0%ZnO. Nanoindentation experiments show the drop in hardness following annealing is almost completely attributed to the resulting grain growth. Four-point probe resistivity

  12. Symmetry Breaking by Surface Blocking: Synthesis of Bimorphic Silver Nanoparticles, Nanoscale Fishes and Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Nicole; Kitaev, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    A powerful approach to augment the diversity of well-defined metal nanoparticle (MNP) morphologies, essential for MNP advanced applications, is symmetry breaking combined with seeded growth. Utilizing this approach enabled the formation of bimorphic silver nanoparticles (bi-AgNPs) consisting of two shapes linked by one regrowth point. Bi-AgNPs were formed by using an adsorbing polymer, poly(acrylic acid), PAA, to block the surface of a decahedral AgNP seed and restricting growth of new silver to a single nucleation point. First, we have realized 2-D growth of platelets attached to decahedra producing nanoscale shapes reminiscent of apples, fishes, mushrooms and kites. 1-D bimorphic growth of rods (with chloride) and 3-D bimorphic growth of cubes and bipyramids (with bromide) were achieved by using halides to induce preferential (100) stabilization over (111) of platelets. Furthermore, the universality of the formation of bimorphic nanoparticles was demonstrated by using different seeds. Bi-AgNPs exhibit strong SERS enhancement due to regular cavities at the necks. Overall, the reported approach to symmetry breaking and bimorphic nanoparticle growth offers a powerful methodology for nanoscale shape design.

  13. Nanoscale silver-assisted wet etching of crystalline silicon for anti-reflection surface textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wang, Shuling; Chuwongin, Santhad; Zhou, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    We report here an electro-less metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) process as light management surface-texturing technique for single crystalline Si photovoltaics. Random Silver nanostructures were formed on top of the Si surface based on the thin film evaporation and annealing process. Significant reflection reduction was obtained from the fabricated Si sample, with approximately 2% reflection over a wide spectra range (300 to 1050 nm). The work demonstrates the potential of MacEtch process for anti-reflection surface texture fabrication of large area, high efficiency, and low cost thin film solar cell.

  14. Humidity effect on nanoscale electrochemistry in solid silver ion conductors and the dual nature of its locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Strelcov, Evgheni; Paranthaman, M Parans; Tselev, Alexander; Noh, Tae Won; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-02-11

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool to investigate electrochemistry in nanoscale volumes. While most SPM-based studies have focused on reactions at the tip-surface junction, charge and mass conservation requires coupled and intrinsically nonlocal cathodic and anodic processes that can be significantly affected by ambient humidity. Here, we explore the role of water in both cathodic and anodic processes, associated charge transport, and topographic volume changes depending on the polarity of tip bias. The first-order reversal curve current-voltage technique combined with simultaneous detection of the sample topography, referred to as FORC-IVz, was applied to a silver solid ion conductor. We found that the protons generated from water affect silver ionic conduction, silver particle formation and dissolution, and mechanical integrity of the material. This work highlights the dual nature (simultaneously local and nonlocal) of electrochemical SPM studies, which should be considered for comprehensive understanding of nanoscale electrochemistry.

  15. Multiple surface plasmon polaritons modes on thin silver film controlled by a two-dimensional lattice of silver nanodimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ying; Jiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: jiangyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (China)

    2015-01-15

    We study the optical resonant spectrum of a two-dimensional periodic array of silver nanodimers on a thin silver film using multiple scattering formalism. The excited multiple plasmonic modes on two interfaces of the silver film reveal that the dispersion relationships of surface plasmon polaritons on metallic film are modified by doubly periodic lattice due to the fact that wave vectors matching conditions are satisfied. Moreover, we demonstrate that the plasmonic modes are directly controlled by the thickness of silver film, as well as the gap between nanodimer array and silver film. These effects provide novel high-efficient and steady way for excitation in future plasmonic nanodevices.

  16. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  17. In situ observations of crack arrest and bridging by nanoscale twins in copper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong-Woong; Li Xiaoyan; Gao Huajian; Kumar, Sharvan

    2012-01-01

    In situ tensile experiments in a transmission electron microscope revealed that micro-cracks in ultrafine grained, free-standing, thin copper foils containing nanoscale twins initiated in matrix domains separated by the twins and then arrested at twin boundaries as twin boundary sliding proceeded. The adjacent microcracks eventually coalesced through shear failure of the bridging twins. To investigate the atomic mechanism of this rarely seen nanoscale crack bridging behavior, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to show that during crack propagation twin boundaries are impinged upon by numerous dislocations from the plastically deforming matrix. These dislocations react at the interface and evolve into substantially impenetrable dislocation walls that strongly confine crack nucleation and resist crack propagation, leading to the experimentally observed crack bridging behavior. The present results raise an approach to significantly toughening polycrystalline thin films by incorporating nanoscale twin structures into individual grains that serve as crack bridging ligaments.

  18. Nanoscale aluminum concaves for light-trapping in organic thin-films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Adam, Jost; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, fabricated from oxalic acid and phosphoric acid, lead to non-periodic nanoscale concave structures in their underlying aluminum layer, which are investigated for their field-enhancement properties by applying a thin-film polymer coating based laser ablation...

  19. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  20. Nanoscale reduction of graphene oxide thin films and its characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenzoni, M.; Giugni, Andrea; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Pé rez-Murano, Francesc; Mescola, A.; Torre, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a method to reduce thin films of graphene oxide (GO) to a spatial resolution better than 100 nm over several tens of micrometers by means of an electrochemical scanning probe based lithography. In situ tip

  1. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2016-12-15

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  2. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  3. Nanoscale reduction of graphene oxide thin films and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, M; Giugni, A; Di Fabrizio, E; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Mescola, A; Torre, B

    2015-07-17

    In this paper, we report on a method to reduce thin films of graphene oxide (GO) to a spatial resolution better than 100 nm over several tens of micrometers by means of an electrochemical scanning probe based lithography. In situ tip-current measurements show that an edged drop in electrical resistance characterizes the reduced areas, and that the reduction process is, to a good approximation, proportional to the applied bias between the onset voltage and the saturation thresholds. An atomic force microscope (AFM) quantifies the drop of the surface height for the reduced profile due to the loss of oxygen. Complementarily, lateral force microscopy reveals a homogeneous friction coefficient of the reduced regions that is remarkably lower than that of native graphene oxide, confirming a chemical change in the patterned region. Micro Raman spectroscopy, which provides access to insights into the chemical process, allows one to quantify the restoration and de-oxidation of the graphitic network driven by the electrochemical reduction and to determine characteristic length scales. It also confirms the homogeneity of the process over wide areas. The results shown were obtained from accurate analysis of the shift, intensity and width of Raman peaks for the main vibrational bands of GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mapped over large areas. Concerning multilayered GO thin films obtained by drop-casting we have demonstrated an unprecedented lateral resolution in ambient conditions as well as an improved control, characterization and understanding of the reduction process occurring in GO randomly folded multilayers, useful for large-scale processing of graphene-based material.

  4. Nanoscale reduction of graphene oxide thin films and its characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Lorenzoni, M.

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we report on a method to reduce thin films of graphene oxide (GO) to a spatial resolution better than 100 nm over several tens of micrometers by means of an electrochemical scanning probe based lithography. In situ tip-current measurements show that an edged drop in electrical resistance characterizes the reduced areas, and that the reduction process is, to a good approximation, proportional to the applied bias between the onset voltage and the saturation thresholds. An atomic force microscope (AFM) quantifies the drop of the surface height for the reduced profile due to the loss of oxygen. Complementarily, lateral force microscopy reveals a homogeneous friction coefficient of the reduced regions that is remarkably lower than that of native graphene oxide, confirming a chemical change in the patterned region. Micro Raman spectroscopy, which provides access to insights into the chemical process, allows one to quantify the restoration and de-oxidation of the graphitic network driven by the electrochemical reduction and to determine characteristic length scales. It also confirms the homogeneity of the process over wide areas. The results shown were obtained from accurate analysis of the shift, intensity and width of Raman peaks for the main vibrational bands of GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) mapped over large areas. Concerning multilayered GO thin films obtained by drop-casting we have demonstrated an unprecedented lateral resolution in ambient conditions as well as an improved control, characterization and understanding of the reduction process occurring in GO randomly folded multilayers, useful for large-scale processing of graphene-based material. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Plasmon hybridization in silver nanoislands as semishell arrays coupled to a thin metallic film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaroof, Abbas; Nygaard, Jens Vinge; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    We obtained experimentally strong plasmon interactions between localized surface plasmon with delocalized surface plasmon polaritons in a new nanosystem of silver semishells island film arrays arranged as a closed-packing structure coupled to an adjacent thin silver film. We show that plasmon int...

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Silver Liquid Thin Films for Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver liquid thin film, formed by silver nanoparticles stacking and spreading on the surface of the liquid, is one of the important parts of magnetic fluid deformable mirror. First, silver nanoparticles were prepared by liquid phase chemical reduction method using sodium citrate as reducing agent and stabilizer and silver nitrate as precursor. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffractometer, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results showed that silver nanoparticles are spherical and have a good monodispersity. Additionally, the effect of the reaction conditions on the particle size of silver is obvious. And then silver liquid thin films were prepared by oil-water two-phase interface technology using as-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Properties of the film were investigated using different technology. The results showed that the film has good reflectivity and the particle size has a great influence on the reflectivity of the films. SEM photos showed that the liquid film is composed of multilayer silver nanoparticles. In addition, stability of the film was studied. The results showed that after being stored for 8 days under natural conditions, the gloss and reflectivity of the film start to decrease.

  7. Interaction of positron beams with thin silver foils and surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rysholt Poulsen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental investigations of positron interactions with solid silver and the necessary platform to analyse the data have been presented. The main objective was to study Ps formation at a Ag(100) surface. The different ingredients of the scenario, including thermalization and diffusion of positrons and emission of Ps, were analysed and quantified in whatever way appropriate. The scattering and possible thermalization were described. The parametrization of Monte-Carlo simulated implantation profiles for semi-infinite materials were presented and the applicability of such profiles to thin foils assessed. The latter was done in conjunction with an analysis of experimental data on thermalization and diffusion in 1900 Aa Ag(100) foils. The necessity for MC simulated rather than parametrized implantation profiles was argued. The velocity of thermally desorbed Ps from a Ag(100) surface at ∼800 K appeared to obey and one-dimensional Maxwell Boltzmann distribution multiplied by a velocity dependent factor. More experimental investigations are needed before firm conclusions can be made on the nature of the emission process. The velocity distribution, though, was found to be near-thermal and indicative of the sample temperature. It has been shown that positrons can be converted into Ps atoms in the transmission geometry of a thin 1900 Aa Ag(100) foil with a high efficiency. Furthermore, 61% of the emitted Ps will have a mean velocity of v z =1.2x10 5 m/sec and 39% will have a maximum kinetic energy of 1.5 eV (v z =5.1x10 5 m/sec) at a foil temperature of 800 K, all velocities that are suitable for producing a 'dense' Ps gas target. (EG) 12 refs

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  9. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  11. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  12. Doping dependence of electrical and thermal conductivity of nanoscale polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jiezhu; Wang Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haque, M A [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    We performed simultaneous characterization of electrical and thermal conductivity of 55 nm thick polyaniline (PANI) thin films doped with different levels of camphor sulfonic acids (CSAs). The effect of the doping level is more pronounced on electrical conductivity than on thermal conductivity of PANIs, thereby greatly affecting their ratio that determines the thermoelectric efficiency. At the 60% (the molar ratio of CSA to phenyl-N repeat unit of PANI) doping level, PANI exhibited the maximum electrical and thermal conductivity due to the formation of mostly delocalized structures. Whereas polarons are the charge carriers responsible for the electrical conduction, phonons are believed to play a dominant role in the heat conduction in nanoscale doped PANI thin films.

  13. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  14. Antibacterial effects of silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films sputter deposited on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, Nathan A.; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ma, Hongyan; Bryers, James D.; Williams, John D.; Popat, Ketul C.

    2012-01-01

    Since many orthopedic implants fail as a result of loosening, wear, and inflammation caused by repeated loading on the joints, coatings such as hydroxyapatite (HAp) on titanium with a unique topography have been shown to improve the interface between the implant and the natural tissue. Another serious problem with long-term or ideally permanent implants is infection. It is important to prevent initial bacterial colonization as existing colonies have the potential to become encased in an extracellular matrix polymer (biofilm) that is resistant to antibacterial agents. In this study, plasma-based ion implantation was used to examine the effects of pre-etching on plain titanium. Topographical changes to the titanium samples were examined and compared via scanning electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films were then sputter deposited on titanium substrates etched at − 700 eV. For silver-doped films, two concentrations of silver (∼ 0.5 wt.% and ∼ 1.5 wt.%) were used. Silver concentrations in the film were determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Hydroxyapatite film thicknesses were determined by measuring the surface profile using contact profilometry. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion studies were performed on plain titanium, titanium coated with hydroxyapatite, titanium coated with ∼ 0.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium coated with ∼ 1.5 wt.% silver-doped hydroxyapatite. Results indicate that less bacteria adhered to surfaces containing hydroxyapatite and silver; further, as the hydroxyapatite films delaminated, silver ions were released which killed bacteria in suspension. - Highlights: ► We have developed a combination of plasma-based ion implantation and ion beam sputter deposition technique. ► Silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films on titanium were developed. ► The thin films showed the ability to control the concentration of silver that is doped within the

  15. A Humidity Sensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles Thin Film Prepared by Electrostatic Spray Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thutiyaporn Thiwawong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, thin film of silver nanoparticles for humidity sensor application was deposited by electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influence of the deposition times on properties of films was studied. The crystal structures of sample films, their surface morphology, and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. The crystalline structure of silver nanoparticles thin film was found in the orientation of (100 and (200 planes of cubic structure at diffraction angles 2θ  =  38.2° and 44.3°, respectively. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles thin films humidity sensor was fabricated onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor exhibited the humidity adsorption and desorption properties. The sensing mechanisms of the device were also elucidated by complex impedance analysis.

  16. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  17. Identification of nanoscale structure and morphology reconstruction in oxidized a-SiC:H thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasin, A.V.; Rusavsky, A.V.; Nazarov, A.N.; Lysenko, V.S.; Lytvyn, P.M.; Strelchuk, V.V. [Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 41 Nauki Pr., Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Kholostov, K.I.; Bondarenko, V.P. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6P. Brovki Str., Minsk 220013 (Belarus); Starik, S.P. [Bakul Institute of Superhard Materials, 2 Avtzavodskaya Str., Kiev 04074 (Ukraine)

    2012-11-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of magnetron discharge power results in densification of a-SiC:H thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The denser a-SiC:H material the better resistance to oxidation by oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation of soft a-SiC:H films can result in increase of electric conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of graphitic clusters was found in a-SiC:H after annealing in oxygen. - Abstract: Oxidation behavior of a-SiC:H layers deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique was examined by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) in combination with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy and submicron selected area Raman scattering spectroscopy. Partially oxidized a-SiC:H samples (oxidation at 600 Degree-Sign C in oxygen) were examined to clarify mechanism of the oxidation process. Nanoscale and microscale morphological defects (pits) with dimension of about 50 nm and several microns respectively have appeared after thermal treatment. KPFM measurements exhibited the surface potential of the material in micro pits is significantly smaller in comparison with surrounding material. Submicron RS measurements indicates formation of graphite-like nano-inclusions in the pit defects. We conclude that initial stage of oxidation process in a-SiC:H films takes place not homogeneously throughout the layer but it is initiated in local nanoscale regions followed by spreading over all layer.

  18. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antibiotics Enhanced with Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Predoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory and antimicrobial effects of silver particles have been known since ancient times. In the last few years, a major health problem has arisen due to pathogenic bacteria resistance to antimicrobial agents. The antibacterial activities of new materials including hydroxyapatite (HAp, silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp and various types of antibiotics such as tetracycline (T-HAp and T-Ag:HAp or ciprofloxacin (C-HAp and C-Ag:HAp have not been studied so far. In this study we reported, for the first time, the preparation and characterization of various thin films based on hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite combined with tetracycline or ciprofloxacin. The structural and chemical characterization of hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The morphological studies of the HAp, Ag:HAp, T-HAp, T-Ag:HAp, C-HAp and C-Ag:HAp thin solid films were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to study the chemical composition of the coatings, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES measurements have been used, obtaining information on the distribution of the elements throughout the film. These studies have confirmed the purity of the prepared hydroxyapatite and silver-doped hydroxyapatite thin films obtained from composite targets containing Ca10−xAgx(PO46(OH2 with xAg = 0 (HAp and xAg = 0.2 (Ag:HAp. On the other hand, the major aim of this study was the evaluation of the antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in the presence of HAp and Ag:HAp thin layers against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. The antibacterial activities of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli test strains increased in the presence of HAp and Ag:HAp thin layers.

  19. Nanoscale Thermoelectrics: A Study of the Absolute Seebeck Coefficient of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah J.

    The worlds demand for energy is ever increasing. Likewise, the environmental impact of climate change due generating that energy through combustion of fossil fuels is increasingly alarming. Due to these factors new sources of renewable energies are constantly being sought out. Thermoelectric devices have the ability to generate clean, renewable, energy out of waste heat. However promising that is, their inefficiency severely inhibits applicability and practical use. The usefulness of a thermoelectric material increases with the dimensionless quantity, ZT, which depends on the Seebeck coefficient and electrical and thermal conductivity. These characteristic material parameters have interdependent energy transport contributions that classically prohibit the optimization of one with out the detriment of another. Encouraging advancements of ZT have occurred in the past ten years due to the decoupling of the thermal and electrical conductivity. Further advancements are necessary in order to produce applicable devices. One auspicious way of decoupling or tuning energy transport properties, is through size reduction to the nanoscale. However, with reduced dimensions come complications in measuring material properties. Measurements of properties such as the Seebeck coefficient, S, are primarily contingent upon the measurement apparatus. The Seebeck coefficient is defined as the amount of voltage generated by a thermal gradient. Measuring a thermally generated voltage by traditional methods gives, the voltage measured as a linear function of the Seebeck coefficient of the leads and of the material being tested divided by the applied thermal gradient. If accurate values of the Seebeck coefficients of the leads are available, simple subtraction provides the answer. This is rarely the case in nanoscale measurement devices with leads exclusively made from thin film materials that do not have well known bulk-like thermopower values. We have developed a technique to directly

  20. Gold and silver thin film analysis by optical and neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moharram, B.M.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Ammar, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Thicknesses of gold and silver thin films have been determined by NAA technique. Reasonable agreement with conventional optical methods has been obtained, but the lower detection limit in the case of NAA is far better than in the optical method. (author)

  1. Nanoscale thermal-mechanical probe determination of 'softening transitions' in thin polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jing; Berry, Brian; Douglas, Jack F; Karim, Alamgir; Snyder, Chad R; Soles, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We report a quantitative study of the softening behavior of glassy polystyrene (PS) films at length scales on the order of 100 nm using nano-thermomechanometry (nano-TM), an emerging scanning probe technique in which a highly doped silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip is resistively heated on the surface of a polymer film. The apparent 'softening temperature' T s of the film is found to depend on the logarithm of the square root of the thermal ramping rate R. This relation allows us to estimate a quasi-equilibrium (or zero rate) softening transition temperature T s0 by extrapolation. We observe marked shifts of T s0 with decreasing film thickness, but the nature of these shifts, and even their sign, depend strongly on both the thermal and mechanical properties of the supporting substrate. Finite element simulations suggest that thin PS films on rigid substrates with large thermal conductivities lead to increasing T s0 with decreasing film thickness, whereas softer, less thermally conductive substrates promote reductions in T s0 . Experimental observations on a range of substrates confirm this behavior and indicate a complicated interplay between the thermal and mechanical properties of the thin PS film and the substrate. This study directly points to relevant factors for quantitative measurements of thermophysical properties of materials at the nanoscale using this nano-TM based method.

  2. Nanotribological Behavior of Carbon Based Thin Films: Friction and Lubricity Mechanisms at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Charitidis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of materials with very attractive friction and wear properties has raised much attention in research and industrial sectors. A wide range of tribological applications, including rolling and sliding bearings, machining, mechanical seals, biomedical implants and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS, require thin films with high mechanical strength, chemical inertness, broad optical transparency, high refractive index, wide bandgap excellent thermal conductivity and extremely low thermal expansion. Carbon based thin films like diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon nitride and cubic boron nitride known as “super-hard” material have been studied thoroughly as the ideal candidate for tribological applications. In this study, the results of experimental and simulation works on the nanotribological behavior of carbon films and fundamental mechanisms of friction and lubricity at the nano-scale are reviewed. The study is focused on the nanomechanical properties and analysis of the nanoscratching processes at low loads to obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison of their elastic/plastic deformation response, and nanotribological behavior of the a-C, ta-C, a-C:H, CNx, and a-C:M films. For ta-C and a-C:M films new data are presented and discussed.

  3. Nanoscale current spreading analysis in solution-processed graphene oxide/silver nanowire transparent electrodes via conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Joseph E.; Perumal, Ajay; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Stavrinou, Paul N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D., E-mail: t.anthopoulos@ic.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-21

    We use conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) to study the origin of long-range conductivity in model transparent conductive electrodes composed of networks of reduced graphene oxide (rGO{sub X}) and silver nanowires (AgNWs), with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pristine networks of rGO{sub X} (1–3 monolayers-thick) and AgNWs exhibit sheet resistances of ∼100–1000 kΩ/□ and 100–900 Ω/□, respectively. When the materials are deposited sequentially to form bilayer rGO{sub X}/AgNW electrodes and thermally annealed at 200 °C, the sheet resistance reduces by up to 36% as compared to pristine AgNW networks. CAFM was used to analyze the current spreading in both systems in order to identify the nanoscale phenomena responsible for this effect. For rGO{sub X} networks, the low intra-flake conductivity and the inter-flake contact resistance is found to dominate the macroscopic sheet resistance, while for AgNW networks the latter is determined by the density of the inter-AgNW junctions and their associated resistance. In the case of the bilayer rGO{sub X}/AgNWs' networks, rGO{sub X} flakes are found to form conductive “bridges” between AgNWs. We show that these additional nanoscopic electrical connections are responsible for the enhanced macroscopic conductivity of the bilayer rGO{sub X}/AgNW electrodes. Finally, the critical role of thermal annealing on the formation of these nanoscopic connections is discussed.

  4. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hluschi, J.H. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Helmke, A. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Roth, P. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany); Boewer, R. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Herlitze, L. [Interpane Glasbeschichtungsgesellschaft mbH and Co KG, Sohnreystr. 21, D-37697 Lauenfoerde (Germany); Vioel, W. [University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Str. 99, D-37085 Goettingen (Germany)]. E-mail: vioel@hawk-hhg.de

    2006-11-10

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of {lambda}=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers.

  5. UV and plasma treatment of thin silver layers and glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hluschi, J.H.; Helmke, A.; Roth, P.; Boewer, R.; Herlitze, L.; Vioel, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silver layers can be modified by treatment with UV radiation or a plasma discharge. UV treatment at a wavelength of λ=308 -bar nm improves the layer properties, thus leading to an enhancement of the layers IR reflectivity. For the purpose of in situ-measurement the sheet resistance is recorded during the process. Due to the Hagen-Rubens-Relation [E. Hagen, H. Rubens, Ann. Phys. 11 (1903) 873]-bar the sheet resistance is linked to the IR reflectivity of thin metal-films. A pretreatment of uncoated glass using a dielectric barrier discharge activates and cleans its surface, thus leading to an increase in adhesion of thin layers

  6. The influence of nanoscopically thin silver films on bacterial viability and attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Hasan, Jafar; Truong, Vi Khanh; Wang, James Y; Raveggi, Massimo; Fluke, Christopher; Crawford, Russell J

    2011-08-01

    The physicochemical and bactericidal properties of thin silver films have been analysed. Silver films of 3 and 150 nm thicknesses were fabricated using a magnetron sputtering thin-film deposition system. X-ray photoelectron and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses confirmed that the resulting surfaces were homogeneous, and that silver was the most abundant element present on both surfaces, being 45 and 53 at.% on the 3- and 150-nm films, respectively. Inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectroscopy (ICP-TOF-MS) was used to measure the concentration of silver ions released from these films. Concentrations of 0.9 and 5.2 ppb were detected for the 3- and 150-nm films, respectively. The surface wettability of the films remained nearly identical for both film thicknesses, displaying a static water contact angle of 95°, while the surface free energy of the 150-nm film was found to be slightly greater than that of the 3-nm film, being 28.8 and 23.9 mN m(-1), respectively. The two silver film thicknesses exhibited statistically significant differences in surface topographic profiles on the nanoscopic scale, with R (a), R (q) and R (max) values of 1.4, 1.8 and 15.4 nm for the 3-nm film and 0.8, 1.2 and 10.7 nm for the 150-nm film over a 5 × 5 μm scanning area. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bactericidal activity of the 3-nm silver film was not significant, whereas the nanoscopically smoother 150-nm silver film exhibited appreciable bactericidal activity towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 cells and Staphylococcus aureus CIP 65.8 cells, obtaining up to 75% and 27% sterilisation effect, respectively.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S; Nagendra, C L; Subrahmanyam, A

    2003-04-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson.

  8. Electrical and optical properties of reactive DC magnetron sputtered silver oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Barik, Ullash; Srinivasan, S.; Nagendra, C.L.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2003-01-01

    Silver oxide thin films have been prepared on soda lime glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC Magnetron sputtering technique using pure silver metal target; the oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-2.01 sccm. The X-ray diffraction data on these films show a systematic change from metallic silver to silver (sub) oxides. The electrical resistivity increases with increasing oxygen flow. The films show a p-type behavior (by both Hall and Seebeck measurements) for the oxygen flow rates of 0.54, 1.09 and 1.43 sccm. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) decreases with increasing oxygen content and is in the range 1.167-1.145, whereas the p-type films show a higher refractive index (1.186-1.204). The work function of these silver oxide films has been measured by Kelvin Probe technique. The results, in specific, the p-type conductivity in the silver oxide films, have been explained on the basis of the theory of partial ionic charge proposed by Sanderson

  9. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems by nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Joya, Yasir Faheem; Garcia Esparza, Angel T.; de Groot, Huub

    2016-01-01

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sun light, developing robust, stable and easy accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here unique nano-particulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3–/CO2 system under benign conditions. Mircographs show that they exhibit nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of > 1.1 mA cm–2 is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ions free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ions free electrolyte and tend to degrade with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests.

  10. Efficient electrochemical water oxidation in neutral and near-neutral systems by nanoscale silver-oxide catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2016-07-19

    In electrocatalytic water splitting systems pursuing for renewable energy using sun light, developing robust, stable and easy accessible materials operating under mild chemical conditions is pivotal. We present here unique nano-particulate type silver-oxide (AgOx-NP) based robust and highly stable electrocatalyst for efficient water oxidation. The AgOx-NP is generated in situ in a HCO3–/CO2 system under benign conditions. Mircographs show that they exhibit nanoscale box type squared nano-bipyramidal configuration. The oxygen generation is initiated at low overpotential, and a sustained O2 evolution current density of > 1.1 mA cm–2 is achieved during prolonged-period water electrolysis. The AgOx-NP electrocatalyst performs exceptionally well in metal-ions free neutral or near-neutral carbonate, phosphate and borate buffers relative to recently reported Co-oxide and Ni-oxide based heterogeneous electrocatalysts, which are unstable in metal-ions free electrolyte and tend to degrade with time and lose catalytic performance during long-term experimental tests.

  11. Silver loaded WO{sub 3-x}/TiO{sub 2} composite multifunctional thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnill, Charles W.; Noimark, Sacha; Parkin, Ivan P., E-mail: I.P.Parkin@ucl.ac.uk

    2012-06-30

    Multifunctional WO{sub 3-x}-TiO{sub 2} composite thin films have been prepared by sol-gel synthesis and shown to be good visible light photocatalysts whilst retaining a desirable underlying blue colouration. The WO{sub 3-x}-TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were further enhanced using silver nanoparticles synthesised in-situ on the surface from the photo-degradation of silver nitrate solution. Thin films were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman, Scanning electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy and shown to photo degrade stearic acid, using white light {lambda} = 420-800 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3-X} TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were synthesised by sol-gel methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue tinted glass is desirable for the value added glass industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticle island formation enhances the activity of the films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue tinted 'value added' coated glass is now possible.

  12. Facile green synthesis of silver nanodendrite/cellulose acetate thin film electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarayan, Kesavan; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a highly efficient and economical solution called as 'in situ hydrogenation' for preparation of highly conductive thin film electrode based on silver nanodendrites. The silver nanodendrite (AgND)/cellulose acetate (CA) thin film electrodes exhibited sheet resistance ranging from 0.32ohm/sq to 122.1ohm/sq which could be controlled by changing the concentration of both silver and polymer. In addition, these electrodes exhibited outstanding toughness during the bending test. Further, these thin film electrodes have great potential for scale-up with an average weight of 3mg/cm 2 and can be also combined with active nanomaterials such as multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to fabricate AgND/CA/MWCNTs thin film for high-performance flexible supercapacitor electrode. The AgND/CA/MWCNTs electrodes exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 237F/g at a current density of 0.3A/g. After 1000 cycles, the AgND/MWCNT/CA exhibited a decrease of 16.0% of specific capacitance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Silver loaded WO3−x/TiO2 composite multifunctional thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnill, Charles W.; Noimark, Sacha; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2012-01-01

    Multifunctional WO 3−x –TiO 2 composite thin films have been prepared by sol–gel synthesis and shown to be good visible light photocatalysts whilst retaining a desirable underlying blue colouration. The WO 3−x –TiO 2 composite thin films were further enhanced using silver nanoparticles synthesised in-situ on the surface from the photo-degradation of silver nitrate solution. Thin films were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman, Scanning electron microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy and shown to photo degrade stearic acid, using white light λ = 420–800 nm. - Highlights: ► WO 3−X TiO 2 composite thin films were synthesised by sol–gel methods. ► Blue tinted glass is desirable for the value added glass industry. ► Silver nanoparticle island formation enhances the activity of the films. ► Blue tinted “value added” coated glass is now possible.

  14. The effect of a thin silver layer on the critical current of epitaxial YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Cohen, D.; Cohen, D.; Snapiro, I.

    1992-01-01

    We compare measurements of the critical current density of an epitaxial YBCO film with that of an identical film overlaid by a thin silver layer. We find that the presence of the silver lowers Tc of the film by about 1.5 K, which is two orders of magnitude larger than predicted by the theory of the proximity effect for our experimental conditions. In addition, J c of the Ag/YBCO film near Tc is also significantly lower than that of the bare YBCO film. We propose two alternate interpretations of this effect, one in terms of destabilization of the flux distribution in the film and the other making use of the effect of the silver on the Bean-Livingston surface barrier for the initial penetration of flux. The latter seems the more plausible explanation of our results. (orig.)

  15. Compact chromium oxide thin film resistors for use in nanoscale quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. R.; Fenton, J. C.; Constantino, N. G. N.; Warburton, P. A. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-14

    We report on the electrical characterisation of a series of thin amorphous chromium oxide (CrO{sub x}) films, grown by dc sputtering, to evaluate their suitability for use as on-chip resistors in nanoelectronics. By increasing the level of oxygen doping, the room-temperature sheet resistance of the CrO{sub x} films was varied from 28 Ω/◻ to 32.6 kΩ/◻. The variation in resistance with cooling to 4.2 K in liquid helium was investigated; the sheet resistance at 4.2 K varied with composition from 65 Ω/◻ to above 20 GΩ/◻. All of the films measured displayed linear current–voltage characteristics at all measured temperatures. For on-chip devices for quantum phase-slip measurements using niobium–silicon nanowires, interfaces between niobium–silicon and chromium oxide are required. We also characterised the contact resistance for one CrO{sub x} composition at an interface with niobium–silicon. We found that a gold intermediate layer is favourable: the specific contact resistivity of chromium-oxide-to-gold interfaces was 0.14 mΩcm{sup 2}, much lower than the value for direct CrO{sub x} to niobium–silicon contact. We conclude that these chromium oxide films are suitable for use in nanoscale circuits as high-value resistors, with resistivity tunable by oxygen content.

  16. Predictive modeling of nanoscale domain morphology in solution-processed organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Cyrus; Jenkins, Michael; Morehouse, Robell; Stanfield, Dane; McDowall, Stephen; Johnson, Brad L.; Patrick, David L.

    2017-09-01

    The electronic and optoelectronic properties of molecular semiconductor thin films are directly linked to their extrinsic nanoscale structural characteristics such as domain size and spatial distributions. In films prepared by common solution-phase deposition techniques such as spin casting and solvent-based printing, morphology is governed by a complex interrelated set of thermodynamic and kinetic factors that classical models fail to adequately capture, leaving them unable to provide much insight, let alone predictive design guidance for tailoring films with specific nanostructural characteristics. Here we introduce a comprehensive treatment of solution-based film formation enabling quantitative prediction of domain formation rates, coverage, and spacing statistics based on a small number of experimentally measureable parameters. The model combines a mean-field rate equation treatment of monomer aggregation kinetics with classical nucleation theory and a supersaturation-dependent critical nucleus size to solve for the quasi-two-dimensional temporally and spatially varying monomer concentration, nucleation rate, and other properties. Excellent agreement is observed with measured nucleation densities and interdomain radial distribution functions in polycrystalline tetracene films. Numerical solutions lead to a set of general design rules enabling predictive morphological control in solution-processed molecular crystalline films.

  17. Studies on electrodeposited silver sulphide thin films by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhune, V.B.; Shinde, N.S.; Fulari, V.J.

    2008-01-01

    Silver sulphide (Ag 2 S) thin films have been deposited on to stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates by the electrodeposition process, in potentiostatic mode using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), sodium thiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) as a precursor sources and Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) was used as a complexing agent. The deposition potential of the compound was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The structural and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption techniques, respectively. XRD studies reveal that the films are polycrystalline with monoclinic crystal structure. Optical absorption study shows the presence of direct transition with bandgap energy 1.1 eV. The determination of thickness and stress of the Ag 2 S thin films was carried out by Double Exposure Holographic Interferometry (DEHI) technique.

  18. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalheiro, A.A. [Depto de Quimica - Instituto de Biociencias - UNESP, Distrito de Rubiao Junior, s/n, Zip Code 18.618-000, P.O. Box 510, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: albecava@bol.com.br; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O. [Depto de Quimica - Instituto de Biociencias - UNESP, Distrito de Rubiao Junior, s/n, Zip Code 18.618-000, P.O. Box 510, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-31

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO{sub 2} anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg{sub C} W{sup -1} when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material.

  19. Grain growth: The key to understand solid-state dewetting of silver thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Podor, R.; Ravaux, J.; Teisseire, J.; Gozhyk, I.; Jupille, J.; Lazzari, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of solid-state dewetting of polycrystalline silver thin films in oxygen atmosphere was investigated with in situ and real-time environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy at high temperature combined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Three steps were identified during dewetting: induction, hole propagation without specific rim and sintering. Moreover, it was observed that a very selective grain growth, promoted by surface diffusion, plays a key role all along the process.

  20. Examining Wetting and Dewetting Processes in Thin-films on Crystalline Substrates at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar

    Controlling the wetting and dewetting of ultra-thin films on solid substrates is important for a variety of technological and fundamental research applications. These applications include film deposition for semiconductor manufacturing, the growth of nanowires through nanoparticle-based catalysis sites, to making ordered arrays of nanoscale particles for electronic and optical devices. However, despite the importance of these processes, the underlying mechanisms by which a film wets a surface or dewets from it is still often unclear and widely debated. In this dissertation we examine wetting and dewetting processes in three materials systems that are relevant for device applications with the ultimate goal of understanding what mechanisms drive the wetting (or dewetting) process in each case. First, we examine the formation of wetting layers between nanoparticle films and highly conductive GaAs substrates for spintronic applications. In this case, the formation of a wetting layer is important for nanoparticle adhesion on the substrate surface. Wetting layers can be made by annealing these systems, which causes elemental diffusion from nanoparticles into the substrate, thereby adhesion between the nanoparticles and the substrate. Here we investigate the feasibility of forming a wetting layer underneath nanoparticles post-annealing in a system of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a (100) GaAs substrate by studying the interface structure and composition via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Electron Energy-Loss fine structures of the Fe-L 3,2 and O-K absorption edges were quantitatively analyzed to gain insight about the compositional gradient of the interface between the nanoparticles and the GaAs substrate. Additionally, real-space density functional theory calculations of the dynamical form factor was performed to confirm the

  1. Quantifying resistances across nanoscale low- and high-angle interspherulite boundaries in solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie S; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Loth, Marsha A; Anthony, John E; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2012-11-27

    The nanoscale boundaries formed when neighboring spherulites impinge in polycrystalline, solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films act as bottlenecks to charge transport, significantly reducing organic thin-film transistor mobility in devices comprising spherulitic thin films as the active layers. These interspherulite boundaries (ISBs) are structurally complex, with varying angles of molecular orientation mismatch along their lengths. We have successfully engineered exclusively low- and exclusively high-angle ISBs to elucidate how the angle of molecular orientation mismatch at ISBs affects their resistivities in triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene thin films. Conductive AFM and four-probe measurements reveal that current flow is unaffected by the presence of low-angle ISBs, whereas current flow is significantly disrupted across high-angle ISBs. In the latter case, we estimate the resistivity to be 22 MΩμm(2)/width of the ISB, only less than a quarter of the resistivity measured across low-angle grain boundaries in thermally evaporated sexithiophene thin films. This discrepancy in resistivities across ISBs in solution-processed organic semiconductor thin films and grain boundaries in thermally evaporated organic semiconductor thin films likely arises from inherent differences in the nature of film formation in the respective systems.

  2. Optical properties of silver sulphide thin films formed on evaporated Ag by a simple sulphurization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Calva, E., E-mail: ebc@xanum.uam.m [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Av. Purisima Esq. Michoacan, Col. Vicentina, Mexico, D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Ortega-Lopez, M.; Avila-Garcia, A.; Matsumoto-Kwabara, Y. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-01-31

    Silver sulphide (Ag{sub 2}S) thin films were grown on the surface of silver films (Ag) deposited on glass substrate by using a simple chemical sulphurization method. According to X-ray diffraction analysis, the Ag{sub 2}S thin films display low intensity peaks at 34.48{sup o}, 36.56{sup o}, and 44.28{sup o}, corresponding to diffraction from (100), (112) and (103) planes of the acanthite phase (monoclinic). A model of the type Ag{sub 2}S/Ag/glass was deduced from spectroscopic ellipsometric measurements. Also, the optical constants (n, k) of the system were determined. Furthermore, the optical properties as solar selective absorber for collector applications were assessed. The optical reflectance of the Ag{sub 2}S/Ag thin film systems exhibits the expected behavior for an ideal selective absorber, showing a low reflectance in the wavelength range below 2 {mu}m and a high reflectance for wavelengths higher than that value. An absorptance about 70% and an emittance about 3% or less were calculated for several samples.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  4. Participation of the Third Order Optical Nonlinearities in Nanostructured Silver Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Solid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Torres-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the transmittance modulation of optical signals in a nanocomposite integrated by two different silver doped zinc oxide thin solid films. An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis approach was employed for the preparation of the samples. Measurements of the third-order nonlinear optical response at a nonresonant 532 nm wavelength of excitation were performed using a vectorial two-wave mixing. It seems that the separated contribution of the optical nonlinearity associated with each film noticeable differs in the resulting nonlinear effects with respect to the additive response exhibited by the bilayer system. An enhancement of the optical Kerr nonlinearity is predicted for prime number arrays of the studied nanoclusters in a two-wave interaction. We consider that the nanostructured morphology of the thin solid films originates a strong modification of the third-order optical phenomena exhibited by multilayer films based on zinc oxide.

  5. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ∼1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ∼10 6 /m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80–330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ∼2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response

  6. Optoelectronic and low temperature thermoelectric studies on nanostructured thin films of silver gallium selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena; Nazer, Sheeba; Abraham, Anitha; Nair, Sinitha B.; Pradeep, B.; Urmila, K. S.; Okram, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of silver gallium selenide were deposited on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates by multi-source vacuum co-evaporation technique. The structural analysis done by X-ray diffraction ascertained the formation of nano structured tetragonal chalcopyrite thin films. The compound formation was confirmed by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic technique has been used for surface morphological analysis. Direct allowed band gap ˜1.78eV with high absorption coefficient ˜106/m was estimated from absorbance spectra. Low temperature thermoelectric effects has been investigated in the temperature range 80-330K which manifested an unusual increase in Seebeck coefficient with negligible phonon drag toward the very low and room temperature regime. The electrical resistivity of these n-type films was assessed to be ˜2.6Ωm and the films showed good photo response.

  7. Photochemical oxygen reduction by zinc phthalocyanine and silver/gold nanoparticle incorporated silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Manas; Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com; Azad, Uday Pratap

    2012-12-15

    Silver or gold nanoparticles are synthesized using a borohydride reduction method and are anchored simultaneously into/onto the mercaptopropyl functionalized silica. Later, zinc phthalocyanine is adsorbed onto the above materials. Thin films of these materials are prepared by coating an aqueous colloidal suspension of the respective material onto glass plates. Visible light irradiation of these films in oxygen saturated, stirred aqueous solutions effectively reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalytic reduction of oxygen is explained on the basis of the semiconducting properties of the silica films. The back electron transfer reaction is largely prevented by means of a sacrificial electron donor, triethanolamine. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc phthalocyanine adsorbed silica materials were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of these materials photocatalytically reduce oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis is explained based on semiconductor properties of the materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticles increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the materials.

  8. In situ Silver Spot Preparation and on-Plate Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection in Thin Layer Chromatography Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, K.; Mircescu, N. E.; Szabo, L.; Leopold, L. F.; Chiş, V.; Leopold, N.

    2013-05-01

    An improved approach for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of mixture constituents after thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation is presented. A SERS active silver substrate was prepared under open air conditions, directly on the thin silica film by photo-reduction of silver nitrate, allowing the detection of binary mixtures of cresyl violet, bixine, crystal violet, and Cu(II) complex of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. The recorded SERS spectrum provides a unique spectral fingerprint for each molecule; therefore the use of analyte standards is avoided, thus rendering the presented procedure advantageous compared to the conventional detection methodology in TLC.

  9. Optical characterizations of silver nanoprisms embedded in polymer thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Miriam; Pourcin, Florent; Margeat, Olivier; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Berginc, Gerard; Sauvage, Rose-Marie; Ackermann, Jorg; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    The precise control of light-matter interaction has a wide range of applications and is currently driven by the use of nanoparticles (NPs) by the recent advances in nanotechnology. Taking advantage of the material, size, shape, and surrounding media dependence of the optical properties of plasmonic NPs, thin film layers with tunable optical properties are achieved. The NPs are synthesized by wet chemistry and embedded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer thin film layer. Spectrophotometer and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are coupled to finite-difference time domain numerical modeling to optically characterize the heterogeneous thin film layers. Silver nanoprisms of 10 to 50 nm edge size exhibit high absorption through the visible wavelength range. A simple optical model composed of a Cauchy law and a Lorentz law, accounting for the optical properties of the nonabsorbing polymer and the absorbing property of the nanoprisms, fits the spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Knowing the complex optical indices of heterogeneous thin film layers let us design layers of any optical properties.

  10. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of a thin silver layer deposited onto PET film via atmospheric pressure plasma reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jun; Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the first use of a plasma reduction reaction under atmospheric pressure to fabricate a thin silver layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film without the use of toxic chemicals, high voltages, or an expensive vacuum apparatus. The developed film is applied to electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. After repeatedly depositing a silver layer through a plasma reduction reaction on PET, we can successfully fabricate a uniformly deposited thin silver layer. It was found that both the particle size and film thickness of thin silver layers fabricated at different AgNO3 concentrations increase with an increase in the concentration of AgNO3. However, the roughness of the thin silver layer decreases when increasing the concentration of AgNO3 from 100 to 500 mM, and the roughness increases with a further increase in the concentration of AgNO3. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of the film is measured in the frequency range of 0.045 to 1 GHz. As a result of optimizing the electrical conductivity by measuring sheet resistance of the thin silver layer, the film fabricated from 500 mM AgNO3 exhibits the highest EMI SE among all fabricated films. The maximum values of the EMI SE are 60.490 dB at 0.1 GHz and 54.721 dB at 1.0 GHz with minimum sheet resistance of 0.244 Ω/□. Given that the proposed strategy is simple and effective, it is promising for fabricating various low-cost metal films with high EMI SE.

  11. Morphology and oxygen incorporation effect on antimicrobial activity of silver thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Rita, E-mail: ritarebelo@det.uminho.pt [2C2T, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); GRF-CFUM, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); CEB, Center for Biological Engineering, LIBRO—Laboratório de Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-335 Braga (Portugal); Manninen, N.K. [GRF-CFUM, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Fialho, Luísa [GRF-CFUM, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Henriques, Mariana [CEB, Center for Biological Engineering, LIBRO—Laboratório de Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-335 Braga (Portugal); Carvalho, Sandra [GRF-CFUM, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Ag and Ag{sub x}O thin films were deposited by non-reactive and reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. • Coatings were characterized chemically, physically and structurally. • In order to verify the antibacterial behavior of the coatings, halo inhibition zone tests were realized for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. • Ag{sub x}O coating presented antibacterial behavior. - Abstract: Ag and Ag{sub x}O thin films were deposited by non-reactive and reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering, respectively, with the final propose of functionalizing the SS316L substrate with antibacterial properties. The coatings were characterized chemically, physically and structurally. The coatings nanostructure was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the coatings morphology was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and XPS analyses suggested that Ag thin film is composed by metallic Ag, which crystallizes in fcc-Ag phase, while the Ag{sub x}O thin film showed both metallic Ag and Ag−O bonds, which crystalize in fcc-Ag and silver oxide phases. The SEM results revealed that Ag thin film formed a continuous layer, while Ag{sub x}O layer was composed of islands with hundreds of nanometers surrounded by small nanoparticles with tens of nanometers. The surface wettability and surface tension parameters were determined by contact angle measurements, being found that Ag and Ag{sub x}O surfaces showed very similar behavior, with all the surfaces showing a hydrophobic character. In order to verify the antibacterial behavior of the coatings, halo inhibition zone tests were realized for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Ag coatings did not show antibacterial behavior, contrarily to Ag{sub x}O coating, which presented antibacterial properties against the studied bacteria. The presence of silver oxide phase along with the development of different morphology was

  12. Microstrain and residual stress in thin-films made from silver nanoparticles deposited by inkjet-printing technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauchois, R.; Borbély, A.; Gergaud, P.; Saadaoui, M.; Inal, K.

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles are increasingly employed in the fabrication process of electronic devices using inkjet-printing technology and a consecutive thermal treatment. The evolution of internal stresses during the conversion of silver nanoparticle-based ink into a metallic thin-film

  13. Evaluation of diffusion barrier and electrical properties of tantalum oxynitride thin films for silver metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, E.; Wang, Y.; Theodore, N.D.; Alford, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal stability and the diffusion barrier properties of DC reactively sputtered tantalum oxynitride (Ta-O-N) thin films, between silver (Ag) and silicon (Si) p + n diodes were investigated. Both materials characterization (X-ray diffraction analysis, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Auger depth profiling) and electrical measurements (reverse-biased junction leakage current-density) were used to evaluate diffusion barrier properties of the thin films. The leakage current density of p + n diodes with the barrier (Ta-O-N) was approximately four orders of magnitude lower than those without barriers after a 30 min, 400 deg. C back contact anneal. The Ta-O-N barriers were stable up to 500 deg. C, 30 min anneals. However, this was not the case for the 600 deg. C anneal. RBS spectra and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of as-deposited and vacuum annealed samples of Ag/barrier (Ta-O-N)/Si indicate the absence of any interfacial interaction between the barrier and substrate (silicon). The failure of the Ta-O-N barriers has been attributed to thermally induced stresses, which cause the thin film to crack at elevated temperatures

  14. Highly transparent and conductive thin films fabricated with nano-silver/double-walled carbon nanotube composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shie-Heng; Teng, Chih-Chun; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Wang, Ikai

    2011-12-01

    This study develops a technique for enhancing the electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of transparent double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) film. Silver nanoparticles were modified with a NH(2)(CH(2))(2)SH self-assembled monolayer terminated by amino groups and subsequent surface condensation that reacted with functionalized DWNTs. Ag nanoparticles were grafted on the surface of the DWNTs. The low sheet resistance of the resulting thin conductive film on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was due to the increased contact areas between DWNTs and work function by grafting Ag nanoparticles on the DWNT surfaces. Increasing the contact area between DWNTs and work function improved the conductivity of the DWNT-Ag thin films. The prepared DWNT-Ag thin films had a sheet resistance of 53.4 Ω/sq with 90.5% optical transmittance at a 550 nm wavelength. After treatment with HNO(3) and annealing at 150 °C for 30 min, a lower sheet resistance of 45.8 Ω/sq and a higher transmittance of 90.4% could be attained. The value of the DC conductivity to optical conductivity (σ(DC)/σ(OP)) ratio is 121.3. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermoelectric Mixed Thick-/Thin Film Microgenerators Based on Constantan/Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Gierczak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, manufacturing and characterization of newly developed mixed thick-/thin film thermoelectric microgenerators based on magnetron sputtered constantan (copper-nickel alloy and screen-printed silver layers. The thermoelectric microgenerator consists of sixteen thermocouples made on a 34.2 × 27.5 × 0.25 mm3 alumina substrate. One of thermocouple arms was made of magnetron-sputtered constantan (Cu-Ni alloy, the second was a Ag-based screen-printed film. The length of each thermocouple arm was equal to 27 mm, and their width 0.3 mm. The distance between the arms was equal to 0.3 mm. In the first step, a pattern mask with thermocouples was designed and fabricated. Then, a constantan layer was magnetron sputtered over the whole substrate, and a photolithography process was used to prepare the first thermocouple arms. The second arms were screen-printed onto the substrate using a low-temperature silver paste (Heraeus C8829A or ElectroScience Laboratories ESL 599-E. To avoid oxidation of constantan, they were fired in a belt furnace in a nitrogen atmosphere at 550/450 °C peak firing temperature. Thermoelectric and electrical measurements were performed using the self-made measuring system. Two pyrometers included into the system were used for temperature measurement of hot and cold junctions. The estimated Seebeck coefficient, α was from the range 35 − 41 µV/K, whereas the total internal resistances R were between 250 and 3200 ohms, depending on magnetron sputtering time and kind of silver ink (the resistance of a single thermocouple was between 15.5 and 200 ohms.

  16. Aggregation in thin-film silver: Induced by chlorine and inhibited by alloying with two dopants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Shimada, Koichi; Fukuda, Shin

    2009-01-01

    The Ag aggregation mechanism triggered by chlorine (Cl) is discussed. The frontier orbital theory by K. Fukui is applied in order to determine the growing point in the silver (Ag) cluster. Ag in the thin-film silver would grow to Ag n Cl and stack, triggered by Cl from the outside according to the mechanism described. This would lead to an aggregate with a high Ag density. It is suggested that this would be the generating mechanism of the silver-gray aggregate consisting mostly of Ag, which is generated by exposing it to Cl. Two tactics in order to prevent restrain aggregation induced by Cl according to the mechanism are proposed. Tactic 1 is a restraining of structure change to a plane in the process of Ag 6 Cl + Ag → Ag 7 Cl. Tactic 2 is the trapping of Cl before it generates a bond to Ag. The ability of the two combined dopants with the abilities of tactics 1 and 2, such as in an Ag alloy including palladium and copper (APC), and including neodymium and gold (ANA) is expected to be very high. The aggregation resistance of an Ag alloy including two dopants is evaluated by a salt water immersion test. The APC and ANA demonstrated a very high resistance to Cl, because of the combination of the dopants working with tactic 1 (Pd, Au) and tactic 2 (Cu, Nd). The multilayer sputter coating with an ANA layer demonstrated a very interesting profile where the light transmittance and the electrical sheet resistance are almost the same as the multilayer sputter coating with a pure Ag. The multilayer sputter coating with AIS also demonstrates a very interesting profile, where the light transmittance is higher than the multilayer sputter coating with a pure Ag.

  17. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  18. Structure and composition of magnetocaloric Ni-Mn-In-Co thin films on the nanoscale - a TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkartal, Burak; Schuermann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz [Institute for Materials Science, Synthesis and Real Structure, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [Nanochemistry Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Niemann, Robert; Schultz, Ludwig; Faehler, Sebastian [IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    A complementary set of electron microscopy techniques is applied for the determination of structural and chemical segregation phenomena within a 300 nm thick metamagnetic Ni-Mn-In-Co thin film. The structure is predominantly composed of distinct modulated martensites of the 5M-, 6M-, 7M-, and 8M-type. Additionally these modulated structures exhibit twinning and stacking disordering. The nature of the disordering and the structural misfit at the twin interface were analyzed via high resolution micrographs. Next to an adhesion layer of Cr interdiffusion on the nanoscale was observed producing a penternary chemically and structurally homogeneous precipitate. The structure can be assigned to a twinned non-modulated pseudocubic model. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaloni, Hadi; Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam

    2011-01-01

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30 o and 70 o incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles (φ). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the φ angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths ( o incidence angle.

  20. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  1. Silver nanoparticle formation in thin oxide layer on silicon by silver-negative-ion implantation for Coulomb blockade at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Arai, Nobutoshi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Ueno, Kazuya; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Adachi, Kouichiro; Kotaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    Formation of silver nanoparticles formed by silver negative-ion implantation in a thin SiO 2 layer and its I-V characteristics were investigated for development single electron devices. In order to obtain effective Coulomb blockade phenomenon at room temperature, the isolated metal nanoparticles should be in very small size and be formed in a thin insulator layer such as gate oxide on the silicon substrate. Therefore, conditions of a fine particles size, high particle density and narrow distribution should be controlled at their formation without any electrical breakdown of the thin insulator layer. We have used a negative-ion implantation technique with an advantage of 'charge-up free' for insulators, with which no breakdown of thin oxide layer on Si was obtained. In the I-V characteristics with Au electrode, the current steps were observed with a voltage interval of about 0.12 V. From the step voltage the corresponded capacitance was calculated to be 0.7 aF. In one nanoparticle system, this value of capacitance could be given by a nanoparticle of about 3 nm in diameter. This consideration is consistent to the measured particle size in the cross-sectional TEM observation. Therefore, the observed I-V characteristics with steps are considered to be Coulomb staircase by the Ag nanoparticles

  2. The influence of nanoscale morphology on the resistivity of cluster-assembled nanostructured metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barborini, E; Bertolini, G; Repetto, P; Leccardi, M; Vinati, S; Corbelli, G; Milani, P

    2010-01-01

    We have studied in situ the evolution of the electrical resistivity of Fe, Pd, Nb, W and Mo cluster-assembled films during their growth by supersonic cluster beam deposition. We observed resistivity of cluster-assembled films several orders of magnitude larger than the bulk, as well as an increase in resistivity by increasing the film thickness in contrast to what was observed for atom-assembled metallic films. This suggests that the nanoscale morphological features typical of ballistic films growth, such as the minimal cluster-cluster interconnection and the evolution of surface roughness with thickness, are responsible for the observed behaviour.

  3. Inkjet-Printed Porous Silver Thin Film as a Cathode for a Low-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Chiang; Baek, Jong Dae; Su, Chun-Hao; Fan, Liangdong; Wei, Jun; Liao, Ying-Chih; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-04-27

    In this work we report a porous silver thin film cathode that was fabricated by a simple inkjet printing process for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications. The electrochemical performance of the inkjet-printed silver cathode was studied at 300-450 °C and was compared with that of silver cathodes that were fabricated by the typical sputtering method. Inkjet-printed silver cathodes showed lower electrochemical impedance due to their porous structure, which facilitated oxygen gaseous diffusion and oxygen surface adsorption-dissociation reactions. A typical sputtered nanoporous silver cathode became essentially dense after the operation and showed high impedance due to a lack of oxygen supply. The results of long-term fuel cell operation show that the cell with an inkjet-printed cathode had a more stable current output for more than 45 h at 400 °C. A porous silver cathode is required for high fuel cell performance, and the simple inkjet printing technique offers an alternative method of fabrication for such a desirable porous structure with the required thermal-morphological stability.

  4. Nanoscale wedge polishing of superconducting thin films-an easy way to obtain depth dependent information by surface analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapoval, T; Engel, S; Gruendlich, M; Meier, D; Backen, E; Neu, V; Holzapfel, B; Schultz, L

    2008-01-01

    A mechanical wedge polishing procedure that offers a simple, cost-effective and rapid way to look into the depth of a thin film with different surface-sensitive scanning techniques has been developed. As an example of its wide applicability, this method was utilized for the investigation of two differently prepared superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films: an Hf-doped film prepared by chemical solution deposition and an undoped film grown by pulsed laser deposition. Upon polishing, the roughness of the samples was reduced to less than 5 nm (peak-to-valley) without influencing the superconducting properties of the films. Thus, nanoscale polishing opens up a unique possibility for microscopic studies with various surface-sensitive techniques. We demonstrate the successful imaging of flux lines by low temperature magnetic force microscopy after polishing a formerly rough as-prepared film. By applying the wedge polishing procedure to the Hf-doped sample, high resolution electron backscattering diffraction investigations reveal the homogeneous distribution of non-superconducting BaHfO 3 nanoparticles in the whole volume of the film

  5. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Choi, T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Safari, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K0.44,Na0.52,Li0.04)(Nb0.84,Ta0.1,Sb0.06)O3 (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO3 substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180° domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d33) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be ~53 pm V-1 for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  6. Nanoscale characterization and local piezoelectric properties of lead-free KNN-LT-LS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazari, M; Safari, A [Glenn Howatt Electroceramics Laboratories, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Choi, T; Cheong, S-W [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers-The state University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2010-01-20

    We report the observation of domain structure and piezoelectric properties of pure and Mn-doped (K{sub 0.44},Na{sub 0.52},Li{sub 0.04})(Nb{sub 0.84},Ta{sub 0.1},Sb{sub 0.06})O{sub 3} (KNN-LT-LS) thin films on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. It is revealed that, using piezoresponse force microscopy, ferroelectric domain structure in such 500 nm thin films comprised of primarily 180{sup 0} domains. This was in accordance with the tetragonal structure of the films, confirmed by relative permittivity measurements and x-ray diffraction patterns. Effective piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) of the films were calculated using piezoelectric displacement curves and shown to be {approx}53 pm V{sup -1} for pure KNN-LT-LS thin films. This value is among the highest values reported for an epitaxial lead-free thin film and shows a great potential for KNN-LT-LS to serve as an alternative to PZT thin films in future applications.

  7. Synthesis of nanoscale copper nitride thin film and modification of the surface under high electronic excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Tripathi, A; Ganesan, V; Avasthi, D K

    2008-05-01

    Nanoscale (approximately 90 nm) Copper nitride (Cu3N) films are deposited on borosilicate glass and Si substrates by RF sputtering technique in the reactive environment of nitrogen gas. These films are irradiated with 200 MeV Au15+ ions from Pelletron accelerator in order to modify the surface by high electronic energy deposition of heavy ions. Due to irradiation (i) at incident ion fluence of 1 x 10(12) ions/cm2 enhancement of grains, (ii) at 5 x 10912) ions/cm2 mass transport on the films surface, (iii) at 2 x 10(13) ions/cm2 line-like features on Cu3N/glass and nanometallic structures on Cu3N/Si surface are observed. The surface morphology is examined by atomic force microscope (AFM). All results are explained on the basis of a thermal spike model of ion-solid interaction.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Visan, A.; Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, Bucharest, 011061 Romania (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest - ICUB, Bucharest, 77206 (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF{sup *} excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Chifiriuc, M.C.; Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF * excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  10. Tailoring the nanoscale morphology of HKUST-1 thin films via codeposition and seeded growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Landon J; Gentry, Lauren K; Napier, Amanda L; Anderson, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Integration of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (surMOFs) within hierarchical architectures is necessary for potential sensing, electronic, optical, or separation applications. It is important to understand the fundamentals of film formation for these surMOFs in order to develop strategies for their incorporation with nanoscale control over lateral and vertical dimensions. This research identified processing parameters to control the film morphology for surMOFs of HKUST-1 fabricated by codeposition and seeded deposition. Time and temperature were investigated to observe film formation, to control film thickness, and to tune morphology. Film thickness was investigated by ellipsometry, while film structure and film roughness were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Films formed via codeposition resulted in nanocrystallites anchored to the gold substrate. A dynamic process at the interface was observed with a low density of large particulates (above 100 nm) initially forming on the substrate; and over time these particulates were slowly replaced by the prevalence of smaller crystallites (ca. 10 nm) covering the substrate at a high density. Elevated temperature was found to expedite the growth process to obtain the full range of surface morphologies with reasonable processing times. Seed crystals formed by the codeposition method were stable and nucleated growth throughout a subsequent layer-by-layer deposition process. These seed crystals templated the final film structure and tailor the features in lateral and vertical directions. Using codeposition and seeded growth, different surface morphologies with controllable nanoscale dimensions can be designed and fabricated for integration of MOF systems directly into device architectures and sensor platforms.

  11. Tailoring the nanoscale morphology of HKUST-1 thin films via codeposition and seeded growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon J. Brower

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (surMOFs within hierarchical architectures is necessary for potential sensing, electronic, optical, or separation applications. It is important to understand the fundamentals of film formation for these surMOFs in order to develop strategies for their incorporation with nanoscale control over lateral and vertical dimensions. This research identified processing parameters to control the film morphology for surMOFs of HKUST-1 fabricated by codeposition and seeded deposition. Time and temperature were investigated to observe film formation, to control film thickness, and to tune morphology. Film thickness was investigated by ellipsometry, while film structure and film roughness were characterized by atomic force microscopy. Films formed via codeposition resulted in nanocrystallites anchored to the gold substrate. A dynamic process at the interface was observed with a low density of large particulates (above 100 nm initially forming on the substrate; and over time these particulates were slowly replaced by the prevalence of smaller crystallites (ca. 10 nm covering the substrate at a high density. Elevated temperature was found to expedite the growth process to obtain the full range of surface morphologies with reasonable processing times. Seed crystals formed by the codeposition method were stable and nucleated growth throughout a subsequent layer-by-layer deposition process. These seed crystals templated the final film structure and tailor the features in lateral and vertical directions. Using codeposition and seeded growth, different surface morphologies with controllable nanoscale dimensions can be designed and fabricated for integration of MOF systems directly into device architectures and sensor platforms.

  12. Investigation of the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of the Nano-Scale GZO Thin Films on Glass and Flexible Polyimide Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ga2O3-doped ZnO (GZO thin films were deposited on glass and flexible polyimide (PI substrates at room temperature (300 K, 373 K, and 473 K by the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. After finding the deposition rate, all the GZO thin films with a nano-scale thickness of about 150 ± 10 nm were controlled by the deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the GZO thin films were not amorphous and all exhibited the (002 peak, and field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that only nano-scale particles were observed. The dependences of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO thin films on different deposition temperatures and substrates were investigated. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS was used to measure the elemental composition at the chemical and electronic states of the GZO thin films deposited on different substrates, which could be used to clarify the mechanism of difference in electrical properties of the GZO thin films. In this study, the XPS binding energy spectra of Ga2p3/2 and Ga2p1/2 peaks, Zn2p3/2 and Zn2p1/2 peaks, the Ga3d peak, and O1s peaks for GZO thin films on glass and PI substrates were well compared.

  13. Potential for photocatalytic degradation of the potassic diclofenac using scandium and silver modified titanium dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciola, R.A.; Oliveira, C.T.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for photocatalytic degradation of the potassic diclofenac drug was investigated using titanium dioxide thin films modified with two modifier types, scandium and silver, both prepared by Sol-Gel method. It was demonstrated by UVVis spectroscopy analysis of the solutions containing the drug, under UV-A light irradiation that the degradation efficiency of the titanium dioxide photocatalyst is dependent of the semiconductor nature and that the scandium accelerates the first step of the degradation when compared to the silver. This result seems to be related to the redox potential of the electron-hole pair, once the scandium modifying sample generates a p type semiconductor that reduces the band gap. The extra holes attract more strongly the chorine ion present in diclofenac and leading to the releasing more easily. However, after the first byproducts degradation the following steps are not facilitated, making the silver modifying more advantageous. (author)

  14. Finite gratings of many thin silver nanostrips: Optical resonances and role of periodicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Shapoval

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We study numerically the optical properties of the periodic in one dimension flat gratings made of multiple thin silver nanostrips suspended in free space. Unlike other publications, we consider the gratings that are finite however made of many strips that are well thinner than the wavelength. Our analysis is based on the combined use of two techniques earlier verified by us in the scattering by a single thin strip of conventional dielectric: the generalized (effective boundary conditions (GBCs imposed on the strip median lines and the Nystrom-type discretization of the associated singular and hyper-singular integral equations (IEs. The first point means that in the case of the metal strip thickness being only a small fraction of the free-space wavelength (typically 5 nm to 50 nm versus 300 nm to 1 μm we can neglect the internal field and consider only the field limit values. In its turn, this enables reduction of the integration contour in the associated IEs to the strip median lines. This brings significant simplification of the scattering analysis while preserving a reasonably adequate modeling. The second point guarantees fast convergence and controlled accuracy of computations that enables us to compute the gratings consisting of hundreds of thin strips, with total size in hundreds of wavelengths. Thanks to this, in the H-polarization case we demonstrate the build-up of sharp grating resonances (a.k.a. as collective or lattice resonances in the scattering and absorption cross-sections of sparse multi-strip gratings, in addition to better known localized surface-plasmon resonances on each strip. The grating modes, which are responsible for these resonances, have characteristic near-field patterns that are distinctively different from the plasmons as can be seen if the strip number gets larger. In the E-polarization case, no such resonances are detectable however the build-up of Rayleigh anomalies is observed, accompanied by the reduced

  15. Nanoscale Control of Exchange Bias with BiFeO3 Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Lane W.; Chu, Ying-Hao; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Huijben, Mark; Yu, Pu; Han, Shu-Jen; Lee, Donkoun; Wang, Shan X.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a direct correlation between the domain structure of multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and exchange bias of Co0.9Fe0.1/BiFeO3 heterostructures. Two distinct types of interactions − an enhancement of the coercive field (exchange enhancement) and an enhancement of the coercive field

  16. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaloni, Hadi, E-mail: savaloni@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30{sup o} and 70{sup o} incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles ({phi}). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the {phi} angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths (<450 nm) is observed in the s-polarization spectra, while in addition to this peak a broad peak at longer wavelengths (i.e., LM) observed in the p-polarization spectra, which is more dominant for 70{sup o} incidence angle.

  17. Thin and long silver nanowires self-assembled in ionic liquids as a soft template: electrical and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min-Hwa; Cho, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Youn-Soo; Lee, Eun-Jong; Kim, Jin-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Thin and long silver nanowires were successfully synthesized using the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted polyol method in the presence of ionic liquids, tetrapropylammonium chloride and tetrapropylammonium bromide, which served as soft template salts. The first step involved the formation of Ag nanoparticles with a diameter of 40 to 50 nm through the reduction of silver nitrate. At the growing stage, the Ag nanoparticles were converted into thin and long one-dimensional wires, with uniform diameters of 30 ± 3 nm and lengths of up to 50 μm. These Ag nanowires showed an electrical conductivity of 0.3 × 10(5) S/cm, while the sheet resistance of a two-dimensional percolating Ag nanowire network exhibited a value of 20 Ω/sq with an optical transmittance of 93% and a low haze value.

  18. Formation of nanoparticles from thin silver films irradiated by laser pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Smirnov, N. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Busleev, N. I.; Rudenko, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Some specific features of the transport of silver nanoparticles onto a SiO2 substrate under focused nanosecond IR laser pulses is experimentally investigated. A possibility of obtaining silver coatings is demonstrated. The formation of silver nanostructures as a result of pulsed laser ablation in air is studied. Nanoparticles are formed by exposing a silver film to radiation of an HTF MARK (Bulat) laser marker (λ = 1064 nm). The thus prepared nanoparticles are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy.

  19. The production of ultra-thin layers of ion-exchange resin and metallic silver by electrospraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1988-10-01

    Highly efficient radioactive sources for use in radioisotope metrology have been prepared on ultra-thin layers of electrosprayed ion-exchange resin. The efficiency of these sources can be reduced for the purpose of radioactivity standardisation by coating them with conducting silver layers which are also produced by electrospraying. A description is given of improvements to the electrospraying methods, together with details of the rotating, oscillating source-mount turntable

  20. Subcritical switching dynamics and humidity effects in nanoscale studies of domain growth in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, Cédric; Paruch, Patrycja

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric domain switching in c-axis-oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 thin films was studied using biased scanning probe microscopy tips. While linear and logarithmic dependence of domain size on tip bias and writing time, respectively, are well known, we report an additional linear dependence on relative humidity in the 28–65% range. We map out the switched domain size as a function of both the tip bias and the applied pulse time and describe a growth-limited regime for very short pulses and a nucleation-limited regime for very low tip bias. Using ‘interrupted-switching’ measurements, we probe the nucleation regime with subcritical pulses and identify a surprisingly long relaxation time on the order of 100 ms, which we relate to ionic redistribution both on the surface and within the thin film itself. (paper)

  1. Relation of nanoscale and macroscopic properties of mixed-phase silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fejfar, Antonín; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Kalusová, V.; Čertík, Ondřej; Ledinský, Martin; Rezek, Bohuslav; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 3 (2010), s. 582-586 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) * mixed phase silicon thin films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.458, year: 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssa.200982907

  2. Fabrication, characterization and some applications of graded chiral zigzag shaped nano-sculptured silver thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaloni, Hadi, E-mail: savaloni@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandiar, Ali [Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-01

    Graded chiral zig-zag shaped nano-sculptured silver thin films (GCZSSTF) were produced in two stages using oblique deposition technique together with rotation of substrate about its surface normal while a shadowing block was also fixed at Center of the substrate holder. Chrystallographic and morphological structure of these films were obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Spectrophotometry was used to obtain their optical behavior while their application in both hydrophobicity and gas sensing was also investigated. XRD results showed a dominant (1 1 1) orientation growth on the zig arm of the structure while by addition of the second arm (zag) the crystallographical growth orientation changed to (2 2 0). The anisotropic nano-structure of these films was also distinguished through (1 - R) spectra. A common peak at about 350 nm related to the TM mode of plasmon resonances and a broad shoulder at about 420 nm for the s-polarized light and at 620 nm for the p-polarized light corresponding to the LM mode of plasmon resonances are observed. These peaks are directly related to the nano-columns topography. The film system used here proved to act as a physical method for producing layer-by-layer structure for obtaining enhanced hydrophobic surfaces rather than the usual chemical methods reported in the literature. In addition, the GCZSSTF also acted as good as reported results for nano-tubes when applied as cathode in the field ionization gas sensing setup.

  3. SERS activity of silver and gold nanostructured thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, N. R.; Tommasini, M.; Fazio, E.; Neri, F.; Ponterio, R. C.; Trusso, S.; Ossi, P. M.

    2014-10-01

    Nanostructured Au and Ag thin films were obtained by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in presence of a controlled Ar atmosphere. Keeping constant other deposition parameters such as target-to-substrate distance, incidence angle, laser wavelength and laser fluence, the film morphology, revealed by SEM, ranges from isolated NPs to island structures and sensibly depends on gas pressure (10-100 Pa) and on the laser pulse number (500-3 × 10). The control of these two parameters allows tailoring the morphology and correspondingly the optical properties of the films. The position and width of the surface plasmon resonance peak, in fact, can be varied with continuity. The films showed remarkable surface-enhanced Raman activity (SERS) that depends on the adopted deposition conditions. Raman maps were acquired on micrometer-sized areas of both silver and gold substrates selected among those with the strongest SERS activity. Organic dyes of interest in cultural heritage studies (alizarin, purpurin) have been also considered for bench marking the substrates produced in this work. Also the ability to detect the presence of biomolecules was tested using lysozyme in a label free configuration.

  4. Self-Organized Nanoscale Roughness Engineering for Broadband Light Trapping in Thin FilmSolar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Mennucci

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a self-organized method based on defocused ion beam sputtering for nanostructuring glass substrates which feature antireflective and light trapping effects. By irradiating the substrate, capped with a thin gold (Au film, a self-organized Au nanowire stencil mask is firstly created. The morphology of the mask is then transferred to the glass surface by further irradiating the substrate, finally producing high aspect ratio, uniaxial ripple-like nanostructures whose morphological parameters can be tailored by varying the ion fluence. The effect of a Ti adhesion layer, interposed between glass and Au with the role of inhibiting nanowire dewetting, has also been investigated in order to achieve an improved morphological tunability of the templates. Morphological and optical characterization have been carried out, revealing remarkable light trapping performance for the largest ion fluences. The photon harvesting capability of the nanostructured glass has been tested for different preparation conditions by fabricating thin film amorphous Si solar cells. The comparison of devices grown on textured and flat substrates reveals a relative increase of the short circuit current up to 25%. However, a detrimental impact on the electrical performance is observed with the rougher morphologies endowed with steep v-shaped grooves. We finally demonstrate that post-growth ion beam restructuring of the glass template represents a viable approach toward improved electrical performance.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, U.K.

    2006-01-01

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10 0 -10 -3 Ωcm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  7. Electrical and optical properties of reactive dc magnetron sputtered silver-doped indium oxide thin films: role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Barik, U K [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Chennai (India)

    2006-07-15

    Silver-doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared on glass and quartz substrates at room temperature (300 K) by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target of pure indium and silver (80:20 at. %). During sputtering, the oxygen flow rates are varied in the range 0.00-2.86 sccm keeping the magnetron power constant at 40 W. The resistivity of these films is in the range 10{sup 0}-10{sup -3} {omega}cm and they show a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. The films exhibit p-type conductivity at an oxygen flow rate of 1.71 sccm. The work function of these silver-indium oxide films has been measured by a Kelvin probe technique. The refractive index of the films (at 632.8 nm) varies in the range 1.13-1.20. Silver doping in indium oxide narrows the band gap of indium oxide (3.75 eV). (orig.)

  8. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Juknius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique. The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  9. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. PMID:28773494

  10. Probabilistic approach for assessing infants' health risks due to ingestion of nanoscale silver released from consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chengfang; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Pizzol, Lisa; Tsang, Michael P; Sayre, Phil; Marcomini, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (n-Ag) are widely used in consumer products and many medical applications because of their unique antibacterial properties. Their use is raising concern about potential human exposures and health effects. Therefore, it is informative to assess the potential human health risks of n-Ag in order to ensure that nanotechnology-based consumer products are deployed in a safe and sustainable way. Even though toxicity studies clearly show the potential hazard of n-Ag, there have been few attempts to integrate hazard and exposure assessments to evaluate risks. The underlying reason for this is the difficulty in characterizing exposure and the lack of toxicity studies essential for human health risk assessment (HHRA). Such data gaps introduce significant uncertainty into the risk assessment process. This study uses probabilistic methods to assess the relative uncertainty and potential risks of n-Ag exposure to infants. In this paper, we estimate the risks for infants potentially exposed to n-Ag through drinking juice or milk from sippy cups or licking baby blankets containing n-Ag. We explicitly evaluate uncertainty and variability contained in available dose-response and exposure data in order to make the risk characterization process transparent. Our results showed that individual margin of exposures for oral exposure to sippy cups and baby blankets containing n-Ag exhibited minimal risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Silver-Doping Effects and Photostructural Transformation in Evaporated AS2S3 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-16

    of evaporated silver halide films. The details of the preparation of evaporated films of silver halides are reported by Junod at. al. (41 ) The...1980). 40. M.S. Chang, N.D. Hwang, J.T. Chen, Extended Abstr. Electrochem. Soc., 80-1, 692, (1980). 41. P. Junod , N. MHediger, B. Kilchoy. R. Steiger

  12. Observation of feature ripening inversion effect at the percolation threshold for the growth of thin silver films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The growth behavior of thin silver films on organic layers is investigated during deposition by means of simultaneous in-situ monitoring of sheet resistance and transmittance. Thermally evaporated films up to 11 nm show a distinct percolation behavior with strong resistance drop at the percolation thickness. Additionally, evaporations are divided into a sequence of one nanometer steps. In the deposition breaks, the films exhibit a ripening effect with an inversion at the percolation thickness, by changing from an increasing to decreasing sheet resistance over time. Scanning electron micrographs suggest same ripening mechanisms for islands below the percolation thickness as for holes above. - Highlights: • Fundamental understanding of metal thin film growth is presented. • Optical and electrical in-situ measurements used for optimizing transparent electrodes • Stepwise Ag deposition reveals extraordinary ripening effects. • Feature ripening inversion is discovered at the percolation threshold.

  13. Observation of feature ripening inversion effect at the percolation threshold for the growth of thin silver films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehm, Frederik; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The growth behavior of thin silver films on organic layers is investigated during deposition by means of simultaneous in-situ monitoring of sheet resistance and transmittance. Thermally evaporated films up to 11 nm show a distinct percolation behavior with strong resistance drop at the percolation thickness. Additionally, evaporations are divided into a sequence of one nanometer steps. In the deposition breaks, the films exhibit a ripening effect with an inversion at the percolation thickness, by changing from an increasing to decreasing sheet resistance over time. Scanning electron micrographs suggest same ripening mechanisms for islands below the percolation thickness as for holes above. - Highlights: • Fundamental understanding of metal thin film growth is presented. • Optical and electrical in-situ measurements used for optimizing transparent electrodes • Stepwise Ag deposition reveals extraordinary ripening effects. • Feature ripening inversion is discovered at the percolation threshold

  14. The first report on SILAR deposited nano-structured uranyl sulphide thin films and their chemical conversion to silver sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garole, Dipak J.; Tetgure, Sandesh R.; Borse, Amulrao U.; Yogesh R Toda; Vaman J Garole; Babasaheb R Sankapal; Prashant K Baviskar

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the novel synthesis of uranyl sulphide (UO_2S) thin films using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Cationic exchange reaction was used to convert uranyl sulphide (UO_2S) to silver sulphide (Ag_2S). The influence of concentration variation on the structural and optical properties of UO_2S and Ag_2S thin films was investigated. The structural, surface morphological, elemental analysis and optical absorption studies were performed. Structural studies revealed that all the deposited films were nano-sized and amorphous in nature. Surface morphology showed that all the grains were spherical and granular in nature and grains got conglomerated to form a large particle. Also, the variations of the optical band gap and the width of the tail of localized states were represented as a function of various parameters. (authors)

  15. Influence of silver incorporation on the structural and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Carey, J David; Tripathi, R K; Malik, Hitendra K; Dalai, M K

    2013-04-10

    A simple approach is proposed for obtaining low threshold field electron emission from large area diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by sandwiching either Ag dots or a thin Ag layer between DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC films. The introduction of silver and nitrogen is found to reduce the threshold field for emission to under 6 V/μm representing a near 46% reduction when compared with unmodified films. The reduction in the threshold field is correlated with the morphology, microstructure, interface, and bonding environment of the films. We find modifications to the structure of the DLC films through promotion of metal-induced sp2 bonding and the introduction of surface asperities, which significantly reduce the value of the threshold field. This can lead to the next-generation, large-area simple and inexpensive field emission devices.

  16. Multispectral surface plasmon resonance approach for ultra-thin silver layer characterization: Application to top-emitting OLED cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverne, S.; Caron, B.; Gétin, S.; Lartigue, O.; Lopez, C.; Meunier-Della-Gatta, S.; Gorge, V.; Reymermier, M.; Racine, B.; Maindron, T.; Quesnel, E.

    2018-01-01

    While dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) multilayer thin films have raised considerable interest as transparent and conductive electrodes in various optoelectronic devices, the knowledge of optical characteristics of thin metallic layers integrated in such structures is still rather approximate. The multispectral surface plasmon resonance characterization approach described in this work precisely aims at providing a rigorous methodology able to accurately determine the optical constants of ultra-thin metallic films. As a practical example, the refractive index and extinction dispersion curves of 8 to 25 nm-thick silver layers have been investigated. As a result, their extreme dependence on the layer thickness is highlighted, in particular in a thickness range close to the critical threshold value (˜10 nm) where the silver film becomes continuous and its electrical conductance/optical transmittance ratio particularly interesting. To check the validity of the revisited Ag layers constant dispersion curves deduced from this study, they were introduced into a commercial optical model software to simulate the behavior of various optoelectronic building blocks from the simplest ones (DMD electrodes) to much more complex structures [full organic light emitting device (OLED) stacks]. As a result, a much better prediction of the emission spectrum profile as well as the angular emission pattern of top-emitting OLEDs is obtained. On this basis, it is also shown how a redesign of the top encapsulation thin film of OLEDs is necessary to better take benefit from the advanced DMD electrode. These results should particularly interest the micro-OLED display field where bright and directive single color pixel emission is required.

  17. Laser beam induced nanoscale spot through nonlinear “thick” samples: A multi-layer thin lens self-focusing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jingsong; Yan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Self-focusing is a well-researched phenomenon. Nanoscale spots can be achieved through self-focusing, which is an alternative method for achieving high-density data storage, high-resolution light imaging, and maskless nanolithography. Several research groups have observed that self-focusing spots can be reduced to nanoscale levels via incident laser power manipulation. Self-focusing spots can be analyzed by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the finite difference time domain method. However, both procedures are complex and time-consuming. In the present work, a multi-layer thin-lens self-focusing model that considers diffraction effects and changes of refractive index along the radial and film thickness directions is proposed to analyze the self-focusing behavior and traveling process of light beams intuitively. The self-focusing behaviors of As 2 S 3 are simulated, and results show that a nanoscale self-focusing spot with a radius of about 0.12 μm can be formed at the bottom of nonlinear sample when the incident laser power exceeds 4.25 mW. Our findings are basically consistent with experimental reports and provide a good method for analyzing and understanding the self-focusing process. An appropriate application schematic design is also provided

  18. Enhancing Light-Trapping Properties of Amorphous Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Containing High-Reflective Silver Conductors Fabricated Using a Nonvacuum Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Chin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a low-cost and highly reflective liquid organic sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in amorphous silicon (a-Si single junction superstrate configuration thin-film solar cells produced using a nonvacuum screen printing process. A comparison of silver conductor samples with vacuum-system-sputtered silver samples indicated that the short-circuit current density (Jsc of sheet silver conductor cells was higher than 1.25 mA/cm2. Using external quantum efficiency measurements, the sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in cells was observed to effectively enhance the light-trapping ability in a long wavelength region (between 600 nm and 800 nm. Consequently, we achieved an optimal initial active area efficiency and module conversion efficiency of 9.02% and 6.55%, respectively, for the a-Si solar cells. The results indicated that the highly reflective sheet silver conductor back contact reflector layer prepared using a nonvacuum process is a suitable candidate for high-performance a-Si thin-film solar cells.

  19. Reduced contact resistance of a-IGZO thin film transistors with inkjet-printed silver electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Ning, Honglong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Tao, Ruiqiang; Yang, Caigui; Zhou, Yicong; Yao, Rihui; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-04-01

    In this study, high performance amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) TFTs were successfully fabricated with inkjet-printed silver source-drain electrodes. The results showed that increased channel thickness has an improving trend in the properties of TFTs due to the decreased contact resistance. Compared with sputtered silver TFTs, devices with printed silver electrodes were more sensitive to the thickness of active layer. Furthermore, the devices with optimized active layer showed high performances with a maximum saturation mobility of 8.73 cm2 · V‑1 · S‑1 and an average saturation mobility of 6.97 cm2 · V‑1 · S‑1, I on/I off ratio more than 107 and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V/decade, which were comparable with the analogous devices with sputtered electrodes.

  20. Characterization of n-TiO2 thin films modified with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, L.F.; Sanchez-Cervantes, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere has gained much attention and has reopened many research lines that initiated two or three decades ago. Electrochemical reduction represents one of the most discussed methods, especially where semiconductor and metal-semiconductor cathodes are used to achieve CO 2 transformation into higher-energy products. In the present work, the influence of silver nanoparticles upon CO 2 reduction on n-TiO 2 cathodes in aqueous media is presented. Silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 250nm were deposited on n-TiO 2 surfaces by the electrochemical Double-Pulse Potential method. A Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Diffraction structural analysis is presented showing the presence of metallic silver, while Atomic Force Microscopy shows surface roughness and particle size before and after surface modification. These measurements were confirmed by Scanning-Electron Microscopy acquainting for the formation of metal particles on the n-TiO 2 surface. Enhancement of CO 2 reduction by the presence of silver on cathodes is shown by cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  1. Preparation of Crosslinked Amphiphilic Silver Nanogel as Thin Film Corrosion Protective Layer for Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a new developed method via reaction of AgNO3 and oleic acid with the addition of a trace amount of Fe3+ ions. Emulsion polymerization at room temperature was employed to prepare a core-shell silver nanoparticle with controllable particle size. N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS were used as a crosslinker, and as redox initiator system, respectively for crosslinking polymerization. The structure and morphology of the silver nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM. The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Monolayers of silver nanoparticle were self-assembled on the fresh active surface of the steel electrode and have been tested as a corrosion inhibitor for steel in 1 M HCl solution. The results of polarization measurements showed that nanogel particles act as a mixed type inhibitor.

  2. In situ formation of silver nanoparticles on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes for biofouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    The potential to incorporate silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as biocides in membranes for water purification has gained much interest in recent years. However, a viable strategy for loading the Ag-NPs on the membrane remains challenging. This paper presents a novel, facile procedure for loading Ag-NPs on thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis membranes. Reaction of silver salt with a reducing agent on the membrane surface resulted in uniform coverage of Ag-NPs, irreversibly bound to the membrane, as confirmed by XPS, TEM, and SEM analyses. Salt selectivity of the membrane as well its surface roughness, hydrophilicity, and zeta potential were not impacted by Ag-NP functionalization, while a slight reduction (up to 17%) in water permeability was observed. The formed Ag-NPs imparted strong antibacterial activity to the membrane, leading to reduction of more than 75% in the number of live bacteria attached to the membrane for three model bacteria strains. In addition, confocal microscopy analyses revealed that Ag-NPs significantly suppressed biofilm formation, with 41% reduction in total biovolume and significant reduction in EPS, dead, and live bacteria on the functionalized membrane. The simplicity of the method, the short reaction time, the ability to load the Ag-NPs on site, and the strong imparted antibacterial activity highlight the potential of this method in real-world RO membrane applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. In situ formation of silver nanoparticles on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes for biofouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Lu, Xinglin; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Zodrow, Katherine R.; Nejati, Siamak; Qi, Genggeng; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    The potential to incorporate silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as biocides in membranes for water purification has gained much interest in recent years. However, a viable strategy for loading the Ag-NPs on the membrane remains challenging. This paper presents a novel, facile procedure for loading Ag-NPs on thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis membranes. Reaction of silver salt with a reducing agent on the membrane surface resulted in uniform coverage of Ag-NPs, irreversibly bound to the membrane, as confirmed by XPS, TEM, and SEM analyses. Salt selectivity of the membrane as well its surface roughness, hydrophilicity, and zeta potential were not impacted by Ag-NP functionalization, while a slight reduction (up to 17%) in water permeability was observed. The formed Ag-NPs imparted strong antibacterial activity to the membrane, leading to reduction of more than 75% in the number of live bacteria attached to the membrane for three model bacteria strains. In addition, confocal microscopy analyses revealed that Ag-NPs significantly suppressed biofilm formation, with 41% reduction in total biovolume and significant reduction in EPS, dead, and live bacteria on the functionalized membrane. The simplicity of the method, the short reaction time, the ability to load the Ag-NPs on site, and the strong imparted antibacterial activity highlight the potential of this method in real-world RO membrane applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ultra-thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on silver nanorod array substrates prepared by oblique angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Abell, Justin; Huang, Yao-wen; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate the potential use of silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates for on-chip separation and detection of chemical mixtures by ultra-thin layer chromatography (UTLC) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The capability of the AgNR substrates to separate different compounds in a mixture was explored using a mixture of the food colorant Brilliant Blue FCF and lactic acid, and the mixtures of Methylene Violet and BSA at various concentrations. After the UTLC process, spatially-resolved SERS spectra were collected along the mobile phase development direction and the intensities of specific SERS peaks from each component were used to generate chromatograms. The AgNR substrates demonstrate the capability of separating Brilliant Blue from lactic acid, as well as revealing the SERS signal of Methylene Violet from the massive BSA background after a simple UTLC step. This technique may have significant practical implications in actual detection of small molecules from complex food or clinical backgrounds.

  5. Mechanical characterization of solution-derived nanoparticle silver ink thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, Julia R.; Street, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of sintered silver nanoparticles are investigated via substrate curvature and nanoindentation methods. Substrate curvature measurements reveal that permanent microstructural changes occur during initial heating while subsequent annealing results in nearly elastic behavior of the thinner films. Thicker films were found to crack upon thermal treatment. The coefficient of thermal expansion was determined from linear slopes of curvature curves to be 1.9±0.097 ppm/ degree sign C, with elastic modulus and hardness determined via nanoindentation. Accounting for substrate effects, nanoindentation hardness and modulus remained constant for different film thicknesses and did not appear to be a function of annealing conditions. Hardness of 0.91 GPa and modulus of 110 GPa are somewhat lower than expected for a continuous nanocrystalline silver film, most likely due to porosity

  6. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  7. Influence of different aspect ratios on the structural and electrical properties of GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Fang-Wei [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Ke, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wcke@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Chun-Hong; Liao, Bo-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale patterned sapphire substrate was prepared by anodic-aluminum-oxide etching mask. • Influence of aspect ratio of NPSS on structural and electrical properties of GaN films was studied. • Low dislocation density and high carrier mobility of GaN films were grown on high aspect ratio NPSS. - Abstract: This study presents GaN thin films grown on nanoscale-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSSs) with different aspect ratios (ARs) using a homemade metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system. The anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) technique is used to prepare the dry etching mask. The cross-sectional view of the scanning electron microscope image shows that voids exist between the interface of the GaN thin film and the high-AR (i.e. ∼2) NPSS. In contrast, patterns on the low-AR (∼0.7) NPSS are filled full of GaN. The formation of voids on the high-AR NPSS is believed to be due to the enhancement of the lateral growth in the initial growth stage, and the quick-merging GaN thin film blocks the precursors from continuing to supply the bottom of the pattern. The atomic force microscopy images of GaN on bare sapphire show a layer-by-layer surface morphology, which becomes a step-flow surface morphology for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. The edge-type threading dislocation density can be reduced from 7.1 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} for GaN on bare sapphire to 4.9 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2} for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. In addition, the carrier mobility increases from 85 cm{sup 2}/Vs for GaN on bare sapphire to 199 cm{sup 2}/Vs for GaN on a high-AR NPSS. However, the increased screw-type threading dislocation density for GaN on a low-AR NPSS is due to the competition of lateral growth on the flat-top patterns and vertical growth on the bottom of the patterns that causes the material quality of the GaN thin film to degenerate. Thus, the experimental results indicate that the AR of the particular patterning of a NPSS plays a crucial role in achieving GaN thin film with

  8. Bi-axially crumpled silver thin-film electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Sze-Hsien; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2014-01-01

    Metal thin films, which have high conductivity, are much stiffer and may fracture at a much lower strain than dielectric elastomers. In order to fabricate compliant electrodes for use in dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), metal thin films have been formed into either zigzag patterns or corrugations, which favour bending and only allow uniaxial DEA deformations. However, biaxially compliant electrodes are desired in order to maximize generated forces of DEA. In this paper, we present crumpled metal thin-film electrodes that are biaxially compliant and have full area coverage over the dielectric elastomer. These crumpled metal thin-film electrodes are more stretchable than flat metal thin films; they remain conductive beyond 110% radial strain. Also, crumpling reduced the stiffening effect of metal thin films on the soft elastomer. As such, DEAs using crumpled metal thin-film electrodes managed to attain relatively high actuated area strains of up to 128% at 1.8 kV (102 Vμm −1 ). (paper)

  9. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S.; Seidel, J.

    2016-08-01

    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  10. Structure and photoelectrochemistry of silver-copper-indium-diselenide ((AgCu)InSe2) thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Rui; Li, Tong; Wang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Chen, Yi Chuan; Song, Xue Mei; Zhang, Yong Zhe; Yan, Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this work, silver (Ag) precursors with different thicknesses were sputtered on the surfaces of CuIn alloys, and (AgCu)InSe2 (ACIS) films were formed after selenization at 550 °C under nitrogen condition using a rapid thermal process furnace. The structure and electrical properties of the ACIS films were investigated. The result showed that the distribution of Ag+ ion was more uniform with increasing the thickness of Ag precursor, and the surface of the thin-film became more homogeneous and denser. When Ag/Cu ratio ≥0.249, the small grain particles disappeared. The band gap can be rationally controlled by adjusting Ag content. When (Ag + Cu)/In ratio ≥ 1.15, the surface of the ACIS thin-film mainly exhibited n-type semiconductor. Through the photoelectrochemistry measurement, it was observed that the incorporation of Ag+ ions could improve photocurrent by adjusting the band gap. With the Ag precursor thickness increased, the dark current decreased at the more negative potential.

  11. EGaIn-Assisted Room-Temperature Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles for Stretchable, Inkjet-Printed, Thin-Film Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Paisana, Hugo; Ohm, Yunsik; Marques, Daniel Green; Alhais Lopes, Pedro; Piedade, Ana P; de Almeida, Anibal T; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-05-29

    Coating inkjet-printed traces of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) ink with a thin layer of eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) increases the electrical conductivity by six-orders of magnitude and significantly improves tolerance to tensile strain. This enhancement is achieved through a room-temperature "sintering" process in which the liquid-phase EGaIn alloy binds the AgNP particles (≈100 nm diameter) to form a continuous conductive trace. Ultrathin and hydrographically transferrable electronics are produced by printing traces with a composition of AgNP-Ga-In on a 5 µm-thick temporary tattoo paper. The printed circuit is flexible enough to remain functional when deformed and can support strains above 80% with modest electromechanical coupling (gauge factor ≈1). These mechanically robust thin-film circuits are well suited for transfer to highly curved and nondevelopable 3D surfaces as well as skin and other soft deformable substrates. In contrast to other stretchable tattoo-like electronics, the low-cost processing steps introduced here eliminate the need for cleanroom fabrication and instead requires only a commercial desktop printer. Most significantly, it enables functionalities like "electronic tattoos" and 3D hydrographic transfer that have not been previously reported with EGaIn or EGaIn-based biphasic electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO 3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text

  13. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustatea, Gabriel [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Vidal, Loïc [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France); Calinescu, Ioan [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana [National Research and Development Institute for Food Bioresources – IBA Bucharest (Romania); Balan, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.balan@uha.fr [Institut de Sciences des Matériaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361 (France)

    2015-01-15

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3–11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO{sub 3} solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  14. A photochemical approach designed to improve the coating of nanoscale silver films onto food plastic wrappings intended to control bacterial hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustatea, Gabriel; Vidal, Loïc; Calinescu, Ioan; Dobre, Alina; Ionescu, Mariana; Balan, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic silver film was directly generated on a variety of substrates through a facile and environmentally friendly method, which involves a UV-photoreduction process without any reducing or stabilizing agent and requiring no thermal step. Top-coated films of unprotected silver nanoparticles (3-11 nm) were generated from hydroalcoholic AgNO3 solution and directly on glass substrates or food packaging plastic wraps, low density polyethylene film, and polyvinyl chloride. The natural antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated. The correlation between silver migration and antimicrobial activity of silver-functionalized substrates against pure strains of gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus) was demonstrated. By way of illustration, food plastic wraps top-coated in this way exhibited a high antibacterial activity. The metal nanoparticle film obtained in this way was characterized and the influence of several parameters (fluence, exposure, silver nitrate concentration, and nature of the free radicals generator) on their formation was studied. Moreover, by shaping the actinic beam with an appropriate device, it is very easy to pattern the brown yellow silver nanofilm or to print messages in plain text.

  15. Thickness and microstructure effects in the optical and electrical properties of silver thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowen Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical response of metal thin films approaching thicknesses in the range of the electron mean free path is highly affected by electronic scattering with the interfaces and defects. Here, we present a theoretical and experimental study on how thickness and microstructure affect the properties of Ag thin films. We are able to successfully model the electrical resistivity and IR optical response using a thickness dependent electronic scattering time. Remarkably, the product of electronic scattering time and resistivity remains constant regardless of the thickness (τx ρ = C, with a value of 59 ± 2 μΩ cm ⋅ fs for Ag films in the investigated range from 3 to 74 nm. Our findings enable us to develop a theoretically framework that allows calculating the optical response of metal thin films in the IR by using their measured thickness and resistivity. An excellent agreement is found between experimental measurements and predicted values. This study also shows the theoretical lower limit for emissivity in Ag thin films according to their microstructure and thickness. Application of the model presented here will allow rapid characterization of the IR optical response of metal thin films, with important application in a broad spectrum of fundamental and industrial applications, including optical coatings, low-emissivity windows and semiconductor industry.

  16. Thickness and microstructure effects in the optical and electrical properties of silver thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Guowen, E-mail: gding@intermolecular.com; Clavero, César; Schweigert, Daniel; Le, Minh [Intermolecular, Inc., 3011 North First Street, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The optical and electrical response of metal thin films approaching thicknesses in the range of the electron mean free path is highly affected by electronic scattering with the interfaces and defects. Here, we present a theoretical and experimental study on how thickness and microstructure affect the properties of Ag thin films. We are able to successfully model the electrical resistivity and IR optical response using a thickness dependent electronic scattering time. Remarkably, the product of electronic scattering time and resistivity remains constant regardless of the thickness (τx ρ = C), with a value of 59 ± 2 μΩ cm ⋅ fs for Ag films in the investigated range from 3 to 74 nm. Our findings enable us to develop a theoretically framework that allows calculating the optical response of metal thin films in the IR by using their measured thickness and resistivity. An excellent agreement is found between experimental measurements and predicted values. This study also shows the theoretical lower limit for emissivity in Ag thin films according to their microstructure and thickness. Application of the model presented here will allow rapid characterization of the IR optical response of metal thin films, with important application in a broad spectrum of fundamental and industrial applications, including optical coatings, low-emissivity windows and semiconductor industry.

  17. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrahmanyam, A [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Barik, Ullash Kumar [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-03-15

    Indium ({approx}10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity {approx}3.40x10{sup -8} ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity.

  18. Studies on the electrical properties of reactive DC magnetron-sputtered indium-doped silver oxide thin films: The role of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.; Barik, Ullash Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Indium (∼10 at.%)-doped silver oxide (AIO) thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at room temperature (300 K) by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique using an alloy target made of pure (99.99%) silver and indium (90:10 at.%) metals. The oxygen flow rates have been varied in the range 0.00-3.44 sccm during sputtering. The X-ray diffraction data on these indium-doped silver oxide films show polycrystalline nature. With increasing oxygen flow rate, the carrier concentration, the Hall mobility and the electron mean free path decrease. These films show a very low positive temperature coefficient of resistivity ∼3.40x10 -8 ohm-cm/K. The work function values for these films (measured by Kelvin probe technique) are in the range 4.81-5.07 eV. The high electrical resistivity indicate that the films are in the island state (size effects). Calculations of the partial ionic charge (by Sanderson's theory) show that indium doping in silver oxide thin films enhance the ionicity

  19. Surface enhanced Raman scattering in organic thin films covered with silver, indium and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, Georgeta; Zahn, Dietrich R.T.; Paez, Beynor

    2004-01-01

    In situ resonant Raman spectroscopy was applied for the investigation of the interface formation between silver, indium and magnesium with polycrystalline organic semiconductor layers of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetra-carboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA). The spectral region of internal as well as external vibrational modes was recorded in order to achieve information related to the chemistry and the structure of the interface as well as to morphology of the metal layer. The experiments benefit from a strong enhancement of the internal mode scattering intensities which is induced by the rough morphology of deposited metals leading to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The external modes, on the other hand, are attenuated at different rates indicating that the diffusion of the metal atoms into the crystalline layers is highest for indium and lowest for magnesium

  20. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of silver-doped nanoparticulate TiO.sub.2./sub. thin films with respect to the method of doping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Štěpán; Kmentová, Hana; Hubička, Zdeněk; Olejníček, Jiří; Čada, Martin; Krýsa, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2015), s. 9343-9355 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/2104; GA MŠk LH12043 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101215 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : thin layers * TiO 2 * silver doping * photocatalysis * photoelectrochemistry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  1. Enhancement of flux pinning of TFA-MOD YBCO thin films by embedded nanoscale Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, X M; Tao, B W; Tian, Z; Xiong, J; Zhang, X F; Li, Y R

    2006-01-01

    YBCO films with different levels of excess yttrium were prepared on single-crystal LaAlO 3 with metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope measurements revealed excess yttrium in YBCO in the form of nanoscale Y 2 O 3 with (400) preferred orientation. The field dependence of J c demonstrated that YBCO films with Y 2 O 3 doping had enhanced J c in comparison with stoichiometric YBCO films in the magnetic fields. We think the reason for this is that the Y 2 O 3 nanoparticles act as pinning centres. YBCO films with 60% yttrium excess display 43% increased J c compared to stoichiometric YBCO films at a magnetic field of 1 T

  2. Self-assembled monolayer resists and nanoscale lithography of silicon dioxide thin films by chemically enhanced vapor etching (CEVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M.; Yun, M.; Kozicki, M. N.; Whidden, T. K.

    1996-10-01

    We report on the use of electron-beam exposed monolayers of undecylenic acid in the etch rate enhancement of silicon dioxide films in HF vapor for the formation of nanoscale features in the oxide. Variations of the etching characteristics with electron beam parameters are examined and the results analyzed in terms of proposed models of the etching mechanism. Apparent variations in the relative concentrations of etch initiator with the thermal history of the samples prior to etching provides support for the dominant etch initiator within this system as the carboxylic acid moiety bound at the oxide surface. Other variations in the etching characteristics are discussed in terms of differences in localized concentrations of hydrocarbon crosslinks and the effect that this has upon the etch initiation. The process has been employed in the production of features in silicon dioxide surface masks with sizes down to 50 nm.

  3. Metal-enhanced fluorescence of mixed coumarin dyes by silver and gold nanoparticles: Towards plasmonic thin-film luminescent solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bashir, S.M., E-mail: elbashireg@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics Faculty of Science, Benha University (Egypt); Barakat, F.M.; AlSalhi, M.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposite films doped with mixed coumarin dyestuffs and noble metal nanoparticles (60 nm silver and 100 nm gold) were prepared by spin coating technique. The effect of silver and gold nanoparticles on the film properties was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. DSC measurements indicated the increase of the glass transition temperature of the films by increasing nanogold concentration, recommending their promising thermal stability towards hot climates. It was found that the fluorescence signals of the mixed coumarin dyes were amplified by 5.4 and 7.15 folds as a result of metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). The research outcomes offered a potential application of these films in solar energy conversion by plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrator (PTLSC). -- Graphical abstract: Plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators. Highlights: • Metal enhanced fluorescence was achieved for mixed coumarin dyes doped in PMMA nanocomposite films. • The amplification of the fluorescence signals is dependent on the concentration of silver and gold nanoparticles. • These films is considered as potential candidates for plasmonic thin film luminescent solar concentrators (PTLSCs)

  4. The antibacterial and hydrophilic properties of silver-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films using sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuemin [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Hou Xinggang, E-mail: hou226@163.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Luan Weijiang [College of Biology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li Dejun; Yao Kun [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Ag-TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited on glass slides by sol-gel spin coating technique. The surface structure, chemical components and transmittance spectra were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The TiO{sub 2} thin films with silver molar ratio from 0 to 10% were tested for its antibacterial property by using Escherichia coliform (E. coli) under irradiation of UV light. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The influences of different molar ratio of Ag on hydrophilicity and long-term durability of the films were also investigated by measuring the water contact angle. The results showed that the antibacterial ability was significantly improved by increasing silver content comparing with pure TiO{sub 2} thin film, and the best molar ratio of Ag was 5%. While the hydrophilicity of films increased with increasing silver content, and the best molar ratio of Ag was 1%.

  5. Nanoscale size effects on the mechanical properties of platinum thin films and cross-sectional grain morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, K; Alaie, S; Ghasemi Baboly, M; Elahi, M M M; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Chaieb, Saharoui; Leseman, Z C

    2015-01-01

    -1700 MPa) are recorded and explained by the variable morphology. This work suggests that in addition to the in-plane grain size of thin films, the transitions in cross-sectional morphologies of the Pt films significantly affect their mechanical behavior.

  6. Ultra-thin and strong formvar-based membranes with controlled porosity for micro- and nano-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchter, Eric; Marquez, Justin; Stevens, Garrison; Silva, Rebecca; Mcculloch, Quinn; Guengerich, Quintessa; Blair, Andrew; Litchfield, Sebastian; Li, Nan; Sheehan, Chris; Chamberlin, Rebecca; Yarbro, Stephen L.; Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2018-05-01

    We present a methodology for developing ultra-thin and strong formvar-based membranes with controlled morphologies. Formvar is a thin hydrophilic and oleophilic polymer inert to most chemicals and resistant to radiation. The formvar-based membranes are viable materials as support structures in micro- and macro-scale systems depending on thinness and porosity control. Tunable sub-micron thick porous membranes with 20%–65% porosity were synthesized by controlling the ratios of formvar, glycerol, and chloroform. This synthesis process does not require complex separation or handling methods and allows for the production of strong, thin, and porous formvar-based membranes. An expansive array of these membrane characterizations including chemical compatibility, mechanical responses, wettability, as well as the mathematical simulations as a function of porosity has been presented. The wide range of chemical compatibility allows for membrane applications in various environments, where other polymers would not be suitable. Our formvar-based membranes were found to have an elastic modulus of 7.8 GPa, a surface free energy of 50 mN m‑1 and an average thickness of 125 nm. Stochastic model simulations indicate that formvar with the porosity of ∼50% is the optimal membrane formulation, allowing the most material transfer across the membrane while also withstanding the highest simulated pressure loadings before tearing. Development of novel, resilient and versatile membranes with controlled porosity offers a wide range of exciting applications in the fields of nanoscience, microfluidics, and MEMS.

  7. Study on the applicability of polytetrafluoroethylene–silver composite thin films as sensor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smausz, Tomi; Kecskeméti, Gabriella; Csizmadia, Tamás; Benedek, Ferenc; Hopp, Béla

    2013-01-01

    A study on applicability of conductive high specific surface PTFE/Ag composite layers as active electrodes of a non-enzymatic cholesterol sensor is presented. The composite layers were prepared on one of the two neighboring electrode of a printed circuit board by pulsed laser deposition technique where targets composed of silver and PTFE were ablated by an ArF excimer laser. Cholesterol was dissolved in 0.1 M NaOH in different concentrations in 0–5 mM range. A drop of cholesterol covered the two electrodes and a constant current of 10 μA was forced through the sample while the voltage between the electrodes was measured by means of a high resolution A/D converter with 1 kHz sampling rate for 5 s periods. Instead of the time-averaged signal monitoring we applied the Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing (FES) method which is based on the analysis of the stochastic component of the signal. The power spectral density of the fluctuation was found to be dependent on the cholesterol concentration of the samples. Principal Component Analysis method was used for quantifying the difference between the recorded spectra. A tendentious variation of the spectral properties as the function of the cholesterol concentration was observed. The results indicate that the FES technique combined with high specific surface composite electrodes may be a useful tool for cholesterol detection.

  8. Engineering Nanoscale Multiferroic Composites for Memory Applications with Atomic Layer Deposition of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Diana

    This work focuses on the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) for lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O 3 (PZT). Leveraging the surface-reaction controlled process based on alternating self-limiting surface reactions, PZT can be synthesized not only with elemental precision to realize the desired composition (Zr/Ti = 52/48) but also with outstanding conformality. The latter enables the integration of PZT with a ferromagnetic phase to realize multiferroism (MF) and magnetoelectric (ME) effect. Since PZT is one of the best known ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials due the large displacements of the Pb ions at the morphotropic phase boundary, PZT based MF composites could lead to stronger ME coupling through strain coupling at the interface. Specifically, ALD PZT thin films were synthesized by using beta-diketonate metalorganic precursors Pb(TMHD)2, Zr(TMHD)4, and Ti(O.i-Pr) 2(TMHD)2 and H2O. The number of local cycles and global cycles were regulated to achieve the desired stoichiometry and thickness, respectively. ALD of PZT was studied to obtain (100) textured PZT on Pt (111) oriented platinized silicon substrates. In order to attain a highly oriented PZT thin film, a (100) textured PbTiO3 seed layer was required because PZT orientation is governed by nucleation. MF nanocomposites were engineered using ALD PZT thin films to achieve controlled complex nanoscale structures, enabling porosity to be studied as a new additional parameter for nanocomposite architectures to enhance ME effect. Specifically, 3--6 nm-thick ALD PZT thin films were deposited to uniformly coat the walls of mesoporous cobalt ferrite (CFO) template. The PZT/CFO nanocomposites were electrically poled ex-situ and the change in magnetic moment was measured. The inverse magnetoelectric coupling coefficient, a, was determined to be 85.6 Oe-cm/mV. The in-plane results show no significant change in magnetization (1--4%) as a function of electric field, which was expected due to the effect

  9. Nanoscale size effects on the mechanical properties of platinum thin films and cross-sectional grain morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, K

    2015-12-10

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. The mechanical behavior of polycrystalline Pt thin films is reported for thicknesses of 75 nm, 100 nm, 250 nm, and 400 nm. These thicknesses correspond to transitions between nanocrystalline grain morphology types as found in TEM studies. Thinner samples display a brittle behavior, but as thickness increases the grain morphology evolves, leading to a ductile behavior. During evolution of the morphology, dramatic differences in elastic moduli (105-160 GPa) and strengths (560-1700 MPa) are recorded and explained by the variable morphology. This work suggests that in addition to the in-plane grain size of thin films, the transitions in cross-sectional morphologies of the Pt films significantly affect their mechanical behavior.

  10. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweskin, Sasha Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  11. Nanoscale Ferroelectric Switchable Polarization and Leakage Current Behavior in (Ba0.50Sr0.50(Ti0.80Sn0.20O3 Thin Films Prepared Using Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sreenivas Puli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale switchable ferroelectric (Ba0.50Sr0.50(Ti0.80Sn0.20O3-BSTS polycrystalline thin films with a perovskite structure were prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD spectra indicate that a cubic perovskite crystalline structure and Raman spectra revealed that a tetragonal perovskite crystalline structure is present in the thin films. Sr2+ and Sn4+ cosubstituted film exhibited the lowest leakage current density. Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM technique has been employed to acquire out-of-plane (OPP piezoresponse images and local piezoelectric hysteresis loop in polycrystalline BSTS films. PFM phase and amplitude images reveal nanoscale ferroelectric switching behavior at room temperature. Square patterns with dark and bright contrasts were written by local poling and reversible nature of the piezoresponse behavior was established. Local piezoelectric butterfly amplitude and phase hysteresis loops display ferroelectric nature at nanoscale level. The significance of this paper is to present ferroelectric/piezoelectric nature in present BSTS films at nanoscale level and corroborating ferroelectric behavior by utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Thus, further optimizing physical and electrical properties, BSTS films might be useful for practical applications which include nonvolatile ferroelectric memories, data-storage media, piezoelectric actuators, and electric energy storage capacitors.

  12. Preparation and antibacterial effect of silver-hydroxyapatite/titania nanocomposite thin film on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo Anchun [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)], E-mail: moanchun@163.com; Liao Juan [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Xu Wei [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Arrail-Dental, Shanghai 200122 (China); Xian Suqin [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li Yubao [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Bai Shi [West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2008-11-15

    The composite which contains Ag{sup +} and nanosized hydroxyapatite with TiO{sub 2} was deposited onto titanium by dipping method. The morphology, chemical components and structures of the thin film were characterized by XRD, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were utilized to test the antibacterial effect. XRD results demonstrated that the films have characteristic diffraction peaks of pure HA. EDX results showed that the deposited films consisted of Ca, P, Ti, O and Ag, all of which distribute uniformly. With regard to the antibacterial effect, 98% of S. aureus and more than 99% of E. coli were killed after 24 h incubation and pictures of SEM showed obviously fewer cells on the surface with coating.

  13. Effect of Channel Thickness, Annealing Temperature and Channel Length on Nanoscale Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO Thin Film Transistor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Pak, Yusin; Lim, Namsoo; Lee, Ryeri; Song, Hui; Kim, Tae Heon; Choi, Boran; Jung, Gun Young

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrated the effect of active layer (channel) thickness and annealing temperature on the electrical performances of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) thin film transistor (TFT) having nanoscale channel width (W/L: 500 nm/100 μm). We found that the electron carrier concentration of the channel was decreased significantly with increasing the annealing temperature (100 degrees C to 300 degrees C). Accordingly, the threshold voltage (V(T)) was shifted towards positive voltage (-12.2 V to 10.8 V). In case of channel thickness, the V(T) was shifted towards negative voltage with increasing the channel thickness. The device with channel thickness of 90 nm annealed at 200 degrees C revealed the best device performances in terms of mobility (10.86 cm2/Vs) and V(T) (0.8 V). The effect of channel length was also studied, in which the channel width, thickness and annealing temperature were kept constant such as 500 nm, 90 nm and 200 degrees C, respectively. The channel length influenced the on-current level significantly with small variation of V(T), resulting in lower value of on/off current ratio with increasing the channel length. The device with channel length of 0.5 μm showed enhanced on/off current ratio of 10(6) with minimum V(T) of 0.26 V.

  14. Sensitive thermal transitions of nanoscale polymer samples using the bimetallic effect: application to ultra-thin polythiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, O; Pérez-Madrigal, M M; Ramirez, J; Curcó, D; Esteves, C; Salvador-Matar, A; Luongo, G; Armelin, E; Puiggalí, J; Alemán, C

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive nanocalorimetric technology based on microcantilever sensors is presented. The technology, which combines very short response times with very small sample consumption, uses the bimetallic effect to detect thermal transitions. Specifically, abrupt variations in the Young's modulus and the thermal expansion coefficient produced by temperature changes have been employed to detect thermodynamic transitions. The technology has been used to determine the glass transition of poly(3-thiophene methyl acetate), a soluble semiconducting polymer with different nanotechnological applications. The glass transition temperature determined using microcantilevers coated with ultra-thin films of mass = 10(-13) g is 5.2 °C higher than that obtained using a conventional differential scanning calorimeter for bulk powder samples of mass = 5 × 10(-3) g. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on models that represent the bulk powder and the ultra-thin films have been carried out to provide understanding and rationalization of this feature. Simulations indicate that the film-air interface plays a crucial role in films with very small thickness, affecting both the organization of the molecular chains and the response of the molecules against the temperature.

  15. Nanoscale monoclinic domains in epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, C.; Negrea, R. F.; Nistor, L. C.; Chirila, C. F.; Pintilie, L.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we analyze the structural distortions observed by transmission electron microscopy in thin epitaxial SrRuO3 layers used as bottom electrodes in multiferroic coatings onto SrTiO3 substrates for future multiferroic devices. Regardless of the nature and architecture of the multilayer oxides deposited on the top of the SrRuO3 thin films, selected area electron diffraction patterns systematically revealed the presence of faint diffraction spots appearing in forbidden positions for the SrRuO3 orthorhombic structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) combined with Geometric Phase Analysis (GPA) evidenced the origin of these forbidden diffraction spots in the presence of structurally disordered nanometric domains in the SrRuO3 bottom layers, resulting from a strain-driven phase transformation. The local high compressive strain (-4% ÷ -5%) measured by GPA in the HRTEM images induces a local orthorhombic to monoclinic phase transition by a cooperative rotation of the RuO6 octahedra. A further confirmation of the origin of the forbidden diffraction spots comes from the simulated diffraction patterns obtained from a monoclinic disordered SrRuO3 structure.

  16. Using Spin-Coated Silver Nanoparticles/Zinc Oxide Thin Films to Improve the Efficiency of GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsun Lei

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, and silver nitrate (AgNO3 aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO3 aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible–near infrared spectrophotometry. The results indicated that the crystalline structure, Ag content, and reflectance of Ag NP/ZnO thin films depended on the AgNO3 concentration. Hybrid antireflection coatings (ARCs composed of SiNx and Ag NPs/ZnO thin films with various AgNO3 concentrations were deposited on GaInP/(InGaAs/Ge solar cells. We propose that the optimal ARC consists of SiNx and Ag NP/ZnO thin films prepared using a treatment solution of 0.0008 M AgNO3, 0.007 M Zn(CH3COO2, and 1 M NaOH, followed by post-annealing at 200 °C. GaInP/(AlGaAs/Ge solar cells with the optimal hybrid ARC and SiNx ARC exhibit a conversion efficiency of 34.1% and 30.2% with Voc = 2.39 and 2.4 V, Jsc = 16.63 and 15.37 mA/cm2, and fill factor = 86.1% and 78.8%.

  17. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on the dynamics of singlet-singlet energy transfer of luminophores in thin films of polyvinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryukhanov, V.V.; Samusev, I.G.; Slezhkin, V.A.; Tsibul'nikova, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ablated silver nanoparticles (ANP) on the dynamics of non-radiative inductance-resonance energy transfer and phosphorescence in the donor-acceptor pair of molecules of eosin and methylene blue (MB) luminophores embedded in thin films of polyvinyl alcohol have been investigated. Increased fluorescence intensity of donor (eosin) and acceptor (MB) molecules, as well as a growth of the dipole-dipole transfer efficiency have been obtained under the resonant excitation of the silver ANP surface plasmons in the absorption band of the donor energy. The luminescence quantum yields and the fluorescence lifetimes have been measured. The energy transfer constants, degree of polarization and fluorescence anisotropy have been determined. (authors)

  18. Induced nano-scale self-formed metal-oxide interlayer in amorphous silicon tin oxide thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianzhe; Xu, Hua; Ning, Honglong; Lu, Kuankuan; Zhang, Hongke; Zhang, Xiaochen; Yao, Rihui; Fang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Xubing; Peng, Junbiao

    2018-03-07

    Amorphous Silicon-Tin-Oxide thin film transistors (a-STO TFTs) with Mo source/drain electrodes were fabricated. The introduction of a ~8 nm MoO x interlayer between Mo electrodes and a-STO improved the electron injection in a-STO TFT. Mo adjacent to the a-STO semiconductor mainly gets oxygen atoms from the oxygen-rich surface of a-STO film to form MoO x interlayer. The self-formed MoO x interlayer acting as an efficient interface modification layer could conduce to the stepwise internal transport barrier formation while blocking Mo atoms diffuse into a-STO layer, which would contribute to the formation of ohmic contact between Mo and a-STO film. It can effectively improve device performance, reduce cost and save energy for the realization of large-area display with high resolution in future.

  19. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin film liquid Argon on nanostructured surface in nano-scale confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Sabah, Arefiny; Ahmed, Jannat; Kuri, Subrata Kumar; Rakibuzzaman, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of Molecular level phase change phenomena are becoming important in heat and mass transfer research at a very high rate, driven both by the need to understand certain fundamental phenomena as well as by a plethora of new and forthcoming applications in the areas of micro- and nanotechnologies. Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to go through the evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in Nano-scale confinement. In the present study, a cuboid system is modeled for understanding the Nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation. The cuboid system consists of hot and cold parallel platinum plates at the bottom and top ends. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Three different simulation domains have been created here: (i) Both platinum plates are considered flat, (ii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of low height and (iii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of bigger height. Considering hydrophilic nature of top and bottom plates, two different high temperatures of the hot wall was set and an observation was made on normal and explosive vaporizations and their impacts on thermal transport. For all the structures, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall is set to two different temperatures like 110 K and 250 K for all three models to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). For vaporization, higher temperature of the hot wall led to faster transport of the liquid argon as a cluster moving from hot wall to cold wall. But excessive temperature causes explosive boiling which seems not good for heat transportation because of less phase change. In case of condensation, an observation was made which indicates that the nanostructured transverse slots facilitate condensation. Two factors affect the rate of

  20. Highly flexible transparent thin film heaters based on silver nanowires and aluminum zinc oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Hahn-Gil; Kim, Jin-Hoon; Song, Jun-Hyuk; Jeong, Unyong; Park, Jin-Woo, E-mail: jwpark09@yonsei.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    In this work, we developed highly flexible transparent film heaters (f-TFHs) composed of Ag nanowire networks (AgNWs) and aluminum zinc oxide (AZO). Uniform AgNWs were roll-to-roll coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using the Mayer rod method, and AZO was sputter-deposited atop the AgNWs at room temperature. The sheet resistance (R{sub s}) and transparency (T{sub opt}) of the AZO-coated AgNWs changed only slightly compared with the uncoated AgNWs. AZO is thermally less conductive than the heat pipes, but increases the thermal efficiency of the heaters blocking the heat convection through the air. Based on Joule heating, a higher average film temperature (T{sub ave}) is attained at a fixed electric potential drop between electrodes (ϕ) as the R{sub s} of the film decreases. Our experimental results revealed that T{sub ave} of the hybrid f-TFH is higher than AgNWs when the ratio of the area coverage of AgNWs to AZO is over a certain value. When a ϕ as low as 3 V/cm was applied to 5 cm × 5 cm f-TFHs, the maximum temperature of the hybrid film was over 100 °C, which is greater than that of AgNWs by more than 30 °C. Furthermore, uniform heating throughout the surfaces is achieved in the hybrid films while heating begins in small areas where densities of the nanowires (NWs) are the highest in the bare network. The non-uniform heating decreases the lifetime of f-TFHs by forming hot spots. Cyclic bending test results indicated that the hybrid films were as flexible as the AgNWs, and the R{sub s} of the hybrid films changes only slightly until 5000 cycles. Combined with the high-throughput coating technology presented here, the hybrid films will provide a robust and scalable strategy for large-area f-TFHs with highly enhanced performance. - Highlights: • We developed highly efficient flexible thin film heaters based on Ag nanowires and AZO composites. • In the composite, AZO plays an important role as an insulation blanket to block heat loss to

  1. A Water-Based Silver-Nanowire Screen-Print Ink for the Fabrication of Stretchable Conductors and Wearable Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiajie; Tong, Kwing; Pei, Qibing

    2016-07-01

    A water-based silver-nanowire (AgNW) ink is formulated for screen printing. Screen-printed AgNW patterns have uniform sharp edges, ≈50 μm resolution, and electrical conductivity as high as 4.67 × 10(4) S cm(-1) . The screen-printed AgNW patterns are used to fabricate a stretchable composite conductor, and a fully printed and intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistor array is also realized. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Patterning Method for Silver Nanoparticle Electrodes in Fully Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistors Using Selectively Treated Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kenjiro; Takeda, Yasunori; Kobayashi, Yu; Shimizu, Masahiro; Sekine, Tomohito; Kumaki, Daisuke; Kurihara, Masato; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Tokito, Shizuo

    2013-05-01

    Fully solution-processed organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) devices have been fabricated with simple patterning process at a relatively low process temperature of 100 °C. In the patterning process, a hydrophobic amorphous fluoropolymer material, which was used as the gate dielectric layer and the underlying base layer, was treated with an oxygen plasma to selectively change its surface wetting properties from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Silver source and drain electrodes were successfully formed in the treated areas with highly uniform line widths and without residues between the electrodes. Nonuniformities in the thickness of the silver electrodes originating from the “coffee-ring” effect were suppressed by optimizing the blend of solvents used with the silver nanoparticles, such that the printed electrodes are appropriate for bottom-gate OTFT devices. A fully solution-processed OTFT device using a polymer semiconductor material (PB16TTT) exhibited good electrical performance with no hysteresis in its transfer characteristics and with good linearity in its output characteristics. A relatively high carrier mobility of 0.14 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 1×105 were obtained with the fabricated TFT device.

  3. Direct Inkjet Printing of Silver Source/Drain Electrodes on an Amorphous InGaZnO Layer for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglong Ning

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printing technologies for thin-film transistors (TFTs have recently attracted much interest owing to their eco-friendliness, direct patterning, low cost, and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. Lower production costs could result if electrodes fabricated by vacuum processes could be replaced by inkjet printing. However, poor interfacial contacts and/or serious diffusion between the active layer and the silver electrodes are still problematic for achieving amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide (a-IGZO TFTs with good electrical performance. In this paper, silver (Ag source/drain electrodes were directly inkjet-printed on an amorphous a-IGZO layer to fabricate TFTs that exhibited a mobility of 0.29 cm2·V−1·s−1 and an on/off current ratio of over 105. To the best of our knowledge, this is a major improvement for bottom-gate top-contact a-IGZO TFTs with directly printed silver electrodes on a substrate with no pretreatment. This study presents a promising alternative method of fabricating electrodes of a-IGZO TFTs with desirable device performance.

  4. Direct Inkjet Printing of Silver Source/Drain Electrodes on an Amorphous InGaZnO Layer for Thin-Film Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Honglong; Chen, Jianqiu; Fang, Zhiqiang; Tao, Ruiqiang; Cai, Wei; Yao, Rihui; Hu, Shiben; Zhu, Zhennan; Zhou, Yicong; Yang, Caigui; Peng, Junbiao

    2017-01-10

    Printing technologies for thin-film transistors (TFTs) have recently attracted much interest owing to their eco-friendliness, direct patterning, low cost, and roll-to-roll manufacturing processes. Lower production costs could result if electrodes fabricated by vacuum processes could be replaced by inkjet printing. However, poor interfacial contacts and/or serious diffusion between the active layer and the silver electrodes are still problematic for achieving amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs with good electrical performance. In this paper, silver (Ag) source/drain electrodes were directly inkjet-printed on an amorphous a-IGZO layer to fabricate TFTs that exhibited a mobility of 0.29 cm²·V -1 ·s -1 and an on/off current ratio of over 10⁵. To the best of our knowledge, this is a major improvement for bottom-gate top-contact a-IGZO TFTs with directly printed silver electrodes on a substrate with no pretreatment. This study presents a promising alternative method of fabricating electrodes of a-IGZO TFTs with desirable device performance.

  5. Thickness- and Particle-Size-Dependent Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide on Thin-Layer Porous Silver Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zhiyong; Mehio, Nada; Jin, Xianbo; Dai, Sheng

    2016-03-08

    The electrochemical reduction of CO2 can not only convert it back into fuels, but is also an efficient manner to store forms of renewable energy. Catalysis with silver is a possible technology for CO2 reduction. We report that in the case of monolithic porous silver, the film thickness and primary particle size of the silver particles, which can be controlled by electrochemical growth/reduction of AgCl film on silver substrate, have a strong influence on the electrocatalytic activity towards CO2 reduction. A 6 μm thick silver film with particle sizes of 30-50 nm delivers a CO formation current of 10.5 mA cm(-2) and a mass activity of 4.38 A gAg (-1) at an overpotential of 0.39 V, comparable to levels achieved with state-of-the-art gold catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Pinning in high performance MgB{sub 2} thin films and bulks: Role of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhna, Tatiana, E-mail: prikhna@mail.ru [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Shapovalov, Andrey [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Eisterer, Michael [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Shaternik, Vladimir [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Goldacker, Wilfried [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein (Germany); Weber, Harald W. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Moshchil, Viktor; Kozyrev, Artem; Sverdun, Vladimir [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Boutko, Viktor [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O. Galkin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg str.72, Donetsk-114, 83114 (Ukraine); Grechnev, Gennadiy [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauky, Kharkiv 61103 (Ukraine); Gusev, Alexandr [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O. Galkin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg str.72, Donetsk-114, 83114 (Ukraine); Kovylaev, Valeriy; Shaternik, Anton [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Pinning in MgB{sub 2} depends on the Mg-B-O nano-scaled inhomogeneities. • Finer oxygen-enriched inhomogeneities is the reason of the higher J{sub c} in MgB{sub 2} thin films as compared to bulk. • The results of DOS calculations for MgB{sub 2-x}O{sub x} compounds demonstrate that they have metal-like behavior. • Ordered oxygen distribution in MgB{sub 2} (in pairs or zigzags) reduces binding energy. - Abstract: The comparison of nano-crystalline MgB{sub 2} oxygen-containing thin film (140 nm) and highly dense bulk materials showed that the critical current density, J{sub c}, depends on the distribution of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities. It has been shown that MgB{sub 2} bulks with high J{sub c} in low (∼10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} in 0-1 T at 10 K) and medium magnetic fields contain MgB{sub 0.6-0.8}O{sub 0.8-0.9} nano-inclusions, where δT{sub c} or a combined δT{sub c} (dominant) / δ{sub l} pinning mechanism prevails, while in bulk MgB{sub 2} with high J{sub c} in high magnetic fields (B{sub irr}(18.5 K) = 15 T, B{sub c2}(0 K) = 42.1 T) MgB{sub 1.2-2.7}O{sub 1.8-2.5} nano-layers are present and δ{sub l} pinning prevails. The structure of oxygen-containing films with high J{sub c} in low and high magnetic fields (J{sub c} (0 T) = 1.8 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} and J{sub c} (5 T) = 2 × 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 10 K) contains very fine oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inhomogeneities and δ{sub l} pinning is realized. The results of DOS calculations in MgB{sub 2-x}O{sub x} cells for x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 demonstrate that all compounds are conductors with metal-like behaviour. In the case of ordered oxygen substitution for boron the binding energy, E{sub b}, does not increase sufficiently as compared with that for MgB{sub 2}, while when oxygen atoms form zigzag chains the calculated E{sub b} is even lower (E{sub b} = −1.15712 Ry).

  7. Angle-sensitive and fast photovoltage of silver nanocluster embeded ZnO thin films induced by 1.064-μm pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Qing, Zhao; Li-Min, Yang; Wen-Wei, Liu; Kun, Zhao; Yue-Liang, Zhou; Qing-Li, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanocluster embedded ZnO composite thin film was observed to have an angle-sensitive and fast photovoltaic effect in the angle range from −90° to 90°, its peak value and the polarity varied regularly with the angle of incidence of the 1.064-μm pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation onto the ZnO surface. Meanwhile, for each photovoltaic signal, its rising time reached ∼2 ns with an open-circuit photovoltage of ∼2 ns full width at half-maximum. This angle-sensitive fast photovoltaic effect is expected to put this composite film a candidate for angle-sensitive and fast photodetector. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Enhancement of as-sputtered silver-tantalum oxide thin film coating on biomaterial stainless steel by surface thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Rodianah; Mahmoodian, Reza; Shukor, Mohd Hamdi Abd; Yew, Been Seok; Muhamad, Martini

    2018-04-01

    Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is extensively used as surgical/clinical tools due to its low carbon content and excellent mechanical characteristic. The fabrication of metal ceramic based on this metallic biomaterial favor its biofunctionality properties. However, instability phase of amorphous thin film lead to degradation, corrosion and oxidation. Thus, thin film coating requires elevated adhesion strength and higher surface hardness to meet clinical tools criteria. In this study, the SS316L was deposited with micron thickness of Ag-TaO thin film by using magnetron sputtering. The microstructure, elemental analysis and phase identification of Ag-TaO thin film were characterized by using FESEM, EDX and XRD, respectively; whereas the micro scratch test and micro hardness test were performed by using Micro Scratch Testing System and Vickers Micro Hardness Tester, respectively. It was found that the coating thin film's adhesion and hardness strength were improved from 672 to 2749 mN and 142 to 158 Hv respectively. It was found that the as-deposited surface were treated at 500 °C of temperatures with 2 °C/min ramping rate enhance 4.1 times of the adhesion strength value. Furthermore, FESEM characterization revealed coarsening structure of the thin film coating which can provide high durability service.

  9. Potential for photocatalytic degradation of the potassic diclofenac using scandium and silver modified titanium dioxide thin films; Potencial de degradacao fotocatalitica do diclofenaco potassico utilizando filmes finos de dioxido de titanio modificado com escandio e prata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciola, R.A.; Oliveira, C.T.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A., E-mail: rafaelciola@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Navirai, MS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Tecnologicas em Recursos Naturais

    2011-07-01

    The potential for photocatalytic degradation of the potassic diclofenac drug was investigated using titanium dioxide thin films modified with two modifier types, scandium and silver, both prepared by Sol-Gel method. It was demonstrated by UVVis spectroscopy analysis of the solutions containing the drug, under UV-A light irradiation that the degradation efficiency of the titanium dioxide photocatalyst is dependent of the semiconductor nature and that the scandium accelerates the first step of the degradation when compared to the silver. This result seems to be related to the redox potential of the electron-hole pair, once the scandium modifying sample generates a p type semiconductor that reduces the band gap. The extra holes attract more strongly the chorine ion present in diclofenac and leading to the releasing more easily. However, after the first byproducts degradation the following steps are not facilitated, making the silver modifying more advantageous. (author)

  10. Plasmon enhanced silver quantum cluster fluorescence for biochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, S.; Kutter, J.P.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of individual silver quantum clusters on the surface of silver nanoparticles reveals strong photoactivated emission under blue light excitation [1-4]. In this work, silver nanoparticles are produced by annealing silver thin films deposited on a glass substrate and silver q...... purposes. It was found, that in presence of a strong nucleophile (such as CN-), silver quantum clusters are dissolved into non-fluorescing AgCN complexes, resulting in a fast and observable decrease of the fluorescent signal....

  11. Patterning high explosives at the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafday, Omkar A.; Pitchimani, Rajasekar; Weeks, Brandon L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Haaheim, Jason [NanoInk Inc., 8025 Lamon Ave., Skokie, IL 60077 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    For the first time, we have shown that spin coating and Dip pen nanolithography (DPN trademark) are simple methods of preparing energetic materials such as PETN and HMX on the nanoscale, requiring no heating of the energetic material. Nanoscale patterning has been demonstrated by the DPN method while continuous thin films were produced using the spin coating method. Results are presented for preparing continuous PETN thin films of nanometer thickness by the spin coating method and for controlling the architecture of arbitrary nanoscale patterns of PETN and HMX by the DPN method. These methods are simple for patterning energetic materials and can be extended beyond PETN and HMX, opening the door for fundamental studies at the nanoscale. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Oxygen content modulation by nanoscale chemical and electrical patterning in epitaxial SrCoO3-δ (0 < δ ≤ 0.5) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Seidel, J

    2016-08-12

    Fast controllable redox reactions in solid materials at room temperature are a promising strategy for enhancing the overall performance and lifetime of many energy technology materials and devices. Easy control of oxygen content is a key concept for the realisation of fast catalysis and bulk diffusion at room temperature. Here, high quality epitaxial brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 thin films have been oxidised to perovskite (P) SrCoO3 with NaClO. X-ray diffraction, scanning probe microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed to investigate the structural and electronic changes of the material. The oxidised thin films were found to exhibit distinct morphological changes from an atomically flat terrace structure to forming small nanosized islands with boundaries preferentially in [100] or [010] directions all over the surface, relaxing the in-plane strain imposed by the substrate. The conductivity, or oxygen content, of each single island is confined by these textures, which can be locally patterned even further with electric poling. The high charging level at the island boundaries indicates a magnified electric capacity of SCO thin films, which could be exploited in future device geometries. This finding represents a new way of oxygen modulation with associated self-assembled charge confinement to nanoscale boundaries, offering interesting prospects in nanotechnology applications.

  13. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jisheng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  14. Nanoscale observation of surface potential and carrier transport in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films grown by sputtering-based two-step process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gee Yeong; Kim, Ju Ri; Jo, William; Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-01-08

    Stacked precursors of Cu-Zn-Sn-S were grown by radio frequency sputtering and annealed in a furnace with Se metals to form thin-film solar cell materials of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe). The samples have different absorber layer thickness of 1 to 2 μm and show conversion efficiencies up to 8.06%. Conductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy were used to explore the local electrical properties of the surface of CZTSSe thin films. The high-efficiency CZTSSe thin film exhibits significantly positive bending of surface potential around the grain boundaries. Dominant current paths along the grain boundaries are also observed. The surface electrical parameters of potential and current lead to potential solar cell applications using CZTSSe thin films, which may be an alternative choice of Cu(In,Ga)Se2.PACS number: 08.37.-d; 61.72.Mm; 71.35.-y.

  15. Dependence of Optical Properties of SEL-Deposited Silver Gallium Selenide Thin Films on the On-Line Growth Parameter: Annealing Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M.R.A.; Firoz Hasan, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Silver gallium selenide (AGS) composite thin films were formed onto ultrasonically and chemically cleaned glass substrates by successive on-line thermal evaporation of individual elements and post-deposition annealing at 300 0 C for various durations in vacuum. The annealing duration was varied between 5 and 20 minutes. The structural and optical properties of the films were ascertained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and uv-vis-nir spectrophotometry (photon wavelength ranging between 300 and 2500 nm), respectively. The diffractogram indicated that these films were polycrystalline in nature having tetragonal structure with lattice parameters, a ∼ 6.0034 A and c ∼ 10.9165 A. The optical transmittance and reflectance were utilized to compute the absorption coefficient, refractive index and energy gap of the films. Dependence of the optical and structural properties of the films on various annealing durations has been analyzed. The nature of the optical transitions has been direct allowed with band gap energies ranging between 1.713 and 1.757 eV and refractive indices between 1.596 and 3.351 depending on photon energy as well as annealing duration. (authors)

  16. Study of surface-modified PVP gate dielectric in organic thin film transistors with the nano-particle silver ink source/drain electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho-Jin; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Shin, Hong-Sik; Jeong, Kwang-Seok; Park, Jeong-Gyu; Choi, Deuk-Sung; Lee, Ga-Won

    2011-07-01

    We have fabricated the flexible pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with formulated poly[4-vinylphenol] (PVP) gate dielectrics treated by CF4/O2 plasma on poly[ethersulfones] (PES) substrate. The solution of gate dielectrics is made by adding methylated poly[melamine-co-formaldehyde] (MMF) to PVP. The PVP gate dielectric layer was cross linked at 90 degrees under UV ozone exposure. Source/drain electrodes are formed by micro contact printing (MCP) method using nano particle silver ink for the purposes of low cost and high throughput. The optimized OTFT shows the device performance with field effect mobility of the 0.88 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 2.2 V/decade, and on/off current ratios of 1.8 x 10(-6) at -40 V gate bias. We found that hydrophobic PVP gate dielectric surface can influence on the initial film morphologies of pentacene making dense, which is more important for high performance OTFTs than large grain size. Moreover, hydrophobic gate dielelctric surface reduces voids and -OH groups that interrupt the carrier transport in OTFTs.

  17. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory

  18. Tunable silver-shell dielectric core nano-beads array for thin-film solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong, E-mail: a0920146302@gmail.com, E-mail: chou.fong@ubd.edu.bn; Lim, Chee Ming [Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (Brunei) (Brunei Darussalam); Chiang, Chien-Ying [National Taipei University of Technology, Department of Electro-Optical Engineering (China); Voo, Nyuk Yoong; Muhammad Idris, Nur Syafi’ie; Chai, Siew Ung [Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences (Brunei) (Brunei Darussalam)

    2016-04-15

    The absorbance spectra of thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) can be enhanced by constructing the tunable periodic Ag-shell nano-bead (PASNB) arrays in the active material. In this paper, we investigated a plasmonic thin-film solar cell (TFSC) which composed of the arrays of PASNB deposited onto a crystalline silicon layer. By performing three-dimensional finite element method, we demonstrate that near field coupling among the PASNB arrays results in SPR modes with enhanced absorbance and field intensity. The proposed structure can significantly enhance the plasmonic activity in a wide range of incident light and enlarge working wavelength of absorbance in the range of near-UV, visible and near-infrared. We show that the sensitivity of the PASNB arrays reveals a linear relationship with the thickness of Ag-shell nano-bead (ASNB) for both the anti-bonding and bonding modes in the absorbance spectra. The broadband of absorbance spectra could be expanded as a wide range by varying the thickness of ASNB while the particle size is kept constant. Simulation results suggest this alternative scheme to the design and improvements on plasmonic enhanced TFSCs can be extended to other nanophotonic applications.

  19. Enhancement of critical current density of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films by nanoscale CeO2 pretreatment of substrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, X.M.; Liu, G.Q.; Wang, J.; Huang, Z.C.; Zhao, Y.T.; Tao, B.W.; Li, Y.R.

    2007-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films were prepared on single-crystal SrTiO 3 substrates with metal-organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). Positive results have been acquired in controlled study to investigate the effects of substrate surface modification on the growth-induced flux-pinning nanostructures in YBCO films. Nanoscale CeO 2 particles were applied to single-crystal SrTiO 3 substrate surfaces using pulsed laser deposition before YBCO precursors coating. Superconducting properties of the YBCO films grown on the controlled CeO 2 -modified substrates have shown substantial improvement in the critical current densities (J c ) at 77 K over those grown on untreated substrates in almost all the field (78% increment at 1 T, 77 K). We think the reason is that the CeO 2 nanoparticles act as pinning centers

  20. Coherent nanoscale islands on La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 thin films and the enhancement of magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W. Z.; Zhao, B. R.; Cai, C.; Lin, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A low cost reproducible fabrication process has been developed to prepare La 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 (LCMO) films with well distributed uniform nanoscale dots using pulsed-laser deposition. It was found that the growth of the dots was closely related to the strain in the film during the growth process. The diameter and density of dots could be controlled within the range of 30--120 nm and 2 x 10 8 --2 x 10 9 /cm 2 , respectively. The magnetoresistance effect of such LCMO films is also enhanced, which may be caused by the spin-dependent scattering of carriers due to the existence of the dots. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  1. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  2. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang, E-mail: qiangli@zju.edu.cn; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min, E-mail: minqiu@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  3. Nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics key processes and characterization issues, and nanoscale effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alguero, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the key issues in processing and characterization of nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, and provides a comprehensive description of their properties, with an emphasis in differentiating size effects of extrinsic ones like boundary or interface effects. Recently described nanoscale novel phenomena are also addressed. Organized into three parts it addresses key issues in processing (nanostructuring), characterization (of the nanostructured materials) and nanoscale effects. Taking full advantage of the synergies between nanoscale ferroelectrics and multiferroics, it covers materials nanostructured at all levels, from ceramic technologies like ferroelectric nanopowders, bulk nanostructured ceramics and thick films, and magnetoelectric nanocomposites, to thin films, either polycrystalline layer heterostructures or epitaxial systems, and to nanoscale free standing objects with specific geometries, such as nanowires and tubes at different levels of development. The book is developed from t...

  4. Enhancement of plasmon-induced charge separation efficiency by coupling silver nanocubes with a thin gold film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyoshi, Kazutaka; Saito, Koichiro; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2016-10-01

    Plasmon-induced charge separation (PICS), in which an energetic electron is injected from a plasmonic nanoparticle (NP) to a semiconductor on contact, is often inhibited by a protecting agent adsorbed on the NP. We addressed this issue for an Ag nanocube-TiO2 system by coating it with a thin Au layer or by inserting the Au layer between the nanocubes (NCs) and TiO2. Both of the electrodes exhibit much higher photocurrents due to PICS than the electrodes without the Au film or the Ag NCs. These photocurrent enhancements can be explained in terms of PICS with accelerated electron transfer, in which electron injection from the Ag NCs or Ag@Au core-shell NCs to TiO2 is promoted by the Au film, or PICS enhanced by a nanoantenna effect, in which the electron injection from the Au film to TiO2 is enhanced by optical near field generated by the Ag NC.

  5. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of deep nanoscale surface trenches with AFM using thin carbon nanotube probes in amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules

  7. Temperature-dependent templated growth of porphine thin films on the (111) facets of copper and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diller, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.diller@tum.de [Physik-Department, E20, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C.; Fischer, Sybille; Duncan, David A.; Lloyd, Julian A.; Oh, Seung Cheol; Barth, Johannes V. [Physik-Department, E20, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Maurer, Reinhard J.; Reuter, Karsten [Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-14

    The templated growth of the basic porphyrin unit, free-base porphine (2H-P), is characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT simulations allow the deconvolution of the complex XPS and NEXAFS signatures into contributions originating from five inequivalent carbon atoms, which can be grouped into C–N and C–C bonded species. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS measurements reveal an intriguing organizational behavior: On both Cu(111) and Ag(111), for coverages up to one monolayer, the molecules adsorb undeformed and parallel to the respective metal surface. Upon increasing the coverage, however, the orientation of the molecules in the thin films depends on the growth conditions. Multilayers deposited at low temperatures exhibit a similar average tilting angle (30° relative to the surface plane) on both substrates. Conversely, for multilayers grown at room temperature a markedly different scenario exists. On Cu(111) the film thickness is self-limited to a coverage of approximately two layers, while on Ag(111) multilayers can be grown easily and, in contrast to the bulk 2H-P crystal, the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the surface. This difference in molecular orientation results in a modified line-shape of the C 1s XPS signatures, which depends on the incident photon energy and is explained by comparison with depth-resolved DFT calculations. Simulations of ionization energies for differently stacked molecules show no indication for a packing-induced modification of the multilayer XP spectra, thus indicating that the comparison of single molecule calculations to multilayer data is justified.

  8. Ultra-violet absorption induced modifications in bulk and nanoscale electrical transport properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mohit; Basu, Tanmoy; Som, Tapobrata, E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2015-08-07

    Using conductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, we study local electrical transport properties in aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al or AZO) thin films. Current mapping shows a spatial variation in conductivity which corroborates well with the local mapping of donor concentration (∼10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3}). In addition, a strong enhancement in the local current at grains is observed after exposing the film to ultra-violet (UV) light which is attributed to persistent photocurrent. Further, it is shown that UV absorption gives a smooth conduction in AZO film which in turn gives rise to an improvement in the bulk photoresponsivity of an n-AZO/p-Si heterojunction diode. This finding is in contrast to the belief that UV absorption in an AZO layer leads to an optical loss for the underneath absorbing layer of a heterojunction solar cell.

  9. Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, A. J.; Guilhabert, B.; Massoubre, D.; Laurand, N.; Gu, E.; Watson, I. M.; Dawson, M. D.; Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer printing of 2 μm-thick aluminum indium gallium nitride (AlInGaN) micron-size light-emitting diodes with 150 nm (±14 nm) minimum spacing is reported. The thin AlInGaN structures were assembled onto mechanically flexible polyethyleneterephthalate/polydimethylsiloxane substrates in a representative 16 × 16 array format using a modified dip-pen nano-patterning system. Devices in the array were positioned using a pre-calculated set of coordinates to demonstrate an automated transfer printing process. Individual printed array elements showed blue emission centered at 486 nm with a forward-directed optical output power up to 80 μW (355 mW/cm 2 ) when operated at a current density of 20 A/cm 2

  10. Nanoscale-accuracy transfer printing of ultra-thin AlInGaN light-emitting diodes onto mechanically flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, A. J., E-mail: antonio.trindade@strath.ac.uk; Guilhabert, B.; Massoubre, D.; Laurand, N.; Gu, E.; Watson, I. M.; Dawson, M. D. [Institute of Photonics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, 106 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-16

    The transfer printing of 2 μm-thick aluminum indium gallium nitride (AlInGaN) micron-size light-emitting diodes with 150 nm (±14 nm) minimum spacing is reported. The thin AlInGaN structures were assembled onto mechanically flexible polyethyleneterephthalate/polydimethylsiloxane substrates in a representative 16 × 16 array format using a modified dip-pen nano-patterning system. Devices in the array were positioned using a pre-calculated set of coordinates to demonstrate an automated transfer printing process. Individual printed array elements showed blue emission centered at 486 nm with a forward-directed optical output power up to 80 μW (355 mW/cm{sup 2}) when operated at a current density of 20 A/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Optical properties of silver composite metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbons, S.M. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)]. E-mail: sorbons@ph.unimelb.edu.au; Freeman, D. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems, Laser Physics Centre, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Luther-Davies, B. [Centre for Ultrahigh-bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems, Laser Physics Centre, Australian National University, ACT 0200 (Australia); Gibson, B.C. [Quantum Communications Victoria, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Huntington, S.T. [Quantum Communications Victoria, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Jamieson, D.N. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Roberts, A. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    We present a computational and experimental study investigating the optical properties of nanoscale silver composite metamaterials fabricated by ion beam lithography. Both simulations and experimental results demonstrate high transmission efficiencies in the near infra-red through these devices. Implications for experimentally verifying the calculated near-field distributions of these materials are also discussed.

  12. Nano-Scale Interface Modification of the Co/Cu System: Metallic Surface Modifiers in the Growth of Smooth Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolny-Marszalek, M.

    2007-10-01

    This review is a collection of twelve original papers concerning growth and interface modification in the Co/Cu system. Most of this research has been carried out in the Laboratory of Surface and Thin Film Physics at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. The Laboratory was created by the author of this review in 1996 in strong collaboration with the Institute of Nuclear Physics Wilhelms-Universitaet in Muenster, Germany and the Institute of Applied Physics Ukrainian Academy of Science in Sumy, Ukraine. The big international team worked under the leadership of Dr Marta Marszalek, initially developing a multicomponent ultrahigh vacuum setup for thin film preparation and analysis, and next accompanying her in studies of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co/Cu multilayers. Systems that exhibit giant magnetoresistance effect have been receiving intensive attentions over recent years since they are possible candidates for applications in ultrahigh-density data storage and magnetoelectronic devices. The focus of this research is the growth of magnetic Co/Cu multilayers modified by using metallic surface modifiers called surfactants. The different approaches have been used. Surfactant metals were introduced once into growth process as a buffer layer or they were deposited sequentially at each interface of Co/Cu multilayers. The growth was performed by molecular beam epitaxy technique which allows to tailor carefully deposition conditions. The results showed that two approaches gave different results. Surfactant buffer layers resulted in loss of layered character of multilayers being a kind of an intermediate cluster-like phase combined with a layered area. Small amount of surfactants introduced at each interface lead to well-ordered structures with small roughness and smoother interfaces than in the case of pure Co/Cu multilayers. Despite of the differences, in both cases the improvement of magnetoresistance value was observed. The atomic scale study

  13. Nano-Scale Interface Modification of the Co/Cu System: Metallic Surface Modifiers in the Growth of Smooth Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny-Marszalek, M [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 152 Radzikowskiego str., 31-342, Cracow (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    This review is a collection of twelve original papers concerning growth and interface modification in the Co/Cu system. Most of this research has been carried out in the Laboratory of Surface and Thin Film Physics at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. The Laboratory was created by the author of this review in 1996 in strong collaboration with the Institute of Nuclear Physics Wilhelms-Universitaet in Muenster, Germany and the Institute of Applied Physics Ukrainian Academy of Science in Sumy, Ukraine. The big international team worked under the leadership of Dr Marta Marszalek, initially developing a multicomponent ultrahigh vacuum setup for thin film preparation and analysis, and next accompanying her in studies of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co/Cu multilayers. Systems that exhibit giant magnetoresistance effect have been receiving intensive attentions over recent years since they are possible candidates for applications in ultrahigh-density data storage and magnetoelectronic devices. The focus of this research is the growth of magnetic Co/Cu multilayers modified by using metallic surface modifiers called surfactants. The different approaches have been used. Surfactant metals were introduced once into growth process as a buffer layer or they were deposited sequentially at each interface of Co/Cu multilayers. The growth was performed by molecular beam epitaxy technique which allows to tailor carefully deposition conditions. The results showed that two approaches gave different results. Surfactant buffer layers resulted in loss of layered character of multilayers being a kind of an intermediate cluster-like phase combined with a layered area. Small amount of surfactants introduced at each interface lead to well-ordered structures with small roughness and smoother interfaces than in the case of pure Co/Cu multilayers. Despite of the differences, in both cases the improvement of magnetoresistance value was observed. The atomic scale study

  14. Nanoscale semiconductor Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se (x = 0.2) thin films synthesized by electrochemical atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Shaoxiong; Zhang Xin; Shi Xuezhao; Wei Jinping; Lu Daban; Zhang Yuzhen; Kou Huanhuan [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-04-15

    In this paper the fabrication and characterization of IV-VI semiconductor Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se (x = 0.2) thin films on gold substrate by electrochemical atomic layer deposition (EC-ALD) method at room temperature are reported. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to determine approximate deposition potentials for each element. The amperometric I-t technique is used to fabricate the semiconductor alloy. The elements are deposited in the following sequence: (Se/Pb/Se/Pb/Se/Pb/Se/Pb/Se/Sn ...), each period is formed using four ALD cycles of PbSe followed by one cycle of SnSe. Then the deposition manner above is cyclic repeated till a satisfactory film with expected thickness of Pb{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}Se is obtained. The morphology of the deposit is observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern is used to study its crystalline structure; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the deposit indicates an approximate ratio 1.0:0.8:0.2 of Se, Pb and Sn, as the expected stoichiometry for the deposit. Open-circuit potential (OCP) studies indicate a good p-type property, and the good optical activity makes it suitable for fabricating a photoelectric switch.

  15. Gilded Silver Mask

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    This gilded silver mask from the Liao Dynasty is 31 cm long and 22.2 cm wide. The plump oval face was designed with a protruding brow ridge, narrow eyes, high-bridged nose and closed mouth. The chin is slightly round against a thin neck, the ears are long and the hair can be clearly seen from the finely carved lines. The use of masks was recorded as

  16. Use of a silver ion selective electrode to assess mechanisms responsible for biological effects of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Marcus; Kiefer, Silke; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette

    2012-01-01

    For a detailed analysis of the biological effects of silver nanoparticles, discrimination between effects related to the nano-scale size of the particles and effects of released silver ions is required. Silver ions are either present in the initial particle dispersion or released by the nanoparticles over time. The aim of this study is to monitor the free silver ion activity {Ag + } in the presence of silver nanoparticles using a silver ion selective electrode. Therefore, silver in the form of silver nanoparticles, 4.2 ± 1.4 nm and 2–30 nm in size, or silver nitrate was added to cell culture media in the absence or presence of A549 cells as a model for human type II alveolar epithelial cells. The free silver ion activity measured after the addition of silver nanoparticles was determined by the initial ionic silver content. The p {Ag + } values indicated that the cell culture media decrease the free silver ion activity due to binding of silver ions by constituents of the media. In the presence of A549 cells, the free silver ion activity was further reduced. The morphology of A549 cells, cultivated in DME medium containing 9.1% (v/v) FBS, was affected by adding AgNO 3 at concentrations of ≥30 μM after 24 h. In comparison, silver nanoparticles up to a concentration of 200 μM Ag did not affect cellular morphology. Our experiments indicate that the effect of silver nanoparticles is mainly mediated by silver ions. An effect of silver on cellular morphology was observed at p {Ag + } ≤ 9.2.

  17. Dynamics at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneham, A.M.; Gavartin, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    However fascinating structures may be at the nanoscale, time-dependent behaviour at the nanoscale has far greater importance. Some of the dynamics is random, with fluctuations controlling rate processes and making thermal ratchets possible. Some of the dynamics causes the transfer of energy, of signals, or of charge. Such transfers are especially efficiently controlled in biological systems. Other dynamical processes occur when we wish to control the nanoscale, e.g., to avoid local failures of gate dielectrics, or to manipulate structures by electronic excitation, to use spin manipulation in quantum information processing. Our prime purpose is to make clear the enormous range and variety of time-dependent nanoscale phenomena

  18. Electroless silver plating of the surface of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Marcello; Parravicini, Matteo; Moret, Massimo; Papagni, Antonio; Schröter, Bernd; Fritz, Torsten

    2011-10-04

    The integration of nanoscale processes and devices demands fabrication routes involving rapid, cost-effective steps, preferably carried out under ambient conditions. The realization of the metal/organic semiconductor interface is one of the most demanding steps of device fabrication, since it requires mechanical and/or thermal treatments which increment costs and are often harmful in respect to the active layer. Here, we provide a microscopic analysis of a room temperature, electroless process aimed at the deposition of a nanostructured metallic silver layer with controlled coverage atop the surface of single crystals and thin films of organic semiconductors. This process relies on the reaction of aqueous AgF solutions with the nonwettable crystalline surface of donor-type organic semiconductors. It is observed that the formation of a uniform layer of silver nanoparticles can be accomplished within 20 min contact time. The electrical characterization of two-terminal devices performed before and after the aforementioned treatment shows that the metal deposition process is associated with a redox reaction causing the p-doping of the semiconductor. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. The effect of dual complexing agents of lactic and citric acids on the formation of sol-gel derived Ag–PbTiO3 percolative thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yanbo; Hu, Tao; Tang, Liwen; Weng, Wenjian; Han, Gaorong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the formation of conductive particles to be nano-scale is important for achieving percolation effect in metal dispersed thin film composite to contribute extraordinary dielectric properties required for miniaturization of electronic devices. In this paper, lactic acid (LA) and citric acid (CA) were used as dual complexing agents to prepare a typical Ag nanoparticle dispersed PbTiO 3 (PTO) composite thin film by using a sol-gel method. The phase structure of the thin film and the coordination effect between complexing agent and metallic ions were investigated. It revealed that LA coordinated with Ti 4+ and Pb 2+ and CA coordinated with Ag + . Lead was fixed inside the gel network by LA and restricted to evaporate during heat treatment thus the pyrochlore phase was prevented from forming in the thin film. Ag + was coordinated by CA and the diffusion and thus aggregation of silver during gelation and annealing process were weakened. Silver nanoparticles dispersed in the PTO matrix formed with dual complexing agents of LA and CA introduced during the preparation process. The composite thin film of perfect perovskite phase with silver nanoparticles embedded was obtained at the molar ratio of LA/lead = 0.5 and CA/lead = 0.5. The dielectric constant of the thin film with silver nanoparticles is 5 times higher than that without silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticle–PbTiO 3 percolative film with high dielectric property is prepared. • Evaporation of lead was prevented by coordinating Pb with lactic acid agent. • Dual complexing agents contribute block and pinning effects to form Ag nanoparticles

  20. Enhancement of TE polarized light extraction efficiency in nanoscale (AlN)m /(GaN)n (m>n) superlattice substitution for Al-rich AlGaN disorder alloy: ultra-thin GaN layer modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Yu, Tong-jun; Shen, Bo; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    The problem of achieving high light extraction efficiency in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N is of paramount importance for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. To solve this problem, we investigate the microscopic mechanism of valence band inversion and light polarization, a crucial factor for enhancing light extraction efficiency, in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N alloy using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional, local-density approximation with 1/2 occupation, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional, in which the spin–orbit coupling effect is included. We find that the microscopic Ga-atom distribution can effectively modulate the valence band structure of Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N. Moreover, we prove that the valence band arrangement in the decreasing order of heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split-off hole can be realized by using nanoscale (AlN) m /(GaN) n (m>n) superlattice (SL) substituting for Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N disorder alloy as the active layer of optoelectronic devices due to the ultra-thin GaN layer modulation. The valence band maximum, i.e., the heavy hole band, has p x - and p y -like characteristics and is highly localized in the SL structure, which leads to the desired transverse electric (TE) polarized (E⊥c) light emission with improved light extraction efficiency in the DUV spectral region. Some important band-structure parameters and electron/hole effective masses are also given. The physical origin for the valence band inversion and TE polarization in (AlN) m /(GaN) n SL is analyzed in depth. (paper)

  1. Sensing at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    label-free detection of DNA at concentrations as low as 1-10 fM, a sensitivity comparable to the best signal amplification-assisted electrochemical sensors reported [12]. In another study actin-conjugated gold and silver nanorods are used to detect ATP, a common indicator of cell viability [13]. They show how aggregation induced by ATP-induced polymerization of the G-actin gives rise to a measurable change in the plasmon resonance absorbance of the nanorods. A review of the use of fluorescent silica nanoparticles for biomedical applications is provided by researchers at Dublin City University in Ireland [14]. The first scanning tunnelling microscope in the early 1980s and subsequent scanning probe developments brought the world of nanoscale structures into view in a manner that gorged the imaginations of scientists and the public. New ways of probing structures at this scale revealed a wealth of curious properties that triggered a surge of research activity in nanotechnology, now a multibillion dollar industry. One good turn deserves another and in fact nanostructures provide the perfect tools for the type of sensing and imaging applications that brought such widespread research interest to nanotechnology. This special issue highlights just how broad and innovative the range of sensing nanotechnologies has grown. References [1] Zappa D, Comini E and Sberveglieri G 2013 Thermally-oxidized zinc oxide nanowires chemical sensors Nanotechnology 24 444008 [2] Kemmler J A, Pokhrel S, Mädler L, Weimar U and Barsan N 2013 Flame spray pyrolysis for sensing at the nanoscale Nanotechnology 24 442001 [3] Bache M et al 2013 Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology Nanotechnology 24 444011 [4] Hu C-F, Wang J-Y, Liu Y-C, Tsai M-H and Fang W 2013 Development of 3D carbon nanotubes interdigitated finger electrodes on polymer substrate for flexible capacitive sensor application Nanotechnology 24 444006 [5] Neumann C, Volk C, Engels S and

  2. Nanoscale effects in interdiffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdelyi, Z.; Langer, G.A.; Beke, D.L.; Csik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Diffusion on the nano/atomic scales in multilayers, thin films has many challenging features even if the role of structural defects can be neglected and 'only' the effects related to the nano/atomic scale raise. The most basic equations to describe the diffusion are Fick's equations. It is important to emphasize that the diffusion coefficient in Fick's equations is in general composition independent and Fick's classical equations do not include the stress effects, which can have important influence onto the diffusion especially on the nano/atomic scale. We illustrate that the continuum descriptions of the diffusion cannot be applied automatically on such short distances, the classical continuum approximations (Fick's laws) cannot describe correctly the atomic movements. They predict faster kinetics than the atomistic models and the interface shift is always proportional to the square root of the time. However, the kinetics can be even linear on the nano/atomic scale. We have shown from computer simulations that Fick's laws violate on the nanoscale either in completely or restricted miscible systems. This is strongly related to the discrete character of the system on the nanoscale and to the highly neglected fact in the literature that the diffusion coefficients depend on the composition. As will be seen the composition dependence of D is very important and has very significant influence on the diffusion kinetics on the nano/atomic scales. It originates from the fact that usually the diffusion coefficients are different in an A and in a B matrix. Consequently in case of a real interface, which is not atomically sharp, i.e. there is a more or less intermixed region between the pure A and B matrixes, the diffusion coefficient changes continuously while e.g. an A atom diffuses from the pure A matrix into the pure B. This feature can be also called diffusion asymmetry. We have also illustrated that in this case not only the

  3. Silver niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanirbergenov, B.; Rozhenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    By means of determination of residual concentrations and pH measurements investigated are the AgNO 3 -KNbO 3 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 3 NbO 4 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 8 Nb 16 O 19 -H 2 O systems and established is formation of meta-, ortho-and hexaniobates of silver. AgNbO 3 x H 2 O, Ag 8 Nb 6 O 19 x 6H 2 O and Ag 3 NbO 3 x 2.5H 2 O are separated from aqueous solution. Using the methods of differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and X-ray-phase analyses it is shown that silver metaniobate transforms into the crystal state at 530 deg C. Ortho- and hexaniobate of silver decompose at 500 deg C with formation of silver metaniobate and metal silver

  4. Photo-induced valence change of the sulfur atom in an L-cysteine thin film grown on a silver metal substrate in a saliva-emulated aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujibayashi, Toru [Department of Physics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-27

    A thin film of L-cysteine (HSCH{sub 2}CH(NH{sub 2})COOH) is grown on a silver substrate in saliva-emulated aqueous solution. X-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements have revealed that the sulfur atom shows valence change under IR laser irradiation at 825 nm. The valence change maintains for about a minute at room temperature and more than an hour between 110 and 250 K after stopping the laser irradiation. It is not observed at all at temperatures lower than 110 K. This temperature-dependent behavior indicates that the photo-excited electronic change should be accompanied by a conformational change in the L-cysteine molecule. It is strongly suggested that the reversible valence change of the sulfur atom is applicable to a memory used around room temperature.

  5. Nanoscale Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Technical Report 11 December 2005 - 30 November 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Nanoscale Ionic Liquids 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-06-1-0012...Title: Nanoscale Ionic Liquids Principal Investigator: Emmanuel P. Giannelis Address: Materials Science and Engineering, Bard Hall, Cornell University...based fluids exhibit high ionic conductivity. The NFs are typically synthesized by grafting a charged, oligomeric corona onto the nanoparticle cores

  6. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  7. Enhanced nanoscale friction on fluorinated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jeong Young

    2012-12-12

    Atomically thin graphene is an ideal model system for studying nanoscale friction due to its intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy. Furthermore, modulating its tribological properties could be an important milestone for graphene-based micro- and nanomechanical devices. Here, we report unexpectedly enhanced nanoscale friction on chemically modified graphene and a relevant theoretical analysis associated with flexural phonons. Ultrahigh vacuum friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on the graphene surface increases by a factor of 6 after fluorination of the surface, while the adhesion force is slightly reduced. Density functional theory calculations show that the out-of-plane bending stiffness of graphene increases up to 4-fold after fluorination. Thus, the less compliant F-graphene exhibits more friction. This indicates that the mechanics of tip-to-graphene nanoscale friction would be characteristically different from that of conventional solid-on-solid contact and would be dominated by the out-of-plane bending stiffness of the chemically modified graphene. We propose that damping via flexural phonons could be a main source for frictional energy dissipation in 2D systems such as graphene.

  8. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  9. Colloidal silver fabrication using the spark discharge system and its antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Der-Chi; Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Liao, Chih-Yu; Tsung, Tsing-Tshih

    2008-10-01

    Nanoscale techniques for silver production may assist the resurgence of the medical use of silver, especially given that pathogens are showing increasing resistance to antibiotics. Traditional chemical synthesis methods for colloidal silver (CS) may lead to the presence of toxic chemical species or chemical residues, which may inhibit the effectiveness of CS as an antibacterial agent. To counter these problems a spark discharge system (SDS) was used to fabricate a suspension of colloidal silver in deionized water with no added chemical surfactants. SDS-CS contains both metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag(0)) and ionic silver forms (Ag(+)). The antimicrobial affect of SDS-CS on Staphylococcus aureus was studied. The results show that CS solutions with an ionic silver concentration of 30 ppm or higher are strong enough to destroy S. aureus. In addition, it was found that a solution's antimicrobial potency is directly related to its level of silver ion concentration.

  10. Silver doped metal layers for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, T; Jelínek, M; Mikšovský, J; Jurek, K; Weiserová, M

    2014-01-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 at% to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 at% to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficacy (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using scratch test. The antibacterial efficacy changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness.

  11. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Scanning nanoscale multiprobes for conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Kuhn, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    We report fabrication and measurements with two- and four-point probes with nanoscale dimensions, for high spatial resolution conductivity measurements on surfaces and thin films. By combination of conventional microfabrication and additive three-dimensional nanolithography, we have obtained...... electrode spacings down to 200 nm. At the tips of four silicon oxide microcantilevers, narrow carbon tips are grown in converging directions and subsequently coated with a conducting layer. The probe is placed in contact with a conducting surface, whereby the electrode resistance can be determined....... The nanoelectrodes withstand considerable contact force before breaking. The probe offers a unique possibility to position the voltage sensors, as well as the source and drain electrodes in areas of nanoscale dimensions. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  13. Flexible nanoscale high-performance FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-10-28

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible high-performance nanoscale electronics are more desired. At the moment, FinFET is the most advanced transistor architecture used in the state-of-the-art microprocessors. Therefore, we show a soft-etch based substrate thinning process to transform silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based nanoscale FinFET into flexible FinFET and then conduct comprehensive electrical characterization under various bending conditions to understand its electrical performance. Our study shows that back-etch based substrate thinning process is gentler than traditional abrasive back-grinding process; it can attain ultraflexibility and the electrical characteristics of the flexible nanoscale FinFET show no performance degradation compared to its rigid bulk counterpart indicating its readiness to be used for flexible high-performance electronics.

  14. Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal

  15. synthesis and optical characterization of acid-doped polyaniline thin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    SYNTHESIS AND OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ACID-DOPED. POLYANILINE THIN .... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... Characterization of Se Doped Polyaniline”,Current. Applied ... with Silver Nanoparticles”, Advances in Materials.

  16. Simulation of Silver Thin Films' Growth and Influence of Deposition Rate on Final Grain Size under Angle Flux and Standard Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jamshidnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a 2D stimulation model, FACET, is used for investigation of the relation between micro structure and deposition conditions such as substrate temperature, deposition rate and deposition angle of Ag thin films. It is observed that by increasing the deposition rate in standard conditions providing that the temperature of substrate is low, the average of final grain size is decreased. While, in deposition with angle flux the average of final grain size is increased.

  17. Lithographically patterned electrodeposition of gold, silver, and nickel nanoring arrays with widely tunable near-infrared plasmonic resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Aaron R; Corn, Robert M

    2013-02-26

    A novel low-cost nanoring array fabrication method that combines the process of lithographically patterned nanoscale electrodeposition (LPNE) with colloidal lithography is described. Nanoring array fabrication was accomplished in three steps: (i) a thin (70 nm) sacrificial nickel or silver film was first vapor-deposited onto a plasma-etched packed colloidal monolayer; (ii) the polymer colloids were removed from the surface, a thin film of positive photoresist was applied, and a backside exposure of the photoresist was used to create a nanohole electrode array; (iii) this array of nanoscale cylindrical electrodes was then used for the electrodeposition of gold, silver, or nickel nanorings. Removal of the photoresist and sacrificial metal film yielded a nanoring array in which all of the nanoring dimensions were set independently: the inter-ring spacing was fixed by the colloidal radius, the radius of the nanorings was controlled by the plasma etching process, and the width of the nanorings was controlled by the electrodeposition process. A combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements and Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the nanoring arrays. Nanoring arrays with radii from 200 to 400 nm exhibited a single strong NIR plasmonic resonance with an absorption maximum wavelength that varied linearly from 1.25 to 3.33 μm as predicted by a simple standing wave model linear antenna theory. This simple yet versatile nanoring array fabrication method was also used to electrodeposit concentric double gold nanoring arrays that exhibited multiple NIR plasmonic resonances.

  18. Optical properties and plasmonic response of silver-gallium nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lereu, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6123 (United States); Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France); Lemarchand, F.; Zerrad, M. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France); Yazdanpanah, M. [NaugaNeedles LLC, Louisville, Kentucky 40299 (United States); Passian, A., E-mail: passianan@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6123 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    Silver and gallium form an alloy Ag{sub 2}Ga via a room temperature spontaneous self-assembly that exhibits remarkable mechanical and electrical properties suitable for nanoscale measurements. However, whether photon excitation of plasmons in this emerging nanomaterial is retained or not has not been established. Here, we present a thin film formation of Ag{sub 2}Ga via a spreading-reactive process of liquid Ga on an Ag film and a characterization of its dielectric function ϵ(E) = ϵ{sub 1}(E) + iϵ{sub 2}(E) in the photon energy range 1.42 eV ≤ E < 4.2 eV. It is observed that while the plasmon damping increases, near an energy of 2.25 eV, the real part of ϵ exhibits a crossing with respect to that of Ag. Furthermore, the impact of new plasmon supporting materials is discussed and in order to enable further applications in plasmonics, the possibility of photon excitation of surface plasmons in Ag{sub 2}Ga is studied.

  19. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  20. Ellipsometry at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Hingerl, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This book presents and introduces ellipsometry in nanoscience and nanotechnology making a bridge between the classical and nanoscale optical behaviour of materials. It delineates the role of the non-destructive and non-invasive optical diagnostics of ellipsometry in improving science and technology of nanomaterials and related processes by illustrating its exploitation, ranging from fundamental studies of the physics and chemistry of nanostructures to the ultimate goal of turnkey manufacturing control. This book is written for a broad readership: materials scientists, researchers, engineers, as well as students and nanotechnology operators who want to deepen their knowledge about both basics and applications of ellipsometry to nanoscale phenomena. It starts as a general introduction for people curious to enter the fields of ellipsometry and polarimetry applied to nanomaterials and progresses to articles by experts on specific fields that span from plasmonics, optics, to semiconductors and flexible electronics...

  1. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the Textured Silver Back Reflector of a Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell: From Crystallography to Optical Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchamp, Martial; Söderström, K.; Jeangros, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The study of light trapping in amorphous, microcrystalline and micromorph thin-film Si solar cells is an important and active field of investigation. It has been demonstrated that the use of a rough Ag back-reflector lead to an increase of short circuit current but also to losses through...... the creation of surface plasmon polaritons. Here, we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to study the grain structure of a Ag thin-film that was sputtered on top of 2-μm-thick rough ZnO layer - defects, such as twin-boundaries have been observed. A smoothing of the top Ag surface was also...... observed after ex-situ annealing. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy with a monochromatic beam was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance with nm spatial resolution. 1 eV and 3 eV Ag surface plasmon resonances have been observed on as-grown layers. Such measurements provide valuable information about...

  4. Nanoscale thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  5. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2014-03-01

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ˜ 1 nm , the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and thermal

  6. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2014-01-01

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces become increasingly important on small length scales. Research during the past decade has extended studies of interfaces between simple metals and inorganic crystals to interfaces with molecular materials and liquids with systematic control of interface chemistry and physics. At separations on the order of ∼1 nm, the science of radiative transport through nanoscale gaps overlaps with thermal conduction by the coupling of electronic and vibrational excitations across weakly bonded or rough interfaces between materials. Major advances in the physics of phonons include first principles calculation of the phonon lifetimes of simple crystals and application of the predicted scattering rates in parameter-free calculations of the thermal conductivity. Progress in the control of thermal transport at the nanoscale is critical to continued advances in the density of information that can be stored in phase change memory devices and new generations of magnetic storage that will use highly localized heat sources to reduce the coercivity of magnetic media. Ultralow thermal conductivity—thermal conductivity below the conventionally predicted minimum thermal conductivity—has been observed in nanolaminates and disordered crystals with strong anisotropy. Advances in metrology by time-domain thermoreflectance have made measurements of the thermal conductivity of a thin layer with micron-scale spatial resolution relatively routine. Scanning thermal microscopy and

  7. Complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increase in the use of nanoscale materials in consumer products has resulted in a growing concern of their potential hazard to ecosystems and public health from their accidental or intentional introduction to the environment. Key environmental, health, and safety research needs include knowledge and methods for their detection, characterization, fate, and transport. Specifically, techniques available for the direct detection and quantification of their fate and transport in the environment are limited. Their small size, high surface area to volume ratio, interfacial, and electrical properties make metallic nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles, good targets for detection using electrical geophysical techniques. Here we measured the complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in sand columns under varying moisture conditions (0–30%), nanoparticle concentrations (0–10 mg/g), lithology (presence of clay), pore water salinity (0.0275 and 0.1000 S/m), and particle size (35, 90–210 and 1500–2500 nm). Based on the Cole-Cole relaxation models we obtained the chargeability and the time constant. We demonstrate that complex conductivity can detect silver nanoparticles in porous media with the response enhanced by higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles, moisture content, ionic strength, clay content and particle diameter. Quantification of the volumetric silver nanoparticles content in the porous media can also be obtained from complex co

  8. Antibacterial Properties of Titanate Nano fiber Thin Films Formed on a Titanium Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yada, M.; Inoue, Y.; Morita, T.; Torikai, T.; Watari, T.; Noda, I.; Hotokebuchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    A sodium titanate nano fiber thin film and a silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film formed on the surface of a titanium plate exhibited strong antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the major bacteria causing in-hospital infections. Exposure of the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film to ultraviolet rays generated a high antibacterial activity due to photo catalysis and the sodium titanate nano fiber thin film immediately after its synthesis possessed a high antibacterial activity even without exposure to ultraviolet rays. Elution of silver from the silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nano fiber thin film caused by the silver ion exchange reaction was considered to contribute substantially to the strong antibacterial activity. The titanate nano fiber thin films adhered firmly to titanium. Therefore, these titanate nano fiber thin film/titanium composites will be extremely useful as implant materials that have excellent antibacterial activities.

  9. Uniform thin film electrode made of low-temperature-sinterable silver nanoparticles: optimized extent of ligand exchange from oleylamine to acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung Jong; Kim, Na Rae; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo, E-mail: hmlee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Lowering the sintering temperature of nanoparticles in the electrode deposition process holds both academic and industrial interest because of the potential applications of such electrodes in polymer devices and flexible electronics. In addition, achieving uniform electrode formation after ligand exchange is equally important as lowering the sintering temperature. Here, we report a simple chemical treatment by the addition of ligand-exchanging interfaces to lower the sintering temperature; we also determine the optimum extent of ligand exchange for crack-free electrode formation. First, we investigated the structural change of Ag thin films with respect to the concentration of acrylic acid (AA) solutions. Second, we used thermal analysis to evaluate the effects of changes in the sintering temperature. We observed that the resulting conductivity of the Ag patterns was only one order of magnitude lower than that of bulk Ag when the patterns were sintered at 150 °C. The simple chemical treatment developed in this work for solution-processed Ag electrode formation can be adopted for flexible electronics, which would eliminate the need for vacuum and high-temperature processes.

  10. Honeycomb-like thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) embedded with gold or silver nanoparticles formed at the planer liquid/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Ma, Huihui; Chu, Chunxiao; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Hong-Guo

    2013-07-15

    Composite thin films of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) decorated with Au or Ag nanoclusters and nanoparticles were fabricated at the interfaces of chloroform solution of PS-b-P2VP and aqueous solutions of HAuCl4 or AgNO3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations indicated that large area of a single-layer honeycomb structure was formed, which is composed of polygons (most of them are hexagons) whose walls look like spindles with the length of several hundreds of nanometers. Large amount of Au or Ag nanoparticles are embedded in the walls and the undersides of the honeycomb structures. The formation of these novel composite structures was attributed to the adsorption of block copolymer molecules and inorganic species of AuCl4(-) and Ag(+) ions at the liquid-liquid interface, the combination of the polymer molecules and the inorganic ions, and the self-assembly of the composite molecules. After UV-light irradiation and KBH4 aqueous solution treatment, the inorganic species were reduced completely, as confirmed by UV-vis spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These composite films exhibited high catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by KBH4 in aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transparent nanoscale floating gate memory using self-assembled bismuth nanocrystals in Bi(2) Mg(2/3) Nb(4/3) O(7) (BMN) pyrochlore thin films grown at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-June; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Hong, Soon-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yong

    2012-07-03

    Bismuth nanocrystals for a nanoscale floating gate memory device are self-assembled in Bi(2) Mg(2/3) Nb(4/3) O(7) (BMN) dielectric films grown at room temperature by radio-frequency sputtering. The TEM cross-sectional image shows the "real" structure grown on a Si (001) substrate. The image magnified from the dotted box (red color) in the the cross-sectional image clearly shows bismuth nanoparticles at the interface between the Al(2) O(3) and HfO(2) layer (right image). Nanoparticles approximately 3 nm in size are regularly distributed at the interface. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ammonia sensing properties of silver nanocomposite with polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, N. S.; Kothari, D. C.; Bhat, N. V.

    2013-02-01

    Silver-polypyrrole nanocomposite thin film was prepared by a novel method. UV-Vis spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles and also polymerization of pyrrole surrounding the silver nanoparticles. All the important X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to silver were present in the composites. The silver nanoparticles and its composites with polypyrrole were observed by SEM and TEM. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using two probe method and it was found that the conductivity of nanocomposites is 10-5 S/cm. It was found that functionalized silver nanoparticles can act as efficient gas sensor for ammonia. The present result of the increase in conductivity with ammonia exposure is in contrast with the previously reported results of the decrease in conductivity.

  13. Fast and low-temperature sintering of silver complex using oximes as a potential reducing agent for solution-processible, highly conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Park, Su Bin; Kim, Ji Man; Han, Dae Sang; Chae, Jangwoo; Kwak, Jeonghun

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive, solution-processed silver thin-films were obtained at a low sintering temperature of 100 °C in a short sintering time of 10 min by introducing oximes as a potential reductant for silver complex. The thermal properties and reducibility of three kinds of oximes, acetone oxime, 2-butanone oxime, and one dimethylglyoxime, were investigated as a reducing agent, and we found that the thermal decomposition product of oximes (ketones) accelerated the conversion of silver complex into highly conductive silver at low sintering temperature in a short time. Using the acetone oxime, the silver thin-film exhibited the lowest surface resistance (0.91 Ω sq −1 ) compared to those sing other oximes. The silver thin-film also showed a high reflectance of 97.8%, which is comparable to evaporated silver films. We also demonstrated inkjet printed silver patterns with the oxime-added silver complex inks. (paper)

  14. Rocket Science at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Wang, Joseph

    2016-06-28

    Autonomous propulsion at the nanoscale represents one of the most challenging and demanding goals in nanotechnology. Over the past decade, numerous important advances in nanotechnology and material science have contributed to the creation of powerful self-propelled micro/nanomotors. In particular, micro- and nanoscale rockets (MNRs) offer impressive capabilities, including remarkable speeds, large cargo-towing forces, precise motion controls, and dynamic self-assembly, which have paved the way for designing multifunctional and intelligent nanoscale machines. These multipurpose nanoscale shuttles can propel and function in complex real-life media, actively transporting and releasing therapeutic payloads and remediation agents for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. This review discusses the challenges of designing efficient MNRs and presents an overview of their propulsion behavior, fabrication methods, potential rocket fuels, navigation strategies, practical applications, and the future prospects of rocket science and technology at the nanoscale.

  15. Preconcentration of silver as silver xanthate on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadevi, P.; Naidu, U.V.; Naidu, G.R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Silver from aqueous solution was preconcentrated by adsorption on activated carbon as silver xanthate. Factors influencing the adsorption of silver were studied. Optimum conditions for the preconcentration of silver were established. (author) 9 refs.; 3 tabs

  16. Nanoscale and submicron fatigue crack growth in nickel microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Yao, N.; Imasogie, B.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel edge-notched microbeam technique for the study of short fatigue crack growth. The technique is used to study submicron and nanoscale fatigue in LIGA Ni thin films with columnar microstructures. The edge-notched microbeams were fabricated within LIGA Ni thin films, using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. The microbeams were then cyclically deformed to failure at a stress ratio of 0.1. Different slip-band structures were observed below the nanoscale notches. Cyclic deformation resulted in the formation of primary slip bands below the notch. Subsequent crack growth then occurred by the unzipping of fatigue cracks along intersecting slip bands. The effects of the primary slip bands were idealized using dislocation-based models. These were used to estimate the intrinsic fatigue threshold and the fatigue endurance limit. The estimates from the model are shown to be consistent with experimental data from prior stress-life experiments and current/prior fatigue threshold estimates

  17. Silver-Stained Fibrin Zymography: Separation of Proteases and Activity Detection Using a Single Substrate-Containing Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Su; Kang, Dae-Ook; Choi, Nack-Shick

    2017-01-01

    Silver-stained fibrin zymography for separation of protease bands and activity detection using a single substrate gel was designed. The method takes advantage of the nano-scale sensitivity of both zymography and silver staining. After sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in a gel containing fibrin (protease substrate), the gel was incubated in enzyme reaction buffer and the zymogram gel was silver-stained. Bands with protease activity were stained with silver in clear areas where the protein substrate had been degraded. The molecular sizes of proteases were accurately determined.

  18. Nanoscale decomposition of Nb-Ru-O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Chen, Yen-Ting

    2016-11-01

    A correlative theoretical and experimental methodology has been employed to explore the decomposition of amorphous Nb-Ru-O at elevated temperatures. Density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations reveal that amorphous Nb-Ru-O is structurally modified within 10 ps at 800 K giving rise to an increase in the planar metal - oxygen and metal - metal population and hence formation of large clusters, which signifies atomic segregation. The driving force for this atomic segregation process is 0.5 eV/atom. This is validated by diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy of sputter-synthesized Nb-Ru-O thin films. Room temperature samples are amorphous, while at 800 K nanoscale rutile RuO2 grains, self-organized in an amorphous Nb-O matrix, are observed, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. This amorphous/crystalline interplay may be of importance for next generation of thermoelectric devices.

  19. Nanoscale technology in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Ralph S; Smith, R Lane

    2004-01-01

    Reviewing recent accomplishments in the field of nanobiology Nanoscale Technology in Biological Systems introduces the application of nanoscale matrices to human biology. It focuses on the applications of nanotechnology fabrication to biomedical devices and discusses new physical methods for cell isolation and manipulation and intracellular communication at the molecular level. It also explores the application of nanobiology to cardiovascular diseases, oncology, transplantation, and a range of related disciplines. This book build a strong background in nanotechnology and nanobiology ideal for

  20. Silver-doped metal layers for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, T; Jelínek, M; Mikšovský, J; Jurek, K; Weiserová, M

    2014-01-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316 L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficiency (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using a scratch test. The antibacterial efficiency changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on the minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness. (paper)

  1. Friction laws at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yifei; Turner, Kevin T; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2009-02-26

    Macroscopic laws of friction do not generally apply to nanoscale contacts. Although continuum mechanics models have been predicted to break down at the nanoscale, they continue to be applied for lack of a better theory. An understanding of how friction force depends on applied load and contact area at these scales is essential for the design of miniaturized devices with optimal mechanical performance. Here we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with realistic force fields to establish friction laws in dry nanoscale contacts. We show that friction force depends linearly on the number of atoms that chemically interact across the contact. By defining the contact area as being proportional to this number of interacting atoms, we show that the macroscopically observed linear relationship between friction force and contact area can be extended to the nanoscale. Our model predicts that as the adhesion between the contacting surfaces is reduced, a transition takes place from nonlinear to linear dependence of friction force on load. This transition is consistent with the results of several nanoscale friction experiments. We demonstrate that the breakdown of continuum mechanics can be understood as a result of the rough (multi-asperity) nature of the contact, and show that roughness theories of friction can be applied at the nanoscale.

  2. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  3. Optimization of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirzaditabar, Farzad; Saliminasab, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, resonance light scattering (RLS) properties of a silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell, based on quasi-static approach and plasmon hybridization theory, are investigated. Scattering spectrum of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell has two intense and clearly separated RLS peaks and provides a potential for biosensing based on surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The two RLS peaks in silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell are optimized by tuning the geometrical dimensions. In addition, the optimal geometry is discussed to obtain the high sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell. As the silver core radius increases, the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell decreases whereas increasing the middle dielectric thickness increases the sensitivity of silver-dielectric-silver nanoshell

  4. Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Owoong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering; Seol, Daehee [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering; Lee, Dongkyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Han, Hee [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea); Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela [Univ. of Cologne (Germany). Physics Inst.; Lee, Woo [Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea); Jesse, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Lee, Ho Nyung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences; Alexe, Marin [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Kim, Yunseok [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering

    2017-11-14

    Ferroelectric materials possess spontaneous polarization that can be used for multiple applications. Owing to a long-term development of reducing the sizes of devices, the preparation of ferroelectric materials and devices is entering the nanometer-scale regime. In order to evaluate the ferroelectricity, there is a need to investigate the polarization charge at the nanoscale. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that the detection of polarization charges using a conventional conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) without a top electrode is not feasible because the nanometer-scale radius of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip yields a very low signal-to-noise ratio. But, the detection is unrelated to the radius of an AFM tip and, in fact, a matter of the switched area. In this work, the direct probing of the polarization charge at the nanoscale is demonstrated using the positive-up-negative-down method based on the conventional CAFM approach without additional corrections or circuits to reduce the parasitic capacitance. The polarization charge densities of 73.7 and 119.0 µC cm-2 are successfully probed in ferroelectric nanocapacitors and thin films, respectively. The results we obtained show the feasibility of the evaluation of polarization charge at the nanoscale and provide a new guideline for evaluating the ferroelectricity at the nanoscale.

  5. Silver powder effectiveness and mechanism of silver paste on silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Jung-Ting; Lin, Shun-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimizing the silver paste in 80–85 wt.%. ► Optimizing its particle size in 1–1.5 μm spherical powder. ► The sheet resistance is 4 mΩ/sq during the 860 °C sintering process. ► Redox reaction cause Ag crystallites to grow on the interface. ► A thin layer of silicon oxide (75–150 nm) was formed. - Abstract: Since the silver paste plays a major role in the mass production of silicon solar cells, this work has succeeded in optimizing the silver paste in 80–85 wt.% and optimizing its particle size in 1–1.5 μm spherical powder. As the firing temperature is increased, the growth trend of silver grain is improved. The result of this work has showed that the lowest sheet resistance is 4 mΩ/sq during the 860 °C sintering process. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation has showed that the formation of silver oxide is formed during the melting process of glass and triggered redox reaction of Ag crystallites to grow on the interface. It has proven by transmission electron microscope (TEM) that a thin layer of silicon oxide (75–150 nm) was formed, respectively.

  6. Graphene coatings for chemotherapy: avoiding silver-mediated degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzola, Federico; Cooil, Simon; Skjønsfjell, Eirik Torbjørn Bakken; Breiby, Dag W; Wells, Justin W; Trinh, Thuat; Kjelstrup, Signe; Østli, Elise Ramleth; Høydalsvik, Kristin; Preobrajenski, Alexei; Cafolla, Attilio A; Evans, D Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatment usually involves the delivery of fluorouracil (5-Fu) together with other drugs through central venous catheters. Catheters and their connectors are increasingly treated with silver or argentic alloys/compounds. Complications arising from broken catheters are common, leading to additional suffering for patients and increased medical costs. Here, we uncover a likely cause of such failure through a study of the surface chemistry relevant to chemotherapy drug delivery, i.e. between 5-Fu and silver. We show that silver catalytically decomposes 5-Fu, compromising the efficacy of the chemotherapy treatment. Furthermore, HF is released as a product, which will be damaging to both patient and catheter. We demonstrate that graphene surfaces inhibit this undesirable reaction and would offer superior performance as nanoscale coatings in cancer treatment applications. (paper)

  7. In situ SU-8 silver nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren V. Fischer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials containing metal nanoparticles are of considerable interest in photonics and optoelectronics applications. However, device fabrication of such materials always encounters the challenge of incorporation of preformed nanoparticles into photoresist materials. As a solution to this problem, an easy new method of fabricating silver nanocomposites by an in situ reduction of precursors within the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 has been developed. AgNO3 dissolved in acetonitrile and mixed with the epoxy-based photoresist SU-8 forms silver nanoparticles primarily during the pre- and post-exposure soft bake steps at 95 °C. A further high-temperature treatment at 300 °C resulted in the formation of densely homogeneously distributed silver nanoparticles in the photoresist matrix. No particle growth or agglomeration of nanoparticles is observed at this point. The reported new in situ silver nanocomposite materials can be spin coated as homogeneous thin films and structured by using UV lithography. A resolution of 5 µm is achieved in the lithographic process. The UV exposure time is found to be independent of the nanoparticle concentration. The fabricated silver nanocomposites exhibit high plasmonic responses suitable for the development of new optoelectronic and optical sensing devices.

  8. Nanoscale phase change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marissa A; Jeyasingh, Rakesh Gnana David; Wong, H-S Philip; Milliron, Delia J

    2012-08-07

    Phase change memory materials store information through their reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states. For typical metal chalcogenide compounds, their phase transition properties directly impact critical memory characteristics and the manipulation of these is a major focus in the field. Here, we discuss recent work that explores the tuning of such properties by scaling the materials to nanoscale dimensions, including fabrication and synthetic strategies used to produce nanoscale phase change memory materials. The trends that emerge are relevant to understanding how such memory technologies will function as they scale to ever smaller dimensions and also suggest new approaches to designing materials for phase change applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities raised by integrating nanoscale phase change materials into switching devices are discussed.

  9. Characterization of n-TiO{sub 2} thin films modified with silver nanoparticles; Caracterizacion de peliculas delgadas de n-TiO{sub 2} modificadas con nanoparticulas de plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto, L.F. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, N.L. (Mexico). Dept. de Biotecnologia e Ingenieria de Alimentos; Sanchez-Cervantes, E.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas. Lab. de Vidrio

    2010-07-01

    Carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere has gained much attention and has reopened many research lines that initiated two or three decades ago. Electrochemical reduction represents one of the most discussed methods, especially where semiconductor and metal-semiconductor cathodes are used to achieve CO{sub 2} transformation into higher-energy products. In the present work, the influence of silver nanoparticles upon CO{sub 2} reduction on n-TiO{sub 2} cathodes in aqueous media is presented. Silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 250nm were deposited on n-TiO{sub 2} surfaces by the electrochemical Double-Pulse Potential method. A Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Diffraction structural analysis is presented showing the presence of metallic silver, while Atomic Force Microscopy shows surface roughness and particle size before and after surface modification. These measurements were confirmed by Scanning-Electron Microscopy acquainting for the formation of metal particles on the n-TiO{sub 2} surface. Enhancement of CO{sub 2} reduction by the presence of silver on cathodes is shown by cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  10. NANOSCALE BIOSENSORS IN ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This powerpoint presentation presented information on nanoscale biosensors in ecosystem exposure research. The outline of the presentation is as follows: nanomaterials environmental exposure research; US agencies involved in nanosensor research; nanoscale LEDs in biosensors; nano...

  11. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensing and Processing in Microreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we summarize recent advances in nanoscale electrochemistry, including the use of nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanowires. Exciting developments are reported for nanoscale redox cycling devices, which can chemically amplify signal readout. We also discuss promising

  12. Highly efficient silver patterning without photo-resist using simple silver precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Younghun; Hwang, Eoc-Chae; Lee, Sang-Yun; Lyu, Yi-Yeol; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Jin-Young; Chang, Seok; Pu, Lyong Sun; Kim, Ji Man

    2005-01-01

    Highly efficient method for silver patterning without photo-resist was developed by using high photosensitive organo-silver precursors, which were prepared by a simple reaction of silver salts and excess of amines. The FT-IR and GC-MS spectra were recorded depending on UV exposure time, for (n-PrNH 2 )Ag(NO 3 ).0.5MeCN and (n-PrNH 2 )Ag(NO 2 ).0.5MeCN, to understand the photolysis mechanism. The results indicate not only dissociation of coordinated amine and acetonitrile, but also decomposition of corresponding anion upon UV irradiation. When a precursor thin film was exposed to broadband UV irradiation, a partially reduced and insoluble silver species were formed within several minutes. After development, the irradiated areas were treated with a reducing agent to obtain pure metallic patterns. Subsequently, annealing step was followed at 100-350 deg. C to increase the adhesion of interface and cohesion of silver particles. The line resolution of 5 μm was obtained by the present silver precursors. Film thickness was also controllable from 50 to 250 nm by repetition of the above procedure. The average electrical conductivity was in the range of 3-43 Ω cm, measured by four-point probe technique. AES depth profile of the silver pattern thus obtained showed carbon and oxygen contents are less than 1% through the whole range. Even though sulfur contaminant exists on the surface, it was believed that nearly pure silver pattern was generated

  13. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity

  14. Nanoscale TiO2 films and their application in remediation of organic pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalysis is an advanced process for treatment of air, wastewater, and drinking water, the primary advantage being its ability to mineralize many pollutants. Among several nanoscale arrangements of photocatalysts, there has been a strong push to develop them as thin films be...

  15. Crystallographic Investigation of Ag (4 mol%) Doped ZnO (SZO) Thin Films by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Lwin Nwe; Sandar Dwe; Khant Khant Lin; Khin Thuzar; Than Than Win; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    Silver doped ZnO(SZO) thin films are prepared by sol-based method. The silver dopant concentration is 4 mol % in this case. XRD analysis carried out to determine, crystallographic properties such as lattice parameters and crystallite size of SZO thin films.

  16. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  17. Nanoscale Characterization for the Classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of a semester course in 'nano-scale characterization'. The interdisciplinary course is opened to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a standard undergraduate preparation in Materials Science, Chemistry, or Physics. The approach is formal rather than the typical 'research seminar' and has a laboratory component

  18. Development of Nanoscale Graphitic Devices and The Transport Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, Venugopal

    2011-02-01

    This dissertation describes the development of graphitic based nanoscale devices with its fabrication and transport characterization results. It covers graphite nano-scale stacked-junctions fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) 3-D etching technique, a single layer graphite layer (graphene) preparation and its electrical transport characterization results and the synthesis and investigation of electrical transport behavior of graphene oxide based thin film devices. The first chapter describes the basic information about the carbon family in detail in which the electronic properties and structure of graphite, graphene and graphene oxide are discussed. In addition, the necessity of developing nanoscale graphitic devices is given. The second chapter explains the experimental techniques used in this research for fabricating nanoscale devices which includes focused ion beam 3-D fabrication procedures, mechanical exfoliation technique and photolithographic methods. In third chapter, we have reported the results on temperature dependence of graphite planar-type structures fabricated along ab-plane. In the fourth and fifth chapters, the fabrication and electrical transport characteristics of large in-plane area graphite planar-type structures (fabricated along ab-plane and c-axis) were discussed and their transport anisotropy properties were investigated briefly. In the sixth chapter, we focused the fabrication of the submicron sized graphite stacked junctions and their electrical transport characterization studies. In which, FIB was used to fabricated the submicron junctions with various in-plane area (with same stack height) are and their transport characteristics were compared. The seventh chapter reports investigation of electrical transport results of nanoscale graphite stacked-junctions in which the temperature dependent transport (R-T) studies, current-voltage measurements for the various in-plane areas and for various stack height samples were analyzed. The

  19. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Mazur, Eric [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, 9 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  20. Femtosecond laser direct writing of monocrystalline hexagonal silver prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Kevin; Kang, SeungYeon; Moebius, Michael; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up growth methods and top-down patterning techniques are both used to fabricate metal nanostructures, each with a distinct advantage: One creates crystalline structures and the other offers precise positioning. Here, we present a technique that localizes the growth of metal crystals to the focal volume of a laser beam, combining advantages from both approaches. We report the fabrication of silver nanoprisms—hexagonal nanoscale silver crystals—through irradiation with focused femtosecond laser pulses. The growth of these nanoprisms is due to a nonlinear optical interaction between femtosecond laser pulses and a polyvinylpyrrolidone film doped with silver nitrate. The hexagonal nanoprisms have bases hundreds of nanometers in size and the crystal growth occurs over exposure times of less than 1 ms (8 orders of magnitude faster than traditional chemical techniques). Electron backscatter diffraction analysis shows that the hexagonal nanoprisms are monocrystalline. The fabrication method combines advantages from both wet chemistry and femtosecond laser direct-writing to grow silver crystals in targeted locations. The results presented in this letter offer an approach to directly positioning and growing silver crystals on a substrate, which can be used for plasmonic devices.

  1. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  2. A Review of Atomic Layer Deposition for Nanoscale Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Riyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition (ALD is a thin film growth technique that utilizes alternating, self-saturation chemical reactions between gaseous precursors to achieve a deposited nanoscale layers. It has recently become a subject of great interest for ultrathin film deposition in many various applications such as microelectronics, photovoltaic, dynamic random access memory (DRAM, and microelectromechanic system (MEMS. By using ALD, the conformability and extreme uniformity of layers can be achieved in low temperature process. It facilitates to be deposited onto the surface in many variety substrates that have low melting temperature. Eventually it has advantages on the contribution to the wider nanodevices.

  3. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  4. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang, E-mail: tangyang@nicenergy.com; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, Mohamad M., E-mail: mayad12000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt); Zaki, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO{sub 3}. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO{sub 3} solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamad M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3 . Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad. M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  8. Mineral commodity profiles: Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Hilliard, Henry E.

    2005-01-01

    Overview -- Silver is one of the eight precious, or noble, metals; the others are gold and the six platinum-group metals (PGM). World mine production in 2001 was 18,700 metric tons (t) and came from mines in 60 countries; the 10 leading producing countries accounted for 86 percent of the total. The largest producer was Mexico, followed by Peru, Australia, and the United States. About 25 percent of the silver mined in the world in 2001 came from silver ores; 15 percent, from gold ores and the remaining 60 percent, from copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the United States, 14 percent of the silver mined in 2001 came from silver ores; 39 percent, from gold ores; 10 percent, from copper and copper-molybdenum ores; and 37 percent, from lead, zinc, and lead-zinc ores. The precious metal ores (gold and silver) came from 30 lode mines and 10 placer mines; the base-metal ores (copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc) came from 24 lode mines. Placer mines yielded less than 1 percent of the national silver production. Silver was mined in 12 States, of which Nevada was by far the largest producer; it accounted for nearly one-third of the national total. The production of silver at domestic mines generated employment for about 1,100 mine and mill workers. The value of mined domestic silver was estimated to be $290 million. Of the nearly 27,000 t of world silver that was fabricated in 2001, about one-third went into jewelry and silverware, one-fourth into the light-sensitive compounds used in photography, and nearly all the remainder went for industrial uses, of which there were 7 substantial uses and many other small-volume uses. By comparison, 85 percent of the silver used in the United States went to photography and industrial uses, 8 percent to jewelry and silverware, and 7 percent to coins and medals. The United States was the largest consumer of silver followed by India, Japan, and Italy; the 13 largest consuming countries accounted for nearly 90 percent of the world total. In the

  9. Silver electrocrystallization at polyaniline-coated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.; Tsakova, V.

    2004-01-01

    The initial stage of silver electrocrystallization is studied at polyaniline (PANI)-coated platinum electrodes by means of potentiostatic current transients and electron microscopic observations. Data for the nucleation frequency and the number of active sites for nucleation are obtained by interpreting of current transients according to the theory for nucleation and 3D growth under diffusion limitations. It is found that depending on the PANI layers thickness, d, two different regimes for silver nucleation and growth exist. For thin PANI coatings (d 0.3 μm), silver nucleation occurs with a two orders of magnitude lower nucleation frequency at active sites located most probably at the polymer surface, their number remaining constant for thicknesses up to 1.4 μm. It is established that reduction of the PANI layer occurring in parallel with the silver electrodeposition does not influence the number of active sites for nucleation. The results obtained by interpretation of current transients are in good agreement with results for the number of crystals obtained by microscopic observation

  10. Systems engineering at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason J.; Breidenich, Jennifer L.; Wei, Michael C.; Clatterbaughi, Guy V.; Keng, Pei Yuin; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have provided some of the greatest leaps in technology over the past twenty years, but their relatively early stage of maturity presents challenges for their incorporation into engineered systems. Perhaps even more challenging is the fact that the underlying physics at the nanoscale often run counter to our physical intuition. The current state of nanotechnology today includes nanoscale materials and devices developed to function as components of systems, as well as theoretical visions for "nanosystems," which are systems in which all components are based on nanotechnology. Although examples will be given to show that nanomaterials have indeed matured into applications in medical, space, and military systems, no complete nanosystem has yet been realized. This discussion will therefore focus on systems in which nanotechnology plays a central role. Using self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia as an example, we will discuss how systems engineering concepts apply to nanotechnology.

  11. Creating nanoscale emulsions using condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Ingrid F; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2017-11-08

    Nanoscale emulsions are essential components in numerous products, ranging from processed foods to novel drug delivery systems. Existing emulsification methods rely either on the breakup of larger droplets or solvent exchange/inversion. Here we report a simple, scalable method of creating nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions by condensing water vapor onto a subcooled oil-surfactant solution. Our technique enables a bottom-up approach to forming small-scale emulsions. Nanoscale water droplets nucleate at the oil/air interface and spontaneously disperse within the oil, due to the spreading dynamics of oil on water. Oil-soluble surfactants stabilize the resulting emulsions. We find that the oil-surfactant concentration controls the spreading behavior of oil on water, as well as the peak size, polydispersity, and stability of the resulting emulsions. Using condensation, we form emulsions with peak radii around 100 nm and polydispersities around 10%. This emulsion formation technique may open different routes to creating emulsions, colloidal systems, and emulsion-based materials.

  12. Nanoscale patterning of two metals on silicon surfaces using an ABC triblock copolymer template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Masato; Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-05-03

    Patterning technologically important semiconductor interfaces with nanoscale metal films is important for applications such as metallic interconnects and sensing applications. Self-assembling block copolymer templates are utilized to pattern an aqueous metal reduction reaction, galvanic displacement, on silicon surfaces. Utilization of a triblock copolymer monolayer film, polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO), with two blocks capable of selective transport of different metal complexes to the surface (PEO and P2VP), allows for chemical discrimination and nanoscale patterning. Different regions of the self-assembled structure discriminate between metal complexes at the silicon surface, at which time they undergo the spontaneous reaction at the interface. Gold deposition from gold(III) compounds such as HAuCl4(aq) in the presence of hydrofluoric acid mirrors the parent block copolymer core structure, whereas silver deposition from Ag(I) salts such as AgNO3(aq) does the opposite, localizing exclusively under the corona. By carrying out gold deposition first and silver second, sub-100-nm gold features surrounded by silver films can be produced. The chemical selectivity was extended to other metals, including copper, palladium, and platinum. The interfaces were characterized by a variety of methods, including scanning electron microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy.

  13. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  14. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutakov, O., E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Goncharova, I. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, S. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag{sup +} had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag{sup +} doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching.

  15. Silver release and antimicrobial properties of PMMA films doped with silver ions, nano-particles and complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutakov, O.; Goncharova, I.; Rimpelova, S.; Kolarova, K.; Svanda, J.; Svorcik, V.

    2015-01-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular due to low microbial resistance to silver. In the present work, the efficiency of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymer complex was studied by a combination of AAS, XPS and AFM techniques. The biological activities of the proposed materials were discussed in view of the rate of silver releasing from the polymer matrix. Concentrations of Ag active form were estimated by its ability to interact with L-cysteine using electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy. Rates of the released silver were compared with the biological activity in dependence on the form of embedded silver. Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were studied using two bacterial strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. It was found that PMMA films doped with Ag + had greater activity than those doped with nanoparticles and silver–imidazole polymeric complexes. However, the antimicrobial efficiency of Ag + doped films was only short-term. Contrary, the antimicrobial activity of silver–imidazole/PMMA films increased in time of sample soaking. - Highlights: • PMMA thin films doped with silver ions, nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver–imidazole helical complexes (AgIm) were studied. • Silver release from doped polymer films and its biological activity were estimated. • Antimicrobial properties of doped polymer films were also studied. • Ag ions doped films showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, which quickly disappeared. • AgIm and AgNPs doped films showed more stable antimicrobial properties. • AgIm complexes conserve their structure after addition into polymer and after leaching

  16. Nanoscale electron transport at the surface of a topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Bobisch, Christian A.

    2016-04-01

    The use of three-dimensional topological insulators for disruptive technologies critically depends on the dissipationless transport of electrons at the surface, because of the suppression of backscattering at defects. However, in real devices, defects are unavoidable and scattering at angles other than 180° is allowed for such materials. Until now, this has been studied indirectly by bulk measurements and by the analysis of the local density of states in close vicinity to defect sites. Here, we directly measure the nanoscale voltage drop caused by the scattering at step edges, which occurs if a lateral current flows along a three-dimensional topological insulator. The experiments were performed using scanning tunnelling potentiometry for thin Bi2Se3 films. So far, the observed voltage drops are small because of large contributions of the bulk to the electronic transport. However, for the use of ideal topological insulating thin films in devices, these contributions would play a significant role.

  17. Nanoscale imaging of photocurrent enhancement by resonator array photovoltaic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dongheon; Yoon, Yohan; Zhitenev, Nikolai B.

    2018-04-01

    Nanoscale surface patterning commonly used to increase absorption of solar cells can adversely impact the open-circuit voltage due to increased surface area and recombination. Here, we demonstrate absorptivity and photocurrent enhancement using silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanosphere arrays on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell that do not require direct surface patterning. Due to the combined effects of thin-film interference and whispering gallery-like resonances within nanosphere arrays, there is more than 20% enhancement in both absorptivity and photocurrent. To determine the effect of the resonance coupling between nanospheres, we perform a scanning photocurrent microscopy based on a near-field scanning optical microscopy measurement and find a substantial local photocurrent enhancement. The nanosphere-based antireflection coating (ARC), made by the Meyer rod rolling technique, is a scalable and a room-temperature process; and, can replace the conventional thin-film-based ARCs requiring expensive high-temperature vacuum deposition.

  18. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and silver colloidal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong; Ngo Hoang Minh; Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Dang Mau Chien

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized rapidly in green conditions by using microwave irradiation and non-toxic chemistry substances (acid oxalic, silver nitrate, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP; Mw = 55 000)). The particle size and morphology of these solutions can be controlled by altering several factors like the time, the power of microwave exposure, and the ratio of silver oxalate and PVP etc. The silver nanoparticles were fabricated by thermal decomposition of silver oxalate. The synthesized silver colloidal solutions and silver nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques like UV- VIS, XRD, TEM, FESEM/EDS and ICP-AAS studies. Finally, we used the synthesized silver colloidal solutions for antibacterial purpose. The obtained results showed that the synthesized silver colloidal solutions, even at very low concentrations, have highly efficient anti-bacterial property.

  20. Lattice Dynamical Properties of Ferroelectric Thin Films at the Nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaoxing [Temple University

    2014-01-13

    In this project, we have successfully demonstrated atomic layer-by-layer growth by laser MBE from separate targets by depositing SrTiO3 films from SrO and TiO2 targets. The RHEED intensity oscillation was used to monitor and control the growth of each SrO and TiO2 layer. We have shown that by using separate oxide targets, laser MBE can achieve the same level of stoichiometry control as the reactive MBE. We have also studied strain relaxation in LaAlO3 films and its effect on the 2D electron gas at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We found that there are two layers of different in-plane lattice constants in the LaAlO3 films, one next to the SrTiO3 substrate nearly coherently strained, while the top part relaxed as the film thickness increases above 20 unit cells. This strain relaxation significantly affect the transport properties of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.

  1. Glancing angle deposition of thin films engineering the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkeye, Matthew M; Brett, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a highly practical treatment of GLAD technology, gathering existing procedures, methodologies, and experimental designs into a single, cohesive volume which will be useful both as a ready reference for those in the field and as a definitive guide for those entering it. It covers: History and development of GLAD techniquesProperties and Characterization of GLAD fabricated filmsDesign and engineering of optical GLAD films including fabrication and testingPost-deposition processing and integrationDeposition systems for GLAD fabrication Also includes a patent survey of relevant literature and a survey of GLAD's wide range of material properties and diverse applications.

  2. DNA-Protected Silver Clusters for Nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Gwinn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA-protected silver clusters (AgN-DNA possess unique fluorescence properties that depend on the specific DNA template that stabilizes the cluster. They exhibit peak emission wavelengths that range across the visible and near-IR spectrum. This wide color palette, combined with low toxicity, high fluorescence quantum yields of some clusters, low synthesis costs, small cluster sizes and compatibility with DNA are enabling many applications that employ AgN-DNA. Here we review what is known about the underlying composition and structure of AgN-DNA, and how these relate to the optical properties of these fascinating, hybrid biomolecule-metal cluster nanomaterials. We place AgN-DNA in the general context of ligand-stabilized metal clusters and compare their properties to those of other noble metal clusters stabilized by small molecule ligands. The methods used to isolate pure AgN-DNA for analysis of composition and for studies of solution and single-emitter optical properties are discussed. We give a brief overview of structurally sensitive chiroptical studies, both theoretical and experimental, and review experiments on bringing silver clusters of distinct size and color into nanoscale DNA assemblies. Progress towards using DNA scaffolds to assemble multi-cluster arrays is also reviewed.

  3. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  4. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  5. The fabrication of highly ordered silver nanodot patterns by platinum assisted nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hae-Wook; Jung, Jin-Mi; Lee, Su-kyung; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been widely used for optical sensing and imaging applications which benefit from localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in a nanoscale configuration. Many attempts have been made to fabricate and control silver nanostructures in order to improve the high performance in sensing and other applications. However, a fatal mechanical weakness of silver and a lack of durability in oxygen-rich conditions have disrupted the manufacturing of reproducible nanostructures by the top-down lithography approach. In this study, we suggest a steady fabrication strategy to obtain highly ordered silver nanopatterns that are able to provide tunable LSPR characteristics. By using a protecting layer of platinum on a silver surface in the lithography process, we successfully obtained large-area (2.7 x 2.7 mm 2 ) silver nanopatterns with high reproducibility. This large-area silver nanopattern was capable of enhancing the low concentration of a Cy3 fluorescence signal (∼10 -10 M) which was labeled with DNA oligomers.

  6. Silver nanoparticles are broad-spectrum bactericidal and virucidal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixtepan-Turrent Liliana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advance in nanotechnology has enabled us to utilize particles in the size of the nanoscale. This has created new therapeutic horizons, and in the case of silver, the currently available data only reveals the surface of the potential benefits and the wide range of applications. Interactions between viral biomolecules and silver nanoparticles suggest that the use of nanosystems may contribute importantly for the enhancement of current prevention of infection and antiviral therapies. Recently, it has been suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs bind with external membrane of lipid enveloped virus to prevent the infection. Nevertheless, the interaction of AgNPs with viruses is a largely unexplored field. AgNPs has been studied particularly on HIV where it was demonstrated the mechanism of antiviral action of the nanoparticles as well as the inhibition the transmission of HIV-1 infection in human cervix organ culture. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the biocidal mechanisms of action of silver Nanoparticles.

  7. Modulated surface textures for enhanced scattering in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isabella, O.; Battaglia, C.; Ballif, C.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nano-scale randomly textured front transparent oxides are superposed on micro-scale etched glass substrates to form modulated surface textures. The resulting enhanced light scattering is implemented in single and double junction thin-film silicon solar cells.

  8. Stable and Controllable Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Yan, Hengqing; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Youwei; Wu, Guoguo; Jin, Rong; Li, Lu

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanowires without particles are synthesized by a solvothermal method at temperature 150 °C. Silver nanowires are prepared via a reducing agent of glycerol and a capping agent of polyvinylpyrrolidone ( M w ≈ 1,300,000). Both of them can improve the purity of the as-prepared silver nanowires. With controllable shapes and sizes, silver nanowires are grown continuously up to 10-20 μm in length with 40-50 nm in diameter. To improve the yield of silver nanowires, the different concentrations of AgNO3 synthesis silver nanowires are discussed. The characterizations of the synthesized silver nanowires are analyzed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscope (AFM), and silver nanowires are pumped on the cellulose membrane and heated stress on the PET. Then, the cellulose membrane is dissolved by the steam of acetone to prepare flexible transparent conducting thin film, which is detected 89.9 of transmittance and 58 Ω/□. Additionally, there is a close loop connected by the thin film, a blue LED, a pair of batteries, and a number of wires, to determinate directly the film if conductive or not.

  9. Radiative decay of surface plasmons on nonspherical silver particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.W.; Ferrell, T.L.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the radiation emitted by electron-bombarded silver particles. Electron micrographs have shown that the particles, obtained by heating thin (5 nm) silver films, were oblate (flattened) with minor axes aligned along the substrate normal. The characteristic wavelength obtained by bombarding these particles with 15-keV electrons was found to vary with angle of photon emission. We have modeled this wavelength shift as a result of the mixture of radiation from dipole and quadrupole surface-plasmon oscillations on oblate spheroids. Experimental observations of the energy, polarization, and angular distribution of the emitted radiation are in good agreement with theoretical calculations

  10. Leaching of Silver from Silver-Impregnated Food Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Niece, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver in commercial products has proliferated in recent years owing to its antibacterial properties. Food containers impregnated with micro-sized silver promise long food life, but there is some concern because silver can leach out of the plastic and into the stored food. This laboratory experiment gives students the opportunity to…

  11. Reflectance improvement by thermal annealing of sputtered Ag/ZnO back reflectors in a-Si:H thin film silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Franz-Josef; Söderström, Karin; Pahud, Céline

    2011-01-01

    Silver can be used as the back contact and reflector in thin film silicon solar cells. When deposited on textured substrates, silver films often exhibit reduced reflectance due to absorption losses by the excitation of surface plasmon resonances. We show that thermal annealing of the silver back...

  12. Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, L; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M; Casuso, I; MartInez, E; Samitier, J; Gomila, G

    2006-01-01

    Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution (∼1 aF) of a nano-structured oxide thin film, using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy, is reported. Capacitance images are shown to follow the topographic profile of the oxide closely, with nanometre vertical resolution. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical models shows that the capacitance variations observed in the measurements can be mainly associated with the capacitance probed by the tip apex and not with positional changes of stray capacitance contributions. Capacitance versus distance measurements further support this conclusion. The application of this technique to the characterization of samples with non-voltage-dependent capacitance, such as very thin dielectric films, self-assembled monolayers and biological membranes, can provide new insight into the dielectric properties at the nanoscale

  13. Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, L [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Ferrari, G [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Sampietro, M [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 (Italy); Casuso, I [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); MartInez, E [Plataforma de Nanotecnologia, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/ Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Samitier, J [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, G [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C/MartIi Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-28

    Nanoscale capacitance imaging with attofarad resolution ({approx}1 aF) of a nano-structured oxide thin film, using ac current sensing atomic force microscopy, is reported. Capacitance images are shown to follow the topographic profile of the oxide closely, with nanometre vertical resolution. A comparison between experimental data and theoretical models shows that the capacitance variations observed in the measurements can be mainly associated with the capacitance probed by the tip apex and not with positional changes of stray capacitance contributions. Capacitance versus distance measurements further support this conclusion. The application of this technique to the characterization of samples with non-voltage-dependent capacitance, such as very thin dielectric films, self-assembled monolayers and biological membranes, can provide new insight into the dielectric properties at the nanoscale.

  14. Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, I-H; Lee, I-S; Song, J-H; Lee, M-H; Park, J-C; Lee, G-H; Sun, X-D; Chung, S-M

    2007-01-01

    A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO 3 concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls

  15. Characterization of a silver-incorporated calcium phosphate film by RBS and its antimicrobial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, I-H [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-Scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seou1 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I-S [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, and Atomic-Scale Surface Science Research Center, Yonsei University, Seou1 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, J-H [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M-H [Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J-C [Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, G-H [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Chang-Won 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, X-D [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chung, S-M [Implantium Research Center, Seoul 135-879 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    A thin calcium phosphate film was synthesized on both commercially pure Ti and Si wafers by electron beam evaporation of hydroxyapatite as an evaporant with simultaneous Ar ion beam bombardments. Silver was introduced into an ion-beam-assisted deposition of a calcium phosphate thin film for antimicrobial effect. The amount of incorporated silver ions was controlled by immersing calcium-phosphate-coated samples in different AgNO{sub 3} concentrations, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was employed to measure the amounts of substituted silver. The higher concentration of silver in the calcium phosphate film was more effective in reducing the bacteria of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Streptococcus mutans OMZ 65 on contact with respect to controls.

  16. Nanoscale biophysics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic cellular structures and functions are generally investigated using biological and biochemical approaches. But these methods are no longer adequate when one needs to penetrate deep into the small-scale structures and understand their functions. The cell is found to hold various physical structures, molecular machines, and processes that require physical and mathematical approaches to understand and indeed manipulate them. Disorders in general cellular compartments, perturbations in single molecular structures, drug distribution therein, and target specific drug-binding, etc. are mostly physical phenomena. This book will show how biophysics has revolutionized our way of addressing the science and technology of nanoscale structures of cells, and also describes the potential for manipulating the events that occur in them.

  17. Nanoscale cryptography: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Massoud; Shi, Weidong; Xu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    While most of the electronics industry is dependent on the ever-decreasing size of lithographic transistors, this scaling cannot continue indefinitely. To improve the performance of the integrated circuits, new emerging and paradigms are needed. In recent years, nanoelectronics has become one of the most important and exciting forefront in science and engineering. It shows a great promise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that change the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we discuss the contribution that nanotechnology may offer to the evolution of cryptographic hardware and embedded systems and demonstrate how nanoscale devices can be used for constructing security primitives. Using a custom set of design automation tools, it is demonstrated that relative to a conventional 45-nm CMOS system, performance gains can be obtained up to two orders of magnitude reduction in area and up to 50 % improvement in speed.

  18. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C 30 H 62 ) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ( 1 H and 2 H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  19. Solid-state superionic stamping with silver iodide-silver metaphosphate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, K E; Hsu, K H; Han, X; Azeredo, B P; Ferreira, P M; Kumar, A; Fang, N X

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and analyzes the new use of the glassy solid electrolyte AgI-AgPO 3 for direct nanopatterning of thin silver films with feature resolutions of 30 nm. AgI-AgPO 3 has a high room temperature ionic conductivity with Ag + as the mobile ion, leading to silver etch/patterning rates of up to 20 nm s -1 at an applied bias of 300 mV. The glass can be melt-processed at temperatures below 200 deg. C, providing a facile and economical pathway for creating large area stamps, including the 25 mm 2 stamps shown in this study. Further, the glass is sufficiently transparent to permit integration with existing tools such as aligners and imprint tools, enabling high overlay registration accuracy and facilitating insertion into multi-step fabrication recipes.

  20. Silver-Russell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohela Akhter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Silver-Russell syndrome is clinically and genetically a heterogeneous disorder. In most of the cases, etiology is unknown, only in 10% cases defect in chromosome 7 is identified. It bas distinctive facial features and asymmetric limbs. Most predominant symptom is growth failure. A case of Silver-Russell syndrome reported here who presented with growth failure, hemihypertrophy ofleft side oftbe body, dysmorphic facial profile and difficulty in speech. Counseling was done with the parents regarding the etiology, progression and outcome of the disease.

  1. One-pot Synthesis of Soluble Nanoscale CIGS Photoactive Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Aixia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Promising alternatives for solar energy utilization are thin film technologies involving various new materials. This contribution describes an easy and inexpensive synthetic method that can be used to prepare soluble nanoscale triphenyl phosphine-coordinated CIGS (TPP-CIGS photoactive functional materials. This complex is stable in the solid state under the irradiation of the ambient light, but its solution becomes a little bit unstable under the illumination of the low intensity laser.

  2. PREFACE: Nanoscale science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    material. The results show the emergence of specific interactions of cross-linking between a thermosetting matrix and amino-functionalized SWNTs during the cure reaction with an improvement of the mechanical properties with respect to those prepared with unfunctionalized SWNTs. The possibility of using amino-functionalized SWNT to make a 'mix and match' approach towards classes of hybrid materials was reported suggesting the possibility of tuning the electrical properties by combining the electric field in the assembling processing. Moreover, it was demonstrated as electrophoretically deposited SWNT thin films provide a simple route to obtain layered functional nanostructures by growing homogeneous films of carbon nanotubes and infiltrating polymer or monomer, followed by in situ polymerization. Some examples where electrophoretically deposited SWCNT films were infiltrated with monomer and then the monomer was polymerized were reported. The invited lecture by S D'Auria explored the advantages of using either enzymes or binding proteins to develop non-consuming substrate fluorescence nano-biosensors. He reported a novel approach to address the consumption of substrate by enzyme-based biosensors, namely the utilization of apo-enzymes as non-active forms of proteins which are still able to bind the ligand but cannot transform it into product. He also reported recent studies in which fluorescence labelling proteins by a fluorescent probe allows a wireless monitoring of toxic compounds. Then, he presented a cutting-edge methodology for the detection of target analytes at very low concentration, namely single molecule detection. C Falessi described how the 'Finmeccanica Focus Group Nano' is coordinating a multiscale nanoscience engineering integration initiative that is an emerging and unified strategy to link the customer operative requirements with innovative high-tech product. He introduced the audience to the 'NanoTechnology Multiscale Project (NMP)', as a complete

  3. Poly thiophene hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds, silver and iodine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J.C.; Chavez, J.A.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Compounds in thin films of poly thiophene with silver and poly thiophene doped with iodine and silver using splendor discharges were synthesized. It is studied the wettability of the compounds and its transport properties. It was found that the compounds can modify their hydrophilic to hydrophobic behavior controlling their surface ruggedness and the metallic content. The doped with iodine plays a fundamental paper in the modification of the ruggedness of the compounds. (Author)

  4. Electrochemical study of the tarnish layer of silver deposited on glass

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Amor , Yasser; Sutter , Eliane; Takenouti , Hisasi; Tribollet , Bernard; Boinet , M.; Faure , R.; Balencie , J.; Durieu , G.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the tarnished thin layer of silver deposited on glass. Instead of natural tarnishing in air environment, an acceleration of tarnishing process was realized by immersion of Ag covered glass in 10 μM K2S medium. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that tarnishing product formed on the silver surface consisted of Ag2S and Ag2O. As electrochemical characterizatio...

  5. Direct optical imaging of nanoscale internal organization of polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suran, Swathi; Varma, Manoj

    2018-02-01

    Owing to its sensitivity and precise control at the nanoscale, polyelectrolytes have been immensely used to modify surfaces. Polyelectrolyte multilayers are generally water made and are easy to fabricate on any surface by the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly process due to electrostatic interactions. Polyelectrolyte multilayers or PEMs can be assembled to form ultrathin membranes which can have potential applications in water filtration and desalination [1-3]. Hydration in PEMs is a consequence of both the bulk and surface phenomenon [4-7]. Bulk behavior of polymer membranes are well understood. Several techniques including reflectivity and contact angle measurements were used to measure the hydration in the bulk of polymer membranes [4, 8]. On the other hand their internal organization at the molecular level which can have a profound contribution in the transport mechanism, are not understood well. Previously, we engineered a technique, which we refer to as Bright-field Nanoscopy, which allows nanoscale optical imaging using local heterogeneities in a water-soluble germanium (Ge) thin film ( 25 nm thick) deposited on gold [8]. We use this technique to study the water transport in PEMs. It is understood that the surface charge and outer layers of the PEMs play a significant role in water transport through polymers [9-11]. This well-known `odd-even' effect arising on having different surface termination of the PEMs was optically observed with a spatial resolution unlike any other reported previously [12]. In this communication, we report that on increasing the etchant's concentration, one can control the lateral etching of the Ge film. This allowed the visualization of the nanoscale internal organization in the PEMs. Knowledge of the internal structure would allow one to engineer polymer membranes specific to applications such as drug delivering capsules, ion transport membranes and barriers etc. We also demonstrate a mathematical model involving a surface

  6. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Hong; Jialin Ji; Chunxian Tao; Daohua Zhang; Dawei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B ...

  7. Direct synthesis of silver nanoparticles in ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrêa, Cíntia M.; Bizeto, Marcos A.; Camilo, Fernanda F.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids have structural organization at nanoscale that can trigger the spontaneous ordering of structures in nanoscopic range. Due to this characteristic, several metal nanoparticles have been prepared in this media. In this paper, we describe the direct preparation of silver nanoparticles in the following imidazolium ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1,2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and in citrate tetrabutylammonium, that is an ionic liquid that acts as solvent and reducing agent at the same time. We also evaluated the morphology of the nanoparticles and the stability of the dispersions. Spherical silver nanoparticles with surface Plasmon bands in the range of 400–430 nm were produced in all the ionic liquids, with the only exception for the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide that produced a black precipitate. The best results were obtained by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquids. The former resulted in concentrated spherical silver nanoparticles dispersion (ca. 1.0 mM of Ag) with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 nm and by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the dispersions they became stable for at least 1 month. The citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquid produced even more concentrated dispersion of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 2 to 6 nm. These dispersions were quite stable without the need of PVP, since the Plasmon band in the electronic absorption spectra remained unaltered for months after the preparation. The citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquid offers a slow kinetic for the silver nanoparticle formation as the citrate is a milder reducing agent than borohydride.Graphical Abstract

  8. Direct synthesis of silver nanoparticles in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrêa, Cíntia M.; Bizeto, Marcos A.; Camilo, Fernanda F., E-mail: ffcamilo@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Laboratório de Materiais Híbridos, Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Ionic liquids have structural organization at nanoscale that can trigger the spontaneous ordering of structures in nanoscopic range. Due to this characteristic, several metal nanoparticles have been prepared in this media. In this paper, we describe the direct preparation of silver nanoparticles in the following imidazolium ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1,2-dimethyl-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and in citrate tetrabutylammonium, that is an ionic liquid that acts as solvent and reducing agent at the same time. We also evaluated the morphology of the nanoparticles and the stability of the dispersions. Spherical silver nanoparticles with surface Plasmon bands in the range of 400–430 nm were produced in all the ionic liquids, with the only exception for the 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide that produced a black precipitate. The best results were obtained by using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide and citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquids. The former resulted in concentrated spherical silver nanoparticles dispersion (ca. 1.0 mM of Ag) with diameters ranging from 6 to 12 nm and by adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the dispersions they became stable for at least 1 month. The citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquid produced even more concentrated dispersion of spherical silver nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 2 to 6 nm. These dispersions were quite stable without the need of PVP, since the Plasmon band in the electronic absorption spectra remained unaltered for months after the preparation. The citrate tetrabutylammonium ionic liquid offers a slow kinetic for the silver nanoparticle formation as the citrate is a milder reducing agent than borohydride.Graphical Abstract.

  9. Novel silver-based nanoclay as an antimicrobial in polylactic acid food packaging coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, Maria A; Fernandez, Patricia; Ocio, Maria J; Lagaron, Jose M

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive performance study of polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites, obtained by solvent casting, containing a novel silver-based antimicrobial layered silicate additive for use in active food packaging applications. The silver-based nanoclay showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Despite the fact that no exfoliation of the silver-based nanoclay in PLA was observed, as suggested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments, the additive dispersed nicely throughout the PLA matrix to a nanoscale, yielding nanobiocomposites. The films were highly transparent with enhanced water barrier and strong biocidal properties. Silver migration from the films to a slightly acidified water medium, considered an aggressive food simulant, was measured by stripping voltammetry. Silver migration accelerated after 6 days of exposure. Nevertheless, the study suggests that migration levels of silver, within the specific migration levels referenced by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), exhibit antimicrobial activity, supporting the potential application of this biocidal additive in active food-packaging applications to improve food quality and safety.

  10. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, L; Panacek, A; Prucek, R; Soukupova, J; Vanickova, M; Zboril, R; Kolar, M

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  11. Antibacterial activity and toxicity of silver - nanosilver versus ionic silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvitek, L; Panacek, A; Prucek, R; Soukupova, J; Vanickova, M; Zboril, R [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kolar, M, E-mail: ales.panacek@upol.cz [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, 77520 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-06

    The in vitro study of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (NPs), prepared via modified Tollens process, revealed high antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations around several units of mg/L. These concentrations are comparable with concentrations of ionic silver revealing same antibacterial effect. However, such low concentrations of silver NPs did not show acute cytotoxicity to mammalian cells - this occurs at concentrations higher than 60 mg/L of silver, while the cytotoxic level of ionic silver is much more lower (approx. 1 mg/L). Moreover, the silver NPs exhibit lower acute ecotoxicity against the eukaryotic organisms such as Paramecium caudatum, Monoraphidium sp. and D. melanogaster. The silver NPs are toxic to these organisms at the concentrations higher than 30 mg/L of silver. On contrary, ionic silver retains its cytoxicity and ecotoxicity even at the concentration equal to 1 mg/L. The performed experiments demonstrate significantly lower toxicity of silver NPs against the eukaryotic organisms than against the prokaryotic organisms.

  12. Physical IC debug ─ backside approach and nanoscale challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kerst

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical analysis for IC functionality in submicron technologies requires access through chip backside. Based upon typical global backside preparation with 50–100 µm moderate silicon thickness remaining, a state of the art of the analysis techniques available for this purpose is presented and evaluated for functional analysis and layout pattern resolution potential. A circuit edit technique valid for nano technology ICs, is also presented that is based upon the formation of local trenches using the bottom of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI as endpoint for Focused Ion Beam (FIB milling. As a derivative from this process, a locally ultra thin silicon device can be processed, creating a back surface as work bench for breakthrough applications of nanoscale analysis techniques to a fully functional circuit through chip backside. Several applications demonstrate the power and potential of this new approach.

  13. Controlled manipulation of oxygen vacancies using nanoscale flexoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Saikat [Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Wang, Bo [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States).Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Cao, Ye [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Inst. for; Rae Cho, Myung [Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Jae Shin, Yeong [Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Mo Yang, Sang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Sookmyung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics; Wang, Lingfei [Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kim, Minu [Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Inst. for Functional Imaging of Materials; Chen, Long-Qing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States).Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Noh, Tae Won [Inst. for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Center for Correlated Electron Systems; Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-09-20

    Oxygen vacancies, especially their distribution, are directly coupled to the electromagnetic properties of oxides and related emergent functionalities that have implications for device applications. Here using a homoepitaxial strontium titanate thin film, we demonstrate a controlled manipulation of the oxygen vacancy distribution using the mechanical force from a scanning probe microscope tip. By combining Kelvin probe force microscopy imaging and phase-field simulations, we show that oxygen vacancies can move under a stress-gradient-induced depolarisation field. When tailored, this nanoscale flexoelectric effect enables a controlled spatial modulation. In motion, the scanning probe tip thereby deterministically reconfigures the spatial distribution of vacancies. Finally, the ability to locally manipulate oxygen vacancies on-demand provides a tool for the exploration of mesoscale quantum phenomena and engineering multifunctional oxide devices.

  14. Nanoscale photoelectron ionisation detector based on lanthanum hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, C.M.; Kunze, U.; Schubert, J.; Hamann, S.; Doll, T.

    2011-01-01

    A nanoscale ioniser is presented exceeding the limitation of conventional photoionisation detectors. It employs accelerated photoelectrons that allow obtaining molecule specificity by the tuning of ionisation energies. The material lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) is used as air stable photo cathode. Thin films of that material deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) show quantum efficiency (QE) in the range of 10 -5 which is comparable to laser photo stimulation results. A careful treatment of the material yields reasonable low work functions even after surface reoxidation which opens up the possibility of using ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) in replacement of discharge lamps. Schematic diagram of a photoelectron ionisation detector (PeID) operating by an electron emitter based on the photoelectric effect of lanthanum hexaboride. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force.

  16. Micro- and nanoscale characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaf surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Jung, Yong Chae

    2006-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces as well as low adhesion and friction are desirable for various industrial applications. Certain plant leaves are known to be hydrophobic in nature due to their roughness and the presence of a thin wax film on the surface of the leaf. The purpose of this study is to fully characterize the leaf surfaces on the micro- and nanoscale while separating out the effects of the micro- and the nanobumps of hydrophobic leaves on the hydrophobicity. Hydrophilic leaves were also studied to better understand the role of wax and roughness. Furthermore, the adhesion and friction properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic leaves were studied. Using an optical profiler and an atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM), measurements were made to fully characterize the leaf surfaces. It is shown that the nanobumps play a more important role than the microbumps in the hydrophobic nature as well as friction of the leaf. This study will be useful in developing superhydrophobic surfaces

  17. Versatile Molecular Silver Ink Platform for Printed Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J; Paquet, Chantal; Mozenson, Olga; Djavani-Tabrizi, Iden; Deore, Bhavana; Liu, Xiangyang; Lopinski, Gregory P; James, Robert; Hettak, Khelifa; Shaker, Jafar; Momciu, Adrian; Ferrigno, Julie; Ferrand, Olivier; Hu, Jian Xiong; Lafrenière, Sylvie; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-05-24

    A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet, and aerosol jet printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose, and solvent provides improved performance versus that of established inks, yet with improved economics. Thin, screen-printed traces with exceptional electrical (molecular ink platform enables an aerosol jet-compatible ink that yields conductive features on glass with 2× bulk resistivity and strong adhesion to various plastic substrates. An inkjet formulation is also used to print top source/drain contacts and demonstrate printed high-mobility thin film transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. TFTs with mobility values of ∼25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and current on/off ratios >10 4 were obtained, performance similar to that of evaporated metal contacts in analogous devices.

  18. Nanoscale science and nanotechnology education in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanoscale science and nanotechnology education in Africa: importance and ... field with its footing in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and engineering. ... career/business/development opportunities, risks and policy challenges that would ...

  19. Quantum Transport Simulations of Nanoscale Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-01-01

    -performance supercomputers allow us to control and exploit their microscopic properties at the atomic scale, hence making it possible to design novel nanoscale molecular devices with interesting features (e.g switches, rectifiers, negative differential conductance, and high

  20. Nanoscale drug delivery for targeted chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yong; Huang, Qian; Tang, Jian-Qin; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Long Zhen; Jiang, Guan

    2016-08-28

    Despite significant improvements in diagnostic methods and innovations in therapies for specific cancers, effective treatments for neoplastic diseases still represent major challenges. Nanotechnology as an emerging technology has been widely used in many fields and also provides a new opportunity for the targeted delivery of cancer drugs. Nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy drugs to the tumor site is highly desirable. Recent studies have shown that nanoscale drug delivery systems not only have the ability to destroy cancer cells but may also be carriers for chemotherapy drugs. Some studies have demonstrated that delivery of chemotherapy via nanoscale carriers has greater therapeutic benefit than either treatment modality alone. In this review, novel approaches to nanoscale delivery of chemotherapy are described and recent progress in this field is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Lianbin

    2017-01-01

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  2. Method for preparing microstructure arrays on the surface of thin film material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2017-02-09

    Methods are provided for growing a thin film of a nanoscale material. Thin films of nanoscale materials are also provided. The films can be grown with microscale patterning. The method can include vacuum filtration of a solution containing the nanostructured material through a porous substrate. The porous substrate can have a pore size that is comparable to the size of the nanoscale material. By patterning the pores on the surface of the substrate, a film can be grown having the pattern on a surface of the thin film, including on the top surface opposite the substrate. The nanoscale material can be graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, molybdenum disulfide, hexagonal boron nitride, tungsten diselenide, molybdenum trioxide, or clays such as montmorillonite or lapnotie. The porous substrate can be a porous organic or inorganic membrane, a silicon stencil membrane, or similar membrane having pore sizes on the order of microns.

  3. Silver removal process development for the MEO cleanout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, P.C.; Chiba, Z.; Schumacher, B.J.; Murguia, L.C.; Adamson, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) system is an aqueous process which treats low-level mixed wastes by oxidizing the organic components of he waste into carbon dioxide and water. As MEO system continues to run, dissolved ash and radionuclides slowly accumulate in the anolyte and must be removed to maintain process efficiency. At such time, all of the anolyte is pumped into a still feed tank, and the silver ions need to be removed before sending the solution to a thin-film evaporator for further concentration. The efficiency of removing silver ions in the solution needs to be high enough such that the residual silver sent to Final Forms would be less than 1% wt. The purpose of this work is to develop an efficient process to remove silver ions during the MEO cleanout and to demonstrate the capability of centrifugation for separating small silver chloride particles from the solution. This development work includes lab scale experiments and bench scale tests. This report summarizes the results

  4. Nanoscale thermal transport. II. 2003–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, David G.; Braun, Paul V.; Chen, Gang; Clarke, David R.; Fan, Shanhui; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Keblinski, Pawel; King, William P.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Pop, Eric; Shi, Li

    2013-01-01

    A diverse spectrum of technology drivers such as improved thermal barriers, higher efficiency thermoelectric energy conversion, phase-change memory, heat-assisted magnetic recording, thermal management of nanoscale electronics, and nanoparticles for thermal medical therapies are motivating studies of the applied physics of thermal transport at the nanoscale. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of th...

  5. Fast heat flux modulation at the nanoscale

    OpenAIRE

    van Zwol, P. J.; Joulain, K.; Abdallah, P. Ben; Greffet, J. J.; Chevrier, J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for electrically controlled heat flux modulation. A flux contrast larger than 10 dB is expected with switching time on the order of tens of nanoseconds. Heat flux modulation is based on the interplay between radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale and phase change materials. Such large contrasts are not obtainable in solids, or in far field. As such this opens up new horizons for temperature modulation and actuation at the nanoscale.

  6. Inkjet-printed transparent nanowire thin film features for UV photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Shih Pin; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Lien, Der Hsien; He, Jr-Hau; Liao, Ying Chih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple and effective direct printing method was developed to print patterned nanowire thin films for UV detection. Inks containing silver or titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowires were first formulated adequately to form stable

  7. Characterization of Electrochemically Generated Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Martinez, James; Carrier, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Silver biocide offers a potential advantage over iodine, the current state of the art in US spacecraft disinfection technology, in that silver can be safely consumed by the crew. Low concentrations of silver (Silver does not require hardware to remove it from a water system, and therefore can provide a simpler means for disinfecting water. The Russian segment of the International Space Station has utilized an electrochemically generated silver solution, which is colloidal in nature. To be able to reliably provide a silver biocide to drinking water by electrochemical means would reduce mass required for removing another biocide such as iodine from the water. This would also aid in crew time required to replace iodine removal cartridges. Future long term missions would benefit from electrochemically produced silver as the biocide could be produced on demand and requires only a small concentration to be effective. Since it can also be consumed safely, there is less mass in removal hardware and little consumables required for production. The goal of this project initially is to understand the nature of the electrochemically produced silver, the particle sizes produced by the electrochemical cell and the effect that voltage adjustment has on the particle size. In literature, it has been documented that dissolved oxygen and pH have an effect on the ionization of the electrochemical silver so those parameters would be measured and possibly adjusted to understand their effect on the silver.

  8. Passive films at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoscale data on growth, structure and local properties of passive films reviewed. ► Preferential role of defects of passive films on the corrosion resistance emphasized. ► Effect of grain boundaries on local electronic properties shown by new data. ► Use of atomistic modeling to test mechanistic hypotheses illustrated. - Abstract: The nanometer scale chemical and structural aspects of ultrathin oxide passive films providing self-protection against corrosion to metals and alloys in aqueous environments are reviewed. Data on the nucleation and growth of 2D anodic oxide films, details on the atomic structure and nanostructure of 3D passive films, the preferential role of surface step edges in dissolution in the passive state and the preferential role of grain boundaries of the passive films in passivity breakdown are presented. Future perspectives are discussed, and exemplified by new data obtained on the relationship between the nanostructure of oxide passive films and their local electronic properties. Atomistic corrosion modeling by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) is illustrated by the example of interactions of chloride ions with hydroxylated oxide surfaces, including the role of surface step edges. Data obtained on well-defined substrate surfaces with surface analytical techniques are emphasized.

  9. Influence of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles and Thin Layers on Charge Carrier Generation in InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures and Crystalline Zinc Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezdrogina, M. M.; Vinogradov, A. Ya.; Kozhanova, Yu. V.; Levitskii, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    It has been shown that Ag and Au nanoparticles and thin layers influence charge carrier generation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures and crystalline ZnO films owing to the surface morphology heterogeneity of the semiconductors. When nanoparticles 10 films, the radiation intensity has turned out to grow considerably because of a plasmon resonance with the participation of localized plasmons. The application of Ag or Au layers on the surface of the structures strongly attenuates the radiation. When Ag and Au nanoparticles are applied on crystalline ZnO films obtained by rf magnetron sputtering, the radiation intensity in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum increases insignificantly because of their highly heterogeneous surface morphology.

  10. Silver matrix composites reinforced with galvanically silvered particles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Śleziona; J. Wieczorek,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents the possibility of the application of metalic layers drifted with the use of the galvanic methods on the ceramic particles surface. The application of the layers was aimed at obtaining the rewetting of the reinforcing particles with the liquid silver in the course of the producing of silver matrix composites with the use of mechanical stirring method. To enable introducing of the iron powder and glass carbon powder to liquid silver the solution of covering the powd...

  11. Molecular weight evaluation of poly-dimethylsiloxane on solid surfaces using silver deposition/TOF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masae; Murase, Atsushi

    2004-06-01

    Molecular ions include information about end groups, functional groups and molecular weight. A method for directly detecting this in the high-mass region of the spectrum (>1000 amu) from poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on a solid surface was investigated. It was found that a TOF-SIMS analysis of silver-deposited surfaces (silver deposition/TOF-SIMS) is useful for this purpose. Two methods for silver deposition, the diode sputtering method and the vacuum evaporation coating method, were tried. The former required the sample to be cooled so as to prevent the damage of the sample surface due to thermal oxidation; the latter caused no damage to sample surfaces at room temperature. Using silver deposition/TOF-SIMS analysis, silver-cationized quasi-molecular ions were clearly detected from PDMS on solid surfaces and their images were observed without the interference of deposited silver. By applying to the analysis of paint defects, etc., it was confirmed that this technique is useful to analyze practical industrial materials. Silver-cationized ions were detected not only from PDMS, but also from other organic materials, such as some kinds of lubricant additives and fluorine oils on solid surfaces. Therefore, silver deposition/TOF-SIMS was proved to be useful for the analysis of thin substances on solid surfaces.

  12. Nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahigir, A.; Dastmalchi, P.; Shin, W.; Fan, S.; Veronis, G.

    2015-02-01

    Waveguide-resonator systems are particularly useful for the development of several integrated photonic devices, such as tunable filters, optical switches, channel drop filters, reflectors, and impedance matching elements. In this paper, we introduce nanoscale devices based on plasmonic coaxial waveguide resonators. In particular, we investigate threedimensional nanostructures consisting of plasmonic coaxial stub resonators side-coupled to a plasmonic coaxial waveguide. We use coaxial waveguides with square cross sections, which can be fabricated using lithography-based techniques. The waveguides are placed on top of a silicon substrate, and the space between inner and outer coaxial metals is filled with silica. We use silver as the metal. We investigate structures consisting of a single plasmonic coaxial resonator, which is terminated either in a short or an open circuit, side-coupled to a coaxial waveguide. We show that the incident waveguide mode is almost completely reflected on resonance, while far from the resonance the waveguide mode is almost completely transmitted. We also show that the properties of the waveguide systems can be accurately described using a single-mode scattering matrix theory. The transmission and reflection coefficients at waveguide junctions are either calculated using the concept of the characteristic impedance or are directly numerically extracted using full-wave three-dimensional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations.

  13. Quantum dot-based local field imaging reveals plasmon-based interferometric logic in silver nanowire networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Li, Zhipeng; Tian, Xiaorui; Wang, Zhuoxian; Cong, Fengzi; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2011-02-09

    We show that the local electric field distribution of propagating plasmons along silver nanowires can be imaged by coating the nanowires with a layer of quantum dots, held off the surface of the nanowire by a nanoscale dielectric spacer layer. In simple networks of silver nanowires with two optical inputs, control of the optical polarization and phase of the input fields directs the guided waves to a specific nanowire output. The QD-luminescent images of these structures reveal that a complete family of phase-dependent, interferometric logic functions can be performed on these simple networks. These results show the potential for plasmonic waveguides to support compact interferometric logic operations.

  14. Atomic layer deposition: an enabling technology for the growth of functional nanoscale semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyikli, Necmi; Haider, Ali

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the progress in the growth of nanoscale semiconductors grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD). After the adoption by semiconductor chip industry, ALD became a widespread tool to grow functional films and conformal ultra-thin coatings for various applications. Based on self-limiting and ligand-exchange-based surface reactions, ALD enabled the low-temperature growth of nanoscale dielectric, metal, and semiconductor materials. Being able to deposit wafer-scale uniform semiconductor films at relatively low-temperatures, with sub-monolayer thickness control and ultimate conformality, makes ALD attractive for semiconductor device applications. Towards this end, precursors and low-temperature growth recipes are developed to deposit crystalline thin films for compound and elemental semiconductors. Conventional thermal ALD as well as plasma-assisted and radical-enhanced techniques have been exploited to achieve device-compatible film quality. Metal-oxides, III-nitrides, sulfides, and selenides are among the most popular semiconductor material families studied via ALD technology. Besides thin films, ALD can grow nanostructured semiconductors as well using either template-assisted growth methods or bottom-up controlled nucleation mechanisms. Among the demonstrated semiconductor nanostructures are nanoparticles, nano/quantum-dots, nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanopillars, hollow and core-shell versions of the afore-mentioned nanostructures, and 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene. ALD-grown nanoscale semiconductor materials find applications in a vast amount of applications including functional coatings, catalysis and photocatalysis, renewable energy conversion and storage, chemical sensing, opto-electronics, and flexible electronics. In this review, we give an overview of the current state-of-the-art in ALD-based nanoscale semiconductor research including the already demonstrated and future applications.

  15. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  16. Nucleic acid nanomaterials: Silver-wired DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffinger, Pascal; Ennifar, Eric

    2017-10-01

    DNA double helical structures are supramolecular assemblies that are typically held together by classical Watson-Crick pairing. Now, nucleotide chelation of silver ions supports an extended silver-DNA hybrid duplex featuring an uninterrupted silver array.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Names for This Condition RSS Silver-Russell dwarfism Silver-Russell syndrome SRS Related Information How are ... M, Begemann M, Elbracht M. Epigenetic and genetic diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. ...

  18. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa......, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 ig/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 ig/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate...... planktonic bacteria. These observations strongly indicate that the concentration of silver in currently available wound dressings is much too low for treatment of chronic biofilm wounds. It is suggested that clinicians and manufacturers of the said wound dressings consider whether they are treating wounds...

  19. Overcoming the limitations of silver nanowire electrodes for light emitting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dustin Yuan

    The global lighting market is projected to exceed 100 billion dollars by 2020, undergoing rapid transitions driven by technological advancements. In conjunction with increased demand for new technology, global regulations have become increasingly stringent, mandating the development and implementation of more fuel-efficient light sources. As prior generations of lighting technology such as incandescent bulbs and florescent lighting progressively become phased out, newer technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have become progressively popular and commonplace. Though they still lag behind LEDs in terms of market penetration, OLEDs have garnered increasing amounts of attention in recent years due to unique attributes such as their exotic and large scale form factors, mechanical flexibility, and potential for high volume, low-cost manufacturing. Unfortunately, the costs for OLED manufacturing are currently still prohibitively high for several applications, with the anode and substrate representing 20-25 percent of this total cost. Significant technical and processing improvements for OLED substrates are of utmost necessity for fiscal cost reduction and commercialization of OLED technology. Silver nanowires have gained traction as a potential replacement for the current status quo, indium tin oxide (ITO) due to attributes such as flexibility, low cost processing, and high optoelectronic properties. However, due to nanoscale size effects, the integration of silver nanowires in both process flows and operational use has proven to be problematic. This work makes several key contributions towards enabling the use of silver nanowires for practical and commercial applications within the lighting industry. First, a novel method for the fabrication of a high temperature-stable, flexible substrate with surface roughness (Ra) traditional process flows, and validity for use in extreme processing conditions. Secondly, the

  20. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliszewska, I; Szewczyk, K; Waszak, K

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles is reported. The nanosilver was formed in contact with the cell-free filtrate of Penicillium strain studied. The nanoparticles were characterized by means of the UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized nanosilver showed a absorbed maximum at 425 nm in the visible region. The SEM characterization of the fungus cells treated with silver nitrite indicated that the protein might be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 10-100 nm.

  1. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flat plate solar arrays is reported. Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver films can eliminate most of the present problems with silver conductors. The objectives are to: (1) identify and characterize suitable MO compounds; (2) develop generic synthesis procedures for the MO compounds; (3) develop generic fabrication procedures to screen printable MOD silver inks; (4) optimize processing conditions to produce grid patterns and photovoltaic cells; and (5) develop a model which describes the adhesion between the fired silver film and the silicon surface.

  2. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Proceedings of the international conference on thin films and applications: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In the era of miniaturization, the role of thin films is highly significant to achieve smaller devices with higher speed especially in new generation of integrated circuits, sensors, flat panel displays, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), biomedical devices, optical instruments and microwave communications. Thin films as a nano-scale dimensional system have great importance to many challenging applications. Biological coatings, clean energy, ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films, ion beam thin films, magnetic thin films, nanostructured and nano composite coatings, NEMS, sensors, thin film preparation and characterization are the topics covered in this symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. Thin-film antifuses for pellistor type gas sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Holleman, J.; van den Berg, Albert; Wallinga, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This work extends our previously reported idea of using the nano-scale conductive link (antifuse) as a combined heating /detecting element in a Pellistor-type gas sensor. Our new thin-film antifuse is designed in such a way that the oxide, for minimising the bulk influence on surface temperature,

  5. Antibacterial performance on plasma polymerized heptylamine films loaded with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial performance of the plasma-polymerized (pp) heptylamine thin films loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against the colonization of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including the thickness and chemical composition of the as deposited HApp films were modulated by adjusting plasma parameters. The acquired results showed that the film thickness was controlled in the range of 20 to 400 nm by adjusting deposition time. The subsequent immersion of the HApp thin films in silver nitrate solutions result in the formation of amine-metal complexes, in which the silver nanoparticles were reduced directly on the matrices to form Ag@HApp. The reduction reaction of silver was facilitated by applying NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The results of physicochemical analyses including morphological analysis and ellipsometry revealed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully reduced on the HApp films, and the amount of reduced silver was closely associated which the thickness of the plasma-polymerized films, the concentration of applied metal ions solutions, and the time of immobilization. Regarding the antibacterial performance, the Ag@HApp films reduced by NaBH4 showed antibacterial abilities of 70.1 and 68.2% against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively.

  6. Complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in partially saturated sand columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aal, Gamal; Atekwana, Estella A.; Werkema, D. Dale

    2017-02-01

    The increase in the use of nanoscale materials in consumer products has resulted in a growing concern of their potential hazard to ecosystems and public health from their accidental or intentional introduction to the environment. Key environmental, health, and safety research needs include knowledge and methods for their detection, characterization, fate, and transport. Specifically, techniques available for the direct detection and quantification of their fate and transport in the environment are limited. Their small size, high surface area to volume ratio, interfacial, and electrical properties make metallic nanoparticles, such as silver nanoparticles, good targets for detection using electrical geophysical techniques. Here we measured the complex conductivity response to silver nanoparticles in sand columns under varying moisture conditions (0-30%), nanoparticle concentrations (0-10 mg/g), lithology (presence of clay), pore water salinity (0.0275 and 0.1000 S/m), and particle size (35, 90-210 and 1500-2500 nm). Based on the Cole-Cole relaxation models we obtained the chargeability and the time constant. We demonstrate that complex conductivity can detect silver nanoparticles in porous media with the response enhanced by higher concentrations of silver nanoparticles, moisture content, ionic strength, clay content and particle diameter. Quantification of the volumetric silver nanoparticles content in the porous media can also be obtained from complex conductivity parameters based on the strong power law relationships.

  7. Can a novel silver nano coating reduce infections and maintain cell viability in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ammar T; Landry, Jace P; Dasa, Vinod; Janes, Marlene; Hayes, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Herein we report a facile layer-by-layer method for creating an antimicrobial coating composed of silver nanoparticles on medical grade titanium test discs. Nanoscale silver nanoparticle layers are attached to the titanium orthopedic implant material via aminopropyltriethoxy silane crosslinker that reacts with neighboring silane moieties to create an interconnected network. A monolayer of silane, followed by a monolayer of silver nanoparticles would form one self-assembled layer and this process can be repeated serially, resulting in increased silver nanoparticles deposition. The release rate of silver ion increases predictably with increasing numbers of layers and at appropriate thicknesses these coatings demonstrate 3-4 log reduction of viable Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Increasing the thickness of the coatings resulted in reduced bacterial colonization as determined by fluorescent staining and image analysis. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity of murine 3T3 cells as quantified by fluorescent staining and flow cytometry, was minimal and did not vary significantly with the coating thickness. Additionally, these coatings are mechanically stable and resist delamination by orthogonal stress test. This simple layer-by-layer coating technique may provide a cost-effective and biocompatible method for reducing microbial colonization of implantable orthopedic devices.

  8. Silver Clusters in Zeolites: From Self-Assembly to Ground-Breaking Luminescent Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutiño-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Steele, Julian A; Kim, Cheol Woong; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Hofkens, Johan

    2017-09-19

    Interest for functional silver clusters (Ag-CLs) has rapidly grown over years due to large advances in the field of nanoscale fabrication and materials science. The continuous development of strategies to fabricate small-scale silver clusters, together with their interesting physicochemical properties (molecule-like discrete energy levels, for example), make them very attractive for a wide variety of applied research fields, from biotechnology and the environmental sciences to fundamental chemistry and physics. Apart from useful catalytic properties, silver clusters (Ag n , n counterbalancing ions, silver loading, and zeolite topology, and cannot be overlooked. This Account is intended to shed light on the current state-of-the-art of luminescent Ag-CLs confined in zeolitic matrices, emphasizing the use of combinatorial approaches to overcome problems associated with the correct characterization and correlation of their structural, electronic, and photoluminescence properties, all to establish the important design principles for developing functional silver-zeolite-based materials. Additionally, examples of emerging applications and future perspectives for functional luminescent Ag-zeolite materials are addressed in this Account.

  9. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition of conformal nanostructured silver films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Chalker, Sophia; Sutcliffe, Christopher J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We grow metallic silver by direct liquid injection thermal atomic layer deposition. • Highly conformal silver nanoparticle coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces. • An ALD temperature growth window between 123 and 128 °C is established. • ALD cycles provides sub nanometre control of silver growth. • Catalytic dehydrogenation ALD mechanism has been elucidated by in-situ QCM. - Abstract: The controlled deposition of ultra-thin conformal silver nanoparticle films is of interest for applications including anti-microbial surfaces, plasmonics, catalysts and sensors. While numerous techniques can produce silver nanoparticles, few are able to produce highly conformal coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces, together with sub-nanometre control and scalability. Here we develop a self-limiting atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the deposition of conformal metallic silver nanoparticle films. The films have been deposited using direct liquid injection ALD with ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) and propan-1-ol. An ALD temperature window between 123 and 128 °C is identified and within this range self-limiting growth is confirmed with a mass deposition rate of ∼17.5 ng/cm"2/cycle. The effects of temperature, precursor dose, co-reactant dose and cycle number on the deposition rate and on the properties of the films have been systematically investigated. Under self-limiting conditions, films are metallic silver with a nano-textured surface topography and nanoparticle size is dependent on the number of ALD cycles. The ALD reaction mechanisms have been elucidated using in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, showing chemisorption of the silver precursor, followed by heterogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of the alcohol to form metallic silver and an aldehyde.

  10. Atomically precise arrays of fluorescent silver clusters: a modular approach for metal cluster photonics on DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M; Schultz, Danielle E; Swasey, Steven; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-03-24

    The remarkable precision that DNA scaffolds provide for arraying nanoscale optical elements enables optical phenomena that arise from interactions of metal nanoparticles, dye molecules, and quantum dots placed at nanoscale separations. However, control of ensemble optical properties has been limited by the difficulty of achieving uniform particle sizes and shapes. Ligand-stabilized metal clusters offer a route to atomically precise arrays that combine desirable attributes of both metals and molecules. Exploiting the unique advantages of the cluster regime requires techniques to realize controlled nanoscale placement of select cluster structures. Here we show that atomically monodisperse arrays of fluorescent, DNA-stabilized silver clusters can be realized on a prototypical scaffold, a DNA nanotube, with attachment sites separated by <10 nm. Cluster attachment is mediated by designed DNA linkers that enable isolation of specific clusters prior to assembly on nanotubes and preserve cluster structure and spectral purity after assembly. The modularity of this approach generalizes to silver clusters of diverse sizes and DNA scaffolds of many types. Thus, these silver cluster nano-optical elements, which themselves have colors selected by their particular DNA templating oligomer, bring unique dimensions of control and flexibility to the rapidly expanding field of nano-optics.

  11. Nanoscale phase-change materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Yuxi; Zhu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) that can reversibly transit between crystalline and amorphous phases have been widely used for data-storage and other functional devices. As PCMs scale down to nanoscale, the properties and transition procedures can vary, bringing both challenges and opportunities in scalability. This article describes the physical structures, properties and applications of nanoscale phase-change materials and devices. The limitations and performance of scaling properties in phase-change materials and the recent progress and challenges in phase-change devices are presented. At the end, some emerging applications related to phase-change materials are also introduced. (topical review)

  12. Nanoscale chirality in metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatish; Thomas, K George; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-10-18

    The field of chirality has recently seen a rejuvenation due to the observation of chirality in inorganic nanomaterials. The advancements in understanding the origin of nanoscale chirality and the potential applications of chiroptical nanomaterials in the areas of optics, catalysis and biosensing, among others, have opened up new avenues toward new concepts and design of novel materials. In this article, we review the concept of nanoscale chirality in metal nanoclusters and semiconductor quantum dots, then focus on recent experimental and theoretical advances in chiral metal nanoparticles and plasmonic chirality. Selected examples of potential applications and an outlook on the research on chiral nanomaterials are additionally provided.

  13. Atomic nanoscale technology in the nuclear industry

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Taeho

    2011-01-01

    Developments at the nanoscale are leading to new possibilities and challenges for nuclear applications in areas ranging from medicine to international commerce to atomic power production/waste treatment. Progress in nanotech is helping the nuclear industry slash the cost of energy production. It also continues to improve application reliability and safety measures, which remain a critical concern, especially since the reactor disasters in Japan. Exploring the new wide-ranging landscape of nuclear function, Atomic Nanoscale Technology in the Nuclear Industry details the breakthroughs in nanosca

  14. Nanoscale phase-change materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinghui; Wang, Yuxi; Zhu, Jia

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) that can reversibly transit between crystalline and amorphous phases have been widely used for data-storage and other functional devices. As PCMs scale down to nanoscale, the properties and transition procedures can vary, bringing both challenges and opportunities in scalability. This article describes the physical structures, properties and applications of nanoscale phase-change materials and devices. The limitations and performance of scaling properties in phase-change materials and the recent progress and challenges in phase-change devices are presented. At the end, some emerging applications related to phase-change materials are also introduced.

  15. Partitioned airs at microscale and nanoscale: thermal diffusivity in ultrahigh porosity solids of nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koh; Kobayashi, Yuri; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-02-01

    High porosity solids, such as plastic foams and aerogels, are thermally insulating. Their insulation performance strongly depends on their pore structure, which dictates the heat transfer process in the material. Understanding such a relationship is essential to realizing highly efficient thermal insulators. Herein, we compare the heat transfer properties of foams and aerogels that have very high porosities (97.3-99.7%) and an identical composition (nanocellulose). The foams feature rather closed, microscale pores formed with a thin film-like solid phase, whereas the aerogels feature nanoscale open pores formed with a nanofibrous network-like solid skeleton. Unlike the aerogel samples, the thermal diffusivity of the foam decreases considerably with a slight increase in the solid fraction. The results indicate that for suppressing the thermal diffusion of air within high porosity solids, creating microscale spaces with distinct partitions is more effective than directly blocking the free path of air molecules at the nanoscale.

  16. The development, characterization, and application of biomimetic nanoscale enzyme immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Nicholas R.

    The utilization of enzymes is of interest for applications such as biosensors and biofuel cells. Immobilizing enzymes provides a means to develop these applications. Previous immobilization efforts have been accomplished by exposing surfaces on which silica-forming molecules are present to solutions containing an enzyme and a silica precursor. This approach leads to the enzyme being entrapped in a matrix three orders of magnitude larger than the enzyme itself, resulting in low retention of enzyme activity. The research herein introduces a method for the immobilization of enzymes during the layer-by-layer buildup of Si-O and Ti-O coatings which are nanoscale in thickness. This approach is an application of a peptide-induced mineral deposition method developed in the Sandhage and Kroger groups, and it involves the alternating exposure of a surface to solutions containing the peptide protamine and then an aqueous precursor solution of silicon- or titanium-oxide at near-neutral pH. A method has been developed that enables in situ immobilization of enzymes in the protamine/mineral oxide coatings. Depending on the layer and mineral (silica or titania) within which the enzyme is incorporated, the resulting multilayer biocatalytic hybrid materials retain 20 -- 100% of the enzyme activity. Analyses of kinetic properties of the immobilized enzyme, coupled with characterization of physical properties of the mineral-bearing layers (thickness, porosity, pore size distribution), indicates that the catalytic activities of the enzymes immobilized in the different layers are largely determined by substrate diffusion. The enzyme was also found to be substantially stabilized against heat-induced denaturation and largely protected from proteolytic attack. These functional coatings are then developed for use as antimicrobial materials. Glucose oxidase, which catalyzes production of the cytotoxic agent hydrogen peroxide, was immobilized with silver nanoparticles, can release

  17. Effects of particle size and coating on nanoscale Ag and TiO₂ exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Olivia J; Johnston, Blair D; Moger, Julian; Balousha, Mohammed; Lead, Jamie R; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro; Tyler, Charles R

    2013-12-01

    Manufactured metal (oxide) nanoparticles are entering the aquatic environment with little understanding on their potential health impacts for exposed organisms. Adopting an integrative approach, we investigated effects of particle size and coating on biological responses for two of the most commonly used metal (oxide) nanoscale particles, silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂) in zebrafish embryos. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nominally, 4 nm, 10 nm, 30 nm and 134 nm) had little or no toxicity on the endpoints measured. Ag both in nano form (10 nm and 35 nm) and its larger counterpart (600-1600 nm) induced dose-dependent lethality and morphological defects, occurring predominantly during gastrula stage. Of the silver material tested 10 nm nanoparticles appeared to be the most toxic. Coating Ag nanoparticles with citrate or fulvic acid decreased toxicity significantly. In situ hybridisation analysis identified the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) as a target tissue for Ag-nano toxicity where there was a significant induction of the heavy metal stress response gene, metallothionein 2 (Mt2) at sub-lethal exposures. Coherent Anti-stroke Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy provided no evidence for silver particles crossing the chorionic membrane in exposed embryos. Collectively, our data suggest that silver ions play a major role in the toxicity of Ag nanoparticles.

  18. Field emission studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Vishwas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bhise, A.B.; Poddar, Pankaj; Joag, D.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Field emission has been studied for silver nanoparticles (25-200 nm), deposited within a cylindrical silver target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Particle size distribution was controlled by optimum biasing voltages between the chamber and the target. Presence of non-oxidized silver was confirmed from the X-Ray diffraction analysis; however, thin protective layer of oxide was identified from the selective area electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were seen to exhibit hilly pointed like structures when viewed under the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The emissive properties of these particles were investigated by field emission microscopy. It is found that this technique of deposition is ideal for formation of nanoparticles films on different substrate geometries with size controllability as well as its application to emission devices.

  19. Oxygen plasma etching of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, F.R., E-mail: fernanda@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Pca. Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-900, SP (Brazil); Bonetti, L.F. [Clorovale Diamantes Industria e Comercio Ltda, Estr. do Torrao de Ouro, 500-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12229-390, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, R.S.; Massi, M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Pca. Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50-Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-900, SP (Brazil); Santos, L.V.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Laboratorio Associado de Sensores e Materiais (LAS), Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010, SP (Brazil)

    2009-08-03

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film as a solid lubricant coating represents an important area of investigation related to space devices. The environment for such devices involves high vacuum and high concentration of atomic oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of silver-incorporated DLC thin films against oxygen plasma etching. Silver nanoparticles were produced through an electrochemical process and incorporated into DLC bulk during the deposition process using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The presence of silver does not affect significantly DLC quality and reduces by more than 50% the oxygen plasma etching. Our results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles protect DLC films against etching process, which may increase their lifetime in low earth orbit environment.

  20. Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of presence of Ni and Ge wetting layers as well as annealing on the permittivity of Ag films with thicknesses of 20, 35 and 65 nm. Most of the research on thin silver films deals with very small (wetting and capping material, post-process annealing). Our study, based on atomic force microscopy, ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, shows that utilizing a wetting layer is comparable to increasing the thickness of the silver film. Both operations decrease the roughness-to-thickness ratio, thus decreasing the scattering losses and both narrow the Lorentz-shaped interband transition peak. However, while increasing silver thickness increases absorption on the free carriers, the use of wetting layers influences the self-assembled internal structure of silver films in such a way, that the free carrier absorption decreases. Wetting layers also introduce additional contributions from effects like segregation or diffusion, which evolve in time and due to annealing.

  1. Oxygen plasma etching of silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, F.R.; Bonetti, L.F.; Pessoa, R.S.; Massi, M.; Santos, L.V.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film as a solid lubricant coating represents an important area of investigation related to space devices. The environment for such devices involves high vacuum and high concentration of atomic oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to study the behavior of silver-incorporated DLC thin films against oxygen plasma etching. Silver nanoparticles were produced through an electrochemical process and incorporated into DLC bulk during the deposition process using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The presence of silver does not affect significantly DLC quality and reduces by more than 50% the oxygen plasma etching. Our results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles protect DLC films against etching process, which may increase their lifetime in low earth orbit environment.

  2. Role of aluminum in silver paste contact to boron-doped silicon emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of aluminum to silver metallization pastes has been found to lower the contact resistivity of a silver metallization on boron-doped silicon emitters for n-type Si solar cells. However, the addition of Al also induces more surface recombination and increases the Ag pattern′s line resistivity, both of which ultimately limit the cell efficiency. There is a need to develop a fundamental understanding of the role that Al plays in reducing the contact resistivity and to explore alternative additives. A fritless silver paste is used to allow direct analysis of the impact of Al on the Ag-Si interfacial microstructure and isolate the influence of Al on the electrical contact from the complicated Ag-Si interfacial glass layer. Electrical analysis shows that in a simplified system, Al decreases the contact resistivity by about three orders of magnitude. Detailed microstructural studies show that in the presence of Al, microscale metallic spikes of Al-Ag alloy and nanoscale metallic spikes of Ag-Si alloy penetrate the surface of the boron-doped Si emitters. These results demonstrate the role of Al in reducing the contact resistivity through the formation of micro- and nano-scale metallic spikes, allowing the direct contact to the emitters.

  3. The effect of silver thickness on the enhancement of polymer based SERS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidewind, H; Weber, K; Zeisberger, M; Hübner, U; Dellith, A; Cialla-May, D; Mattheis, R; Popp, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated silver-covered polymer based nanogratings as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), in particular with respect to the thickness of the plasmonically active silver film. In order to obtain accurate geometrical input data for the simulation process, we inspected cross sections of the gratings prepared by breaking at cryogenic temperature. We noticed a strong dependence of the simulation results on geometrical variations of the structures. Measurements revealed that an increasing silver film thickness on top of the nanogratings leads to a blue shift of the plasmonic resonance, as predicted by numerical simulations, as well as to an increased field enhancement for an excitation at 488 nm. We found a clear deviation of the experimental data compared to the simulated results for very thin silver films due to an island-like growth at a silver thickness below 20 nm. In order to investigate the SERS activity. we carried out measurements with crystal violet as a model analyte at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. The SERS enhancement increases up to a silver thickness of about 30 nm, whereas it remains nearly constant for thicker silver films. (paper)

  4. A concetration-dependent model for silver colloids in nanostructured sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Macedo, Jorge A.; Franco, Alfredo; Renteria, Victor; Valverde-Aguilar, Guadalupe

    2005-08-01

    We report on the physical modelling of the photoconductive response of nanostructured sol-gel films in function of the silver nitrate concentration (ions and colloids). This model considers several factors as the silver nitrate concentration and the transport parameters obtained. The model is compared with others commonly used. 2d-hexagonal nanostructured sol-gel thin films were prepared by dip-coating method using a non-ionic diblock copolymer Brij58 (surfactant) to produce channels into the film. Silver colloids (metallic Ag0 nanoparticles ) were obtained by spontaneous reduction process of Ag+ ions to Ag0. These nanoparticles were deposited into the channels formed by the surfactant. The structure was identified by X-ray diffraction and TEM. An absorption band located at 430 nm was detected by optical absorption; it corresponds to the plasmon surface. Fit to this band with modified Gans theory is presented. Photoconductivity studies were performed on films with silver ions and films with silver colloids to characterized their mechanisms of charge transport in the darkness and under illumination at 420, 633 nm wavelengths. Transport parameters were calculated. The films with silver colloids exhibit a photovoltaic effect stronger than the films with silver ions. While, the last ones possesses a photoconductivity behaviour.

  5. Dynamics of silver elution from functionalised antimicrobial nanofiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, S; Habimana, O; Hannon, J; Allen, A; Cummins, E; Casey, E

    2017-07-01

    In an effort to mitigate biofouling on thin film composite membranes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, a myriad of different surface modification strategies has been published. The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has emerged as being particularly promising. Nevertheless, the stability of these surface modifications is still poorly understood, particularly under permeate flux conditions. Leaching or elution of Ag-NPs from the membrane surface can not only affect the antimicrobial characteristics of the membrane, but could also potentially present an environmental liability when applied in industrial-scale systems. This study sought to investigate the dynamics of silver elution and the bactericidal effect of an Ag-NP functionalised NF270 membrane. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy was used to show that the bulk of leached silver occurred at the start of experimental runs, and was found to be independent of salt or permeate conditions used. Cumulative amounts of leached silver did, however, stabilise following the initial release, and were shown to have maintained the biocidal characteristics of the modified membrane, as observed by a higher fraction of structurally damaged Pseudomonas fluorescens cells. These results highlight the need to comprehensively assess the time-dependent nature of bactericidal membranes.

  6. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and size control by electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, K A; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Microtron Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2006-07-14

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by irradiating solutions, prepared by mixing AgNO{sub 3} and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), with 6 MeV electrons. The electron-irradiated solutions and the thin coatings cast from them were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. During electron irradiation, the process of formation of the silver nanoparticles appeared to be initiated at an electron fluence of {approx}2 x 10{sup 13} e cm{sup -2}. This was evidenced from the solution, which turned yellow and exhibited the characteristic plasmon absorption peak around 455 nm. Silver nanoparticles of different sizes in the range 60-10 nm, with a narrow size distribution, could be synthesized by varying the electron fluence from 2 x 10{sup 13} to 3 x 10{sup 15} e cm{sup -2}. Silver nanoparticles of sizes in the range 100-200 nm were also synthesized by irradiating an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution with 6 MeV electrons.

  7. Intrinsic and extrinsic resistive switching in a planar diode based on silver oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiazadeh, A.; Gomes, H.L.; Rosa da Costa, A.M.; Moreira, J.A.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Resistive switching is investigated in thin-film planar diodes using silver oxide nanoparticles capped in a polymer. The conduction channel is directly exposed to the ambient atmosphere. Two types of switching are observed. In air, the hysteresis loop in the current–voltage characteristics is

  8. Microwave flash sintering of inkjet-printed silver tracks on polymer substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelaer, J.; Klokkenburg, M.; Hendriks, C.E.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Microwave flash sintering of inkjet printed colloidal silver dispersions on thin polymer substrates was studied as a function of the antenna area and initial resistance. The presence of conductive antennae promotes nanoparticle sintering in predried ink lines. For dried nanoparticle inks connected

  9. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin......, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts...... and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least...

  10. Roman sophisticated surface modification methods to manufacture silver counterfeited coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Riccucci, C.; Faraldi, F.; Pascucci, M.; Messina, E.; Fierro, G.; Di Carlo, G.

    2017-11-01

    By means of the combined use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) the surface and subsurface chemical and metallurgical features of silver counterfeited Roman Republican coins are investigated to decipher some aspects of the manufacturing methods and to evaluate the technological ability of the Roman metallurgists to produce thin silver coatings. The results demonstrate that over 2000 ago important advances in the technology of thin layer deposition on metal substrates were attained by Romans. The ancient metallurgists produced counterfeited coins by combining sophisticated micro-plating methods and tailored surface chemical modification based on the mercury-silvering process. The results reveal that Romans were able systematically to chemically and metallurgically manipulate alloys at a micro scale to produce adherent precious metal layers with a uniform thickness up to few micrometers. The results converge to reveal that the production of forgeries was aimed firstly to save expensive metals as much as possible allowing profitable large-scale production at a lower cost. The driving forces could have been a lack of precious metals, an unexpected need to circulate coins for trade and/or a combinations of social, political and economic factors that requested a change in money supply. Finally, some information on corrosion products have been achieved useful to select materials and methods for the conservation of these important witnesses of technology and economy.

  11. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José J. MALLMANN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment.

  12. Functionalised Silver Nanowire Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, Piers; Ilie, Adelina

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline silver nanowires 60-100 nm in diameter and tens of micrometres in length have been fabricated using a low temperature, solution synthesis technique. We explore the potential of this method to produce functional nanowire structures using two different strategies to attach active molecules to the nanowires: adsorption and displacement. Initially, as-produced silver nanowires capped with a uniaxial-growth-inducing polymer layer were functionalised by solution adsorption of a semiconducting conjugated polymer to generate fluorescent nanowire structures. The influence of nanowire surface chemistry was investigated by displacing the capping polymer with an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, followed by solution adsorption functionalisation. The success of molecular attachment was monitored by electron microscopy, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. We examined how the optical properties of such adsorbed molecules are affected by the metallic nanowires, and observed transfer of excitation energy between dye molecules mediated by surface plasmons propagating on the nanowires. Non-contact dynamic force microscopy measurements were used to map the work-function of individual wires, revealing inhomogeneity of the polymer surface coverage

  13. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale

  14. Benchtop Nanoscale Patterning Using Soft Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, Viswanathan; Babayan, Yelizaveta; Odom, Teri W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines several benchtop nanoscale patterning experiments that can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories or advanced high school chemistry curricula. The experiments, supplemented by an online video lab manual, are based on soft lithographic techniques such as replica molding, micro-molding in capillaries, and micro-contact…

  15. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  16. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  17. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I.

    2012-06-01

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  18. Neuromorphic computing with nanoscale spintronic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrejon, Jacob; Riou, Mathieu; Araujo, Flavio Abreu; Tsunegi, Sumito; Khalsa, Guru; Querlioz, Damien; Bortolotti, Paolo; Cros, Vincent; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Stiles, Mark D; Grollier, Julie

    2017-07-26

    Neurons in the brain behave as nonlinear oscillators, which develop rhythmic activity and interact to process information. Taking inspiration from this behaviour to realize high-density, low-power neuromorphic computing will require very large numbers of nanoscale nonlinear oscillators. A simple estimation indicates that to fit 10 8 oscillators organized in a two-dimensional array inside a chip the size of a thumb, the lateral dimension of each oscillator must be smaller than one micrometre. However, nanoscale devices tend to be noisy and to lack the stability that is required to process data in a reliable way. For this reason, despite multiple theoretical proposals and several candidates, including memristive and superconducting oscillators, a proof of concept of neuromorphic computing using nanoscale oscillators has yet to be demonstrated. Here we show experimentally that a nanoscale spintronic oscillator (a magnetic tunnel junction) can be used to achieve spoken-digit recognition with an accuracy similar to that of state-of-the-art neural networks. We also determine the regime of magnetization dynamics that leads to the greatest performance. These results, combined with the ability of the spintronic oscillators to interact with each other, and their long lifetime and low energy consumption, open up a path to fast, parallel, on-chip computation based on networks of oscillators.

  19. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...

  20. Effects of nanoscale contacts to graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franklin, A.D.; Han, S.-J.; Bol, A.A.; Haensch, W.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and optimizing transport between metal contacts and graphene is one of the foremost challenges for graphene devices. In this letter, we present the first results on the effects of reducing contact dimensions to the nanoscale in single-layer graphene transistors. Using noninvasive

  1. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  2. Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.

    2017-06-20

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.

  3. Nanoscale thermal transport: Theoretical method and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Jia; Liu, Yue-Yang; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2018-03-01

    With the size reduction of nanoscale electronic devices, the heat generated by the unit area in integrated circuits will be increasing exponentially, and consequently the thermal management in these devices is a very important issue. In addition, the heat generated by the electronic devices mostly diffuses to the air in the form of waste heat, which makes the thermoelectric energy conversion also an important issue for nowadays. In recent years, the thermal transport properties in nanoscale systems have attracted increasing attention in both experiments and theoretical calculations. In this review, we will discuss various theoretical simulation methods for investigating thermal transport properties and take a glance at several interesting thermal transport phenomena in nanoscale systems. Our emphasizes will lie on the advantage and limitation of calculational method, and the application of nanoscale thermal transport and thermoelectric property. Project supported by the Nation Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB0701602) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11674092).

  4. Traceable nanoscale measurement at NML-SIRIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlan, Ahmad M.; Abdul Hapip, A. I. [National Metrology Laboratory SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), Lot PT 4803, Bandar Baru Salak Tinggi, 43900 Sepang (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    The role of national metrology institute (NMI) has always been very crucial in national technology development. One of the key activities of the NMI is to provide traceable measurement in all parameters under the International System of Units (SI). Dimensional measurement where size and shape are two important features investigated, is one of the important area covered by NMIs. To support the national technology development, particularly in manufacturing sectors and emerging technology such nanotechnology, the National Metrology Laboratory, SIRIM Berhad (NML-SIRIM), has embarked on a project to equip Malaysia with state-of-the-art nanoscale measurement facility with the aims of providing traceability of measurement at nanoscale. This paper will look into some of the results from current activities at NML-SIRIM related to measurement at nanoscale particularly on application of atomic force microscope (AFM) and laser based sensor in dimensional measurement. Step height standards of different sizes were measured using AFM and laser-based sensors. These probes are integrated into a long-range nanoscale measuring machine traceable to the international definition of the meter thus ensuring their traceability. Consistency of results obtained by these two methods will be discussed and presented. Factors affecting their measurements as well as their related uncertainty of measurements will also be presented.

  5. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  6. Development of an eco-friendly approach for biogenesis of silver nanoparticles using spores of Bacillus athrophaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Abari, Afrouzossadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Ghasemi, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    The biological synthesis methods have been emerging as a promising new approach for production of nanoparticles due to their simplicity and non-toxicity. In the present study, spores of Bacillus athrophaeus were used to achieve the objective of developing a green synthesis method of silver nanoparticles. Enzyme assay revealed that the spores and their heat inactivated forms (microcapsules) were highly active and their enzymatic contents differed from the vegetative cells. Laccase, glucose oxidase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were detected in the dormant forms, but not in the vegetative cells. Although no nanoparticle was produced by active cells of B. athrophaeus, both spores and microcapsules were efficiently capable of reducing the silver ions (Ag⁺) to elemental silver (Ag⁰) leading to the formation of nanoparticles from silver nitrate (AgNO₃). The presence of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by obtaining broad spectra with maximum absorbance at 400 nm in UV-visible spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis pattern revealed that the nanoscale particles have crystalline nature with various topologies, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrograph showed the nanocrystal structures with dimensions ranging from 5 to 30 nm. Accordingly, the spore mixture could be employed as a factory for detoxification of heavy metals and subsequent production of nanoparticles. This research introduces an environmental friendly and cost effective biotechnological process for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the bacterial spores.

  7. Nanogap embedded silver gratings for surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Kunal

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively used in the past few decades for applications in sub-wavelength optics, data storage, optoelectronic circuits, microscopy and bio-photonics. The enhanced electromagnetic field produced at the metal and dielectric interface by the excitation of surface plasmons via incident radiation can be used for signal enhancement in fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering studies. Novel plasmonic structures have shown to provide very efficient and extreme light concentration at the nano-scale in recent years. The enhanced electric field produced within a few hundred nanometers of these surfaces can be used to excite fluorophores in the surrounding environment. Fluorescence based bio-detection and bio-imaging are two of the most important tools in the life sciences and improving the qualities and capabilities of fluorescence based detectors and imaging equipment remains a big challenge for industry manufacturers. We report a novel fabrication technique for producing nano-gap embedded periodic grating substrates on the nanoscale using a store bought HD-DVD and conventional soft lithography procedures. Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSSQ) polymer is used as the ink for the micro-contact printing process with PDMS stamps obtained from the inexpensive HD-DVDs as master molds. Fluorescence enhancement factors of up to 118 times were observed with these silver nanostructures in conjugation with Rhodamine-590 fluorescent dye. These substrates are ideal candidates for a robust and inexpensive optical system with applications such as low-level fluorescence based analyte detection, single molecule imaging, and surface enhanced Raman studies. Preliminary results in single molecule experiments have also been obtained by imaging individual 3 nm and 20 nm dye-doped nanoparticles attached to the silver plasmonic gratings using epi-fluorescence microscopy.

  8. Mesoporous Ruthenium/Ruthenium Oxide Thin Films: Active Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Jakob; Hellstern, Thomas R.; Choi, Shin-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We report the first synthesis of a fully contiguous large area supported thin film of highly ordered mesoporous Ru and RuO2 and investigate the electrocatalytic properties towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We find that the nanoscale porous network of these catalysts provides significant...... enhancements in geometric OER activity without any loss in specific activity. This work demonstrates a strategy for engineering materials at the nanoscale that can simultaneously decrease precious metal loading and increase electrode activity....

  9. AFM and XRD characterization of silver nanoparticles films deposited on the surface of DGEBA epoxy resin by ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Elisandro de; Machado, Rogerio; Macedo, Marcelo Andrade; Cunha, Frederico Guilherme Carvalho [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (MedRadiUS), Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis at Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, silver atoms were deposited by ion sputtering on the surface of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured at 150 deg C for 6 hours in air. The films of DGEBA and its precursors were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to identify the main functional groups and their relationship with the deposited silver atoms. Silver thin films of 5, 10, 15 and 20 nm were deposited on the epoxy resin at room temperature. Both the initial film of DGEBA and the subsequent silver thin film were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in the non-contact mode. Silver thin films were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The AFM results showed the formation of silver crystallites on the surface of DGEBA at very low coverage whereas XRD indicated that most of them had their main axis aligned to the normal of the surface. An increase in the coverage led to an increase in the grain size as indicated by AFM. However, XRD results indicated that the crystallite size remained almost constant while the appearance of peaks corresponding to other crystalline orientations suggests the coalescence of the original crystallites and an increase in size of the more dense planes, namely [111]. (author)

  10. AFM and XRD characterization of silver nanoparticles films deposited on the surface of DGEBA epoxy resin by ion sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Jose Elisandro de; Machado, Rogerio; Macedo, Marcelo Andrade [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Fisica; Cunha, Frederico Guilherme Carvalho [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    In this work, silver atoms were deposited by ion sputtering on the surface of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin cured at 150 Degree-Sign C for 6 hours in air. The films of DGEBA and its precursors were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to identify the main functional groups and their relationship with the deposited silver atoms. Silver thin films of 5, 10, 15 and 20 nm were deposited on the epoxy resin at room temperature. Both the initial film of DGEBA and the subsequent silver thin film were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in the non-contact mode. Silver thin films were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The AFM results showed the formation of silver crystallites on the surface of DGEBA at very low coverage whereas XRD indicated that most of them had their main axis aligned to the normal of the surface. An increase in the coverage led to an increase in the grain size as indicated by AFM. However, XRD results indicated that the crystallite size remained almost constant while the appearance of peaks corresponding to other crystalline orientations suggests the coalescence of the original crystallites and an increase in size of the more dense planes, namely [111]. (author)

  11. AFM and XRD characterization of silver nanoparticles films deposited on the surface of DGEBA epoxy resin by ion sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elisandro de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silver atoms were deposited by ion sputtering on the surface of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA epoxy resin cured at 150 °C for 6 hours in air. The films of DGEBA and its precursors were characterized by Raman spectroscopy to identify the main functional groups and their relationship with the deposited silver atoms. Silver thin films of 5, 10, 15 and 20 nm were deposited on the epoxy resin at room temperature. Both the initial film of DGEBA and the subsequent silver thin film were analyzed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM in the non-contact mode. Silver thin films were also analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD at room temperature. The AFM results showed the formation of silver crystallites on the surface of DGEBA at very low coverage whereas XRD indicated that most of them had their main axis aligned to the normal of the surface. An increase in the coverage led to an increase in the grain size as indicated by AFM. However, XRD results indicated that the crystallite size remained almost constant while the appearance of peaks corresponding to other crystalline orientations suggests the coalescence of the original crystallites and an increase in size of the more dense planes, namely [111].

  12. Photochemical Study of Silver Nanoparticles Formed from the Reduction of Silver Ions by Humic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Renee M.

    This study focuses on the ability of silver ions and humic acid to form silver nanoparticles in the presence of UV and visible light. Silver nanoparticles have a number of industrial applications due primarily to their antimicrobial properties, but these properties pose an environmental threat. Silver nanoparticles can directly disrupt sensitive ecosystems by harming bacteria. Consumption of silver nanoparticles results in silver ions and silver nanoparticles entering waterways; the presence of silver ions raises the question of whether nanoparticles can reform in environmental waters. As our data show, silver nanoparticles can form from the reduction of silver ions by humic acid after irradiation with UV and visible light. In order to better understand the mechanism of these naturally synthesized silver nanoparticles, we investigated the effects of reactant concentration, experimental conditions and presence of ions/reactive species. We monitored silver nanoparticle growth with UV-visible spectroscopy. The evolution in time of nanoparticle size was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS).

  13. Facile approach to the fabrication of a micropattern possessing nanoscale substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Jiang, Xuesong; Yin, Jie

    2007-12-04

    On the basis of the combined technologies of photolithography and reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS), a facile approach has been successfully developed for the fabrication of a micropattern possessing nanoscale substructure on the thin film surface. This approach involves three steps. In the first step, a thin film was prepared by spin coating from a solution of a commercial random copolymer, polystyrene-r-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA) and a commercial crosslinker, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). In the second step, photolithograph was performed with the thin film using a 250 W high-pressure mercury lamp to produce the micropattern. Finally, the resulting micropattern was annealed at 200 degrees C for a certain time, and reaction-induced phase separation occurred. After soaking in chloroform for 4 h, nanoscale substructure was obtained. The whole processes were traced by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the results supported the proposed structure.

  14. High-speed nanoscale characterization of dewetting via dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hihath, Sahar; Santala, Melissa K.; Campbell, Geoffrey; Benthem, Klaus van

    2016-01-01

    The dewetting of thin films can occur in either the solid or the liquid state for which different mass transport mechanisms are expected to control morphological changes. Traditionally, dewetting dynamics have been examined on time scales between several seconds to hours, and length scales ranging between nanometers and millimeters. The determination of mass transport mechanisms on the nanoscale, however, requires nanoscale spatial resolution and much shorter time scales. This study reports the high-speed observation of dewetting phenomena for kinetically constrained Ni thin films on crystalline SrTiO_3 substrates. Movie-mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy (DTEM) was used for high-speed image acquisition during thin film dewetting at different temperatures. DTEM imaging confirmed that the initial stages of film agglomeration include edge retraction, hole formation, and growth. Finite element modeling was used to simulate temperature distributions within the DTEM samples after laser irradiation with different energies. For pulsed laser irradiation at 18 μJ, experimentally observed hole growth suggests that Marangoni flow dominates hole formation in the liquid nickel film. After irradiation with 13.8 μJ, however, the observations suggest that dewetting was initiated by nucleation of voids followed by hole growth through solid-state surface diffusion.

  15. High-speed nanoscale characterization of dewetting via dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hihath, Sahar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santala, Melissa K.; Campbell, Geoffrey [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Benthem, Klaus van, E-mail: benthem@ucdavis.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    The dewetting of thin films can occur in either the solid or the liquid state for which different mass transport mechanisms are expected to control morphological changes. Traditionally, dewetting dynamics have been examined on time scales between several seconds to hours, and length scales ranging between nanometers and millimeters. The determination of mass transport mechanisms on the nanoscale, however, requires nanoscale spatial resolution and much shorter time scales. This study reports the high-speed observation of dewetting phenomena for kinetically constrained Ni thin films on crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. Movie-mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy (DTEM) was used for high-speed image acquisition during thin film dewetting at different temperatures. DTEM imaging confirmed that the initial stages of film agglomeration include edge retraction, hole formation, and growth. Finite element modeling was used to simulate temperature distributions within the DTEM samples after laser irradiation with different energies. For pulsed laser irradiation at 18 μJ, experimentally observed hole growth suggests that Marangoni flow dominates hole formation in the liquid nickel film. After irradiation with 13.8 μJ, however, the observations suggest that dewetting was initiated by nucleation of voids followed by hole growth through solid-state surface diffusion.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nano silver ferrite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Y.L.N.; Kondala Rao, T.; Kasi viswanath, I.V.; Singh, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    We report the synthesis of nano sized silver ferrite composite having the empirical formula AgFeO 2 by a co-precipitation method. The resulting powders are thin platelets, transparent and a rich ruby red in color in transmission. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) powder data consisted of only nine reflections, and the analysis showed the unit cell to be rhombohedral. The powders showed extensive XRD line broadening and the sizes of the crystals are calculated to be in the range 4-36.5 nm. The morphology of the silver ferrite composite studied using scanning electron microscope showed nano sized particles. The particle size is found to increase with increase in annealing temperature. The magnetic behavior, measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer, indicated a change from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic with increase in particle size.

  17. Silver nanoparticle ink technology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Krishna Rajan, Ignazio Roppolo, Annalisa Chiappone, Sergio Bocchini, Denis Perrone, Alessandro Chiolerio Center for Space Human Robotics, Italian Institute of Technology, Turin, Italy Abstract: Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today. This is a compact review on synthesis routes, main properties, and practical applications. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance, nanocomposites, inks, printed electronics

  18. Antimicrobial effects of silver zeolite, silver zirconium phosphate silicate and silver zirconium phosphate against oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sirikamon Saengmee-anupharb; Toemsak Srikhirin; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Taweechai Amornsakchai; Surachai Dechkunakorn; Theeralaksna Suddhasthira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of silver inorganic materials, including silver zeolite (AgZ), silver zirconium phosphate silicate (AgZrPSi) and silver zirconium phosphate (AgZrP), against oral microorganisms. In line with this objective, the morphology and structure of each type of silver based powders were also investigated. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP were tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candidaalbicans and Staphylococcus aureus using disk diffusion assay as a screening test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) were determined using the modified membrane method. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the morphology and structure of these silver materials. Results: All forms of silver inorganic materials could inhibit the growth of all test microorganisms. The MIC of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP was 10.0 g/L whereas MLC ranged between 10.0-60.0 g/L. In terms of morphology and structure, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had smaller sized particles (1.5-3.0 µm) and more uniformly shaped than AgZ. Conclusions: Silver inorganic materials in the form of AgZ, AgZrPSi and AgZrP had antimicrobial effects against all test oral microorganisms and those activities may be influenced by the crystal structure of carriers. These results suggest that these silver materials may be useful metals applied to oral hygiene products to provide antimicrobial activity against oral infection.

  19. Frictional properties of self-adaptive chromium doped tungsten–sulfur–carbon coatings at nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zekonyte, J., E-mail: j.zekonyte@soton.ac.uk [National Centre for Advanced Tribology, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cavaleiro, A. [SEG-CEMUC – Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, P-3030 788 Coimbra (Portugal); Polcar, T. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are excellent dry lubricants forming thin (∼10 nm) tribolayer that simultaneously protects the coating from environmental attack and provides low friction. In this paper, we focus on nanoscale frictional properties of chromium doped tungsten–sulfur–carbon (WSC–Cr) coatings with various Cr content. Friction force microscopy was used to investigate friction force as a function of load. A non-linear contact area dependence on the normal force was observed. The calculated interfacial shear strength was relatively low in the region of 70–99 MPa. Friction coefficient decreased with increased applied load independently of chromium content in the coatings.

  20. Strain Imaging of Nanoscale Semiconductor Heterostructures with X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin V.; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O.; Murray, Conal E.; Holt, Judson R.; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Fuoss, Paul H.

    2014-04-01

    We report the imaging of nanoscale distributions of lattice strain and rotation in complementary components of lithographically engineered epitaxial thin film semiconductor heterostructures using synchrotron x-ray Bragg projection ptychography (BPP). We introduce a new analysis method that enables lattice rotation and out-of-plane strain to be determined independently from a single BPP phase reconstruction, and we apply it to two laterally adjacent, multiaxially stressed materials in a prototype channel device. These results quantitatively agree with mechanical modeling and demonstrate the ability of BPP to map out-of-plane lattice dilatation, a parameter critical to the performance of electronic materials.

  1. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated. Keywords. Polar crystal; uniaxial orientational order; thin film; second harmonic gen- eration; silver ... able content of metal nanoparticles would be of considerable value from an appli- ... polar chain and perpendicular to it [10].

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Polydopamine-Assisted Silver Deposition on Polymer Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Amanda Laurence

    Inspired by the adhesive proteins in marine mussels, polydopamine has become a popular adhesive ad-layer for surface functionalization of a variety of substrates. Based on the chemistry of the dopamine monomer, amine and thiol functional groups are hypothesized to increase adhesion between polymer substrates and polydopamine thin films. This hypothesis was the central motivation for development of a tailorable thiol-ene system in order to study the effects of substrate chemistry on polydopamine adhesion. While polydopamine-adhered silver has been studied on a variety of substrates, no in depth mechanical characterization has been performed and to date, no research has been published on thiol-enes coated in polydopamine-adhered silver. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mechanical durability and adhesion properties of a polydopamine-adhered silver film on commercial substrates and a tailorable thiol-ene system. Polydopamine and silver coatings were deposited on a variety of polymer substrates through a simple dip-coat process. The polydopamine forms a thin uniform adhesive layer and the silver deposits in a discontinuous manner with a nanoparticle sized base layer covering the full surface and micron-sized clusters adhered sporadically on top. Mechanical tensile testing was performed to characterize the durability of the silver coating on commercial polymers. Coated nylon and HDPE showed no signs of degradation or delamination of the polydopamine-adhered silver coating up to 30% strain although both substrates showed large plastic deformation. Peel tests were performed on both commercial polymers as well as a tailorable thiol-ene system. Results support the hypothesis that polydopamine adhesion is increased with the presence of functional groups. Parts of the HDPE sample were cleanly peeled, but silver patches were left sporadically across the surface pointing to weaker adhesion between polyethylene and polydopamine. A high adhesive strength tape was

  3. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Low-silver radiographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskii, V.A.; Novikov, I.A.; Nikitin, V.F.; Krasnyi-Admoni, L.V.; Valevich, M.I.; Belyi, N.G.; Grom, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray films and screens with low silver content for use in weld radiography are reviewed and tested. Properties examined include image graininess, brightness, and sensitivity to x radiation. Results are given for radiography of steel 08Kh18N10T, St20, AMG-6, copper, and titanium welds. Processing techniques for low-silver films are discussed. It is established that films and screens containing little silver can replace many x-ray films containing much more silver. Monitoring methods were developed for the new materials to cover items in classes 3-7 on GOST 23075-78 when used with equipment of RUP-150/300-10 type or classes 4-7 with pulsed x-ray equipment

  5. Manipulation and light-induced agglomeration of carbon nanotubes through optical trapping of attached silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chao; Zhang Yi; Gu, Claire; Seballos, Leo; Zhang, Jin Z

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental method has been demonstrated for manipulating multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bundles through the optical trapping of attached silver nanoparticles (SNPs). In our experiments, without the SNPs, the MWCNTs cannot be trapped due to their irregular shapes and large aspect ratio. However, when mixed with SNPs, the MWCNTs can be successfully trapped along with the SNPs using a TEM 00 mode laser at 532 nm. This is attributed to the optical trapping of the SNPs and attractive interaction or binding between the SNPs and MWCNTs due to electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Therefore, optical manipulation of MWCNT bundles is achieved through the manipulation of the attached silver nanoparticles/aggregates. In addition, we have observed the phenomenon of light-induced further agglomeration of SNPs/MWCNTs which could potentially be exploited for fabricating patterned MWCNT films for future nanoscale devices and other applications

  6. The Morphology of Silver Layers on SU8 polymers prepared by Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Aniruddha; Yuan, Biao; Heinrich, Helge; Grabill, Chris; Williams, Henry; Kuebler, Stephen; Bhattacharya, Aniket

    2010-03-01

    Silver was deposited onto the functionalized surface of polymeric SU-8 where gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) act as nucleation sites using electroless metallization chemistry. Here we report on the evolution of the nanoscale morphology of deposited Ag studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In TEM of sample cross sections correlations between the original gold and the silver nanoparticles were obtained while plan-view TEM results showed the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface. Scanning TEM with a high-angle annular dark field detector was used to obtain atomic number contrast. The morphology of the deposited Ag was controlled through the presence and absence of gum Arabic. The thickness and height fluctuations of the Ag layer were determined as a function of time and a statistical analysis of the growth process was conducted for the initial deposition periods.

  7. Optical response of heterogeneous polymer layers containing silver nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Carlberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the study of the optical properties of silver nanostructures embedded in a polymer host matrix. The introduction of silver nanostructures in polymer thin films is assumed to result in layers having adaptable optical properties. Thin film layers with inclusions of differently shaped nanoparticles, such as nanospheres and nanoprisms, and of different sizes, are optically characterized. The nanoparticles are produced by a simple chemical synthesis at room temperature in water. The plasmonic resonance peaks of the different colloidal solutions range from 390 to 1300 nm. The non-absorbing, transparent polymer matrix poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP was chosen because of its suitable optical and chemical properties. The optical studies of the layers include spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, which provide information about the reflection, transmission, absorption of the material as well as the complex optical indices, n and k. Finite difference time domain simulations of nanoparticles in thin film layers allow the visualization of the nanoparticle interactions or the electric field enhancement on and around the nanoparticles to complete the optical characterization. A simple analysis method is proposed to obtain the complex refractive index of nanospheres and nanoprisms in a polymer matrix.

  8. A surface evolution scheme to identify nanoscale intrinsic geometry from AFM experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hong-Lae; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2013-01-01

    The geometrical properties of metallic nanoparticles such as the size and morphology have significant impacts on the structure and stability of the adsorbed biological entities as well as the nanoscale structural performances. To identify the nanoscale intrinsic geometry from the height images by atomic force microscopy (AFM), we developed a curvature-dependent evolution scheme that can eliminate the noise and smoothen the surfaces. The principal curvatures are computed directly from the first and second derivatives of the discrete AFM height data. The principal curvatures and directions correspond to the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of shape operator matrix, respectively. The evolution equation using the principal curvature flows smoothens the images in the corresponding principal directions. For an idealized model, κ 2 flow successfully identifies the major valley lines to represent the boundary of nanoparticles without referring to the phase information, whereas the mean curvature flow eliminates all the minor ones leaving only the major feature of the boundary. To demonstrate the capability of noise removal, smoothing surfaces, the identification of ridge and valley lines, and the extraction of intrinsic geometry, the developed numerical scheme is applied to real AFM data that include the silver nanoparticles of 24 nm diameter and the gold nanoparticles of 33–56 nm diameters

  9. Nanoscale microstructural characterization of a nanobainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timokhina, I.B., E-mail: ilana.timokhina@eng.monash.edu.au [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Beladi, H. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Xiong, X.Y. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Adachi, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Hodgson, P.D. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2011-08-15

    A 0.79 C-1.5 Si-1.98 Mn-0.98 Cr-0.24 Mo-1.06 Al-1.58 Co (wt.%) steel was isothermally heat treated at 200 deg. C for 10 days and 350 deg. C for 1 day to form a nanoscale bainitic microstructure consisting of nanobainitic ferrite laths with high dislocation density and retained austenite films. The microstructures of the samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. Despite the formation of nanoscale bainite with a high volume fraction of retained austenite in both steels, the ductility of both steels was surprisingly low. It is believed that this was associated with the formation of carbon-depleted retained austenite after isothermal transformation at 200 deg. C due to the formation of high number of Fe-C clusters and particles in the bainitic ferrite laths and carbon-enriched austenite after isothermal transformation at 350 deg. C.

  10. Bulk nanoscale materials in steel products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, B; Wang, X; Masse, J-P; Zurob, H; Embury, D; Bouaziz, O

    2010-01-01

    Although a number of nanoscale metallic materials exhibit interesting mechanical properties the fabrication paths are often complex and difficult to apply to bulk structural materials. However a number of steels which exhibit combinations of plasticity and phase transitions can be deformed to produce ultra high strength levels in the range 1 to 3 GPa. The resultant high stored energy and complex microstructures allow new nanoscale structures to be produced by combinations of recovery and recrystallisation. The resultant structures exhibit totally new combinations of strength and ductility to be achieved. In specific cases this also enables both the nature of the grain boundary structure and the spatial variation in structure to be controlled. In this presentation both the detailed microstructural features and their relation to the strength, work-hardening capacity and ductility will be discussed for a number of martensitic and austenitic steels.

  11. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  12. Programmed assembly of nanoscale structures using peptoids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jianhua (University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA); Russell, Scott (California State University, Stanislaus, Turlock, CA); Morishetti, Kiran (University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA); Robinson, David B.; Zuckermann, Ronald N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Buffleben, George M.; Hjelm, Rex P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kent, Michael Stuart (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-02-01

    Sequence-specific polymers are the basis of the most promising approaches to bottom-up programmed assembly of nanoscale materials. Examples include artificial peptides and nucleic acids. Another class is oligo(N-functional glycine)s, also known as peptoids, which permit greater sidegroup diversity and conformational control, and can be easier to synthesize and purify. We have developed a set of peptoids that can be used to make inorganic nanoparticles more compatible with biological sequence-specific polymers so that they can be incorporated into nucleic acid or other biologically based nanostructures. Peptoids offer degrees of modularity, versatility, and predictability that equal or exceed other sequence-specific polymers, allowing for rational design of oligomers for a specific purpose. This degree of control will be essential to the development of arbitrarily designed nanoscale structures.

  13. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Silver, and China.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Milton

    1992-01-01

    The silver purchase program, initiated by Franklin Roosevelt in late 1933 in response to the economically small but politically potent silver bloc, gave a large short-run subsidy to silver producers at the cost of destroying any long-run monetary role for silver. More important, it imposed severe deflation on China, the only major country still on a silver standard, and forced it off the silver standard and on to a fiat standard, which brought forward in time and increased in severity the sub...

  14. Infochemistry Information Processing at the Nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Szacilowski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Infochemistry: Information Processing at the Nanoscale, defines a new field of science, and describes the processes, systems and devices at the interface between chemistry and information sciences. The book is devoted to the application of molecular species and nanostructures to advanced information processing. It includes the design and synthesis of suitable materials and nanostructures, their characterization, and finally applications of molecular species and nanostructures for information storage and processing purposes. Divided into twelve chapters; the first three chapters serve as an int

  15. Fourth International Conference on Nanoscale Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, Bekir; Advances in Nanoscale Magnetism

    2009-01-01

    The book aims to provide an overview of recent progress in the understanding of magnetic properties in nanoscale through recent results of various theoretical and experimental investigations. The papers describe a wide range of physical aspects, together with theoretical and experimental methods. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in magnetism and magnetic materials science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students.

  16. DOE - BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, Cathy Jo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-14

    These are slides from a powerpoint shown to guests during tours of Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. It shows the five DOE-BES nanoscale science research centers (NSRCs), which are located at different national laboratories throughout the country. Then it goes into detail specifically about the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at LANL, including statistics on its user community and CINT's New Mexico industrial users.

  17. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  18. Sensing the facet orientation in silver nano-plates using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdellatif, M.H. [Department of Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Physics Department, National Research Center, Elbehoos st., 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Salerno, M., E-mail: marco.salerno@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Polovitsyn, Anatolii [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); Dipartimentodi Fisica, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Marras, Sergio [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy); De Angelis, Francesco [Department of Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, I-16163 Genova (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The surface potential of drop cast nanocrystals was measured by SKPM in ambient air. • The nanocrystal facet work function was derived by theory. • By comparing theory and experiment we distinguished the nanocrystal facets. • Nanocrystal facet control is of practical interest for optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: The work function of nano-materials is important for a full characterization of their electronic properties. Because the band alignment, band bending and electronic noise are very sensitive to work function fluctuations, the dependence of the work function of nano-scale crystals on facet orientation can be a critical issue in optimizing optoelectronic devices based on these materials. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to assess the local work function on samples of silver nano-plates at sub-micrometric spatial resolution. With the appropriate choice of the substrate and based on statistical analysis, it was possible to distinguish the surface potential of the different facets of silver nano-plates even if the measurements were done in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum. A phenomenological model was used to calculate the differences of facet work function of the silver nano-plates and the corresponding shift in Fermi level. This theoretical prediction and the experimentally observed difference in surface potential on the silver nano-plates were in good agreement. Our results show the possibility to sense the nano-crystal facets by appropriate choice of the substrate in ambient conditions.

  19. The biological properties of the silver- and copper-doped ceramic biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, Oleksandr, E-mail: dr.alex.lysenko@gmail.com [Bogomolets National Medical University, Department of Therapeutic Stomatology (Ukraine); Dubok, Oleksii [Institute for Problems of Material Science NASU, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Functional Ceramics (Ukraine); Borysenko, Anatolii [Bogomolets National Medical University, Department of Therapeutic Stomatology (Ukraine); Shinkaruk, Oleksandr [Institute for Problems of Material Science NASU, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Functional Ceramics (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    The biological properties of nanostructured bioactive ceramic composite (BCC) granules doped with 0.1–10 at.% silver and 0.05–5 at.% copper have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo to develop effective alloplastic material for infected bone defect substitute. It is assumed that the granules consisting of biphasic calcium phosphate and bioactive glass ceramics due to their nanoscale (15–40 nm) and multiphase structure, bioelement placement in different ceramic phases as well as antimicrobial effect should improve osteogenic properties and biocompatibility. Tests in vitro have been conducted with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and test strains of microorganisms. The same biocomposite has been used in vivo to study the repair of bone defects in animal model. The findings indicate that doped BCC leads to antimicrobial activity. Inhibition of MSCs growth has been observed for granules doped with ions of more than 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper. The results of the in vivo study reveal that BCC implantation significantly improves bone reparation. Differences between bone repair with undoped and doped, with 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper, ceramic samples were not observed. The BCC doped within 0.5–1 at.% silver and 0.25–0.5 at.% copper stimulates bone tissue repair and has satisfactory biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties.

  20. The biological properties of the silver- and copper-doped ceramic biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, Oleksandr; Dubok, Oleksii; Borysenko, Anatolii; Shinkaruk, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The biological properties of nanostructured bioactive ceramic composite (BCC) granules doped with 0.1–10 at.% silver and 0.05–5 at.% copper have been investigated both in vitro and in vivo to develop effective alloplastic material for infected bone defect substitute. It is assumed that the granules consisting of biphasic calcium phosphate and bioactive glass ceramics due to their nanoscale (15–40 nm) and multiphase structure, bioelement placement in different ceramic phases as well as antimicrobial effect should improve osteogenic properties and biocompatibility. Tests in vitro have been conducted with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and test strains of microorganisms. The same biocomposite has been used in vivo to study the repair of bone defects in animal model. The findings indicate that doped BCC leads to antimicrobial activity. Inhibition of MSCs growth has been observed for granules doped with ions of more than 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper. The results of the in vivo study reveal that BCC implantation significantly improves bone reparation. Differences between bone repair with undoped and doped, with 1 at.% silver and 0.5 at.% copper, ceramic samples were not observed. The BCC doped within 0.5–1 at.% silver and 0.25–0.5 at.% copper stimulates bone tissue repair and has satisfactory biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties

  1. Sensing the facet orientation in silver nano-plates using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.H.; Salerno, M.; Polovitsyn, Anatolii; Marras, Sergio; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface potential of drop cast nanocrystals was measured by SKPM in ambient air. • The nanocrystal facet work function was derived by theory. • By comparing theory and experiment we distinguished the nanocrystal facets. • Nanocrystal facet control is of practical interest for optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: The work function of nano-materials is important for a full characterization of their electronic properties. Because the band alignment, band bending and electronic noise are very sensitive to work function fluctuations, the dependence of the work function of nano-scale crystals on facet orientation can be a critical issue in optimizing optoelectronic devices based on these materials. We used scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to assess the local work function on samples of silver nano-plates at sub-micrometric spatial resolution. With the appropriate choice of the substrate and based on statistical analysis, it was possible to distinguish the surface potential of the different facets of silver nano-plates even if the measurements were done in ambient conditions without the use of vacuum. A phenomenological model was used to calculate the differences of facet work function of the silver nano-plates and the corresponding shift in Fermi level. This theoretical prediction and the experimentally observed difference in surface potential on the silver nano-plates were in good agreement. Our results show the possibility to sense the nano-crystal facets by appropriate choice of the substrate in ambient conditions.

  2. Strategies for specifically directing metal functionalization of protein nanotubes: constructing protein coated silver nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Fuentes, Liliana; Palomares, Laura A; Ramírez, Octavio T; Ascencio, Jorge A; Medina, Ariosto; Aguila, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Biological molecules that self-assemble in the nanoscale range are useful multifunctional materials. Rotavirus VP6 protein self-assembles into tubular structures in the absence of other rotavirus proteins. Here, we present strategies for selectively directing metal functionalization to the lumen of VP6 nanotubes. The specific in situ metal reduction in the inner surface of nanotube walls was achieved by the simple modification of a method previously reported to functionalize the nanotube outer surface. Silver nanorods and nanowires as long as 1.5 μm were formed inside the nanotubes by coalescence of nanoparticles. Such one-dimensional structures were longer than others previously obtained using bioscaffolds. The interactions between silver ions and the nanotube were simulated to understand the conditions that allowed nanowire formation. Molecular docking showed that a naturally occurring arrangement of aspartate residues enabled the stabilization of silver ions on the internal surface of the VP6 nanotubes. This is the first time that such a spatial arrangement has been proposed for the nucleation of silver nanoparticles, opening the possibility of using such an array to direct functionalization of other biomolecules. These results demonstrate the natural capabilities of VP6 nanotubes to function as a versatile biotemplate for nanomaterials. (paper)

  3. Nanoscale-Agglomerate-Mediated Heterogeneous Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyeongyun; Wu, Alex; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Saigusa, Kosuke; Liu, Aihua; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-12-13

    Water vapor condensation on hydrophobic surfaces has received much attention due to its ability to rapidly shed water droplets and enhance heat transfer, anti-icing, water harvesting, energy harvesting, and self-cleaning performance. However, the mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation on hydrophobic surfaces remains poorly understood and is attributed to defects in the hydrophobic coating exposing the high surface energy substrate. Here, we observe the formation of high surface energy nanoscale agglomerates on hydrophobic coatings after condensation/evaporation cycles in ambient conditions. To investigate the deposition dynamics, we studied the nanoscale agglomerates as a function of condensation/evaporation cycles via optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), microgoniometric contact angle measurements, nucleation statistics, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The FESEM and EDS results indicated that the nanoscale agglomerates stem from absorption of sulfuric acid based aerosol particles inside the droplet and adsorption of volatile organic compounds such as methanethiol (CH 3 SH), dimethyl disulfide (CH 3 SSCH), and dimethyl trisulfide (CH 3 SSSCH 3 ) on the liquid-vapor interface during water vapor condensation, which act as preferential sites for heterogeneous nucleation after evaporation. The insights gained from this study elucidate fundamental aspects governing the behavior of both short- and long-term heterogeneous nucleation on hydrophobic surfaces, suggest previously unexplored microfabrication and air purification techniques, and present insights into the challenges facing the development of durable dropwise condensing surfaces.

  4. Nanoscale piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foruzande, Hamid Reza; Hajnayeb, Ali; Yaghootian, Amin

    2017-09-01

    Development of new nanoscale devices has increased the demand for new types of small-scale energy resources such as ambient vibrations energy harvesters. Among the vibration energy harvesters, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) can be easily miniaturized and fabricated in micro and nano scales. This change in the dimensions of a PEH leads to a change in its governing equations of motion, and consequently, the predicted harvested energy comparing to a macroscale PEH. In this research, effects of small scale dimensions on the nonlinear vibration and harvested voltage of a nanoscale PEH is studied. The PEH is modeled as a cantilever piezoelectric bimorph nanobeam with a tip mass, using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory in conjunction with Hamilton's principle. A harmonic base excitation is applied as a model of the ambient vibrations. The nonlocal elasticity theory is used to consider the size effects in the developed model. The derived equations of motion are discretized using the assumed-modes method and solved using the method of multiple scales. Sensitivity analysis for the effect of different parameters of the system in addition to size effects is conducted. The results show the significance of nonlocal elasticity theory in the prediction of system dynamic nonlinear behavior. It is also observed that neglecting the size effects results in lower estimates of the PEH vibration amplitudes. The results pave the way for designing new nanoscale sensors in addition to PEHs.

  5. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lepetit@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Lemoine, Didier, E-mail: didier.lemoine@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Márquez-Mijares, Maykel, E-mail: mmarquez@instec.cu [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Avenida Salvador Allende 1110, Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-08-28

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  6. Friction between silicon and diamond at the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Wang, Xu; Srolovitz, David J; Zhou, Kun

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the nanoscale friction between diamond-structure silicon (Si) and diamond via molecular dynamics simulation. The interaction between the interfaces is considered as strong covalent bonds. The effects of load, sliding velocity, temperature and lattice orientation are investigated. Results show that the friction can be divided into two stages: the static friction and the kinetic friction. During the static friction stage, the load, lattice orientation and temperature dramatically affects the friction by changing the elastic limit of Si. Large elastic deformation is induced in the Si block, which eventually leads to the formation of a thin layer of amorphous Si near the Si-diamond interface and thus the beginning of the kinetic friction stage. During the kinetic friction stage, only temperature and velocity have an effect on the friction. The investigation of the microstructural evolution of Si demonstrated that the kinetic friction can be categorized into two modes (stick-slip and smooth sliding) depending on the temperature of the fracture region. (paper)

  7. Halbach Effect at the Nanoscale from Chiral Spin Textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Miguel A; Penedo, Marcos; Baćani, Mirko; Schwenk, Johannes; Hug, Hans J

    2018-04-11

    Mallinson's idea that some spin textures in planar magnetic structures could produce an enhancement of the magnetic flux on one side of the plane at the expense of the other gave rise to permanent magnet configurations known as Halbach magnet arrays. Applications range from wiggler magnets in particle accelerators and free electron lasers to motors and magnetic levitation trains, but exploiting Halbach arrays in micro- or nanoscale spintronics devices requires solving the problem of fabrication and field metrology below a 100 μm size. In this work, we show that a Halbach configuration of moments can be obtained over areas as small as 1 μm × 1 μm in sputtered thin films with Néel-type domain walls of unique domain wall chirality, and we measure their stray field at a controlled probe-sample distance of 12.0 ± 0.5 nm. Because here chirality is determined by the interfacial Dyzaloshinkii-Moriya interaction, the field attenuation and amplification is an intrinsic property of this film, allowing for flexibility of design based on an appropriate definition of magnetic domains. Skyrmions (magnetic fields and mapping of the spin structure shows they funnel the field toward one specific side of the film given by the sign of the Dyzaloshinkii-Moriya interaction parameter D.

  8. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junwoo [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Duraisamy, Navaneethan [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taik-Min [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inyoung, E-mail: ikim@kimm.re.kr [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinity and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells.

  9. Unraveling the reaction mechanism of silver ions reduction by chitosan from so far neglected spectroscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapeto, Ana Patrícia; Ferraria, Ana Maria; do Rego, Ana Maria Botelho

    2017-10-15

    Metallic silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution using chitosan, as both reducing and stabilizing agent, and AgNO 3 as silver precursor aiming the production of solid ultra-thin films. A systematic characterization of the resulting system as a function of the initial concentrations was performed. The combination of UV-vis absorption - and its quantitative analysis - with X-ray photoelectron spectra, light scattering measurements and atomic force microscopy allowed obtaining a rational picture of silver reduction mechanism through the identification of the nature of the formed reduced/oxidized species. Nanoparticle mean sizes and sizes distributions were rather independent from the precursors initial absolute and relative concentrations ([AgNO 3 ]/[chitosan]). This work clarifies some points of the mechanism involved showing experimental evidence of the early stages of the very fast silver reduction in chitosan aqueous solutions through the spectral signature of the smallest silver aggregate (Ag 2 + ) even at room temperature. The characterized system is believed to be useful for research fields where silver nanoparticles completely exempt of harmful traces of inorganic ions, coming from additional reducing agents, are needed, especially to be used in biocompatible in films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junwoo; Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinity and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells

  11. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukoje, Ivana D., E-mail: ivanav@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tomašević-Ilić, Tijana D., E-mail: tommashev@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zarubica, Aleksandra R., E-mail: zarubica2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Dimitrijević, Suzana, E-mail: suzana@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budimir, Milica D., E-mail: mickbudimir@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ, Mila R., E-mail: mila@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Šaponjić, Zoran V., E-mail: saponjic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nedeljković, Jovan M., E-mail: jovned@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO{sub 2} support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact.

  12. Electrical properties of silver selenide thin films prepared by reactive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2001-07-29

    Jul 29, 2001 ... tion of a given vapour at a given rate takes place only if the temperature of ... temperature for evaporation of compound and subsequent decomposition ... Electrical conductivity and Hall effect measurements were carried out ...

  13. Development kinetics of silver clusters on silver halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiak, S.; Belloni, J.; Marignier, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    Silver nuclei are produced by pulse radiolysis at the surface of AgCl nanocrystallites in the presence of an electron donor, the methyl viologen, which induces the growth of silver nuclei. The experimental results observed on the increase of the silver atom concentration and on the decay of the donor concentration during this process, which is similar to the photographic development by an electron donor, are compared with the kinetics obtained from numerical simulation. The model assumes that the formation of silver clusters with a supercritical nuclearity is required before the start of an electron transfer reaction from the two reduced forms of the donor methyl viologen to the silver clusters. The reaction is controlled by the access of the donor to the surface sites of the AgCl crystallite. The rate constant values of the successive steps of the mechanism are derived from the adjustment of calculated kinetics to experimental signals under various conditions, using a single set of parameters which are fairly suitable under all conditions studied

  14. Epitaxial growth of textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ films on silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dan-Min; Liu Wei-Peng; Suo Hong-Li; Zhou Mei-Ling

    2005-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films were deposited on (100), (110) and (111) oriented silver single crystals and {100} left angle 100 right angle, {110} left angle 211 right angle, {110} left angle 100 right angle +{110} left angle 011 right angle {110} left angle 011 right angle and {012} left angle 100 right angle textured Ag substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The relationship between the epitaxial growth YBCO film and silver substrate has been determined. It is shown that among polycrystalline Ag substrates, {110} left angle 011 right angle textured tape is suitable for the deposition of YBCO thin films having strong texture. (orig.)

  15. On the problem of soldering refractory metals with silver-containing solders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Andryushchenko, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The processes of wetting, spreading and interphase interactions of copper-silver liquid alloys alloyed with Ni and Si, with niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, 12Kh18N10T steel and nickel are studied. It has been determined that Ni or Si additions into the copper-silver solder improve the wetting and adhesion. When soldering with the alloy containing Ni additions, the strength of a soldered Joint grows with the increase of soldering duration while soldering with the alloy containing Si additions, the strength decreases. That is why Ni-containing solders are preferable for soldering thick-walled structures, and Si-containing solders - for thin-walled structures [ru

  16. Ageing of plasma-mediated coatings with embedded silver nanoparticles on stainless steel: An XPS and ToF-SIMS investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanna, S.; Saulou, C.; Mercier-Bonin, M.; Despax, B.; Raynaud, P.; Seyeux, A.; Marcus, P.

    2010-09-01

    Nanocomposite thin films (˜170 nm), composed of silver nanoparticles enclosed in an organosilicon matrix, were deposited onto stainless steel, with the aim of preventing biofilm formation. The film deposition was carried out under cold plasma conditions, combining radiofrequency (RF) glow discharge fed with argon and hexamethyldisiloxane and simultaneous silver sputtering. XPS and ToF-SIMS were used to characterize Ag-organosilicon films in native form and after ageing in saline solution (NaCl 0.15 M), in order to further correlate their lifetime with their anti-fouling properties. Two coatings with significantly different silver contents (7.5% and 20.3%) were tested. Surface analysis confirmed the presence of metallic silver in the pristine coating and revealed significant modifications after immersion in the saline solution. Two different ageing mechanisms were observed, depending on the initial silver concentration in the film. For the sample exhibiting the low silver content (7.5%), the metal amount decreased at the surface in contact with the solution, due to the release of silver from the coating. As a result, after a 2-day exposure, silver nanoparticles located at the extreme surface were entirely released, whereas silver is still present in the inner part of the film. The coating thickness was not modified during ageing. In contrast, for the high silver content film (20.3%), the thickness decreased with immersion time, due to significant silver release and matrix erosion, assigned to a percolation-like effect. However, after 18 days of immersion, the delamination process stopped and a thin strongly bounded layer remained on the stainless steel surface.

  17. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles | Silambarasan | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    friendly and exciting approach. Several microorganisms have been known to produce silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), when silver molecules are exposed either intracellularly or extracellularly. Intracellular synthesis may accomplish a better ...

  18. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%).

  19. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  20. Polypyrrole-silver Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Nerkar; S. V. Panse; S. P. Patil; S. E. Jaware; G. G. Padhye

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole-Silver (PPy-Ag) nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with iron (III) chloride as an oxidant, in the presence of a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles. Turkevich method (Citrate reduction method) was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed an absorption band at 423 nm confirming the formation of nanoparticles. P...

  1. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  2. Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alderson, Norris; Alexander, Catherine; Merzbacher, Celia; Chernicoff, William; Middendorf, Paul; Beck, Nancy; Chow, Flora; Poster, Dianne; Danello, Mary Ann; Barrera, Enriqueta

    2006-01-01

    ...) research and information needs related to understanding and management of potential risks of engineered nanoscale materials that may be used, for example, in commercial or consumer products, medical...

  3. Analytical TEM investigations of nanoscale magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meingast, A.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical transmission electron microscopy has been applied within this thesis to investigate several novel approaches to design and fabricate nanoscale magnetic materials. As the size of the features of interest rank in the sub-nanometer range, it is necessary to employ techniques with a resolution – both spatial and analytical – well below this magnitude. Only at this performance level it is possible to examine material properties, necessary for the further tailoring of materials. Within this work two key aspects have been covered: First, analytical TEM (transmission electron microscopy) investigations were carried out to get insight into novel magnetic materials with high detail. Second, new analytical and imaging possibilities enabled with the commissioning of the new ASTEM (Austrian scanning transmission electron microscope) were explored. The aberration corrected TITAN® microscope (© FEI Company) allows resolving features in scanning transmission mode (STEM) with 70 pm distance. Thereby, direct imaging of light elements in STEM mode by using the annular bright field method becomes possible. Facilitated through high beam currents within the electron probe, an increased acquisition speed of analytical signals is possible. For energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) a new four detector disc geometry around the specimen was implemented, which increases the accessible collection angle. With the integration of the latest generation of image filter and electron spectrometer (GIF QuantumERS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is boosted through the high acquisition speed and the dual spectroscopy mode. The high acquisition speed allows to record up to 1000 spectra per second and the possibility to record atomically resolved EELS maps is at hand. Hereby it is important to avoid beam damage and alteration of the material during imaging and analysis. With the simultaneous acquisition of the low and the high loss spectral region, an extended range for

  4. Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyusung

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate semitransparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on thin metal electrodes and polymer photoactive layers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent OPV device comprising a 15-nm silver (Ag) rear electrode is 1.98% under AM 1.5-G illumination through the indium-tin-oxide side of the front anode at 100 mW/cm2 with 15.6% average transmittance of the entire cell in the visible wavelength range. As its thickness increases, a thin Ag electrode mainly influences the enhancement of the short circuit current density and fill factor. Its relatively low absorption intensity makes a Ag thin film a viable option for semitransparent electrodes compatible with organic layers. © 2013 ETRI.

  5. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure silver nanoparticles in double distilled water were generated via simple physical method using pure (99.9%) silver wires with 0.2 mm diameter. These wires have been exploded in water by bringing them into sudden contact with pure (99.9%) silver plate when subjected to a potential difference of 36 V DC. High current.

  6. Size dependence of the optical spectrum in nanocrystalline silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, Praveen; Ayyub, Pushan; Chandra, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    We report a detailed study of the optical reflectance in sputter-deposited, nanocrystalline silver thin films in order to understand the marked changes in color that occur with decreasing particle size. In particular, samples with an average particle size in the 20 to 35 nm range are golden yellow, while those with a size smaller than 15 nm are black. We simulate the size dependence of the observed reflection spectra by incorporating Mie's theory of scattering and absorption of light in small particles, into the bulk dielectric constant formalism given by Ehrenreich and Philipp [Phys. Rev. 128, 1622 (1962)]. This provides a general method for understanding the reflected color of a dense collection of nanoparticles, such as in a nanocrystalline thin film. A deviation from Mie's theory is observed due to strong interparticle interactions

  7. Oral toxicity of silver ions, silver nanoparticles and colloidal silver--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels; Lam, Henrik R

    2014-02-01

    Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4-18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least a factor of five before a level of concern to the general population is reached. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  9. Silver flowe, Galloway, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, D A; Walker, D

    1958-01-01

    The silver flowe consists of a series of blanket bogs differentiated by physiography and at one end of the series showing marked affinities with raised bog. The definitive vegetation type of each individual bog is a sphagnum-dominated pool and hummock complex. The pool and hummock complex is described in terms of a small-scale succession involving several recognizable stages. To facilitate quantitative description, the pool and hummock complex is divided into four vertical levels (pool, flat, medium hummock and tall hummock) and different micro-communities are recognized within each one. The floristic composition of these units was analysed by the selective placing of a 1 m. quadrat. The pattern of pool and hummock complex is complicated by different developmental trends, often involving erosion. A method was devised to measure quantitatively the relationship between the vertical distribution of plant species and water level. The stratigraphy of two bogs of the series is described and shows (a) that the two patches are more closely akin to blanket bog than to raised bogs; (b) that there has been a relatively recent change-over from a sphagnum-molinia community to the present pool and hummock complex. The pool and hummock system is not regarded as a 'regeneration complex' but the validity of considering the various stages as part of a small-scale succession is discussed. Three possible future developments of this community are investigated: (1) persistence of pool and hummock complex, with a very high water table, (2) development of intermediate bog, with a rather lower water table and (3) degeneration of pool and hummock complex, with a rapid and considerable lowering of the water table. The alignment of pools with their long axes at right angles to the slope is discussed.

  10. Simulation of capillary bridges between nanoscale particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörmann, Michael; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2014-02-04

    Capillary forces are very important as they exceed in general other adhesion forces. But at the same time the exact calculation of these forces is very complex, so often assumptions and approximations are used. Previous research was done with regard to micrometer sized particles, but the behavior of nanoscale particles is different. Hence, the results for micrometer sized particles cannot be directly transferred when considering nanoscale particles. Therefore, a simulation method was developed to calculate numerically the shape of a rotationally symmetrical capillary bridge between two spherical particles or a particle and a plate. The capillary bridge in the gap between the particles is formed due to capillary condensation and is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gas phase. Hence the Kelvin equation and the Young-Laplace equation can be used to calculate the profile of the capillary bridge, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The bridge profile consists of several elements that are determined consecutively and interpolated linearly. After the shape is determined, the volume and force, divided into capillary pressure force and surface tension force, can be calculated. The validation of this numerical model will be shown by comparison with several different analytical calculations for micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that two often used approximations, (1) the toroidal approximation and (2) the use of an effective radius, cannot be used for nanoscale particles without remarkable mistake. It will be discussed how the capillary force and its components depend on different parameters, like particle size, relative humidity, contact angle, and distance, respectively. The rupture of a capillary bridge due to particle separation will also be presented.

  11. Nanoscale microwave microscopy using shielded cantilever probes

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative dielectric and conductivity mapping in the nanoscale is highly desirable for many research disciplines, but difficult to achieve through conventional transport or established microscopy techniques. Taking advantage of the micro-fabrication technology, we have developed cantilever-based near-field microwave probes with shielded structures. Sensitive microwave electronics and finite-element analysis modeling are also utilized for quantitative electrical imaging. The system is fully compatible with atomic force microscope platforms for convenient operation and easy integration of other modes and functions. The microscope is ideal for interdisciplinary research, with demonstrated examples in nano electronics, physics, material science, and biology.

  12. Probing nanoscale ferroelectricity by ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, D A; Bruchhausen, A; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Fainstein, A; Katiyar, R S; Cantarero, A; Soukiassian, A; Vaithyanathan, V; Haeni, J H; Tian, W; Schlom, D G; Choi, K J; Kim, D M; Eom, C B; Sun, H P; Pan, X Q; Li, Y L; Chen, L Q; Jia, Q X; Nakhmanson, S M; Rabe, K M; Xi, X X

    2006-09-15

    We demonstrated that ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to measure the transition temperature (Tc) in ferroelectric ultrathin films and superlattices. We showed that one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO3 layers in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are not only ferroelectric (with Tc as high as 250 kelvin) but also polarize the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 layers adjacent to them. Tc was tuned by approximately 500 kelvin by varying the thicknesses of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers, revealing the essential roles of electrical and mechanical boundary conditions for nanoscale ferroelectricity.

  13. Synthesis, dynamics and photophysics of nanoscale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Tihana

    The emerging field of nanotechnology, which spans diverse areas such as nanoelectronics, medicine, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, biotechnology and computation, focuses on the development of devices whose improved performance is based on the utilization of self-assembled nanoscale components exhibiting unique properties owing to their miniaturized dimensions. The first phase in the conception of such multifunctional devices based on integrated technologies requires the study of basic principles behind the functional mechanism of nanoscale components, which could originate from individual nanoobjects or result as a collective behaviour of miniaturized unit structures. The comprehensive studies presented in this thesis encompass the mechanical, dynamical and photophysical aspects of three nanoscale systems. A newly developed europium sulfide nanocrystalline material is introduced. Advances in synthetic methods allowed for shape control of surface-functionalized EuS nanocrystals and the fabrication of multifunctional EuS-CdSe hybrid particles, whose unique structural and optical properties hold promise as useful attributes of integrated materials in developing technologies. A comprehensive study based on a new class of multifunctional nanomaterials, derived from the basic unit of barcoded metal nanorods is presented. Their chemical composition affords them the ability to undergo autonomous motion in the presence of a suitable fuel. The nature of their chemically powered self-propulsion locomotion was investigated, and plausible mechanisms for various motility modes were presented. Furthermore functionalization of striped metallic nanorods has been realized through the incorporation of chemically controlled flexible hinges displaying bendable properties. The structural aspect of the light harvesting machinery of a photosynthetic cryptophyte alga, Rhodomonas CS24, and the mobility of the antenna protein, PE545, in vivo were investigated. Information obtained

  14. Micro- and nanoscale phenomena in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2011-01-01

    Drawn from presentations at a recent National Science Foundation Summer Institute on Nanomechanics, Nanomaterials, and Micro/Nanomanufacturing, Micro- and Nanoscale Phenomena in Tribology explores the convergence of the multiple science and engineering disciplines involved in tribology and the connection from the macro to nano world. Written by specialists from computation, materials science, mechanical engineering, surface physics, and chemistry, each chapter provides up-to-date coverage of both basic and advanced topics and includes extensive references for further study.After discussing the

  15. Nanoscale microwave microscopy using shielded cantilever probes

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji

    2011-04-21

    Quantitative dielectric and conductivity mapping in the nanoscale is highly desirable for many research disciplines, but difficult to achieve through conventional transport or established microscopy techniques. Taking advantage of the micro-fabrication technology, we have developed cantilever-based near-field microwave probes with shielded structures. Sensitive microwave electronics and finite-element analysis modeling are also utilized for quantitative electrical imaging. The system is fully compatible with atomic force microscope platforms for convenient operation and easy integration of other modes and functions. The microscope is ideal for interdisciplinary research, with demonstrated examples in nano electronics, physics, material science, and biology.

  16. Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreytsberg, G N; Gracheva, I E; Kibrik, B S; Golikov, I V

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  17. Antituberculous effect of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreytsberg, G N; Gracheva, I E [Limited Liability Company ' Scientific and Production Association (NPO)' Likom' , 150049, Yaroslavl, Magistralnaya str., 32 (Russian Federation); Kibrik, B S [Yaroslavl State Medical Academy Russia, 150000, Yaroslavl, Revolutsionnaya str., 5 (Russian Federation); Golikov, I V, E-mail: likomm@yaroslavl.ru [Yaroslavl State Technical University Russia, 150023, Yaroslavl, Moskovskiy avenue, 88 (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-01

    The in vitro experiment, involving 1164 strains of the tuberculosis mycobacteria, exhibited a potentiating effect of silver nanoparticles on known antituberculous preparations in respect of overcoming drug-resistance of the causative agent. The in vitro experiment, based on the model of resistant tuberculosis, was performed on 65 white mice. An evident antituberculous effect of the nanocomposite on the basis of silver nanoparticles and isoniazid was proved. Toxicological assessment of the of nanopreparations was carried out. The performed research scientifically establishes efficacy and safety of the nanocomposite application in combination therapy of patients suffering from drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  18. Silver nitrate based gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, D; Samuel, E J J; Srinivasan, K; Roopan, S M; Madhu, C S

    2017-01-01

    A new radiochromic gel dosimeter based on silver nitrate and a normoxic gel dosimeter was investigated using UV-Visible spectrophotometry in the clinical dose range. Gamma radiation induced the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the gel and is confirmed from the UV-Visible spectrum which shows an absorbance peak at around 450 nm. The dose response function of the dosimeter is found to be linear upto12Gy. In addition, the gel samples were found to be stable which were kept under refrigeration. (paper)

  19. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  20. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  1. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  2. Silver jewelry of Hellenistic and Celtic type from Hrtkovci in Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautova-Ruševljan Velika

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Group find of the silver jewelry of the Hellenistic and Celtic type has been discovered by chance in the area of the Hrtkovci village. The find consists of gilded hinged fibula, three fibulae of the Middle La Tène type and many pendants made of thin silver foil. Most of the finds are dated in the 2nd-1st century BC and only the new type of hinged fibula dates from considerably earlier period, possibly from the end of 4th or the beginning of the 3rd century BC. The new finds of silver jewelry discovered in the area of eastern Srem and dating from the Pre-Roman times confirm the existence of the local workshop connected most probably to the Pre-Roman fortified settlement in Sremska Mitrovica.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer (registered) microneedles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittard, S D; Narayan, R J; Jin, C; Monteiro-Riviere, N A [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ovsianikov, A; Chichkov, B N [Laser Zentrum Hannover, Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Stafslien, S; Chisholm, B, E-mail: roger_narayan@msn.co [Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, 1805 Research Park Drive, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    One promising option for transdermal delivery of protein- and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents involves the use of microneedles. However, microneedle-generated pores may allow microorganisms to penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and cause local or systemic infection. In this study, microneedles with antimicrobial functionality were fabricated using two-photon polymerization-micromolding and pulsed laser deposition. The antibacterial activity of the silver-coated organically modified ceramic (Ormocer (registered) ) microneedles was demonstrated using an agar diffusion assay. Human epidermal keratinocyte viability on the Ormocer (registered) surfaces coated with silver was similar to that on uncoated Ormocer (registered) surfaces. This study indicates that coating microneedles with silver thin films using pulsed laser deposition is a useful and novel approach for creating microneedles with antimicrobial functionality. (communication)

  4. Pulsed laser deposition of antimicrobial silver coating on Ormocer (registered) microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittard, S D; Narayan, R J; Jin, C; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Ovsianikov, A; Chichkov, B N; Stafslien, S; Chisholm, B

    2009-01-01

    One promising option for transdermal delivery of protein- and nucleic acid-based pharmacologic agents involves the use of microneedles. However, microneedle-generated pores may allow microorganisms to penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and cause local or systemic infection. In this study, microneedles with antimicrobial functionality were fabricated using two-photon polymerization-micromolding and pulsed laser deposition. The antibacterial activity of the silver-coated organically modified ceramic (Ormocer (registered) ) microneedles was demonstrated using an agar diffusion assay. Human epidermal keratinocyte viability on the Ormocer (registered) surfaces coated with silver was similar to that on uncoated Ormocer (registered) surfaces. This study indicates that coating microneedles with silver thin films using pulsed laser deposition is a useful and novel approach for creating microneedles with antimicrobial functionality. (communication)

  5. Mineral resource of the month: silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Silver has been used for thousands of years as ornaments and utensils, for trade and as the basis of many monetary systems. The metal has played an important part in world history. Silver from the mines at Laurion, Greece, for example, financed the Greek victory over the Persians in 480 B.C. Silver from Potosi, Bolivia, helped Spain become a world power in the 16th and 17th centuries. And silver from the gold-silver ores at the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nev., helped keep the Union solvent during the Civil War.

  6. Effect of content silver and heat treatment temperature on morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ITO films by sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Majid; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2014-09-01

    Silver-doped indium tin oxide thin films were synthesized using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The influence of different silver-dopant contents and annealing temperature on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the films were characterized by means of four-point probe, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of cubic bixbyte structure of In2O3 with silver nanoparticles annealed at 350 °C. XPS analysis showed that divalent tin transformed to tetravalent tin through oxidization, and silver nanoparticles embedded into ITO matrix covered with silver oxide shell, resulting in high quality nanocomposite thin films. The embedment of polyvinylpyrrolidone inhibited the growth of silver nanoparticles and ITO annealed at 350 °C. Delafossite structure of tin-doped AgInO2 was found at higher annealing temperatures. XRD analysis and FESEM micrographs showed that the optimum temperature to prevent the formation of AgInO2 is 350 °C. The embedment of silver particles (5-10 nm) from reduction of silver ion in ITO thin films improved the electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of ITO nanolayers. The lowest stable sheet resistance of 1,952 Ω/Sq for a 321 nm thick and an average optical transmittance of 91.8 % in the visible region with a band gap of 3.43 eV were achieved for silver-doping content of 0.04 M.

  7. Poly thiophene hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds, silver and iodine synthesized by plasma; Compuestos hidrofobicos e hidrofilicos de politiofeno, plata y yodo sintetizados por plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, J.C.; Chavez, J.A. [IIM, UNAM, Circuito exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Coyoacan, D.F. (Mexico); Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J. [ININ, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Compounds in thin films of poly thiophene with silver and poly thiophene doped with iodine and silver using splendor discharges were synthesized. It is studied the wettability of the compounds and its transport properties. It was found that the compounds can modify their hydrophilic to hydrophobic behavior controlling their surface ruggedness and the metallic content. The doped with iodine plays a fundamental paper in the modification of the ruggedness of the compounds. (Author)

  8. Laser-assisted immobilization of colloid silver nanoparticles on polyethyleneterephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jakub; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Polívková, Markéta; Staszek, Marek; Hubáček, Tomáš; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-10-01

    Immobilization of nanoobjects on the surface of underlying material belongs to current issues of material science. Such altered materials exhibits completely exceptional properties exploitable in a broad spectrum of industrially important applications ranging from catalysts up to health-care industry. Here we present unique approach for immobilization of electrochemically synthesized silver nanoparticles on polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) foil whose essence lies in physical incorporation of particles into thin polymer surface layer induced by polarized excimer laser light. Changes in chemical composition and surface structure of polymer after particle immobilization were recorded by wide range of analytical techniques such as ARXPS, EDX, RBS, AAS, Raman, ICP-MS, DLS, UV-vis, SEM, TEM, and AFM. Thorough analysis of both nanoparticles entering the immobilization step as well as modified PET surface allowed revealing the mechanism of immobilization process itself. Silver nanoparticles were physically embedded into a thin surface layer of polymer reaching several nanometers beneath the surface rather than chemically bonded to PET macromolecules. Laser-implanted nanoparticles open up new possibilities especially in the development of the next generation cell-conform antimicrobial coatings of polymeric materials, namely due to the considerable immobilization strength which is strong enough to prevent particle release into the surrounding environment.

  9. Gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and the produced silver nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ačanski Marijana M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is, along with gold and the platinum-group metals, one of the so called precious metals. Because of its comparative scarcity, brilliant white color, malleability and resistance to atmospheric oxidation, silver has been used in the manufacture of coins and jewelry for a long time. Silver has the highest known electrical and thermal conductivity of all metals and is used in fabricating printed electrical circuits, and also as a coating for electronic conductors. It is also alloyed with other elements such as nickel or palladium for use in electrical contacts. The most useful silver salt is silver nitrate, a caustic chemical reagent, significant as an antiseptic and as a reagent in analytical chemistry. Pure silver nitrate is an intermediate in the industrial preparation of other silver salts, including the colloidal silver compounds used in medicine and the silver halides incorporated into photographic emulsions. Silver halides become increasingly insoluble in the series: AgCl, AgBr, AgI. All silver salts are sensitive to light and are used in photographic coatings on film and paper. The ZORKA-PHARMA company (Sabac, Serbia specializes in the production of pharmaceutical remedies and lab chemicals. One of its products is chemical silver nitrate (argentum-nitricum (l. Silver nitrate is generally produced by dissolving pure electrolytically refined silver in hot 48% nitric acid. Since the purity of silver nitrate, produced in 2002, was not in compliance with the p.a. level of purity, there was doubt that the electrolytically refined silver was pure. The aim of this research was the gravimetric and volumetric determination of the purity of electrolytically refined silver and silver nitrate, produced industrially and in a laboratory. The purity determination was carried out gravimetrically, by the sedimentation of silver(I ions in the form of insoluble silver salts: AgCl, AgBr and Agi, and volumetrically, according to Mohr and Volhardt. The

  10. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Stamford, T C M; Niederman, R

    2009-02-01

    The antimicrobial use of silver compounds pivots on the 100-year-old application of silver nitrate, silver foil, and silver sutures for the prevention and treatment of ocular, surgical, and dental infections. Ag(+) kills pathogenic organisms at concentrations of linings, water purification systems, hospital gowns, and caries prevention. To distill the current best evidence relative to caries, this systematic review asked: Will silver diamine fluoride (SDF) more effectively prevent caries than fluoride varnish? A five-database search, reference review, and hand search identified 99 human clinical trials in three languages published between 1966 and 2006. Dual review for controlled clinical trials with the patient as the unit of observation, and excluding cross-sectional, animal, in vitro studies, and opinions, identified 2 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The trials indicated that SDF's lowest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 96.1% and 70.3%, respectively. In contrast, fluoride varnish's highest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 21.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Similarly, SDF's highest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and caries prevention were 0.8 (95% CI=0.5-1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI=0.4-1.1), respectively. For fluoride varnish, the lowest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and prevention were 3.7 (95% CI=3.4-3.9) and 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4), respectively. Adverse events were monitored, with no significant differences between control and experimental groups. These promising results suggest that SDF is more effective than fluoride varnish, and may be a valuable caries-preventive intervention. As well, the availability of a safe, effective, efficient, and equitable caries-preventive agent appears to meet the criteria of both the WHO Millennium Goals and the US Institute of Medicine's criteria for 21st century medical care.

  11. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B molecules based on the Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich nanostructure substrate were obviously enhanced due to the bimetal layer and GO layer with tunable absorption intensity and fluorescence quenching effects.

  12. Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2009-01-01

    Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition...... efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver......-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatha Christy, A.; Umadevi, M.

    2012-09-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO3), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM).

  14. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, A Jegatha; Umadevi, M

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (NPs) has become a fascinating and important field of applied chemical research. In this paper silver NPs were prepared using silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ), gelatin, and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The prepared silver NPs were exposed under the laser ablation. In our photochemical procedure, gelatin acts as a biopolymer and CTAB acts as a reducing agent. The appearance of surface plasmon band around 410 nm indicates the formation of silver NPs. The nature of the prepared silver NPs in the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Monodispersed, stable, spherical silver NPs with diameter about 10 nm were obtained and confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). (paper)

  15. Visualizing copper assisted graphene growth in nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Yusop, Mohd Zamri; Kalita, Golap; Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    Control synthesis of high quality large-area graphene on transition metals (TMs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most fascinating approach for practical device applications. Interaction of carbon atoms and TMs is quite critical to obtain graphene with precise layer number, crystal size and structure. Here, we reveal a solid phase reaction process to achieve Cu assisted graphene growth in nanoscale by in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant structural transformation of amorphous carbon nanofiber (CNF) coated with Cu is observed with an applied potential in a two probe system. The coated Cu particle recrystallize and agglomerate toward the cathode with applied potential due to joule heating and large thermal gradient. Consequently, the amorphous carbon start crystallizing and forming sp2 hybridized carbon to form graphene sheet from the tip of Cu surface. We observed structural deformation and breaking of the graphene nanoribbon with a higher applied potential, attributing to saturated current flow and induced Joule heating. The observed graphene formation in nanoscale by the in-situ TEM process can be significant to understand carbon atoms and Cu interaction. PMID:25523645

  16. Catalysis at the nanoscale may change selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-18

    Among the many virtues ascribed to catalytic nanoparticles, the prospect that the passage from the macro- to the nanoscale may change product selectivity attracts increasing attention. To date, why such effects may exist lacks explanation. Guided by recent experimental reports, we propose that the effects may result from the coupling between the chemical steps in which the reactant, intermediates, and products are involved and transport of these species toward the catalytic surface. Considering as a thought experiment the competitive formation of hydrogen and formate upon reduction of hydrogenocarbonate ions on metals like palladium or platinum, a model is developed that allows one to identify the governing parameters and predict the effect of nanoscaling on selectivity. The model leads to a master equation relating product selectivity and thickness of the diffusion layer. The latter parameter varies considerably upon passing from the macro- to the nanoscale, thus predicting considerable variations of product selectivity. These are subtle effects in the sense that the same mechanism might exhibit a reverse variation of the selectivity if the set of parameter values were different. An expression is given that allows one to predict the direction of the effect. There has been a tendency to assign the catalytic effects of nanoscaling to chemical reactivity changes of the active surface. Such factors might be important in some circumstances. We, however, insist on the likely role of short-distance transport on product selectivity, which could have been thought, at first sight, as the exclusive domain of chemical factors.

  17. Computer simulations for the nano-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stich, I.

    2007-01-01

    A review of methods for computations for the nano-scale is presented. The paper should provide a convenient starting point into computations for the nano-scale as well as a more in depth presentation for those already working in the field of atomic/molecular-scale modeling. The argument is divided in chapters covering the methods for description of the (i) electrons, (ii) ions, and (iii) techniques for efficient solving of the underlying equations. A fairly broad view is taken covering the Hartree-Fock approximation, density functional techniques and quantum Monte-Carlo techniques for electrons. The customary quantum chemistry methods, such as post Hartree-Fock techniques, are only briefly mentioned. Description of both classical and quantum ions is presented. The techniques cover Ehrenfest, Born-Oppenheimer, and Car-Parrinello dynamics. The strong and weak points of both principal and technical nature are analyzed. In the second part we introduce a number of applications to demonstrate the different approximations and techniques introduced in the first part. They cover a wide range of applications such as non-simple liquids, surfaces, molecule-surface interactions, applications in nano technology, etc. These more in depth presentations, while certainly not exhaustive, should provide information on technical aspects of the simulations, typical parameters used, and ways of analysis of the huge amounts of data generated in these large-scale supercomputer simulations. (author)

  18. Nanoscale Science and Engineering in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, Dan; Topa, Vladimir; Kleps, Irina

    2001-01-01

    In spite of difficult working conditions and with very low financial support, many groups from Romania are involved in emerging fields, such as the nanoscale science and technology. Until the last years, this activity was developed without a central coordination and without many interactions between these research groups. In the year 2000, some of the institutes and universities active in the nanotechnology field in Romania founded the MICRONANOTECH network. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the main activities and results of the Romanian groups working in this novel domain. Most of the groups are deal with the nanomaterial technology and only few of them have activities in nanostructure science and engineering, in new concepts and device modeling and technology. This paper describes the nanotechnology research development in two of the most significant institutes from Romania: Centre for Nanotechnologies from National Institute for Research and Development in Microtehnologies (IMT-Bucharest) and from National Institute for Research and Development in Materials Physics (INCD-FM), Magurele. The Romanian research results in nanotechnology field were presented in numerous papers presented in international conferences or published in national and international journals. They are also presented in patents, international awards and fellowships. The research effort and financial support are outlined. Some future trends of the Romanian nanoscale science and technology research are also described

  19. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen. This report is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to be known about selected nanomaterials as part of a process to identify and prioritize research to inform future assessments of the potential ecological and health implications of these materials. Two specific applications of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) are considered: (1) as an agent for removing arsenic from drinking water; and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. These case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework that combines a product life cycle perspective with the risk assessment paradigm. They are intended to help identify what may need to be known in order to conduct a comprehensive environmental assessment of the potential risks related to nano-TiO2. These “case studies” do not represent completed or even preliminary assessments, nor are they intended to serve as a basis for risk management decisions in the near term on these specific uses of nano TiO2. Rather, the intent is to use this document in developing the scientific and technical information needed for future assessment efforts.

  20. Improving Neural Recording Technology at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, John Eric

    Neural recording electrodes are widely used to study normal brain function (e.g., learning, memory, and sensation) and abnormal brain function (e.g., epilepsy, addiction, and depression) and to interface with the nervous system for neuroprosthetics. With a deep understanding of the electrode interface at the nanoscale and the use of novel nanofabrication processes, neural recording electrodes can be designed that surpass previous limits and enable new applications. In this thesis, I will discuss three projects. In the first project, we created an ultralow-impedance electrode coating by controlling the nanoscale texture of electrode surfaces. In the second project, we developed a novel nanowire electrode for long-term intracellular recordings. In the third project, we created a means of wirelessly communicating with ultra-miniature, implantable neural recording devices. The techniques developed for these projects offer significant improvements in the quality of neural recordings. They can also open the door to new types of experiments and medical devices, which can lead to a better understanding of the brain and can enable novel and improved tools for clinical applications.

  1. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  2. Conducting polymer-silver composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 814-848 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * polypyrrole * silver Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  3. Thermal Analysis of Sintered Silver Nanoparticles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keikhaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin bonded films have many applications in antireflection and reflection coating, insulating and conducting films and semiconductor industries. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameter for power packaging since the thermal resistance of the interconnections is directly related to the heat removal capability and thermal management of the power package. The defects in materials play very important role on the effective thermal conductivity. In this paper, finite element method (FEM was utilized to simulate the effect of pores on the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver nanoparticles film. The simulation results indicate that the effective thermal conductivity of film is different at different directions and would be enhanced when the pore angle is 90. The simulation results will help us to further understand the heat transfer process across highly porous structures and will provide us a powerful guide to design coating with high thermal insulation or conductor property. Because of there is no similar experimental data for this simulation results, this paper is a comparative work among three different models.

  4. Nano-volcanic Eruption of Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Kang; Nagao, Shijo; Yokoi, Emi; Oh, Chulmin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Shih-Guei; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2016-10-01

    Silver (Ag) is one of the seven metals of antiquity and an important engineering material in the electronic, medical, and chemical industries because of its unique noble and catalytic properties. Ag thin films are extensively used in modern electronics primarily because of their oxidation-resistance. Here we report a novel phenomenon of Ag nano-volcanic eruption that is caused by interactions between Ag and oxygen (O). It involves grain boundary liquation, the ejection of transient Ag-O fluids through grain boundaries, and the decomposition of Ag-O fluids into O2 gas and suspended Ag and Ag2O clusters. Subsequent coating with re-deposited Ag-O and the de-alloying of O yield a conformal amorphous Ag coating. Patterned Ag hillock arrays and direct Ag-to-Ag bonding can be formed by the homogenous crystallization of amorphous coatings. The Ag “nano-volcanic eruption” mechanism is elaborated, shedding light on a new mechanism of hillock formation and new applications of amorphous Ag coatings.

  5. Plasmonic characterization of photo-induced silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based TEM film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in; Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Varshney, G. K. [Laser Bio-medical Applications & Instrumentation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Photo-reduction process is carried out to convert the silver halide grains into the metallic silver. The centrifuge technique is used for separating the silver nanoparticles from the residual solution. Morphological study performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows that all the nanoparticles have an average diameter of ~120 nm with a high degree of mono dispersion in size. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak at ~537 nm confirms the presence of large size silver nanoparticles.

  6. Antibacterial surfaces by adsorptive binding of polyvinyl-sulphonate-stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilev, Krasimir; Sah, Vasu R; Goreham, Renee V; Short, Robert D [Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Ndi, Chi; Griesser, Hans J, E-mail: Krasimir.vasilev@unisa.edu.au [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-28

    This paper presents a novel and facile method for the generation of efficient antibacterial coatings which can be applied to practically any type of substrate. Silver nanoparticles were stabilized with an adsorbed surface layer of polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS). This steric layer provided excellent colloidal stability, preventing aggregation over periods of months. PVS-coated silver nanoparticles were bound onto amine-containing surfaces, here produced by deposition of an allylamine plasma polymer thin film onto various substrates. SEM imaging showed no aggregation upon surface binding of the nanoparticles; they were well dispersed on amine surfaces. Such nanoparticle-coated surfaces were found to be effective in preventing attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and also in preventing biofilm formation. Combined with the ability of plasma polymerization to apply the thin polymeric binding layer onto a wide range of materials, this method appears promising for the fabrication of a wide range of infection-resistant biomedical devices.

  7. Holographic investigation of silver electromigration in nano-sized As2S3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainov, S.; Todorov, R.; Bodurov, I.; Yovcheva, Temenuzhka

    2013-10-01

    Holographic gratings with a diffraction efficiency (DE) greater than 8% and a spatial resolution of 2237 mm-1 are recorded in very thin As2S3 films with a thickness of 100 nm. Silver photo-diffusion is observed during the holographic recording process while applying a corona discharge. We use the method of holographic grating relaxation spectroscopy (forced Rayleigh scattering) based on the evanescent waves to determine that the silver diffusion coefficient in the thin As2S3 film is in the range of (0.9-10.3) × 10-13 cm2 s-1 depending on the corona charge polarity. This work is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of Academician Jordan Malinowski.

  8. Sculpturing the electron wave function using nanoscale phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Lereah, Yossi; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady

    2014-09-15

    Electron beams are extensively used in lithography, microscopy, material studies and electronic chip inspection. Today, beams are mainly shaped using magnetic or electric forces, enabling only simple shaping tasks such as focusing or scanning. Recently, binary amplitude gratings achieved complex shapes. These, however, generate multiple diffraction orders, hence the desired shape, appearing only in one order, retains little of the beam energy. Here we demonstrate a method in electron-optics for arbitrarily shaping electron beams into a single desired shape, by precise patterning of a thin-membrane. It is conceptually similar to shaping light beams using refractive or diffractive glass elements such as lenses or holograms – rather than applying electromagnetic forces, the beam is controlled by spatially modulating its wavefront. Our method allows for nearly-maximal energy transference to the designed shape, and may avoid physical damage and charging effects that are the scorn of commonly-used (e.g. Zernike and Hilbert) phase-plates. The experimental demonstrations presented here – on-axis Hermite–Gauss and Laguerre–Gauss (vortex) beams, and computer-generated holograms – are a first example of nearly-arbitrary manipulation of electron beams. Our results herald exciting prospects for microscopic material studies, enables electron lithography with fixed sample and beam and high resolution electronic chip inspection by structured electron illumination. - Highlights: • Nanoscale-patterned membranes are used to shape electron beams. • Designing on-axis phase plates outside the back focal plane is possible. • Computer-generated holograms enable nearly-arbitrary beam shaping. • Applications in microscopy, lithography, chip inspection and material sciences.

  9. Reversible migration of silver on memorized pathways in Ag-Ge40S60 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Orava

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and reproducible formation and dissolution of silver conductive filaments are studied in Ag-photodoped thin-film Ge40S60 subjected to electric fields. A tip-planar geometry is employed, where a conductive-atomic-force microscopy tip is the tip electrode and a silver patch is the planar electrode. We highlight an inherent “memory” effect in the amorphous chalcogenide solid-state electrolyte, in which particular silver-ion migration pathways are preserved “memorized” during writing and erasing cycles. The “memorized” pathways reflect structural changes in the photodoped chalcogenide film. Structural changes due to silver photodoping, and electrically-induced structural changes arising from silver migration, are elucidated using Raman spectroscopy. Conductive filament formation, dissolution, and electron (reduction efficiency in a lateral device geometry are related to operation of the nano-ionic Programmable Metallization Cell memory and to newly emerging chalcogenide-based lateral geometry MEMS technologies. The methods in this work can also be used for qualitative multi-parameter sampling of metal/amorphous-chalcogenide combinations, characterizing the growth/dissolution rates, retention and endurance of fractal conductive filaments, with the aim of optimizing devices.

  10. Thermal decomposition process of silver behenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianhao; Lu Shuxia; Zhang Jingchang; Cao Weiliang

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition processes of silver behenate have been studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), combined thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-DTA-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TG-DTA and the higher temperature IR and XRD measurements indicated that complicated structural changes took place while heating silver behenate, but there were two distinct thermal transitions. During the first transition at 138 deg. C, the alkyl chains of silver behenate were transformed from an ordered into a disordered state. During the second transition at about 231 deg. C, a structural change took place for silver behenate, which was the decomposition of silver behenate. The major products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were metallic silver and behenic acid. Upon heating up to 500 deg. C, the final product of the thermal decomposition was metallic silver. The combined TG-MS analysis showed that the gas products of the thermal decomposition of silver behenate were carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen, acetylene and some small molecule alkenes. TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to investigate the process of the formation and growth of metallic silver nanoparticles

  11. Antibacterial, cytotoxicity and physical properties of laser - silver doped hydroxyapatite layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Weiserová, Marie; Jurek, Karel; Mikšovský, Jan; Strnad, J.; Galandáková, A.; Ulrichová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2013), s. 1242-1246 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : hydroxyapatite * silver * thin films * PLD * antibacterial * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.736, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2012.12.018

  12. Ablation and formation by plasma of silver metallic films on poly aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J.C.; Olayo, G.; Morales, J.; Cruz, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This work shows a study about the ablation by plasma conditions in which is possible to form silver layers over polymeric surfaces with the purpose to increase the electric conductivity of the surface. The adhesion between layers formed by polymerization and ablation by plasma respectively is high, with this it is possible to find adequate conditions for getting the polymerization and ablation simultaneously forming with this a thin polymer matrix which would have metallic elements dispersed in its structure. (Author)

  13. Silver-doped layers of implants prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Jurek, Karel; Čejka, Z.; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2013), s. 59-61 ISSN 2327-5219 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thin layer * silver * titanium alloy * steel * pulsed laser deposition * adhesion * implant Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=40308#.UvECAfu5dHA

  14. 21 CFR 310.548 - Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug products containing colloidal silver... Drug products containing colloidal silver ingredients or silver salts offered over-the-counter (OTC) for the treatment and/or prevention of disease. (a) Colloidal silver ingredients and silver salts have...

  15. Distribution of silver in rats following 28 days of repeated oral exposure to silver nanoparticles or silver acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löschner, Katrin; Hadrup, Niels; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study investigated the distribution of silver after 28 days repeated oral administration of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver acetate (AgAc) to rats. Oral administration is a relevant route of exposure because of the use of silver nanoparticles in products related to food...... and food contact materials. Results: AgNPs were synthesized with a size distribution of 14 ± 4 nm in diameter (90% of the nanoparticle volume) and stabilized in aqueous suspension by the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The AgNPs remained stable throughout the duration of the 28-day oral toxicity study...... in rats. The organ distribution pattern of silver following administration of AgNPs and AgAc was similar. However the absolute silver concentrations in tissues were lower following oral exposure to AgNPs. This was in agreement with an indication of a higher fecal excretion following administration of Ag...

  16. Micellized sequestered silver atoms and small silver clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgarello, E.; Lawless, D.; Serpone, N.; Pelizzetti, E.; Meisel, D.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis was used to examine the nature of the silver species obtained when an aqueous solution containing sequestered Ag + ions was reduced by hydrated electrons in the presence of a surfactant macrocyclic crown ether, labeled L, and/or a maltoside surfactant. The initially formed product is the Ag 0 (L) species which rapidly loses its ligand (half-life ≤5 μs) and reacts with another Ag + (L) ion to form Ag 2 + (L). The latter species decays by a bimolecular process to form the Ag 4 2+ (L) n species at a faster rate than its ligand free analogue. Ultimately, colloidal metallic silver, (Ag) n , forms which is stabilized by the surfactant moieties. No long-term stability to the reduced monomolecular species could be obtained

  17. Measurement of Auger electron energies and intensities from muonic transitions in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callies, R.; Daniel, H.; Egidy, T. von; Hagn, H.; Hartmann, F.J.; Neumann, W.

    1983-01-01

    There is now general agreement that Coulomb capture of mesonic particles and deexcitation of the formed exotic atom must be accompanied by Auger electron emission. Auger electrons from a thin silver foil were counted by Si-pn-junction detectors with an extraordinarily thin dead layer. Lines could be resolved and intensity ratios determined. Two types of experiments were performed simultaneously, (I) with the slow-muon telescope in coincidence with any e - detector of the array and (II) as above but with an additional Ag X-ray coincidence from a Ge(Li) detector placed close to the target. (Auth.)

  18. Direct nanopatterning of polymer/silver nanoblocks under low energy electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Stephant, Nicolas; Gautier, Romain

    2016-10-06

    In this communication, we report on the growth, direct writing and nanopatterning of polymer/silver nanoblocks under low energy electron beam irradiation using a scanning electron microscope. The nanoblocks are produced by placing a droplet of an ethylene glycol solution containing silver nitrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone diluted in ethanol directly on a hot substrate heated up to 150 °C. Upon complete evaporation of the droplet, nanospheres, nano- and micro-triangles and nanoblocks made of silver-containing polymers, form over the substrate surface. Considering the nanoblocks as a model system, we demonstrate that such nanostructures are extremely sensitive to the e-beam extracted from the source of a scanning electron microscope operating at low acceleration voltages (between 5 and 7 kV). This sensitivity allows us to efficiently create various nanopatterns (e.g. arrays of holes, oblique slits and nanotrenches) in the material under e-beam irradiation. In addition to the possibility of writing, the nanoblocks revealed a self-healing ability allowing them to recover a relatively smooth surface after etching. Thanks to these properties, such nanomaterials can be used as a support for data writing and erasing on the nanoscale under low energy electron beam irradiation.

  19. Control of friction at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhen, Jacob; Braiman, Yehuda Y.; Protopopescu, Vladimir

    2010-04-06

    Methods and apparatus are described for control of friction at the nanoscale. A method of controlling frictional dynamics of a plurality of particles using non-Lipschitzian control includes determining an attribute of the plurality of particles; calculating an attribute deviation by subtracting the attribute of the plurality of particles from a target attribute; calculating a non-Lipschitzian feedback control term by raising the attribute deviation to a fractionary power .xi.=(2m+1)/(2n+1) where n=1, 2, 3 . . . and m=0, 1, 2, 3 . . . , with m strictly less than n and then multiplying by a control amplitude; and imposing the non-Lipschitzian feedback control term globally on each of the plurality of particles; imposing causes a subsequent magnitude of the attribute deviation to be reduced.

  20. Designing pseudocubic perovskites with enhanced nanoscale polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, I. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA; Laws, W. J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA; Wang, D. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom; Reaney, I. M. [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom

    2017-11-20

    A crystal-chemical framework has been proposed for the design of pseudocubic perovskites with nanoscale ferroelectric order, and its applicability has been demonstrated using a series of representative solid solutions that combined ferroelectric (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3, BaTiO3, and PbTiO3) and antiferroelectric (Nd-substituted BiFeO3) end members. The pseudocubic structures obtained in these systems exhibited distortions that were coherent on a scale ranging from sub-nanometer to tens of nanometers, but, in all cases, the macroscopic distortion remained unresolvable even if using high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction. Different coherence lengths for the local atomic displacements account for the distinctly different dielectric, ferroelectric, and electromechanical properties exhibited by the samples. The guidelines identified provide a rationale for chemically tuning the coherence length to obtain the desired functional response.