WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanoparticulate indium tin

  1. Surface modification of indium tin oxide for direct writing of silver nanoparticulate ink micropatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vunnam, Swathi, E-mail: swathi.vunnam@mines.sdsmt.edu [Nanoscience and Nanoengineering Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States); Ankireddy, Krishnamraju; Kellar, Jon; Cross, William [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD-57701 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Surface treatment techniques were deployed to alter the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) samples to attain a favorable interface between printed nano-inks and ITO surface. Surface free energy components of treated ITO substrates were calculated for each treatment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good method. The surface treatments of ITO changed the Lifshitz–van der Waals and Lewis acid–base components, and contact angle hysteresis significantly. Among all the surface treatments, air plasma treated samples showed high polar in nature, whereas dodecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer treated sample showed the lowest. In addition to the polarity and homogeneity, the surface roughness of the ITO was studied with respect to the surface treatment. Silver nanoparticulate ink was printed on treated ITO surfaces using aerosol jet printing system. Printed silver nano-ink line width and morphology strongly depended on the surface treatment of the ITO, ink properties and printing parameters. - Highlights: ► Surface treatments on indium tin oxide (ITO) altered its surface free energy. ► Surface free energies were studied in terms of acid–base components. ► ITO surface morphology and roughness were changed with the surface treatment. ► Silver ink was printed on treated ITO samples using aerosol jet printing system. ► Line widths of printed patterns clearly depended on the surface free energy of ITO.

  2. Mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis of dioxygen reduction at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and ITO nanoparticulate film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozniecka, Ewa; Jonsson-Niedziolka, Martin; Sobczak, Janusz W. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Opallo, Marcin, E-mail: mopallo@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > We introduced ITO nanoparticulate films for enzyme immobilization. > The material promotes mediatorless bioelectrocatalysis towards dioxygen reduction. > The electrocatalytical current increase with the thickness of nanoparticulate film. > There is no difference in electrocatalytic current in the presence or absence of mediator. > The stability of the electrode can be improved by crosslinking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. - Abstract: Bilirubin oxidase was immobilised on ITO electrodes: bare or covered by ITO nanoparticulate film. The latter material was obtained by immersion and withdrawal of the substrate into ITO nanoparticles suspension. Formation of a protein deposit was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrode surface is covered by a protein film in the form of globular aggregates and it exhibits mediatorless electrocatalytic activity towards dioxygen reduction to water at pH 4.8. Modification of the electrode with ITO particles increases its catalytic activity about ten times up to 110 {mu}A cm{sup -2} seen for electrodes prepared by twelve immersion and withdrawal steps into ITO nanoparticle suspension. The catalytic activity is almost unaffected by addition of mediator to solution. The stability of the electrodes is increased by cross-linking of the enzyme with bovine serum albumin and glutaraldehyde. This electrode was applied as biocathode in a zinc-dioxygen battery operating in 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.8).

  3. Method of manufacturing tin-doped indium oxide nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Soydan; Naskar, Amit K

    2017-06-06

    A method of making indium tin oxide nanofibers includes the step of mixing indium and tin precursor compounds with a binder polymer to form a nanofiber precursor composition. The nanofiber precursor composition is co-formed with a supporting polymer to form a composite nanofiber having a precursor composition nanofiber completely surrounded by the supporting polymer composition. The supporting polymer composition is removed from the composite nanofiber to expose the precursor composition nanofiber. The precursor composition nanofiber is then heated in the presence of oxygen such as O.sub.2 to form indium tin oxide and to remove the binder polymer to form an indium tin oxide nanofiber. A method of making metal oxide nanofibers is also disclosed.

  4. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  5. Indium Tin Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanowire and Jagged Indium Tin Oxide Nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports two new indium tin oxide (ITO-based nanostructures, namely ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire. The ITO@carbon core–shell nanowires (~50 nm in diameter, 1–5 μm in length, were prepared by a chemical vapor deposition process from commercial ITO nanoparticles. A carbon overlayer (~5–10 in thickness was observed around ITO nanowire core, which was in situ formed by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene gas. This carbon overlayer could be easily removed after calcination in air at an elevated temperature of 700°C, thus forming jagged ITO nanowires (~40–45 nm in diameter. The growth mechanisms of ITO@carbon core–shell nanowire and jagged ITO nanowire were also suggested.

  6. Patterning Cells on Optically Transparent Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sunny; Revzin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The ability to exercise precise spatial and temporal control over cell-surface interactions is an important prerequisite to the assembly of multi-cellular constructs serving as in vitro mimics of native tissues. In this study, photolithography and wet etching techniques were used to fabricate individually addressable indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes on glass substrates. The glass substrates containing ITO microelectrodes were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane to make them pr...

  7. Micropatterning of Proteins and Mammalian Cells on Indium Tin Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sunny S.; Howland, Michael C.; Chen, Li-Jung; Silangcruz, Jaime; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Schweikert, Emile A.; Parikh, Atul N.; Revzin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel surface engineering approach that combines oxygen plasma treatment and electrochemical activation to create micropatterned cocultures on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. In this approach, photoresist was patterned onto an ITO substrate modified with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) silane. The photoresist served as a stencil during exposure of the surface to oxygen plasma. Upon incubation with collagen (I) solution and removal of the photoresist, the ITO substrate co...

  8. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  9. Junction characteristics of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Hayes, R. E.; Russell, P. E.; Nottenburg, R. N.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    Efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)/p-InP solar cells have been fabricated. Typical uncorrected efficiencies range from 9-12 percent at AM1 intensities. It is shown that deposition of ITO causes a semi-insulating layer at the InP surface as determined by C-V measurements. The thickness of this layer is approximately 750 A. We believe that this high resistivity region is due to surface accumulation of Fe at the ITO/InP interface.

  10. Effect of Indium on the Superconducting Transition Temperature of Tin Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Shi, Xiaoya; Li, Qiang; Tranquada, John; Gu, Genda

    2013-03-01

    Indium-doped tin telluride is one of the most appealing topological superconductors. We have grown a series of Sn1-xInxTe crystals with different indium concentrations (0.1 <=x <=1.0). The results show indium doping improves the superconducting transition temperature significantly and is highly related to the indium concentration. The maximum Tc of indium-doped tin telluride polycrystalline is 4.5K for x =0.4. Single crystals of Sn1-xInxTe were also grown by the floating zone method, and their magnetic properties were characterized.

  11. Mobility and carrier density in nanoporous indium tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissbon, Jaqueline; Gondorf, Andreas; Geller, Martin; Lorke, Axel [Fakultaet fuer Physik and CeNIDE, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Inhester, Martina; Prodi-Schwab, Anna; Adam, Dieter [Evonik Degussa GmbH, D-45772 Marl (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has become an indispensable material for a range of electronic devices. It is transparent in the entire visible range and electrically conducting, hence, a well suited material for transparent electrodes. An interesting possibility to realize transparent, conducting films without the use of vacuum techniques is the printing of dispersions containing ITO nanoparticles. We study here the charge carrier concentration and mobility of various nanoporous indium tin oxide (ITO) films, using Hall measurements and optical spectroscopy. For the carrier density inside the particles (2-4 . 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), the results of these complementary measurement techniques are in good agreement with each other and suggest that even in highly porous materials the common equations for the Hall resistance can be applied. However, for the mobilities in these layers the results differ very strongly: from 50 (cm{sup 2})/(Vs) in optical spectroscopy (which is comparable to bulk ITO) to 0.4 (cm{sup 2})/(Vs) in Hall measurements.This suggests that the mobility for electrical transport in nanoporous ITO films is strongly suppressed by scattering at interparticle boundaries.

  12. Low-temperature processing of transparent conductive indium tin oxide nanocomposites using polyvinyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, Ilja, E-mail: ilja.maksimenko@ww.uni-erlangen.de; Wellmann, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the influence of additives on the electrical, optical, morphological and mechanical properties of transparent conductive indium tin oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn; ITO) nanoparticle films by the use of polymers as matrix material. Key issues to fabricate layers suitable for use in electronic device applications are presented. Polyvinyl derivatives polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl butyral were applied and their suitability to form transparent conductive ITO nanocomposite coatings at a maximum process temperature of 130 Degree-Sign C was investigated. A low-temperature treatment with UV-light has been developed to provide the possibility of curing ITO thin films deposited on substrates which do not withstand high process temperatures. Compared to best pure ITO layers (0.2 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}), the ITO-PVA nanocomposite coatings show a conductance value of 4.1 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} and 5.9 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} after reducing in forming gas. Sheet resistance of ca. 1200 {Omega}/{open_square} with coexistent transmittance of 85% at 550 nm for a layer thickness of about 1.45 {mu}m was achieved. The conductance enhancement is a consequence of nanoparticulate ITO network densification due to the acting shrinkage forces caused by the polymer matrix during film drying and additionally UV-induced crosslinking of PVA.

  13. High-efficiency indium tin oxide/indium phosphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements in the performance of indium tin oxide (ITO)/indium phosphide solar cells have been realized by the dc magnetron sputter deposition of n-ITO onto an epitaxial p/p(+) structure grown on commercial p(+) bulk substrates. The highest efficiency cells were achieved when the surface of the epilayer was exposed to an Ar/H2 plasma before depositing the bulk of the ITO in a more typical Ar/O2 plasma. With H2 processing, global efficiencies of 18.9 percent were achieved. It is suggested that the excellent performance of these solar cells results from the optimization of the doping, thickness, transport, and surface properties of the p-type base, as well as from better control over the ITO deposition procedure.

  14. Indium Tin Oxide-Polyaniline Biosensor: Fabrication and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Grooms

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel indium tin oxide (ITO-polyaniline (Pani biosensor wasdesigned, fabricated, and characterized. Initial testing was conducted for the detection ofbovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. The biosensor design was based upon the specific natureof antibodies to capture the target virus, and the conductive properties of self-doped Pani totranslate the antibody-antigen binding into a quantifying signal. The first part of the study wasto assess the feasibility of the self-doped Pani to be incorporated into the biosensor design byevaluating its several parameters, such as conductivity, physical structure, thermogravimetricproperties, and antibody-binding properties. The second part of the paper highlights thefabrication of the ITO-Pani biosensor to detect the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV in pure culture. Although only BVDV culture was tested in this study, the biosensoris versatile for the detection of other pathogen of interest by changing the specificity of theantibodies.

  15. The effect of preparation method on the proton conductivity of indium doped tin pyrophosphates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Lie-Andersen, T.; Jensen, E. Pristed

    2015-01-01

    Indium doped tin pyrophosphates were prepared by three synthetic routes. A heterogeneous synthesis from metal oxides with excess phosphoric acid produces crystalline phosphate particles with a phosphorus rich amorphous phase along the grain boundaries. The amorphous phase prevents the agglomerati...

  16. Effect of fabrication conditions on the properties of indium tin oxide powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wei

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that indium tin oxide (ITO) crystalline powders are prepared by coprecipitation method. Fabrication conditions mainly as sintering temperature and Sn doping content are correlated with the phase, microstructure, infrared emissivity ε and powder resistivity of indium tin oxides by means of x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and transmission electron microscope. The optimum sintering temperature of 1350℃ and Sn doping content 6~8wt% are determined. The application of ITO in the military camouflage field is proposed.

  17. Characterization of reliability of printed indium tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2013-11-01

    Recently, decreasing the amount of indium (In) element in the indium tin oxide (ITO) used for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film has become necessary for cost reduction. One possible approach to this problem is using printed ITO thin film instead of sputtered. Previous studies showed potential for printed ITO thin films as the TCO layer. However, nothing has been reported on the reliability of printed ITO thin films. Therefore, in this study, the reliability of printed ITO thin films was characterized. ITO nanoparticle ink was fabricated and printed onto a glass substrate followed by heating at 400 degrees C. After measurement of the initial values of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the printed ITO thin films, their reliabilities were characterized with an isothermal-isohumidity test for 500 hours at 85 degrees C and 85% RH, a thermal shock test for 1,000 cycles between 125 degrees C and -40 degrees C, and a high temperature storage test for 500 hours at 125 degrees C. The same properties were investigated after the tests. Printed ITO thin films showed stable properties despite extremely thermal and humid conditions. Sheet resistances of the printed ITO thin films changed slightly from 435 omega/square to 735 omega/square 507 omega/square and 442 omega/square after the tests, respectively. Optical transmittances of the printed ITO thin films were slightly changed from 84.74% to 81.86%, 88.03% and 88.26% after the tests, respectively. These test results suggest the stability of printed ITO thin film despite extreme environments.

  18. Synthesis of indium tin oxide powder by solid-phase reaction with microwave heating

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Kanayama, Keiji; Katoh, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) powder was synthesized from indium oxide and tin oxide powders by a solid-phase method using microwave heating and conventional heating methods. Microwave heating could reduce the treatment time necessary for the completion of the solid-phase reaction by 1/30. This decrease was attributed to an increase in the diffusion rate of Sn at the local heat spot in the indium oxide formed by microwave irradiation. However, microwave heating also decreased the amount of ITO produ...

  19. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi-Qiang, E-mail: s-li@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); NU-NIMS Materials Innovation Center, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); Ketterson, John B. [NU-NIMS Materials Innovation Center, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); Department of Physics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States); Chang, Robert P. H., E-mail: s-li@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: r-chang@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States); NU-NIMS Materials Innovation Center, 2220 Campus Dr., Evanston, Illinois 60208-3108 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  20. Patterning cells on optically transparent indium tin oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunny; Revzin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The ability to exercise precise spatial and temporal control over cell-surface interactions is an important prerequisite to the assembly of multi-cellular constructs serving as in vitro mimics of native tissues. In this study, photolithography and wet etching techniques were used to fabricate individually addressable indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes on glass substrates. The glass substrates containing ITO microelectrodes were modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) silane to make them protein and cell resistive. Presence of insulating PEG molecules on the electrode surface was verified by cyclic voltammetry employing potassium ferricyanide as a redox reporter molecule. Importantly, the application of reductive potential caused desorption of the PEG layer, resulting in regeneration of the conductive electrode surface and appearance of typical ferricyanide redox peaks. Application of reductive potential also corresponded to switching of ITO electrode properties from cell non-adhesive to cell-adhesive. Electrochemical stripping of PEG-silane layer from ITO microelectrodes allowed for cell adhesion to take place in a spatially defined fashion, with cellular patterns corresponding closely to electrode patterns. Micropatterning of several cell types was demonstrated on these substrates. In the future, the control of the biointerfacial properties afforded by this method will allow to engineer cellular microenvironments through the assembly of three or more cell types into a precise geometric configuration on an optically transparent substrate.

  1. Broadband resonances in indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Qiang; Sakoda, Kazuaki; Ketterson, John B.; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2015-07-01

    There is currently much discussion within the nanophotonics community regarding the origin of wavelength selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances in nanorod arrays. Here, we report a study of resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays resulting from waveguide-like modes. We find that with only a 2.4% geometrical coverage, micron-length nanorod arrays interact strongly with light across a surprisingly wide band from the visible to the mid-infrared, resulting in less than 10% transmission. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observations. The field profile in the vicinity of the rods obtained from simulations shows that the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods for all resonances. Based on our analysis, the resonances in the visible are different in character from those in the infrared. When light is incident on the array, part of it propagates in the space between the rods and part of it is guided within the rods. The phase difference (interference) at the ends of the rods forms the basis for the resonances in the visible region. The resonances in the infrared are Fabry-Perot-like resonances involving standing surface waves between the opposing ends of the rods. Simple analytical formulae predict the spectral positions of these resonances. It is suggested that these phenomena can be utilized for wavelength-selective photodetectors, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells.

  2. Incorporation of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in PEMFC electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolz, Andre [Renewable Energies Group, Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); CRP Henri Tudor, Department of Advanced Materials and Structures, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Zils, Susanne; Ruch, David; Michel, Marc [CRP Henri Tudor, Department of Advanced Materials and Structures, Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Kotov, Nicholas [University of Michigan, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Roth, Christina [Renewable Energies Group, Institute for Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Applied Materials (IAM)-Energy Storage Systems (ESS), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Carbon materials suffer from corrosion at the cathode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In the presence of water, carbon support materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide even at low potentials. Hence, nowadays it is very fashionable to look for alternative support materials, like oxides or conductive polymers. To gain the maximum performance for a new material one should also consider an appropriate electrode structure. This study shows the results for the incorporation of nanosized alternative support materials into advanced electrode architectures. Commercially available indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (<50 nm) are used as support for Pt nanoparticles in combination with Nafion-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the cathode side of a PEMFC. The MWCNTs promote a high electronic conductivity and help to form a porous network, which could accommodate the Pt/ITO nanoparticles. The microscopic investigations show a homogeneous electrode structure composed of Pt/ITO and MWCNT/Nafion multilayer. Single cell measurements show a maximum power density of 73 mW cm{sup -2} and a Pt utilization of 1468 mW mg{sub Pt}{sup -1} for the cathode. The performance data and the Pt utilization are comparable to a standard Pt/carbon black electrode possessing the same Pt loading in the electrode. Beside this, it is shown for the first time that ITO serves as support material under real fuel cell conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Multifunctional Indium Tin Oxide Electrode Generated by Unusual Surface Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouden, Sarra; Dahi, Antoine; Hauquier, Fanny; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe; Ghilane, Jalal

    2016-11-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) material has been widely used in various scientific fields and has been successfully implemented in several devices. Herein, the electrochemical reduction of ITO electrode in an organic electrolytic solution containing alkali metal, NaI, or redox molecule, N-(ferrocenylmethyl) imidazolium iodide, was investigated. The reduced ITO surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and grazing incident XRD demonstrating the presence of the electrolyte cation inside the material. Reversibility of this process after re-oxidation was evidenced by XPS. Using a redox molecule based ionic liquid as supporting electrolyte leads to fellow electrochemically the intercalation process. As a result, modified ITO containing ferrocenyl imidazolium was easily generated. This reduction process occurs at mild reducing potential around -1.8 V and causes for higher reducing potential a drastic morphological change accompanied with a decrease of the electrode conductivity at the macroscopic scale. Finally, the self-reducing power of the reduced ITO phase was used to initiate the spontaneous reduction of silver ions leading to the growth of Ag nanoparticles. As a result, transparent and multifunctional active ITO surfaces were generated bearing redox active molecules inside the material and Ag nanoparticles onto the surface.

  4. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  5. Micropatterning of proteins and mammalian cells on indium tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunny S; Howland, Michael C; Chen, Li-Jung; Silangcruz, Jaime; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Schweikert, Emile A; Parikh, Atul N; Revzin, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes a novel surface engineering approach that combines oxygen plasma treatment and electrochemical activation to create micropatterned cocultures on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. In this approach, photoresist was patterned onto an ITO substrate modified with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) silane. The photoresist served as a stencil during exposure of the surface to oxygen plasma. Upon incubation with collagen (I) solution and removal of the photoresist, the ITO substrate contained collagen regions surrounded by nonfouling PEG silane. Chemical analysis carried out with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) at different stages in micropatterned construction verified removal of PEG-silane during oxygen plasma and presence of collagen and PEG molecules on the same surface. Imaging ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to further investigate micropatterned ITO surfaces. Biological application of this micropatterning strategy was demonstrated through selective attachment of mammalian cells on the ITO substrate. Importantly, after seeding the first cell type, the ITO surfaces could be activated by applying negative voltage (-1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl). This resulted in removal of nonfouling PEG layer and allowed to attach another cell type onto the same surface and to create micropatterned cocultures. Micropatterned cocultures of primary hepatocytes and fibroblasts created by this strategy remained functional after 9 days as verified by analysis of hepatic albumin. The novel surface engineering strategy described here may be used to pattern multiple cell types on an optically transparent and conductive substrate and is envisioned to have applications in tissue engineering and biosensing.

  6. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  7. Ultraflexible polymer solar cells using amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide transparent electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia; Buchholz, Donald B; Zhu, Guang; Yu, Xinge; Lin, Hui; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-02-01

    Polymer solar cells are fabricated on highly conductive, transparent amorphous zinc indium tin oxide (a-ZITO) electrodes. For two representative active layer donor polymers, P3HT and PTB7, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are comparable to reference devices using polycrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Benefitting from the amorphous character of a-ZITO, the new devices are highly flexible and can be repeatedly bent to a radius of 5 mm without significant PCE reduction. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  9. Synthesis and electrical property of indium tin oxide nanofibers using electrospinning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-In; Lee, Kun-Jae; Kim, Ki Do; Kim, Hee Taik; Chang, Young-Wook; Kang, Shin-Choon; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2007-11-01

    In this study indium tin oxide (ITO) nanofibers were synthesized using an electrospinning method. The morphological properties of the ITO nanofibers were considered and their specific resistances were measured to determine their applicability as filler for a transparent conducting film. ITO/PVP composite nanofibers were successfully obtained by electrospinning using a precursor solution containing indium nitrate, tin chloride, and poly(vinlypyrrolidone). After the heat treatment of ITO/PVP composite nanofibers at 600 degrees C and 1000 degrees C, ITO nanofibers with an average diameter of about 168 nm and 165 nm were synthesized, respectively.

  10. CuInS2 nanotube array on indium tin oxide: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Jen; Jiang, Wan-Ting; Liao, Wen-Pin

    2010-08-28

    CuInS(2) nanotube (NT) arrays were synthesized on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates for the first time using a successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) process with self-dissolved ZnO nanowire (NW) templates. The p-type CuInS(2) NT array shows promising conversion efficiency in a photoelectrochemical cell with polysulfide electrolyte.

  11. Short circuit current in indium tin oxide/silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.

    1980-09-01

    The short-circuit current density of indium tin oxide/single and polycrystalline silicon solar cells reported by Schunck and Coche (1979) is much higher than other silicon solar cells. It is shown that the short-circuit current density reported in the above reference does not represent the true value of these devices.

  12. Surface Plasmon Polariton Modulator with Periodic Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We study a metal-dielectric-metal waveguide as an absorption modulator. The system consists of an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and silicon nitride (Si3N4) imbedded between two silver plates. We analyze the system and perform numerical simulations with the aim to increase transmittance and enhance...

  13. Surface Plasmon Polariton Modulator with Periodic Patterning of Indium Tin Oxide Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We study a metal-dielectric-metal waveguide as an absorption modulator. The system consists of an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and silicon nitride (Si3N4) imbedded between two silver plates. We analyze the system and perform numerical simulations with the aim to increase transmittance and enhance...

  14. Indium Tin Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells: Toward Commercial Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Krebs, Frederik C

    2014-01-01

    Polymer solar cell (PSC) is the latest of all photovoltaic technologies which currently lies at the brink of commercialization. The impetus for its rapid progress in the last decade has come from low-cost high throughput production possibility which in turn relies on the use of low-cost materials...... and vacuum-free manufacture. Indium tin oxide (ITO), the commonly used transparent conductor, imposes the majority of the cost of production of PSCs, limits flexibility, and is feared to create bottleneck in the dawning industry due to indium scarcity and the resulting large price fluctuations. As such...

  15. Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) Ruthenium(Ⅱ) Doped Silica Film Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode and Its Electrochemiluminescent Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hui; DU Yan; KANG Jian-Zhen; XU Guo-Bao; WANG Er-Kang

    2007-01-01

    An approach was reported to synthesize silica hybridized ruthenium bipyridyl complex through amidation reaction by covalent attachment of bis(bipyridyl)-4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl-ruthenium to (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane.The hybrid complex then was gelatinized through acid catalytic hydrolysis method and a sol-gel modified indium tin oxide electrode was prepared via spin coating technique. As prepared indium tin oxide electrode possesses good stability therein with excellent electrochemiluminescence behavior.

  16. An Indium-Free Anode for Large-Area Flexible OLEDs: Defect-Free Transparent Conductive Zinc Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Masis, M.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Dabirian, A.; Lifka, H.; Gierth, R.; Ruske, M.; Moet, D.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible large-area organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) require highly conductive and transparent anodes for efficient and uniform light emission. Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is the standard anode in industry. However, due to the scarcity of indium, alternative anodes that eliminate its use are h

  17. Effect of Temperature on Nucleation of Nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Synthesized by Electron-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Yujun; Shen, Jianxing; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied as a transparent conductive layer and optical window in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and touch screens. In this paper, crystalline nano-sized ITO dendrites are obtained using an electron-beam evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the obtained ITO was studied for substrate temperatures of 25°C, 130°C, 180°C, and 300°C. Nano-sized crystalline dendrites were synthesized only at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The dendrites had a cubic structure, confirmed by the results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of the nano-crystalline dendrites could be explained by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth model. The catalysts of the VLS process were indium and tin droplets, confirmed by varying the substrate temperature, which further influenced the nucleation of the ITO dendrites.

  18. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  19. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Boehme; Emanuel Ionescu; Ganhua Fu; Wolfgang Ensinger

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO) were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs) with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless de...

  20. Sol–gel synthesis of nanostructured indium tin oxide with controlled morphology and porosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kőrösi, László, E-mail: ltkorosi@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, Alice [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Petrik, Péter [Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Konkoly-Thege út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Papp, Szilvia [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Dékány, Imre [MTA-SZTE Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 8, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ITO thin films and powders were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The nature of the compounds used for hydrolysis plays a key role in the morphology. • Hydrolysis of In{sup 3+}/Sn{sup 4+} with EA led to a rod-like morphology. • Monodisperse spherical ITO nanoparticles were obtained on the use of AC. • ITO{sub E}A was highly porous, while ITO{sub A}C contained densely packed nanocrystals. - Abstract: Nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) powders and thin films differing in morphology and porosity were prepared by a sol–gel method. In{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 4+} were hydrolyzed in aqueous medium through the use of ethanolamine (EA) or sodium acetate (AC). X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that both EA and AC furnished indium tin hydroxide, which became nanocrystalline after aging for one day. The indium tin hydroxide samples calcined at 550 °C afforded ITO with a cubic crystal structure, but the morphology differed significantly, depending on the agent used for hydrolysis. Electron microscopy revealed the formation of round monodisperse nanoparticles when AC was used, whereas the application of EA led to rod-like ITO nanoparticles. Both types of nanoparticles were suitable for the preparation of transparent and conductive ITO thin films. The influence of the morphology and porosity on the optical properties is discussed.

  1. Indium tin oxide nanosized composite powder prepared using waste ITO target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiaxiang; GAN Yong; ZENG Shengnan

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (TTO) nano-particles were prepared directly using waste ITO target, which had been coated by magnetron controlled sputtering. The waste ITO target was cleaned with de-ionized water, and then dissolved in acid, filtrated, neutralized, manipulated through azeotropic distillation and finally dried, and in this way the precursor of indium tin hydroxide was obtained. The nanosized ITO composite powder was prepared after the precursor heat-treated at 500C for 2h. TEM images show a narrow distribution of particle size is 5-20 nm and the particle size can be controlled. Its granule has a spherical shape and the dispersion of the particle is well. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate the only cubic In2O3 phase in the ITO powder heat-treated at 500C. The purity of ITO composite powder is 99.9907%. The content of indium within filtrate was detected by using the EDTA titration of determination of indium in the ITO powder and ITO target. Apfully prepared by heat-treating.

  2. Indium contamination from the indium-tin-oxide electrode in polymer light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatmann, A.R.; Floet, D.W.; Hilberer, A; Garten, F; Smulders, P.J M; Klapwijk, T.M; Hadziioannou, G

    1996-01-01

    We have found that polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) contain high concentrations of metal impurities prior to operation. Narrow peaks in the electroluminescence spectrum unambiguously demonstrate the presence of atomic indium and aluminum. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and x-ray ph

  3. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, A. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carreras, P. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Bertomeu, J. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Antony, A. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band.

  4. Influence of dopant distribution on the plasmonic properties of indium tin oxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounis, Sebastien D; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Bergerud, Amy; Nordlund, Dennis; Milliron, Delia J

    2014-05-14

    Doped metal oxide nanocrystals represent an exciting frontier for colloidal synthesis of plasmonic materials, displaying unique optoelectronic properties and showing promise for a variety of applications. However, fundamental questions about the nature of doping in these materials remain. In this article, the strong influence of radial dopant distribution on the optoelectronic properties of colloidal indium tin oxide nanocrystals is reported. Comparing elemental depth-profiling by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with detailed modeling and simulation of the optical extinction of these nanocrystals using the Drude model for free electrons, a correlation between surface segregation of tin ions and the average activation of dopants is observed. A strong influence of surface segregation of tin on the line shape of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) is also reported. Samples with tin segregated near the surface show a symmetric line shape that suggests weak or no damping of the plasmon by ionized impurities. It is suggested that segregation of tin near the surface facilitates compensation of the dopant ions by electronic defects and oxygen interstitials, thus reducing activation. A core-shell model is proposed to explain the observed differences in line shape. These results demonstrate the nuanced role of dopant distribution in determining the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals and suggest that more detailed study of the distribution and structure of defects in plasmonic colloidal nanocrystals is warranted.

  5. Enhanced photoefficiency in positive-tone direct patterning of metal complexes for forming patterned indium tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordonier, Christopher E.J., E-mail: chris@kanto-gakuin.ac.jp; Nakamura, Akimasa; Shimada, Kazuhiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of positive-tone directly photo-patternable 4-(2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonyl)catechol and 4-(6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl)catechol complexes of indium tin was improved by tuning the solubility of the complexes and by chelation of maltol as a cooperative photo-solvolytic component, such that films could be patterned at up to 4.88 mW{center_dot}s/nm in terms of resultant indium tin oxide (ITO). Patterned indium tin complexes were thermally transformed to pattern shape preserved ITO by anisotropic contraction and oxidation. The photo-reaction of these ligands and related derivatives was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showing decomposition to the respective carboxylic acid for which linear rate constants were approximated, further elucidating the mechanism and mechanics of selective solubility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoreaction of ortho-nitrobenzyl dioxybenzoate derivatives was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tuning the photolabile ester-indium tin complex increased film photoefficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photoreaction of chelated maltol was also found to aid performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complexes coated once gave patterned 8.35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}{center_dot}cm indium tin oxide films.

  6. Ionization potentials of transparent conductive indium tin oxide films covered with a single layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles grown by spray pyrolysis deposition

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited with single layers of monodispersive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) nanoparticles of several nanometers in size were grown on glass substrates by intermittent spray pyrolysis deposition using conventional atomizers. These films have significantly higher ionization potentials than the bare ITO and FTO films grown using the same technique. The ITO films covered with FTO particles of 7 nm in average size show an ionization potential of 5.01 eV, as compared ...

  7. Low-temperature solution-processed amorphous indium tin oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Myung-Gil; Ha, Young-Geun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2009-08-12

    Amorphous indium tin oxide (ITO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on various dielectrics [SiO(2) and self-assembled nanodielectrics (SANDs)] by spin-coating an ITO film precursor solution consisting of InCl(3) and SnCl(4) as the sources of In(3+) and Sn(4+), respectively, methoxyethanol (solvent), and ethanolamine (base). These films can be annealed at temperatures T(a) 0.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is encouraging for processing on plastic substrates.

  8. Low Reflectivity and High Flexibility of Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Nanofiber Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hui

    2011-01-12

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) has found widespread use in solar cells, displays, and touch screens as a transparent electrode; however, two major problems with ITO remain: high reflectivity (up to 10%) and insufficient flexibility. Together, these problems severely limit the applications of ITO films for future optoelectronic devices. In this communication, we report the fabrication of ITO nanofiber network transparent electrodes. The nanofiber networks show optical reflectivity as low as 5% and high flexibility; the nanofiber networks can be bent to a radius of 2 mm with negligible changes in the sheet resistance. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding π/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ˜517 μm-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (˜78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66 V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  10. Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Nae-Man; Kim, Bo-Sul; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2013-11-01

    Index-matched indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for capacitive touch screen panels have been fabricated to improve optical transmittance and reduce the difference of reflectance (deltaR) between the etched and un-etched regions. 8.5 nm Nb2O5 and 49 nm SiO2 thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering as index-matching layers between an ITO electrode and a glass substrate. In case of 30 nm ITO electrode, a 4.3% improvement in the optical transmittance and a deltaR of less than 1% were achieved, along with a low sheet resistance of 90 omega/square.

  11. Effects on Organic Photovoltaics Using Femtosecond-Laser-Treated Indium Tin Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Hsin; Tseng, Ya-Hsin; Chao, Yi-Ping; Tseng, Sheng-Yang; Lin, Zong-Rong; Chu, Hui-Hsin; Chang, Jan-Kai; Luo, Chih-Wei

    2016-09-28

    The effects of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface applied to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) system were investigated. The modifications of ITO induced by LIPPS in OPV devices result in more than 14% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and short-circuit current density relative to those of the standard device. The basic mechanisms for the enhanced short-circuit current density are attributed to better light harvesting, increased scattering effects, and more efficient charge collection between the ITO and photoactive layers. Results show that higher PCEs would be achieved by laser-pulse-treated electrodes.

  12. Organic solar cells on indium tin oxide and aluminum doped zinc oxide anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Kerstin; Maennig, Bert; Leo, Karl; Tomita, Yuto; May, Christian; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Brier, Eduard; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The authors compare organic solar cells using two different transparent conductive oxides as anode: indium tin oxide (ITO) and three kinds of aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZAO). These anodes with different work functions are used for small molecule photovoltaic devices based on an oligothiophene derivative as donor and fullerene C60 as acceptor molecule. It turns out that cells on ITO and ZAO have virtually identical properties. In particular, the authors demonstrate that the work function of the anode does not influence the Voc of the photovoltaic device due to the use of doped transport layers.

  13. Humidity Sensing Using Gelatin and Cobalt Chloride Coating on Indium Tin Oxide-Coated Long-Period Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi; Kaler, R. S.; Kapur, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, humidity sensing using gelatin and cobalt chloride on indium tin oxide coated long-period gratings was proposed and demonstrated. First, a thin overlay of indium tin oxide was deposited on a long-period grating by using a simple dip coating methodology. Similarly, a combination of gelatin and cobalt chloride was deposited onto the indium tin oxide layer. A field emission scanning electron microscope provided detailed evidence of the attachment of amalgamation on long-period gratings. The designed sensor showed a significant shift in the resonance wavelength when the relative humidity varied from 40% to 95%, with a sensitivity of 0.12 nm/% relative humidity and an accuracy of 98.45%.

  14. Ultracompact Electro-Absorption Modulators Based on Novel Materials (I): Epsilon-Near-Zero Material and Electro-Absorption Modulation Based on Indium-Tin-Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    Indium-Tin-Oxide” 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is widely used as transparent electrode in solar cells and...deposition ( PVD ) process using a (In2O3)0.9(SnO2)0.1 weight percentage target at room temperature and 7.3mTorr pressure within the chamber. During

  15. Study on All-Solid-State Chloride Sensor Based on Tin Oxide/Indium Tin Oxide Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jui-Fu; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Sun, Tai-Ping; Hsiung, Shen-Kan; Kao, Hui-Ling

    2011-03-01

    An all-solid-state chloride electrode based on a tin oxide (SnO2)/indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was developed in this study. The sensing membrane of the electrode was prepared by mixing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), [4,5-dimethy-l-3,6-bis(dodecyloxy)-1,2-phenylene] bis(mercury chloride) (ETH9033), and tridodecylmethyl ammonium chloride (TDDMACl). The mixed solution was mixed with tetrahydrofuran (THF), and then dropped on the sensing window of SnO2/ITO glass. According to the experimental results, the optimal weight ratio were PVC:DOS:ETH9033:TDDMACl=33:66:2:5. At this optimum weight ratio, the sensitivity was 54 mV/dec while the range of linear concentrations of NaCl solutions was between 10-4 and 1 M. The lower detection limit of the sensor reached 8×10-5 M and the response time was less than 1 s. The selectivity coefficient was consistent with the theory of Hofmeister lipophilicity. The lifetime was over 60 days and the repeatability was over 50 times. Moreover, the chloride ion sensor was successfully applied to detecting chloride ions in rinsing solutions for contact lenses, and the experimental results revealed that the correlation coefficient was 0.99.

  16. Self-assembly surface modified indium-tin oxide anodes for single-layer light-emitting diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Morgado, J; Charas, A; Matos, M; Alcacer, L; Cacialli, F

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of indium-tin oxide surface modification by self assembling of highly polar molecules on the performance of single-layer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with polyfluorene blends and aluminium cathodes. We find that the efficiency and light-output of such LEDs is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the values obtained for LEDs incorporating a hole injection layer of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulphonic acid. This effect is attributed to the dipole-induced work function modification of indium-tin oxide.

  17. Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of sputtered indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Duy Phong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Phan, Bach Thang [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van Dung; Nguyen, Huu Truong [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Ta, Thi Kieu Hanh [Faculty of Materials Science, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Maenosono, Shinya [Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Ishikawa (Japan); Tran, Cao Vinh, E-mail: tcvinh@hcmus.edu.vn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2014-11-03

    We report a two-step growth process for the fabrication of (222)-plane textured indium tin oxide (ITO) films. A thin ITO seed layer was grown in mixed Argon + Oxygen gases, followed by a thick ITO deposited in Argon gas. X-Ray diffraction shows that the sputtered ITO films exhibit strongly preferred (222) crystalline orientation. The (222)-plane textured ITO films have high transmittance above 80% in the visible range and carrier concentration, mobility and resistivity in the range of 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively. The surface roughness of our (222) textured ITO films is 1.4 nm, which is one of the smallest value obtained from sputtered ITO thin films. - Highlights: • Control of preferred (222) crystalline orientation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films • A thin oxygen rich seed layer activates (222) orientation growth of overhead ITO films. • The surface roughness of (222)-plane textured ITO films is about 1.4 nm. • Carrier concentration and resistivity are about 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} and 10{sup −4} Ω·cm, respectively.

  18. Theoretical modeling of a self-referenced dual mode SPR sensor utilizing indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-06-01

    A prism based dual mode SPR sensor was theoretically modeled to work as a self-referenced sensor in spectral interrogation scheme. Self-referenced sensing was achieved by sandwiching an indium tin oxide thin film in between the prism base and the metal layer. The proposed sensor possesses two plasmon modes similar to long and short range SPRs (LR- and SR-SPRs) and we have analogically used LRSPR and SRSPR for them. However, these modes do not possess usual long range character due to the losses introduced by the imaginary part of indium tin oxide (ITO) dielectric function. One of the two plasmon modes responds to change in analyte refractive index while the other remains fixed. The influence of various design parameters on the performance of the sensor was evaluated. The performance of the proposed sensor was compared, via control simulations, with established dual mode geometries utilizing silicon dioxide (SiO2), Teflon AF-1600 and Cytop. The design parameters of the established geometries were optimized to obtain self-referenced sensing operation. Trade-offs between the resonance spectral width, minimum reflectivity, shift in resonance wavelength and angle of incidence were examined for optimal design. The present study will be useful in the fabrication of self-referenced sensors where the ambient conditions are not quite stable.

  19. Nanomechanical properties of dip coated indium tin oxide films on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Nilormi [Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Priyanka; Sarkar, Saswati; Moitra, Debabrata; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar [Sol–Gel Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in [Sol–Gel Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar, E-mail: anoopmukherjee@cgcri.res.in [Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-03-31

    Nanomechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films dip coated from precursor sols of varying equivalent oxide weight percentage (wt.%) onto commercial soda lime silica (SLS) glass substrate were evaluated by nanoindentation technique at an ultralow load of 50 μN. It was found that the increase in wt.% beyond 6 in the precursor sols, had an adverse effect on nanohardness and Young's modulus of the films. Moreover, relatively thicker triple layered film (about 240 nm) had inferior nanomechanical properties as compared to the single layered film. Interestingly, the ITO foam coating on SLS glass substrate had nanomechanical properties nearly as good as those of the single layered films. These observations are explained in terms of the relative differences in crystallinity, stiffness and elastic deformation ability of the films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel indium tin oxide thin films and foam coating • Crystallinity and nanomechanical property inversely relate to sol oxide content. • Foam coating behaves like the thin films.

  20. Electrical, electronic and optical properties of amorphous indium zinc tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Yus Rama [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten, Serang, 42435 (Indonesia); Lee, Kangil; Seo, Soonjoo; Oh, Suhk Kun [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Jae, E-mail: hjkang@cbu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong Seok [Department of Physics Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Jae Cheol [Analytical Engineering Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The electronic property of indium zinc tin oxide thin films was investigated by using XPS and REELS. • The band gap varied with different In/Zn/Sn compositions. • The EXAFS results showed that the smaller Zn–Zn separation distance led to higher electron mobility. • The Sn/Zn composition ratio played a crucial role in improving the electrical properties of a-IZTO thin films. - Abstract: The electrical and optical properties of amorphous indium zinc tin oxide (a-IZTO) thin films were examined as a function of chemical composition. Effects of Sn/Zn composition ratio and In content on the electrical and optical properties of a-IZTO thin films are discussed. The electron mobility of thin film transistors with higher Sn/Zn composition ratio was dramatically improved due to a shorter zinc–zinc separation distance. The thin film transistor with the composition of In:Zn:Sn = 20:48:32 exhibits a high mobility of 30.6 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and a high on–off current ratio of 10{sup 9}.

  1. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of indium-tin oxide production facility particles in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A.; Fix, Natalie R.; Orandle, Marlene S.; Barger, Mark W.; Dunnick, Katherine M.; Cummings, Kristin J.; Leonard, Stephen S.

    2016-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. Occupational exposures to potentially toxic particles generated during ITO production have increased in recent years as the demand for consumer electronics continues to rise. Previous studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity in vitro and animal models have shown pulmonary inflammation and injury in response to various indium-containing particles. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which indium materials or specific processes in the workplace may be the most toxic to workers is unknown. Here we examined the pulmonary toxicity of three different particle samples that represent real-life worker exposures, as they were collected at various production stages throughout an ITO facility. Indium oxide (In2O3), sintered ITO (SITO) and ventilation dust (VD) particles each caused pulmonary inflammation and damage in rats over a time course (1, 7 and 90 days post-intratracheal instillation), but SITO and VD appeared to induce greater toxicity in rat lungs than In2O3 at a dose of 1 mg per rat. Downstream pathological changes such as PAP and fibrosis were observed in response to all three particles 90 days after treatment, with a trend towards greatest severity in animals exposed to VD when comparing animals that received the same dose. These findings may inform workplace exposure reduction efforts and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of an emerging occupational health issue. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26472246

  3. Advantages of indium-tin oxide-coated glass slides in correlative scanning electron microscopy applications of uncoated cultured cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluk, H.; Stokes, D.J.; Lich, B.; Wieringa, B.; Fransen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of direct visualization by correlative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence light microscopy of cell structures of tissue cultured cells grown on conductive glass slides is described. We show that by growing cells on indium-tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass slides, secondary elect

  4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy investigation on indium tin oxide films under cathodic polarization in NaOH solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenjiao; Cao, Si; Yang, Yanze; Wang, Hao; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yiming, E-mail: corrosion@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-30

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of indium tin oxide (ITO) films under the cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The as-received and the cathodically polarized ITO films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction for morphological, compositional and structural studies. The results showed that ITO films underwent a corrosion process during the cathodic polarization and the main component of the corrosion products was body-centered cubic indium. The electrochemical impedance parameters were related to the effect of the cathodic polarization on the ITO specimens. The capacitance of ITO specimens increased, while the charge transfer resistance and the inductance decreased with the increase of the polarization time. The proposed mechanism indicated that the corrosion products (metallic indium) were firstly formed during the cathodic polarization and then absorbed on the surface of the ITO film. As the surface was gradually covered by indium particles, the corrosion process was suppressed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodic polarization of indium tin oxide (ITO) in 0.1 M NaOH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodic polarization studied with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITO underwent a corrosion attack during cathodic polarization, indium was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical parameters of ITO were obtained using equivalent electrical circuit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  5. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  6. Nanostructured as-deposited indium tin oxide thin films for broadband antireflection and light trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Bauch, Martin; Dimopoulos, Theodoros; Dostalek, Jakub

    2017-08-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were sputter-deposited at ambient temperature on a glass-like substrate that was periodically nanostructured by UV nanoimprint lithography. Cross gratings of the corrugated and conformal ITO, with different periods and modulation depths, were tailored to exhibit light trapping or antireflection properties at specific spectral windows by combined optical simulations and experiments. For dense gratings, the light transmission in the 450-850 nm range was enhanced by 8% (absolute) compared to flat ITO films, which is one of the largest performance improvements reported in the literature for nanostructured transparent electrodes. Increasing the grating period shifts the threshold for diffraction coupling to waveguide modes in the visible and near infrared part of the spectrum, resulting in broad light trapping behaviour at wavelengths below this threshold. This work demonstrates a simple processing route at ambient temperature for the fabrication of high-performance transparent electrodes in order to fulfil different device requirements.

  7. A Novel Electrochemical Detector using Prussian Blue Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, In-Je; Kim, Ju-Ho; Kang, C. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, Kisay; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel electrochemical detector (ECD) to catalyze redox efficiently by electrodepositing Prussian blue (PB, ferric hexacyanoferrate) on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and amperometric methods were used. We investigated the PB surface properties by topography from atomic force microscopy (AFM). The PB film on dense and smooth surfaces could catalyze redox reaction efficiently. Compared with CE-ECD microchips using a bare-ITO electrode, the proposed CE-ECD microchip using a PB modified electrode has shown better sensitivity of the electropherograms. It has been verified that wide-ranging detection can be performed under the limits of 0.01 mM of dopamine and catechol respectively when we use a PB modified electrode.

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles onto indium tin oxide glass and application in biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yanling; Song Yan; Wang Yuan; Di Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn

    2011-07-29

    A simple one-step method for the electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) onto bare indium tin oxide film coated glass substrate without any template or surfactant was investigated. The effect of electrolysis conditions such as potential range, temperature, concentration and deposition cycles were examined. The connectivity of GNPs was analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to connect in pairs or to coalesce in larger numbers. The twin GNPs display a transverse and a longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band, which is similar to that of gold nanorods. The presence of longitudinal LSPR band correlates with high refractive index sensitivity. Conjugation of the twin-linked GNPs with albumin bovine serum-biotin was employed for the detection of streptavidin as a model based on the specific binding affinity in biotin/streptavidin pairs. The spectrophotometric sensor showed concentration-dependent binding for streptavidin.

  9. Broad compositional tunability of indium tin oxide nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zervos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide nanowires were grown by the reaction of In and Sn with O2 at 800 °C via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on 1 nm Au/Si(001. We obtain Sn doped In2O3 nanowires having a cubic bixbyite crystal structure by using In:Sn source weight ratios > 1:9 while below this we observe the emergence of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and suppression of In2O3 permitting compositional and structural tuning from SnO2 to In2O3 which is accompanied by a blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and increase in carrier lifetime attributed to a higher crystal quality and Fermi level position.

  10. Annealing of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated optical fibers for optical and electrochemical sensing purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Magdalena; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Niedziałkowski, Paweł; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sezemsky, Petr; Sobaszek, Michał; Bogdanowicz, Robert; Ossowski, Tadeusz; Śmietana, Mateusz

    2016-12-01

    Glass and fiber structures with Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coating were subjected to annealing in order to identify impact of the thermal treatment on their optical and electrochemical properties. It is shown that the annealing process significantly modifies optical properties and thickness of the films, which are crucial for performance of optical fiber sensors. Moreover, it visibly improves electrochemical activity of ITO on glass slides and thicker (∅=400 μm) ITO-coated fibers, whereas in the case of thinner fibers (∅=125 μm) it could lead to a loss of their electrochemical activity. Depending on the applied substrate and the annealing process, the investigated structures with ITO coating can be further used as fiber-based sensors with integrated opto-electrochemical readout.

  11. Anomalous infrared transmission of indium tin oxide thin films on two-dimensional nanosphere arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Zhou, Yuqin; Zhou, Yurong

    2016-04-15

    The excitation of surface plasmons was studied by nano-structural indium tin oxide (ITO) films in the infrared range using nano-imprint lithography (NIL). We investigated the effect of the diameter of silica spheres, thickness of ITO film, and ordering degree of the mask plate on the transmission spectra of structural ITO films by experiments and simulations. Increasing the diameter of silica spheres makes the transmission valley blueshift, while increasing the thickness of ITO film leads the transmission valley redshift. The transmission valley corresponds to the absorption band which results from the excitation of surface plasmons. The ordering degree and the surface coverage ratios of mask plate affect the transmission feature directly. An excitation of local surface plasmons may exist on the undulated ITO surface.

  12. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nen-Wen Pu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10−4 Ω/cm, carrier concentration (4.1 × 1021 cm−3, carrier mobility (10 cm2/Vs, and mean visible-light transmittance (90% at wavelengths of 400–800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>1021 cm−3 with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10−3 Ω−1 demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  13. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Mario; Ionescu, Emanuel; Fu, Ganhua; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO) were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs) with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless deposition based on aqueous solutions. All these methods previously developed, are not adaptable in the case of ITO nanotubes, even with modifications. In the present work, therefore, we investigated the necessary conditions for the growth of ITO-NTs to achieve a wall thickness of around 10 nm. In addition, the effects of pH and reductive concentrations for the formation of ITO-NTs are also discussed.

  14. Adsorption of T4 bacteriophages on planar indium tin oxide surface via controlled surface tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, Ayu Ekajayanthi; Chia, Ed Win; Marquis, Christopher P; Gunawan, Cindy; Gooding, J Justin; Amal, Rose

    2016-04-15

    The work investigates the influence of surface physicochemical properties of planar indium tin oxide (ITO) as a model substrate on T4 bacteriophage adsorption. A comparative T4 bacteriophage adsorption study shows a significant difference in bacteriophage adsorption observed on chemically modified planar ITO when compared to similarly modified particulate ITO, which infers that trends observed in virus-particle interaction studies are not necessarily transferrable to predict virus-planar surface adsorption behaviour. We also found that ITO surfaces modified with methyl groups, (resulting in increased surface roughness and hydrophobicity) remained capable of adsorbing T4 bacteriophage. The adsorption of T4 onto bare, amine and carboxylic functionalised planar ITO suggests the presence of a unique binding behaviour involving specific functional groups on planar ITO surface beyond the non-specific electrostatic interactions that dominate phage to particle interactions. The paper demonstrates the significance of physicochemical properties of surfaces on bacteriophage-surface interactions.

  15. Modifying the Casimir force between indium tin oxide film and Au sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Banishev, A A; Castillo-Garza, R; Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M; Mohideen, U; 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.045436

    2012-01-01

    We present complete results of the experiment on measuring the Casimir force between an Au-coated sphere and an untreated or, alternatively, UV-treated indium tin oxide film deposited on a quartz substrate. Measurements were performed using an atomic force microscope in a high vacuum chamber. The measurement system was calibrated electrostatically. Special analysis of the systematic deviations is performed, and respective corrections in the calibration parameters are introduced. The corrected parameters are free from anomalies discussed in the literature. The experimental data for the Casimir force from two measurement sets for both untreated and UV-treated samples are presented. The experimental errors are determined at a 95% confidence level. It is demonstrated that the UV treatment of an I TO plate results in a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Casimir force (from 21% to 35% depending on separation). However, ellipsometry measurements of the imaginary parts of dielectric permittivities of the un...

  16. Post-annealing-free, room temperature processed nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoung Jang, Jin; Jong Lee, You; Jang, YunSung; Yun, JangWon; Yi, Seungjun; Hong, MunPyo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we confirm that bombardment by high energy negative oxygen ions (NOIs) is the key origin of electro-optical property degradations in indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes. To minimize the bombardment effect of NOIs, which are generated on the surface of the ITO targets and accelerated by the cathode sheath potential on the magnetron sputter gun (MSG), we introduce a magnetic field shielded sputtering (MFSS) system composed of a permanent magnetic array between the MSG and the substrate holder to block the arrival of energetic NOIs. The MFSS processed ITO thin films reveal a novel nanocrystal imbedded polymorphous structure, and present not only superior electro-optical characteristics but also higher gas diffusion barrier properties. To the best of our knowledge, no gas diffusion barrier composed of a single inorganic thin film formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes achieves such a low moisture permeability.

  17. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Boehme

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless deposition based on aqueous solutions. All these methods previously developed, are not adaptable in the case of ITO nanotubes, even with modifications. In the present work, therefore, we investigated the necessary conditions for the growth of ITO-NTs to achieve a wall thickness of around 10 nm. In addition, the effects of pH and reductive concentrations for the formation of ITO-NTs are also discussed.

  18. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Andreia G. [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni [Laboratorio de Polimeros Paulo Scarpa, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Reis, Francoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO{sub 2} films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  19. Ultra-low thermal conductivity of nanogranular indium tin oxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzari, Vladimir I.; Cocemasov, Alexandr I.; Nika, Denis L.; Korotcenkov, Ghenadii S.

    2017-02-01

    The authors have shown that nanogranular indium tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited by spray pyrolysis on a silicon substrate, demonstrate ultralow thermal conductivity κ ˜ 0.84 ± 0.12 Wm-1 K-1 at room temperature. This value is approximately by one order of magnitude lower than that in bulk ITO. The strong drop of thermal conductivity is explained by the nanogranular structure and porosity of ITO films, resulting in enhanced phonon scattering on grain boundaries. The experimental results were interpreted theoretically, employing the Boltzmann transport equation approach for phonon transport and filtering model for electronic transport. The calculated values of thermal conductivity are in reasonable agreement with the experimental findings. The presented results show that ITO films with an optimal nanogranular structure may be prospective for thermoelectric applications.

  20. Performance of GaN-Based LEDs with Nanopatterned Indium Tin Oxide Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanxu Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indium tin oxide (ITO has been widely applied in light emitting diodes (LEDs as the transparent current spreading layer. In this work, the performance of GaN-based blue light LEDs with nanopatterned ITO electrode is investigated. Periodic nanopillar ITO arrays are fabricated by inductive coupled plasma etching with the mask of polystyrene nanosphere. The light extraction efficiency (LEE of LEDs can be improved by nanopatterned ITO ohmic contacts. The light output intensity of the fabricated LEDs with nanopatterned ITO electrode is 17% higher than that of the conventional LEDs at an injection current of 100 mA. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulation matches well with the experimental result. This method may serve as a practical approach to improving the LEE of the LEDs.

  1. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan); Department of Physics, Centre of Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 53 000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Miyauchi, Yoshihiro [Department of Applied Physics, School of Applied Sciences, National Defense Academy of Japan, 239-8686 Kanagawa (Japan); Mizutani, Goro, E-mail: mizutani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • SHG phase from the interfaces of ITO/CuPc and ITO/pentacene was observed. • Optical dispersion of the organic thin film was taken into account. • Phase shift from bare ITO was 140° for ITO/CuPc and 160° for ITO/pentacene. - Abstract: We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕ{sub interface} with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  2. Influence of carbon black and indium tin oxide absorber particles on laser transmission welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Mirko; Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    For laser transmission welding of polypropylene carbon black and indium tin oxide (ITO) are used as absorber particles. Additionally, the colorant titanium dioxide is mixed to the absorbing part, while the transparent part is kept in natural state. The absorption coefficients of ITO and carbon black particles are obtained, as well as the scattering properties of polypropylene loaded with titanium dioxide (TiO2). At similar concentrations the absorption coefficient of ITO is an order of magnitude smaller than that of carbon black. Simulations of radiation propagation show that the penetration depth of laser light is smaller for carbon black. Therefore, the density of the released heat is higher. Adding TiO2 changes the distribution of heat in case of ITO, whereas for carbon black the effect is negligible. Thermal simulations reveal the influence of the two absorbers and TiO2 on the heat affected zone. The results of the thermal simulations are compared to tensile test results.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on polycarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, T.K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my; Teo, B.S. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2005-07-30

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates in oxygen at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a Nd:YAG laser with 355 and 532 nm wavelengths. The ITO films were analyzed by the four-point probe technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible-Near IR spectrophotometry for electrical conductivity, surface morphological and optical transmission properties, respectively. The main plume species were identified by using a fiber optic spectrometer, which showed that the emission intensity produced by the 355 nm laser wavelength was considerably stronger than that produced by the 532 nm laser wavelength. The ITO film resistivity was an order of magnitude higher than that achieved by a KrF excimer laser, but comparable to ITO-coated substrates prepared by the sputtering method.

  4. Large optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide in its epsilon-near-zero region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Zahirul; De Leon, Israel; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-05-13

    Nonlinear optical phenomena are crucial for a broad range of applications, such as microscopy, all-optical data processing, and quantum information. However, materials usually exhibit a weak optical nonlinearity even under intense coherent illumination. We report that indium tin oxide can acquire an ultrafast and large intensity-dependent refractive index in the region of the spectrum where the real part of its permittivity vanishes. We observe a change in the real part of the refractive index of 0.72 ± 0.025, corresponding to 170% of the linear refractive index. This change in refractive index is reversible with a recovery time of about 360 femtoseconds. Our results offer the possibility of designing material structures with large ultrafast nonlinearity for applications in nanophotonics. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Electrodeposition of Sb2Se3 on indium-doped tin oxides substrate: Nucleation and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuezhao; zhang, Xin; Tian, Yuan; Shen, Chengmin; Wang, Chunming; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms related to the initial stages of the nucleation and growth of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) semiconductor compounds onto the indium-doped tin oxides (ITO) coated glass surface have been investigated using chronoamperometry (CA) technique. The fabrication was conducted from nitric acid bath containing both Sb3+ and SeO2 species at ambient conditions. No underpotential deposition (UPD) of antimony and selenium onto ITO substrate was observed in the investigated systems indicating a weak precursor-substrate interaction. Deposition of antimony and selenium onto ITO substrate occurred with large overvoltage through 3D nucleation and growth mechanism followed by diffusion limited growth. FE-SEM and XRD results show that orthorhombic phase Sb2Se3 particles with their size between 90 and 125 nm were obtained and the atomic ratio for antimony and selenium was 2:2.63 according to the EDX results.

  6. Phosphonic acid functionalized asymmetric phthalocyanines: synthesis, modification of indium tin oxide, and charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaske, Nathan W; Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Tang, Anna; Mayukh, Mayunk; Oquendo, Luis E; Green, John T; Ratcliff, Erin L; Armstrong, Neal R; Saavedra, S Scott; McGrath, Dominic V

    2011-12-20

    Metalated and free-base A(3)B-type asymmetric phthalocyanines (Pcs) bearing, in the asymmetric quadrant, a flexible alkyl linker of varying chain lengths terminating in a phosphonic acid (PA) group have been synthesized. Two parallel series of asymmetric Pc derivatives bearing aryloxy and arylthio substituents are reported, and their synthesis and characterization through NMR, combustion analysis, and MALDI-MS are described. We also demonstrate the modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the PA functionalized asymmetric Pc derivatives and monitoring their electrochemistry. The PA functionalized asymmetric Pcs were anchored to the ITO surface through chemisorption and their electrochemical properties characterized using cyclic voltammetry to investigate the effects of PA structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of charge transfer. Ionization energies of the modified ITO surfaces were measured using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy.

  7. Surface-initiated synthesis of poly(3-methylthiophene) from indium tin oxide and its electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubina, Natalia; Jenkins, Judith L; Paniagua, Sergio A; Mazzio, Katherine A; MacDonald, Gordon A; Jen, Alex K-Y; Armstrong, Neal R; Marder, Seth R; Luscombe, Christine K

    2012-01-24

    Poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) was synthesized directly from indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with a phosphonic acid initiator, using Kumada catalyst transfer polymerization (KCTP). This work represents the first time that polymer thickness has been controlled in a surface initiated KCTP reaction, highlighting the utility of KCTP in achieving controlled polymerizations. Polymer film thicknesses were regulated by the variation of the solution monomer concentration and ranged from 30 to 265 nm. Electrochemical oxidative doping of these films was used to manipulate their near surface composition and effective work function. Doped states of the P3MT film are maintained even after the sample is removed from solution and potential control confirming the robustness of the films. Such materials with controllable thicknesses and electronic properties have the potential to be useful as interlayer materials for organic electronic applications.

  8. Synthesis of indium tin oxide nanoparticles by a nonhydrolytic sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in two different sizes by a nonhydrolytic sol-gel method. These powders were then transformed into ITO via an intermediate metastable state at between 300 and 600 ºC. The presence of characteristic O-In-O and O-Sn-O bands at 480 and 670 cm-1 confirmed the formation of ITO. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated the preferential formation of metastable hexagonal phase ITO (corundum type as opposed to cubic phase ITO when the reflux time was less than 3 h and the heat treatment temperature was below 600 ºC. Particle morphology and crystal size were examined by scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Characteristics of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticle ink-coated layers recycled from ITO scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Jae; Hong, Sung-Jei; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ink layer that includes nanoparticles synthesized from ITO target scraps. The particle size of the ITO nanoparticle was less than 15 nm, and the crystal structure was cubic with a (222) preferred orientation. Also, the composition ratio of In to Sn was 92.7 to 7.3 in weight. The ITO nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ink solvent to formulate a 20-wt% ITO nanoparticle ink. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticle ink was coated onto a glass substrate, followed by heat-treatment at 600 °C. The layer showed good sheet resistances below 400 Ω/□ and optical transmittances higher than 88% at 550 nm. Thus, we can conclude that the characteristics of the layer make it highly applicable to a transparent conductive electrode.

  10. Effects of indium tin oxide on the performance of heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) films on the performance of heterojunction silicon wafer solar cells is investigated, using heterojunction (HET) solar cell precursors. Different ITO deposition conditions are used, which result in significant differences in the performance of HET solar cells. It is found that HET solar cells with ITO films deposited at room temperature exhibit severer sputter damage, while those with substrate heating show less damage. Besides the ITO deposition temperature, the sputtering gas ambient is also investigated. The hydrogen gas used in the ITO deposition can greatly affect the interface properties between the ITO film and the amorphous silicon layers. The champion solar cell fabricated under the optimum ITO deposition conditions (a deposition temperature of 150 °C with optimal gas concentration) shows a conversion efficiency of 19.7%.

  11. Light extraction efficiency enhancement in light-emitting diodes with indium tin oxide nano-craters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Huaiwen; Zhang Yiyun; Yang Hua; Xue Bin; Wu Kui; Li Jing; Wang Guohong

    2012-01-01

    A simple and low cost method is described which improves extraction efficiency.The indium tin oxide (ITO) textured film was fabricated by using the self-assembly method and dry-etching.The surface morphologies and surface roughness were observed by using an atomic force microscope.The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics,output power and polar radiation pattern of the LEDs with and without textured ITO were measured for comparison.Cylinders and craters were formed on the ITO surface after the etching,the height of which increased with etching time.The output power of the devices is proportional to the etching time.Total internal reflection of light on the ITO-GaN interface is reduced due to the appearance of cylinders and craters,and their increasing height.Thus,the output power is improved.

  12. Physico-chemical studies of indium tin oxide-coated fiber optic biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konry, Tania [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel); Marks, Robert S. [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel) and National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: rsmarks@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2005-12-01

    Our recent studies have shown that thin films of indium tin oxide (Into) could be deposited onto non-conductive optical fiber tips, which were then used as working electrodes for the electrochemical deposition of polymers with reactive groups (biotin), so as to create a biosensor. Physico-chemical properties of ITO thin films (260 nm) deposited by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering onto fiber optics have been studied and compared to the existing literature on a flat glass surface. The film properties vary particularly for different oxygen pressures used during deposition. The microstructure of these thin films is determined using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  13. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  14. Phosphonic Acid Functionalized Asymmetric Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Modification of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), and Charge Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polaske, Nathan W.; Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Tang, Anna; Mayukh, Mayank; Oquendo, Luis E.; Green, John; Ratcliff, Erin L.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Saavedra, S. Scott; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-12-20

    Metalated and free-base A₃B-type asymmetric phthalocyanines (Pcs) bearing, in the asymmetric quadrant, a flexible alkyl linker of varying chain lengths terminating in a phosphonic acid (PA) group have been synthesized. Two parallel series of asymmetric Pc derivatives bearing aryloxy and arylthio substituents are reported, and their synthesis and characterization through NMR, combustion analysis, and MALDI-MS are described. We also demonstrate the modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the PA functionalized asymmetric Pc derivatives and monitoring their electrochemistry. The PA functionalized asymmetric Pcs were anchored to the ITO surface through chemisorption and their electrochemical properties characterized using cyclic voltammetry to investigate the effects of PA structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of charge transfer. Ionization energies of the modified ITO surfaces were measured using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy.

  15. Energy bandgap variation in oblique angle-deposited indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyurin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Cho, Jaehee, E-mail: jcho@chonbuk.ac.kr [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Jong Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Fred Schubert, E. [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited using the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique exhibit a strong correlation between structural and optical properties, especially the optical bandgap energy. The microstructural properties of ITO thin films are strongly influenced by the tilt angle used during the OAD process. When changing the tilt angle, the refractive index, porosity, and optical bandgap energy of ITO films also change due to the existence of a preferential growth direction at the interface between ITO and the substrate. Experiments reveal that the ITO film's optical bandgap varies from 3.98 eV (at normal incident deposition) to 3.87 eV (at a 60° tilt angle)

  16. Fabrication of efficient thermoacoustic device with an interdigitated-like electrode on indium tin oxide glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-shan; Yang, Ko-kang; Chen, Sy-hann; Ting, Chen-ching; Jiang, I.-min

    2016-10-01

    A thermoacoustic device was fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass, exhibiting an interdigitated-like electrode pattern. Our fabrication method enhanced the sound performance by approximately 20 dB compared with that of plain ITO film. Two approaches were adopted in this study to enhance the sound pressure level (SPL). One was to decrease the heat capacity per unit area of the device by reducing the thickness of the conductor film, and the other was to increase the thermal diffusivity of the device by applying a thin Au film on the electrode. We observed that heat generated by electron accumulation on ITO protrusions resulted in a large temperature oscillation of the surroundings and induced an SPL increase. A 4 nm Au film coating on the fabricated thermoacoustic device assisted thermal energy exchange with close-proximity air, improving the efficiency by an SPL of 7 dB.

  17. The electronic structure of co-sputtered zinc indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Bertomeu, Joan [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gutmann, Sebastian [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Zinc indium tin oxide (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide layers were deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature. A series of samples with gradually varying zinc content was investigated. The samples were characterized with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) to determine the electronic structure of the surface. Valence and conduction bands maxima (VBM, CBM), and work function were determined. The experiments indicate that increasing Zn content results in films with a higher defect rate at the surface leading to the formation of a degenerately doped surface layer if the Zn content surpasses {approx}50%. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrate that ZITO is susceptible to ultraviolet light induced work function reduction, similar to what was earlier observed on ITO and TiO{sub 2} films.

  18. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Rodighiero, Simona

    2015-03-22

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodighiero, Simona; Torre, Bruno; Sogne, Elisa; Ruffilli, Roberta; Cagnoli, Cinzia; Francolini, Maura; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers.

  20. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Joseph B., E-mail: martyn.mclachlan@imperial.ac.uk; Fleet, Luke R.; Burgess, Claire H.; McLachlan, Martyn A.

    2014-11-03

    We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C{sub 60}) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (P{sub d}) (0.67–10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ P{sub d} ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ P{sub d} < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing P{sub d} further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C{sub 60}. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by P{sub d}; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (R{sub s}) of 145 Ω/□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the R{sub s} a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an R{sub s} of ∼ 20 Ω/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate. - Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited directly onto molecular semiconductor thin-films. • Oxygen is shown to influence ITO resistivity and multilayer morphology. • Damage was prevented by modifying pulsed laser deposition growth conditions. • Low sheet resistance, highly transparent ITO deposition was demonstrated.

  1. Indium-Free Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by Impermeable Tin-Oxide Electron Extraction Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Becker, Tim; Pourdavoud, Neda; Zhao, Jie; Brinkmann, Kai Oliver; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Gahlmann, Tobias; Huang, Zengqi; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus; Többens, Daniel; Cheng, Baochang; Chen, Yiwang; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Corrosive precursors used for the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photoactive layers prevent the application of ultrathin metal layers as semitransparent bottom electrodes in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). This study introduces tin-oxide (SnOx ) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), whose outstanding permeation barrier properties enable the design of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free semitransparent bottom electrode (SnOx /Ag or Cu/SnOx ), in which the metal is efficiently protected against corrosion. Simultaneously, SnOx functions as an electron extraction layer. We unravel the spontaneous formation of a PbI2 interfacial layer between SnOx and the CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. An interface dipole between SnOx and this PbI2 layer is found, which depends on the oxidant (water, ozone, or oxygen plasma) used for the ALD growth of SnOx . An electron extraction barrier between perovskite and PbI2 is identified, which is the lowest in devices based on SnOx grown with ozone. The resulting PVSCs are hysteresis-free with a stable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.3% and a remarkably high open circuit voltage of 1.17 V. The ITO-free analogues still achieve a high PCE of 11%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Study of the functional properties of ITO grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from different indium and tin precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szkutnik, P.D., E-mail: pierre.szkutnik@cea.fr [LMGP, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble cedex (France); Roussel, H. [LMGP, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble cedex (France); Lahootun, V. [Fine Chemical Synthesis and Surface Science – FC3S, Air Liquide - R and D CRCD, 1 chemin de la porte des loges, 78354 Les-Loges-en-Josas (France); Mescot, X. [IMEP-LAHC Institut de la Microélectronique, Electromagnétisme, Photonique, Hyperfréquences UMR5130 CNRS - Grenoble INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel 38016 Grenoble (France); Weiss, F.; Jiménez, C. [LMGP, Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, 3 parvis Louis Néel, 38016 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Study of ITO layers obtained from three indium and two tin precursors by pulsed MOCVD. • Optimized tin doping depends on the tin chemical precursor. • Combination including acetyl acetonate ligand present the same characteristics. • Films elaborated between 350 and 700 °C with InMe2OtBu present a constant resistivity. - Abstract: Functional properties of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) layers grown by MOCVD from different indium and tin precursors are investigated. Selected indium precursors are In(acac){sub 3}, In(tmhd){sub 3} and InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu, and tin precursors are DBTDA and Sn(acac){sub 2}. ITO layers are optically and electrically characterized to determine the better doping conditions. Differences in electrical properties of ITO layers are found when using InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu, as compared to In(acac){sub 3} and to In(tmhd){sub 3}. The best films present a resistivity of 2.5 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm and a transmittance higher than 84% for high deposition temperatures (T ⩾ 600 °C). The nature of tin precursors modifies the optimal doping at which these characteristics are achieved. When doped by DBTDA optimal doping is 8 at.%, therefore close to the solubility limit of tin in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix; but when using Sn(acac){sub 2}, or In(acac){sub 3}/DBTDA combination, best functional characteristics are obtained for the maximal doping content obtained, i.e. 2.5 at.%. For optimized conditions, the resistivity decreases when deposition temperature increases except when using the couple InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu/DBTDA without oxygen addition during deposition. For this combination of precursors a resistivity of 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm is obtained at a deposition temperature of 350 °C and remains constant up to 600 °C. Only the films obtained from InMe{sub 2}O{sup t}Bu/DBTDA are crystalline state at a deposition temperature of 350 °C.

  3. Electrical Conductivity of Chlorophyll with Polythiophene Thin Film on Indium Tin Oxide as P-N Heterojunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. F. A.; Hasiah, S.; Rasul, F. L. M.; Senin, H. B.

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to study the electrical conductivity for electrical conductivity of chlorophyll with polythiophene (PT) thin film on indium tin oxide as P-N heterojunction solar cell. The polythiophene thin film is deposited to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) substrate using electrochemistry method. The chlorophyll (CHLO) thin film then been coated on polythiophene thin film using spin coated method. Current and voltage of ITO/PT/CHLO thin film is measured in the dark and under different light intensity using four points probe. The result shows that combination of the thinnest polythiophene thin film with the thickest chlorophyll thin film produce the highest conductivity reach up to ±0.1 Sm-1 (raise 22% under illumination compared to the electrical conductivity in the dark condition).

  4. Effects of hydrogen-damaged layer on tin-doped indium oxide etching by H2/Ar plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akiko; Fukasawa, Masanaga; Shigetoshi, Takushi; Okamoto, Masaki; Nagahata, Kazunori; Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Tetsuya

    2017-06-01

    The etch rate of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) and the effects of a hydrogen-damaged layer caused by H2/Ar plasma were investigated using several surface analysis techniques. The ITO etch rate strongly depended on the H2/Ar flow rate ratio. The ITO was reduced by hydrogen injection and generated an In-rich (hydrogen-induced damage) layer on the surface. Because this In-rich layer had a higher sputtering yield, the hydrogen-damaged layer enhanced the ITO etch rate. Thus, the etching of ITO in H2/Ar plasma is determined by the balance between the formation of the In-rich damaged layer by H ion irradiation and the sputtering by Ar (relatively heavy inert gas) ions.

  5. Extracellular electron transfer mechanism in Shewanella loihica PV- 4 biofilms formed at indium tin oxide and graphite electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms are capable of extracellular electron transfer to insoluble metal oxides and electrodes; such biofilms are relevant to biogeochemistry, bioremediation, and bioelectricity production. We investigated the extracellular electron transfer mechanisms in Shewanella loihica PV-4 viable biofilms grown at indium tin oxide (ITO) and graphite electrodes in potentiostat-controlled electrochemical cells poised at 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Chronoamperometry and confocal microscopy showed hi...

  6. Study of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on acrylics substrates by Ion beam assisted deposition technique

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Lijian; Liang Erjun; Gao Jinsong; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Santos, M. P. dos

    2009-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited onto acrylics (PMMA) substrates by ion beam assisted deposition technique at different oxygen flows. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the deposited films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmittance, FTIR, ellipometry and Hall effect measurements. The optical constants of the deposited films have been calculated by fitting the ellipsometric spectra. The effects of the oxygen flow on the properties of the ...

  7. Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide films deposited by reactive evaporation at different substrate-temperature and the properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Indium Tin Oxide films have been prepared at different substrate-temperature on glass substrates by reactive evaporation of In-Sn alloy with an oxygen pressure of 1.3 × 10-1 Pa and a deposition rate of 10-2 nm/s. The best ITO films obtained cm2v-1s-1. The influence of the substrate-temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of the obtained films has been investigated.

  8. Symmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator with Indium Tin Oxide Coated Glass as Passive Cooling System for Photovoltaic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul

    2016-01-01

    One problem with concentrating photovoltaic systems is the increase in operating photovoltaic module temperature which results in power output reduction. Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glasses exhibit both high transmittance in the visible region and high reflectance in the infrared region of the solar spectrum. Such materials can be used as selective windows in photovoltaic modules operating under concentrating system enabling passive cooling. In this paper, a Heat Reflector Window (HRW) cons...

  9. Aqueous solution route to high-aspect-ratio zinc oxide nanostructures on indium tin oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chen-Hao; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2006-07-06

    High-aspect-ratio ZnO nanowires and nanotubes are formed on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a three-step route at low temperatures. The three steps, including successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) deposition of the ZnO seed layer, hydrothermal annealing of the seed layer, and chemical bath deposition (CBD) of the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures, are all conducted in aqueous solutions at temperatures below 120 degrees C. Both the hydrothermal annealing of the SILAR seed layer and the low-concentration precursor solution employed in the CBD process are crucial in order to synthesize the uniform and high-aspect-ratio ZnO nanostructures on the ITO substrate. TEM analyses reveal that both the nanowire and the nanotube possess the single-crystal structure and are grown along [001] direction. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence spectrum of the 1D ZnO nanostructures shows a sharp ultraviolet emission at 375 nm and a broad green-band emission.

  10. Ultrafast modulation of the plasma frequency of vertically aligned indium tin oxide rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Daniel B; Li, Shi-Qiang; Tagliazucchi, Mario; Buchholz, D Bruce; Weiss, Emily A; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-03-12

    Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale is of particular interest for future photonic integrated circuits and devices with applications ranging from communication to sensing and imaging. In this Letter a combination of transient absorption (TA) and the use of third harmonic generation as a probe (THG-probe) has been adopted to investigate the response of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of vertically aligned indium tin oxide rods (ITORs) upon ultraviolet light (UV) excitation. TA experiments, which are sensitive to the extinction of the LSPR, show a fluence-dependent increase in the frequency and intensity of the LSPR. The THG-probe experiments show a fluence-dependent decrease of the LSPR-enhanced local electric field intensity within the rod, consistent with a shift of the LSPR to higher frequency. The kinetics from both TA and THG-probe experiments are found to be independent of the fluence of the pump. These results indicate that UV excitation modulates the plasma frequency of ITO on the ultrafast time scale by the injection of electrons into, and their subsequent decay from, the conduction band of the rods. Increases to the electron concentration in the conduction band of ∼13% were achieved in these experiments. Computer simulation and modeling have been used throughout the investigation to guide the design of the experiments and to map the electric field distribution around the rods for interpreting far-field measurement results.

  11. Tin doping in spray pyrolysed indium sulfide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Meril; Gopinath, Manju; Kartha, C. Sudha; P.Vijayakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India); Kashiwaba, Y.; Abe, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-855 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents studies carried out on tin-doped indium sulfide films prepared using Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) technique. Effect of both in-situ and ex-situ doping were analyzed. Ex-situ doping was done by thermal diffusion, which was realized by annealing Sn/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} bilayer films. In-situ doping was accomplished by introducing Sn into the spray solution by using SnCl{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O. Interestingly, it was noted that by ex-situ doping, conductivity of the sample enhanced considerably without affecting any of the physical properties such as crystallinity or band gap. Analysis also showed that higher percentage of doping resulted in samples with low crystallinity and negative photosensitivity. In-situ doping resulted in amorphous films. In contrast to ex-situ doping, 'in- situ doping' resulted in widening of optical band gap through oxygen incorporation; also it gave highly photosensitive films. (author)

  12. Multilayer microfluidic systems with indium-tin-oxide microelectrodes for studying biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chiu; Lyau, Jia-Bo; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chen, Hsin

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary semiconductor and micromachining technologies have been exploited to develop lab-on-a-chip microsystems, which enable parallel and efficient experiments in molecular and cellular biology. In these microlab systems, microfluidics play an important role for automatic transportation or immobilization of cells and bio-molecules, as well as for separation or mixing of different chemical reagents. However, seldom microlab systems allow both morphology and electrophysiology of biological cells to be studied in situ. This kind of study is important, for example, for understanding how neuronal networks grow in response to environmental stimuli. To fulfill this application need, this paper investigates the possibility of fabricating multi-layer photoresists as microfluidic systems directly above a glass substrate with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. The microfluidic channels are designed to guide and trap biological cells on top of ITO electrodes, through which the electrical activities of cells can be recorded or elicited. As both the microfluidic system and ITO electrodes are transparent, the cellular morphology is observable easily during electrophysiological studies. Two fabrication processes are proposed and compared. One defines the structure and curing depth of each photoresist layer simply by controlling the exposure time in lithography, while the other further utilizes a sacrificial layer to defines the structure of the bottom layer. The fabricated microfluidic system is proved bio-compatible and able to trap blood cells or neurons. Therefore, the proposed microsystem will be useful for studying cultured cells efficiently in applications such as drug-screening.

  13. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M. Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively. PMID:27690048

  14. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till von Graberg, Pascal Hartmann, Alexander Rein, Silvia Gross, Britta Seelandt, Cornelia Röger, Roman Zieba, Alexander Traut, Michael Wark, Jürgen Janek and Bernd M Smarsly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene-b-poly(ethyleneoxide (PIB-PEO copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000 are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 °C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 Ω cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20–25 and 35–45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material.

  15. Tunable infrared hyperbolic metamaterials with periodic indium-tin-oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peijun; Chang, Robert P. H.; Schaller, Richard D.

    2017-07-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) are artificially engineered optical media that have been used for light confinement, excited-state decay-rate engineering, and subwavelength imaging, due to their highly anisotropic permittivity and with it the capability of supporting high-k modes. HMMs in the infrared range can be conceived for additional applications such as free space communication, thermal engineering, and molecular sensing. Here, we demonstrate infrared HMMs comprised of periodic indium-tin-oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs). We show that the ITO-NRA-based HMMs exhibit a stationary epsilon-near-pole resonance in the near-infrared regime that is insensitive to the filling ratio, and a highly tunable epsilon-near-zero resonance in the mid-infrared range depending on the array periodicity. Experimental results are supported by finite-element simulations, in which the ITO-NRAs are treated both explicitly and as an effective hyperbolic media. Our work presents a low-loss HMM platform with favorable spectral tunability in the infrared range.

  16. Indium tin oxide nanopillar electrodes in polymer/fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, David A; Tucker, Ryan T; Worfolk, Brian J; Krause, Kathleen M; Lalany, Abeed; Brett, Michael J; Buriak, Jillian M; Harris, Kenneth D

    2011-02-25

    Using high surface area nanostructured electrodes in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices is a route to enhanced power conversion efficiency. In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) and hybrid ITO/SiO(2) nanopillars are employed as three-dimensional high surface area transparent electrodes in OPVs. The nanopillar arrays are fabricated via glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and electrochemically modified with nanofibrous PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(p-styrenesulfonate)). The structures are found to have increased surface area as characterized by porosimetry. When applied as anodes in polymer/fullerene OPVs (architecture: commercial ITO/GLAD ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al, where P3HT is 2,5-diyl-poly(3-hexylthiophene) and PCBM is [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester), the air-processed solar cells incorporating high surface area, PEDOT:PSS-modified ITO nanoelectrode arrays operate with improved performance relative to devices processed identically on unstructured, commercial ITO substrates. The resulting power conversion efficiency is 2.2% which is a third greater than for devices prepared on commercial ITO. To further refine the structure, insulating SiO(2) caps are added above the GLAD ITO nanopillars to produce a hybrid ITO/SiO(2) nanoelectrode. OPV devices based on this system show reduced electrical shorting and series resistance, and as a consequence, a further improved power conversion efficiency of 2.5% is recorded.

  17. Effect of sputtering pressure and annealing temperature on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheidari, A. Mohammadi [Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: a.mohammadi@tfl.ir; Behafarid, F. [Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kavei, G. [Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemzad, M. [Material and Energy Research Center (MERC), P.O. Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF sputtering system at different sputtering pressure (SP) (20-34 mTorr) and room temperature. The sputtering pressure effects on the deposition rate, electro-optical and structural properties of the as-deposited films were systematically investigated. The optimum sputtering pressure of 27 mTorr, giving a good compromise between electrical conductivity and optical transmittance was found to deposit films. The films were heat-treated in vacuum (200-450 deg. C) and their electro-optical and structural properties investigated with temperature. A criterion factor Q, which is the ratio between the normalized average transmission to normalized resistivity was defined. It has been observed that Q has its maximum value for heat treatment at 400 deg. C and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis proves the films have preferred crystal growth towards (2 2 2) direction and average size of grains are 35-40 nm.

  18. Fabrication of Crystalline Indium Tin Oxide Nanobasket Electrodes using Aluminum Anodic Oxide Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, He-Tsing; Yang, Hsihang

    2008-07-01

    Fabrication of crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanobasket electrodes shaped by an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template for better electron conductivity is presented. ITO films were deposited on porous AAO templates by RF magnetron sputtering. The sputter-coated ITO films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) to illustrate the nanobasket morphologies. The compositions of the ITO films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to evaluate the crystallinity. The crystallinity can be enhanced by annealing at 300 °C. Although the conductivity of the ITO nanobasket film is larger than that of the conventional ITO thin film, the harvest efficiency can be markedly increased due to the nanobasket structure which enables most of the photoexcited electrons to reach their nearest electrode before losing their momentum. The presented ITO nanobasket films can be further used as a more effective electrode material for photovoltaics such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  19. 3D indium tin oxide electrodes by ultrasonic spray deposition for current collection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ham, E. J.; Elen, K.; Bonneux, G.; Maino, G.; Notten, P. H. L.; Van Bael, M. K.; Hardy, A.

    2017-04-01

    Three dimensionally (3D) structured indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are synthesized and characterized as a 3D electrode material for current collection applications. Using metal citrate chemistry in combination with ultrasonic spray deposition, a low cost wet-chemical method has been developed to achieve conformal ITO coatings on non-planar scaffolds. Although there is room for improvement with respect to the resistivity (9.9·10-3 Ω•cm, 220 nm thick planar films), high quality 3D structured coatings were shown to exhibit conductive properties based on ferrocene reactivity. In view of applications in Li-ion batteries, the electrochemical stability of the current collector was investigated, indicating that stability is guaranteed for voltages of 1.5 V and up (vs. Li+/Li). In addition, subsequent 3D coating of the ITO with WO3 as a negative electrode (battery) material confirmed the 3D ITO layer functions as a proper current collector. Using this approach, an over 4-fold capacity increase was booked for 3D structured WO3 in comparison to planar samples, confirming the current collecting capabilities of the 3D ITO coating. Therefore, the 3D ITO presented is considered as a highly interesting material for 3D battery applications and beyond.

  20. Deposition of low sheet resistance indium tin oxide directly onto functional small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Franklin, Joseph B.

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. We outline a methodology for depositing tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) directly onto semiconducting organic small molecule films for use as a transparent conducting oxide top-electrode. ITO films were grown using pulsed laser deposition onto copper(II)phthalocyanine (CuPc):buckminsterfullerene (C60) coated substrates. The ITO was deposited at a substrate temperature of 150 °C over a wide range of background oxygen pressures (Pd) (0.67-10 Pa). Deposition at 0.67 ≤ Pd ≤ 4.7 Pa led to delamination of the organic films owing to damage induced by the high energy ablated particles, at intermediate 4.7 ≤ Pd < 6.7 Pa pressures macroscopic cracking is observed in the ITO. Increasing Pd further, ≥ 6.7 Pa, supports the deposition of continuous, polycrystalline and highly transparent ITO films without damage to the CuPc:C60. The free carrier concentration of ITO is strongly influenced by Pd; hence growth at > 6.7 Pa induces a significant decrease in conductivity; with a minimum sheet resistance (Rs) of 145 /□ achieved for 300 nm thick ITO films. To reduce the Rs a multi-pressure deposition was implemented, resulting in the formation of polycrystalline, highly transparent ITO with an Rs of - 20/□ whilst maintaining the inherent functionality and integrity of the small molecule substrate.

  1. Indium Tin Oxide-Magnesium Fluoride Co-Deposited Films for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joycer A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hambourger, Paul D.; Bruckner, Eric; Ferrante, Rhea; Pal, Anna Marie; Mayer, Karen; Pietromica, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Highly transparent coatings with a maximum sheet resistivity between 10(exp 8) and 10(exp 9) ohms/square are desired to prevent charging of solar arrays for low Earth polar orbit and geosynchronous orbit missions. Indium tin oxide (ITO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) were ion beam sputter co-deposited onto fused silica substrates and were evaluated for transmittance, sheet resistivity and the effects of simulated space environments including atomic oxygen (AO) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Optical properties and sheet resistivity as a function of MgF2 content in the films will be presented. Films containing 8.4 wt.% MgF2 were found to be highly transparent and provided sheet resistivity in the required range. These films maintained a high transmittance upon exposure to AO and to VUV radiation, although exposure to AO in the presence of charged species and intense electromagnetic radiation caused significant degradation in film transmittance. Sheet resistivity of the as-fabricated films increased with time in ambient conditions. Vacuum beat treatment following film deposition caused a reduction in sheet resistivity. However, following vacuum heat treatment, sheet resistivity values remained stable during storage in ambient conditions.

  2. Optical Properties of dual ion beam sputtered Indium Tin Oxide films on glass and Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Nelson; Geerts, Wilhelmus; Bandyopadhyay, Anup

    2012-03-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is a transparent conducting material that finds application in flat panel displays, solar cells, and photodetectors. High quality ITO films, i.e. films with a large transparency and a high conductivity, are normally deposited above room temperature often at 300-400 C. This high deposition temperature eliminates most plastics as substrates. To lower the substrate deposition temperature we are applying atomic instead of molecular oxygen during the sputtering process. A dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS) has been modified to allow the substrate to be exposed to an atomic oxygen beam at 45 degrees angle of incidence. Thin films were sputtered as a function of atomic oxygen flux and substrate temperature on glass, silicon, and sapphire substrates. The optical properties were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, reflectometry, and FTIR. Film thickness and bandgap were determined from the optical properties in the visible part of the spectrum. Mobility was determined from the infrared part of the spectruam. Optical properties appear to vary with the film thickness, the oxygen flux, and the substrate temperature. Roughness of the samples was independently measured by AFM. This work is supported by a grant from research corporation (10775).

  3. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  4. Electrogenerated chemiluminescent behavior of MCLA at an indium-tin-oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhihuang [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Wang Jian [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Lin Zhengyu [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen Guonan [MOE Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, and Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)]. E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.cn

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3(7H)-one (MCLA) at an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in phosphate buffer solution has been investigated when linear sweep voltammetry was applied. The optimum chemical conditions and electrochemical parameters for this ECL system have been investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, it was found that the ECL intensity was linear with the concentration of MCLA in the range of 6.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its detection limit for MCLA was 2.0 x 10{sup -7} mol/L. The possible mechanism for ECL of MCLA at the ITO electrode was also discussion. Furthermore, it was found that some sophora flavescens, such as matrine and oxymatrine, might enhance the ECL intensity of MCLA. Therefore, it is possible to develop a new ECL method for determination of matrine and oxymatrine.

  5. Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Films on Polycarbonate substrates by Radio-frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; GONG Jian; GU Zhen'an

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide ( ITO ) thin films ( 100 ± 10 nm) were deposited on PC ( polycarbonate ) and glass substrates by rf( radio-frequency ) magnetron sputtering. The oxygen content of the ITO films was changed by variation of the sputtering gas composition. All the other deposition parameters were kept constant. The sheet resistance, optical transmittance and microstructure of ITO films were investigated using a four-point probe, spectrophotometer, X- ray diffractometer( XRD ) and atomic force microscope ( AFM ). Sheet resistances for the ITO films with optical transmittance more than 75% on PC substrates varied from 40 Ω/ cm2 to more than 104 Ω/cm2 with increasing oxygen partial pressure from 0 to about 2% . The same tendency of sheet resistances increasing with increasing oxygen partial pressure was observed on glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction data indicated polycrystalline films with grain orientations predominantly along (440) and (422) directions. The intensities of (440) and (422) peaks increased slightly with the increase of oxygen partial pressure both on PC and glass substrates. The AFM images show that the ITO films on PC substrates were dense and uniform. The average grain size of the films was about 40nm.

  6. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamandra, Luigi; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bell, John Marcus; Motta, Nunzio

    2012-01-01

    Summary The electrical performance of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass was improved by including a controlled layer of carbon nanotubes directly on top of the ITO film. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, using ultrathin Fe layers as catalyst. The process parameters (temperature, gas flow and duration) were carefully refined to obtain the appropriate size and density of MWCNTs with a minimum decrease of the light harvesting in the cell. When used as anodes for organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), the MWCNT-enhanced electrodes are found to improve the charge-carrier extraction from the photoactive blend, thanks to the additional percolation paths provided by the CNTs. The work function of as-modified ITO surfaces was measured by the Kelvin probe method to be 4.95 eV, resulting in an improved matching to the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the P3HT. This is in turn expected to increase the hole transport and collection at the anode, contributing to the significant increase of current density and open-circuit voltage observed in test cells created with such MWCNT-enhanced electrodes. PMID:23019547

  7. Structure, stability and electrochromic properties of polyaniline film covalently bonded to indium tin oxide substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenzhi; Ju, Wenxing; Wu, Xinming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiguan; Zhou, Hongwei; Wang, Sumin; Hu, Chenglong

    2016-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was modified with 4-aminobenzylphosphonic acid (ABPA), and then the polyaniline (PANI) film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that chemical binding was formed between PANI and ABPA-modified ITO surface, and the maximum thickness of PANI layer is about 30 nm. The adhesive strength of PANI film on ITO substrate was tested by sonication. It was found that the film formed on the modified ITO exhibited a much better stability than that on bare one. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements indicated that the oxidative potentials of PANI film on ABPA-modified ITO substrate were decreased and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities. Moreover, the optical contrast increased from 0.58 for PANI film (without ultrasound) to 1.06 for PANI film (after ultrasound for 60 min), which had an over 83% enhancement. The coloration time was 20.8 s, while the bleaching time was 19.5 s. The increase of electrochromic switching time was due to the lower ion diffusion coefficient of the large cation of (C4H9)4N+ under the positive and negative potentials as comparison with the small Li+ ion.

  8. Synthesis of 3D ordered macroporous indium tin oxide using polymer colloidal crystal template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xue'ao; MAN; Yahui; WANG; Jianfang; LIU; Changli; WU; Wenjian

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ordered macroporous indium tin oxide (ITO) is prepared using a polymer colloidal crystal template that is formed by self-assembly of the monodisperse poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microspheres. The morphologies and BET surface area of the macroporous material is examined by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption/desorption. Results indicate that the macroporous material has highly ordered arrays of the uniform pores replicated from the PMMA colloidal crystal template when the polymer colloidal crystal template is removed by calcinations at 500℃. The pore diameter (about 450 nm) of macroporous ITO slightly shrank to the PMMA microspheres. The BET surface area and pore volume of the macroporous material are 389 m2·g-1 and 0.36 cm3·g-1, respectively. Moreover, the macroporous ITO, containing 5 mol% Sn and after annealing under vacuum, shows the minimum resistivity of ρ= 8.2×10-3 Ω· cm. The conductive mechanism of macroporous ITO is discussed, and it is believed that the oxygen vacancies are the major factor for excellent electrical properties.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemistry of 6 nm ferrocenated indium-tin oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph J P; Vuong, Kim T; Murray, Royce W

    2013-01-08

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles, 6.1 ± 0.8 nm in diameter, were synthesized using a hot injection method. After reaction with 3-aminopropyldimethylethoxysilane to replace the initial oleylamine and oleic acid capping ligands, the aminated nanoparticles were rendered electroactive by functionalization with ferrocenoyl chloride. The nanoparticle color changed from blue-green to light brown, and the nanoparticles became more soluble in polar solvents, notably acetonitrile. The nanoparticle diffusion coefficient (D = 1.0 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s) and effective ferrocene concentration (C = 0.60 mM) in acetonitrile solutions were determined using ratios of DC and D(1/2)C data measured by microdisk voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The D result compares favorably to an Einstein-Stokes estimate (2.1 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s), assuming an 8 nm hydrodynamic diameter in acetonitrile (6 nm for the ITO core plus 2 nm for the ligand shell). The ferrocene concentration result is lower than anticipated (ca. 1.60 mM) based on a potentiometric titration of the ferrocene sites with Cu(II) in acetonitrile. Cyclic voltammetric data indicate tendency of the ferrocenated nanoparticles to adsorb on the Pt working electrode.

  10. UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Chen, R; Li, D H; Jiang, L; Ye, J C; Ma, X C; Chen, X D; Xiong, Q H; Sun, H D; Wu, T

    2011-05-13

    Multifunctional single crystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires with tuned Sn doping levels are synthesized via a vapor transport method. The Sn concentration in the nanowires can reach 6.4 at.% at a synthesis temperature of 840 °C, significantly exceeding the Sn solubility in ITO bulks grown at comparable temperatures, which we attribute to the unique feature of the vapor-liquid-solid growth. As a promising transparent conducting oxide nanomaterial, layers of these ITO nanowires exhibit a sheet resistance as low as 6.4 Ω/[Symbol: see text] and measurements on individual nanowires give a resistivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) Ω cm with an electron density up to 2.6 × 10(20) cm(-3), while the optical transmittance in the visible regime can reach ∼ 80%. Under the ultraviolet excitation the ITO nanowire samples emit blue light, which can be ascribed to transitions related to defect levels. Furthermore, a room temperature ultraviolet light emission is observed in these ITO nanowires for the first time, and the exciton-related radiative process is identified by using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements.

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Andrea; Salamandra, Luigi; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bell, John Marcus; Motta, Nunzio

    2012-01-01

    The electrical performance of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass was improved by including a controlled layer of carbon nanotubes directly on top of the ITO film. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, using ultrathin Fe layers as catalyst. The process parameters (temperature, gas flow and duration) were carefully refined to obtain the appropriate size and density of MWCNTs with a minimum decrease of the light harvesting in the cell. When used as anodes for organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), the MWCNT-enhanced electrodes are found to improve the charge-carrier extraction from the photoactive blend, thanks to the additional percolation paths provided by the CNTs. The work function of as-modified ITO surfaces was measured by the Kelvin probe method to be 4.95 eV, resulting in an improved matching to the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the P3HT. This is in turn expected to increase the hole transport and collection at the anode, contributing to the significant increase of current density and open-circuit voltage observed in test cells created with such MWCNT-enhanced electrodes.

  12. The Effect of Annealing on Nanothick Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Films for Touch Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the sheet resistance of ultrathin indium tin oxide (ITO transparent conductive films during the postannealing treatment. The thickness of the ultrathin ITO films is 20 nm. They are prepared on B270 glass substrates at room temperature by a direct-current pulsed magnetron sputtering system. Ultrathin ITO films with high sheet resistance are commonly used for touch panel applications. As the annealing temperature is increased, the structure of the ultrathin ITO film changes from amorphous to polycrystalline. The crystalline of ultrathin ITO films becomes stronger with an increase of annealing temperature, which further leads to the effect of enhanced Hall mobility. A postannealing treatment in an atmosphere can enhance the optical transmittance owing to the filling of oxygen vacancies, but the sheet resistance rises sharply. However, a higher annealing temperature, above 250°C, results in a decrease in the sheet resistance of ultrathin ITO films, because more Sn ions become an effective dopant. An optimum sheet resistance of 336 Ω/sqr was obtained for ultrathin ITO films at 400°C with an average optical transmittance of 86.8% for touch sensor applications.

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of carbon nanotubes on indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Capasso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical performance of indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass was improved by including a controlled layer of carbon nanotubes directly on top of the ITO film. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, using ultrathin Fe layers as catalyst. The process parameters (temperature, gas flow and duration were carefully refined to obtain the appropriate size and density of MWCNTs with a minimum decrease of the light harvesting in the cell. When used as anodes for organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, the MWCNT-enhanced electrodes are found to improve the charge-carrier extraction from the photoactive blend, thanks to the additional percolation paths provided by the CNTs. The work function of as-modified ITO surfaces was measured by the Kelvin probe method to be 4.95 eV, resulting in an improved matching to the highest occupied molecular orbital level of the P3HT. This is in turn expected to increase the hole transport and collection at the anode, contributing to the significant increase of current density and open-circuit voltage observed in test cells created with such MWCNT-enhanced electrodes.

  14. Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: exwsun@ntu.edu.sg; Chen, B.J. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Xu, C.X. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, T.P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, C.Q. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tay, B.K. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, Z. [Nanotech Center, East China Normal University, North Zhongshan Rd. 3663, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2006-07-03

    The refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were measured and compared. The ITO thin film grown on glass and ZnO buffered glass substrates by sputtering showed distinct differences; the refractive index of ITO on glass was about 0.05 higher than that of ITO on ZnO buffered glass in the whole visible spectrum. The ZnO thin film grown on glass and ITO buffered glass substrates by filtered vacuum arc also showed distinct differences; the refractive index of ZnO on glass was higher than that of ZnO on ITO buffered glass in the red and green region, but lower in the blue region. The largest refractive index difference of ZnO on glass and ITO buffered glass was about 0.1 in the visible spectrum. The refractive index variation was correlated with the crystal quality, surface morphology and conductivity of the thin films.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous indium tin oxide possessing an electronically conductive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Theo T; Li, Jianquan; Nazar, Linda F

    2002-07-24

    The new mesoporous transparent conducting oxide based on indium-tin-oxide, meso-ITO, has been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method, using CTAB as the surfactant. Critical was the employment of triethanolamine to control the rate of hydrolysis and inhibit deposition of the bulk oxides. Removal of the surfactant by calcination yielded a relatively well-ordered worm-hole motif arrangement of pores visible in the TEM and stable to 400 degrees C. BET measurements revealed no hysteresis in the absorption-desorption isotherm, consistent with a narrow pore-size distribution (between 20 and 40 A depending on the In:Sn ratio); surface areas ranged between 270 and 310 m2/g. This colorless material is the first mesoporous oxide exhibiting substantial framework conductivity, with a conductivity at 25 degrees C of 1.2 x 10-3 S/cm. This distinguishes it from mesoporous mixed-valence transition-metal oxides that exhibit weak hopping semiconductor behavior and much lower conductivity.

  16. Grain-size effect on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Heon, E-mail: young.h.kim@kriss.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Jung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Tae Hwan [University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Future Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Seung [Department of Nano Semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-Ro, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanometer-sized small grains were observed in the ITO thin films. • The grain size increased as the post-thermal annealing temperature increased. • The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size. • The ITO film annealed at 300 °C was an amorphous phase, while the others were polycrystalline structure. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the electrical properties, depending on grain size, of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films prepared with a solution process. The size distributions of nanometer-sized ITO film grains increased as the post-annealing temperature increased after deposition; the grain sizes were comparable with the calculated electron mean free path. The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size; this phenomenon was explained by adopting the charge-trapping model for grain boundary scattering. These findings suggest that it is possible to improve mobility by reducing the number of trapping sites at the grain boundary.

  17. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  18. Tunable two dimensional optical beam steering with reconfigurable indium tin oxide plasmonic reflectarray metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzmand, A.; Mosallaei, H.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an electrically tunable reflectarray metasurface for two dimensional (2D) beam steering is designed by integration of a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) material into a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic unit-cell. The reflectarray is composed of square-shaped patch nanoantennas placed on a stack of insulator-ITO-metallic ground plane. The resonant characteristic of unit-cell and the accumulation of carrier density at the interface of ITO-insulator play key roles in obtaining over 250° of phase agility at around 218 terahertz (THz), by electrically varying the bias voltage. An array of unit-cells with integrated ITO and 2D voltage biasing distribution (from the side) offer the possibility of designing a reconfigurable antenna in which the main beam can be steered to relatively large angles in both θ- and φ- planes at carefully selected operating frequency. The significant advantage of this design is the dynamically adjustable radiation pattern in both azimuth and elevation planes even after fabrication.

  19. Flexibility of the Indium Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film Deposited Onto the Plastic Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Lu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we utilize the RF magnetron sputtering system to deposit the indium tin oxide (ITO conductive transparent film with low resistivity and high light transmittance to the polyethylene tetephthalate (PET plastic substrate and measure the film’s bending property and reliability at different tensile/compressive strain bending curvatures as well as the flexibility after cycling bending. The results show that the critical curvatures corresponded to the significant increase in the resistance of the 150 nm-thick ITO film deposited onto the PET substrate under tensile and compressive stress areO 14.1 mm and 5.4 mm, respectively. By observing the film’s surface crack and morphology, we can further discover that the critical curvature of the crack generated when the film is bent is quite consistent with the critical curvature at which the conductivity property degrades, and the film can withstand a higher compressive strain bending. In addition, the resistance and adhesion behavior of the film almost is unchanged after cycling bent for 1000 times with the curvature below the critical curvature.

  20. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  1. Structure, stability and electrochromic properties of polyaniline film covalently bonded to indium tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenzhi, E-mail: zhangwz@xatu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Ju, Wenxing; Wu, Xinming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qiguan; Zhou, Hongwei; Wang, Sumin [Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Functional Materials and Devices of Shaanxi Province, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: A chemical bonding approach was proposed to prepare the PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities and stability compared with that obtained by conventional film-forming approach. - Highlights: • The PANI film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared using ABPA as modifier. • The oxidative potentials of the obtained PANI film were decreased. • The obtained PANI film exhibits high electrochemical activities and stability. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate was modified with 4-aminobenzylphosphonic acid (ABPA), and then the polyaniline (PANI) film covalently bonded to ITO substrate was prepared by the chemical oxidation polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated that chemical binding was formed between PANI and ABPA-modified ITO surface, and the maximum thickness of PANI layer is about 30 nm. The adhesive strength of PANI film on ITO substrate was tested by sonication. It was found that the film formed on the modified ITO exhibited a much better stability than that on bare one. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements indicated that the oxidative potentials of PANI film on ABPA-modified ITO substrate were decreased and the film exhibited high electrochemical activities. Moreover, the optical contrast increased from 0.58 for PANI film (without ultrasound) to 1.06 for PANI film (after ultrasound for 60 min), which had an over 83% enhancement. The coloration time was 20.8 s, while the bleaching time was 19.5 s. The increase of electrochromic switching time was due to the lower ion diffusion coefficient of the large cation of (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N{sup +} under the positive and negative potentials as comparison with the small Li{sup +} ion.

  2. Copper, indium, tin, and lead complexes with fluorinated selenolate ligands: precursors to MSex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holligan, Kareem; Rogler, Patrick; Rehe, David; Pamula, Michael; Kornienko, Anna Y; Emge, Thomas J; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Brennan, John G

    2015-09-21

    Reductive cleavage of C6F5SeSeC6F5 with elemental M (M = Cu, In, Sn, Pb) in pyridine results in the formation of (py)4Cu2(SeC6F5)2, (py)2In(SeC6F5)3, (py)2Sn(SeC6F5)2, and (py)2Pb(SeC6F5)2. Each group adopts a unique structure: the Cu(I) compound crystallizes as a dimer with a pair of bridging selenolates, two pyridine ligands coordinating to each Cu(I) ion, and a short Cu(I)-Cu(I) distance (2.595 Å). The indium compound crystallizes as monometallic five-coordinate (py)2In(SeC6F5)3 in a geometry that approximates a trigonal bipyramidal structure with two axial pyridine ligands and three selenolates. The tin and lead derivatives (py)2M(SeC6F5)2 are also monomeric, but they adopt nearly octahedral geometries with trans pyridine ligands, a pair of cis-selenolates, and two "empty" cis-positions on the octahedron that are oriented toward extremely remote selenolates (M-Se = 3.79 Å (Sn), 3.70 Å (Pb)) from adjacent molecules. Two of the four compounds (Cu, In) exhibit intermolecular π-π stacking arrangements in the solid state, whereas the stacking of molecules for the other two compounds (Sn, Pb) appears to be based upon molecular shape and crystal packing forces. All compounds are volatile and decompose at elevated temperatures to give MSex and Se(C6F5)2.The electronic structures of the dimeric Cu compound and monomeric (py)2M(SeC6F5)2 (M = Sn, Pb) were examined with density functional theory calculations.

  3. Effective Electrochemistry of Human Sulfite Oxidase Immobilized on Quantum-Dots-Modified Indium Tin Oxide Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ting; Leimkühler, Silke; Koetz, Joachim; Wollenberger, Ulla

    2015-09-30

    The bioelectrocatalytic sulfite oxidation by human sulfite oxidase (hSO) on indium tin oxide (ITO) is reported, which is facilitated by functionalizing of the electrode surface with polyethylenimine (PEI)-entrapped CdS nanoparticles and enzyme. hSO was assembled onto the electrode with a high surface loading of electroactive enzyme. In the presence of sulfite but without additional mediators, a high bioelectrocatalytic current was generated. Reference experiments with only PEI showed direct electron transfer and catalytic activity of hSO, but these were less pronounced. The application of the polyelectrolyte-entrapped quantum dots (QDs) on ITO electrodes provides a compatible surface for enzyme binding with promotion of electron transfer. Variations of the buffer solution conditions, e.g., ionic strength, pH, viscosity, and the effect of oxygen, were studied in order to understand intramolecular and heterogeneous electron transfer from hSO to the electrode. The results are consistent with a model derived for the enzyme by using flash photolysis in solution and spectroelectrochemistry and molecular dynamic simulations of hSO on monolayer-modified gold electrodes. Moreover, for the first time a photoelectrochemical electrode involving immobilized hSO is demonstrated where photoexcitation of the CdS/hSO-modified electrode lead to an enhanced generation of bioelectrocatalytic currents upon sulfite addition. Oxidation starts already at the redox potential of the electron transfer domain of hSO and is greatly increased by application of a small overpotential to the CdS/hSO-modified ITO.

  4. Conductivity control of as-grown branched indium tin oxide nanowire networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforge, J M; Cocker, T L; Beaudry, A L; Cui, K; Tucker, R T; Taschuk, M T; Hegmann, F A; Brett, M J

    2014-01-24

    Branched indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowire networks are promising candidates for transparent conductive oxide applications, such as optoelectronic electrodes, due to their high porosity. However, these branched networks also present new challenges in assessing conductivity. Conventional four-point probe techniques cannot separate the effect of porosity on the long-range conductivity from the intrinsic material conductivity. Here we compare the average nanoscale conductivity within the film measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to the film conductivity measured by four-point probe in a branched ITO nanowire network. Both techniques report conductivity increases with deposition flux rate from 0.5 to 3.0 nm s(-1), achieving a maximum of ~ 10 (Ω cm)(-1). Modeling the THz-TDS conductivity data using the Drude-Smith model allows us to distinguish between conductivity increases resulting from morphological changes and those resulting from the intrinsic properties of the ITO. In particular, the intrinsic material conductivity within the nanowires can be extracted, and is found to reach a maximum of ~ 3000 (Ω cm)(-1), comparable to bulk ITO. To determine the mechanism responsible for increasing conductivity with flux rate, we characterize dopant concentration and morphological changes (i.e., to branching behavior, nanowire diameter and nucleation layers). We propose that changes in the electron density, primarily due to changes in O-vacancy concentration at different flux rates, are responsible for the observed conductivity increase. This understanding will assist balancing structural and conductivity requirements in applications of transparent conductive oxide networks.

  5. Bare and Polymer-Coated Indium Tin Oxide as Working Electrodes for Manganese Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Cory A; Bange, Adam; Warren, Mercedes; Kang, Wenjing; Nahan, Keaton; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R

    2016-04-19

    Though an essential metal in the body, manganese (Mn) has a number of health implications when found in excess that are magnified by chronic exposure. These health complications include neurotoxicity, memory loss, infertility in males, and development of a neurologic psychiatric disorder, manganism. Thus, trace detection in environmental samples is increasingly important. Few electrode materials are able to reach the negative reductive potential of Mn required for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), so cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) has been shown to be a viable alternative. We demonstrate Mn CSV using an indium tin oxide (ITO) working electrode both bare and coated with a sulfonated charge selective polymer film, polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene-sulfonate (SSEBS). ITO itself proved to be an excellent electrode material for Mn CSV, achieving a calculated detection limit of 5 nM (0.3 ppb) with a deposition time of 3 min. Coating the ITO with the SSEBS polymer was found to increase the sensitivity and lower the detection limit to 1 nM (0.06 ppb). This polymer modified electrode offers excellent selectivity for Mn as no interferences were observed from other metal ions tested (Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), In(3+), Sb(3+), Al(3+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(3+), Bi(3+), and Sn(2+)) except Fe(2+), which was found to interfere with the analytical signal for Mn(2+) at a ratio 20:1 (Fe(2+)/Mn(2+)). The applicability of this procedure to the analysis of tap, river, and pond water samples was demonstrated. This simple, sensitive analytical method using ITO and SSEBS-ITO could be applied to a number of electroactive transition metals detectable by CSV.

  6. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung-Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In [Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}, comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs.

  7. Improved conductivity of indium-tin-oxide film through the introduction of intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S. W.; Yam, F. K.; Beh, K. P.; Tneh, S. S.; Hassan, Z.

    2016-09-01

    A thin intermediate layer (Ag, AuSn, In, Ni, Sn, SiO2) was individually deposited on glass substrates prior to the deposition of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering employing ITO target (composition ratio of In2O3:SnO2 = 9:1). The structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated to compare the ITO thin film with and without an intermediate layer. The preferential orientation of all ITO films was along (222) plane. Although all thin films were polycrystalline, the presence of intermediate layer promoted the overall crystallinity. The sheet resistance and resistivity of the ITO film were reduced from ∼68 Ω/□ to ∼29-45 Ω/□, and 16.2 × 10-4 Ω cm up to 7.58 × 10-4 Ω cm, respectively, by inserting a thin metal layer underneath the ITO film, and it is dependent on the degree of crystallization. The optical transmittance in the visible region varies from 40 to 88% for different samples. Based on the evaluation from Tauc plot, the optical band gap falls in the range of 4.02-4.12 eV. Physical film thickness was compared with that evaluated by optical measurement in the visible range and the physical thickness was found to be smaller. Similarly, the carrier concentration/scattering time from Hall effect measurement were also compared with that from optical measurement in the infrared region. Haacke's figure of merit (FOM) was employed to assess the quality of the ITO films, and the highest FOM is credited to ITO/In up to ∼8 × 10-3 Ω-1 in the visible light region.

  8. High-Throughput Synthesis, Screening, and Scale-Up of Optimized Conducting Indium Tin Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Peter; Makwana, Neel M; Tighe, Christopher J; Gruar, Robert I; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J; Darr, Jawwad A

    2016-02-08

    A high-throughput optimization and subsequent scale-up methodology has been used for the synthesis of conductive tin-doped indium oxide (known as ITO) nanoparticles. ITO nanoparticles with up to 12 at % Sn were synthesized using a laboratory scale (15 g/hour by dry mass) continuous hydrothermal synthesis process, and the as-synthesized powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under standard synthetic conditions, either the cubic In2O3 phase, or a mixture of InO(OH) and In2O3 phases were observed in the as-synthesized materials. These materials were pressed into compacts and heat-treated in an inert atmosphere, and their electrical resistivities were then measured using the Van der Pauw method. Sn doping yielded resistivities of ∼ 10(-2) Ω cm for most samples with the lowest resistivity of 6.0 × 10(-3) Ω cm (exceptionally conductive for such pressed nanopowders) at a Sn concentration of 10 at %. Thereafter, the optimized lab-scale composition was scaled-up using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis process (at a rate of 100 g/hour by dry mass), and a comparable resistivity of 9.4 × 10(-3) Ω cm was obtained. The use of the synthesized TCO nanomaterials for thin film fabrication was finally demonstrated by deposition of a transparent, conductive film using a simple spin-coating process.

  9. Development of new alloys of commercial aluminium (2S) with zinc, indium, tin, and bismuth as anodes for alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik Mideen, A.; Ganesan, M.; Anbukulandainathan, M.; Sarangapani, K. B.; Balaramachandran, V.; Kapali, V.; Venkatakrishna Iyer, S.

    Studies show that the addition of zinc to commercial aluminium increases both the corrosion rate and the open-circuit potential (OCP) in alkaline medium. The addition of indium gives rise to a ternary alloy that shows a slightly higher OCP and an appreciably reduced extent of self corrosion. Addition of bismuth results in a quaternary alloy whose corrosion rate is comparable with the ternary alloy, but the OCP is found to be higher. Anodic polarisation characteristics and anode efficiency are found to be in favour of quaternary alloys. Electrochemical studies with Al, Zn, Sn ternary alloys and Al, Zn, Sn, Bi quaternary alloy favours the choice of the latter as a galvanic anode. Among the two types of quaternary alloys, those containing indium, rather than tin, are found to be more suitable as alkaline battery anodes.

  10. Study of wet etching thin films of indium tin oxide in oxalic acid by monitoring the resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammana, Suelene S., E-mail: ssmammana@abinfo.com.br [Brazilian Association for Informatics - ABINFO, Rua Deusdete Martins Gomes 163, CEP 13084-723, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Greatti, Alessandra; Luiz, Francis H.; Costa, Francisca I. da; Mammana, Alaide P. [Brazilian Association for Informatics - ABINFO, Rua Deusdete Martins Gomes 163, CEP 13084-723, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Calligaris, Guilherme A.; Cardoso, Lisandro P. [Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, State University of Campinas-UNICAMP, CEP 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mammana, Carlos I.Z.; Engelsen, Daniel den [Brazilian Association for Informatics - ABINFO, Rua Deusdete Martins Gomes 163, CEP 13084-723, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-30

    We describe a study on wet etching of thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) using a simple method by monitoring the resistance of the thin film in aqueous solutions of oxalic acid and hydrochloric acid. Generally three different regimes can be distinguished during etching ITO in acids: (1) initial etching, which is slow, (2) a fast etching phase and (3) slow etching stage at the end. These regimes are explained in terms of a porosity–roughness model. This porosity model has been confirmed largely by X-ray reflection measurements at grazing incidence, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A reliable method for monitoring the resistance during etching has been developed. This method is based on a 2-strips measuring jig with a very low series contact resistance. The activation energy of the etch rate of ITO films was found to be 80 ± 5 kJ/mol for oxalic acid and 56 ± 5 kJ/mol for HCl. SEM analyses in the final stage of the etching process indicate an enrichment of Sn in the residual film material. These observations are explained in terms of preferential etching of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. X-ray analyses showed that the density of the ITO film decreased by etching. By adding ferric chloride to the oxalic acid solution we could accelerate the etch rate substantially. - Highlights: • Etching of indium tin oxide thin films by monitoring the resistance. • Oxalic acid has 2–3 times lower etch rate than concentrated HCl. • The etch rate in oxalic acid can be accelerated substantially by adding FeCl{sub 3}. • The proposed etching model for indium tin oxide was confirmed by X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. • Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy analyses showed preferential etching of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, enriching the film with SnO{sub 2}.

  11. Indium tin oxide thin films elaborated by sol-gel routes: The effect of oxalic acid addition on optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesim, Mehmet Tumerkan; Durucan, Caner, E-mail: cdurucan@metu.edu.tr

    2013-10-31

    Single layer indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass using modified sol-gel formulations. The coating sols were prepared using indium (InCl{sub 3}∙ 4H{sub 2}O) and tin salts (SnCl{sub 4}∙ 5H{sub 2}O). The stable sols were obtained using ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) and acetylacetone (C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O{sub 2}) as solvents and by the addition of oxalic acid dihydrate (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}∙ 2H{sub 2}O) in different amounts. The effect of oxalic acid content in the sol formulation and post-coating calcination treatment (in air at 300–600 °C) on electrical/optical properties of ITO films have been reported. It was shown that film formation efficiency, surface coverage and homogeneity were all enhanced with oxalic acid addition. Oxalic acid modification also leads to a significant improvement in electrical conductivity without affecting the film thickness (45 ± 3 nm). ITO films exhibiting high transparency (≈ 93%, visible region) with a sheet resistance as low as 3.8 ± 0.4 kΩ/sqr have been formed by employing coating sols with optimized oxalic acid amount. The mechanisms and factors affecting the functional performance of oxalic acid-modified films have been thoroughly discussed and related to the microstructural and chemical characteristic of the films achieved by oxalic acid addition. - Highlights: • A solution-based method for processing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film is reported. • Oxalic acid (OAD) modification leads to a highly compacted film microstructure. • Bulk resistivity of a single layer OAD-modified ITO film was determined as 0.02 Ωcm. • Thin films with transparency values higher than 90% were produced.

  12. Post annealing effects on the properties of sputtered nano-crystallite indium tin oxide thin films on flexible polyimide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi Gheidari, A.; Iraj, M.; Kazemzad, M.; Behafarid, F. [Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Tehran (Iran); Hadad Dabaghi, H. [Departmet of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj (Iran); Kalhor, D. [Department of Physics, Damghan University of Basic Sciences (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto flexible polyimide substrates using RF sputtering system at room temperature. The deposited films were then heat treated at different temperatures in air and vacuum atmospheres. The structural variations and as consequence the electro-optical characteristic variations of the films were systematically investigated as a function of post annealing temperature and atmosphere. The structure of the films was studied by means of XRD and SEM techniques and the electro-optical characteristics were measured by four point probe and spectrophotometer, respectively. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Roll-to-roll fabrication of monolithic large-area polymer solar cells free from indium-tin-oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    A roll-to-roll process for polymer solar cells that does not involve indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is presented. A commercially available kapton foil with an overlayer of copper was used as the substrate. Sputtering of titanium metal onto the kapton/copper in an R2R vacuum process gave the monolithic...... by screen printing a protective layer in the areas for front electrode contacts and finally a silver grid was applied by screen printing. The topology of the device and the choice of final grid electrode geometry allowed for serial connection of the individual cells into modules. The individual cells were...

  14. Three-dimensionally embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) films in photosensitive glass: a transparent and conductive platform for microdevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S.; Sugioka, K.; Midorikawa, K. [RIKEN - Advanced Science Institute, Laser Technology Laboratory, Saitama (Japan); Koroesi, L.; Dekany, I. [University of Szeged, Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-02-15

    A new method for embedding transparent and conductive two- and three-dimensional microstructures in glass is presented. We show that the internal surface of hollow structures fabricated by femtosecond-laser direct writing inside the photosensitive glass can be coated by indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ITO) using a sol-gel process. The idea of combining two transparent materials with different electrical properties, i.e., insulating and conductive, is very promising and hence it opens new prospects in manufacturing cutting edge microdevices, such as lab-on-a-chips (LOCs) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). (orig.)

  15. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

    2013-06-15

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  16. Thermoelectrical properties of spray pyrolyzed indium oxide thin films doped by tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinzari, V., E-mail: vbrinzari@mail.ru [State University of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Damaskin, I. [Academy of Science of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Trakhtenberg, L. [Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow Region, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Cho, B.K. [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Korotcenkov, G., E-mail: ghkoro@yahoo.com [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    The search for materials with thermoelectric parameters capable of operating at high temperatures continues to be of great interest; n-type metal oxides are promising candidates. Here, two series of thin (∼ 100 nm) indium oxide films doped by tin (from 0 to 50 at.%) were deposited by spray pyrolysis at 350 °C and 450 °C. Characterization of the films was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Thermoelectric properties, i.e., the conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient, were then studied over a temperature range of 20–450 °C. It was shown that these parameters as well as their nanostructure were strongly dependent on the Sn content and deposition temperature. Specifically, the conductivity had maxima near 5% and 20% for films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C, respectively. The power factor (PF) as a function of Sn content also demonstrated non-monotonous behavior with two maxima; for films deposited at 350 °C these maxima were again observed near 5% and 20% of Sn content. The maximal PF value equaled to 4.7 mW/(m·K{sup 2}) at a temperature of 450 °C was observed at 5 at.% Sn. This result is one of the best ever obtained for metal oxides in a given temperature range. The optimal films were characterized by a cubic-like crystallite nanostructure with {400} surface faceting. A model explaining such high parameters was subsequently proposed. We also determined the effect of ambient humidity on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn films at an operating temperature range below 400 °C, which is caused by the change of surface conductivity under the influence of water vapor. - Highlights: • ITO thin films with Sn amount up to 50 at.% were deposited by spray pyrolysis method. • Nanostructure and thermoelectric properties strongly depend on Sn content. • Best films provide relatively high thermopower and large power factor at 450 °C. • Such films consist of cubic

  17. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail: naomikhor@um.edu.my

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  18. Dense passivating poly(ethylene glycol) films on indium tin oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapak, Robert; Armitage, David; Saucedo-Zeni, Nadia; Hohage, Michael; Howorka, Stefan

    2007-09-25

    We describe the formation and characterization of surface-passivating poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) films on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates. PEG chains with a molecular weight of 2000 and 5000 D were covalently attached to the substrates in a systematic approach using different coupling schemes. The coupling strategies included the direct grafting with PEG-silane, PEG-methacrylate, and PEG-bis(amine), as well as the two-step functionalization with aldehyde-bearing silane films and subsequent coupling with PEG-bis(amine). Elemental analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful surface modification, and XPS and ellipsometry provided values for film thicknesses. XPS and ellipsometry thickness values were almost identical for PEG-silane films but differed by up to 400% for the other PEG layers, suggesting a homogeneous layer for PEG-silane but an inhomogeneous distribution for other PEG coatings on the molecularly rough ITO substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle goniometry confirmed the different degrees of surface homogeneity of the polymer films, with PEG-silane reducing the AFM rms surface roughness by 50% and the water contact angle hysteresis by 75% compared to uncoated ITO. The ability of the PEG layers to passivate the substrate against the nonspecific adsorption of biopolymers was tested using fluorescence-labeled immunoglobulin G and DNA oligonucleotides in combination with fluorescence microscopy. The results indicate a positive relationship between film density and homogeneity on one hand and the ability to passivate against biopolymer adhesion on the other hand. The most homogeneous layers prepared with PEG-silane reduced the nonspecific adsorption of fluorescence-labeled DNA by a factor of 300 compared to uncoated ITO. In addition, the study finds that the ratio of film thicknesses derived by ellipsometry and XPS is a useful parameter to quantify the structural integrity of PEG layers on

  19. Control and characterization of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, D Bruce; Liu, Jun; Marks, Tobin J; Zhang, Ming; Chang, Robert P H

    2009-10-01

    Zinc-indium-tin oxide (ZITO) films are grown by pulsed-laser deposition in which 30% of the indium in the In(2)O(3) structure is replaced by substitution with zinc and tin in equal molar proportions: In(2-2x)Zn(x)Sn(x)O(3), where x = 0.3. Films grown at 25 and 100 degrees C exhibit electron diffraction patterns (EDPs) typical of amorphous materials. At a deposition temperature of 200 degrees C, evidence of crystallinity begins to appear in the EDP data and becomes more evident in films deposited at 400 degrees C. The advent of crystallinity affects the electrical properties of the ZITO film, and the effect is ascribed to the boundaries between phases in the films. The electrical and optical properties of the amorphous ZITO films grown at 25 degrees C are dependent on the oxygen partial pressure (P(O(2))) during film growth, transitioning from a high-mobility (36 cm(2)/V x s) conductor (sigma approximately 1700 S/cm) at P(O(2)) = 5 mTorr to a high-mobility semiconductor at P(O(2)) approximately 20 mTorr. Field-effect transistors (FETs) prepared with as-deposited amorphous ZITO channel layers on p(+)-Si/300 nm SiO(2) substrates yield FETs with on/off ratios of 10(6), off currents of 10(-8) A, and field-effect saturation mobilities of 10 cm(2)/V x s.

  20. Development of silver/gold nanocages onto indium tin oxide glass as a reagentless plasmonic mercury sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daodan; Hu, Tingting; Chen, Na [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: zhangwei@cigit.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Multi-scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Di, Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A reagentless, sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of Hg(II) was developed. • Silver–gold nanocages were prepared on the transparent indium tin oxide coated glass surface. • The nanomaterials could act as optical sensing probe as well as reducing agent. • The plasmonic sensor could be used to detect mercury ions in field analysis. Abstract: We demonstrate the utilization of silver/gold nanocages (Ag/Au NCs) deposited onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) film glass as the basis of a reagentless, simple and inexpensive mercury probe. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak wavelength was located at ~800 nm. By utilizing the redox reaction between Hg²⁺ ions and Ag atoms that existed in Ag/Au NCs, the LSPR peak of Ag/Au NCs was blue-shifted. Thus, we develop an optical sensing probe for the detection of Hg²⁺ ions. The LSPR peak changes were lineally proportional to the concentration of Hg²⁺ ions over the range from 10 ppb to 0.5 ppm. The detection limit was ~5 ppb. This plasmonic probe shows good selectivity and high sensitivity. The proposed optical probe is successfully applied to the sensing of Hg²⁺ in real samples.

  1. Sputtering yields and surface chemical modification of tin-doped indium oxide in hydrocarbon-based plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: hamaguch@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya [Device and Material R& D Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Sputtering yields and surface chemical compositions of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) by CH{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, and inert-gas ion (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, and Ar{sup +}) incidence have been obtained experimentally with the use of a mass-selected ion beam system and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that etching of ITO is chemically enhanced by energetic incidence of hydrocarbon (CH{sub x}{sup +}) ions. At high incident energy incidence, it appears that carbon of incident ions predominantly reduce indium (In) of ITO and the ITO sputtering yields by CH{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are found to be essentially equal. At lower incident energy (less than 500 eV or so), however, a hydrogen effect on ITO reduction is more pronounced and the ITO surface is more reduced by CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions. Although the surface is covered more with metallic In by low-energy incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions and metallic In is in general less resistant against physical sputtering than its oxide, the ITO sputtering yield by incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions is found to be lower than that by incident CH{sup +} ions in this energy range. A postulation to account for the relation between the observed sputtering yield and reduction of the ITO surface is also presented. The results presented here offer a better understanding of elementary surface reactions observed in reactive ion etching processes of ITO by hydrocarbon plasmas.

  2. Sintered indium-tin oxide particles induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro, in part through inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Indium-tin oxide (ITO is used to make transparent conductive coatings for touch-screen and liquid crystal display electronics. As the demand for consumer electronics continues to increase, so does the concern for occupational exposures to particles containing these potentially toxic metal oxides. Indium-containing particles have been shown to be cytotoxic in cultured cells and pro-inflammatory in pulmonary animal models. In humans, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and fibrotic interstitial lung disease have been observed in ITO facility workers. However, which ITO production materials may be the most toxic to workers and how they initiate pulmonary inflammation remain poorly understood. Here we examined four different particle samples collected from an ITO production facility for their ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. Tin oxide, sintered ITO (SITO, and ventilation dust particles activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB within 3 h of treatment. However, only SITO induced robust cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8 within 24 h in both RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages and BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Our lab and others have previously demonstrated SITO-induced cytotoxicity as well. These findings suggest that SITO particles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, which has been implicated in several immune-mediated diseases via its ability to induce IL-1β release and cause subsequent cell death. Inflammasome activation by SITO was confirmed, but it required the presence of endotoxin. Further, a phagocytosis assay revealed that pre-uptake of SITO or ventilation dust impaired proper macrophage phagocytosis of E. coli. Our results suggest that adverse inflammatory responses to SITO particles by both macrophage and epithelial cells may initiate and propagate indium lung disease. These findings will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind an emerging occupational health issue.

  3. Investigation of morphological and electrical characteristics of tin doped indium oxide layers produced by a quasi single source precursor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, M., E-mail: Michael.veith@inm-gmbh.de [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Saarland University, Inorganic Chemistry, Campus C4 1, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Bubel, C.; Grobelsek, I. [INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    Sol-gel coatings of tin doped indium oxide (ITO) were prepared via spin-coating, using a quasi single source precursor system that enhances homogeneous distribution of the dopant tin inside the oxide lattice. In addition, the implementation of metastable, bivalent tin into the gel layer enables the application of a one-step heat treatment under inert atmosphere, eliminating the need for the usually required critical post reduction treatment after crystallisation. The ITO layers produced were uniformly polycrystalline with a homogeneous thickness of 60 nm. They showed increased electrical conductivity and optical performance in terms of transmission (vis) and IR reflection. The texture was less pronounced and the tensile residual stress determined in the layers was lower than in similar films, manufactured in a conventional two-step annealing process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A quasi single source precursor system enables one-step heat treatment of layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thereby less pronounced texture and lower tensile residual stress were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The layers show hardly any fluctuations in the thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrical conductivity could be increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical performance in terms of transmission (vis) and IR reflection was increased.

  4. Electrical and optical properties of thin indium tin oxide films produced by pulsed laser ablation in oxygen or rare gas atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Nordskov, A.

    1999-01-01

    Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate...

  5. A novel capillary electrophoresis microchip with amperometric detection using a Prussian blue-modified indium tin oxide electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Ho; Kang, C. J.; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2005-03-01

    A novel approach to construct a disposable capillary electrophoresis microchip is proposed. The electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine at a Prussian blue (PB)-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode was described and the amperometric detection of dopamine was then investigated. The PB film on ITO electrode was electrodeposited using FeCl3 and K3Fe(CN)6 mixed solution. Our results indicated that PB film was uniform, smooth, and defect-free. The CE-chip has been tested successfully by detecting dopamine and catechol within a very short time of around 80 sec using an electric field of 60 V/cm. The results also showed that dopamine and catechol mixtures were separated efficiently and rapidly. The microsystems gave a very good reproducibility for peak height and separation time. This microchip is cost effective and adequate for a disposable sensor.

  6. Defect engineered d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures and nanocrystalline thin-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Gobinda Gopal, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com, E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com; Sarkar, Ayan [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD-2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Ghosh, Shyamsundar, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com, E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bejoy Narayan Mahavidyalaya, P.O. Itachuna, Hooghly 712 147 (India); Mandal, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Goutam Dev [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, BCKV Campus Main Office, Nadia 741 252 (India); Manju, Unnikrishnan [Materials Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 2A & 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banu, Nasrin; Dev, Bhupendra Nath [Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-08-21

    Origin of unexpected defect engineered room-temperature ferromagnetism observed in tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanostructures (Nanowires, Nano-combs) and nanocrystalline thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated. It is found that the ITO nanostructures prepared under argon environment exhibit strongest ferromagnetic signature as compared to that nanocrystalline thin films grown at oxygen. The evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancy (V{sub 0}{sup +}) defects, obtained from various spectroscopic measurements, suggests that such V{sub 0}{sup +} defects are mainly responsible for the intrinsic ferromagnetic ordering. The exchange interaction of the defects provides extensive opportunity to tune the room-temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetism and optical properties of ITOs.

  7. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-06-11

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict such changes as an alternative to fracture mechanics formulations. Our predictions are obtained by assuming that there are no flaws at the onset of loading as opposed to the assumptions of fracture mechanics approaches. We calibrate the crack onset strain and the damage model based on experimental data reported in the literature. We predict crack density and changes in electrical resistance as a function of the damage induced in the films. We implement our model in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. We obtain fair to good agreement with experiments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Polystyrene-catalytic indium-tin-oxide nanorods grown on green light-emitting diodes for enhancing light extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhina; Li, Qiang; Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Han; Liu, Hao; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Ye; Guo, Maofeng; Yun, Feng

    2016-08-01

    A novel technique for fabricating indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NRs) on hexagonal-pyramid-surface green vertical light-emitting diodes (VLEDs) is demonstrated using electron-beam deposition with polystyrene spheres catalysis. The ITO NRs have high optical transmittance (>90%) in green wavelength and good crystal quality with a cubic structure. The VLED with ITO NRs has a 31% enhancement of light output power at 200 mA, compared with those without ITO NRs. Finite-difference time-domain simulations suggest that the power enhancement is attributed to the gradient refractive indices of the ITO NRs, and that the light extraction enhancement is caused by changes in ITO NR heights.

  9. Fabrication and performance analysis of 4-sq cm indium tin oxide/InP photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, T. A.; Li, X.; Phelps, P. W.; Coutts, T. J.; Tzafaras, N.

    1991-01-01

    Large-area photovoltaic solar cells based on direct current magnetron sputter deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO) into single-crystal p-InP substrates demonstrated both the radiation hardness and high performance necessary for extraterrestrial applications. A small-scale production project was initiated in which approximately 50 ITO/InP cells are being produced. The procedures used in this small-scale production of 4-sq cm ITO/InP cells are presented and discussed. The discussion includes analyses of performance range of all available production cells, and device performance data of the best cells thus far produced. Additionally, processing experience gained from the production of these cells is discussed, indicating other issues that may be encountered when large-scale productions are begun.

  10. Analysis on effect of low dielectric permittivity on indium-doped tin oxide based optically transparent terahertz patch antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampy, Anand Sreekantan; Darak, Mayur Sudesh; Dhamodharan, Sriram Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Indium-doped tin oxide based optically transparent rectangular patch antennas are designed to resonate at 750 GHz; one on the glass substrate and the other on the polyimide substrate. Characteristics of both the transparent antennas such as impedance bandwidth, radiation efficiency, directivity and gain are analyzed and compared. Polyimide substrate has a lower dielectric permittivity than the glass substrate. The effect of low dielectric permittivity substrate on the radiation characteristics of the terahertz transparent patch antenna is analyzed. The transparent antenna on polyimide substrate is shown to have gain greater than 3.97dB in 714-795 GHz. The proposed transparent antennas are designed and simulated by using finite element method based electromagnetic solver, Ansys-HFSS.

  11. Self-catalyzed carbon plasma-assisted growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures by the sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Grazielle O.; de Jesus, Dosil P.; Joanni, Ednan

    2016-10-01

    In this work a new strategy for growth of nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) by RF sputtering is presented. ITO is deposited in the presence of a carbon plasma which reacts with the free oxygen atoms during the deposition, forming species like CO x . These species are removed from the chamber by the pumping system, and one-dimensional ITO nanostructures are formed without the need for a seed layer. Different values of substrate temperature and power applied to the gun containing the carbon target were investigated, resulting in different nanostructure morphologies. The samples containing a higher density of nanowires were covered with gold and evaluated as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for detection of dye solutions. The concept might be applied to other oxides, providing a simple method for unidimensional nanostructural synthesis.

  12. Soft chemistry based sponge-like indium tin oxide (ITO) — a prospective component of photoanode for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prasanta Kumar; Das, Nilanjana

    2015-04-01

    Previously we reported the synthesis of novel organic-inorganic composite indium tin oxide (ITO) foam precursor leading to the formation of "sponge-like" ITO by burning away the organics. This newly made sponge-like ITO possesses relatively high electrical conductivity due to phonon confinement with reasonable pore structure and may have potential application as functional materials in semiconducting dye absorbing layer in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and also as the receptor of electrons injected from the quantum dots (QDs) of organic-inorganic hybrid QD based solar cell. This report is a short review of "sponge-like" ITO described as a lecture note on its future use as an alternative new prospective material for photoanode of solar cell in the domain of sustainable energy.

  13. Dependence of Performance of Organic Light-emitting Devices on Sheet Resistance of Indium-tin-oxide Anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the performance of organic light-emitting devices(OLEDs) on the sheet resistance of indium-tin-oxide(ITO) anodes was investigated by measuring the steady state current density brightness voltage characteristics and the electroluminescent spectra. The device with a higher sheet resistance anode shows a lower current density, a lower brightness level, and a higher operation voltage. The electroluminescence(EL) efficiencies of the devices with the same structure but different ITO anodes show more complicated differences. Furthermore, the shift of the light-emitting zone toward the anode was found when an anode with a higher sheet resistance was used. These performance differences are discussed and attributed to the reduction of hole injection and the increase in voltage drop over ITO anode with the increase in sheet resistance.

  14. Fully printable transparent monolithic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with mesoscopic indium tin oxide counter electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Ri, Kwangho; Rong, Yaoguang; Liu, Linfeng; Liu, Tongfa; Hu, Min; Li, Xiong; Han, Hongwei

    2014-09-07

    We present a new transparent monolithic mesoscopic solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell based on trilamellar films of mesoscopic TiO2 nanocrystalline photoanode, a ZrO2 insulating layer and an indium tin oxide counter electrode (ITO-CE), which were screen-printed layer by layer on a single substrate. When the thickness of the ITO-CE was optimized to 2.1 μm, this very simple and fully printable solid-state DSSC with D102 dye and spiro-OMeTAD hole transport materials presents efficiencies of 1.73% when irradiated from the front side and 1.06% when irradiated from the rear side under a standard simulated sunlight condition (AM 1.5 Global, 100 mW cm(-2)). Higher parameters could be expected with a better transparent mesoscopic counter electrode and hole conductor for the printable monolithic mesoscopic solid-state DSSC.

  15. Four-probe electrical-transport measurements on single indium tin oxide nanowires between 1.5 and 300 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Pin; Chung, Hui-Fang; Lin, Yong-Han; Kai, Ji-Jung; Chen, Fu-Rong; Lin, Juhn-Jong

    2009-03-11

    Single-crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) were grown by the standard thermal evaporation method. The as-grown NWs were typically 100-300 nm in diameter and a few microm long. Four-probe submicron Ti/Au electrodes on individual NWs were fabricated by the electron-beam lithography technique. The resistivities of several single NWs have been measured from 300 down to 1.5 K. The results indicate that the as-grown ITO NWs are metallic, but disordered. The overall temperature behavior of resistivity can be described by the Bloch-Grüneisen law plus a low-temperature correction due to the scattering of electrons off dynamic point defects. This observation suggests the existence of numerous dynamic point defects in as-grown ITO NWs.

  16. Low-temperature and solution-processed indium tin oxide films and their applications in flexible transparent capacitive pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jian; Ye, Zhizhen [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China); Chen, Sujie; Guo, Xiaojun [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai (China); Wang, Nana [Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Jiangsu National Synergistic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials SICAM, Nanjing (China); Qi, Hang [Zhejiang University, Center for Chemistry of High-Performance and Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, Hangzhou (China); Jin, Yizheng [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang University, Center for Chemistry of High-Performance and Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    It is of great interest to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO) films by solution-based techniques at low temperatures. Here, we combined the use of colloidal ITO nanoflowers synthesized by the strategy of limited ligand protection and oxygen plasma treatment which effectively remove the surface ligands of ITO nanocrystals to meet this goal. These efforts led to high-quality ITO films with resistivity as low as 2.33 x 10{sup -2} Ωcm, which is the best result for solution-processed ITO nanocrystal films deposited at temperatures lower than 200 C. The annealing-free processing allowed us to deposit ITO nanoflower films onto plastic substrates and apply them in flexible capacitive pressure sensors. The single-pixel device showed decent sensitivity and reproducibility, and the arrayed sensors exhibited good spatial resolution. (orig.)

  17. Wrinkled substrate and Indium Tin Oxide-free transparent electrode making organic solar cells thinner in active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kong; Lu, Shudi; Yue, Shizhong; Ren, Kuankuan; Azam, Muhammad; Tan, Furui; Wang, Zhijie; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2016-11-01

    To enable organic solar cells with a competent charge transport efficiency, reducing the thickness of active layer without sacrificing light absorption efficiency turns out to be of high feasibility. Herein, organic solar cells on wrinkled metal surface are designed. The purposely wrinkled Al/Au film with a smooth surface provides a unique scaffold for constructing thin organic photovoltaic devices by avoiding pinholes and defects around sharp edges in conventional nanostructures. The corresponding surface light trapping effect enables the thin active layer (PTB7-Th:PC71BM) with a high absorption efficiency. With the innovative MoO3/Ag/ZnS film as the top transparent electrode, the resulting Indium Tin Oxide-free wrinkled devices show a power conversion efficiency as 7.57% (50 nm active layer), higher than the planner counterparts. Thus, this paper provides a new methodology to improve the performance of organic solar cells by balancing the mutual restraint factors to a high level.

  18. Enhanced light harvesting of nitride-based nanopillars covered with ZnO using indium-tin oxide nanowhiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lung-Hsing; Lin, Chien-Chung; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Huang, Jhih-Kai; Han, Hau-Vei; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Nitride-based nanopillars were successfully fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. A nanowhisker of indium-tin oxide (ITO) deposited by on oblique evaporation method was investigated in nitride-based nanopillars and thin ZnO layers grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). From the results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement, it was found that ITO whiskers grew on nitride-based nanopillars covered with ZnO. Moreover, from the results of UV-visible spectrophotometry and bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements, it was found that this hybrid structure of ITO nanowhiskers above a ZnO medium enhanced the broadband and angle-independent antireflection in the range between 380 and 600 nm. We used the hybrid design of the ITO/ZnO structure to achieve the lowest reflectance value between 3.8 and 10.9% in a quantum well absorption range.

  19. Electrodeposition of Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} on indium-doped tin oxides substrate: Nucleation and growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xuezhao [College of Chemistry and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xin [College of Chemistry and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tian Yuan; Shen Chengmin [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: cmwang@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao Hongjun, E-mail: hjgao@iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms related to the initial stages of the nucleation and growth of antimony selenide (Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}) semiconductor compounds onto the indium-doped tin oxides (ITO) coated glass surface have been investigated using chronoamperometry (CA) technique. The fabrication was conducted from nitric acid bath containing both Sb{sup 3+} and SeO{sub 2} species at ambient conditions. No underpotential deposition (UPD) of antimony and selenium onto ITO substrate was observed in the investigated systems indicating a weak precursor-substrate interaction. Deposition of antimony and selenium onto ITO substrate occurred with large overvoltage through 3D nucleation and growth mechanism followed by diffusion limited growth. FE-SEM and XRD results show that orthorhombic phase Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} particles with their size between 90 and 125 nm were obtained and the atomic ratio for antimony and selenium was 2:2.63 according to the EDX results.

  20. Indium tin oxide nanoparticles with compositionally tunable surface plasmon resonance frequencies in the near-IR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehara, Masayuki; Koike, Hayato; Yoshinaga, Taizo; Teranishi, Toshiharu

    2009-12-16

    Here we report the synthesis of conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties. The SPR peaks of the ITO NPs can be easily tuned by changing the concentration of Sn doping from 3 to 30 mol %. The shortest SPR wavelength of 1618 nm in 10% Sn-doped ITO NPs may reflect the highest electron carrier density in the ITO NPs. The controllable SPR frequencies of metal oxides may offer a novel approach for noble-metal-free SPR applications. Unlike noble-metal nanostructures, ITO has no inter- and intraband transitions in the vis-near-IR region and represents a free-electron conduction, allowing us to systematically study the origin of optical effects arising from the SPRs of conduction electrons.

  1. Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • In- and Sn-based MIC phenomenon on amorphous (α)-Ge is newly reported. • The In- and Sn-MIC phenomenon respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. • The Sn-MIC process presents higher sheet resistance and bigger crystal grains. - Abstract: In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on α-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50 nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400 °C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

  2. Adhesive modification of indium-tin-oxide surface for template attachment for deposition of highly ordered nanostructure arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, W. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Liao, L.S., E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Cai, S.D.; Zhou, D.Y.; Jin, Z.M.; Shi, X.B.; Lei, Y.L. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a very cheap polymer with one hydroxyl group in each repeating unit, was spun coated on the surface of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate to improve the adhesion between the substrate and a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template layer for a template-directed fabrication of nanostructures. Compared with dihydroxy-terminated polystyrene (PS-dOH) and a silane coupling agent (KH550), PVA was a superior binder because of its abundant hydroxyl groups for adhesion enhancement and its low cost for applications. As an example, a highly ordered CdSe nanorod array free standing on the ITO substrate was electrochemically deposited by using an ultrathin AAO layer as the template on the PVA modified surface. It was demonstrated that the PVA modified ITO can be reliably used for the template-directed fabrication of nanostructures.

  3. TiO2 nanocrystals shell layer on highly conducting indium tin oxide nanowire for photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Soo; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dong Hoe; Han, Gil Sang; Jung, Hyun Suk; Noh, Jun Hong; Hong, Kug Sun

    2013-04-21

    We demonstrated a highly efficient conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) core-TiO2 nanocrystals shell nanowire array for a photoelectrode in dye-sensitized solar cells with regard to light harvest and charge collection. The TiO2 shell layer, consisting of anatase nanocrystals of ~2 nm, were successfully formed on a single crystalline ITO nanowire prepared via a vapor transport method using repetitive TiCl4 aqueous solution treatments at 50 °C. We found that the nanocrystal size and number of Cl(-) ions remaining on the formed shell layer critically influence the dye loading properties. Moreover, these factors can be controlled by means of a post-annealing process. We also found that the dye loading and the back electron transport from the conductive ITO nanowire to the electrolyte mainly determine the final cell performance. The proposed double-shell layer structure consisting of dense and porous layers showed significantly improved cell performance.

  4. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  5. Effects of annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machinaga, Hironobu, E-mail: hironobu_machinaga@gg.nitto.co.jp; Ueda, Eri; Mizuike, Atsuko; Takeda, Yuuki; Shimokita, Keisuke; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2014-05-30

    Effects of the annealing temperature on mechanical durability of indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. The ITO films were annealed at the range from 150 °C to 195 °C after the DC sputtering deposition for the production of polycrystalline ITO layers on the substrates. The onset strains of cracking in the annealed ITO films were evaluated by the uniaxial stretching tests with electrical resistance measurements during film stretching. The results indicate that the onset strain of cracking in the ITO film is clearly increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The in-situ measurements of the inter-planer spacing of the (222) plane in the crystalline ITO films during film stretching by using synchrotron radiation strongly suggest that the large compressive stress in the ITO film increases the onset strain of cracking in the film. X-ray stress analyses of the annealed ITO films and thermal mechanical analyses of the PET substrates also clarifies that the residual compressive stress in the ITO film is enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature due to the considerably larger shrinkage of the PET substrate. - Highlights: • Indium-tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). • Mechanical durability of the ITO is improved by high temperature post-annealing. • The shrinkage in the PET increases with rising the post-annealing temperature. • The shrinkage of the PET enhances the compressive stress in the ITO film. • Large compressive stress in the ITO film may improve its mechanical durability.

  6. Growth and surface characterization of tin-doped indium oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Erie

    measured and atomic resolution was achieved. Bright and dark atomic features were assigned to a surface with bulk (1x1) termination. Density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations performed by collaborators confirmed that indium atoms are being imaged bright and dark in empty-states STM, depending on the configuration of their oxygen neighbors; bright when neighboring three-fold and dark when neighboring four-fold oxygen atoms. Epitaxial (100)-oriented thin films of In2O3 and Sn-doped In2O3 were also grown. The YSZ substrate was characterized using RHEED and LEED and was found to have a (2x2) reconstructed surface. RHEED showed that the Sn-doped In2O3 grows in a 3-dimensional growth mode. Using LEED it was found that the surface of Sn-doped In2O3 exposes a surface with a c(1x1) termination. Considering symmetry arguments and the systematic absence of LEED spots, it was concluded that the surface can have only an oxygen termination. Due to the polarity of this orientation, it was found that unusually high concentrations of tin, ca. 15.6 at%, are needed to render the surface flat. Comparing STM measurements with DFT calculations published in the literature, it was concluded that surface oxygen atoms are dimerized, with all O dimers present for a high Sn concentration in ITO. At low Sn-concentrations the observed STM images are consistent with a model where only 2/3 of the oxygen atoms are present, again consistent with published DFT predictions. It is thus concluded that both, the Sn concentration and oxygen dimerization, are instrumental in stabilizing the polar ITO (001) surface.

  7. Tin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, E.J.; Meinema, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Tin is rather unique in the wide variety of its compounds and applications. Ever since the beginning of the bronze age the metal and its alloys have been of importance to mankind. When considering the impact of tin and its compounds on the environment, it has to be realized that no generalization ca

  8. Improvement of the effective work function and transmittance of thick indium tin oxide/ultrathin ruthenium doped indium oxide bilayers as transparent conductive oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taweesup, Kattareeya [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Yamamoto, Ippei [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Lothongkum, Gobboon [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Tsukagoshi, Kazutoshi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ohishi, Tomoji [Shibaura Institute of Technology, 3-7-5 Toyosu, Koto, Tokyo 135-8548 (Japan); Tungasmita, Sukkaneste [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visuttipitukul, Patama [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nabatame, Toshihide, E-mail: NABATAME.Toshihide@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium doped indium oxide (In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y}) films fabricated using DC magnetron co-sputtering with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru targets were investigated for use as transparent conductive oxides. The In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y} films had an amorphous structure in the wide compositional range of x = 0.3–0.8 and had an extremely smooth surface. The transmittance and resistivity of the In{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}O{sub y} films increased as the Ru content increased. The transmittance of the In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} film improved to over 80% when the film thickness was less than 5 nm, while the specific resistivity (ρ) was kept to a low value of 1.6 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrated that thick indium tin oxide (In{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}O{sub y}, ITO) (150 nm)/ultrathin In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} (3 nm) bilayers have a high effective work function of 5.3 eV, transmittance of 86%, and low ρ of 9.2 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm. This ITO/In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer is a candidate for use as an anode for organic electroluminescent devices. - Highlights: • We investigated characteristics of thick ITO/ultrathin Ru doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bilayers. • Effect of Ru addition in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} results in smooth surface because of an amorphous structure. • The In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} film with less than 5 nm improves to high transmittance over 80%. • ITO/In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer has a high effective work function of 5.3 eV. • We conclude that ITO/ultrathin In{sub 0.38}Ru{sub 0.62}O{sub y} bilayer is a candidate as an anode of OEL.

  9. Enhancing Optical Out-Coupling of Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Nanostructured Composite Electrodes Consisting of Indium Tin Oxide Nanomesh and Conducting Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Lee, Wei-Kai; Chen, Yi-Jiun; Lu, Chun-Yang; Lin, Hoang Yan; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2015-09-02

    A nanostructured composite electrode consisting of a high-index indium-tin-oxide nanomesh and low-index high-conductivity conducting polymer effectively enhances coupling of internal radiation of organic light-emitting devices into their substrates. When combining this internal extraction structure and the external extraction scheme, a very high external quantum efficiency of nearly 62% is achieved with a green phosphorescent device.

  10. Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) thin films on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Gauzzi, A.; James, J. H.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.

    1990-12-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) (YBCO) thin films have been grown in situ on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) buffer layers. Superconducting onset is about 92 K with zero resistance at 60 K. ITO buffer layers usually form Schottky-like barriers on GaAs. The YBCO film and ITO buffer layer, grown by ion beam sputter codeposition, are textured and polycrystalline with a combined room-temperature resistivity of about 1 milliohm cm.

  11. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  12. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  13. Electrical and Optical Characterization of Sputtered Silicon Dioxide, Indium Tin Oxide, and Silicon Dioxide/Indium Tin Oxide Antireflection Coating on Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the electrical and optical properties of single-junction GaAs solar cells coated with antireflective layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2, indium tin oxide (ITO, and a hybrid layer of SiO2/ITO applied using Radio frequency (RF sputtering. The conductivity and transparency of the ITO film were characterized prior to application on GaAs cells. Reverse saturation-current and ideality factor were used to evaluate the passivation performance of the various coatings on GaAs solar cells. Optical reflectance and external quantum efficiency response were used to evaluate the antireflective performance of the coatings. Photovoltaic current-voltage measurements were used to confirm the efficiency enhancement obtained by the presence of the anti-reflective coatings. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs cells with an ITO antireflective coating (23.52% exceeded that of cells with a SiO2 antireflective coating (21.92%. Due to lower series resistance and higher short-circuit current-density, the carrier collection of the GaAs cell with ITO coating exceeded that of the cell with a SiO2/ITO coating.

  14. Pulsed laser deposited indium tin oxides as alternatives to noble metals in the near-infrared region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu; Mak, C L; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Zhewei; Yuan, Wenjia; Ye, Hui

    2016-06-08

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films with thickness around 200 nm were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition technology. The microstructure and the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films deposited under different oxygen pressures and substrate temperatures were systematically investigated. Distinct different x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystallinity of ITO films was highly influenced by deposition conditions. The highest carrier concentration of the ITO films was obtained as 1.34  ×  10(21) cm(-3) with the lowest corresponding resistivity of 2.41  ×  10(-4) Ω cm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to retrieve the dielectric permittivity of the ITO films to estimate their potential as plasmonic materials in the near-infrared region. The crossover wavelength (the wavelength where the real part of the permittivity changes from positive to negative) of the ITO films exhibited high dependence on the deposition conditions and was optimized to as low as 1270 nm. Compared with noble metals (silver or gold etc), the lower imaginary part of the permittivity (<3) of ITO films suggests the potential application of ITO in the near-infrared range.

  15. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0-178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4°C in silica gel.

  16. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nimai Chand Pramanik; Prasanta Kumar Biswas

    2002-11-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nano powders of different compositions (In : Sn = 90 : 10, 70 : 30 and 50 : 50) were prepared by heat treatment (300–450°C) of mixed hydroxides of In(III) and Sn(IV). The hydroxides were obtained by the reaction of aq. NH3 with mixed aq. solutions of In(NO3)3 and SnCl4. FTIR and TG/DTA studies revealed that powders existed as In(OH)3 H2O−SnO3H2 H2O in the solid state and then they transformed to In2O3–SnO2 via some metastable intermediates after 300°C. Cubic phase of In2O3 was identified by XRD for the oxides up to 30% of Sn. Particle size measurements of the solid dispersed in acetone and SEM study for microstructure showed that the oxides were in the nano range (55–75 nm) whereas the size range determined from Debye–Scherrer equation were 11–24 nm.

  17. Aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanocable arrays on indium tin oxide: synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xina; Zhu, Haojun; Xu, Yeming; Wang, Hao; Tao, Yin; Hark, Suikong; Xiao, Xudong; Li, Quan

    2010-06-22

    Vertically aligned ZnO/CdTe core-shell nanocable arrays-on-indium tin oxide (ITO) are fabricated by electrochemical deposition of CdTe on ZnO nanorod arrays in an electrolyte close to neutral pH. By adjusting the total charge quantity applied during deposition, the CdTe shell thickness can be tuned from several tens to hundreds of nanometers. The CdTe shell, which has a zinc-blende structure, is very dense and uniform both radially and along the axial direction of the nanocables, and forms an intact interface with the wurtzite ZnO nanorod core. The absorption of the CdTe shell above its band gap ( approximately 1.5 eV) and the type II band alignment between the CdTe shell and the ZnO core, respectively, demonstrated by absorption and photoluminescence measurements, make a nanocable array-on-ITO architecture a promising photoelectrode with excellent photovoltaic properties for solar energy applications. A photocurrent density of approximately 5.9 mA/cm(2) has been obtained under visible light illumination of 100 mW cm(-2) with zero bias potential (vs saturated calomel electrode). The neutral electrodeposition method can be generally used for plating CdTe on nanostructures made of different materials, which would be of interest in various applications.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of highly transparent and conductive indium tin oxide films made with different solution-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, N.; Gerhardt, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    Solution-based fabrication methods can greatly reduce the cost and broaden the applications of transparent conducting oxides films, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) films. In this paper, we report on ITO films fabricated by spin coating methods on glass substrates with two different ITO sources: (1) a commercial ITO nanopowder water dispersion and (2) a sol-gel ITO solution. A simple and fast air annealing process was used to treat as-coated ITO films on a controlled temperature hot plate. Thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray diffraction showed that highly crystalline ITO films were formed after the annealing steps. The final ITO films had a good combination of optical properties and electrical properties, especially for films made from five layers of sol-gel ITO (92.66% transmittance and 8.7 × 10-3 Ω cm resistivity). The surface morphology and conducting network on the ITO films were characterized by non-contact and current atomic force microscopy. It was found that conducting paths were only partially connected for the nanoparticle ITO dispersion films, whereas the sol-gel ITO films had a more uniformly distributed conducting network on the surface. We also used the sol-gel ITO films to fabricate a simple liquid crystal display (LCD) device to demonstrate the excellent properties of our films.

  19. Intensification of the electrochemiluminescence of luminol on hollow TiO₂ nanoshell-modified indium tin oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jia; Ming, Liang; Tu, Yifeng

    2014-10-01

    Hollow titania nanoshells (HTNSs), which were synthesized by a SiO2 sacrificial template method, were used to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The size, shell thickness and crystal phase, factors that are important in determining the efficiency, can be controlled by adjusting the template size, precursor concentration and calcination temperature, respectively. The structure of the HTNSs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. After structural optimization, the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass was modified with the HTNSs to act as a working electrode for a flow-injection analytical system. The heterostructure demonstrated an ECL emission intensity 150 times higher than that of the bare ITO. The research also revealed that the ECL of luminol on this modified electrode showed a very sensitive response to hydrogen peroxide with a detection limit of 4.6×10(-10)M. In addition to discussing the intensifying mechanism of luminol ECL by HTNSs, we demonstrate that can be successfully applied to evaluate the gross antioxidant activity of garlic.

  20. Color purity in polymer electrochromic window devices on indium-tin oxide and single-walled carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Svetlana V; Unur, Ece; Walczak, Ryan M; Donoghue, Evan P; Rinzler, Andrew G; Reynolds, John R

    2009-10-01

    Dual polymer absorptive/transmissive electrochromic (EC) window devices have been assembled using the solution-processable and high-EC-contrast polymer PProDOT-(CH(2)OEtHx)(2) as the EC material, along with a non-color-changing electroactive polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy-4-yl methacrylate) (PTMA), as the counter electrode material. Indium-tin oxide (ITO) and highly transmissive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) film coated glass electrodes are used as electrode substrates. The use of the EC/non-color-changing polymer combination allowed us to construct window devices that rapidly switch between magenta and highly transmissive (>95% T for ITO and approximately 79% T for SWNT) states with large optical modulation (>71% DeltaT for ITO and 66% DeltaT for SWNT). The devices showed effective coloration and bleaching: the lightness parameter (L*) changing from 67 to 95 for ITO (approximately 50-92 for SWNT), essentially reaching a diffuse white upon oxidation. The color modulates from highly pure magenta with a* = 28 (red hue) and b* = -28 (blue chroma) for ITO (a* = 40 and b* = -36 for SWNT) to nearly colorless with a* = 1 and b* = -1 for ITO (a* = -2 and b* = -3 for SWNT) devices. Increasing the switching voltage from 2.55 V up to 3.5 V resulted in faster SWNT-based window device performance.

  1. Electro-Optical Properties of Low-Temperature Growth Indium-tin-oxide Nanowires Using Polystyrene Spheres as Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Gong, Zhina; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Hao; Feng, Lungang; Liu, Shuo; Yun, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Polystyrene sphere was chosen as a catalyst to fabricate indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) with a low-temperature (280-300 °C) electron-beam deposition process, bearing high purity. The ITO NWs with diameter of 20-50 nm and length of ~2 um were obtained. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope show high crystal quality. The transmittance is above 90 % at a wavelength 400 nm or more, superior to the ITO bulk film. Owing to the unique morphology gradient of the ITO NWs, the effective refractive index of ITO NWs film is naturally graded from the bottom to the top. The ITO NWs have been used on LED devices ( λ = 450 nm), which improved the light output power by 31 % at the current of 150 mA comparing to the one without NWs and did not deteriorate the electrical properties. Such ITO NWs open opportunity in LED devices to further improve light extraction efficiency.

  2. Fast Inline Roll-to-Roll Printing for Indium-Tin-Oxide-Free Polymer Solar Cells Using Automatic Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Fast inline roll-to-roll printing and coating on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and barrier foil was demonstrated under ambient conditions at web speeds of 10 mmin1 for the manufacture of indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells comprising a 6-layer stack: silver-grid/PEDOT:PSS/ Zn......O/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PS /silver-grid. The first and second layers were printed at the same time using inline processing at a web speed of 10 mmin1 where flexographic printing of a hexagonal silver grid comprises the first layer followed by rotary-screen printing of a PEDOT:PSS electrode as the second...... applicable ITO-free, semitransparent, electron-selective front electrode for inverted polymer solar cells. This electrode shows a low sheet resistance (~10 W/&) and good optical transmission in the visible range (~60%). The solar cell stack was completed by rotary-screen printing of a hole-collecting PEDOT...

  3. Effect of non-electroactive additives on the early stage pyrrole electropolymerization on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Beltran, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Dominguez, C.; Bahena-Uribe, D. [Centro Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas (CIICAp), Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Research Center for Exotic NanoCarbon, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    The use of non-electroactive additives during electrodeposition of conducting polymers has long been used to modify the properties of deposited films. These additives can improve the adhesion, and not only change the morphology and deposition rate but also modify the chemical composition of the electrodeposited polymer. Several compounds have been used to modify deposition of polypyrrole; however, there is no systematic study of these compounds. In this work, we comparatively studied several water soluble chemical compounds, a cationic polymer, an anionic polymer, a cationic surfactant, and an anionic surfactant during potentiostatic electrodeposition of polypyrrole. In order to study the effect of these compounds on the interface, where the electrochemical polymerization takes place, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology during the initial stage of growth was studied by atomic force microscopy, whereas the resulting polypyrrole films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Early-stage polymerization polypyrrole particles on indium tin oxide (ITO). • Anionic additives promote pyrrole oxidation and polypyrrole film growth on ITO. • Cationic polyelectrolyte promotes adhesion between ITO and polypyrrole film. • Non-electroactive additives strongly influence polypyrrole nucleation on ITO.

  4. Indium tin oxide refractometer in the visible and near infrared via lossy mode and surface plasmon resonances with Kretschmann configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, V. [Antenna Group–TERALAB, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Beruete, M. [Antenna Group–TERALAB, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Institute of Smart Cities, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Sánchez, P. [Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Public University of Navarra, Pamplona 31006 (Spain); Del Villar, I. [Institute of Smart Cities, Public University of Navarra, 31006 Pamplona (Spain); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Public University of Navarra, Pamplona 31006 (Spain)

    2016-01-25

    An indium tin oxide (ITO) refractometer based on the generation of lossy mode resonances (LMRs) and surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) is presented. Both LMRs and SPRs are excited, in a single setup, under grazing angle incidence with Kretschmann configuration in an ITO thin-film deposited on a glass slide. The sensing capabilities of the device are demonstrated using several solutions of glycerin and water with refractive indices ranging from 1.33 to 1.47. LMRs are excited in the visible range, from 617 nm to 682 nm under TE polarization and from 533 nm to 637 nm under TM polarization, with a maximum sensitivity of 700 nm/RIU and 1200 nm/RIU, respectively. For the SPRs, a sensing range between 1375 nm and 2494 nm with a maximum sensitivity of 8300 nm/RIU is measured under TM polarization. Experimental results are supported with numerical simulations based on a modification of the plane-wave method for a one-dimensional multilayer waveguide.

  5. Nanoscale Investigation of Grain Growth in RF-Sputtered Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, B. S.; Dubey, M.; Swaminathan, V.; Huh, Y.; Galipeau, D.; Qiao, Q.; Fan, Q. H.

    2014-11-01

    This work studied the electronic characteristics of the grains and grain boundaries of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using electrostatic and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Two types of ITO films were compared, deposited using radiofrequency magnetron sputtering in pure argon or 99% argon + 1% oxygen, respectively. The average grain size and surface roughness increased with substrate temperature for the films deposited in pure argon. With the addition of 1% oxygen, the increase in the grain size was inhibited above 150°C, which was suggested to be due to passivation of the grains by the excess oxygen. Electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) images confirmed that the grain growth was defect mediated and occurred at defective interfaces at high temperatures. Films deposited at room temperature with 1% oxygen showed crystalline nature, while films deposited with pure argon at room temperature were amorphous as observed from KPFM images. The potential drop across the grain and grain boundary was determined by taking surface potential line profiles to evaluate the electronic properties.

  6. Dye-Sensitized Nanostructured Crystalline Mesoporous Tin-doped Indium Oxide Films with Tunable Thickness for Photoelectrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamd, W; Chavarot-Kerlidou, M; Fize, J; Muller, G; Leyris, A; Matheron, M; Courtin, E; Fontecave, M; Sanchez, C; Artero, V; Laberty-Robert, C

    2013-01-01

    A simple route towards nanostructured mesoporous Indium-Tin Oxide (templated nano-ITO) electrodes exhibiting both high conductivities and optimized bicontinuous pore-solid network is reported. The ITO films are first produced as an X-ray-amorphous, high surface area material, by adapting recently established template-directed sol-gel methods using Sn(IV) and In(III) salts. Carefully controlled temperature/atmosphere treatments convert the as-synthesized ITO films into nano-crystalline coatings with the cubic bixbyite structure. Specially, a multi-layered synthesis was successfully undertaken for tuning the film thickness. In order to evaluate the performances of templated nano-ITO as an electrode substrate for photoelectrochemical applications, photoelectrodes were prepared by covalent grafting of a redox-active dye, the complex [Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(CH2PO3H2)2-bpy)]Cl21 (bpy=bipyridine). Surface coverage was shown to increase with the film thickness, from 0.7 × 10(-9) mol.cm(-2) (one layer, 45 nm) to 3.5 × 10(-9) mol.cm(-2) (ten layers, 470 nm), the latter value being ~ 100 times larger than that for commercially available planar ITO. In the presence of an electron mediator, photocurrents up to 50 μA.cm(-2) have been measured under visible light irradiation, demonstrating the potential of this new templated nano-ITO preparation for the construction of efficient photoelectrochemical devices.

  7. Determination of mutagenicity and genotoxicity of indium tin oxide nanoparticles using the Ames test and micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyıl, Dilek; Eren, Yasin; Konuk, Muhsin; Tepekozcan, Aykut; Sağlam, Esra

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanomaterial were assessed using two standard genotoxicity assays, the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (Ames test) and the in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay. Seven different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 µg/plate) of this nanomaterial were tested using the Ames test on the TA98 and TA100 strains in the presence and absence of the S9 mixture. At all the concentrations tested, this substance did not significantly increase the number of revertant colonies compared with the control with or without S9 mixture. The genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 125, 250, 500, and 750 µg/ml concentrations of this substance for 24- and 48-h treatment periods using an MN test. Nuclear division index (NDI) was also calculated in order to determine the cytotoxicity of ITO. It was determined that ITO increased MN frequency in the 750 µg/ml concentration in 24- and 48-h treatments. In addition, ITO dose dependently decreased the NDI significantly for two treatment periods.

  8. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Yong Jeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes (DSPNCE were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH2/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV, scanning from 0–1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0–10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA or ascorbic acid (AA. Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor.

  9. Ultrashort pulse laser patterning of indium tin oxide thin films on glass by uniform diffractive beam patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang Zheng, E-mail: z.kuang@liv.ac.uk [Laser Group, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom); Perrie, Walter; Liu Dun; Fitzsimons, Paul; Edwardson, Stuart P.; Fearon, Eamonn; Dearden, Geoff; Watkins, Ken G. [Laser Group, School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    In the last decade, indium tin oxide (ITO) has been most commonly employed to create transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) thin films for many industrial applications. It is usually necessary to pattern ITO thin films to create functional structures for specific applications. Direct-write micro-patterning of ITO thin films by ultra-short pulse lasers has demonstrated high quality without requiring multiple processing stations, compared with conventional patterning technologies (e.g. wet-etch lithography). However, the processing efficiency and throughput with a single beam can be insufficient because of the high level of attenuation needed for the output to meet the required 'thermal-free' parameters. In this paper, high throughput surface direct micro-structuring of ITO on glass is demonstrated by parallel processing using diffractive multiple ultrashort pulse laser beams ({lambda} = 1064 nm, {tau}p = 10 ps). By avoiding periodic and symmetrical geometry design, the diffractive multiple beam pattern generated by a spatial light modulator has high uniformity (the energy variation between each diffractive beam is <9%). The ITO thin film is removed by laser ablation of 25 identical beams at the same time without any damage to the glass substrate. Additionally, by synchronizing a scanning galvanometer, the processing demonstrates high flexibility to generate various surface patterns.

  10. Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2011-12-01

    Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

  11. Lack of nano size effect on electrochemistry of dopamine at a gold nanoparticle modified indium tin oxide electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nanometer sized materials have been shown to possess excellent chemical and electrochemical catalytic properties.In this work,a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode was employed for investigating its electro-catalytic property.AuNP was deposited on the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified ITO electrode by self-assembly,and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry.Although the electrochemical reaction of dopamine was very sluggish on the ITO/APTES electrode,it was significantly enhanced after AuNP deposition.The cyclic voltammogram exhibited apparent dependence on the surface coverage of 11 nm AuNPs,which could be rationalized by different modes of mass diffusion.Among the different sizes of AuNP investigated,the lowest anodic peak potential was observed on 11 nm AuNP.However,the potential was still about 50 mV more positive than that obtained on a bulk gold electrode of similar geometry.It is therefore concluded that there is no nanometer size effect of AuNP modified ITO on the electrochemistry of dopamine.

  12. Experimental and Simulated Investigations of Thin Polymer Substrates with an Indium Tin Oxide Coating under Fatigue Bending Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong-Shiun Hsu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films. The results indicated that compressive and tensile stresses generated distinct failure schemes within an ITO film and both led to increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance. In addition, tensile stress increased the sheet resistance of an ITO film more easily than compressive stress did. However, the influences of both compressive and tensile stress on increased optical transmittance were demonstrated to be highly similar. Increasing the thickness of a PET substrate resulted in increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance regardless of the presence of compressive or tensile stress. Moreover, J-Integral, a method based on strain energy, was used to estimate the interfacial adhesion strength of the ITO-PET film through the simulation approach enabled by a finite element analysis.

  13. Part 2: Ultra-short pulse laser patterning of very thin indium tin oxide on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, C.; Milne, D.; Chan, H.; Rostohar, D.; O'Connor, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate selective patterning of ultra-thin 20 nm Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates, using 343, 515, and 1030 nm femtosecond (fs), and 1030 nm picoseconds (ps) laser pulses. An ablative removal mechanism is observed for all wavelengths at both femtosecond and picoseconds time-scales. The absorbed threshold fluence values were determined to be 12.5 mJ cm-2 at 343 nm, 9.68 mJ cm-2 at 515 nm, and 7.50 mJ cm-2 at 1030 nm for femtosecond and 9.14 mJ cm-2 at 1030 nm for picosecond laser exposure. Surface analysis of ablated craters using atomic force microscopy confirms that the selective removal of the film from the glass substrate is dependent on the applied fluence. Film removal is shown to be primarily through ultrafast lattice deformation generated by an electron blast force. The laser absorption and heating process was simulated using a two temperature model (TTM). The predicted surface temperatures confirm that film removal below 1 J cm-2 to be predominately by a non-thermal mechanism.

  14. Indium tin oxide nanowires grown by one-step thermal evaporation-deposition process at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haibo; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Duan; Li, Jinzhu; Cai, Le; Zhou, Weiya; Xie, Sishen

    2013-02-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO), as one of the most important transparent conducting oxide, is widely used in electro-optical field. We have developed a simple one-step method to synthesize ITO nanowires at low temperature of 600 degrees C. In detail, mixtures of InN nanowires and SnO powder, with the molar ratio of 10:1, have been used as precursors for the thermal evaporation-deposition of ITO nanowires on silicon/quartz slices. During the growth process, the evaporation temperature is maintained at 600 degrees C, which favors the decomposition of InN and oxidation of In, with a limited incorporation of Sn in the resulting compound (In:Sn approximately 11:1 in atomic ratio). As far as we know, this is the lowest growth temperature reported on the thermal deposition of ITO nanowires. The diameters of the nanowires are about 120 nm and the lengths are up to tens of micrometers. XRD characterization indicates the high crystallization of the nanowires. HRTEM results show the nanowires grow along the [200] direction. The transmittance of the nanowire film on quartz slice is more than 75% in the visible region. Based on photolithography and lift-off techniques, four-terminal measurement was utilized to test the resistivity of individual nanowire (6.11 x 10(-4) omega x cm). The high crystallization quality, good transmittance and low resistivity make as-grown ITO nanowires a promising candidate as transparent electrodes of nanoscale devices.

  15. Synthesis of hollow gold nanoparticles on the surface of indium tin oxide glass and their application for plasmonic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingting; Lin, Yuanyuan; Yan, Jilin; Di, Junwei

    2013-06-01

    Hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNs) deposited on the surface of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) glass have been synthesized. The silver nanoparticles were firstly electrodeposited directly on the ITO surface as a template without any organic ligands or surfactants. Then these silver nanoparticles were taken as sacrificial templates and the HGNs were obtained by Galvanic replacement reaction between HAuCl4 solution and silver nanoparticles. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of HGNs was located at near infrared region of ~800 nm, which was largely red-shifted as compared to silver nanoparticles as a template. Moreover, the refractive index sensitivity of HGNs was enhanced to 277 nm per refractive index unit, which was also much higher than that of silver nanoparticles deposited on ITO substrate. The "clean" surface of HGNs could be further functionalized by special biomolecules and applied to fabrication of LSPR biosensors. This approach provides a potential opportunity as LSPR biosensors for chemical or biological analysis especially on tissue and blood samples.

  16. Influence of defects and processing parameters on the properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene napthalate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H.; Zoo, Yeongseok; Bhagat, S. K.; Lewis, J. S.; Alford, T. L.

    2007-09-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) by rf sputtering using different rf powers (60 and 120W) and at different substrate temperatures (room temperature and 100°C). Selected PEN substrates were pretreated using an Ar plasma before ITO sputter deposition. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used to determine the oxygen content in the films. Hall effect measurements were used to evaluate the electrical properties. In this paper the influence of defect structure, sputtering conditions, and the effect of annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO on PEN have been investigated. Electrical properties such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the ITO films varied with rf power and substrate temperature. The electrical and optical properties of the films changed after annealing in air. This study also describes how the as-deposited amorphous ITO changes from amorphous to crystalline as a result of heat treatment, and investigates the effects of Sn defect clustering on electrical and optical properties of the ITO films.

  17. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thirumoorthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique for different Sn concentrations on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that all the films are polycrystalline of cubic structure with preferentially oriented along (222 plane. SEM images show that films exhibit uniform surface morphology with well-defined spherical particles. The EDX spectrum confirms the presence of In, Sn and O elements in prepared films. AFM result indicates that the surface roughness of the films is reduced as Sn doping. The optical transmittance of ITO thin films is improved from 77% to 87% in visible region and optical band gap is increased from 3.59 to 4.07 eV. Photoluminescence spectra show mainly three emissions peaks (UV, blue and green and a shift observed in UV emission peak. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding was analyzed by FTIR. Hall effect measurements show prepared films having n-type conductivity with low resistivity (3.9 × 10−4 Ω-cm and high carrier concentrations (6.1 × 1020 cm−3.

  18. Parametrization of optical properties of indium-tin-oxide thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry: Substrate interfacial reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; de Rosa, R.; Roca, F.; Summonte, C.; Plá, J.; Rizzoli, R.

    2002-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited by sputtering and e-gun evaporation on both transparent (Corning glass) and opaque (c-Si, c-Si/SiO2) substrates and in c-Si/a-Si:H/ITO heterostructures have been analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the range 1.5-5.0 eV. Taking the SE advantage of being applicable to absorbent substrate, ellipsometry is used to determine the spectra of the refractive index and extinction coefficient of the ITO films. The effect of the substrate surface on the ITO optical properties is focused and discussed. To this aim, a parametrized equation combining the Drude model, which considers the free-carrier response at the infrared end, and a double Lorentzian oscillator, which takes into account the interband transition contribution at the UV end, is used to model the ITO optical properties in the useful UV-visible range, whatever the substrate and deposition technique. Ellipsometric analysis is corroborated by sheet resistance measurements.

  19. Preparation of Indium Tin Oxide Ceramic Targets%铟锡氧化物陶瓷靶的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜波; 陈派明; 杨硕

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and component of indium tin oxide (ITO) powder are studied, and the influences of different state powders and preparation techniques on the ITO targets are compared. The results show that the ITO nano-powder possesses body center cubic In2O3 structure when is annealed at temperature below 800? , and is composed of In2O3 and SnO2 phasea when is annealed at 1100?. After spray drying, the solid sphere granulated powder is obtained, which possesses a suitable panicles grade match, and the excellent ITO targets with high density are prepared by using atmosphere sintering.%研究了铟锡氧化物(ITO)粉末退火后的组织和结构,比较了不同状态的粉末和制备工艺对ITO靶材的影响.结果表明,纳米ITO粉末在800℃以下具有体心立方In2O3结构,1100℃退火后由In2O3和SnO2两相组成;ITO粉末经过喷雾造粒后,形成了实心球形颗粒并具有合理的颗粒级配,通过气氛烧结可以制备出高密度优良的ITO靶材.

  20. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  1. Tin-Doped Indium Oxide-Titania Core-Shell Nanostructures for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs hold great promise in the pursuit of reliable and cheap renewable energy. In this work, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO-TiO2 core-shell nanostructures are used as the photoanode for DSSCs. High-density, vertically aligned ITO nanowires are grown via a thermal evaporation method and TiO2 is coated on nanowire surfaces via TiCl4 treatment. It is found that high TiO2 annealing temperatures increase the crystallinity of TiO2 shell and suppress electron recombination in the core-shell nanostructures. High annealing temperatures also decrease dye loading. The highest efficiency of 3.39% is achieved at a TiO2 annealing temperature of 500°C. When HfO2 blocking layers are inserted between the core and shell of the nanowire, device efficiency is further increased to 5.83%, which is attributed to further suppression of electron recombination from ITO to the electrolyte. Open-circuit voltage decay (OCVD measurements show that the electron lifetime increases by more than an order of magnitude upon HfO2 insertion. ITO-TiO2 core-shell nanostructures with HfO2 blocking layers are promising photoanodes for DSSCs.

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanowires as the transparent electrodes for organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Yeh Yee; Tan, Sek Sean; Yong, Thian Khok; Nee, Chen Hon; Yap, Seong Shan; Tou, Teck Yong; Sáfrán, György; Horváth, Zsolt Endre; Moscatello, Jason P; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2012-01-20

    Low-temperature growth of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs) was obtained on catalyst-free amorphous glass substrates at 250 °C by Nd:YAG pulsed-laser deposition. These ITO NWs have branching morphology as grown in Ar ambient. As suggested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), our ITO NWs have the tendency to grow vertically outward from the substrate surface, with the (400) plane parallel to the longitudinal axis of the nanowires. These NWs are low in electrical resistivity (1.6×10⁻⁴ Ω cm) and high in visible transmittance (~90–96%), and were tested as the electrode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). An enhanced current density of ~30 mA cm⁻² was detected at bias voltages of ~19–21 V with uniform and bright emission. We found that the Hall mobility of these NWs is 2.2–2.7 times higher than that of ITO film, which can be explained by the reduction of Coulomb scattering loss. These results suggested that ITO nanowires are promising for applications in optoelectronic devices including OLED, touch screen displays, and photovoltaic solar cells.

  3. Epitaxy-enabled vapor-liquid-solid growth of tin-doped indium oxide nanowires with controlled orientations

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Youde

    2014-08-13

    Controlling the morphology of nanowires in bottom-up synthesis and assembling them on planar substrates is of tremendous importance for device applications in electronics, photonics, sensing and energy conversion. To date, however, there remain challenges in reliably achieving these goals of orientation-controlled nanowire synthesis and assembly. Here we report that growth of planar, vertical and randomly oriented tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires can be realized on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates via the epitaxy-assisted vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, by simply regulating the growth conditions, in particular the growth temperature. This robust control on nanowire orientation is facilitated by the small lattice mismatch of 1.6% between ITO and YSZ. Further control of the orientation, symmetry and shape of the nanowires can be achieved by using YSZ substrates with (110) and (111), in addition to (100) surfaces. Based on these insights, we succeed in growing regular arrays of planar ITO nanowires from patterned catalyst nanoparticles. Overall, our discovery of unprecedented orientation control in ITO nanowires advances the general VLS synthesis, providing a robust epitaxy-based approach toward rational synthesis of nanowires. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Studying the Properties of RF-Sputtered Nanocrystalline Tin-Doped Indium Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ceramic target of Indium tinoxide (ITO (90% In2O3-10%SnO2 has been used to prepare transparent semiconductive thin films on glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The properties of the thin films are affected by controlling the deposition parameters, namely, RF power values and deposition times. The structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the thin films are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and four-point probe measurement. Nanoparticles of 10–20 nm are measured and confirmed using both FESEM and AFM. The main preferred orientations of the prepared thin films are (222 and (400 of the cubic ITO structure. The transparent semiconductive films have high transmittance within the visible range of values 80–90% and resistivity of about 1.62×10−4 Ω⋅cm.

  5. The influence of dopant distribution on the optoelectronic properties of tin-doped indium oxide nanocrystals and nanocrystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounis, Sebastien Dahmane

    Colloidally prepared nanocrystals of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors have emerged in the past decade as an exciting new class of plasmonic materials. In recent years, there has been tremendous progress in developing synthetic methods for the growth of these nanocrystals, basic characterization of their properties, and their successful integration into optoelectronic and electrochemical devices. However, many fundamental questions remain about the physics of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in these materials, and how their optoelectronic properties derive from their underlying structural properties. In particular, the influence of the concentration and distribution of dopant ions and compensating defects on the optoelectronic properties of TCO nanocrystals has seen little investigation. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely studied and commercially deployed TCO. Herein we investigate the role of the distribution of tin dopants on the optoelectronic properties of colloidally prepared ITO nanocrystals. Owing to a high free electron density, ITO nanocrystals display strong LSPR absorption in the near infrared. Depending on the particular organic ligands used, they are soluble in various solvents and can readily be integrated into densely packed nanocrystal films with high conductivities. Using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, modeling and simulation of the optical properties of the nanocrystals using the Drude model, and transport measurements, it is demonstrated herein that the radial distribution of tin dopants has a strong effect on the optoelectronic properties of ITO nanocrystals. ITO nanocrystals were synthesized in both surface-segregated and uniformly distributed dopant profiles. Temperature dependent measurements of optical absorbance were first combined with Drude modeling to extract the internal electrical properties of the ITO nanocrystals, demonstrating that they are well-behaved degenerately doped semiconductors

  6. Effect of ambient combinations of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen on the properties of DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marikkannan, M. [Department of Materials Science, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu, Madurai-625021 (India); Subramanian, M.; Tanemura, M. [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mayandi, J., E-mail: pearce@mtu.edu, E-mail: jeyanthinath@yahoo.co.in [Department of Materials Science, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Tamil Nadu, Madurai-625021 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University (United States); Vishnukanthan, V. [Department of Physics, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1126 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo (Norway); Pearce, J. M., E-mail: pearce@mtu.edu, E-mail: jeyanthinath@yahoo.co.in [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Sputtering has been well-developed industrially with singular ambient gases including neutral argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N{sub 2}) to enhance the electrical and optical performances of indium tin oxide (ITO) films. Recent preliminary investigation into the use of combined ambient gases such as an Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2} ambient mixture, which was suitable for producing high-quality (low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance) of ITO films. To build on this promising preliminary work and develop deeper insight into the effect of ambient atmospheres on ITO film growth, this study provides a more detailed investigation of the effects of ambient combinations of Ar, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} on sputtered ITO films. Thin films of ITO were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using three different ambient combinations: Ar, Ar+O{sub 2} and Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2}. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the three ambient sputtered ITO films were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, four probe electrical conductivity and optical spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman studies confirmed the cubic indium oxide structure, which is polycrystalline at room temperature for all the samples. AFM shows the minimum surface roughness of 2.7 nm for Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2} sputtered thin film material. The thickness of the films was determined by the cross sectional SEM analysis and its thickness was varied from 920 to 817 nm. The columnar growth of ITO films was also discussed here. The electrical and optical measurements of Ar+O{sub 2}+H{sub 2} ambient combinations shows a decreased sheet resistance (5.06 ohm/□) and increased optical transmittance (69%) than other samples. The refractive index and packing density of the films were projected using optical transmission spectrum. From the observed results the Ar+O{sub 2}+H

  7. Effect of ambient combinations of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen on the properties of DC magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marikkannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sputtering has been well-developed industrially with singular ambient gases including neutral argon (Ar, oxygen (O2, hydrogen (H2 and nitrogen (N2 to enhance the electrical and optical performances of indium tin oxide (ITO films. Recent preliminary investigation into the use of combined ambient gases such as an Ar+O2+H2 ambient mixture, which was suitable for producing high-quality (low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance of ITO films. To build on this promising preliminary work and develop deeper insight into the effect of ambient atmospheres on ITO film growth, this study provides a more detailed investigation of the effects of ambient combinations of Ar, O2, H2 on sputtered ITO films. Thin films of ITO were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using three different ambient combinations: Ar, Ar+O2 and Ar+O2+H2. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the three ambient sputtered ITO films were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, four probe electrical conductivity and optical spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman studies confirmed the cubic indium oxide structure, which is polycrystalline at room temperature for all the samples. AFM shows the minimum surface roughness of 2.7 nm for Ar+O2+H2 sputtered thin film material. The thickness of the films was determined by the cross sectional SEM analysis and its thickness was varied from 920 to 817 nm. The columnar growth of ITO films was also discussed here. The electrical and optical measurements of Ar+O2+H2 ambient combinations shows a decreased sheet resistance (5.06 ohm/□ and increased optical transmittance (69% than other samples. The refractive index and packing density of the films were projected using optical transmission spectrum. From the observed results the Ar+O2+H2 ambient is a good choice to enhance the total optoelectronic properties of the ITO

  8. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ~ 4.1 Å), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 × 10-4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained "on/off" current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 × 107, 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm2/V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs.

  9. Improvement of particle size of indium tin oxide nanoparticles by in-situ dispersion method for solution based transparent heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Cha, Seung-Jae; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Young-Sung

    2016-12-01

    In this study, particles size of indium tin oxide nanoparticles (ITO-NPs) was improved by in-situ dispersion method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as dispersing agent, and reduced precipitates heat-treated at 400 °C. Brunauer, Emmett & Teller (BET) specific surface area (SSA) analysis and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) observations found that their particle size was improved by using the in-situ dispersion. In addition, we found that the particle size of the crystalline ITO-NPs was changed with the concentration of the PVP as well as the heat-treatment temperature. When 2 wt% PVP was applied, the highest BET SSA of the ITO-NPs, 114.7 m2/g, was obtained after heat-treatment at 400 °C. In fact, the lowest sized, less than 7 nm, ITO-NPs was observed with high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The ITO-NPs were well dispersed in the solvent to formulate a 20 wt% ITO-NPs solution. ITO-NPs coated layer on 3 × 3 cm2 quartz substrate showed sheet resistance of 319 Ω/□ and optical transmittance of 89.5% after heat-treatment at 900 °C. Heat was well generated at the ITO-NPs coated layer with supplied voltage. Also, temperature of above 150 °C was obtained from the transparent heater, and 89 °C was obtained with low power, 0.21 W/cm2, that is superior to commercial heaters.

  10. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defense Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Sungai Besi Camp, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, Nor Azah, E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Uda [Institute of Nanoelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hajian, Reza, E-mail: rezahajian@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization.

  11. Gold-modified indium tin oxide as a transparent window in optoelectronic diagnostics of electrochemically active biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Igor; Gad, Alaaeldin; Scholz, Gregor; Boht, Heidi; Martens, Michael; Schilling, Meinhard; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas; Schröder, Uwe

    2017-08-15

    Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) are one of the emerging green bioenergy domains that are utilizing microorganisms for wastewater treatment or electrosynthesis. Real-time monitoring of bioprocess during operation is a prerequisite for understanding and further improving bioenergy harvesting. Optical methods are powerful tools for this, but require transparent, highly conductive and biocompatible electrodes. Whereas indium tin oxide (ITO) is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, it is a non-ideal platform for biofilm growth. Here, a straightforward approach of surface modification of ITO anodes with gold (Au) is demonstrated, to enhance direct microbial biofilm cultivation on their surface and to improve the produced current densities. The trade-off between the electrode transmittance (critical for the underlying integrated sensors) and the enhanced growth of biofilms (crucial for direct monitoring) is studied. Au-modified ITO electrodes show a faster and reproducible biofilm growth with three times higher maximum current densities and about 6.9 times thicker biofilms compared to their unmodified ITO counterparts. The electrochemical analysis confirms the enhanced performance and the reversibility of the ITO/Au electrodes. The catalytic effect of Au on the ITO surface seems to be the key factor of the observed performance improvement since the changes in the electrode conductivity and their surface wettability are relatively small and in the range of ITO. An integrated platform for the ITO/Au transparent electrode with light-emitting diodes was fabricated and its feasibility for optical biofilm thickness monitoring is demonstrated. Such transparent electrodes with embedded catalytic metals can serve as multifunctional windows for biofilm diagnostic microchips. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward Plastic Smart Windows: Optimization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for the Synthesis of Electrochromic Devices on Polycarbonate Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Castellino, Micaela; Garino, Nadia; Virga, Alessandro; Pirri, Candido F; Mandracci, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Plastic smart windows are becoming one of the key elements in view of the fabrication of inexpensive, lightweight electrochromic (EC) devices to be integrated in the new generation of high-energy-efficiency buildings and automotive applications. However, fabricating electrochromic devices on polymer substrates requires a reduction of process temperature, so in this work we focus on the development of a completely room-temperature deposition process aimed at the preparation of ITO-coated polycarbonate (PC) structures acting as transparent and conductive plastic supports. Without providing any substrate heating or surface activation pretreatments of the polymer, different deposition conditions are used for growing indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films by the radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique. According to the characterization results, the set of optimal deposition parameters is selected to deposit ITO electrodes having high optical transmittance in the visible range (∼90%) together with low sheet resistance (∼8 ohm/sq). The as-prepared ITO/PC structures are then successfully tested as conductive supports for the fabrication of plastic smart windows. To this purpose, tungsten trioxide thin films are deposited by the reactive sputtering technique on the ITO/PC structures, and the resulting single electrode EC devices are characterized by chronoamperometric experiments and cyclic voltammetry. The fast switching response between colored and bleached states, together with the stability and reversibility of their electrochromic behavior after several cycling tests, are considered to be representative of the high quality of the EC film but especially of the ITO electrode. Indeed, even if no adhesion promoters, additional surface activation pretreatments, or substrate heating were used to promote the mechanical adhesion among the electrode and the PC surface, the observed EC response confirmed that the developed materials can be successfully employed for the

  13. Electro-Mechanical Coupling of Indium Tin Oxide Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate ITO/PET for Flexible Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Saleh, Mohamed A.

    2013-05-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used transparent electrode in flexible solar cells because of its high transparency and conductivity. But still, cracking of ITO on PET substrates due to tensile loading is not fully understood and it affects the functionality of the solar cell tremendously as ITO loses its conductivity. Here, we investigate the cracking evolution in ITO/PET exposed to two categories of tests. Monotonous tensile testing is done in order to trace the crack propagation in ITO coating as well as determining a loading range to focus on during our study. Five cycles test is also conducted to check the crack closure effect on the resistance variation of ITO. Analytical model for the damage in ITO layer is implemented using the homogenization concept as in laminated composites for transverse cracking. The homogenization technique is done twice on COMSOL to determine the mechanical and electrical degradation of ITO due to applied loading. Finally, this damage evolution is used for a simulation to predict the degradation of ITO as function in the applied load and correlate this degradation with the resistance variation. Experimental results showed that during unloading, crack closure results in recovery of conductivity and decrease in the overall resistance of the cracked ITO. Also, statistics about the crack spacing showed that the cracking pattern is not perfectly periodical however it has a positively skewed distribution. The higher the applied load, the less the discrepancy in the crack spacing data. It was found that the cracking mechanism of ITO starts with transverse cracking with local delamination at the crack tip unlike the mechanism proposed in the literature of having only cracking pattern without any local delamination. This is the actual mechanism that leads to the high increase in ITO resistance. The analytical code simulates the damage evolution in the ITO layer as function in the applied strain. This will be extended further to

  14. Fabrication of Metal-Deposited Indium Tin Oxides: Its Applications to 385 nm Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Tae Geun

    2016-03-01

    We report performance improvements in near-ultraviolet (NUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using various metal-doped indium tin oxide (ITO/metals). Metals with an orbital energy gap greater than that of an In atom (e.g., Ti, Ga, Ge, and Al) are deposited on ITO, and subsequent annealing is performed to improve optical transmittance of ITO due to effective bandgap increase via the linear combination of atomic orbitals, as well as electrical conductivity; thus, current spreading via metal-doping effect at the surface of ITO. As a result, the ITO/metals (annealed at 550 °C, 1 min) exhibit 90.5-94.7% transmittance at 385 nm and a specific contact resistance of 2.1-3.0 × 10(-3) Ω cm(2), whereas the reference ITOs exhibit 76.5-89.5% and 3.2-4.5 × 10(-3) Ω cm(2), respectively. Compared to NUV LEDs using conventional ITO (60 nm), the InGaN/AlGaInN NUV LED using ITO (110 nm)/metal (3 nm) on average exhibits a 70% increase in light output power at 100 mA and a 2% decrease in forward voltage at 20 mA, with more uniform and brighter emission images. We also identified the origin for the improvement by analyzing the surface of ITO/metals using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. This approach could offer a simple, effective way to enhance the overall efficiency of conventional NUV LEDs using ITO.

  15. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of Indium Tin Oxide Films Deposited at Various Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shou; Cao, Xin; Pan, Jingong; Wang, Xinwei; Tan, Xuehai; Delahoy, Alan E.; Chin, Ken K.

    2017-02-01

    Here, a systematic experimental study on indium tin oxide (ITO) films is presented to investigate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on the film's electrical properties. The results of Hall measurements show that adding more oxygen in the sputtering gas has negative influences on the electrical conductivity of ITO films. As O2/(O2 + Ar)% in the sputtering gas is increased from 0 to 6.98%, the resistivity of ITO film rises almost exponentially from 7.9 × 10-4 to 4.1 × 10-2 Ω cm, with the carrier density decreasing from 4.8 × 1020 to 5.4 × 1018 cm-3. The origins of these negative effects are discussed with focuses on the concentration of ionized impurities and the scattering of grain barriers. Extensive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were employed to gain insight into the concentration of ionized impurities, demonstrating a strong correlation between the oxygen vacancy concentration and the carrier density in ITO films as a function of sputtering O2 partial pressure. Other microstructural characterization techniques including x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analyses were used to evaluate the average grain size of ITO films. For ITO films that have carrier density above 1019 cm-3, scattering on grain boundaries and other crystallographic defects show negligible effects on the carrier transport. The results point to the oxygen vacancy concentration that dictates the carrier density and, thus, the resistivity of magnetron-sputtered ITO films.

  16. Evaluation of Biofuel Cells with Hemoglobin as Cathodic Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Reduction on Bare Indium-Tin-Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Ayato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel cell (BFC cathode has been developed based on direct electron transfer (DET of hemoglobin (Hb molecules with an indium-tin-oxide (ITO electrode and their electrocatalysis for reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. In this study, the ITO-coated glass plates or porous glasses were prepared by using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD method and examined the electrochemical characteristics of the formed ITO in pH 7.4 of phosphate buffered saline (PBS solutions containing and not containing Hb. In half-cell measurements, the reduction current of H2O2 due to the electrocatalytic activity of Hb increased with decreasing electrode potential from around 0.1 V versus Ag|AgCl|KCl(satd. in the PBS solution. The practical open-circuit voltage (OCV on BFCs utilizing H2O2 reduction at the Hb-ITO cathode with a hydrogen (H2 oxidation anode at a platinum (Pt electrode was expected to be at least 0.74 V from the theoretical H2 oxidation potential of −0.64 V versus Ag|AgCl|KCl(satd. in pH 7.4. The assembled single cell using the ITO-coated glass plate showed the OCV of 0.72 V and the maximum power density of 3.1 µW cm−2. The maximum power per single cell was recorded at 21.5 µW by using the ITO-coated porous glass.

  17. Indium-tin oxide films obtained by DC magnetron sputtering for improved Si heterojunction solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jin-Hua; Si, Jia-Le; Wang, Jiu-Xiu; Feng, Ya-Yang; Gao, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Jing-Xiao

    2015-11-01

    The indium-tin oxide (ITO) film as the antireflection layer and front electrodes is of key importance to obtaining high efficiency Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells. To obtain high transmittance and low resistivity ITO films by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, we studied the impacts of the ITO film deposition conditions, such as the oxygen flow rate, pressure, and sputter power, on the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films. ITO films of resistivity of 4×10-4 Ω·m and average transmittance of 89% in the wavelength range of 380-780 nm were obtained under the optimized conditions: oxygen flow rate of 0.1 sccm, pressure of 0.8 Pa, and sputtering power of 110 W. These ITO films were used to fabricate the single-side HJ solar cell without an intrinsic a-Si:H layer. However, the best HJ solar cell was fabricated with a lower sputtering power of 95 W, which had an efficiency of 11.47%, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.626 V, a filling factor (FF) of 0.50, and a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 36.4 mA/cm2. The decrease in the performance of the solar cell fabricated with high sputtering power of 110 W is attributed to the ion bombardment to the emitter. The Voc was improved to 0.673 V when a 5 nm thick intrinsic a-Si:H layer was inserted between the (p) a-Si:H and (n) c-Si layer. The higher Voc of 0.673 V for the single-side HJ solar cell implies the excellent c-Si surface passivation by a-Si:H. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2011AA050501).

  18. Control of indium tin oxide anode work function modified using Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokura, Yuya; Dogase, Tomomichi; Shinbo, Tatsuki; Nakayashiki, Yuya; Takagi, Yusuke; Ueda, Kazuyoshi; Sarangerel, Khayankhyarvaa; Delgertsetseg, Byambasuren; Ganzorig, Chimed; Sakomura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    The use of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers to modify the indium tin oxide (ITO) work function and thus improve the performance of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60)-based and boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/C60-based small molecule organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) was examined. In general, LB precursor compounds contain one or more long alkyl chain substituents that can act as spacers to prevent electrical contact with adjoining electrode surfaces. As one example of such a compound, arachidic acid (CH3(CH2)18COOH) was inserted in the forms of one-layer, three-layer or five-layer LB films between the anode ITO layer and the p-type layer in ZnPc-C60-based OPVs to investigate the effects of the long alkyl chain group when it acts as an electrically insulating spacer. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) values of the OPVs with the three- and five-layer inserts (1.78 mA.cm-2 and 0.61 mA.cm-2, respectively) were reduced dramatically, whereas the Jsc value for the OPV with the single-layer insertion (2.88 mA.cm-2) was comparable to that of the OPV without any insert (3.14 mA.cm-2). The ITO work function was shifted positively by LB deposition of a surfactant compound, C9F19C2H4-O-C2H4-COOH (PFECA), which contained a fluorinated head group. This positive effect was maintained even after formation of an upper p-type organic layer. The Jsc and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the SubPc-C60-based OPV with the LB-modified ITO layers were effectively enhanced. As a result, a 42% increase in device efficiency was achieved.

  19. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline pure and indium doped tin oxide powders synthesized in a single step by flame spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvister Raju, M. J.; Bhattacharya, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Phase pure tin oxide (SnO2) and indium doped SnO2 nanocrystalline powders were synthesized in a single step by a flame spray pyrolysis method. The as-synthesized powders were characterized by standard techniques of x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy. Using x-ray diffraction, it was established that the powders had the rutile (cassiterite) structure with tetragonal unit cells in the space group P42/mnm. Using the Rietveld refinement method, structural analysis was carried out in order to obtain the lattice parameters, volume and density. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed the presence of indium in the doped samples. Absorption spectra revealed that the powders were transparent to the visible spectrum with a sharp absorption below 350 nm. Energy bandgaps, estimated by Tauc plots, established that increasing the doping concentration reduced the bandgap.

  20. Chemical stability and electrical performance of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a solution process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chul Ho; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2013-07-10

    We investigated the chemical stability and electrical properties of dual-active-layered zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO)/indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) structures (DALZI) with the durability of the chemical damage. The IGZO film was easily corroded or removed by an etchant, but the DALZI film was effectively protected by the high chemical stability of ZTO. Furthermore, the electrical performance of the DALZI thin-film transistor (TFT) was improved by densification compared to the IGZO TFT owing to the passivation of the pin holes or pore sites and the increase in the carrier concentration due to the effect of Sn(4+) doping.

  1. In situ growth of superconducting YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. thin films on Si with conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, B.J.; James, J.H.; Gauzzi, A.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.; Reinhart, F.K. (Institute of Micro and Optoelectronics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-09-10

    Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) thin films have been grown {ital in} {ital situ} on Si with conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) buffer layers. ITO allows YBCO to be electrically connected to the underlying Si substrate. Both the YBCO film and ITO buffer layer, grown by ion beam sputtering, are textured and polycrystalline with a combined room- temperature resistivity of about 2 m{Omega} cm. Superconducting onsets are 92 K with zero resistance at 68 K.

  2. Ultralow loss visible surface plasmon based waveguides formed in indium-tin-oxide coated Fe-doped LiNbO3 slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Xue, Tingyu; Li, Liang; Zhang, Jingwen

    2016-09-15

    Visible reconfigurable waveguides were evidenced in a composite system formed with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films coated on iron-doped lithium noibate (LN) slabs. Surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) excited at the ITO/LN interface were believed to be behind the observed light guiding, which is inherent with superlow loss for its sub-nanometer modified layer. The forward near-surface-normal scattering and accompanying reduction of the specular reflectivity in the front ITO/LN interface are consistent with SPP excitation.

  3. Superconducting YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta. thin films on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, B.J.; Gauzzi, A.; James, J.H.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.; Reinhart, F.K. (Institut de Micro et Optoelectronique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (CH))

    1990-12-10

    Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) thin films have been grown {ital in} {ital situ} on GaAs with conducting indium-tin-oxide (ITO) buffer layers. Superconducting onset is about 92 K with zero resistance at 60 K. ITO buffer layers usually form Schottky-like barriers on GaAs. The YBCO film and ITO buffer layer, grown by ion beam sputter codeposition, are textured and polycrystalline with a combined room-temperature resistivity of about 1 m{Omega} cm.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of copper oxide (CuO)–gold (Au)–titania (TiO{sub 2}) and copper oxide (CuO)–gold (Au)–indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowire heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Nitin, E-mail: nchopra@eng.ua.edu [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT), Box 870202, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Shi, Wenwu [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Center for Materials for Information Technology (MINT), Box 870202, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lattner, Andrew [NSF-REH, Northridge High School, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Nanoscale heterostructures composed of standing copper oxide nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles and shells of titania and indium tin oxide were fabricated. The fabrication process involved surfactant-free and wet-chemical nucleation of gold nanoparticles on copper oxide nanowires followed by a line-of-sight sputtering of titania or indium tin oxide. The heterostructures were characterized using high resolution electron microscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interfaces, morphologies, crystallinity, phases, and chemical compositions were analyzed. The process of direct nucleation of gold nanoparticles on copper oxide nanoparticles resulted in low energy interface with aligned lattice for both the components. Coatings of polycrystalline titania or amorphous indium tin oxide were deposited on standing copper oxide nanowire–gold nanoparticle heterostructures. Self-shadowing effect due to standing nanowire heterostructures was observed for line-of-sight sputter deposition of titania or indium tin oxide coatings. Finally, the heterostructures were studied using Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, including band gap energy analysis. Tailing in the band gap energy at longer wavelengths (or lower energies) was observed for the nanowire heterostructures. - Highlights: • Heterostructures comprised of CuO nanowires coated with Au nanoparticles. • Au nanoparticles exhibited nearly flat and low energy interface with nanowire. • Heterostructures were further sputter-coated with oxide shell of TiO{sub 2} or ITO. • The process resulted in coating of polycrystalline TiO{sub 2} and amorphous ITO shell.

  5. Effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed Al2O3 layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Park, Sung Kyu

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the effects of annealing conditions on the dielectric properties of solution-processed aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layers for indium-zinc-tin-oxide (IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated. The dielectric properties of Al2O3 layers such as leakage current density and dielectric strength were largely affected by their annealing conditions. In particular, oxygen partial pressure in rapid thermal annealing, and the temperature profile of hot plate annealing had profound effects on the dielectric properties. From a refractive index analysis, the enhanced dielectric properties of Al2O3 gate dielectrics can be attributed to higher film density depending on the annealing conditions. With the low-temperature-annealed Al2O3 gate dielectric at 350 degrees C, solution-processed IZTO TFTs with a field-effect mobility of approximately 2.2 cm2/Vs were successfully fabricated.

  6. Influence of heat treatment on indium-tin-oxide anodes and copper phthalocyanine hole injection layers in organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenenko, Larysa [Department of Photonics Materials Science, Chitose Institute of Science and Technology (CIST), 758-65 Bibi, Chitose, Hokkaido 066-8655 (Japan) and Department of Optoelectronics, V. E. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NASU, 41 Nauky Ave., Kyiv 03128 (Ukraine) and Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)]. E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Chihaya [Department of Photonics Materials Science, Chitose Institute of Science and Technology (CIST), 758-65 Bibi, Chitose, Hokkaido 066-8655 (Japan); Center for Future Chemistry, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2007-04-09

    Modifications of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) layers by heat treatment aimed at lowering driving voltage in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are examined. Significant changes were observed in the surface morphology and carrier injection properties of ITO and CuPc layers after annealing at T = 250 deg. C for 0-60 min in a glove box. In the case of ITO annealing, although the ITO work function gradually decreased and the surface of the ITO layer became smoother than that of an unannealed ITO layer, we observed an appreciable decrease in the driving voltage with an increase in annealing time. In the case of CuPc annealing, on the other hand, we observed deterioration of the OLED's characteristics. All devices demonstrated an increase in driving voltage due to the pronounced crystallization of the CuPc layer.

  7. Tuning indium tin oxide work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Wang, Yixin; Huang, Xun; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2013-12-01

    Selective electron collection by an interfacial layer modified indium tin oxide cathode is critically important for achieving high-efficiency inverted structure organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we demonstrate that solution-processed alkali carbonates, such as Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3, are good interfacial layer materials. Both carbonate concentration and annealing conditions can affect cathode work function and surface roughness. By proper optimization, different alkali carbonates can be almost equally effective as the cathode interfacial layer. Furthermore, good device performance can be achieved at a low annealing temperature (cells on plastic substrates. This work indicates that alkali carbonates, not just cesium carbonate, are valid choices as the cathode interlayer in inverted OPV devices.

  8. Light Output Enhancement of InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Contrasting Indium Tin-Oxide Nanopatterned Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various nanopatterns on the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO layer are investigated to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs. Triangular, square, and circular nanohole patterns with the square and hexagonal lattices are fabricated on the ITO layer by an electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching processes. The circular hole pattern with a hexagonal geometry is found to be the most effective among the studied structures. Light output intensity measurements reveal that the circular hole nanopatterned ITO LEDs with a hexagonal lattice show up to 35.6% enhancement of output intensity compared to the sample without nanopatterns.

  9. Chlorinated indium tin oxide electrode by InCl3 aqueous solution for high-performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Zhou, Dong-Ying; Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The authors develop a facile and effective method to produce the chlorinated indium tin oxide (Cl-ITO) treated by InCl3 aqueous solution and UV/ozone. The work function of the Cl-ITO achieved by this treatment is as high as 5.69 eV, which is increased by 1.09 eV compared with that of the regular ITO without any treatment. Further investigation proved that the enhancement of the work function is attributed to the formation of In-Cl bonds on the Cl-ITO surface. Green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices based on the Cl-ITO electrodes exhibit excellent electroluminescence performance, elongating lifetime due to the improvement in hole injection.

  10. Influence of oxygen flow rate on properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by ion-assisted electron beam evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artorn Pokaipisit

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films with various oxygen flow rates were deposited onto glass substrates by ion-assistedelectron beam evaporation. All other deposition parameters were kept constant. The electrical and optical properties of theITO thin films have been investigated as a function of oxygen flow rate. Optical transmittance and optical band gap energy were measured by spectrophotometer. Sheet resistance was measured by four-point probe method. It has been found that an oxygen flow rate at 12 sccm was suitable for improving the properties of ITO thin films. The resistivity and optical transmittance of ITO thin films were 7.210-4 -cm and 84%, respectively. The optical band gap was 4.19 eV.

  11. Improvement of optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide layer of GaN-based light-emitting diode by surface plasmon in silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chu-Young [Applied Device and Material Department, Korea Advanced Nano fab Center, Suwon 443–270 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sang-Hyun [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500–712 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Ju, E-mail: esjpark@gist.ac.kr [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500–712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    We report on the effect of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the optical transmittance and electrical conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent conducting layer deposited on p-GaN layer of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The sheet resistance of ITO and the series resistance of LEDs were decreased due to the increased electrical conductivity of ITO by Ag nanoparticles, compared with those of the LEDs with a bare ITO only. The ITO transmittance was also improved by localized surface plasmon resonance between the incident light and the randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles on ITO. The optical output power of LEDs with Ag nanoparticles on ITO was increased by 16% at 20 mA of injection current. - Highlights: • We studied the effect of Ag nanoparticles deposited on ITO on the properties of LED. • The optical power of LED and transmittance of ITO were improved by Ag surface plasmon. • The electrical conductivity of ITO was increased by Ag nanoparticles.

  12. Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 films on Si and GaAs with conducting indium tin oxide buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. H.; Kellett, B. J.; Gauzzi, A.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) thin films have been grown in situ by ion beam sputtering on Si and GaAs substrates with intermediate, conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) buffer layers. Uniform, textured YBCO films on ITO exhibit Tc onset at 92K and Tc0 at 68K and 60K on Si and GaAs substrates respectively, the latter value is the highest Tc reported on GaAs. YBCO/ITO films exhibit metallic resistivity behavior. In situ YBCO films on SrTiO3 show Tc onset = 92K and Tc0 = 90.5K, transition widths are less than 1K. A simple optical bolometer has been constructed from YBCO films on SrTiO3. Tunnelling measurements have also been carried out using the first YBCO-Pb window-type tunnel junctions.

  13. Effects of deposition parameters on the electrical and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene napthalate substrates deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, S.K.; Han, H.; Zoo, Y. [School of Materials and Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA 85287 (United States); Lewis, J.; Grego, S. [RTI International Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA 27709 (United States); Lee, K.; Iyer, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA 27411 (United States); Alford, T.L. [School of Materials and Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA 85287 (United States)], E-mail: alford@asu.edu

    2008-04-30

    The mechanical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene naphthalate substrates are critical to the development of flexible displays. In the present study, mechanical and electrical properties are studied as a function of processing conditions, including radio frequency (rf) power, substrate temperature, and substrate plasma treatment. The results show that substrate temperature has the largest impact on mechanical performance. The best electrical performance is obtained from high substrate temperature and high rf power, while the best mechanical performance is obtained from high substrate temperature and low rf power. Plasma treatment gases influence electrical and mechanical properties, with mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gases producing the best results. This work provides better initial understanding of the relationship between sputter process conditions and film properties and their influence on electrical and mechanical performance.

  14. Effect of maleic anhydride-aniline derivative buffer layer on the properties of flexible substrate heterostructures: Indium tin oxide/nucleic acid base/metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045, Angers (France); Preda, N. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Albu, A.-M. [Department of Polymer Science, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 (Romania)

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the properties of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) based heterostructures deposited on flexible substrates. The effects of two types of maleic anhydride-aniline derivatives (maleic anhydride-cyano aniline or maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline) buffer layer, deposited between indium tin oxide and (G) or (C) layer, on the optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures have been identified. The heterostructures containing a film of maleic anhydride-2,4 dinitroaniline have shown a good transparency and low photoluminescence in visible range. This buffer layer has determined an increase in the conductance only in the heterostructures based on (G) and (C) deposited on biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate substrate.

  15. Defect-dependent carrier transport behavior of polymer:ZnO composites/electrodeposited CdS/indium tin oxide devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yow-Jon, E-mail: rzr2390@yahoo.com.tw; You, C. F. [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-28

    Currents through the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) and ZnO nanoparticles (PEDOT:PSS:ZnO)/CdS/indium tin oxide (ITO) hetero-structures are studied. The authors introduced the electrodeposition technique with sulfide treatment to improve the film quality of CdS. It is shown that sulfide treatment leads to a reduction in the number of donor-like defects (that is, sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitials) in the CdS films, which leads to the conversion of carrier transport behavior from Poole-Frenkel emission to thermionic emission-diffusion for PEDOT:PSS:ZnO/CdS/ITO devices. A correlation is identified for providing a guide to control the current transport behavior of PEDOT:PSS:ZnO/CdS/ITO devices.

  16. Defect-dependent carrier transport behavior of polymer:ZnO composites/electrodeposited CdS/indium tin oxide devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; You, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Currents through the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) and ZnO nanoparticles (PEDOT:PSS:ZnO)/CdS/indium tin oxide (ITO) hetero-structures are studied. The authors introduced the electrodeposition technique with sulfide treatment to improve the film quality of CdS. It is shown that sulfide treatment leads to a reduction in the number of donor-like defects (that is, sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitials) in the CdS films, which leads to the conversion of carrier transport behavior from Poole-Frenkel emission to thermionic emission-diffusion for PEDOT:PSS:ZnO/CdS/ITO devices. A correlation is identified for providing a guide to control the current transport behavior of PEDOT:PSS:ZnO/CdS/ITO devices.

  17. Disposable amperometric immunosensor based on layer-by-layer electro-depositing of the nanogold particles, prussian blue-modified indium tin oxide for determination of -fetoprotein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Li; Wen-Bin Liang; Li-Chao Fang; Hui Huang; Jun Deng; Jun-Song Zheng

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a novel disposable immunosensor for the detection of -fetoprotein (AFP) based on the Indium tin oxide (ITO) modified by the sequential electro-deposition of the nanogold particles (nano-Au) and prussian blue (PB) is described. The ITO is employed to reduce the cost, instead of expensive gold electrode, glassy carbon electrode or platinum electrode. The layer-by-layer (LBL) electro-deposition of the nano-Au, PB is used for blocking the possible leakage from the substrate electrode surface and to prevent shedding of composite membrane. Under optimal conditions, the proposed immunosensor displays a broad linear response to AFP, the working range being 0.25 to 300.0 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.04 ng mL-1. The studied immunosensor exhibits high sensitivity, fast analytical time and good stability. The proposed methodology is potentially attractive for clinical immunoassays.

  18. Electrochemical pulsed deposition of platinum nanoparticles on indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chih-Sheng [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chuen-Horng [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    In this study, a pulsed-mode electrochemical deposition (Pulse-ECD) technique was employed to deposit platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) on the indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate (ITO/PET) substrate as a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The characteristic properties of the Pulse-ECD PtNPs were prepared and compared to the traditional (electron beam) Pt film. The surface morphologies of the PtNPs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM). The FE-SEM results showed that our PtNPs were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PET flexible substrates via the Pulse-ECD technique. The AFM results indicated that the surface roughness of the pulsed PtNPs influenced the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs, due to the high specific surface area of PtNPs which enhanced the catalytic activities for the reduction (I{sub 3}{sup −} to I{sup −}) of redox electrolyte. In combination with a N719 dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSCs with the PtNPs flexible counter electrode showed a PCE of 4.3% under the illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). The results demonstrated that the Pulse-ECD PtNPs are good candidate for flexible DSSCs. - Highlights: • We used indium tin oxide/polyethylene terephthalate as a flexible substrate. • We utilized pulse electrochemical deposition to deposit platinum nanoparticles. • We synthesized a flexible counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • The power conversion efficiency of DSSC was measured to be 4.3%.

  19. AFM, CLSM and EIS characterization of the immobilization of antibodies on indium-tin oxide electrode and their capture of Legionella pneumophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souiri, Mina; Blel, Nesrine; Sboui, Dejla; Mhamdi, Lotfi; Epalle, Thibaut; Mzoughi, Ridha; Riffard, Serge; Othmane, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic surface molecular structures and properties of monoclonal anti-Legionella pneumophila antibodies on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface were studied to elaborate an electrochemical immunosensor for Legionella pneumophila detection. A monoclonal anti-Legionella pneumophila antibody (MAb) has been immobilized onto an ITO electrode via covalent chemical bonds between antibodies amino-group and the ring of (3-Glycidoxypropyl) trimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The functionalization of the immunosensor was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle measurement, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence of [Fe(CN)₆](3-/4-) as a redox probe. Specific binding of Legionella pneumophila sgp 1 cells onto the antibody-modified ITO electrode was shown by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging and EIS. AFM images evidenced the dense and relatively homogeneous morphology on the ITO surface. The formation of the complex epoxysilane-antibodies acting as barriers for the electron transfer between the electrode surface and the redox species in the solution induced a significant increase in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) compared to all the electric elements. A linear relationship between the change in charge transfer resistance (ΔRct=Rct after immunoreactions - Rct control) and the logarithmic concentration value of L. pneumophila was observed in the range of 5 × 10(1)-5 × 10(4) CFU mL(-1) with a limit of detection 5 × 10(1)CFU mL(-1). The present study has demonstrated the successful deposition of an anti-L. pneumophila antibodies on an indium-tin oxide surface, opening its subsequent use as immuno-captor for the specific detection of L. pneumophila in environmental samples.

  20. Endocytosis of indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles by macrophages provokes pyroptosis requiring NLRP3-ASC-Caspase1 axis that can be prevented by mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abderrahim; Muzembo, Basilua André; Yagyu, Ken-Ichi; Baba, Nobuyasu; Deschaseaux, Frédéric; Sensebé, Luc; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2016-05-19

    The biological effects of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) are of considerable importance because workers exposed to indium compounds have been diagnosed with interstitial lung disease or pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; however, the pathophysiology of these diseases is undefined. Here, mice intraperitoneally inoculated with ITO-nanoparticles (ITO-NPs) resulted in peritonitis dependent in NLRP3 inflammasome, with neutrophils recruitment and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Withal peritoneal macrophages exposed ex vivo to ITO-NPs caused IL-1β secretion and cytolysis. Further, alveolar macrophages exposed to ITO-NPs in vitro showed ITO-NP endocytosis and production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β, ensued cell death by cytolysis. This cell death was RIPK1-independent but caspase1-dependent, and thus identified as pyroptosis. Endocytosis of ITO-NPs by activated THP-1 cells induced pyroptosis with IL-1β/TNF-α production and cytolysis, but not in activated THP-1 cells with knockdown of NLRP3, ASC, or caspase1. However, exposing activated THP-1 cells with NLRP3 or ASC knockdown to ITO-NPs resulted in cell death but without cytolysis, with deficiency in IL-1β/TNF-α, and revealing features of apoptosis. While, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with macrophages impaired both inflammation and cell death induced by ITO-NPs. Together, our findings provide crucial insights to the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases caused by ITO particles, and identify MSCs as a potent therapeutic.

  1. Selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from indium-tin-oxide etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction process: Understanding their chemistry and comparisons of sustainable valorization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Hong, Hyun Seon; Cho, Sung-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Sustainable valorization processes for selective recovery of pure copper nanopowder from Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) etching wastewater by various wet chemical reduction processes, their chemistry has been investigated and compared. After the indium recovery by solvent extraction from ITO etching wastewater, the same is also an environmental challenge, needs to be treated before disposal. After the indium recovery, ITO etching wastewater contains 6.11kg/m(3) of copper and 1.35kg/m(3) of aluminum, pH of the solution is very low converging to 0 and contain a significant amount of chlorine in the media. In this study, pure copper nanopowder was recovered using various reducing reagents by wet chemical reduction and characterized. Different reducing agents like a metallic, an inorganic acid and an organic acid were used to understand reduction behavior of copper in the presence of aluminum in a strong chloride medium of the ITO etching wastewater. The effect of a polymer surfactant Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation, to provide dispersion stability and control the size of copper nanopowder was investigated and compared. The developed copper nanopowder recovery techniques are techno-economical feasible processes for commercial production of copper nanopowder in the range of 100-500nm size from the reported facilities through a one-pot synthesis. By all the process reported pure copper nanopowder can be recovered with>99% efficiency. After the copper recovery, copper concentration in the wastewater reduced to acceptable limit recommended by WHO for wastewater disposal. The process is not only beneficial for recycling of copper, but also helps to address environment challenged posed by ITO etching wastewater. From a complex wastewater, synthesis of pure copper nanopowder using various wet chemical reduction route and their comparison is the novelty of this recovery process.

  2. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Y., E-mail: kasiwagi@omtri.or.jp; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M. [Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K. [Okuno Chemical Industries Co., Ltd., 2-1-25 Hanaten-nishi, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-0011 (Japan); Furuta, S. [Tomoe Works Co., Ltd., 7-13 Tsurumachi, Amagasaki 660-0092 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  3. Controlled Synthesis of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanocrystals%铟锡氧(ITO)纳米晶的可控合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽敏; 金一政; 任玉萍; 奕清

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了ITO纳米晶合成中不同羧酸对产物的形貌的影响。采用简便的“一锅法”,在反应体系中采用直链的正辛酸盐或具有支链结构的2一乙基己酸盐,可以分别得到单分散性较好的球状纳米晶(7.6nm±1.9nm)和纳米花(18.3±2.1nm)。我们认为这是由于反应前驱体具有不同的反应活性,并通过红外实验对这一想法进行了验证。我们同时发现不同形貌的ITO纳米晶在近红外区域的局域表面等离子体共振(Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance,LSPR)吸收峰峰形和峰位存在较大的差异。%Here we present the study of the effects of various of carboxylic acid on the morphology in the systhesis of the indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals. Nearly monodisperse ITO spherical nano-dots (7.6nm ± 1.9nm) and nano-flowers (18.3 ± 2. lnm) can be obtained via a "one-pot" approach by introducing additional 2-ethylhexanoate and n-octanoic acid (C8 H1602), respectively, owing to the different reactivities of the indium precursors. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peaks greatly changed both in its wavelength and shape because of the two different nano-structures.

  4. Indium-tin-oxide thin film transistor biosensors for label-free detection of avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Di; Zhuo, Ming [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xiaoai [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Xu, Cheng; Jiang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Gao, Fu [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Taihong, E-mail: thwang@hnu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► A highly selective label-free biosensor is established based on indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs). ► AI H5N1 virus was successfully detected through shift in threshold voltage and field-effect mobility of ITO TFT. ► The ITO TFT is applied in biosensor for the first time and shows good reusability and stability. ► Fabrication of the platform is simple with low cost, which is suitable for mass commercial production. -- Abstract: As continuous outbreak of avian influenza (AI) has become a threat to human health, economic development and social stability, it is urgently necessary to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus quickly. In this study, we fabricated indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs) on a glass substrate for the detecting of AI H5N1. The ITO TFT is fabricated by a one-shadow-mask process in which a channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes during magnetron sputtering deposition. Monoclonal anti-H5N1 antibodies specific for AI H5N1 virus were covalently immobilized on the ITO channel by (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The introduction of target AI H5N1 virus affected the electronic properties of the ITO TFT, which caused a change in the resultant threshold voltage (V{sub T}) and field-effect mobility. The changes of I{sub D}–V{sub G} curves were consistent with an n-type field effect transistor behavior affected by nearby negatively charged AI H5N1 viruses. The transistor based sensor demonstrated high selectivity and stability for AI H5N1 virus sensing. The sensor showed linear response to AI H5N1 in the concentrations range from 5 × 10{sup −9} g mL{sup −1} to 5 × 10{sup −6} g mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.8 × 10{sup −10} g mL{sup −1}. Moreover, the ITO TFT biosensors can be repeatedly used through the washing processes. With its excellent electric properties and the potential for mass commercial production, ITO TFTs

  5. The pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing technology and electroless Cu metallic patterns on indium-doped tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Yi [Medical Device Section, Medical Devices and Opto-Electronics Equipment Department, Metal Industries Research and Development Centre, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsai-Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Nian, Yan-Yu [Graduate School of Defense Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China); Wang, Min-Wen, E-mail: mwwang@cc.kuas.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Ger, Ming-Der, E-mail: mingderger@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, 335 Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method to fabricate copper pattern on an indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate is described. This method involves ink-jet printing of a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate/Pd nanoparticle (CTS-g-PVAc-Pd) based ink on an untreated ITO plate to create the catalytic sites, onto which copper is subsequently deposited by an electroless plating method. To prepare the CTS-g-PVAc-Pd nanoparticles, a pH-sensitive chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate (CTS-g-PVAc) copolymer is utilized to self-reduce Pd nanoparticles. The pH-sensitive CTS chains function as stabilizing agent for noble metal nanoparticles in acidic ink solution. On the other hand, CTS-g-PVAc copolymers convert to hydrophilic CTS-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) via alkali hydrolysis during the electroless copper plating. Therefore, the copper film with dramatically enhanced adhesion is formed on the surface of ITO glass without special pretreatment step before electroless deposition of copper film. Our results show that this process yields copper line with width down to 60 μm and ITO plated with the copper coating has good electrical conductivity, with an electrical resistivity of about 5.4 μΩ cm. - Highlights: • Chitosan-g-polyvinyl acetate copolymer provides reducing environment for Pd nanoparticles. • pH-sensitive Pd nanoparticles as ink for ink-jet printing. • Patterning Pd catalyst for the electroless deposition of copper patterns. • Method to fabricate copper patterns on In-doped tin oxide substrates. • Ink-jet printing can be directly and easily applied to fabricate metal patterns.

  6. Improvement in performance of solution-processed indium-zinc-tin oxide thin-film transistors by UV/O3 treatment on zirconium oxide gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Bukke Ravindra; Avis, Christophe; Delwar Hossain Chowdhury, Md; Kim, Taehun; Lin, Tengda; Jang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    We studied solution-processed amorphous indium-zinc-tin oxide (a-IZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with spin-coated zirconium oxide (ZrOx) as the gate insulator. The ZrOx gate insulator was used without and with UV/O3 treatment. The TFTs with an untreated ZrOx gate dielectric showed a saturation mobility (μsat) of 0.91 ± 0.29 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage (Vth) of 0.28 ± 0.36 V, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 199 ± 37.17 mV/dec, and a current ratio (ION/IOFF) of ˜107. The TFTs with a UV/O3-treated ZrOx gate insulator exhibited μsat of 2.65 ± 0.43 cm2 V-1 s-1, Vth of 0.44 ± 0.35 V, SS of 133 ± 24.81 mV/dec, and ION/IOFF of ˜108. Hysteresis was 0.32 V in the untreated TFTs and was eliminated by UV/O3 treatment. Also, the leakage current decreased significantly when the IZTO TFT was coated onto a UV/O3-treated ZrOx gate insulator.

  7. Improvement of the electrochromic response of a low-temperature sintered dye-modified porous electrode using low-resistivity indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Watanabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An indium tin oxide (ITO nanoparticle-based porous electrode sintered at low temperatures was investigated as a transparent electrode for electrochromic displays (ECDs. The electrochromic (EC response of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C, which exhibited a generally low resistivity, was markedly superior to that of a conventional dye-modified TiO2 porous electrode sintered at the same temperature. Moreover, the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode sintered at 150 °C were better than those of the high-temperature (450 °C sintered conventional dye-modified TiO2 porous electrode. These improvements in the EC characteristics of the dye-modified ITO porous electrode are attributed to its lower resistivity than that of the TiO2 porous electrodes. In addition to its sufficiently low resistivity attained under the sintering conditions required for flexible ECD applications, the ITO porous film had superior visible-light transparency and dye adsorption capabilities. We conclude that the process temperature, resistivity, optical transmittance, and dye adsorption capability of the ITO porous electrode make it a promising transparent porous electrode for flexible ECD applications.

  8. Ti-doped indium tin oxide thin films for transparent field-effect transistors: control of charge-carrier density and crystalline structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-In; Ji, Kwang Hwan; Jang, Mi; Yang, Hoichang; Choi, Rino; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2011-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are representative transparent conducting oxide media for organic light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and solar cell applications. Extending the utility of ITO films from passive electrodes to active channel layers in transparent field-effect transistors (FETs), however, has been largely limited because of the materials' high carrier density (>1 × 10(20) cm(-3)), wide band gap, and polycrystalline structure. Here, we demonstrate that control over the cation composition in ITO-based oxide films via solid doping of titanium (Ti) can optimize the carrier concentration and suppress film crystallization. On 120 nm thick SiO(2)/Mo (200 nm)/glass substrates, transparent n-type FETs prepared with 4 at % Ti-doped ITO films and fabricated via the cosputtering of ITO and TiO(2) exhibited high electron mobilities of 13.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a low subthreshold gate swing of 0.25 V decade(-1), and a high I(on/)I(off) ratio of >1 × 10(8).

  9. A thermostat chip of indium tin oxide glass substrate for static polymerase chain reaction and in situ real time fluorescence monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Kun; Qu, Bai-Yan; Tian, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Xiao-Jie; Fang, Fang

    2008-03-03

    A thermostat chip of indium-tin oxide glass substrate for static chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is, for the first time, introduced in this paper. The transparent conductive layer was used as an electro-heating element. Pulse width modulation and fuzzy proportional integration-differentiation algorithm were adopted in the temperature programming of the chip. The temperature distribution was investigated, and a dynamic control precision within +/-2 degrees C was achieved. The highest ramping rates were 37 degrees Cs(-1) for heating and 8 degrees Cs(-1) for cooling with an electric fan. The PCR reaction vials were constructed with polyethylene tubes or poly(dimethylsiloxane) directly on the thermostat chip; the chip had a typical size of 25 mm x 25 mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Static chip PCR was successfully demonstrated either in a single vial or in an up to 8-parallel array vials. In situ real time fluorescence monitoring during PCR of a lambda DNA fragments (236bp) with SYBR Green I was demonstrated using a blue light emission diode as a light source and a photomultiplier as a detector. The method proposed here is characterized by open access, easy fabrication and low cost. This work could be the basis for developing a portable real time PCR system with disposable chips for point of care tests.

  10. Influence of Indium-Tin Oxide Additive on the Sintering Process and Conductivity of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 Solid Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Fa; Gao, Lu; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2017-07-01

    Because of the poor sintering ability and low phase purity limit in the application of a Na3Zr2Si2PO12 solid electrolyte, it is important to find an effective way to obtain a pure and dense Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramic at reduced temperature. In this study, high conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) was innovatively used as the sintering additive to improve the purity and density of the Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramic. The influence of ITO additive on density, phase, microstructure and conductivity of the Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramic was investigated. Archimedes method, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy and complex impedance spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques to evaluate the effect of the additive. The results show that the ITO sintering additive increases not only the purity and density but also the conductivity of the Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramic. The Na3Zr2Si2PO12 ceramic with 3 wt.% ITO additive sintered at 1150°C for 4 h possesses a high density of 3.15 g/cm3 and good conductivity of (3.95 ± 0.12) × 10-4 S/cm.

  11. An Optically-Transparent Aptamer-Based Detection System for Colon Cancer Applications Using Gold Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh-Raji, Mojgan; Ghafar-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Amoabediny, Ghasem

    2016-07-12

    In this paper, a label-free aptamer based detection system (apta-DS) was investigated for detecting colon cancer cells. For this purpose, we employed an aptamer specific to colon cancer cells like HCT116 expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on their surfaces. Capture aptamers were covalently immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through self-assembly monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA) activated with EDC (1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) methods were used for electrodeposition of GNPs on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO). In this work, the CV method was also used to demonstrate the conjugation of GNPs and aptamers and identify the cancer cell capturing events. Additionally, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) confirmed the deposition of GNPs on ITO and the immobilization of aptamer on the apta-DS. The electrodeposited GNPs played the role of nanoprobes for cancer cell targeting without losing the optical transparency of the ITO substrate. A conventional optical microscope also verified the detection of captured cancer cells. Based on this study's results relying on electrochemical and optical microscopic methods, the proposed apta-DS is reliable and high sensitive with a LOD equal to 6 cell/mL for colon cancer detection.

  12. An Optically-Transparent Aptamer-Based Detection System for Colon Cancer Applications Using Gold Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ahmadzadeh-Raji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a label-free aptamer based detection system (apta-DS was investigated for detecting colon cancer cells. For this purpose, we employed an aptamer specific to colon cancer cells like HCT116 expressing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA on their surfaces. Capture aptamers were covalently immobilized on the surface of gold nanoparticles (GNPs through self-assembly monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA activated with EDC (1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS. The cyclic voltammetry (CV and chronopotentiometry (CP methods were used for electrodeposition of GNPs on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO. In this work, the CV method was also used to demonstrate the conjugation of GNPs and aptamers and identify the cancer cell capturing events. Additionally, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM confirmed the deposition of GNPs on ITO and the immobilization of aptamer on the apta-DS. The electrodeposited GNPs played the role of nanoprobes for cancer cell targeting without losing the optical transparency of the ITO substrate. A conventional optical microscope also verified the detection of captured cancer cells. Based on this study’s results relying on electrochemical and optical microscopic methods, the proposed apta-DS is reliable and high sensitive with a LOD equal to 6 cell/mL for colon cancer detection.

  13. Low Temperature DC Sputtering Deposition on Indium-Tin Oxide Film and Its Application to Inverted Top-emitting Organic Light-emitting Diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LIN; Junsheng YU; Shuangling LOU; Jun WANG; Yadong JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) ultrathin films were prepared on glass substrate by DC (direct current) magnetron sputtering technique with the assistance of H2O vapor to avoid potential surface damage. The film properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, four-point probe method and spectrophotometer. The results show that the deposited ITO film with introduced H20 during sputtering process was almost amor- phous. The average visible light transmission of 100 nm ITO film was around 85% and square resistivity was below 80 Ω/square. The film was used as the transparent anode to fabricate an inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (IT-OLEDs) with the structure of glass substrate/AIq3 (40 nm)/NPB (15 nm)/CuPc(x nm)/ITO anode (100 nm), where the film thickness of CuPc was optimized. It was found that the lumi-nance of this IT-OLEDs was improved from 25 cd/m2 to more than 527 cd/m2 by increasing the thickness of CuPc, and luminance efficiency of 0.24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2 was obtained, which indicated that the optimized thickness of CuPc layer was around 15 nm.

  14. Effect of nitrogen doping on the structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering for gallium nitride light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lifei; Cheng, Guoan; Wang, Hougong; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Ruiting; Ding, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    The indium tin oxide (ITO) films are prepared by the direct current magnetron sputtering technology with an ITO target in a mixture of argon and nitrogen gas at room temperature. The blue transmittance at 455 nm rises from 63% to 83% after nitrogen doping. The resistivity of the ITO film reduces from 4.6 × 10-3 (undoped film) to 5.7 × 10-4 Ω cm (N-doped film). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data imply that the binding energy of the In3d5/2 peak is declined 0.05 eV after nitrogen doping. The high resolution transmission electron microscope images show that the nitrogen loss density of the GaN/ITO interface with N-doped ITO film is smaller than that of the GaN/ITO interface with undoped ITO film. The forward turn-on voltage of gallium nitride light emitting diode reduces by 0.5 V after nitrogen doping. The fabrication of the N-doped ITO film is conducive to modify the N component of the interface between GaN and ITO layer.

  15. Effects of SiO_2 and TiO_2 on resistance stabilities of flexible indium-tin-oxide films prepared by ion assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuqiong; YU Zhinong; WANG Wuyu; FAN Yuejiang; DING Zhao; XUE Wei

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic buffer layers such as SiO_2 or TiO_2 and transparent conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by ion assisted deposition (LAD) at room temperature, and the effects of SiO_2 and TiO_2 on the bending resis-tance performance of flexible ITO films were investigated. The results show that ITO films with SiO_2 or TiO_2 buffer layer have better resis-tance stabihties compared to ones without the buffer layer when the ITO films are inwards bent at a bending radius more than 1.2 cm and when the ITO films are outwards bent at a bending radius from 0.8 cm to 1.2 cm. ITO films with SiO_2 buffer layer have better resistance sta-bilities compared to ones with TiO_2 buffer layer after the ITO Films are bent several hundreds of cycles at the same bending radius, for the adhesion of SiO_2 is stronger than that of TiO_2. The compressive stress resulted from inward bending leads to the formation of more defects in the ITO films compared with the tensile stress arising from outward bending. SiO_2 and TiO_2 buffer layers can effectively improve the crystal-linity of ITO films in (400), (440) directions.

  16. Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Nickel Oxide Thin Films Spray-Deposited onto Indium-Doped Tin Oxide for Solar Conversion Scopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonstoichiometric nickel oxide (NiOx has been deposited as thin film utilizing indium-doped tin oxide as transparent and electrically conductive substrate. Spray deposition of a suspension of NiOx nanoparticles in alcoholic medium allowed the preparation of uniform NiOx coatings. Sintering of the coatings was conducted at temperatures below 500°C for few minutes. This scalable procedure allowed the attainment of NiOx films with mesoporous morphology and reticulated structure. The electrochemical characterization showed that NiOx electrodes possess large surface area (about 1000 times larger than their geometrical area. Due to the openness of the NiOx morphology, the underlying conductive substrate can be contacted by the electrolyte and undergo redox processes within the potential range in which NiOx is electroactive. This requires careful control of the conditions of polarization in order to prevent the simultaneous occurrence of reduction/oxidation processes in both components of the multilayered electrode. The combination of the open structure with optical transparency and elevated electroactivity in organic electrolytes motivated us to analyze the potential of the spray-deposited NiOx films as semiconducting cathodes of dye-sensitized solar cells of p-type when erythrosine B was the sensitizer.

  17. Effect of gold nanoparticle attached multi-walled carbon nanotube-layered indium tin oxide in monitoring the effect of paracetamol on the release of epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Rajendra N., E-mail: rngcyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rana, Anoop Raj Singh [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Aziz, Md. Abdul; Oyama, Munetaka [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2011-05-05

    A gold nanoparticle attached multi-walled carbon nanotube-layered indium tin oxide (AuNP/MWNT/ITO) electrode has been used for monitoring the effect of paracetamol (PAR) on the release of epinephrine (EPI) in human urine. The modified electrode shows an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of EPI and PAR with acceleration of electron transfer rate as compared to MWNT/ITO and AuNP/ITO. An apparent shift of the oxidative potential towards less positive potential with a marked increase in peak currents is observed in square wave voltammetry at AuNP/MWNT/ITO electrode. The calibration curves for the simultaneous determination of PAR and EPI showed an excellent linear response, ranging from 5.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} to 80.0 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for both the compounds. The detection limits for the simultaneous determination of PAR and EPI were found to be 46 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} and 42 x 10{sup -10} mol L{sup -1} respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PAR and EPI in human urine. It is observed that gold nanoparticles attached with multi-wall carbon nanotube catalyze the oxidation of EPI and PAR.

  18. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my; Yow, H.K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Konkoly-Thege ut 29-33, Budapest XII (Hungary)

    2008-04-30

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to < 4 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O{sub 2} and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N{sub 2} and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N{sub 2} but polycrystalline for using O{sub 2} and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O{sub 2} and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO.

  19. Effects of cation compositions on the electronic properties and optical dispersion of indium zinc tin oxide thin films by electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, Yus Rama [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Banten 42435 (Indonesia); Seo, Soonjoo [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kangil; Oh, Suhk Kun [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hee Jae, E-mail: hjkang@cbu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Sung; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Jae Cheol [Analytical Engineering Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of); Tougaard, Sven [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M. (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • REELS analysis can provide optical dispersion and electronic properties of oxide materials. • The band gap varied with In/Zn/Sn compositions and increased after annealing. • The optical properties were examined using REELS in conjunction with the Tougaard–Yubero model. • The dispersion parameters were determined by a single-oscillator Wemple–DiDomenico model. • The Zn and Sn contents play a crucial role in determining the single-oscillator constant and dispersion energy of IZTO thin films. - Abstract: The electronic properties and optical dispersion of indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO) films with different cation compositions were investigated by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The REELS spectra of IZTO films revealed that the band gap varied with different Sn/Zn ratios and In content. The optical properties were examined with REELS data using Tougaard–Yubero model and the results were compared with the envelope of the transmission spectra obtained using a UV-spectrometer. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index from REELS results was studied in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple–DiDomenico model. The results showed that the different compositions of In/Zn/Sn caused a change in the dispersion parameters of IZTO thin films in contrast to the static values of refractive indices and dielectric constant which remained the same. Our work demonstrated that REELS is an efficient tool to study the optical properties of a material by obtaining the optical parameters.

  20. Electrochemically driven biocatalysis of the oxygenase domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in indium tin oxide nanoparticles/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Wollenberger, Ulla; Qian, Jing; Lettau, Katrin; Jung, Christiane; Liu, Songqin

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays a critical role in a number of key physiological and pathological processes. Investigation of electron-transfer reactions in NOS would contribute to a better understanding of the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis mechanism. Herein, we describe an electrochemically driven catalytic strategy, using a nanocomposite that consisted of the oxygenase domain of neuronal NOS (D290nNOSoxy), indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Fast direct electron transfer between electrodes and D290nNOSoxy was observed with the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ket) of 154.8 ± 0.1s(-1) at the scan rate of 5 Vs(-1). Moreover, the substrate N(ω)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NHA) was used to prove the concept of electrochemically driven biocatalysis of D290nNOSoxy. In the presence of the oxygen cosubstrate and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor, the addition of NHA caused the decreases of both oxidation current at +0.1 V and reduction current at potentials ranging from -0.149 V to -0.549 V vs Ag/AgCl. Thereafter, a series of control experiments such as in the absence of BH4 or D290nNOSoxy were performed. All the results demonstrated that D290nNOSoxy biocatalysis was successfully driven by electrodes in the presence of BH4 and oxygen. This novel bioelectronic system showed potential for further investigation of NOS and biosensor applications.

  1. Fabrication of conducting-filament-embedded indium tin oxide electrodes: application to lateral-type gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-11-02

    A novel conducting filament (CF)-embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) film is fabricated using an electrical breakdown method. To assess the performance of this layer as an ohmic contact, it is applied to GaN (gallium nitride) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a p-type electrode for comparison with typical GaN LEDs using metallic ITO. The operating voltage and output power of the LED with the CF embedded ITO are 3.93 V and 8.49 mW, respectively, at an injection current of 100 mA. This is comparable to the operating voltage and output power of the conventionally fabricated LEDs using metallic ITO (3.93 V and 8.43 mW). Moreover, the CF-ITO LED displays uniform and bright light emission indicating excellent current injection and spreading. These results suggest that the proposed method of forming ohmic contacts is at least as effective as the conventional method.

  2. Application of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film as a low emissivity film on Ni-based alloy at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kewei; Zhou, Wancheng; Tang, Xiufeng; Luo, Fa

    2016-09-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films as the low emissivity coatings of Ni-based alloy at high temperature were studies. ITO films were deposited on the polished surface of alloy K424 by direct current magnetron sputtering. These ITO-coated samples were heat-treated in air at 600-900 °C for 150 h to explore the effect of high temperature environment on the emissivity. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and EDS. The results show that the surface of sample is integrity after heat processing at 700 °C and below it. A small amount of fine crack is observed on the surface of sample heated at 800 °C and Ti oxide appears. There are lots of fine cracks on the sample annealed at 900 °C and a large number of various oxides are detected. The average infrared emissivities at 3-5 μm and 8-14 μm wavebands were tested by an infrared emissivity measurement instrument. The results show the emissivity of the sample after annealed at 600 and 700 °C is still kept at a low value as the sample before annealed. The ITO film can be used as a low emissivity coating of super alloy K424 up to 700 °C.

  3. Enhanced conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film by acid treatment for indium tin oxide-free organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chiao; Huang, Chih-Kuo; Hung, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Mei-Ying

    2016-08-01

    An acid treatment is used in the enhancement of the conductivity of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin film, which is often used as the anode in organic solar cells. There are three types of acid treatment for PEDOT:PSS thin film: hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid treatments. In this study, we examine and compare these three ways with each other for differences in conductivity. Hydrochloric acid results in the highest conductivity enhancement, from 0.3 to 1109 S/cm. We also discuss the optical transmittance, conductivity, surface roughness, surface morphology, and stability, as well as the factors that can influence device efficiency. The devices are fabricated using an acid-treated PEDOT:PSS thin film as the anode. The highest power conversion efficiency was 1.32%, which is a large improvement over that of the unmodified organic solar cell (0.21%). It is comparable to that obtained when using indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode, ca. 1.46%.

  4. Core-shell tin oxide, indium oxide, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles on silicon with tunable dispersion: electrochemical and structural characteristics as a hybrid Li-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiak, Michal J; Armstrong, Eileen; Kennedy, Tadhg; Torres, Clivia M Sotomayor; Ryan, Kevin M; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2013-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is considered a very promising material as a high capacity Li-ion battery anode. Its adoption depends on a solid understanding of factors that affect electrochemical behavior and performance such as size and composition. We demonstrate here, that defined dispersions and structures can improve our understanding of Li-ion battery anode material architecture on alloying and co-intercalation processes of Lithium with Sn from SnO2 on Si. Two different types of well-defined hierarchical Sn@SnO2 core-shell nanoparticle (NP) dispersions were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon, composed of either amorphous or polycrystalline SnO2 shells. In2O3 and Sn doped In2O3 (ITO) NP dispersions are also demonstrated from MBE NP growth. Lithium alloying with the reduced form of the NPs and co-insertion into the silicon substrate showed reversible charge storage. Through correlation of electrochemical and structural characteristics of the anodes, we detail the link between the composition, areal and volumetric densities, and the effect of electrochemical alloying of Lithium with Sn@SnO2 and related NPs on their structure and, importantly, their dispersion on the electrode. The dispersion also dictates the degree of co-insertion into the Si current collector, which can act as a buffer. The compositional and structural engineering of SnO2 and related materials using highly defined MBE growth as model system allows a detailed examination of the influence of material dispersion or nanoarchitecture on the electrochemical performance of active electrodes and materials.

  5. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  6. Indium-tin oxide films obtained by DC magnetron sputtering for improved Si heterojunction solar cell applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷锦华; 司嘉乐; 王九秀; 冯亚阳; 郜小勇; 卢景霄

    2015-01-01

    The indium–tin oxide (ITO) film as the antireflection layer and front electrodes is of key importance to obtaining high efficiency Si heterojunction (HJ) solar cells. To obtain high transmittance and low resistivity ITO films by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, we studied the impacts of the ITO film deposition conditions, such as the oxygen flow rate, pressure, and sputter power, on the electrical and optical properties of the ITO films. ITO films of resistivity of 4×10−4Ω·m and average transmittance of 89%in the wavelength range of 380–780 nm were obtained under the optimized conditions:oxygen flow rate of 0.1 sccm, pressure of 0.8 Pa, and sputtering power of 110 W. These ITO films were used to fabricate the single-side HJ solar cell without an intrinsic a-Si:H layer. However, the best HJ solar cell was fabricated with a lower sputtering power of 95 W, which had an efficiency of 11.47%, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.626 V, a filling factor (FF) of 0.50, and a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 36.4 mA/cm2. The decrease in the performance of the solar cell fabricated with high sputtering power of 110 W is attributed to the ion bombardment to the emitter. The Voc was improved to 0.673 V when a 5 nm thick intrinsic a-Si:H layer was inserted between the (p) a-Si:H and (n) c-Si layer. The higher Voc of 0.673 V for the single-side HJ solar cell implies the excellent c-Si surface passivation by a-Si:H.

  7. Indium-tin-oxide thin film transistor biosensors for label-free detection of avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Di; Zhuo, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoai; Xu, Cheng; Jiang, Jie; Gao, Fu; Wan, Qing; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-04-22

    As continuous outbreak of avian influenza (AI) has become a threat to human health, economic development and social stability, it is urgently necessary to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus quickly. In this study, we fabricated indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs) on a glass substrate for the detecting of AI H5N1. The ITO TFT is fabricated by a one-shadow-mask process in which a channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes during magnetron sputtering deposition. Monoclonal anti-H5N1 antibodies specific for AI H5N1 virus were covalently immobilized on the ITO channel by (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The introduction of target AI H5N1 virus affected the electronic properties of the ITO TFT, which caused a change in the resultant threshold voltage (VT) and field-effect mobility. The changes of ID-VG curves were consistent with an n-type field effect transistor behavior affected by nearby negatively charged AI H5N1 viruses. The transistor based sensor demonstrated high selectivity and stability for AI H5N1 virus sensing. The sensor showed linear response to AI H5N1 in the concentrations range from 5×10(-9) g mL(-1) to 5×10(-6) g mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.8×10(-10) g mL(-1). Moreover, the ITO TFT biosensors can be repeatedly used through the washing processes. With its excellent electric properties and the potential for mass commercial production, ITO TFTs can be promising candidates for the development of label-free biosensors.

  8. Factors affecting the photovoltaic behavior of inverted polymer solar cells using various indium tin oxide electrodes modified by amines with simple chemical structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumi, Takuji [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kuwabara, Takayuki, E-mail: tkuwabar@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Takahiro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Taima, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Takahashi, Kohshin, E-mail: ktakaha@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Research Center for Sustainable Energy and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    In a glass–indium tin oxide (ITO)/amine/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxylenethiophene):poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)/Au cell, which uses small molecule amine-modified ITO as the electron collection electrode, a light-soaking effect under irradiation of simulated sunlight was restrained considerably compared with in an ITO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Au cell containing bare ITO. That is, the time taken to arrive at a saturated V{sub oc} from the initial V{sub oc} became short when the ionization potential (I{sub P}) of ITO reduced by the amine modification, and consequently both of its saturated V{sub oc} and power conversion efficiency (PCE) improved. The I{sub P} decreased with an increase in the number (N) of amino groups in a single amine molecule, because the basic amino groups can efficiently neutralize any acidic hydroxyl groups on ITO through a multipoint interaction. The superior performance of the cell containing the amine-modified electrode with large N was perhaps because the energy mismatch formed by a contact between ITO and acceptor PCBM reduced, and consequently the rate of electron collection at ITO increased. - Highlights: • Surface-modification of ITO electrode with low molecular weight amines • Ionization potential of ITO was decreased by forming an electrical double layer. • Light-soaking effect has been observed by irradiating white light. • The light-soaking effect mainly improved the open-circuit photovoltage. • Open-circuit photovoltage was limited by ionization potential of amine-modified ITO.

  9. Smooth e-beam-deposited tin-doped indium oxide for III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser intracavity contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-10-01

    We carried out a series of simulations analyzing the dependence of mirror reflectance, threshold current density, and differential efficiency on the scattering loss caused by the roughness of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts for 405 nm flip-chip III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). From these results, we determined that the ITO root-mean-square (RMS) roughness should be <1 nm to minimize scattering losses in VCSELs. Motivated by this requirement, we investigated the surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of electron-beam (e-beam) evaporated ITO films, as a function of substrate temperature and oxygen flow and pressure. The transparency and conductivity were seen to increase with increasing temperature. Decreasing the oxygen flow and pressure resulted in an increase in the transparency and resistivity. Neither the temperature, nor oxygen flow and pressure series on single-layer ITO films resulted in highly transparent and conductive films with <1 nm RMS roughness. To achieve <1 nm RMS roughness with good optoelectronic properties, a multi-layer ITO film was developed, utilizing a two-step temperature scheme. The optimized multi-layer ITO films had an RMS roughness of <1 nm, along with a high transparency (˜90% at 405 nm) and low resistivity (˜2 × 10-4 Ω-cm). This multi-layer ITO e-beam deposition technique is expected to prevent p-GaN plasma damage, typically observed in sputtered ITO films on p-GaN, while simultaneously reducing the threshold current density and increasing the differential efficiency of III-nitride VCSELs.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of nano-granular indium-tin-oxide within modified electron filtering model with chemisorption-type potential barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzari, V.; Nika, D. L.; Damaskin, I.; Cho, B. K.; Korotcenkov, G.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an approach to the numerical study of the thermoelectric parameters of nanoscale indium tin oxide (ITO, Sn content<10 at%) based on an electron filtering model (EFM) was developed. Potential barriers at grain boundaries were assumed to be responsible for a filtering effect. In the case of the dominant inelastic scattering of electrons, the maximal distance between potential barriers was limited in this modified model. The algorithm for such characteristic length calculation was proposed, and its value was evaluated for ITO. In addition, the contributions of different scattering mechanisms (SMs) in electron transport were examined. It was confirmed that in bulk ITO, the scattering on polar optical phonons (POPs) and ionized impurities dominates, limiting electron transport. In the framework of the filtering model, the basic thermoelectric parameters (i.e., electrical conductivity, mobility, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor (PF)) were calculated for ITO in the temperature range of 100-500 °C as a function of potential barrier height. The results demonstrated a sufficient rise of the Seebeck coefficient with an increase in barrier height and specific behavior of PF. It was found that PF is very sensitive to barrier height, and at its optimal value for granular ITO, it may exceed the PF for bulk ITO by 3-5 times. The PF maximum was achieved by band bending, slightly exceeding Fermi energy. The nature of surface potential barriers in nano-granular ITO with specific grains is due to the oxygen chemisorption effect, and this can be observed despite of the degeneracy of the conduction band (CB). This hypothesis and the corresponding calculations are in good agreement with recent experimental studies [Brinzari et al. Thin Solid Films 552 (2014) 225].

  11. High quality aluminium doped zinc oxide target synthesis from nanoparticulate powder and characterisation of sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, P.J.M., E-mail: P.J.M.Isherwood@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Neves, N. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Bowers, J.W. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Newbatt, P. [Innovnano, S. A., Rua Coimbra Inovação Parque, IParque Lote 13, 3040-570 Antanhol, Coimbra (Portugal); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticulate aluminium-doped zinc oxide powder was synthesised through detonation and subsequent rapid quenching of metallic precursors. This technique allows for precise compositional control and rapid nanoparticle production. The resulting powder was used to form sputter targets, which were used to deposit thin films by radio frequency sputtering. These films show excellent sheet resistance and transmission values for a wide range of deposition temperatures. Crystal structure analysis shows that crystals in the target have a random orientation, whereas the crystals in the films grow perpendicular to the substrate surface and propagate preferentially along the (002) axis. Higher temperature deposition reduces crystal quality with a corresponding decrease in refractive index and an increase in sheet resistance. Films deposited between room temperature and 300 °C were found to have sheet resistances equivalent to or better than indium tin oxide films for a given average transmission value. - Highlights: • Nanoparticulate AZO powder was used to produce sputter targets. • The powder synthesis technique allows for precise compositional control. • Sputtered films show excellent optical, electronic and structural properties. • High temperature films show reduced electrical and structural quality. • For a given transmission, films show equivalent sheet resistances to ITO.

  12. Highly transparent and conductive Al-doped ZnO nanoparticulate thin films using direct write processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunnam, S; Ankireddy, K; Kellar, J; Cross, W

    2014-05-16

    Solution processable Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films are attractive candidates for low cost transparent electrodes. We demonstrate here an optimized nanoparticulate ink for the fabrication of AZO thin films using scalable, low-cost direct write processing (ultrasonic spray deposition) in air at atmospheric pressure. The thin films were made via thermal processing of as-deposited films. AZO films deposited using the proposed nanoparticulate ink with further reducing in vacuum and rf plasma of forming gas exhibited optical transparency greater than 95% across the visible spectrum, and electrical resistivity of 0.5 Ω cm and it drops down to 7.0 × 10(-2) Ω cm after illuminating with UV light, which is comparable to commercially available tin doped indium oxide colloidal coatings. Various structural analyses were performed to investigate the influence of ink chemistry, deposition parameters, and annealing temperatures on the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of the spray deposited AZO thin films. Optical micrographs confirmed the presence of surface defects and cracks using the AZO NPs ink without any additives. After adding N-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropylmethyldimethoxy silane to the ink, AZO films exhibited an optical transparency which was virtually identical to that of the plain glass substrate.

  13. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  14. The Modification of Indium Tin Oxide with Phosphonic Acids: Mechanism of Binding, Tuning of Surface Properties, and Potential for Use in Organic Electronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, Peter J.; Jones, Simon C.; Paniagua, Sergio A.; Sharma, Asha; Kippelen, Bernard; Armstrong, Neal R.; Marder, Seth R.

    2012-03-20

    Transparent metal oxides, in particular, indium tin oxide (ITO), are critical transparent contact materials for applications in next-generation organic electronics, including organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Understanding and controlling the surface properties of ITO allows for the molecular engineering of the ITO–organic interface, resulting in fine control of the interfacial chemistries and electronics. In particular, both surface energy matching and work function compatibility at material interfaces can result in marked improvement in OLED and OPV performance. Although there are numerous ways to change the surface properties of ITO, one of the more successful surface modifications is the use of monolayers based on organic molecules with widely variable end functional groups. Phosphonic acids (PAs) are known to bind strongly to metal oxides and form robust monolayers on many different metal oxide materials. They also demonstrate several advantages over other functionalizing moieties such as silanes or carboxylic acids. Most notably, PAs can be stored in ambient conditions without degradation, and the surface modification procedures are typically robust and easy to employ. This Account focuses on our research studying PA binding to ITO, the tunable properties of the resulting surfaces, and subsequent effects on the performance of organic electronic devices. We have used surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) to determine that PAs bind to ITO in a predominantly bidentate fashion (where two of three oxygen atoms from the PA are involved in surface binding). Modification of the functional R-groups on PAs allows us to control and tune the surface energy and work function of the ITO surface. In one study using fluorinated benzyl PAs, we can keep the surface energy of ITO relatively low and constant but tune the surface work

  15. Functionalization of Indium Tin Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Xylene and methanol (certified ACS reagents), hexane (HPLC grade), and acetone (National Formulary/National Food Chemicals Codex /European Pharmocopia grade...cut from the inner 18 × 18 cm2 section of the sheet. The maximum ITO sheet resistance was listed as 9-15 Ω/0 and the coating thickness as 120-160 nm

  16. Recovering of Zinc ,Indium and Tin From Hard Zinc Slag by Alkaline-acid Cooperating Leaching%从硬锌渣中综合回收锌铟锡试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴兴征; 杨美彦; 陈凯; 曾鹏; 李永祥; 黄孟阳

    2015-01-01

    The process of neutral leaching zinc-concentrated sulfuric acid curing and water leaching indium-alkali leaching tin from a hard zinc slag produced from zinc pyromentallurgy was researched . The effects of hard zinc slag particle size ,ratio of liquid volume-to-solid mass and system acidity on leaching rate of zinc ,indium and tin w ere examined .T he results show that under the conditions of hard zinc slag particle size below 200 mesh ,ratio of liquid volume-to-solid mass of 4:1 ,and reaction ending pH of 5 .0-5 .5 ,leaching rate of zinc is 93% after reacting for 2 h at room temperature by neutral leaching .When curing for 4 h using concentrated sulfuric acid at the conditions of ratio of liquid volume-to-solid mass of 8:1 ,system acidity of 100 g/L then leaching for 4 h using water ,the leaching rate of indium reaches 99 .7% .When alkali leaching for 2 h at room temperature and ratio of liquid volume-to-solid mass of 3:1 with NaOH solution of 2 mol/L ,the leaching rate of tin is about 97% . Zinc ,indium and tin in the hard-zinc slag can be recovered effectively .%针对火法炼锌过程中产出的硬锌渣 ,研究了中性浸出锌—浓硫酸熟化水浸铟—碱浸锡 ,考察了物料粒度、液固体积质量比、体系酸度对锌、铟、锡浸出率的影响.结果表明 :在硬锌渣粒度小于200目、液固体积质量比4:1、反应终点p H为5 .0~5 .5、反应时间2 h、室温、中性浸出条件下 ,锌浸出率为93% ;在反应温度85℃ 、液固体积质量比8:1、体系酸度100 g/L、反应时间4 h条件下进行浓硫酸熟化浸出 ,铟浸出率达99 .7% ;在反应温度为室温、氢氧化钠浓度为2 mol/L、液固体积质量比3:1、反应时间2 h条件下进行碱浸 ,锡浸出率达97% .锌、铟、锡得到较好回收.

  17. Range Distribution Parameters and Electronic Stopping Power for 19F+ Ions in SnO2, Indium-Tin Oxide, AgGaSe2 and AgGaS2:Comparison Between Theory and Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Hui-Hao; LIU Xiang-Dong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Range distributions of fluorine for 19F+- implantation into SnO2, indium-tin oxide, AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2 are measured by using the 1gF(p,αγ)16O resonant nuclear reactions. The electronic stopping cross sections for 19F ions in these materials are derived from the measured range distributions. These experimental results are compared with those obtained from the newest version of stopping and range computer code, SRIM2003. The values of projected range predicted by the SRIM2003 agree well with the measured values for AgGaS2 and AgGaSe2 substrates. However, the values given by the SRIM2003 substantially deviate from the experimental values for the oxide materials SnO2 and ITO.

  18. Investigation of mediated oxidation of ascorbic acid by ferrocenemethanol using large-amplitude Fourier transformed ac voltammetry under quasi-reversible electron-transfer conditions at an indium tin oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertanantawong, Benchaporn; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Zhang, Jie; Surareungchai, Werasak; Somasundrum, Mithran; Bond, Alan M

    2008-09-01

    The ability of the technique of large-amplitude Fourier transformed (FT) ac voltammetry to facilitate the quantitative evaluation of electrode processes involving electron transfer and catalytically coupled chemical reactions has been evaluated. Predictions derived on the basis of detailed simulations imply that the rate of electron transfer is crucial, as confirmed by studies on the ferrocenemethanol (FcMeOH)-mediated electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid. Thus, at glassy carbon, gold, and boron-doped diamond electrodes, the introduction of the coupled electrocatalytic reaction, while producing significantly enhanced dc currents, does not affect the ac harmonics. This outcome is as expected if the FcMeOH (0/+) process remains fully reversible in the presence of ascorbic acid. In contrast, the ac harmonic components available from FT-ac voltammetry are predicted to be highly sensitive to the homogeneous kinetics when an electrocatalytic reaction is coupled to a quasi-reversible electron-transfer process. The required quasi-reversible scenario is available at an indium tin oxide electrode. Consequently, reversible potential, heterogeneous charge-transfer rate constant, and charge-transfer coefficient values of 0.19 V vs Ag/AgCl, 0.006 cm s (-1) and 0.55, respectively, along with a second-order homogeneous chemical rate constant of 2500 M (-1) s (-1) for the rate-determining step in the catalytic reaction were determined by comparison of simulated responses and experimental voltammograms derived from the dc and first to fourth ac harmonic components generated at an indium tin oxide electrode. The theoretical concepts derived for large-amplitude FT ac voltammetry are believed to be applicable to a wide range of important solution-based mediated electrocatalytic reactions.

  19. Indium Sorption to Iron Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. J.; Sacco, S. A.; Hemond, H.; Hussain, F. A.; Runkel, R. L.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Kimball, B. A.; Shine, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics, and its use is growing rapidly as a semiconductive coating (as indium tin oxide) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and flat panel displays. It also has uses in important energy technologies such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and photovoltaic cells. Despite its rapid increase in use, very little is known about the environmental behavior of indium, and concerns are being raised over the potential health effects of this emerging metal contaminant. One source of indium to the environment is acid mine drainage from the mining of lead, zinc, and copper sulfides. In our previous studies of a stream in Colorado influenced by acid mine drainage from lead and zinc mining activities, indium concentrations were found to be 10,000 times those found in uncontaminated rivers. However, the speciation and mobility of indium could not be reliably modeled because sorption constants to environmental sorbents have not been determined. In this study, we generate sorption constants for indium to ferrihydrite in the laboratory over a range of pHs, sorbent to sorbate ratios, and ionic strengths. Ferrihydrite is one of the most important sorbents in natural systems, and sorption to amorphous iron oxides such as ferrihydrite is thought to be one of the main removal mechanisms of metals from the dissolved phase in aqueous environments. Because of its relatively low solubility, we also find that indium hydroxide precipitation can dominate indium's partitioning at micromolar concentrations of indium. This precipitation may be important in describing indium's behavior in our study stream in Colorado, where modeling sorption to iron-oxides does not explain the complete removal of indium from the dissolved phase when the pH of the system is artificially raised to above 8. This study contributes much-needed data about indium's aqueous behavior, in order to better understand its fate, transport, and impacts in the

  20. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H{sub 2}–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C., E-mail: cprieto@icmm.csic.es

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H{sub 2} in the gas mixture of H{sub 2} and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H{sub 2}/(Ar + H{sub 2}) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ{sub TC} = T{sup 10}/R{sub S}, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  1. Application of ZnO/graphene and S6 aptamers for sensitive photoelectrochemical detection of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells based on a disposable indium tin oxide device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shaowei; Ge, Shenguang; Song, Xianrang

    2014-01-15

    ZnO/graphene (ZnO/G) composite and S6 aptamer were employed to sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) strategy for the specific detection of SK-BR-3 cancer cells based on a portable indium tin oxide microdevice. ZnO/G composite was synthesized using a facile ultrasonic method, and then applied to improve the PEC performance due to the unique hollow structure of ZnO naospheres and the superior properties of graphene. Subsequently, S6 aptamer was applied to this specific detection of SK-BR-3 cancer cells. And the concentration of SK-BR-3 cells was measured with a low detection limit of 58 cells mL(-1) and a wide linear range of 1×10(2)-1×10(6) cells mL(-1), through the decrease in photocurrent intensity resulting from the increase in steric hindrances when specifically recognized with S6 aptamers. Excellent discrimination against target and analogous cells was demonstrated, indicating the high selectivity of the proposed cell sensor. Our work also demonstrated a sensitive, stable and low cytotoxicity approach for early and accurate detection of cancer cells.

  2. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu, E-mail: cfzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue, E-mail: yhao@xidian.edu.cn [State Key Discipline Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  3. Three-dimensional electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis of indium-tin-oxide nanowire arrays and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowire arrays by electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Wen; Ting, Chi-Feng; Hung, Miao-Ken; Chiou, Chwei-Huann; Liu, Ying-Ling; Liu, Zongwen; Ratinac, Kyle R; Ringer, Simon P

    2009-02-04

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show promise as a cheaper alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics for specialized applications, provided conversion efficiency can be maximized and production costs minimized. This study demonstrates that arrays of nanowires can be formed by wet-chemical methods for use as three-dimensional (3D) electrodes in DSSCs, thereby improving photoelectric conversion efficiency. Two approaches were employed to create the arrays of ITO (indium-tin-oxide) nanowires or arrays of ITO/TiO(2) core-shell nanowires; both methods were based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) within a polycarbonate template. The 3D electrodes for solar cells were constructed by using a doctor-blade for coating TiO(2) layers onto the ITO or ITO/TiO(2) nanowire arrays. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 4.3% was achieved in the DSSCs made from ITO nanowires; this performance was better than that of ITO/TiO(2) core-shell nanowires or pristine TiO(2) films. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reaction current was significantly enhanced when a 3D ITO-nanowire electrode was used. Better separation of charge carriers and improved charge transport, due to the enlarged interfacial area, are thought to be the major advantages of using 3D nanowire electrodes for the optimization of DSSCs.

  4. Thermal Studies of New Precursors to Indium-tin Oxides for Use as Sensor Materials in the Detection of NO(x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Kacik, T.; Hockensmith, C. M.

    1999-01-01

    Control of combustion product emissions in both sub and super-sonic jet engines can be facilitated by measurement of NO(x) levels with metal oxide sensors, In2O3, metal-doped SnO2, and SnO, (as well as other materials) show resistivity changes in the presence of NO(x), but often their sensitivity, stability, and selectivity are low. This study was designed to develop new synthetic pathways to precursors that produce high purity, two phase In2O3-SnO2. The precursors were formed by complexation of tin with any oxide ligands to give the ammonium salt (NH4). Thermal studies of these precursors were carried out by thermal gravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Further studies by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were also conducted.

  5. Preparation of 5N high purified indium by the method of chemical purification-electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The application of indium requires high purity indium as material. 5N high purity indium had been prepared by the method of a combination of chemically smelting and electrolysis. Smelting time was 10 min, the abstraction rate of cadmium was 80%-90% when used solution of I2-KI and glycerine to smelt indium. 4N metal indium was used as anode, high purity indium as cathode, In2(SO4)3-H2SO4 system as electrolyte, and In content is 100 g/L, pH 2-3 and current density 80-100 A/m2. The thallium was removed by smelting indium using 15% NH4Cl-glycerine solution for 20 min and tin by smelting indium using NaOH and NaNO3 for 20 min. The removed rate of tin was 60%.The product quality of indium reached national standard of 5N high purity indium.

  6. High-Efficiency Nanowire Solar Cells with Omnidirectionally Enhanced Absorption Due to Self-Aligned Indium-Tin-Oxide Mie Scatterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Dick; van Hoof, Niels J J; Cui, Yingchao; van Veldhoven, Peter J; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Gómez Rivas, Jaime; Haverkort, Jos E M

    2016-12-27

    Photovoltaic cells based on arrays of semiconductor nanowires promise efficiencies comparable or even better than their planar counterparts with much less material. One reason for the high efficiencies is their large absorption cross section, but until recently the photocurrent has been limited to less than 70% of the theoretical maximum. Here we enhance the absorption in indium phosphide (InP) nanowire solar cells by employing broadband forward scattering of self-aligned nanoparticles on top of the transparent top contact layer. This results in a nanowire solar cell with a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 17.8% and a short-circuit current of 29.3 mA/cm(2) under 1 sun illumination, which is the highest reported so far for nanowire solar cells and among the highest reported for III-V solar cells. We also measure the angle-dependent photocurrent, using time-reversed Fourier microscopy, and demonstrate a broadband and omnidirectional absorption enhancement for unpolarized light up to 60° with a wavelength average of 12% due to Mie scattering. These results unambiguously demonstrate the potential of semiconductor nanowires as nanostructures for the next generation of photovoltaic devices.

  7. Significant vertical phase separation in solvent-vapor-annealed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) composite films leading to better conductivity and work function for high-performance indium tin oxide-free optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jun-Seok; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yoon, Myung-Han; Kim, Tae-Wook; Na, Seok-In

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, a novel polar-solvent vapor annealing (PSVA) was used to induce a significant structural rearrangement in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films in order to improve their electrical conductivity and work function. The effects of polar-solvent vapor annealing on PEDOT:PSS were systematically compared with those of a conventional solvent additive method (SAM) and investigated in detail by analyzing the changes in conductivity, morphology, top and bottom surface composition, conformational PEDOT chains, and work function. The results confirmed that PSVA induces significant phase separation between excess PSS and PEDOT chains and a spontaneous formation of a highly enriched PSS layer on the top surface of the PEDOT:PSS polymer blend, which in turn leads to better 3-dimensional connections between the conducting PEDOT chains and higher work function. The resultant PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS anode films exhibited a significantly enhanced conductivity of up to 1057 S cm(-1) and a tunable high work function of up to 5.35 eV. The PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS films were employed as transparent anodes in polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and polymer solar cells (PSCs). The cell performances of organic optoelectronic devices with the PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS anodes were further improved due to the significant vertical phase separation and the self-organized PSS top surface in PSVA-treated PEDOT:PSS films, which can increase the anode conductivity and work function and allow the direct formation of a functional buffer layer between the active layer and the polymeric electrode. The results of the present study will allow better use and understanding of polymeric-blend materials and will further advance the realization of high-performance indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic electronics.

  8. Efficacy of titanium doped-indium tin oxide (Ti/TiO2-ITO) films in rapid oxygen generation under photocatalysis and their suitability for bio-medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, A; Rajakumar, A; Rakibuddin, Md; Paul Ramesh, T; Raveendra Kiran, M; Shankari, D; Chandrasekhar, K

    2014-12-07

    The present work describes in detail the photocatalytic properties of controlled titanium doped indium tin oxide (Ti/TiO2-ITO) composite thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering and their applicability to developing a bio-medical lung assistive device. The catalytic films of various thicknesses (namely, C1, C2, C3 and C4) were characterized using surface imaging (SEM), X-ray analyses (XRD and EDX), and Raman studies. The optical band gaps of the prepared films are ∼3.72-3.77 eV. Photocatalytic efficiencies of the film catalysts were investigated with the aid of a model organic molecule (Rhodamine B dye). The overall photodegradation capacity of the films was found to be slow kinetically, and the catalyst C1 was identified as having a better degradation efficiency (RhB 5 ppm, at pH 6.5) over 5 h under irradiation at 254 nm. The distinctive features of these composite films lie in their oxygen accumulation capacity and unique electron-hole pair separation ability. Investigations on oxygen species revealed the formation of superoxide radicals in aqueous systems (pH 6.5). The prepared films have TiO2 in the anatase phase in the surfaces, and possess the desired photocatalytic efficiency, compatibility to the heme system (are not involved in harmful hydroxyl radical production), and appreciable reusability. Especially, the thin films have a significant ability for mobilization of oxygen rapidly and continuously in aqueous medium under the irradiation conditions. Hence, these films may be a suitable choice for the photo-aided lung assistive design under development.

  9. Impact of Temperature Profile on Indium-Tin Oxide Glass Chips on Growth and Proliferation of Myoblasts%ITO玻璃芯片上温度分布对成肌细胞生长增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 杨忠; 王振宇; 胡宁; 黄小玲; 郑小林; 曹毅; 杨军

    2013-01-01

    为了研究不同温度对小鼠成肌细胞生长增殖的影响,在ITO玻璃芯片上加载电场形成一定的温度分布.在不同温度(38、39、40和41℃)所对应的区域加工相同尺寸的PDMS微型培养腔室用于小鼠成肌细胞的培养.通过对芯片上培养的小鼠成肌细胞连续5d的热刺激(30 min/d),研究不同温度短期热刺激对成肌细胞增殖的影响.细胞形态显微观察和流式细胞仪检测结果表明,一定的温度刺激对小鼠成肌细胞的增殖有促进作用,其中40C刺激后的细胞数目增加最明显.在总刺激时间(30 min)相同情况下,短时多次热刺激的效果更理想,细胞增殖指数最高可达38.39.%In order to study the impact of different temperatures on the growth and proliferation of myoblasts,specific electric fields were loaded on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass chips to form some temperature profiles.In several zones with different temperatures (38,39,40 and 41 ℃),microchambers with equal size were fabricated for the culture of mouse myoblasts.Impacts of temperatures on growth and proliferation of myoblasts were studied by stimulating cells for continuous 5 d (30 min/d).Microscopic observation of cell morphology and flow cytometric detection results showed that certain thermal stimulation could promote the proliferation of myoblasts.Number of cells was obviously increased after the stimulus of 40 ℃.For equal total stimulation time,short-term multiple thermal stimulation could achieve better effect and maximum proliferation index could reach 38.39.

  10. Deposition and Property Characterization of Indium-Tin Oxide Films for Solar Cells Fabrication%直流反应磁控溅射法制备太阳电池用ITO透明导电膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔敏; 邓金祥; 张维佳; 段苹

    2012-01-01

    采用直流反应磁控溅射法制备了ITO透明导电薄膜,针对氧流量、溅射气压、溅射电流3种工艺参数对ITO薄膜电阻率和可见光区透射率的影响进行了分析和研究.结果表明:从ITO薄膜作为太阳电池用减反射层和电极出发,得到了工艺参数的优化值,分别为氧流量0.2 mL/min(标准状态),溅射气压3Pa和溅射电流0.2A,ITO薄膜的电阻率为3.7×10-3 Ω·cm,透过率(550 nm)高达93.3%.另外,利用该优化工艺条件下制备的ITO薄膜作为电极和减反射层,制备了结构为ITO/n+-nc-Si∶H/i-nc-Si∶H/p-c-Si/Ag的太阳能电池,电池开路电压Voc达到534.7 mV,短路电流Isc达到49.24 mA(3 cm2),填充因子为0.4228.%The indium-tin oxide (FID) films were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering on glass substrate. The impacts of the film growth conditions, such as the oxygen flow rate, pressure, sputter power, deposition rate, and substrate temperature, on the microstructures, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films were evaluated. The ITO films, to be used as the antireflection layer,electrode coatings of the solar cell, were grown under the following optimized condi-tionsroxygen flow rate of 0-2 ml/min,a pressure of 3 Pa, a sputtering current of 0.2 A,and its resistivity and transmit-tance (550 nm) were found to be 3.7 × 10-3 Ω·cm,and 93.3% ,respectively.The solar cells,fabricated with the ITO/ n + -nc-Si: H/i-nc-Si: H/p-c-Si/Ag structure, possess the optimized specifications, including an open circuit voltage V∝ of 534.7 mV,a short-circuit current Isc of 49.24 mA(3 cm2),and a fill factor FF of 0.4228.

  11. Analysis of indium-phosphide/indium tin oxide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, T. J.; Pearsall, N. M.; Nottenburg, R.; Ireland, P. J.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    1981-05-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the operation of p-InP/N-ITO solar cells fabricated by depositing thin films of ITO onto InP substrates by both RF sputtering and ion-beam sputtering were investigated. The RF sputtered devices behave like SIS or heterojunction cells. The ion-beam sputtered cells behave more like buried homojunction devices. It is sown that the properties of these cells depend not only on the method of fabrication, but also on several other complicating effects which occur before, during and after deposition of the ITO.

  12. Geochemical Enirchment and Mineralization of Indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乾; 战新志; 等

    1998-01-01

    Indium occurs in a very dispersed manner in nature with enrichment of economic in terest rarely known.The highly dispersed nature of indium,among several other elements,has for a long time retarded our understanding of the regularities that control their mineralization,which in turn has hindered exploitation and application of these elements.Recent studies of ours show that no significant enrichment of indium can be recognized in various types of Pb-Zn sulphide deposits as well as in deposits of copper,iron and manganese,Indium Concentrations in ores of these deposits are generally below 10×10-6.In contrast,however,indium is found to be enriched to a significant extent in cassiterite-sulphide deposits and some tin-rich Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits.The average content of indium in these deposits can be over 100×10-6,and more than 90% of it is concentrated in sphalerite.Generally,these deposits may be considered as large paragenic deposits for indium and ,therefore,there must be some regularities that govern the geochemical enrichment of the so-called "dispersed element" indium.

  13. 一步掩膜法制备超低压ITO沟道纸上薄膜晶体管%One-shadow-mask ultralow-voltage indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors on paper substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛延凯; 蒋杰; 周斌; 窦威

    2012-01-01

    基于一步掩模法工艺制备了一种新型的纸上双电荷层超低压薄膜晶体管.在室温射频磁控溅射过程中,仅仅利用一块镍掩模板,就可同时沉积出氧化铟锡(ITO)源漏电极和ITO沟道.在此基础上,以等离子体增强化学气相沉积法(PECVD)合成的具有双电荷层效应的微孔SiO_2为栅介质,成功制备出以纸为衬底的超低压氧化物薄膜晶体管.这种晶体管显示出极好的性能:超低的工作电压1.5 V,场效应迁移率为20.1 cm~2/Vs,亚阈值斜率为188 mV/decade,开关电流比为5×10~5.这种基于全室温一步掩模法工艺制备的纸上氧化物薄膜晶体管具有工作电压低,工艺简单,成本低廉等优点,非常有望应用于未来便携式低功耗电子产品的制造中.%A new kind of electric-double-layer indium-tin-oxide(ITO) thin-film transistor(TFT) is fabricated on a paper substrate by one-shadow -mask process.The channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes by only one shadow mask during RF magnetron sputtering deposition at room temperature.Base on this,we choose microporous SiC2 with electric double layer effect as a gate dielectric,and successfully develop the ultralow-voltage oxide TFT on a paper substrate.The TFT exhibits a good performance with an ultralow operation voltage of 1.5 V,a field-effect mobility of 20.1 cm~2/Vs,a subthreshold swing of 188mV/decade,and a large on-off ratio of 5 x 105.The full-room-temperature oxide TFT on the paper substrate by one-shadow-mask process shows a lot of advantages,such as low operation voltage,simple device process,low cost,etc.Such a TFT is very promising for the application of low-power and portable electronic products in the future.

  14. Interstitial pulmonary disorders in indium-processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Taguchi, O; Omae, K

    2007-02-01

    The production of indium-tin oxide has increased, owing to the increased manufacture of liquid-crystal panels. It has been reported that interstitial pneumonia occurred in two indium-processing workers; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether interstitial pulmonary disorders were prevalent among indium workers. The study was carried out in 108 male workers in the indium plant where the two interstitial pneumonia patients mentioned above were employed, and included high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs, pulmonary function tests and analysis of serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 and the serum indium concentration. Significant interstitial changes were observed in 23 indium workers on HRCT and serum KL-6 was abnormally high (>500 U x mL(-1)) in 40 workers. Workers with serum indium concentrations in the highest quartile had significantly longer exposure periods, greater HRCT changes, lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and higher KL-6 levels compared with those in the lowest quartile. The serum indium concentration was positively correlated with the KL-6 level and with the degree of HRCT changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that serum KL-6 and high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities were prevalent among indium workers and that these abnormalities increased with the indium burden, suggesting that inhaled indium could be a potential cause of occupational lung disease.

  15. The structure of nickel and indium oxide thin films from EXAFS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bets, V.; Zamozdiks, T.; Lusis, A.; Purans, J.; Bausk, N.; Sheromov, M.

    1987-11-01

    The structure of nickel oxide and indium oxide doped by tin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering has been studied by the EXAFS method. It has been found that the nickel oxide thin film has a microcrystalline structure with significant disorder proved by the increase of the Debye-Waller factor and the sharp decrease of peak amplitudes. The indium oxide thin film has a noticeable structural disorder due to 8% tin dopping.

  16. Multimodal nanoparticulate bioimaging contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parvesh; Singh, Amit; Brown, Scott C; Bengtsson, Niclas; Walter, Glenn A; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Scott, Edward W; Moudgil, Brij M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of bioimaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography) are commonly employed for clinical diagnostics and scientific research. While all of these methods use a characteristic "energy-matter" interaction to provide specific details about biological processes, each modality differs from another in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, anatomical and molecular details, imaging depth, as well as the desirable material properties of contrast agents needed for augmented imaging. On many occasions, it is advantageous to apply multiple complimentary imaging modalities for faster and more accurate prognosis. Since most imaging modalities employ exogenous contrast agents to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the development and use of multimodal contrast agents is considered to be highly advantageous for obtaining improved imagery from sought-after imaging modalities. Multimodal contrast agents offer improvements in patient care, and at the same time can reduce costs and enhance safety by limiting the number of contrast agent administrations required for imaging purposes. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate-based multimodal contrast agent for noninvasive bioimaging using MRI, optical, and photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-imaging modalities. The synthesis of these agents is described using microemulsions, which enable facile integration of the desired diversity of contrast agents and material components into a single entity.

  17. [Three cases of indium lung].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Osamu; Chonan, Tatsuya

    2006-07-01

    The production of indium tin oxide (ITO) has been increasing during the past decade because of its use in liquid crystal and plasma display panels. Following the first report on lethal lung injury in a ITO worker in 2001, we began pulmonary check-ups for 115 workers in the plant in our capacity of industrial physicians of the plant. Hence, we report interstitial pulmonary disease in 3 workers who had engaged in wet-surface grinding of ITO for 8 to 12 years and had significant lung injuries. The serum indium level and serum concentration of KL-6 were significantly elevated in all 3 cases. One non-smoker case among them showed severe obstructive changes on spirometry and had an episode of repeated bilateral pneumothorax before and during the follow-up period. All 3 cases showed both interstitial and/or emphysematous changes on HRCT. It is suggested that inhaled indium compounds can cause a new and unique interstitial pulmonary disease.

  18. Preparation of High Quality Indium Tin Oxide Film on a Microbial Cellulose Membrane Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering%采用磁控溅射法在细菌纤维素膜上制备高性能的铟锡氧化物薄膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨加志; 赵成刚; 刘晓丽; 于俊伟; 孙东平; 唐卫华

    2011-01-01

    Microbial cellulose (MC) membranes produced by Acetobacterxylinumn NUST4.1, were used as flexible substrates for the fabrication of transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. Transparent and conductive ITO thin films were deposited on MC membrane at room temperature using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The optimum ITO deposition conditions were achieved by examining crystalline structure, surface morphology and optoelectrical characteristics with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV spectroscopy. The sheet resistance of the samples was measured with a four-point probe and the resistivity of the film was calculated. The results reveal that the preferred orientation of the deposited ITO crystals is strongly dependent upon with oxygen content (O2/Ar, volume ratio) in the sputtering chamber. And the ITO crystalline structure directly determines the conductivity of ITO-deposited films. High conductive [sheet resistance -120 Ω·square-1 (Ω·sq-1)] and transparent (above 76%) ITO thin films (240 nm thick) were obtained with a moderate sputtering power (about 60 W) and with an oxygen flow rate of 0.25 ml.min-1(sccm) during the deposition. These results show that the ITO-MC electrodes can find their potential application in optoelectrical devices.

  19. Probing space charge effect on electroluminescence of indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N′-di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl]-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4, 4′-diamine (α-NPD)/tris(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminum (III) (Alq{sub 3})/Al diodes by time-resolved electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadakata, Atsuo; Osada, Kenshiro; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp

    2014-03-03

    By using time-resolved electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement, we studied the electroluminescence (EL) mechanism which is activated in double-layer organic light-emitting diodes (indium tin oxide/N,N′-di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl]-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (α-NPD)/tris(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminum (III) (Alq{sub 3})/Al) in the high frequency region with application of AC square voltages at various duty-ratios. Results showed that holes were accumulated at the α-NPD/Alq{sub 3} interface in proportion to the duty-ratio, and corresponded well to the increasing EL enhancement at the high frequency. Our previous proposed model on the EL enhancement assisted by electron injection from the Al electrode in the presence of the space charge field was well confirmed. - Highlights: • We studied space charge (SC) effects in double-layer organic light emitting diodes. • The second-harmonic generation measurement was used to directly probe the SC field. • Space charge fields due to interfacial accumulated charge were verified. • We showed that SC electric fields contribute to electroluminescence emissions.

  20. Enhanced multiferroic properties of (1 1 0)-oriented BiFeO{sub 3} film deposited on Bi{sub 3.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}-buffered indium tin oxide/Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuemei; Hu Guangda; Yan Jing; Wang Xi; Yang Changhong; Wu Weibing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)], E-mail: mse_hugd@ujn.edu.cn

    2008-11-21

    BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) films with and without a Bi{sub 3.5}Nd{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNT) buffer layer were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO)/Si substrates using a metal organic decomposition process. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that a BNT buffer layer can favour the growth of (1 1 0)-oriented grains in the BFO film. BFO film with a BNT buffer layer exhibits well saturated P-E hysteresis loops with good rectangularity as well as large remanent polarization ({approx}70.2 {mu}C cm{sup -2}) owing to its higher volume fraction of (1 1 0)-oriented grains, lower leakage current and lower coercive field in comparison with those of the BFO film deposited directly on the ITO/Si substrate. In addition, the magnetization of the (1 1 0)-oriented BFO film is more easily saturated compared with that of the polycrystalline BFO film without a BNT buffer layer.

  1. An investigation on the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of cationic nanoparticulates for root canal disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishen, Anil; Shi, Zhilong; Shrestha, Annie; Neoh, Koon Gee

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of cationic nanoparticulates for root canal disinfection. Experiments were performed in two stages. In stage 1, experiments were conducted to examine the physical properties of three types of nanoparticulates. The antibacterial properties of nanoparticulates alone and nanoparticulates mixed with zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer were studied. In stage 2, the ability of nanoparticulates-treated dentin to prevent bacterial adherence was examined. Zinc oxide nanoparticulates, chitosan nanoparticulates, a mixture of zinc oxide and chitosan nanoparticulates, and zinc oxide nanoparticulates with multilayered coating of chitosan were tested. This study showed that the incorporation of nanoparticulates did not alter the flow characteristics of sealer but improved the direct antibacterial property and the ability to leach out antibacterial components. There was a significant reduction in the adherence of Enterococcus faecalis to nanoparticulates-treated dentin (p < 0.05). These experiments highlighted the potential advantage of nanoparticulates in root canal disinfection.

  2. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4.

  3. Ultralow-voltage in-plane-gate indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors made of P-doped SiO2 dielectrics*%基于P掺杂SiO2为栅介质的超低压侧栅薄膜晶体管*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德明; 门传玲†; 曹敏; 吴国栋

    2013-01-01

    A new kind of indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors made of P-doped SiO2 dielectrics in an in-plane-gate structure is fabricated at room temperature. Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) channel and ITO electrodes (gate, source, and drain) can be deposited simultaneously without precise photolithography and alignment process by using only one nickel shadow mask. So the thin film transistors (TFTs) have a lot of advantages, such as the simple device process、low cost etc. Such TFTs exhibit a good performance at an ultralow operation voltage of 1 V, a high field-effect mobility of 18.35 cm2/Vs , a small subthreshold swing of 82 mV/decade, and a large on-off ratio of 1.1 × 106, because of the huge electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance (8 µF/cm2) between the interface of P-doped SiO2 dielectrics and ITO channel. So the TFTs are very promising for the application of low-power and portable electronic products and sensors in the future.%  在室温下利用等离子体增强化学气相沉积法(PECVD)制备的颗粒膜P掺杂SiO2为栅介质,使用磁控溅射方法利用一步掩模法制备出一种新型结构的侧栅薄膜晶体管.由于侧栅薄膜晶体管具有独特的结构,在射频磁控溅射过程中,仅仅利用一块镍掩模板,无需复杂的光刻步骤,就可同时沉积出氧化铟锡(ITO)源、漏、栅电极和沟道,因此,这种方法极大地简化了制备流程,降低了工艺成本.实验结果表明,在P掺杂SiO2栅介质层与沟道层界面处形成了超大的双电层电容(8µF/cm2),这使得这类晶体管具有超低的工作电压1 V,小的亚阈值摆幅82 mV/dec、高的迁移率18.35 cm2/V·s和大的开关电流比1.1×106.因此,这种P掺杂SiO2双电层超低压薄膜晶体管将有望应用于低能耗便携式电子产品以及新型传感器领域.

  4. Exploratory report Tin and tin compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Bont PFH; Hesse JM; Annema JA

    1993-01-01

    In the Netherlands tin is produced from concentrate and secondary production (about 3,500 tonnes Sn per year), whereas about 5,000 tonnes Sn per year is applied. Of this amount about 4,200 tonnes is applied as inorganic tin (most for the manufacturing of tin plate) and about 800 tonnes Sn is applie

  5. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Indium from Flat-Panel Displays of Spent Liquid Crystal Televisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-02-01

    A recovery process for indium from waste liquid crystal display panels was developed on the basis of hydrometallurgical technology. The powdered sample was leached with 3 M HCl to extract its various metal constituents (indium, aluminum, tin, etc.). The mutual separation and subsequent recovery of the dissolved metals was achieved using two column adsorption tests: The first column was packed with a porous resin impregnated with Aliquat 336, a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on a quaternary ammonium compound, and the resin contained in the second column was impregnated with Cyanex 923, also a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on trialkylphosphine oxide. In the first column, tin, iron, and zinc were removed from the leach liquor. In the second column, only indium was selectively recovered. The metal ions trapped in these columns were eluted with 0.1 M H2SO4, yielding a solution purified indium solution with a concentration 10 times that of the feed solution.

  6. Nanoparticulate CoPt Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, Yasaman; Hadjipanayis, George; Magnetics bLab Team

    Equiatomic FePt and CoPt alloys are very attractive for application in high density recording media because of the high magnetocrystalline anisotropy K of their fct(L10) structure with values exceeding 2MJ/m3.The aim of this study is to fabricate a nanoparticulate CoPt film consisting of CoPt nanoparticles embedded in a matrix. To obtain this we have used co-sputtering of CoPt with different materials M = BN,C, Cu and SiO2. Our first experiments were done on CoPt films with thickness of 200 nm. The as-sputtered films had the fcc structure and a coercivity of 150 Oe. Annealing at 700 oC for 30 min led to an increase in coercivity to 4 kOe. Optimization studies are under way to find the optimum sputtering conditions to obtain a fully ordered tetragonal structure with the highest value of coercivity which can then be used in the nanoparticulate composites. Work supported by DOE BES- FG02-04ERU4612 DOE DE-FG02-04ERU4612.

  7. Electrodeposition of indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S.; Ahmed, A.I.; Madkour, L.H.

    Metallic indium was deposited from aqueous solutions of indium trichloride containing also, acetate, thiocyanate, chloride, iodide, sulphate, oxalate, ethanol, acetamide and citrate of sodium or potassium. The optimum conditions are: pH 2-5, current density 2-25 mA cm/sup -2/, temperature 30/sup O/C and metal ion concentration O.2 mol l/sup -1/. Deposits have been obtained on a platinum sheet cathode. Chemical analysis reveals that the purity of the indium is better than 99%. The rate of deposition is also determined. 15 refs.

  8. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  9. 纳米银粒子在氨基注入氧化铟锡玻璃基体表面的高密度吸附%High Density Attachment of Silver Nanoparticles onto an NH2+ Ion Implanted Indium Tin Oxide Glass Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李硕琦; 刘璐; 田辉凤; 胡劲波

    2011-01-01

    An effective approach to attach silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) directly onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface with high density was reported.An NH2+ ion implanted ITO (NH2/ITO) film was prepared and the AgNPs were adsorbed onto the surface of the obtained NH2/ITO film resulting in an AgNPs-attached NH2/ITO (AgNPs/NH2/ITO) substrate.Characterization of stepwise changes in the ITO,NH2/ITO,and AgNPs/NH2/ITO surfaces were carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),atomic force microscopy (AFM),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),ultravioletvisible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy,and electrochemical methods.Cyclic voltammtric voltammetry results indicate that the immobilized AgNPs on the NH2/ITO electrode gave excellent electrochemical properties,implying facile electrochemical communication between the AgNPs and the ITO substrate through theby implanted amino groups.Thus,the AgNPs/NH2/ITO surfaces are promising as new functional interfaces because AgNPs can be attached to surfaces without the use of organic binding molecules.%研究了纳米银(AgNPs)在氨基注入氧化铟锡(ITO)薄膜表面的吸附.通过氨基注入的方法得到了氨基功能化的ITO表面(NH2/ITO),并将纳米银直接吸附在NH2/ITO上得到纳米银修饰NH2/ITO基体(AgNPs/NH2/ITO).使用傅里叶红外光谱、X射线光电子能谱、原子力显微镜、扫描电镜、紫外可见光谱和电化学方法对AgNPs/NH2/ITO制备过程进行了表征.结果显示纳米银可在NH2/ITO表面高密度地吸附,并且纳米银有良好的电化学活性.这种不借助于有机连接分子吸附纳米银的方法为制备纳米银修饰材料提供了新的选择.

  10. 基于丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺共聚物的氧化铟锡蚀刻油墨的制备与性能%Preparation and Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Etching Ink Based on Acrylic Acid-Acrylamide Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英立; 杨鑫; 孙金媛; 陈建忠; 刘英菊; 杨卓鸿

    2012-01-01

    The low viscosity poly (acrylic acid-acrylamide) (P (AA-co-AM)) resin was synthesized by solution polymerization using acrylicacid and acrylamide as the monomers. The properties of the resin were characterized by rotational viscometer and thermogravimetric analyser. A new type of indium tin oxide (ITO) etching ink was prepared using P(AA-co-AM) resin as connection material. The water retention property, pH change and etched image resolution of the ink were evaluated. Results showed that the suit- able resin can be prepared by optimizing the synthesis process. The so prepared resin didn't decompose beneath 150 ℃. The water loss rate of the ink was range 3.68% and 5.34%after exposing to air for 3 h. The image resolution used this ink was better than the commercially available ink after storing 60 d. More over, the etching capability did not decline and pH value almost did not change.%以丙烯酸(AA)、丙烯酰胺(AM)为单体,采用水溶液聚合法制备了低黏度聚(丙烯酸-丙烯酰胺)P(AA—Co—AM)树脂。使用旋转黏度计和热重分析仪等测试了树脂的性质,并以该树脂为连接料,制备了新型水性氧化铟锡(ITO)蚀刻油墨。探讨了该油墨的保水性、pH变化和蚀刻图像解析度等。结果表明:通过优化合成工艺可制备分子量适宜的P(AA—CO—AM)树脂,它在150℃以下无分解现象;油墨在使用3h后失水率仅为3.68%-5.34%,存放60d后pH基本无变化,且丝网印刷效果明显好于市售油墨。

  11. Toxicological characteristics of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanmei; Liu, Jie; Ma, Linglan; Li, Na; Liu, Huiting; Wang, Jue; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Yan, Jingying; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xueguang; Hong, Fashui

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to examine liver injury, immune response, and other physiological effects in mice caused by intragastric administration of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide (5nm), we assessed T lymphocytes, B lymphocyte and NK lymphocyte counts, hematological indices, biochemical parameters of liver functions, and histopathological changes in nanoparticulate titanium dioxide -treated mice. Indeed, mice treated with higher dose nanoparticulate titanium dioxide displayed a reduction in body weight, an increase in coefficients of the liver and histopathological changes in the liver. Specifically, in these nanoparticulate titanium dioxide -treated mice, interleukin-2 activity, white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, thrombocytes, reticulocytes, T lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+)), NK lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and the ratio of CD4 to CD8 of mice were decreased, whereas NO level, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, red (cell) distribution width, platelets, hematocrit, mean platelet volume of mice were increased. Furthermore, liver functions were also disrupted, as evidenced by the enhanced activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and cholinesterase, an increase of the total protein, and the reduction of ratio of albumin to globulin, the total bilirubin, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol levels. These results suggested that the liver function damage observed in mice treated with higher dose nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is likely associated with the damage of haemostasis blood system and immune response. However, low dose nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) has little influences on haemostasis blood system and immune response in mice.

  12. Electronic structure and optical property studies of wurtzite AgInS{sub 2} doped by tin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Jianbo, E-mail: jianbery@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non–ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, 730050 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Alloys and Processing, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Lu, Xuefeng; Dong, Qizheng [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Alloys and Processing, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2016-09-05

    The electronic structure and optical property of wurtzite AgInS{sub 2} with vacancy defects and tin doping have been investigated by the first principle based on density functional theory. The results show that the intrinsic silver and indium vacancy may lead to the narrowing of bandgap. It shows metal characteristic after a silver atom and an indium atom are respectively replaced by tin atoms in the supercell of wurtzite AgInS{sub 2}. The optical property study indicates that the absorption curves and reflectivity curves of AgInS{sub 2} are blue shift and weakened owing to the existence of vacancy defects and tin doping. - Highlights: • AgInS{sub 2} doped by tin was simulated by the first principle. • The property is different when different atoms are replaced. • The optical properties of AgInS{sub 2} doped by tin is predicted.

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of polygonal indium tin oxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Ryul; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeoul; Oh, Sung-Tag; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Polygon ITO (Sn-doped In2O3) nanocrystals were synthesised via electrospinning, and their morphology, structural properties, and chemical composition were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To determine the optimum conditions for the fabrication of polygon ITO nanocrystals, calcination temperature after the electrospinning process was controlled at 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 800 degrees C, and the amount of PVP polymer was controlled at 4 wt%, 7 wt%, and 10 wt%. For comparison purposes, single In2O3 nanocrystals were also synthesised via electrospinning and calcination. The results show that ITO nanocrystals fabricated at a calcination temperature of 800 degrees C and with 10 wt% of PVP polymer exhibit clear polygon structure with single-crystallinity, which may be explained in terms of the effect of Sn doping in the In2O3 matrix and the oriented aggregation and Oswald ripening growth during the fusion process of ITO nanocrystals.

  14. Silicon on glass grown from indium and tin solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansen, Roman; Ehlers, Christian; Teubner, Thomas; Böttcher, Klaus; Gambaryan, Karen; Schmidtbauer, Jan; Boeck, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    A two-step process is used to grow crystalline silicon (c-Si) on glass at low temperatures. In the first step, nanocrystalline seed layers are formed at temperatures in the range of 230 to 400°C by either metal-induced crystallization or by direct deposition on heated substrates. In the second step, c-Si is grown on the seed layer by steady-state liquid phase epitaxy at a temperature range of 580 to 710°C. Microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes of up to several tens of micrometers are grown from In and Sn solutions. Three-dimensional simulations of heat and convective flow in the crucible have been conducted and give valuable insights into the growth process. The experimental results are promising with regard to the designated use of the material in photovoltaics.

  15. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew T.; Breitkopf, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  16. Comparative cytotoxicity assessments of some manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Karla Fabiola

    Due to increasing diversity of newly engineered nanoparticles, it is important to consider the hazards of these materials. Very little is known regarding the potential toxicity of relatively new nanomaterials. However, beginning with several historical accounts of nanomaterials applications---chrysotile asbestos and silver---it was assumed that these examples would provide some awareness and guidelines for future nanomaterial and nanotechnology applications, especially health effects. In this study in vitro assays were performed on a murine alveolar macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7), human alveolar macrophage cell line (THB-1), and human epithelial lung cell line (A549) to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of a wide range of manufactured (Ag, TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3, ZrO2, black carbon, two different types of multiwall structures and chrysotile asbestos as the toxicity standard) and anthropogenic nanoparticulates. There are several parameters of nanoparticulates that are considered to trigger an inflammatory response (particularly respiratory) or cause toxicity. These parameters include: particle size, shape, specific surface area, transition metals in particulates, and organic compounds. Therefore, a wide variety of manufactured and anthropogenic nanoparticulates having different morphologies, sizes, specific surface area and chemistries as noted were tested. To determine the nanoparticulates' size and morphology, they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, where it was observed that the commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate had an identical morphology to chrysotile asbestos and combustion-formed carbon nanotubes, i.e.; those that form from natural gas combustion. Light optical microscopy was used to determine cell morphology upon exposure to nanoparticulates as an indication of cell death. Also, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of the collected nanoparticulates was analyzed and correlated with cytotoxic responses. For

  17. Bioadhesive potential of gliadin nanoparticulate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arangoa, M A; Ponchel, G; Orecchioni, A M; Renedo, M J; Duchêne, D; Irache, J M

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare, characterise and evaluate the adhesive potential of gliadin nanoparticulate carriers. Firstly, lectin-nanoparticle conjugates were obtained by the carbodiimide (CDI) covalent binding of Dolichos biflorus lectin (DBA) to the surface of gliadin nanoparticles (NP) containing carbazole (as a model lipophilic drug). The DBA binding efficiency was favoured in mild acidic conditions. Similarly, a CDI concentration of about 0.63 mg/mg nanoparticles, acting during at least 1 h, provided binding efficiencies of about 50% bulk lectin. Under optimised experimental conditions, the DBA conjugates showed a size of around 500 nm and the amount of loaded carbazole and the DBA content were calculated to be around 15 and 23.5 microg/mg, respectively. The bioadhesive activity of NP and DBA conjugates was determined in samples of small and large rat intestinal mucosa. The amount of adsorbed NP was calculated to be around 8 and 4 g/m(2) in the small and large intestine, respectively. This high capacity to interact with the mucosa may be explained by gliadin composition. In fact, gliadin is rich in neutral and lipophilic residues. Neutral amino acids can promote hydrogen bonding interactions with the mucosa, while the lipophilic components can interact with the biological tissue by hydrophobic interactions. The bioadhesive activity of DBA conjugates was calculated to be about 2 g/m(2) in the small intestine and greater than 4 g/m(2) in the caecum and distal colon. These degrees of interaction were always significantly higher than those obtained with controls. Finally, DBA did not provide the specificity for interaction with Peyer's patches. In summary, gliadin nanoparticles show a high capacity of non-specific interaction with the intestine, whereas DBA binding to the surface of these carriers provided a greater specificity for colonic mucosa.

  18. Solvent extraction of indium with aliquat 336S from malonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunatha Rao, R.; Khopkar, S.M. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay. Dept. of Chemistry)

    1982-05-01

    Indium is quantitatively extracted with 4% Aliquat 336S in xylene from 0.01 M malonic acid buffered solution of pH 4.0-5.0. It is stripped with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and determined spectrophotometrically with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol at 520 nm. It is possible to separate indium from alkali and alkaline earths, thallium(I), iron(II), silver, arsenic, yttrium, tin and lanthanons by selective sorption whereas cadmium, nickel, copper, cobalt, chromium(III), aluminium and manganese(II) form weak malonato complexes along with indium and hence are stripped before indium. The separation from bismuth, thallium(III), antimony, mercury(II), platinum(IV) and gold is carried out from 1 M hydrochloric acid, while gallium, titanium, scandium, vanadium and zirconium are separated in 4 M nitric acid. The separation of several anions is also reported.

  19. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-01

    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  20. Extraction of indium from indium-zinc concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shi-qing; TANG Mo-tang; HE Jing; YANG Sheng-hai; TANG Chao-bo; CHEN Yong-ming

    2006-01-01

    A new process for extracting indium from indium-zinc concentrates was proposed. The process can directly extract indium from removed copper solution by D2EHPA, and cancel the stage of removing iron in the traditional process because of using iron and part of zinc in the In-Zn concentrates for direct preparing high quality Mn-Zn soft magnetic ferrites. The technologies in the processes, such as leaching the neutral leached residues with high concentrated acid at high temperature, reduction ferric and removing copper, and extracting indium, were investigated. The results show that total recovery ratio of indium is increased from less than 70% in the traditional process to more than 95%. This process has the advantages of largely simplifying the procedure of indium extraction, zero draining off of iron residue and zero emitting of SO2. So this is a clean production process.

  1. Detection of pollutant gases using electrostatic sprayed indium oxide and tin-doped indium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghimbeu, Camelia Matei [LASC Groupe Capteurs, ISEA, University Paul Verlaine-Metz, 7 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz Technopole (France)], E-mail: cameliaghimbeu@yahoo.com; Lumbreras, Martine [LASC Groupe Capteurs, ISEA, University Paul Verlaine-Metz, 7 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz Technopole (France)], E-mail: lumbre@univ-metz.fr; Siadat, Maryam [LASC Groupe Capteurs, ISEA, University Paul Verlaine-Metz, 7 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz Technopole (France); Schoonman, Joop [Delft Institute for Sustainable Energy, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    The aim of this paper is to present the gas sensing performance of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by a novel technique, i.e., Electrostatic Spray Deposition technique. The morphology and the microstructure studies reveal that the films are porous comprising grains in the nanometer range and crystallizing in the cubic structure. The present films prove to be sensitive to low H{sub 2}S concentrations (1-10 ppm) at low operating temperature (200 deg. C). Undoped films present a very high sensitivity to H{sub 2}S, compared with doped films, and a negligible response to NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. Sn dopant introduced in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} causes a great sensitivity decrease in H{sub 2}S response, and, on the contrary, a slight increase in NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} response.

  2. Bioinspired Nanoparticulate Medical Glues for Minimally Invasive Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuhan; Xu, Chenjie; Sebastin, Monisha; Lee, Albert; Holwell, Nathan; Xu, Calvin; Miranda Nieves, David; Mu, Luye; Langer, Robert S; Lin, Charles; Karp, Jeffrey M

    2015-11-18

    Delivery of tissue glues through small-bore needles or trocars is critical for sealing holes, affixing medical devices, or attaching tissues together during minimally invasive surgeries. Inspired by the granule-packaged glue delivery system of sandcastle worms, a nanoparticulate formulation of a viscous hydrophobic light-activated adhesive based on poly(glycerol sebacate)-acrylate is developed. Negatively charged alginate is used to stabilize the nanoparticulate surface to significantly reduce its viscosity and to maximize injectability through small-bore needles. The nanoparticulate glues can be concentrated to ≈30 w/v% dispersions in water that remain localized following injection. With the trigger of a positively charged polymer (e.g., protamine), the nanoparticulate glues can quickly assemble into a viscous glue that exhibits rheological, mechanical, and adhesive properties resembling the native poly(glycerol sebacate)-acrylate based glues. This platform should be useful to enable the delivery of viscous glues to augment or replace sutures and staples during minimally invasive procedures.

  3. Labilities of aqueous nanoparticulate metal complexes in environmental speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2014-01-01

    An inherent property of a dispersion of charged nanoparticles is that their charges and reactive sites are spatially confined to the particle body which is at a different potential from that in the bulk medium. This feature has important consequences for the reactivity of nanoparticulate

  4. Lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes in electrochemical speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van Herman P.; Town, Raewyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Lability concepts are elaborated for metal complexes with soft (3D) and hard (2D) aqueous nanoparticles. In the presence of a non-equilibrium sensor, e.g. a voltammetric electrode, the notion of lability for nanoparticulate metal complexes, M-NP, reflects the ability of the M-NP to maintain

  5. Lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes in electrochemical speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Herman P.; Town, Raewyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Lability concepts are elaborated for metal complexes with soft (3D) and hard (2D) aqueous nanoparticles. In the presence of a non-equilibrium sensor, e.g. a voltammetric electrode, the notion of lability for nanoparticulate metal complexes, M-NP, reflects the ability of the M-NP to maintain equil...

  6. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  7. Modeling tin whisker growth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Christopher Robert

    2013-08-01

    Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

  8. Design and development of oral nanoparticulated insulin in multiple emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhartha, T Venkata; Senthil, V; Kishan, Ilindra Sai; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V

    2014-01-01

    The present research aimed at developing an injection-free nanoparticulated formulation in multiple emulsion form, for oral delivery of insulin, which otherwise undergoes degradation in the gastric environment if administered orally. Insulin-polymeric nanoparticles were prepared using layer by layer (LbL) adsorption method and incorporated into an emulsion to form a nanoparticulated multiple emulsion. Using 0.6 M sodium chloride, the insulin nanoaggregates of 300-400 nm size were obtained about a yield of 94%. The characteristics of a representative nanoparticle were as follows: particle size - 391.9±0.41 nm, polydispersity index -0.425, zeta potential- +20.6 mv, encapsulation efficiency- 86.7±1.42% and percentage entrapment efficiency of the insulin-polymeric nanoparticles in the inner aqueous phase of emulsion was 84.6%. The FT-IR analysis confirms that there were no drug interactions with the polymers. Stability analysis carried out for 3 months at 8-40 °C, showed only minor changes at the end period. The release kinetics of the nanoparticulated multiple emulsion at pH 7.4 followed first order kinetics and obeyed the Fickian law. However, at pH 2.0 the release kinetics from nanoparticulated multiple emulsion followed zero order kinetics without obeying to the Fickian law. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the nanoparticulated multiple emulsion formulation has good release characteristics and imparted a tolerable protection for insulin at different pH conditions, which may be exploited for oral administration.

  9. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Makhija; Arabinda Ray; R M Patel; U B Trivedi; H N Kapse

    2005-02-01

    A sensor for ammonia gas and ethanol vapour has been fabricated using indium oxide thin film as sensing layer and indium tin oxide thin film encapsulated in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a miniature heater. For the fabrication of miniature heater indium tin oxide thin film was grown on special high temperature corning glass substrate by flash evaporation method. Gold was deposited on the film using thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum. The film was then annealed at 700 K for an hour. The thermocouple attached on sensing surface measures the appropriate operating temperature. The thin film gas sensor for ammonia was operated at different concentrations in the temperature range 323–493 K. At 473 K the sensitivity of the sensor was found to be saturate. The detrimental effect of humidity on ammonia sensing is removed by intermittent periodic heating of the sensor at the two temperatures 323K and 448 K, respectively. The indium oxide ethanol vapour sensor operated at fixed concentration of 400 ppm in the temperature range 293–393 K. Above 373 K, the sensor conductance was found to be saturate. With various thicknesses from 150–300 nm of indium oxide sensor there was no variation in the sensitivity measurements of ethanol vapour. The block diagram of circuits for detecting the ammonia gas and ethanol vapour has been included in this paper.

  10. Speciation and Health Risks of Atmospheric Nanoparticulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kennedy

    Exposure to air pollution causes several adverse health effects such as asthma, respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature death; and the San Joaquin Valley is one of the most heavily polluted regions in the US. The mountains that surround the valley allow air pollution, including particulate matter, to remain stagnant, prolonging the exposure of valley populations to it. The primary sources of particulate matter for this region are aluminosilicate dust from agricultural activities, and soot emissions from diesel trucks and vehicular traffic. A substantial fraction of emitted material is nanoparticulate matter (health impacts of particulate matter. There is a need for chemical speciation of particulate matter that will allow the identification of the chemical and physical properties of particulates by source, the creation of well-controlled proxy particles with those properties for testing in cell culture studies, and correlation of particulate properties and sources with their negative health impacts. These results can help identify the sources of air pollution to prioritize for mitigation for the greatest health benefit. In addition, further chemical speciation can help monitor the results of such mitigation efforts. Here, natural particulate matter samples from Merced and Fresno, two cities in the San Joaquin Valley, were analyzed. Ultrafine particles present were 40 to 50 nm in diameter and mostly composed of aluminum, silicon, oxygen, and iron hydroxide. XAS data confirmed the presence of the aluminosilicate as smectite clay and the iron hydroxide as ferrihydrite. Furthermore, a chemical speciation study investigated industrial emissions of air particulate matter. Samples were analyzed using electron microscopy for elemental composition and size distribution, and found to contain fine metal particulates (lead and iron) that can lead to lung inflammation. From characterization data, in order to create a simplified proxy particle system

  11. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  12. Raman Scattering from Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and processing that will enable us to investigate the unique electronic states between topological insulators (TIs) and high- temperature... superconductors . TIs are electronic materials that have a bulk bandgap and gapless conducting surface states that are protected by the topological and...temperatures lower than 286 K and undergoes a phase transition at 286 K to metallic tin (β-Sn), the stable tin allotrope at temperatures above 286 K.4 High

  13. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O; Hussain, Fatima A; Hemond, Harold F; Sacco, Sarah A; Shine, James P; Runkel, Robert L; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~3, indium concentrations are 6-29μg/L (10,000× those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to >8, and >99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The precipitation of indium at elevated pH in a stream influenced by acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah Jane O.; Hussain, Fatima A.; Hemond, Harold F.; Sacco, Sarah A.; Shine, James P.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Kimball, Briant A.

    2017-01-01

    Indium is an increasingly important metal in semiconductors and electronics and has uses in important energy technologies such as photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One significant flux of indium to the environment is from lead, zinc, copper, and tin mining and smelting, but little is known about its aqueous behavior after it is mobilized. In this study, we use Mineral Creek, a headwater stream in southwestern Colorado severely affected by heavy metal contamination as a result of acid mine drainage, as a natural laboratory to study the aqueous behavior of indium. At the existing pH of ~ 3, indium concentrations are 6–29 μg/L (10,000 × those found in natural rivers), and are completely filterable through a 0.45 μm filter. During a pH modification experiment, the pH of the system was raised to > 8, and > 99% of the indium became associated with the suspended solid phase (i.e. does not pass through a 0.45 μm filter). To determine the mechanism of removal of indium from the filterable and likely primarily dissolved phase, we conducted laboratory experiments to determine an upper bound for a sorption constant to iron oxides, and used this, along with other published thermodynamic constants, to model the partitioning of indium in Mineral Creek. Modeling results suggest that the removal of indium from the filterable phase is consistent with precipitation of indium hydroxide from a dissolved phase. This work demonstrates that nonferrous mining processes can be a significant source of indium to the environment, and provides critical information about the aqueous behavior of indium.

  15. Encapsulation of antioxidants in gastrointestinal-resistant nanoparticulate carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Eliana B; Severino, Patrícia; Basso, Rafael; Santana, Maria Helena A

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to cause several human pathologies. For this reason, antioxidants have gained utmost importance because of their potential as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in many diseases. Examples of their application include their use in diabetic patients, as aging drugs, in cancer diseases, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, autoimmune disorders, and also in inflammation. Antioxidants have limited absorption profiles, therefore low bioavailability and low concentrations at the target site. Efforts have been done towards loading antioxidant molecules in advanced nanoparticulate carriers, e.g., liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, self-emulsifying drug delivery system. Examples of -successful achievements include the encapsulation of drugs and other active ingredients, e.g., coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and vitamin A, resveratrol and polyphenols, curcumin, lycopene, silymarin, and superoxide dismutase. This review focuses on the comprehensive analysis of using nanoparticulate carriers for loading these molecules for oral administration.

  16. Photothermal analysis of individual nanoparticulate samples using micromechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tom; Schmid, Silvan; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    photothermal spectroscopy, a novel method that enables the analysis of individual nanoparticulate samples. Absorption of light by an individual sample placed on a microstring resonator results in local heating of the string, which is reflected in its resonance frequency. The working principle...... polystyrene nanoparticles are detected. With the current setup, nanoparticulate samples with a mass of ∼40 ag are detectable. By using nanostrings, visible and infrared photothermal spectroscopy in the subattogram mass regime is possible and single molecule detection is within reach. © 2013 American Chemical...... of the spectrometer is demonstrated by analyzing the optical absorption of different micro- and nanoparticles on a microstring. We present the measurement of a simple absorption spectrum of multiple polystyrene microparticles illuminated with an unfocused LED light source. Using a diode laser, single 170 nm...

  17. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  18. Vacancy-indium clusters in implanted germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-04-01

    Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements of heavily indium doped germanium samples revealed that a significant proportion of the indium dose is immobile. Using electronic structure calculations we address the possibility of indium clustering with point defects by predicting the stability of indium-vacancy clusters, InnVm. We find that the formation of large clusters is energetically favorable, which can explain the immobility of the indium ions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of Activity of Indium in Liquid Bi-In-Sn Alloys by EMF Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. R.; Mohan, S.; Behera, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical technique based on a molten salt electrolyte galvanic cell has been used to measure the activity of indium in liquid Bi-In-Sn alloys in the temperature range of 723 K to 855 K along three ternary sections. The activity of tin in Bi-Sn binary alloys has also been measured by the same technique in the above temperature range. The activity of indium in Bi-In-Sn alloys shows negative deviation from Raoult's law for most of the compositions and slight positive deviations for a few indium-rich compositions. The ternary excess molar free energies have been calculated by Darken's treatment. Isoactivity curves at 813 K in the ternary Bi-In-Sn alloys were derived by combining the activity data of In-Sn and Bi-In alloys. The values of excess molar free energy obtained in this study are compared with those calculated from the Muggianu model at 813 K.

  20. Macrophage solubilization and cytotoxicity of indium-containing particles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, William M; Qu, Wei; Shines, Cassandra J; Bousquet, Ronald W; Taylor, Genie J; Waalkes, Michael P; Morgan, Daniel L

    2013-10-01

    Indium-containing particles (ICPs) are used extensively in the microelectronics industry. Pulmonary toxicity is observed after inhalation exposure to ICPs; however, the mechanism(s) of pathogenesis is unclear. ICPs are insoluble at physiological pH and are initially engulfed by alveolar macrophages (and likely airway epithelial cells). We hypothesized that uptake of ICPs by macrophages followed by phagolysosomal acidification results in the solubilization of ICPs into cytotoxic indium ions. To address this, we characterized the in vitro cytotoxicity of indium phosphide (InP) or indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with macrophages (RAW cells) and lung-derived epithelial (LA-4) cells at 24h using metabolic (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and membrane integrity (lactate dehydrogenase) assays. InP and ITO were readily phagocytosed by RAW and LA-4 cells; however, the particles were much more cytotoxic to RAW cells and cytotoxicity was dose dependent. Treatment of RAW cells with cytochalasin D (CytoD) blocked particle phagocytosis and reduced cytotoxicity. Treatment of RAW cells with bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of phagolysosomal acidification, also reduced cytotoxicity but did not block particle uptake. Based on direct indium measurements, the concentration of ionic indium was increased in culture medium from RAW but not LA-4 cells following 24-h treatment with particles. Ionic indium derived from RAW cells was significantly reduced by treatment with CytoD. These data implicate macrophage uptake and solubilization of InP and ITO via phagolysosomal acidification as requisite for particle-induced cytotoxicity and the release of indium ions. This may apply to other ICPs and strongly supports the notion that ICPs require solubilization in order to be toxic.

  1. Chelant-induced reclamation of indium from the spent liquid crystal display panels with the aid of microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhiroshi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Rahman, Ismail M.M., E-mail: I.M.M.Rahman@gmail.com [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Egawa, Yuji; Sawai, Hikaru; Begum, Zinnat A. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Maki, Teruya [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mizutani, Satoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto 3-3-138, Sumiyoshi-Ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • A new process for indium recovery from end-of-life LCD panels. • Chelants are used for the dissolution of indium from the waste LCD panels. • Indium extraction with chelant is enhanced with the aid of microwave irradiation. • Extraction rate is quantitative in the hyperbaric high-temperature environment. -- Abstract: Indium is a rare metal that is mostly consumed as indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The spent LCD panels, termed as LCD-waste hereafter, is an increasing contributor of electronic waste burden worldwide and can be an impending secondary source of indium. The present work reports a new technique for the reclamation of indium from the unground LCD-waste using aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) as the solvent in a hyperbaric environment and at a high-temperature. Microwave irradiation was used to create the desired system conditions, and a substantial abstraction of indium (≥80%) from the LCD-waste with the APCs (EDTA or NTA) was attained in the acidic pH region (up to pH 5) at the temperature of ≥120 °C and the pressure of ∼50 bar. The unique point of the reported process is the almost quantitative recovery of indium from the LCD-waste that ensured via the combination of the reaction facilitatory effect of microwave exposure and the metal extraction capability of APCs. A method for the selective isolation of indium from the extractant solution and recycle of the chelant in solution is also described.

  2. Electric relaxation processes in chemodynamics of aqueous metal complexes: From simple ligands to soft nanoparticulate complexants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Buffle, J.; Town, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemodynamics of metal complexes with nanoparticulate complexants can differ significantly from that for simple ligands. The spatial confinement of charged sites and binding sites to the nanoparticulate body impacts on the time scales of various steps in the overall complex formation process.

  3. Electron Excitation of Tin and Tin ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lalita; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    There is a great requirement of accurate atomic data of tin and its ions to understand the properties of laser produced tin plasma, one of the sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. The constant efforts are being made under various international programs viz., International SEMATECH's EUV Source Program, Intel Lithography Roadmap etc., to improve the efficiency of the EUV sources which can meet the requirements of high volume manufacturing of commercial chips. For optimizing the efficiency of EUV device the plasma modeling should be accurate which in turn, would rely on the accuracy of atomic data used. In this connection we have undertaken the study of electron impact excitation of Sn and Sn+. Since the atomic number of Sn is 50, it is sufficiently heavy atom to manifest relativistic spin - orbit and exchange effects. Therefore, we have used a fully relativistic distorted wave (RDW) theory to calculate results for cross sections corresponding to various transitions as well as polarization of photons due to decay of excited states of Sn and Sn+ In our RDW theory wavefunctions for both, the target electrons and projectile electrons are obtained by solving Dirac equations. Thus the relativistic effects are incorporated in consistent manner to ensure the reliability of the cross section and polarization results which will be presented in detail at the conference. Department of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India (DAE-BRNS).

  4. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association be...

  5. Lability of nanoparticulate metal complexes in electrochemical speciation analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Herman P.; Town, Raewyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Lability concepts are elaborated for metal complexes with soft (3D) and hard (2D) aqueous nanoparticles. In the presence of a non-equilibrium sensor, e.g. a voltammetric electrode, the notion of lability for nanoparticulate metal complexes, M-NP, reflects the ability of the M-NP to maintain...... develop at the particle/medium interface. Thus the chemodynamic features of M-NP complexes should be fundamentally different from those of molecular systems in which the reaction layer is a property of the homogeneous solution (μ = (DM/ka ′)1/2). For molecular complexes, the characteristic timescale...

  6. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resist...

  7. Improved device reliability in organic light emitting devices by controlling the etching of indium zinc oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying-Jie; Lou, Yan-Hui; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    A controllable etching process for indium zinc oxide (IZO) films was developed by using a weak etchant of oxalic acid with a slow etching ratio. With controllable etching time and temperature, a patterned IZO electrode with smoothed surface morphology and slope edge was achieved. For the practical application in organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), a suppression of the leak current in the current—voltage characteristics of OLEDs was observed. It resulted in a 1.6 times longer half lifetime in the IZO-based OLEDs compared to that using an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode etched by a conventional strong etchant of aqua regia.

  8. A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the preparation of multijunction polymer solar cells without the use of vacuum evaporation methods or indium tin oxide (ITO). The entire layer stack is prepared by printing or coating of each layer. The number of layers typically employed in complete devices exceeds ten...

  9. A molecular dynamics evaluation of the effect of dopant addition on grain boundary diffusion in tin: Implication for whisker growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S., E-mail: soumik.banerjee@wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Dutta, I. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Majumdar, B.S. [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Addition of lead dopant has been known to be an effective way of mitigating whisker growth in tin. However, the toxic nature of lead has necessitated a search for alternative dopant species. Recent investigations have indicated that indium can be an effective agent in reducing whisker growth. In an effort to investigate if reduction in diffusivity of tin atoms near grain boundaries in presence of dopant atoms is the underlying mechanism that causes reduced whisker growth, we employed molecular dynamics simulations to model tin grain boundaries with lead and indium dopants. We simulated pure tin grain boundary as well as grain boundaries with 4% dopants by mole fraction. Our results indicate that the dopant atoms segregate near the grain boundary and forms clusters, which in turn leads to reduced diffusivity of tin atoms by up to a factor of three. Since such reduction in diffusivity alone cannot reduce whisker growth by several orders of magnitude, we conclude that other mechanisms might play a more dominant role in mitigating tin whisker growth.

  10. Indium Substitution Effect on the Topological Crystalline Insulator Family (Pb1−xSnx1−yInyTe: Topological and Superconducting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidan Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs have been of great interest in the area of condensed matter physics. We investigated the effect of indium substitution on the crystal structure and transport properties in the TCI system (Pb1−xSnx1−yInyTe. For samples with a tin concentration x ≤ 50 % , the low-temperature resisitivities show a dramatic variation as a function of indium concentration: with up to ∼2% indium doping, the samples show weak-metallic behavior similar to their parent compounds; with ∼6% indium doping, samples have true bulk-insulating resistivity and present evidence for nontrivial topological surface states; with higher indium doping levels, superconductivity was observed, with a transition temperature, T c , positively correlated to the indium concentration and reaching as high as 4.7 K. We address this issue from the view of bulk electronic structure modified by the indium-induced impurity level that pins the Fermi level. The current work summarizes the indium substitution effect on (Pb,SnTe, and discusses the topological and superconducting aspects, which can be provide guidance for future studies on this and related systems.

  11. Interaction between nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 and lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanmei; Li, Na; Liu, Chao; Liu, Huiting; Cui, Yaling; Wang, Han; Hong, Fashui

    2010-09-01

    In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO(2) nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC1.1.1.27), Institute of Cancer Research region mice were injected with nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) (5 nm) of various doses into the abdominal cavity daily for 14 days. We then examined LDH activity in vivo and in vitro and direct evident for interaction between nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) and LDH using spectral methods. The results showed that nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) could significantly activate LDH in vivo and in vitro; the kinetics constant (Km) and Vmax were 0.006 microM and 1,149 unit mg(-1) protein min(-1), respectively, at a low concentration of nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2), and 3.45 and 0.031 microM and 221 unit mg(-1) protein min(-1), respectively, at a high concentration of nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2). By fluorescence spectral assays, the nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) was determined to be directly bound to LDH, and the binding constants of the binding site were 1.77 x 10(8) L mol(-1) and 2.15 x 10(7) L mol(-1), respectively, and the binding distance between nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) and the Trp residue of LDH was 4.18 nm, and nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) induced the protein unfolding. It was concluded that the binding of nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) altered LDH structure and function.

  12. Flux Pinning Effects of Y2O3 Nanoparticulate Dispersions in Multilayered YBCO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0090 FLUX PINNING EFFECTS OF Y2O3 NANOPARTICULATE DISPERSIONS IN MULTILAYERED YBCO THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) T.A...January 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FLUX PINNING EFFECTS OF Y2O3 NANOPARTICULATE DISPERSIONS IN MULTILAYERED YBCO THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) 5a...Clearance Date: 06 Dec 2005. 14. ABSTRACT The flux pinning effects of Y2O3 nanoparticulate inclusions in YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123 or YBCO ) thin films

  13. Three of a Kind: Genetically Similar Tsukamurella Phages TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Zoe A; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J; Petrovski, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Three Tsukamurella phages, TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4, were isolated from activated sludge treatment plants located in Victoria, Australia, using conventional enrichment techniques. Illumina and 454 whole-genome sequencing of these Siphoviridae viruses revealed that they had similar genome sequences, ranging in size between 76,268 bp and 76,964 bp. All three phages shared 74% nucleotide sequence identity to the previously described Gordonia phage GTE7. Genome sequencing suggested that phage TIN3 had suffered a mutation in one of its lysis genes compared to the sequence of phage TIN4, to which it is genetically very similar. Mass spectroscopy data showed the unusual presence of a virion structural gene in the DNA replication module of phage TIN4, disrupting the characteristic modular genome architecture of Siphoviridae phages. All three phages appeared highly virulent on strains of Tsukamurella inchonensis and Tsukamurella paurometabola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. The synthesis of metal nanoparticulate catalysts within functional microgel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliva, Maria; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Christodoulakis, Konstantinos; Vamvakaki, Maria; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.

    2012-02-01

    Electrostatically and sterically stabilized polymer microgel particles have been prepared containing either amino (poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PDEA) or carboxylic acid (poly(acrylic acid), PAA; poly(methacrylic acid), PMMA) functional groups. The PDEA, PAA and PMAA particles can be used for the incorporation of a large variety of metal nanoparticulate catalysts due to their functional amine and carboxylic acid groups; Pd, Ru and Ni nanoparticles have been synthesized. The more polar PAA microgels were designed as the nanocatalyst carrier system in aqueous reaction media while the less polar PMAA particles were prepared as the metal nanoparticle template for use in catalytic reactions that take place in organic solvents. The sterically and electrostatically stabilized microgel particles possess surface functional groups that can potentially interact with the microchannel walls of microfluidic catalytic reactors.

  15. Indium oxide: A transparent, conducting ferromagnetic semiconductor for spintronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S. Harinath; Kaleemulla, S.; Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Krishnamoorthi, C.

    2016-10-01

    The optical and electrical properties are the two important dimensions of Indium oxide and its derivatives (indium tin oxide) and were well studied to understand the origin of wide electronic band gap and high electrical conductivity at room temperature. In2O3 and its derivatives find many applications in electronic and optoelectronic domains based on the above properties. The recent discovery of ferromagnetism in In2O3 at room temperature become a third dimension and lead to intensive research on enhancement of ferromagnetic strength by various means such as dopants and synthesis protocols and extrinsic parameters. The research lead to enormous experimental data and theoretical models proliferation over the past one decade with diverse insights into the origin of ferromagnetism in In2O3 based dilute magnetic semiconductors. The experimental data and theoretical models of ferromagnetism in In2O3 has been thoroughly surveyed in the literature and compiled all the data and presented for easy of understanding in this review. We have identified best chemical composition, geometry and synthesis protocols for strongest ferromagnetic strength and suitable theoretical model of magnetism has been presented in this review.

  16. Extraction and Separation of Tin from Tin-Bearing Secondary Resources: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zijian; Zhang, Yuanbo; Liu, Bingbing; Lu, Manman; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The proven global tin reserves were reported to be approximately 4.7 million tons (Mts) in 2016, and among these resources, only approximately 2.2 Mts can be recovered economically. The original tin deposits will be exhausted in several years, therefore, tin-bearing secondary resources, such as tin alloy, tin anode slime, e-wastes, tin slag and tin-bearing tailings, will become the primary source from which tin can be extracted. Many investigations have been conducted on the recovery of tin from these tin-bearing materials. However, the separation and recovery approaches of tin vary significantly, since the content and phase compositions of tin are totally different in these secondary resources. This paper reviews these methods of extracting and separating tin from different kinds of tin-bearing secondary resources.

  17. Simulation des propriétés électriques des nanoparticules d’or sphériques.

    OpenAIRE

    MENOUAR, Abdessami

    2015-01-01

    La résonance de plasmon des nanoparticules d’or dépend de nombreux paramètres, qui sont autant de moyens pour moduler le spectre d’absorption. Les paramètres les plus importants sont la forme et la taille des nanoparticules (sphériques, ovales, triangulaires, sous forme de bâtonnets) , ainsi que le milieu (l’air, un liquide, une matrice solide) dans lequel les nanoparticules sont plongées .Dans notre travail on s’est intéressé à la modélisation des nanoparticules d’or sphérique...

  18. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The selective conversion of biomass-derived substrates is one of the major challenges facing the chemical industry. Recently, stannosilicates have been employed as highly active and selective Lewis acid catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. In the present work, four different...... stannosilicates have been investigated: Sn-BEA, Sn-MFI, Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. When comparing the properties of tin sites in the structures, substantial differences are observed. Sn-beta displays the highest Lewis acid strength, as measured by probe molecule studies using infrared spectroscopy, which gives...... it a significantly higher activity at low temperatures than the other structures investigated. Furthermore, the increased acid strength translates into large differences in selectivity between the catalysts, thus demonstrating the influence of the structure on the active site, and pointing the way forward...

  19. Optimization of Indium Recovery and Separation from LCD Waste by Solvent Extraction with Bis(2-ethylhexyl Phosphate (D2EHPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is currently the choice of electrode material in liquid crystal displays (LCDs. D2EHPA is known to be an extractant that can be used to selectively recover indium from 1 M sulfuric acid. In order to optimize the extraction and separation of indium from LCD waste, the effects of pH, temperature, time, and extractant concentration on the distribution ratios of In(III and the major impurities such as Al(III, Cu(II, Fe(III, and Zn(II were investigated. Metal concentrations in the aqueous feed were based on the concentrations found in the leach liquor of LCD panel glass at 0.1 g/mL S/L ratio. This study showed that extraction of indium could be increased at 293 K. Furthermore, by increasing D2EHPA concentration from 0.1 M to 0.25 M, extraction of indium could be increased from 70% to >95%.

  20. Nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) for oral pharmaceutics and nutraceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, C M; Martins-Lopes, P; Souto, E B

    2010-02-01

    The introduction of nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) in the pharmaceutic and nutraceutic fields has changed the definitions of disease management and treatment, diagnosis, as well as the supply food chain in the agri-food sector. NPC composed of synthetic polymers, proteins or polysaccharides gather interesting properties to be used for oral administration of pharmaceutics and nutraceutics. Oral administration remains the most convenient way of delivering drugs (e.g. peptides, proteins and nucleic acids) since these suffer similar metabolic pathways as food supply. Recent advances in biotechnology have produced highly potent new molecules however with low oral bioavailability. A suitable and promising approach to overcome their sensitivity to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis as well as the poor cellular uptake, would be their entrapment within suitable gastrointestinal (GI) resistant NPC. Increasing attention has been paid to the potential use of NPC for peptides, proteins, antioxidants (carotenoids, omega fatty acids, coenzyme Q10), vitamins, probiotics, for oral administration. This review focuses on the most important materials to produce NPC for oral administration, and the most recent achievements in the production techniques and bioactives successfully delivered by these means.

  1. The distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Yang, Jian; Gu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    The knowledge of local radiant absorption is important to the nanostructure optimization, it is beneficial to the applications in energy harvesting, optical heating, photocatalysis, etc. In this paper, FDTD model is constructed for the distribution of absorptive power dissipation in irradiated nanoparticulate system. The theoretical model extended from Mie theory is used to examine the FDTD model, the parameters and conditions set for FDTD simulation are confirmed based on the comparison. Then, the influence of Ag nanoparticle on the absorptive properties of nearby TiO2 nanoparticle is investigated by FDTD simulation at the wavelength of 0.25 μm. It is indicated that suitable distance between TiO2 and Ag particles is beneficial to the spectral radiant absorption of TiO2 particle. Considering the agglomeration of nanoparticles and the oxidation at the TiO2-Ag interface, the Ag core coated with Al2O3 shell is suggested, and the simulated results indicated that the shell thickness and the Ag core size need to be optimized for enhancing the radiant absorption of TiO2 particle.

  2. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  3. Separation and Concentration of Indium from Leaching Solution Containing Indium, Antimony and Iron Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Processing conditions of effectively separating indium from the leaching solution of a smelting antimony slag were studied. For the leaching solution containing indium and antimony and iron ions, indium was separated by extracting with HDEHP-kerosine solution, washing antimony and iron ions with oxalic acid solution and stripping indium with a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid. InCl3 solution with purity above 90% is obtained. Indium can be enriched through a circulation of stripping with a dilute HCl solution. The concentration of InCl3 solution is about 25~30 g/L.

  4. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  5. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid anchored onto tin phosphate and tin phenyl phosphonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chithra Sumej; P P Sharmila; Nisha J Tharayil; S Suma

    2013-02-01

    Tin (IV) phosphates of the class of tetravalent metal acid (TMA) salts have been synthesized by sol–gel method. The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin phosphate (SnPCA) and tin phenyl phosphonate (SnPP) were also synthesized. These materials have been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acidic, basic and organic solvent media. The proton present in the structural hydroxyl groups indicates good potential for TMA salts to exhibit solid-state proton conduction. The transport properties of these materials have been explored by measuring specific proton conductance at different temperatures. Based on the specific conduction data and Arrhenius plots, a suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  6. Study of indium nitride and indium oxynitride band gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sparvoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the study of the optical band gap of indium oxynitride (InNO and indium nitride (InN deposited by magnetron reactive sputtering. InNO shows multi-functionality in electrical and photonic applications, transparency in visible range, wide band gap, high resistivity and low leakage current. The deposition processes were performed in a magnetron sputtering system using a four-inches pure In (99.999% target and nitrogen and oxygen as plasma gases. The pressure was kept constant at 1.33 Pa and the RF power (13.56 MHz constant at 250 W. Three-inches diameter silicon wafer with 370 micrometer thickness and resistivity in the range of 10 ohm-centimeter was used as substrate. The thin films were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR reflectance, photoluminescence (PL and Hall Effect. The band gap was obtained from Tauc analysis of the reflectance spectra and photoluminescence. The band gap was evaluated for both films: for InNO the value was 2.48 eV and for InN, 1.52 eV. The relative quantities obtained from RBS spectra analysis in InNO sample are 48% O, 12% N, 40% In and in InN sample are 8% O, 65% N, 27% In.

  7. Spray deposition and characterization of undoped and In-doped tin disulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Santhosh; Manoharan, C.; Dhanapandian, S.; Kiruthigaa, G. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar (India); Amalraj, L. [Department of Physics V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Vijayakumar, K. [Department of Physics, K.L.N. College of Information Technology, Madurai (India)

    2012-07-15

    Undoped and Indium doped tin disulphide (SnS{sub 2}) thin films had been deposited onto glass substrates at T{sub s} = 300 C using spray pyrolysis technique under atmospheric pressure with stannous chloride, indium chloride and thiourea as precursors. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the deposited films were characterized. The XRD pattern revealed that the undoped and doped films had preferred orientation along (002) plane with hexagonal structure. FESEM micrographs had shown that morphologies of the films changed with indium doping. Optical constant such as refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), real and imaginary parts of dielectric constants were evaluated from transmittance and reflectance spectra in UV-Visible spectroscopy. The optical absorption data were used to determine the band gap energy and it was found to be 2.75 eV for undoped and 2.50 eV for indium doped films respectively. The room temperature dark resistivity was found to be 4.545 x 10{sup 3}{omega}-cm and 5.406 x 10{sup 3}{omega}-cm for undoped and In-doped films respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Cellular partitioning of nanoparticulate versus dissolved metals in marine phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Jarvis, Tayler A; Lenihan, Hunter S; Miller, Robert J

    2014-11-18

    Discharges of metal oxide nanoparticles into aquatic environments are increasing with their use in society, thereby increasing exposure risk for aquatic organisms. Separating the impacts of nanoparticle from dissolved metal pollution is critical for assessing the environmental risks of the rapidly growing nanomaterial industry, especially in terms of ecosystem effects. Metal oxides negatively affect several species of marine phytoplankton, which are responsible for most marine primary production. Whether such toxicity is generally due to nanoparticles or exposure to dissolved metals liberated from particles is uncertain. The type and severity of toxicity depends in part on whether phytoplankton cells take up and accumulate primarily nanoparticles or dissolved metal ions. We compared the responses of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii, exposed to ZnO, AgO, and CuO nanoparticles with the responses of T. weissflogii cells exposed to the dissolved metals ZnCl2, AgNO3, and CuCl2 for 7 d. Cellular metal accumulation, metal distribution, and algal population growth were measured to elucidate differences in exposure to the different forms of metal. Concentration-dependent metal accumulation and reduced population growth were observed in T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides, as well as dissolved metals. Significant effects on population growth were observed at the lowest concentrations tested for all metals, with similar toxicity for both dissolved and nanoparticulate metals. Cellular metal distribution, however, markedly differed between T. weissflogii exposed to nanometal oxides versus those exposed to dissolved metals. Metal concentrations were highest in the algal cell wall when cells were exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles, whereas algae exposed to dissolved metals had higher proportions of metal in the organelle and endoplasmic reticulum fractions. These results have implications for marine plankton communities as well as higher trophic levels, since

  9. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jeangros, Q. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Nicolay, S. [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  10. Indium gallium nitride multijunction solar cell simulation using silvaco atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Baldomero

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential use of wurtzite Indium Gallium Nitride as photovoltaic material. Silvaco Atlas was used to simulate a quad-junction solar cell. Each of the junctions was made up of Indium Gallium Nitride. The band gap of each junction was dependent on the composition percentage of Indium Nitride and Gallium Nitride within Indium Gallium Nitride. The findings of this research show that Indium Gallium Nitride is a promising semiconductor for solar cell use. United...

  11. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2016-10-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  12. Stability of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2017-02-01

    The indium-gallium-zinc-aluminum-oxide (IGZAO) channel layer of the bottom-gate-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) was deposited on indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates using a magnetron radio frequency co-sputtering system with dual targets of indium gallium zinc oxide and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cations provided an extra transport pathway and widened the bottom of the conduction band, thus increasing the electron mobility in the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds could sustain the stability of oxygen of the IGZAO films. The IGZAO TFTs were processed by O2 plasma and post-annealing treatments. Hysteresis analysis was carried out in order to study the stability of the resulting IGZAO TFTs, the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) performance, and the hot carrier effect were also measured. For the IGZAO TFTs, the threshold voltage shift of the PBTS performance and the hot carrier effect were 0.1 V and 0.06 V, respectively. Overall, the IGZAO TFTs exhibited good stability in this study.

  13. On the Interaction between a Nanoparticulate System and the Human Body in Body Area Nanonetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrí

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. Specifically, we assume the presence of the human immune system that can affect the optimal behavior of nanoparticles, aiming to locally deliver drug inside the human body. When a flow of nanoparticles is injected into the blood, the interference due to the immune system can provide a strong decrease of the nanoparticle concentration, by means of “humoral immunity”, the phagocytosis process, etc. As a consequence, the correct drug delivery will occur with a lower probability. Since the mechanism behind the biological immune system is very complicated, in this paper, we start from a simplistic nanoparticulate model, where the nanoparticles and the cells of the immune system are subject to the diffusion laws. Finally, we derive the end-to-end physical model of our nanoparticulate nanomedicine system with the presence of the human immune system cells. The error analysis is then investigated in terms of how these errors can affect the performance of the system, i.e., nanoparticle survival probability.

  14. Subacute oral toxicity investigation of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Löschner, Katrin; Bergström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Subacute toxicity of 14 nm nanoparticulate silver (Ag-NP) stabilised with polyvinylpyrrolidone and ionic silver in the form of silver acetate (Ag-acetate) was investigated in four-week-old Wistar rats. Animals received orally by gavage the following: vehicle control (10 $, 6 #); Ag-NP at doses: 2...

  15. Design issues for improved environmental performance of dye-sensitized and organic nanoparticulate solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though environmental improvement has been claimed for the application of nanotechnology to solar cells, several characteristics of the fullerene-based organic, and the dye-sensitized nanoparticulate, solar cell are not conducive to such improvement. These include relatively high energy and materials

  16. Design issues for improved environmental performance of dye-sensitized and organic nanoparticulate solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though environmental improvement has been claimed for the application of nanotechnology to solar cells, several characteristics of the fullerene-based organic, and the dye-sensitized nanoparticulate, solar cell are not conducive to such improvement. These include relatively high energy and materials

  17. Comparative study of ITO and TiN fabricated by low-temperature RF biased sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Daniel K., E-mail: daniel.simon@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Dirnstorfer, Ingo; Fengler, Franz P. G.; Jordan, Paul M.; Krause, Andreas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Tröger, David [Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Fachgruppe Nanotechnologie, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2a, 08056 Zwickau (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and TU Dresden, Institut für Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM), 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Radio frequency (RF) biasing induced by a second plasma source at the substrate is applied to low-temperature sputtering processes for indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride (TiN) thin films. Investigations on crystal structure and surface morphology show that RF-biased substrate plasma processes result in a changed growth regime with different grain sizes and orientations than those produced by processes without a substrate bias. The influence of the RF bias is shown comparatively for reactive RF-sputtered ITO and reactive direct-current-sputtered TiN. The ITO layers exhibit an improved electrical resistivity of 0.5 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 0.5 × 10{sup 4 }cm{sup −1} without substrate heating. Room-temperature sputtered TiN layers are deposited that possess a resistivity (0.1 mΩ cm) of 3 orders of magnitude lower than, and a density (5.4 g/cm{sup 3}) up to 45% greater than, those obtained from layers grown using the standard process without a substrate plasma.

  18. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} toxicity to freshwater algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Brad M., E-mail: Brad.Angel@csiro.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Vallotton, Pascal [Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Apte, Simon C. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water Flagship, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} less toxic than micron-sized CeO{sub 2}. • UV light filters prevented ROS generation by CeO{sub 2}. • ROS not toxic mechanism: CeO{sub 2} toxicity was similar in presence and absence of ROS. • Strong sorption of nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in synthetic fresh water. • CeO{sub 2} sorption to cells was prevented and toxicity mitigated in the presence of DOC. - Abstract: The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10–34 nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO{sub 2} to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal–CeO{sub 2} interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by ‘switching off’ ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113–193 nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO{sub 2} dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2} concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6–28 mg/L compared with 59 mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100 mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO{sub 2

  19. X-ray phase computed tomography for nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutics: preliminary feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiangyang; Yang, Yi; Tang, Shaojie

    2011-03-01

    With the scientific progress in cancer biology, pharmacology and biomedical engineering, the nano-biotechnology based imaging probes and therapeutical agents (namely probes/agents) - a form of theranostics - are among the strategic solutions bearing the hope for the cure of cancer. The key feature distinguishing the nanoparticulated probes/agents from their conventional counterparts is their targeting capability. A large surface-to-volume ratio in nanoparticulated probes/agents enables the accommodation of multiple targeting, imaging and therapeutic components to cope with the intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. Most nanoparticulated probes/agents are synthesized with low atomic number materials and thus their x-ray attenuation are very similar to biological tissues. However, their microscopic structures are very different, which may result in significant differences in their refractive properties. Recently, the investigation in the x-ray grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) CT has demonstrated its advantages in differentiating low-atomic materials over the conventional attenuation-based CT. We believe that a synergy of x-ray grating-based DPC CT and nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutic agents may play a significant role in extensive preclinical and clinical applications, or even become a modality for molecular imaging. Hence, we propose to image the refractive property of nanoparticulated imaging probes and therapeutical agents using x-ray grating-based DPC CT. In this work, we conduct a preliminary feasibility study with a focus to characterize the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and contrast-detail behavior of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT. The obtained data may be instructive to the architecture design and performance optimization of the x-ray grating-based DPC CT for imaging biomarker-targeted imaging probes and therapeutic agents, and even informative to the translation of preclinical research in theranostics into clinical applications.

  20. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (/le/ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important. (orig.).

  1. Study on the synthesis of Indium Tinoxide (ITO) nanomaterial using sol gel process and its potential for CO gas detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiranto, Goib; Idayanti, Novrita; Retnaningsih, Lilis

    2016-11-01

    This paper described the synthesis of doped and undoped nanomaterial Indium Tinoxide (ITO) using sol-gel process with the base materials from Indium Nitride (In(NO3)) and Tin Chloride (SnCl4). Doping was done using Palladium Chloride (PdCl), with the molar ratio of 90:10 and 70:30, respectively. Physical characteristics of the nanocrystallites were examined using SEM, EDS, XRD, and FTIR, whereas its resistivity was tested agaist CO gas. The result showed that the ITO powders have a crystal size smaller than 100 nm, with a cubic crystal structure (byxbite type), and having strong molecular bonds for In-O-In and Sn-O-Sn. The response to CO gases showed a decreasing resistivity with increasing CO gas concentration, showing its potential for gas sensor application.

  2. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshio; Amada, Hideyuki; Ido, Sachio; Kumasaka, Fumiaki; Awaji, Naoki; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO. In this study, we discovered a method for controlling the electronic structure of a film by controlling the aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition (NPD) condition and thereby forming films of materials with a band gap smaller than that of the prepared raw material powder, and we succeeded in extracting a higher current from the anode electrode. As a result, we confirmed that a current approximately 100 times larger than those produced by conventional processes could be obtained using the same material. This effect can be expected not only from the materials discussed (GaN-ZnO) in this paper but also from any photocatalyst, particularly materials of solid solution compositions. PMID:27759108

  3. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshio; Amada, Hideyuki; Ido, Sachio; Kumasaka, Fumiaki; Awaji, Naoki; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO. In this study, we discovered a method for controlling the electronic structure of a film by controlling the aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition (NPD) condition and thereby forming films of materials with a band gap smaller than that of the prepared raw material powder, and we succeeded in extracting a higher current from the anode electrode. As a result, we confirmed that a current approximately 100 times larger than those produced by conventional processes could be obtained using the same material. This effect can be expected not only from the materials discussed (GaN-ZnO) in this paper but also from any photocatalyst, particularly materials of solid solution compositions.

  4. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  5. Arsenic sorption to nanoparticulate mackinawite (FeS): An examination of phosphate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Burton, Edward D

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticulate mackinawite (FeS) can be an important host-phase for arsenic (As) in sulfidic, subsurface environments. Although not previously investigated, phosphate (PO4(3-)) may compete with As for available sorption sites on FeS, thereby enhancing As mobility in FeS-bearing soils, sediments and groundwater systems. In this study, we examine the effect of PO4(3-) on sorption of arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) to nanoparticulate FeS at pH 6, 7 and 9. Results show that PO4(3-) (at 0.01-1.0 mM P) did not significantly affect sorption of either As(V) or As(III) to nanoparticulate FeS at initial aqueous As concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 mM. At pH 9 and 7, sorption of both As(III) and As(V) to nanoparticulate FeS was similar, with distribution coefficient (Kd) values spanning 0.76-15 L g(-1) (which corresponds to removal of 87-98% of initial aqueous As(III) and As(V) concentrations). Conversely, at pH 6, the sorption of As(III) was characterized by substantially higher Kd values (6.3-93.4 L g(-1)) than those for As(V) (Kd = 0.21-0.96 L g(-1)). Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicated that up to 52% of the added As(V) was reduced to As(III) in As(V) sorption experiments, as well as the formation of minor amounts of an As2S3-like species. In As(III) sorption experiments, XANES spectroscopy also demonstrated the formation of an As2S3-like species and the partial oxidation of As(III) to As(V) (despite the strictly O2-free experimental conditions). Overall, the XANES data indicate that As sorption to nanoparticulate FeS involves several redox transformations and various sorbed species, which display a complex dependency on pH and As loading but that are not influenced by the co-occurrence of PO4(3-). This study shows that nanoparticulate FeS can help to immobilize As(III) and As(V) in sulfidic subsurface environments where As co-exists with PO4(3-). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  7. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  8. Novel Effects of Nanoparticulate Delivery of Zinc on Growth, Productivity, and Zinc Biofortification in Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Layam Venkata; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Krishna, Thimmavajjula Giridhara; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Reddy, Balam Ravindra; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-05-18

    In the present investigation, nanoscale zinc oxide particulates (ZnO-nanoparticulates) were prepared using a modified oxalate decomposition method. Prepared ZnO-nanoparticulates (mean size = 25 nm) were characterized using techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and zeta potential analyzer. Different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates were examined to reveal their effects on maize crop on overall growth and translocation of zinc along with bulk ZnSO4 and control. Highest germination percentage (80%) and seedling vigor index (1923.20) were observed at 1500 ppm of ZnO-nanoparticulates. The yield was 42% more compared to control and 15% higher compared to 2000 ppm of ZnSO4. Higher accumulation of zinc (35.96 ppm) in grains was recorded with application of 100 ppm followed by 400 ppm (31.05 ppm) of ZnO-nanoparticulates. These results indicate that ZnO-nanoparticulates have significant effects on growth, yield, and zinc content of maize grains, which is an important feature in terms of human health.

  9. High-performance solution-processed amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Hyun Sung; Ha, Young-Geun; He, Jiaqing; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2010-08-04

    Films of the high-performance solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor a-ZnIn(4)Sn(4)O(15), grown from 2-methoxyethanol/ethanolamine solutions, were used to fabricate thin-film transistors (TFTs) in combination with an organic self-assembled nanodielectric as the gate insulator. This structurally dense-packed semiconductor composition with minimal Zn(2+) incorporation strongly suppresses transistor off-currents without significant mobility degradation, and affords field-effect electron mobilities of approximately 90 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (104 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) maximum obtained for patterned ZITO films), with I(on)/I(off) ratio approximately 10(5), a subthreshhold swing of approximately 0.2 V/dec, and operating voltage <2 V for patterned devices with W/L = 50. The microstructural and electronic properties of ZITO semiconductor film compositions in the range Zn(9-2x)In(x)Sn(x)O(9+1.5x) (x = 1-4) and ZnIn(8-x)Sn(x)O(13+0.5x) (x = 1-7) were systematically investigated to elucidate those factors which yield optimum mobility, I(on)/I(off), and threshold voltage parameters. It is shown that structural relaxation and densification by In(3+) and Sn(4+) mixing is effective in reducing carrier trap sites and in creating carrier-generating oxygen vacancies. In contrast to the above results for TFTs fabricated with the organic self-assembled nanodielectric, ZnIn(4)Sn(4)O(15) TFTs fabricated with SiO(2) gate insulators exhibit electron mobilities of only approximately 11 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with I(on)/I(off) ratios approximately 10(5), and a subthreshhold swing of approximately 9.5 V/dec.

  10. Annealing effects on electrical properties of pure and tin-doped indium oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Hideo; Yonekura, Masaaki

    2012-12-01

    The annealing effects on the properties of ITO and pure In2O3 thin films have been investigated. The thin films were deposited with various O2 flow ratios to total gas flow by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The post-deposition annealing of the thin films was carried out for 30 minutes at various temperatures ranging up to 500 degrees C in air. It was found through the comparison of the carrier density of ITO and In2O3 thin films that the carrier electrons of the ITO thin films came from both of the dopant Sn and oxygen vacancies under the annealing less than 400 degrees C. Therefore, the ITO thin films deposited with lower O2 flow ratio exhibited higher carrier density due to many oxygen vacancies; in consequence, they exhibited lower resistivity at the annealing up to 400 degrees C. On the other hand, the carrier density of ITO thin films was almost identical regardless of O2 flow ratio when they were annealed at 500 degrees C. This fact indicates that most carrier electrons of the ITO thin films were brought by the dopant Sn at the annealing temperature of 500 degrees C. However, the ITO thin films deposited with lower O2 flow ratio exhibited higher Hall mobility; as a result, they showed lower resistivity at the annealing of 500 degrees C. Atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity measurements revealed that the ITO thin films deposited with lowe O2 flow ratio exhibited dense structure even after they were annealed at 500 degrees C. Hence, the carrier electrons of the dense ITO thin films deposited with low O2 flow ratio can conduct better, as a result, the ITO thin films exhibited high Hall mobility and low resistivity.

  11. The Characteristics Of The Direct Metal Ion Beam Source And Its Applications (indium Tin Oxide)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that thin film properties depends on its microstructures and the surface mobility is most important parameters to consider microstructures and to obtain high quality thin films. Thus, currently ion beam based deposition which can control surface mobility with kinetic energy of auxiliary gas ion investigated intensively. Recently we developed the DMIBD system which can control ion beam energy precisely under 500Ev and also ion beam flux, independently. In this work, the optimum process parameters of DMIBD such as secondary ion yields, ion/atom arrival ratios, ion energy spread, and deposition rates for various metal targets were measured as functions of Cs+ ion bombarding energy, Cs+ ion dose, and secondary ion beam energy, respectively. From the results, the secondary ion yields for C,Al,Si,Cu,Ta, and W were about 20% and the ion energy spread also less than 10% regardless of the ion beam energy. In order to investigated the effect of secondary ion beam energy on the thin film properties such...

  12. Pengaruh Tekanan Parsial Oksigen Terhadap Koefisien Absorpsi Lapisan Tipis Indium Tin Oxide (ITO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslimin Muslimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOWNLOAD PDFProses  absorpsi  foton  dengan  energi  tertentu  akan  mengeksitasi  elektron  darikeadaan energi yang lebih rendah ke keadaan energi yang lebih tinggi. Untuk menentukankoefisien  ini  secara  eksperimen  terutama  karena  adanya  pengaruh  interferensi  optis  daripola-pola  transmitansi  dan  reflektansi.  Tujuan  penelitian  ini  adalah  untuk  menentukanbesarnya absorpsi lapisan tipis In2O3: SnO2dengan berbagai kadar oksigen yang diberikanpada saat deposisi. Proses pelapisan dilakukan 90% berat In2O3 dan 10% berat SnO2padasubstrat kaca dengan cara sputtering. Pada saat sputtering dilakukan penambahan oksigentertentu  yaitu  2,50%,  3,70%,  5,10%,  6,15%  dan  8,90%  yang  dilakukan  deposisi  padatemperature 1750C. Hasil analisis teramati adanya pergeseran interferensi dan transmitansike arah panjang gelombang yang lebih pendek sebanding dengan kenaikan kadar oksigen.Pada  kadar  oksigen  2,50%  dan  3,70%  koefisien  absorbsi  makin  naik,  tetapi  pada  kadaroksigen  5,10%,  6,15%  dan   8,90%  koefisien  absorpsi  mulai  menurun.  Perlakuan  kadaroksigen  pada  saat  deposisi  lapisan  tipis  ITO  dapat  mempengaruhi  koefisien  absorpsilapisan tipis yang terbentuk.Kata kunci : Kadar oksigen, koefisien absorpsi

  13. Effects of different additives on bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarin, Barbara, E-mail: ballarin@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy); Gazzano, Massimo [ISOF-CNR, V. Selmi, 40126-Bologna (Italy); Tonelli, Domenica [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    Bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles (Au-Pt{sub NPs}) have been synthesized using an electrochemical reduction approach. The effects of the addition of different additives in the electrodeposition bath namely KI, 1-nonanesulfonic acid sodium salt and Triton X-100 have been investigated. The structural characterization of the bimetallic nanoparticles has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Au-Pt{sub NPs} prepared in the presence of KI and Triton X-100 characterized by a relatively narrow size distribution as well as a higher particle density and surface coverage whereas no changes in the morphology were observed. These results suggest a dependence of the size and distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticles from the type and concentration of the additives employed.

  14. Can graphene outperform indium tin oxide as transparent electrode in organic solar cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletti, Paolo; Pawar, Ravinder; Ulisse, Giacomo; Brunetti, Francesca; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Fiori, Gianluca

    2015-12-01

    Graphene holds promises as a transparent electrode in flexible solar cells due to its high mobility and transparency. However, the experimental power conversion efficiency of cells with graphene electrode is still small (power conversion efficiency, by means of multi-scale simulation approach including ab-initio simulations of graphene contacts to improve electrode workfunction and conductance, electromagnetic simulations to improve light management, and electrical simulations of complete cells. We find that the combined effect of using a transparent electrode of graphene with a few monolayers of MoO3 on top to optimize work function and resistivity, and of applying optimized grating to the graphene electrode, can increase power efficiency by up to 29%-47%, with respect to the ITO benchmark, depending on the material used for the hole transport layer (P3HT,PTB7, and Perovskite).

  15. Upscaling of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan

    , upscaling of ITO-free concepts from laboratory cells to R2R produced large-area modules, and integration of these module in demonstrator consumer applications. Accordingly, this dissertation is organized into nine chapters. Chapter 1 is aimed at contextualizing PSCs on the world energy map. It aims......Polymer solar cells (PSCs) aim to produce clean energy that is cost-competitive to energy produced by fossil fuel-based conventional energy sources. From an environmental perspective, PSCs already compares favorably to other solar cell technologies in terms of fewer emissions of greenhouse gases...... substrates as well as for applications in flexible end products. Thus, the replacement of ITO with low-cost alternatives is crucial for the commercial feasibility of PSCs. Encompassing these concerns, my PhD study has contributed to the development and evaluation of alternatives to ITO in laboratory cells...

  16. Sanguinarine and its Electropolymerization onto Indium Tin Oxide as a Mediator for Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanguinarine (SA is a nitrogen-containing an alkaloid, derived from plants. The electrochemical oxidation behavior of SA onto solid substrate (ITO and its formation of redox active electropolymerized polymer films have been reported. The films were prepared and characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV technique in various solution containing electrolyte and no electrolyte. In in vitro study of SA and its interaction with ds-DNA was performed in this communications suggesting intercalation. The intercalated molecules are very important for biomedical fields like cancer chemotherapy. Besides this, sanguinarine may be used as mediator in the development of biosensor (genosensor to enhance the hybridization signal events.

  17. Self-catalytic crystal growth, formation mechanism, and optical properties of indium tin oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan-Chang; Zhong, Hua

    2013-08-22

    In-Sn-O nanostructures with rectangular cross-sectional rod-like, sword-like, and bowling pin-like morphologies were successfully synthesized through self-catalytic growth. Mixed metallic In and Sn powders were used as source materials, and no catalyst layer was pre-coated on the substrates. The distance between the substrate and the source materials affected the size of the Sn-rich alloy particles during crystal growth in a quartz tube. This caused In-Sn-O nanostructures with various morphologies to form. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and a transmittance electron microscope with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were used to investigate the elemental binding states and compositions of the as-synthesized nanostructures. The Sn doping and oxygen vacancies in the In2O3 crystals corresponded to the blue-green and yellow-orange emission bands of the nanostructures, respectively.

  18. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  19. Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    contamination , and post-assembly contamination methods 40 5.2.3 Environmental exposure, whisker measurements and metallurgical analysis 42 5.3 Results and...The roughness is partly a result of the shrinkage of the liquid between the primary tin dendrites. The roughness tends to trap contamination , which...diameter, density, and distribution were measured. 5.2.3.3 Metallurgical analysis To examine contamination levels and distributions, as-received

  20. Indium adhesion provides quantitative measure of surface cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, G. L.; Wilson, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Indium tipped probe measures hydrophobic and hydrophilic contaminants on rough and smooth surfaces. The force needed to pull the indium tip, which adheres to a clean surface, away from the surface provides a quantitative measure of cleanliness.

  1. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  2. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous indium oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yi-zhe; CHENG Zhi-xuan; PAN Qing-yi; DONG Xiao-wen; ZHANG Jian-cheng; PAN Ling-li

    2009-01-01

    Indium oxide nanocrystals with mesoporous structure were successfully synthesized by using triblock copolymer as a template,and characterized by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC),X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 adsorption.A high EO/PO ratio is thought to be the key point to prepare mesoporous In2O3.The results show that the average pore diameter of the products is 6 nm,the BET surface area is 54.78 m2/g,and the adsorbing pore volume is 0.345 cm3/g.After comparing with normal indium oxide nanoparticles by BET test,mesoporous indium oxide demonstrates a large difference in adsorbing pore volume and average pore diameters from normal ones.

  3. Surface roughness of microparticulated and nanoparticulated composites after finishing and polishing procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Arai Sadami Shinkai

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluated the surface roughness of one microparticulate resin composite Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer Weihrheim, Germany andfour nanoparticulate resins 4 Seasons (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein Esthet x (Dentsply, Milford, DE, USA, Point 4 and Supreme (3M-ESPE, Dental Products,St. Paul, MN, USA. Methods: After finishing with a diamond bur point (F, and polishing with silicone points of gray, green and pink color Politipit (Ivoclar Vivadent,Schaan, Liechtenstein, four stages of completion were performed, simulating one of finishing and three of polishing a resin restoration. Ten samples of each composite resin were measured for surface roughness with surface profilometer (Mitutoyo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan after each of finishing and polishing sequence.Results: The results showed that nanoparticulate and microparticulate resins presented a significant difference in the surface roughness values, in all finishing and polishing steps. Conclusion: Of the the nanoparticulate resins 4 Seasons (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein, Point 4 (Kerr CO, Orange, CA, USA, and also microparticulate Durafill (Heraeus Kulzer Weihrheim, Germany presented significantly lower surface roughness values after completing all the finishing and polishing stages.

  4. Recent Advances in Non-Invasive Delivery of Macromolecules using Nanoparticulate Carriers System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadab, Md; Haque, Shadabul; Sheshala, Ravi; Meng, Lim Wei; Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Ali, Javed

    2017-01-01

    The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects. Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles. This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. A new x-ray adhesive system with embedded nanoparticulate silver markers for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudnova, Nadezda O.; Bilenko, David I.; Venig, Sergey B.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.; Zacharevich, Andrey M.

    2013-02-01

    In the present study a new adhesive system with embedded PVP-stabilized nano-particulate silver markers has been designed. Nanosized silver was used as a radio-opaque contrast material in SEM examination of adhesive system in dentine. It was studied the impact of nano-particulate silver fillers on rheological properties of adhesive system and its penetration in dentine volume. A SEM comparative evaluation of resin replicas produced using adhesive system with embedded silver nanoparticles and that without ones was carried out. It was shown that embedding of silver nanoparticles into adhesive system did not make its penetration worse. It was established that embedding of nanosized silver changed adhesive system morphology. The methodology that allows visualizing interfaces and intermediate layers between dentine, adhesive system and restorative material using silver nano-particulate markers was developed and approved. Silver nanoparticles were used to compare the objective depth of penetration of adhesive systems of different generations in root dentine with differently oriented dentinal tubules, bonding resin delivery and gravity.

  6. Study of an ultrasound-based process analytical tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate pharmaceutical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavegn, Martin; Douglas, Ryan; Akkermans, Guy; Kuentz, Martin

    2011-08-01

    There are currently no adequate process analyzers for nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This article aims to evaluate ultrasonic resonator technology as a monitoring tool for homogenization of nanoparticulate gels. Aqueous dispersions of colloidal microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and a mixture of clay particles with xanthan gum were compared with colloidal silicon dioxide in oil. The processing was conducted using a laboratory-scale homogenizing vessel. The study investigated first the homogenization kinetics of the different systems to focus then on process factors in the case of colloidal MCC. Moreover, rheological properties were analyzed offline to assess the structure of the resulting gels. Results showed the suitability of ultrasound velocimetry to monitor the homogenization process. The obtained data were fitted using a novel heuristic model. It was possible to identify characteristic homogenization times for each formulation. The subsequent study of the process factors demonstrated that ultrasonic process analysis was equally sensitive as offline rheological measurements in detecting subtle manufacturing changes. It can be concluded that the ultrasonic method was able to successfully assess homogenization of nanoparticulate viscosity enhancers. This novel technique can become a vital tool for development and production of pharmaceutical suspensions in the future.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of TiN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piippo, J. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry and Corrosion, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Elsener, B. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry and Corrosion, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Boehni, H. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Inst. of Materials Chemistry and Corrosion, Zuerich (Switzerland))

    1993-12-03

    The corrosion behaviour of titanium nitride (TiN) CVD coatings on AISI 316L stainless steel and on inert Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] in hydrochloric acid is studied with a.c. and d.c. electrochemical methods. The electrochemical behaviour of TiN on stainless steel can be divided into active and passive behaviour according to the state of the substrate. The measurements indicate that there is an oxide layer on TiN that is responsible for its noble electrochemical behaviour. A model that describes the formation of the oxide layer on TiN in an electrolyte is proposed. (orig.)

  8. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO2 toxicity to freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Brad M; Vallotton, Pascal; Apte, Simon C

    2015-11-01

    The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10-34nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO2 to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal-CeO2 interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by 'switching off' ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO2 immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113-193nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO2 dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO2 concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6-28mg/L compared with 59mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO2 bioassays under normal light conditions. However, 'switching off' ROS under UV-filtered light conditions resulted in a similar IC50, indicating that ROS generation was not the toxic mechanism. The CytoViva imaging showed negligible sorption of nanoparticulate CeO2 to algal cells in the presence of DOC, and strong sorption in its absence, suggesting that this was the toxic mechanism. The results suggest that DOC in natural waters will coat CeO2 particles and mitigate toxicity to algal cells. Crown Copyright

  9. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  10. Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement to the Indium Point Based on Radiance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-04-01

    A multi-national project (the EMRP InK project) was completed recently, which successfully determined the thermodynamic temperatures of several of the high-temperature fixed points above the copper point. The National Metrology Institute of Japan contributed to this project with its newly established absolute spectral radiance calibration capability. In the current study, we have extended the range of thermodynamic temperature measurement to below the copper point and measured the thermodynamic temperatures of the indium point (T_{90} = 429.748 5 K), tin point (505.078 K), zinc point (692.677 K), aluminum point (933.473 K) and the silver point (1 234.93 K) by radiance comparison against the copper point, with a set of radiation thermometers having center wavelengths ranging from 0.65 μm to 1.6 μm. The copper-point temperature was measured by the absolute radiation thermometer which was calibrated by radiance method traceable to the electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer. The radiance of the fixed-point blackbodies was measured by standard radiation thermometers whose spectral responsivity and nonlinearity are precisely evaluated, and then the thermodynamic temperatures were determined from radiance ratios to the copper point. The values of T-T_{90} for the silver-, aluminum-, zinc-, tin- and indium-point cells were determined as -4 mK (U = 104 mK, k=2), -99 mK (88 mK), -76 mK (76 mK), -68 mK (163 mK) and -42 mK (279 mK), respectively.

  11. A biokinetic and dosimetric model for ionic indium in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Mattsson, Sören; Johansson, Lennart; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for ionic indium, and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic indium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on human data and indium in the form of ionic indium(III), as indium chloride and indium arsenide. The model presented for systemic indium is defined by five different pools: plasma, bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other soft tissues. The model is based on two subsystems: one corresponding to indium bound to transferrin and one where indium is transported back to the plasma, binds to red blood cell transferrin and is then excreted through the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Absorbed doses to several organs and the effective dose are calculated for 111In- and 113mIn-ions. The proposed biokinetic model is compared with previously published biokinetic indium models published by the ICRP. The absorbed doses are calculated using the ICRP/ICRU adult reference phantoms and the effective dose is estimated according to ICRP Publication 103. The effective doses for 111In and 113mIn are 0.25 mSv MBq-1 and 0.013 mSv MBq-1 respectively. The updated biokinetic and dosimetric models presented in this paper take into account human data and new animal data, which represent more detailed and presumably more accurate dosimetric data than that underlying previous models for indium.

  12. Developmental toxicity of indium: embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikio; Usami, Makoto; Nakazawa, Ken; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2008-12-01

    Indium, a precious metal classified in group 13 (IIIB) in the periodic table, has been used increasingly in the semiconductor industry. Because indium is a rare metal, technology for indium recycling from transparent conducting films for liquid crystal displays is desired, and its safety evaluation is becoming increasingly necessary. The developmental toxicity of indium in experimental animals was summarized. The intravenous or oral administration of indium to pregnant animals causes growth inhibition and the death of embryos in hamsters, rats, and mice. The intravenous administration of indium to pregnant animals causes embryonic or fetal malformation, mainly involving digit and tail deformities, in hamsters and rats. The oral administration of indium also induces fetal malformation in rats and rabbits, but requires higher doses. No teratogenicity has been observed in mice. Caudal hypoplasia, probably due to excessive cell loss by increased apoptosis in the tailbud, in the early postimplantation stage was considered to account for indium-induced tail malformation as a possible pathogenetic mechanism. Findings from in vitro experiments indicated that the embryotoxicity of indium could have direct effects on the conceptuses. Toxicokinetic studies showed that the embryonic exposure concentration was more critical than the exposure time regarding the embryotoxicity of indium. It is considered from these findings that the risk of the developmental toxicity of indium in humans is low, unless an accidentally high level of exposure or unknown toxic interaction occurs because of possible human exposure routes and levels (i.e. oral, very low-level exposure).

  13. Proteomic analysis of indium embryotoxicity in cultured postimplantation rat embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Makoto; Nakajima, Mikio; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Miyajima, Atsuko; Sunouchi, Momoko; Doi, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Indium embryotoxicity was investigated by proteomic analysis with two-dimensional electrophoresis of rat embryos cultured from day 10.5 of gestation for 24h in the presence of 50 microM indium trichloride. In the embryo proper, indium increased quantity of several protein spots including those identified as serum albumin, phosphorylated cofilin 1, phosphorylated destrin and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. The increased serum albumin, derived from the culture medium composed of rat serum, may decrease the toxicity of indium. The increase of phosphorylated cofilin 1 might be involved in dysmorphogenicity of indium through perturbation of actin functions. In the yolk sac membrane, indium induced quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein spots. Proteins from appeared spots included stress proteins, and those from decreased or disappeared spots included serum proteins, glycolytic pathway enzymes and cytoskeletal proteins, indicating yolk sac dysfunction. Thus, several candidate proteins that might be involved in indium embryotoxicity were identified.

  14. The oxidation and surface speciation of indium and indium oxides exposed to atmospheric oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Zachary M.; Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Frith, Matthew G.; Bocarsly, Andrew B.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-06-01

    Metallic indium and its oxides are useful in electronics applications, in transparent conducting electrodes, as well as in electrocatalytic applications. In order to understand more fully the speciation of the indium and oxygen composition of the indium surface exposed to atmospheric oxidants, XPS, HREELS, and TPD were used to study the indium surface exposed to water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Clean In and authentic samples of In2O3 and In(OH)3 were examined with XPS to provide standard spectra. Indium was exposed to O2 and H2O, and the ratio of O2 - to OH- in the O1s XPS region was used to monitor oxidation and speciation of the surface. HREELS and TPD indicate that water dissociates on the indium surface even at low temperature, and that In2O3 forms at higher temperatures. Initially, OH- is the major species at the surface. Pure In2O3 is also OH- terminated following water exposure. Ambient pressure XPS studies of water exposure to these surfaces suggest that high water pressures tend to passivate the surface, inhibiting extensive oxide formation.

  15. Sinterless Formation Of Contacts On Indium Phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer, Victor G.; Fatemi, Navid S.

    1995-01-01

    Improved technique makes it possible to form low-resistivity {nearly equal to 10(Sup-6) ohm cm(Sup2)} electrical contacts on indium phosphide semiconductor devices without damaging devices. Layer of AgP2 40 Angstrom thick deposited on InP before depositing metal contact. AgP2 interlayer sharply reduces contact resistance, without need for sintering.

  16. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  17. Optimization of electrodeposition processes for tin coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shixue

    The mechanism of nucleation and growth of tin electrodeposits was investigated. Also the influences of the operating parameters on the morphology, texture, and microstructure as well as the corrosion resistance of tin coatings were studied in order to propose optimum deposition conditions. Tin electrodeposition on glassy carbon and steel from acid sulfate electrolytes proceeds via the 3D (Volmer-Weber) mechanism. On low carbon steel substrates, 3D tin crystallites are initially formed preferentially on step edges, followed by fast deposition of other sites with much smaller and densely packed crystallites of about 150-180 nm in diameter. It was discovered that hydrogen co-evolution and gelatin have a synergy effect contributing to the fast and complete coverage of steel substrate with tin. The cathodic potential oscillation of tin (II) reduction in the tin electrolyte is attributed to the depletion and restoration of tin ions on the cathode surface. It has been found that an increase in current density improves the coverage of the substrate or the covering power. Without agitation, the deposits are powdery at high current densities. In order to obtain smooth and compact coatings, agitation is crucial when the applied current density is well above the limiting value. Tin coatings with two different fibre textures, (100) and (301) were produced by electrodeposition. At a lower current density of 100 A/m 2, (301) fibre was obtained. At the current densities of 100 and up to 400 A/m2, only (100) fibre texture was observed. An increase in current density leads to a decrease in grain size. At the same current density, the grain size of tin coatings increases with increased temperature. The influence of temperature (20, 40, 60 and 80°C) on texture is small. The corrosion resistance of tin coatings increases with a decrease in grain size. The corrosion resistance of tin coatings with (301) fibre was higher than that of the tin coating with (100) fibre texture. The optimum

  18. Uranium in cassiterites of tin deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagruzina, I.A.; Pinskij, Eh.M.; Savinova, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidation of physico-chemical features of uranium and tin behaviour in ore deposition zones uranium determinations (1000 determ) in cassiterite grains from 55 tin-ore deposits of different formation types of several separate regions are carried out by means of fission radiography. It is shown that uranium content in cassiterites is a genetic sign. Peculiarities of uranium concentration and migration in tin deposits permit to use them as prognostic radiogeochemical criteria. Radiogeochemical prognostic-search signs confirm the antagonism between uranium and tin deposits of cassiterite-silicate and cassiterite-sulfide formations and paragenetic of certain types of uranium hydrothermal deposits with tin deposits of cassiterite-quartz formation.

  19. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, Noel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Gerencia de Catalizadores (Mexico); Viveros, Tomas [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria Quimica (Mexico)

    1999-11-15

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO{sub 2} on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied.

  20. Biogenic nanoparticulate UO 2: Synthesis, characterization, and factors affecting surface reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, David M.; Farges, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2009-06-01

    The surface reactivity of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 with respect to sorption of aqueous Zn(II) and particle annealing is different from that of bulk uraninite because of the presence of surface-associated organic matter on the biogenic UO 2. Synthesis of biogenic UO 2 was accomplished by reduction of aqueous uranyl ions, UO22+ by Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, and the resulting nanoparticles were washed using one of two protocols: (1) to remove surface-associated organic matter and soluble uranyl species (NAUO2), or (2) to remove only soluble uranyl species (BIUO2). A suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques was used to examine bulk and biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 as a function of particle size and surface-associated organic matter. The N 2-BET surface areas of the two biogenic UO 2 samples following the washing procedures are 128.63 m 2 g -1 (NAUO2) and 92.56 m 2 g -1 (BIUO2), and the average particle sizes range from 5-10 nm based on TEM imaging. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicate that the surface charge behavior of biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 (both NAUO2 and BIUO2) over the pH range 3-9 is the same as that of bulk. The U L III-edge EXAFS spectra for biogenic UO 2 (both NAUO2 and BIUO2) were best fit with half the number of second-shell uranium neighbors compared to bulk uraninite, and no oxygen neighbors were detected beyond the first shell around U(IV) in the biogenic UO 2. At pH 7, sorption of Zn(II) onto both bulk uraninite and biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 is independent of electrolyte concentration, suggesting that Zn(II) sorption complexes are dominantly inner-sphere. The maximum surface area-normalized Zn(II) sorption loadings for the three substrates were 3.00 ± 0.20 μmol m -2 UO 2 (bulk uraninite), 2.34 ± 0.12 μmol m -2 UO 2 (NAUO2), and 2.57 ± 0.10 μmol m -2 UO 2 (BIUO2). Fits of Zn K-edge EXAFS spectra for biogenic, nanoparticulate UO 2 indicate that Zn(II) sorption is dependent on the washing protocol. Zn

  1. Electronic structure of tin monosulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletskan, D. I.; Bletskan, M. M.; Glukhov, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    The band structure of three-dimensional and two-dimensional tin monosulfide was calculated by the density functional method in LDA and LDA+U approximations. Group-theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure of SnS crystallized in the orthorhombic structure with space group D2h16- Pcmn is carried out, the symmetry of wave functions of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band is found. The selection rules for direct and indirect optical transitions at different incident light polarization are determined. The group-theoretical analysis of energy states of the three-dimensional and two-dimensional SnS structures explains the formation of the band structure including the Davydov splitting. The calculated total density of states is compared with the known experimental XPS and UPS spectra, providing the assignment of their main features.

  2. Tin compounds and insect fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butovskiy, R.O.

    1985-03-01

    A review of the literature of tin compounds serving as pesticides has resulted in the identification of 11 widely used compounds, both organic and inorganic, with largely fungicidal activity. Organotin compounds seem to be limited in use to the control of insect pests, with the majority of the compounds consisting of Sn(IV) and falling into the following four categories: R/sub 4/Sn, R/sub 3/SNX, R/sub 2/SnX/sub 2/, and RSnX/sub 3/, where R = aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon radicals, and X = organic or inorganic substituent. The insecticidal activity of these compounds appears to rest on inhibition of ATPase and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. As a result, these compounds act as larvicides, ovicides and imagocides. 77 references.

  3. Recent developments in the formation and structure of tin-iron oxides by laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, R.; Morjan, I.; Dumitrache, F.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Soare, I.; Gavrila, L.; Luculescu, C.; Prodan, G.; Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G.

    2011-04-01

    Complex oxides demonstrate specific electric and magnetic properties which make them suitable for a wide variety of applications, including dilute magnetic semiconductors for spin electronics. A tin-iron oxide Sn 1- xFe xO 2 nanoparticulate material has been successfully synthesized by using the laser pyrolysis of tetramethyl tin-iron pentacarbonyl-air mixtures. Fe doping of SnO 2 nanoparticles has been varied systematically in the 3-10 at% range. As determined by EDAX, the Fe/Sn ratio (in at%) in powders varied between 0.14 and 0.64. XRD studies of Sn 1- xFe xO 2 nanoscale powders, revealed only structurally modified SnO 2 due to the incorporation of Fe into the lattice mainly by substitutional changes. The substitution of Fe 3+ in the Sn 4+ positions (Fe 3+ has smaller ionic radius as compared to the ionic radius of 0.69 Å for Sn 4+) with the formation of a mixed oxide Sn 1- xFe xO 2 is suggested. A lattice contraction consistent with the determined Fe/Sn atomic ratios was observed. The nanoparticle size decreases with the Fe doping (about 7 nm for the highest Fe content). Temperature dependent 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy data point to the additional presence of defected Fe 3+-based oxide nanoclusters with blocking temperatures below 60 K. A new Fe phase presenting magnetic order at substantially higher temperatures was evidenced and assigned to a new type of magnetism relating to the dispersed Fe ions into the SnO 2 matrix.

  4. Recent developments in the formation and structure of tin-iron oxides by laser pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrescu, R., E-mail: ralexandrescu2001@yahoo.co.uk [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, Bucharest 077125, Magurele (Romania); Morjan, I.; Dumitrache, F.; Birjega, R.; Fleaca, C.; Soare, I.; Gavrila, L.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, POB MG-36, Bucharest 077125, Magurele (Romania); Prodan, G. [Ovidius University of Constanta, Bd. Mamaia 124, Constanta (Romania); Kuncser, V.; Filoti, G. [National Institute of Materials Physics, POB MG-7, Bucharest 077125, Magurele (Romania)

    2011-04-01

    Complex oxides demonstrate specific electric and magnetic properties which make them suitable for a wide variety of applications, including dilute magnetic semiconductors for spin electronics. A tin-iron oxide Sn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticulate material has been successfully synthesized by using the laser pyrolysis of tetramethyl tin-iron pentacarbonyl-air mixtures. Fe doping of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles has been varied systematically in the 3-10 at% range. As determined by EDAX, the Fe/Sn ratio (in at%) in powders varied between 0.14 and 0.64. XRD studies of Sn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoscale powders, revealed only structurally modified SnO{sub 2} due to the incorporation of Fe into the lattice mainly by substitutional changes. The substitution of Fe{sup 3+} in the Sn{sup 4+} positions (Fe{sup 3+} has smaller ionic radius as compared to the ionic radius of 0.69 A for Sn{sup 4+}) with the formation of a mixed oxide Sn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} is suggested. A lattice contraction consistent with the determined Fe/Sn atomic ratios was observed. The nanoparticle size decreases with the Fe doping (about 7 nm for the highest Fe content). Temperature dependent {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy data point to the additional presence of defected Fe{sup 3+}-based oxide nanoclusters with blocking temperatures below 60 K. A new Fe phase presenting magnetic order at substantially higher temperatures was evidenced and assigned to a new type of magnetism relating to the dispersed Fe ions into the SnO{sub 2} matrix.

  5. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  6. Sorption of indium (III) onto carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, F J; Lopez, F A; Rodriguez, O; Martinez-Ramirez, S; Garcia-Diaz, I

    2016-08-01

    Indium has numerous applications in different industrial sectors and is not an abundant element. Therefore appropriate technology to recover this element from various process wastes is needed. This research reports high adsorption capacity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for In(III). The effects of pH, kinetics, isotherms and adsorption mechanism of MWCNT on In(III) adsorption were investigated and discussed in detail. The pH increases improves the adsorption capacity for In(III). The Langmuir adsorption model is the best fit with the experimental data. For the kinetic study, the adsorption onto MWCNT could be fitted to pseudo second-order. The adsorption of indium(III) can be described to a mechanism which consists of a film diffusion controlled process. Metal desorption can be achieved with acidic solutions.

  7. Recovery of indium and lead from lead bullion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lead and indium were recovered by electrolysis and nonequilibrium solvent extraction process from lead bullion.The effects of current density,electrolytic period and circle amnant of electrolyte on the electrochemical dissolution of lead and indium were investigated.The effects of extraction phase ratio and mixing time on solvent extraction of indium and striping phase ratio and stripping stage on the loaded organic phase stripping were also investigated.The experimental results indicate that under optimum conditions,the purity of lead deposited on cathode is 98.5% and the deposit rate of lead is 99.9%,the dissolution rate of indium is 94.28%,the extraction rate of indium is 98.69%,the stripping rate of indium is almost 100%,and the impurity elements,such as Zn,Fe and Sn can be removed.

  8. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-05

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  9. Self-assembled tin dioxide for forming-free resistive random-access memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Jhan; Wang, Tsang-Hsuan; Wei, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Pin; Yew, Tri-Rung

    2016-06-01

    A novel resistive switching structure, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)/SnO2- x (defined as SnO2 with oxygen vacancies)/SnS was demonstrated with a set voltage of 0.38 V, a reset voltage of -0.15 V, a ratio of high resistance to low resistance of 544, and forming-free and nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The interface of the ITO and the self-assembled SnO2- x contributed to the resistive switching behavior. This device showed great potential for resistive random access memory (RRAM) application and solving the sneak path problem in cross-bar memory arrays. Furthermore, a nanostructured resistive switching device was demonstrated successfully.

  10. Preparation for Ultra High Pure Indium Metal for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashwat V. Joshi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra high pure Indium metal is extensively used in optoelectronic devices. Indium and its alloys become potential candidates in aerospace, defense and communication sectors. Purification of Indium has been done by Instrolec-200 Refiner followed by Directional Melting/ Freezing and Solidification Systems. Major targeted impurities are Metallic impurities Ag, Al, As, Bi, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Mg, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, and Zn. Purified Indium is characterized by analytical techniques Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry.

  11. InP (Indium Phosphide): Into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Major industry is beginning to be devoted to indium phosphide and its potential applications. Key to these applications are high speed and radiation tolerance; however the high cost of indium phosphide may be an inhibitor to progress. The broad applicability of indium phosphide to many devices will be discussed with an emphasis on photovoltaics. Major attention is devoted to radiation tolerance and means of reducing cost of devices. Some of the approaches applicable to solar cells may also be relevant to other devices. The intent is to display the impact of visionary leadership in the field and enable the directions and broad applicability of indium phosphide.

  12. Natural and anthropogenic environmental nanoparticulates: Their microstructural characterization and respiratory health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Garza, K. M.

    A wide range of environmental particulate matter (PM) both indoor and outdoor and consisting of natural and anthropogenic PM was collected by high volume air filters, electrostatic precipitation, and thermophoretic precipitation directly onto transmission electron microscope (TEM) coated grid platforms. These collected PM have been systematically characterized by TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the El Paso, TX, USA/Juarez, Mexico metroplex 93% of outdoor PM 1 is crystalline while 40% of PM 1 is carbonaceous soot (including multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and multiconcentric fullerenes) PM. Multiply-replicated cytotoxicity ( in vitro) assays utilizing a human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549) consistently demonstrated varying degrees of cell death for essentially all PM which was characterized as aggregates of nanoparticulates or primary nanoparticles. Cytokine release was detected for Fe 2O 3, chrysotile asbestos, BC, and MWCNT PM while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been detected for Fe 2O 3, asbestos, BC, and MWCNT aggregate PM as well as natural gas combustion PM. Nanoparticulate materials in the indoor and outdoor environments appear to be variously cytotoxic, especially carbonaceous nano-PM such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, black carbon, and soot nano-PM produced by natural gas combustion.

  13. Sweating liquid micro-marbles: dropwise condensation on hydrophobic nanoparticulate materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Prasad S; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2012-10-23

    Liquid marbles have opened up several potential applications including biochemical batch reaction engineering and gas sensing. To be successful candidates in these applications, the ability to prepare liquid marbles of controlled sizes and in a continuous process is crucial. This has been the missing link in the science leading to these applications. In the current study, we present a remarkably simple process driven by condensation on a nanoparticulate matrix to continuously produce liquid marbles whose mean size can be controlled in the range of diameters from 3 to 1000 μm, while the distribution width is also controllable independently. We experimentally demonstrate the physics involved in this condensation-driven marble formation process using two fluids-glycerol and ethylene glycol-which span an order of magnitude in viscosity. Hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticulate material is used as the encapsulating medium owing to its intertwined agglomerate nature. We show that the primary mechanism causing the formation of liquid marbles is droplet nucleation followed by growth driven by condensation. Drop coalescence in dense droplet ensembles is the secondary mechanism, which attempts to destroy the distribution width controllability. From a physics perspective, it will be demonstrated that strong coalescence dominated growth gives rise to a hitherto unreported, significantly higher rate of growth.

  14. Ellipsometric analysis and optical absorption characterization of gallium phosphide nanoparticulate thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qi-Xian; Wei Wen-Sheng; Ruan Fang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Gallium phosphide (GaP)nanoparticulate thin films were easily fabricated by colloidal suspension deposition via GaP nanoparticles dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide. The microstructure of the film was performed by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The film was further investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry.After the model GaP+void|Si02 was built and an effective medium approximation was adopted, the values of the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k were calculated for the energy range of 0.75 eV-4.0 eV using the dispersion formula in DeltaPsi2 software. The absorption coefficient of the film was calculated from its k and its energy gaps were further estimated according to the Tauc equation, which were further verified by its fluorescence spectrum measurement. The structure and optical absorption properties of the nanoparticulate films are promising for their potential applications in hybrid solar cells.

  15. Nanoparticulate transport of oximes over an in vitro blood-brain barrier model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Wagner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the use of organophosphates (OP as pesticides and the availability of OP-type nerve agents, an effective medical treatment for OP poisonings is still a challenging problem. The acute toxicity of an OP poisoning is mainly due to the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS. This results in an increase in the synaptic concentration of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disorder of numerous body functions up to death. The standard treatment of OP poisoning includes a combination of a muscarinic antagonist and an AChE reactivator (oxime. However, these oximes can not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB sufficiently. Therefore, new strategies are needed to transport oximes over the BBB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we combined different oximes (obidoxime dichloride and two different HI 6 salts, HI 6 dichloride monohydrate and HI 6 dimethanesulfonate with human serum albumin nanoparticles and could show an oxime transport over an in vitro BBB model. In general, the nanoparticulate transported oximes achieved a better reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE than free oximes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With these nanoparticles, for the first time, a tool exists that could enable a transport of oximes over the BBB. This is very important for survival after severe OP intoxication. Therefore, these nanoparticulate formulations are promising formulations for the treatment of the peripheral and the CNS after OP poisoning.

  16. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kelly, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper.

  17. Switchable Ionic Liquids: An Environmentally Friendly Medium to Synthesise Nanoparticulate Green Rust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, David; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce; Heldebrant, David; Nune, Satish

    2016-06-27

    Under anoxic conditions, a novel nanoparticulate green rust with carbonate (nano GR) was synthesized by addition of methanol to degassed switchable ionic liquid (SWIL) solution comprised of 1-hexanol, diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU), CO2 and Fe(C2H3O2)2 (Fe(OAc)2). Variable temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy studies indicated the product to be predominantly GR while TEM-SAED method confirmed it be nanoparticulate in nature. Experiments with and without methanol in the SWIL medium suggest that methanol may be responsible for Fe(II) oxidation to Fe(III) necessary for GR formation. Studies with Ar instead of CO2 trigger gas indicated that CO2 is essential for GR formation. Conditions to generate CO32- anion was most likely provided by basic environment of the medium. The nano GR suspension was very reactive and instantaneously oxidized completely to a reddish-brown precipitate upon exposure to ambient atmosphere. The nature of the oxidized sample is not certain. The oxidized product, however, appears to be a mix of ferric green rust- [GR(CO32-]*; major] and ferrihydrite-like minerals. To our knowledge, this is first report of use of environmentally-friendly SWIL reagents to synthesize very reactive nano GR materials.

  18. Rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems for smart bioactive scaffolds in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammad; Haddadi, Azita; Chen, Xiongbiao; Kelly, Michael E

    2015-01-09

    Development of smart bioactive scaffolds is of importance in tissue engineering, where cell proliferation, differentiation and migration within scaffolds can be regulated by the interactions between cells and scaffold through the use of growth factors (GFs) and extra cellular matrix peptides. One challenge in this area is to spatiotemporally control the dose, sequence and profile of release of GFs so as to regulate cellular fates during tissue regeneration. This challenge would be addressed by rate-programming of nano-particulate delivery systems, where the release of GFs via polymeric nanoparticles is controlled by means of the methods of, such as externally-controlled and physicochemically/architecturally-modulated so as to mimic the profile of physiological GFs. Identifying and understanding such factors as the desired release profiles, mechanisms of release, physicochemical characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles, and externally-triggering stimuli are essential for designing and optimizing such delivery systems. This review surveys the recent studies on the desired release profiles of GFs in various tissue engineering applications, elucidates the major release mechanisms and critical factors affecting release profiles, and overviews the role played by the mathematical models for optimizing nano-particulate delivery systems. Potentials of stimuli responsive nanoparticles for spatiotemporal control of GF release are also presented, along with the recent advances in strategies for spatiotemporal control of GF delivery within tissue engineered scaffolds. The recommendation for the future studies to overcome challenges for developing sophisticated particulate delivery systems in tissue engineering is discussed prior to the presentation of conclusions drawn from this paper.

  19. A Win for the Future of Tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Drinking that draft beer from a glass? Why not try tin products instead—they keep your beer cooler and more refreshing longer than glasses! In 1885, Yong Koon, a young man from Guangdong Province, traveled

  20. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  1. Enhanced oral bioavailability of fenofibrate using polymeric nanoparticulated systems: physicochemical characterization and in vivo investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf AM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abid Mehmood Yousaf,1 Dong Wuk Kim,1 Yu-Kyoung Oh,2 Chul Soon Yong,3 Jong Oh Kim,3 Han-Gon Choi11College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, 2College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 3College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, South KoreaBackground: The intention of this research was to prepare and compare various solubility-enhancing nanoparticulated systems in order to select a nanoparticulated formulation with the most improved oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble fenofibrate.Methods: The most appropriate excipients for different nanoparticulated preparations were selected by determining the drug solubility in 1% (w/v aqueous solutions of each carrier. The polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanospheres, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles, and gelatin nanocapsules were formulated as fenofibrate/PVP/sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, fenofibrate/HP-β-CD, and fenofibrate/gelatin at the optimized weight ratios of 2.5:4.5:1, 1:4, and 1:8, respectively. The three solid-state products were achieved using the solvent-evaporation method through the spray-drying technique. The physicochemical characterization of these nanoparticles was accomplished by powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Their physicochemical properties, aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated in comparison with the drug powder.Results: Among the tested carriers, PVP, HP-β-CD, gelatin, and SLS showed better solubility and were selected as the most appropriate constituents for various nanoparticulated systems. All of the formulations significantly improved the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability of fenofibrate compared to the drug powder. The drug was present in the amorphous form in HP-β-CD nanocorpuscles; however, in

  2. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  3. Bottom-Up Design of a Copper-Ruthenium Nanoparticulate Catalyst for Low-Temperature Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Debasish; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Silva, Hugo José Lopes

    2017-01-01

    A novel nanoparticulate catalyst of copper (Cu) and ruthenium (Ru) was designed for low-temperature ammonia oxidation at near-stoichiometric mixtures using a bottom-up approach. A synergistic effect of the two metals was found. An optimum CuRu catalyst presents a reaction rate threefold higher than...

  4. Chemodynamics of soft nanoparticulate complexes: Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes with fulvic acids and aquatic humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Buffle, J.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of metal complexation by small humic substances (fulvic acid and aquatic humic acid, collectively denoted as "fulvic-like substance", FS) are explored within the framework of concepts recently developed for soft nanoparticulate complexants. From a comprehensive collection of published e

  5. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, M.C.B.; Benedetto, J.S. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins, A.H. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail: ahmartin@demet.ufmg.br

    2007-04-15

    - Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA). High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite{sup R} IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5 mol/dm{sup 3} sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite{sup R} IRC748. (author)

  6. Selective separation of indium by iminodiacetic acid chelating resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. B. Fortes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium can be recovered by treating residues, flue dusts, slags, and metallic intermediates in zinc smelting. This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of indium and iron on an iminodiacetic acid chelating resin, Amberlite®IRC748 (Rohm and Haas Co.-USA. High concentrations of iron are always present in the aqueous feed solution of indium recovery. In addition, the chemical behaviour of iron in adsorptive systems is similar to that of indium. The metal concentrations in the aqueous solution were based on typical indium sulfate leach liquor obtained from zinc hydrometallurgical processing in a Brazilian plant. The ionic adsorption experiments were carried out by the continuous column method. Amberlite®IRC748 resin had a high affinity for indium under acidic conditions. Indium ions adsorbed onto the polymeric resin were eluted with a 0.5mol/dm³ sulphuric acid solution passed through the resin bed in the column. 99.5% pure indium sulfate aqueous solution was obtained using the iminodiacetic acid chelating resin Amberlite®IRC748.

  7. Two-Step Plasma Process for Cleaning Indium Bonding Bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold F.; Vasquez, Richard P.; Jones, Todd J.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Dickie, Matthew R.; Nikzad, Shouleh

    2009-01-01

    A two-step plasma process has been developed as a means of removing surface oxide layers from indium bumps used in flip-chip hybridization (bump bonding) of integrated circuits. The two-step plasma process makes it possible to remove surface indium oxide, without incurring the adverse effects of the acid etching process.

  8. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  9. Fabrication, structure and mechanical properties of indium nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyuhyon; Kim, Ju-Young; Budiman, Arief Suriadi; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Burek, Michael J.; Greer, Julia R.; Tsui, Ting Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solid and hollow cylindrical indium pillars with nanoscale diameters were prepared using electron beam lithography followed by the electroplating fabrication method. The microstructure of the solid-core indium pillars was characterized by scanning micro-X-ray diffraction, which shows that the indium pillars were annealed at room temperature with very few dislocations remaining in the samples. The mechanical properties of the solid pillars were characterized using a uniaxial microcompression technique, which demonstrated that the engineering yield stress is {approx}9 times greater than bulk and is {approx}1/28 of the indium shear modulus, suggesting that the attained stresses are close to theoretical strength. Microcompression of hollow indium nanopillars showed evidence of brittle fracture. This may suggest that the failure mode for one of the most ductile metals can become brittle when the feature size is sufficiently small.

  10. The dysprosium-tin phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremenko, V.N.; Bulanova, M.V.; Martsenjuk, P.S. (I.N. Frantsevich Inst. for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev (Ukraine))

    1992-12-07

    The dysprosium-tin phase diagram was established by means of differential thermal, X-ray and microscopic analyses of 22 alloys. Seven intermetallic compounds were found to exist in the system. Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 3] melts congruently at 1870 degC, and undergoes a polymorphous transformation at 1823 [+-] 6 degC. The intermetallics Dy[sub 5]Sn[sub 4], Dy[sub 11]Sn[sub 10], DySn, Dy[sub 4]Sn[sub 5], DySn[sub 2], DySn[sub 3] are formed peritectically at 1712 [+-]11, 1605 [+-]12, 1208 [+-]3, 1166 [+-]7, 1138 [+-]3 and 747 [+-]6 degC respectively. DySn[sub 3] exists in a narrow temperature range, in two polymorphous modifications. The transformation [beta]-DySn[sub 3] [yields] [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] occurs at 608 [+-] 12 degC, and at 499 [+-]2 degC [alpha]-DySn[sub 3] decomposes to DySn[sub 2] and the tin-rich melt. The dysprosium-rich eutectic crystallizes at 1204 [+-]10 degC and contains 13 at.% tin. The solid-state solubility of tin in dysprosium is about 3 at.%, and that of dysprosium in tin is negligible.

  11. Engineered nanoparticulate drug delivery systems: the next frontier for oral administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Roudayna; Jaafar-Maalej, Chiraz; Fessi, Hatem; Maincent, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    For the past few decades, there has been a considerable research interest in the area of oral drug delivery using nanoparticle (NP) delivery systems as carriers. Oral NPs have been used as a physical approach to improve the solubility and the stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the gastrointestinal juices, to enhance the intestinal permeability of drugs, to sustain and to control the release of encapsulated APIs allowing the dosing frequency to be reduced, and finally, to achieve both local and systemic drug targeting. Numerous materials have been used in the formulation of oral NPs leading to different nanoparticulate platforms. In this paper, we review various aspects of the formulation and the characterization of polymeric, lipid, and inorganic NPs. Special attention will be dedicated to their performance in the oral delivery of drug molecules and therapeutic genes.

  12. Composites of Polymer Hydrogels and Nanoparticulate Systems for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique structures and properties, three-dimensional hydrogels and nanostructured particles have been widely studied and shown a very high potential for medical, therapeutic and diagnostic applications. However, hydrogels and nanoparticulate systems have respective disadvantages that limit their widespread applications. Recently, the incorporation of nanostructured fillers into hydrogels has been developed as an innovative means for the creation of novel materials with diverse functionality in order to meet new challenges. In this review, the fundamentals of hydrogels and nanoparticles (NPs were briefly discussed, and then we comprehensively summarized recent advances in the design, synthesis, functionalization and application of nanocomposite hydrogels with enhanced mechanical, biological and physicochemical properties. Moreover, the current challenges and future opportunities for the use of these promising materials in the biomedical sector, especially the nanocomposite hydrogels produced from hydrogels and polymeric NPs, are discussed.

  13. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  14. Highly sensitive photodetectors based on hybrid 2D-0D SnS{sub 2}-copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yun; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; Yin, Lei; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn; He, Jun, E-mail: wangzx@nanoctr.cn, E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-01-04

    Both high speed and efficiency of photoelectric conversion are essential for photodetectors. As an emerging layered metal dichalcogenide (LMD), tin disulfide owns intrinsic faster photodetection ability than most other LMDs but poor light absorption and low photoelectric conversion efficiency. We develop an efficient method to enhance its performance by constructing a SnS{sub 2}-copper indium sulfide hybrid structure. As a result, the responsivity reaches 630 A/W, six times stronger than pristine SnS{sub 2} and much higher than most other LMDs photodetectors. Additionally, the photocurrents are enhanced by more than 1 order of magnitude. Our work may open up a pathway to improve the performance of photodetectors based on LMDs.

  15. Indium-cadmium-oxide films having exceptional electrical conductivity and optical transparency: clues for optimizing transparent conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A; Babcock, J R; Edleman, N L; Metz, A W; Lane, M A; Asahi, R; Dravid, V P; Kannewurf, C R; Freeman, A J; Marks, T J

    2001-06-19

    Materials with high electrical conductivity and optical transparency are needed for future flat panel display, solar energy, and other opto-electronic technologies. In(x)Cd(1-x)O films having a simple cubic microstructure have been grown on amorphous glass substrates by a straightforward chemical vapor deposition process. The x = 0.05 film conductivity of 17,000 S/cm, carrier mobility of 70 cm2/Vs, and visible region optical transparency window considerably exceed the corresponding parameters for commercial indium-tin oxide. Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal small conduction electron effective masses, a dramatic shift of the CdO band gap with doping, and a conduction band hybridization gap caused by extensive Cd 5s + In 5s mixing.

  16. Highly ordered horizontal indium gallium arsenide/indium phosphide multi-quantum-well in wire structure on (001) silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Lau, Kei May

    2016-12-01

    We report the characteristics of indium gallium arsenide stacked quantum structures inside planar indium phosphide nanowires grown on exact (001) silicon substrates. The morphological evolution of the indium phosphide ridge buffers inside sub-micron trenches has been studied, and the role of inter-facet diffusion in this process is discussed. Inside a single indium phosphide nanowire, we are able to stack quantum structures including indium gallium arsenide flat quantum wells, quasi-quantum wires, quantum wires, and ridge quantum wells. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements reveal a broadband emission spectrum centered at 1550 nm. Power dependent photoluminescence analysis indicates the presence of quasi-continuum states. This work thus provides insights into the design and growth process control of multiple quantum wells in wire structures for high performance nanowire lasers on a silicon substrate with 1550 nm band emission.

  17. Clinical role of indium-111 antimyosin imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Lahiri, A. (Northwich Park Hospital and Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK). Dept. of Cardiology Northwich Park Hospital and Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (UK). Div. of Cardiovascular Sciences)

    1991-11-01

    Myocyte necrosis occurs in ischaemic, inflammatory and toxic heart diseases and can be detected by indium 111 antimyosin imaging. This allows a non-invasive evaluation of the site, extent and quantitation of the severity of myocardial necrosis. Simultaneous imaging of perfusion in patients with myocardial infarction allows the differentiation of necrosed and perfused areas and the varying degrees of mismatch and overlap, which has prognostic significance. Indium 111 antimyosin imaging is useful in the assessment of patients with unstable angina and in those for whom the diagnosis of infarction or unstable angina is not clear. In suspected myocarditis, a positive scan indicates the necessity for endomyocardial biopsy to confirm inflammation, whereas a negative scan makes the diagnosis of myocarditis unlikely. Antimyosin imaging is not useful as a marker of rejection in the 1 year-post-transplant, but uptake after this period is associated with an increased rejection rate and is therefore an important tool in planning management strategies. Most patients on anthracycline treatment have demonstrable uptake, which is related to the cumulative dose and to the ejection fraction. Its role in this situation is as yet unclear. The use of new ligands and radioisotopes ({sup 99m}Tc) is likely to allow earlier imaging and produce improved quality. (orig.).

  18. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in carotid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branchereau, A.; Bernard, P.J.; Ciosi, G.; Bazan, M.; de Laforte, C.; Elias, A.; Bouvier, J.L.

    1988-07-01

    Forty-five patients (35 men, 10 women) undergoing carotid surgery had Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as part of their preoperative work-up. Imaging was performed within three hours after injection of the Indium-111. A second series of views was obtained 24 hours later and repeated at 24 hour intervals for two days. Of 54 scintigrams, 22 were positive and 32 negative. Positive results were defined as a twofold or more increase in local activity on a visualized carotid after 24 hours. The sensitivity of the method was 41%, intraoperatively, and the specificity, 100%. The low sensitivity places this method behind sonography and duplex-scanning for screening patients for surgery. We believe that indications for platelet scintigraphy are limited to: 1. Repeated transient ischemic attacks in the same territory with minimal lesions on arteriography and non-homogeneous plaque on duplex scan; 2. Symptomatic patients being treated medically as a possible argument for surgery; 3. Determining therapeutic policy for patients having experienced a transient ischemic attack with a coexisting intracardiac thrombus.

  19. Synthesis of Biocompatible Nanoparticulate Coordination Polymers for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandanapitiye, Murthi S.

    The combination of nanotechnology with medicinal chemistry has developed into a burgeoning research area. Nanomaterials (NMs) could be seamlessly interfaced with various facets in biology, biochemistry, medicinal chemistry and environmental chemistry that may not be available to the same material in the bulk scale. This dissertation research has focused on the development of nanoparticulate coordination polymers for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Modern imaging techniques include X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). We have successfully developed several types of nanoparticulate diagnostics and therapeutics that have some potential usefulness in biomedicine. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate based PET (Positron emission tomography)/SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) are discussed in chapter 3. In chapter 4, preparation and potential utility of non-gadolinium based MRI contrast agent are reported for T1-weighted application. As far as the solely effectiveness of relaxation is concerned, Gd-based T 1-weighted MRI contrast agents have excellent enhancement of image contrast but they have risks of biological toxicity. Consequently, the search for T 1-weighted CAs with high efficacy and low toxicity has gained attention toward the Mn(II) and Fe(III). Fe(III) is considered to be more toxic to cells because free ferric or ferrous ions can catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species via the Fenton reactions. Paramagnetic chelates of Mn(II) could be employed as T1-weighted CAs. However, it is challenging to design and synthesize highly stable Mn(II) complexes that could maintain the integrity when administered to living system. Chapter 4 describes the synthesis and utility of nanoparticulate Mn analogue of Prussian blue (K2Mn 3[FeII(CN)6]2) as an effective T1 MRI contrast agent for cellular imaging X

  20. Crossover of electron-electron interaction effect in Sn-doped indium oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Gao, Kuang-Hong; Li, Zhi-Qing, E-mail: zhiqingli@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Department of Physics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-03-09

    We systematically study the structures and electrical transport properties of a series of Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with thickness t ranging from ∼5 to ∼53 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results indicate that the t ≲ 16.8 nm films are polycrystalline, while those t ≳ 26.7 nm films are epitaxially grown along [100] direction. For the epitaxial films, the Altshuler and Aronov electron-electron interaction (EEI) effect governs the temperature behaviors of the sheet conductance σ{sub □} at low temperatures, and the ratios of relative change of Hall coefficient ΔR{sub H}/R{sub H} to relative change of sheet resistance ΔR{sub □}/R{sub □} are ≈2, which is quantitatively consistent with Altshuler and Aronov EEI theory and seldom observed in other systems. For those polycrystalline films, both the sheet conductance and Hall coefficient vary linearly with logarithm of temperature below several tens Kelvin, which can be well described by the current EEI theories in granular metals. We extract the intergranular tunneling conductance of each film by comparing the σ{sub □}(T) data with the predication of EEI theories in granular metals. It is found that when the tunneling conductance is less than the conductance of a single indium tin oxide (ITO) grain, the ITO film reveals granular metal characteristics in transport properties; conversely, the film shows transport properties of homogeneous disordered conductors. Our results indicate that electrical transport measurement can not only reveal the underlying charge transport properties of the film but also be a powerful tool to detect the subtle homogeneity of the film.

  1. Electron beam induced growth of tin whiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, A. C.; Karpov, V. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Warrell, G. R.; Parsai, E. I.; Shvydka, Diana, E-mail: diana.shvydka@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Health Science Campus, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    We have investigated the influence of electron irradiation on tin whisker growth. Sputtered tin samples exposed to electron beam of 6 MeV energy exhibited fast whisker growth, while control samples did not grow any whiskers. The statistics of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects due to charges trapped in an insulating substrate. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  2. Moessbauer spectra of tin in float glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.A. [Liverpool John Moores Univ. (United Kingdom). Sch. of the Built Environ.; Johnson, C.E. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Williams, K.F.E. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Holland, D. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Karim, M.M. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1995-03-01

    Tin is not a major constituent of window glass, but is found at high concentrations in the lower surface of float glass which has been in contact with the molten tin bath. It does not extend far into the surface, but causes the physical and chemical behaviour to differ from that of the upper surface. It is important, therefore, to understand the structural role of tin in silicate glasses and thus its effect on various properties. Moessbauer spectra were taken of three series of glassy materials, namely binary glasses (SnO and SiO{sub 2}) in varying proportions, re-melted float glass containing tin, and float glass from a production plant. The binary glasses contained between 20 and 70% tin which was found to be mainly Sn{sup 2+}, with very small amounts of Sn{sup 4+} in some of them. The spectra showed a small decrease in isomer shift with increase in tine content, which is ascribed to the change in molar volume. The re-melted samples were float glass which was mixed with stannous oxalate in appropriate conditions to try and maintain tin in the 2+ state, and contained up to 15% tin by weight. The spectra show both Sn{sup 4+} and Sn{sup 2+} with rather more in the 4+ oxidation state. The change in the spectra as a function of temperature revealed a large difference in the f-factor (and hence the chemical binding) of the two states. A series of spectra was taken between 17.5 and 900 K for the sample containing 15% tin. From the absorption as a function of temperature the f-factor was determined for both oxidation states, and hence enabled the relative amounts of Sn{sup 4+} and Sn{sup 2+} present in each sample to be estimated. Measurements of the shift as a function of temperature were also made. The float samples were surface material produced by grinding away all but 0.1 mm of the lower surface of industrially produced float glass. The Moessbauer spectra showed them to be predominantly Sn{sup 2+}, as expected from the reducing atmosphere in the float plant.

  3. Deep-UV plasmonics of indium (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Saito, Yuika; Taguchi, Atsushi; Honda, Mitsuhiro; Kawata, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) plasmonics can expand the possibilities of DUV-based techniques (i.e. UV lithography, UV spectroscopy, UV imaging, UV disinfection). Here we present that indium is useful for research of DUV plasmonics. According to dielectric function, indium and aluminum are low-loss, DUV plasmonic metals, of which the imaginary parts are far smaller than those of other metals (i.e. rhodium, platinum) in the DUV range. Additionally, the real parts in the whole DUV range are close to but smaller than -2, allowing efficient generation of surface plasmon polaritons on an indium or aluminum nanosphere. In comparison to aluminum, indium provides a distinctive feature for fabricating DUV-resonant substrates. It is highly apt to form a grainy deposition film on a standard, optically transparent substrate (i.e. fused silica). The surface plasmon resonance wavelength becomes promptly tailored by simply varying the deposition thickness of the films, resulting in different grain sizes. Thus, we fabricated indium-coated substrates having different plasmon resonance wavelengths by varying the deposition thicknesses from 10 to 50 nm. DUV resonance Raman scattering of adenine molecules was best enhanced using the 25 nm deposition thickness substrates by the factor of 2. Furthermore, the FDTD calculation simulated the electromagnetic field enhancement over a grainy, indium-coated fused silica substrate. Both results indicate how indium plays an indispensable role in study of DUV plasmonics.

  4. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zheng Jiao; Xiaojuan Wan; Bing Zhao; Huijiao Guo; Tiebing Liu; Minghong Wu

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects on tin dioxide thin films were simulated and the mechanism was discussed.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of electron slowing down in indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouabah, Z.; Hannachi, M. [Materials and Electronic Systems Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bordj Bou Arreridj (Algeria); Champion, C. [Université de Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, (CENBG), Gradignan (France); Bouarissa, N., E-mail: n_bouarissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Materials Physics and its Applications, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electron scattering in indium targets. • Modeling of elastic cross-sections. • Monte Carlo simulation of low energy electrons. - Abstract: In the current study, we aim at simulating via a detailed Monte Carlo code, the electron penetration in a semi-infinite indium medium for incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 5 keV. Electron range, backscattering coefficients, mean penetration depths as well as stopping profiles are then reported. The results may be seen as the first predictions for low-energy electron penetration in indium target.

  6. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  7. The effect of antimony-tin and indium-tin oxide supports on the catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles for ammonia electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Júlio César M. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation (CCRI), University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Piasentin, Ricardo M.; Spinacé, Estevam V.; Neto, Almir O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baranova, Elena A., E-mail: elena.baranova@uottawa.ca [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation (CCRI), University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Platinum nanoparticles supported on carbon (Pt/C) and carbon with addition of ITO (Pt/C-ITO (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 9}·(SnO{sub 2}){sub 1}) and ATO (Pt/C-ATO (SnO{sub 2}){sub 9}·(Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 1}) oxides were prepared by sodium borohydride reduction method and used for ammonia electro-oxidation reaction (AmER) in alkaline media. The effect of the supports on the catalytic activity of Pt for AmER was investigated using electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) and direct ammonia fuel cell (DAFC) experiments. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed Pt peaks attributed to the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, as well as peaks characteristic of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} in ITO support and cassiterite SnO{sub 2} phase of ATO support. According to transmission electron micrographs the mean particles sizes of Pt over carbon were 5.4, 4.9 and 4.7 nm for Pt/C, Pt/C-ATO and Pt/C-ITO, respectively. Pt/C-ITO catalysts showed the highest catalytic activity for ammonia electrooxidation in both electrochemical and fuel cell experiments. We attributed this to the presence of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase in ITO, which provides oxygenated or hydroxide species at lower potentials resulting in the removal of poisonous intermediate, i.e., atomic nitrogen (N{sub ads}) and promotion of ammonia electro-oxidation. - Highlights: • Oxide support effect on the catalytic activity of Pt towards ammonia electro-oxidation. • Direct ammonia fuel cell (DAFC) performance using Pt over different supports as anode. • Pt/C-ITO shows better catalytic activity for ammonia oxidation than Pt/C and Pt/C-ATO.

  8. Test Summaries on Producing Pure Indium of 4N5 by One Step Electrolysis%一次电解生产4N5精铟的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良

    2014-01-01

    本工艺是通过系列试验,考察了在低电流密度下,采用不同的阴极材料,调整电解液中铟离子和氯化钠浓度以及粗铟阳极中铅锡含量的变化对精铟质量的影响。通过试验数据分析,确定各种技术条件和各类杂质对精铟质量的影响,提出提高精铟直产率的措施,确定了铟电解精炼最佳技术操作条件,确保一次电解生产4N5合格精铟,从而实现降低生产成本,提高生产效率。%At low current density , a series of experiment of adopting different cathode materials , adjusting the indium ion in the electrolyte and sodium chloride concentration and the change of crude indium tin lead content in anode was carried out to impact the influence on puality of the refined indium . By analying the experimental data ,various technical conditions and all kinds of imputies w hich impact the quality of the re‐fined indium were determined , measures of improving direct production rate were put forward ,the best opera‐tion condition for one step pure indium electrolysis process has been determined to produce acceptable pure indium of 4N5 . By this process ,reducing cost and improving work efficiency can be achived in prodution .

  9. Negative Magnetoresistance in Amorphous Indium Oxide Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sreemanta; Tewari, Girish C.; Mahalu, Diana; Shahar, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We study magneto-transport properties of several amorphous Indium oxide nanowires of different widths. The wires show superconducting transition at zero magnetic field, but, there exist a finite resistance at the lowest temperature. The R(T) broadening was explained by available phase slip models. At low field, and far below the superconducting critical temperature, the wires with diameter equal to or less than 100 nm, show negative magnetoresistance (nMR). The magnitude of nMR and the crossover field are found to be dependent on both temperature and the cross-sectional area. We find that this intriguing behavior originates from the interplay between two field dependent contributions.

  10. Nonlinear electronic transport behavior in Indium Nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Cloves G., E-mail: cloves@pucgoias.edu.br [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias, CP 86, 74605-010 Goiania, Goias (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    A theoretical study on the nonlinear transport of electrons and of the nonequilibrium temperature in n-doped Indium Nitride under influence of moderate to high electric fields (in this nonlinear domain) is presented. It is based on a nonlinear quantum kinetic theory which provides a description of the dissipative phenomena developing in the system. The electric current and the mobility in the steady state are obtained, and their dependence on the electric field strength and on the concentration (that is, a mobility dependent nonlinearly on field and concentration) is obtained and analyzed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have reported on the topic of nonlinear transport (electron mobility) in n-doped InN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results evidence the presence of two distinctive regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dependence of the mobility on the electric field is manifested through of the relaxation times.

  11. Indium-carbon pairs in germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G; Vianden, R [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2003-08-06

    The interactions of carbon with the probe nucleus {sup 111}In have been studied in germanium using the perturbed angular correlation method, which has the ability to detect the microscopic environments of the probe atom by means of the interaction of the nuclear moments of the probe with the surrounding electromagnetic fields. At high dose carbon implantation in germanium two complexes have been identified by their unique quadrupole interaction frequencies. An interaction frequency of {nu}{sub Q1} = 207(1) MHz ({eta} = 0.16(3)) appeared at annealing temperatures below 650 deg. C. Above 650 deg. C, it was replaced by a second interaction frequency of {nu}{sub Q2} 500(1) MHz ({eta} = 0). The frequencies are attributed to two different carbon-indium pairs. The orientation of the corresponding electric field gradients and the thermal stability of the defect complexes are studied.

  12. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolomé, Javier, E-mail: j.bartolome@fis.ucm.es; Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier [Department of Materials Physics, Faculty of Physics, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  13. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  14. Recovering indium with sulfating roasting from copper-smelting ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A technology for recovering indium from Jinchuan copper-smelting ash was developed. Indium in the ash was first enriched to the leaching-slag in leaching process, and then recovered by sulfating roasting. The method included mixing the leaching-slag with sulfuric acid, making them into particles, roasting the mixture, and then leaching the calcine with hot water. Above 90% of indium in calcine could be dissolved into the leaching solution. The optimized conditions were determined as follows: the mass ratio of sulfuric acid to leaching slag was 0.1, the roasting time was about 1 to 1.5 h in the temperature range of 200-250 ℃, and the calcine was leached for 1 h with 5:1 of liquid/solid ratio at 60℃. Over 99% of indium in leaching solution was finally enriched by Zn substitution or sulfide precipitation.

  15. Nanoparticulated docetaxel exerts enhanced anticancer efficacy and overcomes existing limitations of traditional drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jinhyang Choi,1,2 Eunjung Ko,1 Hye-Kyung Chung,3 Jae Hee Lee,1 Eun Jin Ju,1 Hyun Kyung Lim,4 Intae Park,1 Kab-Sig Kim,5 Joo-Hwan Lee,5 Woo-Chan Son,6 Jung Shin Lee,1,7 Joohee Jung,1,4 Seong-Yun Jeong,1,2 Si Yeol Song,1,8 Eun Kyung Choi1,3,8 1Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, 2Asan Institute for Life Sciences, 3Center for Development and Commercialization of Anti-cancer Therapeutics, 4College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women’s University, 5Bio-Synectics, 6Department of Pathology, 7Department of Internal Medicine, 8Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Nanoparticulation of insoluble drugs improves dissolution rate, resulting in increased bioavailability that leads to increased stability, better efficacy, and reduced toxicity of drugs. Docetaxel (DTX, under the trade name Taxotere™, is one of the representative anticancer chemotherapeutic agents of this era. However, this highly lipophilic and insoluble drug has many adverse effects. Our novel and widely applicable nanoparticulation using fat and supercritical fluid (NUFS™ technology enabled successful nanoscale particulation of DTX (Nufs-DTX. Nufs-DTX showed enhanced dissolution rate and increased aqueous stability in water. After confirming the preserved mechanism of action of DTX, which targets microtubules, we showed that Nufs-DTX exhibited similar effects in proliferation and clonogenic assays using A549 cells. Interestingly, we observed that Nufs-DTX had a greater in vivo tumor growth delay effect on an A549 xenograft model than Taxotere™, which was in agreement with the improved drug accumulation in tumors according to the biodistribution result, and was caused by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect. Although both Nufs-DTX and Taxotere™ showed negative results for our administration dose in the hematologic toxicity test, Nufs-DTX showed much less toxicity than Taxotere™ in

  16. Growth of YBCO Thin Films on TiN(001) and CeO2-Coated TiN Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0102 GROWTH OF YBCO THIN FILMS ON TiN(001) AND CeO2-COATED TiN SURFACES (POSTPRINT) Paul N. Barnes, Rand Biggers...GROWTH OF YBCO THIN FILMS ON TiN(001) AND CeO2-COATED TiN SURFACES (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Number: ASC-01-1691; Clearance Date: 19 Nov 2002. This paper contains color 14. ABSTRACT Epitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-x ( YBCO ) layers on TiN(0 0

  17. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  18. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in the surgical scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, B.; Bekis, R.; Durak, H.; Derebeck, E. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sen, M. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1999-07-01

    Indium-111 octreotide uptake has been reported in various somatostatin receptor positive tumors, granulomas and autoimmune diseases in which activated leucocytes may play a role, subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma and angiofibroma. We present Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical abdominal scar tissue 1.5 to 6 months after surgery in a patient who had been treated for recurrent carcinoid tumor in the rectosigmoid junction. Indium-111 octreotide uptake in a surgical scar may be related to the binding to somatostatin receptors in the activated lymphocytes and fibroblasts that is previously reported. (orig.) [German] In verschiedenen Somatostatinrezeptor-positiven Tumoren, Granulomen, bei Autoimmunerkrankungen, in denen aktivierte Leukozyten eine Rolle spielen, subcutanen kavernoesen Hammangiomen und Angiofibromen wurde ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid berichtet. Wir berichten ueber die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in einer chirurgischen Narbe ueber dem Abdomen nach 1,5 und 6 Monaten bei einem Patienten mit einem Rezidiv-Karzinoid im rektosigmoidalen Uebergang. Die Anreicherung von Indium-111-Oktreotid in chirurgischen Narbengewebe koennte in Zusammenhang stehen mit einer Bindung an Somatostationrezeptoren in aktivierten Lymphozyten und Fibroblasten, ueber die schon berichtet wurde. (orig.)

  19. Indium-free organic thin-film solar cells using a plasmonic electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Kentaro; Nishino, Takayuki; Okamoto, Takayuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Koji; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new kind of organic solar cell (OSC) that substitutes the standard indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode with a silver layer with randomly arranged circular nanoholes (plasmonic electrode). The quasi-random structure in the silver layer efficiently converts wideband incident light into surface plasmon polaritons propagating along the surface of the silver film. In this way, the converted surface plasmon polaritons enhance light absorption in the active layer. We describe in detail the fabrication process we used and we give a thorough report of the resulting optical characteristics and performances. Although the transmittance of the plasmonic electrode is approximately one-third of that of the ITO electrodes, the power conversion efficiency of the OSCs with our plasmonic electrode is comparable to that of conventional inverted solar cells using ITO electrodes. Moreover, the obtained incident photon to current efficiency was better than that of the inverted solar cells in the wavelength regions around 400 nm and over 620 nm.

  20. Underpotential deposition of tin(II) on a gold disc electrode and determination of tin in a tin plate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhiqing; Shang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Chunming

    2005-04-01

    This work describes a study of the underpotential deposition (UPD) of Sn2+ on a polycrystalline gold disc electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronocoulometry (CC). Sn2+ ions showed well-defined peaks from UPD and UPD stripping (UPD-S) in 1 mol/L HCl solutions, while bulk deposition (BD) and BD stripping (BD-S) of the ions were also observed. The measured UPD shifts, DeltaE(UPD), between the UPD-S and the BD-S peaks were more than 200 mV. The UPD charge and the surface coverage of tin were measured by CC. A new method for determining Sn2+ was therefore developed, based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the Au/Sn UPD system. A plot of the UPD-DPASV (differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry) signal versus the Sn(II) concentration was obtained for [Sn(II)] of 1.98x10(-7) to 3.64x10(-5) M. The method developed here has been applied to determine the tin in a tin plate sample.