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Sample records for nanoparticles composite film

  1. Thermal dewetting behavior of polystyrene composite thin films with organic-modified inorganic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masaki; Takahashi, Yosuke; Fujii, Takeshi; Liu, Yang; Sugioka, Ken-ichi; Tsukada, Takao; Minami, Kimitaka; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2014-07-29

    The thermal dewetting of polystyrene composite thin films with oleic acid-modified CeO2 nanoparticles prepared by the supercritical hydrothermal synthesis method was investigated, varying the nanoparticle concentration (0-30 wt %), film thickness (approximately 50 and 100 nm), and surface energy of silanized silicon substrates on which the composite films were coated. The dewetting behavior of the composite thin films during thermal annealing was observed by an optical microscope. The presence of nanoparticles in the films affected the morphology of dewetting holes, and moreover suppressed the dewetting itself when the concentration was relatively high. It was revealed that there was a critical value of the surface energy of the substrate at which the dewetting occurred. In addition, the spatial distributions of nanoparticles in the composite thin films before thermal annealing were investigated using AFM and TEM. As a result, we found that most of nanoparticles segregated to the surface of the film, and that such distributions of nanoparticles contribute to the stabilization of the films, by calculating the interfacial potential of the films with nanoparticles.

  2. In-situ fabrication of hybrid polyoxometalate nanoparticles composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yang; Mao Baodong; Wang Enbo; Song Yonghai; Kang Zhenhui; Wang Chunlei; Tian Chungui; Zhang Chao; Xu Lin; Li Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticles multilayer films were fabricated by extending the method of nucleation and growth of particles in polymer assemblies. The polyelectrolyte matrix was constructed by layer-by-layer self-assembly method. Synthesis of polyoxometalate nanoparticles was achieved by alternately dipping the precursor polyelectrolyte matrix into AgNO 3 and H 4 SiW 12 O 40 aqueous solutions. Repeating the above synthesis process, Ag 4 SiW 12 O 40 nanoparticles with controllable diameters of 20 to 77 nm were synthesized in the multilayer films in-situ. UV-vis absorption spectra indicate that the nanoparticles grew gradually in the synthesis process. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the size and morphology of the nanoparticles

  3. Tribological behavior of in situ Ag nanoparticles/polyelectrolyte composite molecular deposition films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanbao; Wang Deguo; Liu Shuhai

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer polyelectrolyte films containing silver ions were obtained by molecular deposition method on a glass plate or a quartz substrate. The in situ Ag nanoparticles were synthesized in the multilayer polyelectrolyte films which were put into fresh NaBH 4 aqueous solution. The structure and surface morphology of composite molecular deposition films were observed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Tribological characteristic was investigated by AFM and micro-tribometer. It was found that the in situ Ag nanoparticles/polyelectrolyte composite molecular deposition films have lower coefficient of friction and higher anti-wear life than pure polyelectrolyte molecular deposition films.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of conducting polyaniline/BaTiO3 nanoparticle composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nakabayashi, T.; Kurokawa, H.; Akagi, F.; Hojo, M.; Toshima, N.

    2011-05-01

    Conducting polyaniline (PANI)/BaTiO3 nanoparticle composite films with different molar ratio values R=1, 5, 10, and 100 have been prepared on a quartz substrate by casting the m-cresol solution of PANI, (±)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) and BaTiO3 nanoparticle with an average diameter of about 20 nm. The CSA-doped PANI/BaTiO3 composite films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopy. The Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity of the films with different R values, together with CSA-doped PANI films, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to ~400 K. The relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity in the composite films are discussed from a comparison of them with those of CSA-doped PANI films and other PANI composite films.

  5. Elastic Moduli of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Thin Films via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2011-03-01

    Polymeric thin films find applications in diverse areas such as coatings, barriers and packaging. The dispersion of nanoparticles into the films was proven to be an effective method to generate tunable properties, particularly mechanical strength. However, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of the composite thin films with high accuracy. In this study, nanometric polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol films with uniformly dispersed cobalt and Cloisite nanoparticles at varying concentrations were synthesized via flow-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of the films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. Results on moduli of films as a function of the concentrations of nanoparticles and the thicknesses of the composite films will be presented. *Corresponding author: alamgir@uakron.edu

  6. Preparation and properties of carbohydrate-based composite films incorporated with CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop the carbohydrate biopolymer based antimicrobial films for food packaging application. The nanocomposite films of various biopolymers and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were prepared by solvent casting method. The nanocomposite films were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The thermal stability, UV barrier, water vapor permeability, and antibacterial activity of the composite films were also evaluated. The surface morphology of the films was dependent on the types of polymers used. The XRD revealed the crystallinity of CuONPs in the composite films. The addition of CuONPs increased the thickness, tensile strength, UV barrier property, relative humidity, and water vapor barrier property. The CuONPs incorporated composite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The developed composite films could be used as a UV-light barrier antibacterial films for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural and thermal properties of silk fibroin - Silver nanoparticles composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao B, B. Lakshmeesha; Shetty, G. Rajesh; Sangappa, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, silk fibroin-silver nanoparticles (SF-AgNPs) composite films have been prepared by simple solution casting method. The composite films were examined for structural and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results showed that with the introduction of AgNPs in the silk fibroin matrix the amorphous nature of the silk fibroin decreases with increasing nanoparticles concentration. The silk fibroin films possess good thermal stability with the presence of AgNPs.

  8. Composite Films Formed by Cellulose nanocrystals and Latex Nanoparticles: Optical, Structural, and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, Brandon McRae

    This thesis describes the preparation of iridescent, birefringent, composite films composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), latex nanoparticles (NPs) and a NP crosslinker; hexanediamine (HDA). First, aqueous suspensions were prepared with varying quantities of CNCs, NPs and HDA before equilibrating for one week. The cholesteric (Ch) phase was then cast and dried into a film. The optical, structural and mechanical properties of the film was analyzed. Second, films with identical compositions of CNCs, NPs, and HDA were fabricated in three different ways to yield films of different morphology, (i) fast drying of an isotropic suspension, yielding an isotropic film, (ii) slow drying of an isotropic suspension, yielding a partially Ch films, (iii) slow drying of an equilibrated suspension, yielding a highly Ch film. The optical and mechanical properties of the films was analyzed.

  9. Magnetic Composite Thin Films of FexOy Nanoparticles and Photocrosslinked Dextran Hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsen, Annette; Utech, Stefanie; Maskos, Michael; Knoll, Wolfgang; Jonas, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic hydrogel composites are promising candidates for a broad field of applications from medicine to mechanical engineering. Here, surface-attached composite films of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and a polymeric hydrogel (HG) were prepared from magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and a carboxymethylated dextran with photoreactive benzophenone substituents. A blend of the MNP and the dextran polymer was prepared by mixing in solution, and after spin-coating and drying the blend film was converted into a stable MNP–HG composite by photocrosslinking through irradiation with UV light. The bulk composite material shows strong mobility in a magnetic field, imparted by the MNPs. By utilizing a surface layer of a photoreactive adhesion promoter on the substrates, the MNP–HG films were covalently immobilized during photocrosslinking. The high stability of the composite was documented by rinsing experiments with UV–Vis spectroscopy, while surface plasmon resonance and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy was employed to investigate the swelling behavior in dependence of the nanoparticle concentration, the particle type, and salt concentration. - Highlights: ► blending of iron oxide nanoparticles with photocrosslinkable carboxymethyldextran. ► UV irradiation of blend yields surface-attached, magnetic hydrogel films. ► film characterization by surface plasmon resonance/optical waveguide spectroscopy. ► swelling decreases with increasing nanoparticle content. ► swelling decreases with increasing NaCl salt concentration in the aqueous medium.

  10. Entropy driven spontaneous formation of highly porous films from polymer-nanoparticle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korampally, Venumadhav; Yun, Minseong; Rajagopalan, Thiruvengadathan; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-01-01

    Nanoporous materials have become indispensable in many fields ranging from photonics, catalysis and semiconductor processing to biosensor infrastructure. Rapid and energy efficient process fabrication of these materials is, however, nontrivial. In this communication, we describe a simple method for the rapid fabrication of these materials from colloidal dispersions of Polymethyl Silsesquioxane nanoparticles. Nanoparticle-polymer composites above the decomposition temperature of the polymer are examined and the entropic gain experienced by the nanoparticles in this rubric is harnessed to fabricate novel highly porous films composed of nanoparticles. Optically smooth, hydrophobic films with low refractive indices (as low as 1.048) and high surface areas (as high as 1325 m 2 g -1 ) have been achieved with this approach. In this communication we address the behavior of such systems that are both temperature and substrate surface energy dependent. The method is applicable, in principle, to a variety of nanoparticle-polymer systems to fabricate custom nanoporous materials.

  11. Preparation of pectin/silver nanoparticles composite films with UV-light barrier and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Tanomrod, Nattareya; Rawdkuen, Saroat; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was synthesized by a green method using an aqueous extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk (CMLE) as reducing and stabilizing agents, and they were used for the preparation of pectin-based antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs were spherical in shape with the size in the range of 20-80nm and showed the absorption peak around 500nm. The pectin/AgNPs composite film exhibited characteristic absorption peak of AgNPs at 480nm. The surface color and light transmittance of the pectin films were greatly influenced by the addition of AgNPs. The lightness of the films decreased, however, redness and yellowness of the films increased after incorporation of AgNPs. UV-light barrier property of the pectin film increased significantly with a little decrease in the transparency. Though there were no structural changes in the pectin film by the incorporation of CMLE and AgNPs as indicated by the FTIR results, the film properties such as thermal stability, mechanical strength, and water vapor barrier properties of the pectin films increased. The pectin/AgNPs nanocomposite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, D. A.; Hui, K. S.; Hui, K. N.; Cho, Y. R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles-graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO3 and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N2/H2 gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips.

  13. POLYMER COMPOSITE FILMS WITH SIZE-SELECTED METAL NANOPARTICLES FABRICATED BY CLUSTER BEAM TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceynowa, F. A.; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Popok, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Formation of polymer films with size-selected silver and copper nanoparticles (NPs) is studied. Polymers are prepared by spin coating while NPs are fabricated and deposited utilizing a magnetron sputtering cluster apparatus. The particle embedding into the films is provided by thermal annealing...... after the deposition. The degree of immersion can be controlled by the annealing temperature and time. Together with control of cluster coverage the described approach represents an efficient method for the synthesis of thin polymer composite layers with either partially or fully embedded metal NPs....... Combining electron beam lithography, cluster beam deposition and thermal annealing allows to form ordered arrays of metal NPs on polymer films. Plasticity and flexibility of polymer host and specific properties added by coinage metal NPs open a way for different applications of such composite materials...

  14. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, D.A. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N., E-mail: bizhui@pusan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hong, Xiaoting [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed at room temperature. • With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. • The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas flow for 1 h. • The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). - Abstract: A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO{sub 3} and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips.

  15. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, D.A.; Hui, K.S.; Hui, K.N.; Cho, Y.R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed at room temperature. • With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. • The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N 2 /H 2 gas flow for 1 h. • The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). - Abstract: A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO 3 and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N 2 /H 2 gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips

  16. Electric conductance of films prepared from polymeric composite nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hain, J.; Pich, A.; Adler, H. J.; Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 61-65 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coatings * composites * conducting polymers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Magnetic Composite Thin Films of Fe{sub x}O{sub y} Nanoparticles and Photocrosslinked Dextran Hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, Annette, E-mail: brunsen@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Utech, Stefanie, E-mail: utech@uni-mainz.de [Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Jakob-Welder-Weg 11, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH (IMM), Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, 55129 Mainz, German (Germany); Maskos, Michael, E-mail: maskos@uni-mainz.de [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH (IMM), Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, 55129 Mainz, German (Germany); Knoll, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Knoll@ait.ac.at [Austrian Institute of Technology, Tech Gate Vienna, Donau-City-Str. 1, 1220 Wien (Austria); Jonas, Ulrich, E-mail: jonas@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany) and Macromolecular Chemistry, Department Chemistry - Biology, University of Siegen, Adolf-Reichwein-Str. 2, 57076 Siegen (Germany) and Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas - FORTH, Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Bio-Organic Materials Chemistry Laboratory - BOMCLab, Nikolaou Plastira 100, Vassilika Vouton, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetic hydrogel composites are promising candidates for a broad field of applications from medicine to mechanical engineering. Here, surface-attached composite films of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and a polymeric hydrogel (HG) were prepared from magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and a carboxymethylated dextran with photoreactive benzophenone substituents. A blend of the MNP and the dextran polymer was prepared by mixing in solution, and after spin-coating and drying the blend film was converted into a stable MNP-HG composite by photocrosslinking through irradiation with UV light. The bulk composite material shows strong mobility in a magnetic field, imparted by the MNPs. By utilizing a surface layer of a photoreactive adhesion promoter on the substrates, the MNP-HG films were covalently immobilized during photocrosslinking. The high stability of the composite was documented by rinsing experiments with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while surface plasmon resonance and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy was employed to investigate the swelling behavior in dependence of the nanoparticle concentration, the particle type, and salt concentration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer blending of iron oxide nanoparticles with photocrosslinkable carboxymethyldextran. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV irradiation of blend yields surface-attached, magnetic hydrogel films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer film characterization by surface plasmon resonance/optical waveguide spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer swelling decreases with increasing nanoparticle content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer swelling decreases with increasing NaCl salt concentration in the aqueous medium.

  18. Co nanoparticles induced resistive switching and magnetism for the electrochemically deposited polypyrrole composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zedong; Gao, Min; Yu, Lina; Lu, Liying; Xu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong

    2014-10-22

    The resistive switching behavior of Co-nanoparticle-dispersed polypyrrole (PPy) composite films is studied. A novel design method for resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is proposed. The conducting polymer films with metal nanocrystal (NC)-dispersed carbon chains induce the spontaneous oxidization of the conducting polymer at the surface. The resistive switching behavior is achieved by an electric field controlling the oxygen ion mobility between the metal electrode and the conducting polymer film to realize the mutual transition between intrinsic conduction (low resistive state) and oxidized layer conduction (high resistive state). Furthermore, the formation process of intrinsic conductive paths can be effectively controlled in the conducting polymer ReRAM using metal NCs in films because the inner metal NCs induce electric field lines converging around them and the intensity of the electric field at the tip of NCs can greatly exceed that of the other region. Metal NCs can also bring new characteristics for ReRAM, such as magnetism by dispersing magnetic metal NCs in polymer, to obtain multifunctional electronic devices or meet some special purpose in future applications. Our works will enrich the application fields of the electromagnetic PPy composite films and present a novel material for ReRAM devices.

  19. Highly Hydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes Functionalized with Surface-Tailored Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-09-26

    Thin-film composite polyamide membranes are state-of-the-art materials for membrane-based water purification and desalination processes, which require both high rejection of contaminants and high water permeabilities. However, these membranes are prone to fouling when processing natural waters and wastewaters, because of the inherent surface physicochemical properties of polyamides. The present work demonstrates the fabrication of forward osmosis polyamide membranes with optimized surface properties via facile and scalable functionalization with fine-tuned nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles are coated with superhydrophilic ligands possessing functional groups that impart stability to the nanoparticles and bind irreversibly to the native carboxyl moieties on the membrane selective layer. The tightly tethered layer of nanoparticles tailors the surface chemistry of the novel composite membrane without altering the morphology or water/solute permeabilities of the membrane selective layer. Surface characterization and interfacial energy analysis confirm that highly hydrophilic and wettable membrane surfaces are successfully attained. Lower intermolecular adhesion forces are measured between the new membrane materials and model organic foulants, indicating the presence of a bound hydration layer at the polyamide membrane surface that creates a barrier for foulant adhesion. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  1. Surface modification of polyamide thin film composite membrane by coating of titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Hong Anh Ngo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the coating of TiO2 nanoparticles onto the surface of a polyamide thin film composite nanofiltration membrane has been studied. Changes in the properties and separation performance of the modified membranes were systematically characterized. The experimental results indicated that the membrane surface hydrophilicity was significantly improved by the presence of the coated TiO2 nanoparticles with subsequent UV irradiation. The separation performance of the UV-irradiated TiO2-coated membranes was improved with a great enhancement of flux and a very high retention for removal of residual dye in an aqueous feed solution. The antifouling property of the UV-irradiated TiO2-coated membranes was enhanced with higher maintained flux ratios and lower irreversible fouling factors compared with an uncoated membrane.

  2. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoudis, P [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, S [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Karapanagiotis, I [' Ormylia' Art Diagnosis Centre, Ormylia, Chalkidiki, 63071 (Greece); Tsakalof, A [Medical Department, University of Thessaly, Larissa, 41222 (Greece); Zuburtikudis, I [Department of Industrial Design Engineering, TEI of Western Macedonia, Kozani, 50100 (Greece); Panayiotou, C [Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-04-15

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale.

  3. Polymer-Silica nanoparticles composite films as protective coatings for stone-based monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoudis, P; Papadopoulou, S; Karapanagiotis, I; Tsakalof, A; Zuburtikudis, I; Panayiotou, C

    2007-01-01

    The decrease of surface energy of mineral substrates similar to those used in many stone monuments of cultural heritage by the application of protective polymer coatings along with the simultaneous increase of their surface roughness can increase their ability to repel water substantially. In this work, the effect of artificially induced roughness on the water repellency of mineral substrates coated with protective polymer films was investigated. Natural marble samples or home made calcium carbonate blocks were tried as the mineral substrates. The roughness increase was achieved by mineral chemical etching or by creation of nanoscale binary composition film on the substrate surface. PMMA and PFPE were the polymers used, while different-sized silica nanoparticles were employed for the production of the nanocomposite films. Examination of the coated and uncoated surfaces with profilometry and AFM and measurements of water contact angles reveal a pronounced effect of the surface roughness on water repellency. Especially in the case of nanocomposite coatings, the surfaces become super-hydrophobic. This result indicates that the nanoscale binary composition film scheme, which is characterized by its simplicity and low cost, is a suitable candidate for the water protection of stone-based monuments on large scale

  4. The Optical Properties of Cu-Ni Nanoparticles Produced via Pulsed Laser Dewetting of Ultrathin Films: The Effect of Nanoparticle Size and Composition on the Plasmon Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yeuyeng; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    Thin film Cu-Ni alloys ranging from 2-8nm were synthesized and their optical properties were measured as-deposited and after a laser treatment which dewet the films into arrays of spatially correlated nanoparticles. The resultant nanoparticle size and spacing are attributed to laser induced spinodal dewetting process. The evolution of the spinodal dewetting process is investigated as a function of the thin film composition which ultimately dictates the size distribution and spacing of the nanoparticles. The optical measurements of the copper rich alloy nanoparticles reveal a signature absorption peak suggestive of a plasmonic peak which red-shifts with increasing nanoparticle size and blue shifts and dampens with increasing nickel concentration.

  5. Photoluminescence from Au nanoparticles embedded in Au:oxide composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongbo; Wen, Weijia; Wong, George K.

    2006-12-01

    Au:oxide composite multilayer films with Au nanoparticles sandwiched by oxide layers (such as SiO2, ZnO, and TiO2) were prepared in a magnetron sputtering system. Their photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated by employing a micro-Raman system in which an Argon laser with a wavelength of 514 nm was used as the pumping light. Distinct PL peaks located at a wavelength range between 590 and 680 nm were observed in most of our samples, with Au particle size varying from several to hundreds of nanometers. It was found that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in these composites exerted a strong influence on the position of the PL peaks but had little effect on the PL intensity.

  6. Photoluminescence from Au nanoparticles embedded in Au:oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Hongbo; Wen Weijia; Wong, George K. L.

    2006-01-01

    Au:oxide composite multilayer films with Au nanoparticles sandwiched by oxide layers (such as SiO 2 , ZnO, and TiO 2 ) were prepared in a magnetron sputtering system. Their photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated by employing a micro-Raman system in which an Argon laser with a wavelength of 514 nm was used as the pumping light. Distinct PL peaks located at a wavelength range between 590 and 680 nm were observed in most of our samples, with Au particle size varying from several to hundreds of nanometers. It was found that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in these composites exerted a strong influence on the position of the PL peaks but had little effect on the PL intensity

  7. Conductive films of silver nanoparticles as novel susceptors for induction welding of thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermanaki Farahani, Rouhollah; Janier, Mathieu; Dubé, Martine

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, a conductive film of silver nanoparticles (nAg) as a novel heating element type, called susceptor, was developed and tested for induction welding of carbon fiber/polyphenylene sulfide (CF/PPS) thermoplastic composites, i.e., unidirectional pre-impregnated 16 plies of CF/PPS compression-molded in a quasi-isotropic stacking sequence. The nAg were synthesized, dispersed in deionized (DI) water and casted onto a pure PPS film, resulting in a conductive film upon the evaporation of DI water and thermal post-annealing. The thermal annealing at 250 °C significantly (by 7 orders) decreased the film’s electrical resistivity from 9.4 × 103 down to 3.1 × 10-4 Ω cm. The new susceptors led to fast heating rates in induction welding when compared to the standard stainless steel mesh susceptors under similar welding conditions. Lap shear mechanical testing revealed that the apparent lap shear strength (LSS) is sensitive to the susceptors’ resistivity and the input current. A relatively high LSS value was achieved for the specimens welded using the new susceptors which exceeded the value of those welded using stainless steel mesh susceptors (28.3 MPa compared to 20 MPa). The weld interface and specimens’ cross-section observation revealed that the nAg were dispersed and embedded into the resin upon welding. This study contains preliminary results that show high potential of nanoparticles as effective susceptors to further improve the mechanical performance of the joints in welding of thermoplastic composites.

  8. Thermochromic Oxide-Based Thin Films and Nanoparticle Composites for Energy-Efficient Glazings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes G. Granqvist

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s advances in materials science and technology can lead to better buildings with improved energy efficiency and indoor conditions. Particular attention should be directed towards windows and glass facades—jointly known as “glazings”—since current practices often lead to huge energy expenditures related to excessive inflow or outflow of energy which need to be balanced by energy-intensive cooling or heating. This review article outlines recent progress in thermochromics, i.e., it deals with materials whose optical properties are strongly dependent on temperature. In particular, we discuss oxide-based thin surface coatings (thin films and nanoparticle composites which can be deposited onto glass and are able to regulate the throughput of solar energy while the luminous (visible properties remain more or less unaltered. Another implementation embodies lamination materials incorporating thermochromic (TC nanoparticles. The thin films and nanocomposites are based on vanadium dioxide (VO2, which is able to change its properties within a narrow temperature range in the vicinity of room temperature and either reflects or absorbs infrared light at elevated temperatures, whereas the reflectance or absorptance is much smaller at lower temperatures. The review outlines the state of the art for these thin films and nanocomposites with particular attention to recent developments that have taken place in laboratories worldwide. Specifically, we first set the scene by discussing environmental challenges and their relationship with TC glazings. Then enters VO2 and we present its key properties in thin-film form and as nanoparticles. The next part of the article gives perspectives on the manufacturing of these films and particles. We point out that the properties of pure VO2 may not be fully adequate for buildings and we elaborate how additives, antireflection layers, nanostructuring and protective over-coatings can be employed to yield improved

  9. Rationally Designed, Multifunctional Self-Assembled Nanoparticles for Covalently Networked, Flexible and Self-Healable Superhydrophobic Composite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2018-03-21

    For constructing bioinspired functional films with various superhydrophobic functions, including self-cleaning, anticorrosion, antibioadhesion, and oil-water separation, hydrophobic nanomaterials have been widely used as crucial structural components. In general, hydrophobic nanomaterials, however, cannot form strong chemical bond networks in organic-inorganic hybrid composite films because of the absence of chemically compatible binding components. Herein, we report the rationally designed, multifunctional self-assembled nanoparticles with tunable functionalities of covalent cross-linking and hydrophobicity for constructing three-dimensionally interconnected superhydrophobic composite films via a facile solution-based fabrication at room temperature. The multifunctional self-assembled nanoparticles allow the systematic control of functionalities of composite films, as well as the stable formation of covalently linked superhydrophobic composite films with excellent flexibility (bending radii of 6.5 and 3.0 mm, 1000 cycles) and self-healing ability (water contact angle > 150°, ≥10 cycles). The presented strategy can be a versatile and effective route to generating other advanced functional films with covalently interconnected composite networks.

  10. Hybrid composite thin films composed of tin oxide nanoparticles and cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid thin films consisting of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles and cellulose. SnO 2 nanoparticle loaded cellulose hybrid thin films were fabricated by a solution blending technique, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a dispersion agent. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed uniform dispersion of the SnO 2 nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. Reduction in the crystalline melting transition temperature and tensile properties of cellulose was observed due to the SnO 2 nanoparticle loading. Potential application of these hybrid thin films as low cost, flexible and biodegradable humidity sensors is examined in terms of the change in electrical resistivity of the material exposed to a wide range of humidity as well as its response–recovery behavior. (paper)

  11. Study of the photophysical properties of composite film assembled of porphyrin and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X -S; Kang, S -Z; Liu, H -G; Mu, J [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). Key Lab. for Colloid and Interface Chem. of Education Ministry

    1999-09-08

    In this paper, the formation, structure, and photophysical properties of functional mixed film of 5,10,15,20-tetra-4-(2-decanoic acid)phenyl porphyrin (TDPP) with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles formed from the 2D sol-gel process of tetrabutoxyltitanium (TBT) at the air/water interface is reported. The composite multilayer films were assembled by transferring the mixed monolayer onto quartz plates. The diameter distribution and crystallinity of TiO{sub 2} particles were estimated by TEM observation and electron diffraction. The sensitization of TDPP upon TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was confirmed by the spectral changes of UV-visible absorption and fluorescence of TDPP in the composite films. Furthermore the photosensitization greatly affected the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} particles with respect to the degradation of methylene blue (MO). (orig.)

  12. Cross-linked gelatin/nanoparticles composite coating on micro-arc oxidation film for corrosion and drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinhua; Lu Ping; Guo Meiqing; Fang Mingzhong

    2010-01-01

    A composite coating which could control drug release and biocorrosion of magnesium alloy stent materials WE42 was prepared. This composite coating was fabricated on the surface of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of the magnesium alloy, WE42, by mixing different degrees of cross-linked gelatin with well-dispersed poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction technique. Nano ZS laser diffraction particle size analyzer detected that the size of the nanoparticles to be 150-300 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the morphology of the nanoparticles and the composite coating. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the composite coating. Drug release was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The corrosion resistance of the composite coating was improved by preventing the corrosive ions from diffusing to the MAO films. The drug release rate of paclitaxel (PTX) exhibited a nearly linear sustained-release profile with no significant burst releases.

  13. Cross-linked gelatin/nanoparticles composite coating on micro-arc oxidation film for corrosion and drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xinhua, E-mail: xhxu_tju@eyou.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu Ping; Guo Meiqing; Fang Mingzhong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-02-01

    A composite coating which could control drug release and biocorrosion of magnesium alloy stent materials WE42 was prepared. This composite coating was fabricated on the surface of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of the magnesium alloy, WE42, by mixing different degrees of cross-linked gelatin with well-dispersed poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction technique. Nano ZS laser diffraction particle size analyzer detected that the size of the nanoparticles to be 150-300 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the morphology of the nanoparticles and the composite coating. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the composite coating. Drug release was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The corrosion resistance of the composite coating was improved by preventing the corrosive ions from diffusing to the MAO films. The drug release rate of paclitaxel (PTX) exhibited a nearly linear sustained-release profile with no significant burst releases.

  14. Cross-linked gelatin/nanoparticles composite coating on micro-arc oxidation film for corrosion and drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhua; Lu, Ping; Guo, Meiqing; Fang, Mingzhong

    2010-02-01

    A composite coating which could control drug release and biocorrosion of magnesium alloy stent materials WE42 was prepared. This composite coating was fabricated on the surface of the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) film of the magnesium alloy, WE42, by mixing different degrees of cross-linked gelatin with well-dispersed poly( DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles. The PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction technique. Nano ZS laser diffraction particle size analyzer detected that the size of the nanoparticles to be 150-300 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyze the morphology of the nanoparticles and the composite coating. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the composite coating. Drug release was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer. The corrosion resistance of the composite coating was improved by preventing the corrosive ions from diffusing to the MAO films. The drug release rate of paclitaxel (PTX) exhibited a nearly linear sustained-release profile with no significant burst releases.

  15. Simple preparation of fluorescent composite films based on cerium and europium doped LaF3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, Henrique de L.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Péres, Laura O.

    2018-03-01

    The combination of materials to form hybrids with unique properties, different from those of the isolated components, is a strategy used to prepare functional materials with improved properties aiming to allow their application in specific fields. The doping of lanthanum fluoride with other rare earth elements is used to obtain luminescent particles, which may be useful to the manufacturing of electronic devices' displays and biological markers, for instance. The application of the powder of nanoparticles has limitations in some fields; to overcome this, the powder may be incorporated in a suitable polymeric matrix. In this work, lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles, undoped and doped with cerium and europium, were synthesized through the co-precipitation method in aqueous solution. Aiming the formation of solid state films, composites of nanoparticles in an elastomeric matrix, the nitrile rubber (NBR), were prepared. The flexibility and the transparency of the matrix in the regions of interest are advantages for the application of the luminescent composites. The composites were applied as films using the casting and the spin coating techniques and luminescent materials were obtained in the samples doped with europium and cerium. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an adequate dispersion of the particles in the matrix in both film formation techniques. Aggregates of the particles were detected in the samples which may affect the uniformity of the emission of the composites.

  16. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  17. Architecture effects of glucose oxidase/Au nanoparticle composite Langmuir-Blodgett films on glucose sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Hsuan; Wu, Jau-Yann; Chen, Liang-Huei; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-03-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique is employed to prepare nano-composite films consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for glucose sensing applications. The GOx and AuNPs are co-adsorbed from an aqueous solution onto an air/liquid interface in the presence of an octadecylamine (ODA) template monolayer, forming a mixed (GOx-AuNP) monolayer. Alternatively, a composite film with a cascade architecture (AuNP/GOx) is also prepared by sequentially depositing monolayers of AuNPs and GOx. The architecture effects of the composite LB films on the glucose sensing are studied. The results show that the presence of AuNPs in the co-adsorption system does not affect the adsorption amount and preferred conformation (α-helix) of GOx. Furthermore, the incorporation of AuNPs in both composite films can significantly improve the sensing performance. However, the enhancement effects of the AuNPs in the two architectures are distinct. The major effect of the AuNPs is on the facilitation of charge-transfer in the (GOx-AuNP) film, but on the increase of catalytic activity in the (AuNP/GOx) one. Therefore, the sensing performance can be greatly improved by utilizing a film combining both architectures (AuNP/GOx-AuNP).

  18. Surface Functionalization of Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Copper Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Surface Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe

    2014-01-07

    Biofouling is a major operational challenge in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, motivating a search for improved biofouling control strategies. Copper, long known for its antibacterial activity and relatively low cost, is an attractive potential biocidal agent. In this paper, we present a method for loading copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on the surface of a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide RO membrane. Cu-NPs were synthesized using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a capping agent, resulting in particles with an average radius of 34 nm and a copper content between 39 and 49 wt.%. The positive charge of the Cu-NPs imparted by the PEI allowed a simple electrostatic functionalization of the negatively charged RO membrane. We confirmed functionalization and irreversible binding of the Cu-NPs to the membrane surface with SEM and XPS after exposing the membrane to bath sonication. We also demonstrated that Cu-NP functionalization can be repeated after the Cu-NPs dissolve from the membrane surface. The Cu-NP functionalization had minimal impact on the intrinsic membrane transport parameters. Surface hydrophilicity and surface roughness were also maintained, and the membrane surface charge became positive after functionalization. The functionalized membrane exhibited significant antibacterial activity, leading to an 80-95% reduction in the number of attached live bacteria for three different model bacterial strains. Challenges associated with this functionalization method and its implementation in RO desalination are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Surface Functionalization of Thin-Film Composite Membranes with Copper Nanoparticles for Antimicrobial Surface Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Zodrow, Katherine R.; Genggeng, Qi; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    Biofouling is a major operational challenge in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, motivating a search for improved biofouling control strategies. Copper, long known for its antibacterial activity and relatively low cost, is an attractive potential biocidal agent. In this paper, we present a method for loading copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) on the surface of a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide RO membrane. Cu-NPs were synthesized using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a capping agent, resulting in particles with an average radius of 34 nm and a copper content between 39 and 49 wt.%. The positive charge of the Cu-NPs imparted by the PEI allowed a simple electrostatic functionalization of the negatively charged RO membrane. We confirmed functionalization and irreversible binding of the Cu-NPs to the membrane surface with SEM and XPS after exposing the membrane to bath sonication. We also demonstrated that Cu-NP functionalization can be repeated after the Cu-NPs dissolve from the membrane surface. The Cu-NP functionalization had minimal impact on the intrinsic membrane transport parameters. Surface hydrophilicity and surface roughness were also maintained, and the membrane surface charge became positive after functionalization. The functionalized membrane exhibited significant antibacterial activity, leading to an 80-95% reduction in the number of attached live bacteria for three different model bacterial strains. Challenges associated with this functionalization method and its implementation in RO desalination are discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Highly Hydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes Functionalized with Surface-Tailored Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film composite polyamide membranes are state-of-the-art materials for membrane-based water purification and desalination processes, which require both high rejection of contaminants and high water permeabilities. However, these membranes

  1. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Mint Extract and their Application in Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Packaging Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Chawla, S. P.

    The present study reports synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using mint extract (ME) in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as capping material. PVA, ME and silver nitrate at concentration of 1%, 0.01% and 0.02%, respectively were found to be optimum for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by measuring surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The intensity of SPR peak remained unaltered thus suggesting stability of colloid without aggregation during storage. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of food borne bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. The incorporation of these nanoparticles in chitosan and gelatin blend resulted in homogenous films. Mechanical properties and water vapor transmission rate of chitosan-gelatin films improved due to addition of AgNPs, whereas optical (opacity and UV light transmittance) and oxygen permeability properties remained unchanged. These films had the ability to inhibit growth of 5 log CFU of the above test organisms. These findings suggest that the AgNPs obtained by reduction of silver by ME can be effectively utilized to prepare antibacterial eco-friendly food packaging material.

  2. UV absorption by cerium oxide nanoparticles/epoxy composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Ngoc Nhiem; Luu, Minh Dai; Nguyen, Quang Khuyen; Kim, Byung Sun

    2011-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles have been used to modify properties of an epoxy matrix in order to improve the ultra-violet (UV) absorption property of epoxy thin films. The interdependence of mechanical properties, UV absorption property and the dispersed concentration of CeO 2 nanoparticles was investigated. Results showed that, by increasing the dispersed concentration of CeO 2 nanoparticles up to 3 wt%, tensile modulus increases while two other mechanical properties, namely tensile strength and elongation, decrease. The UV absorption peak and the absorption edges of the studied thin films were observed in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. By incorporating CeO 2 nanoparticles into the epoxy matrix, an absorption peak appears at around 318 nm in UV-Vis spectra with increasing CeO 2 concentration from 0.1 to 1.0 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that a good dispersion of nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix by an ultrasonic method was achieved

  3. Supercapacitors: Ferroelectric Polymer-Ceramic Nanoparticle Composite Films for Use in the Capacitive Storage of Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Dana; Pierce, Andrew; Porter, Tim; Dillingham, Randy; Cornelison, David

    2010-03-01

    Most new alternative energy solutions including wind and solar power, will require short term energy storage for widespread implementation. One means of storage would be the use of capacitors owing to their rapid delivery of power and longevity compared to chemical batteries. Capacitor materials exhibiting high dielectric permittivity and breakdown strength, as well as light weight and environmental safety are most desirable. Recently, new classes of capacitor dielectric materials, consisting of ferroelectric polymer matrices containing ceramic nanoparticles have attracted renewed interest due to their high potential energy storage, charge and discharge properties and lightweight. In this study, polyvinylidene flouride (PVDF) thin films containing nanoparticles of the ceramic titanium dioxide created using a physical vapor deposition process, are analyzed for use as dielectrics for a supercapacitor. Measured results of the film parameters including dielectric properties and breakdown voltages will be presented. These parameters will be analyzed with respect to film characteristics such as, dispersion of the ceramic particles, thickness of the films and composition ratios.

  4. Highly Conductive, Transparent Flexible Films Based on Metal Nanoparticle-Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yin Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles decorated on MWCNTs based transparent conducting thin films (TCFs show a cheap and efficient option for the applications in touch screens and the replacement of the ITO film because of their interesting properties of electrical conductivity, mechanical property, chemical inertness, and other unique properties, which may not be accessible by their individual components. However, a great challenge that always remains is to develop effective ways to prepare junctions between metallic nanoparticles and MWCNTs for the improvement of high-energy barriers, high contact resistances, and weak interactions which could lead to the formation of poor conducting pathways and result in the CNT-based devices with low mechanical flexibility. Herein, we not only discuss recent progress in the preparation of MNP-CNT flexible TCFs but also describe our research studies in the relevant areas. Our result demonstrated that the MNP-CNT flexible TCFs we prepared could achieve a highly electrical conductivity with the sheet resistance of ~100 ohm/sq with ~80% transmittance at 550 nm even after being bent 500 times. This electrical conductivity is much superior to the performances of other MWCNT-based transparent flexible films, making it favorable for next-generation flexible touch screens and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Surface plasmon resonances of Ag-Au alloy nanoparticle films grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition at different compositions and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shweta, E-mail: shwetaverma@rrcat.gov.in; Rao, B. T.; Detty, A. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Ganesan, V.; Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452 001 (India); Rai, S. K. [Indus Synchrotons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Bose, A.; Joshi, S. C. [Proton Linac and Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2015-04-07

    We studied localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) at different compositions, substrate temperatures, and mass thicknesses of Ag-Au alloy nanoparticle films grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition. The LSPRs were pronounced at all compositions of the films grown at high substrate temperature of about 300 °C as compared to those grown at room temperature. The alloy formation and composition of the films were determined using X-ray photoelectron and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Films' mass thickness and compositional uniformity along the thickness were determined using X-ray reflectometry and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic analysis revealed the formation of densely packed nanoparticles of increasing size with the number of laser ablation pulses. The LSPR wavelength red shifted with increasing either Au percentage or film mass thickness and corresponding LSPR tuning was obtained in the range of 450 to 690 nm. The alloy dielectric functions obtained from three different models were compared and the optical responses of the nanoparticle films were calculated from modified Yamaguchi effective medium theory. The tuning of LSPR was found to be due to combined effect of change in intrinsic and extrinsic parameters mainly the composition, morphology, particle-particle, and particle-substrate interactions.

  6. Controlled growth of Au nanoparticles in co-evaporated metal/polymer composite films and their optical and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, H.; Schürmann, U.; Greve, H.; Paretkar, D.; Zaporojtchenko, V.; Faupel, F.

    2006-02-01

    Nanocomposite films containing Au nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix were prepared by vapour phase co-deposition of Au and polymers (Teflon AF and Poly(α -methylstyrene)) in high vacuum. The microstructure of the composite materials as well as metal content strongly depend on the condensation coefficient of the Au atoms, the deposition rates of the components, the substrate temperature, and the type of polymer matrix. The condensation coefficient, which varies between 0.03 and 1, was determined from energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and surface profilometry. It is shown that the microstructure of nanocomposites (size, size distribution, and interparticle separation of metal clusters), which was determined by transmission electron microscopy, can be controlled by the deposition parameters and the choice of polymer matrix. The optical absorption in the visible region due to the particle plasmon resonance has a strong dependence on the metal filling factor. The correlation between the microstructure of nanocomposites and optical properties, studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was also established. Further more, the electrical properties of the composites were studied as a function of the metal volume fraction. It was observed that the nanocomposite films exhibit a percolation threshold at a metal volume fraction of 0.43 and 0.20 for gold nanoclusters in Teflon AF and Poly(α-methylstyrene), respectively.

  7. Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin at a Graphene Gold Nanoparticle Composite Film for Nitric Oxide Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Chao Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple two-step method was employed for preparing nano-sized gold nanoparticles-graphene composite to construct a GNPs-GR-SDS modified electrode. Hemoglobin (Hb was successfully immobilized on the surface of a basal plane graphite (BPG electrode through a simple dropping technique. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of the hemoglobin-modified electrode was investigated. The as-prepared composites showed an obvious promotion of the direct electro-transfer between hemoglobin and the electrode. A couple of well-defined and quasi-reversible Hb CV peaks can be observed in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0. The separation of anodic and cathodic peak potentials is 81 mV, indicating a fast electron transfer reaction. The experimental results also clarified that the immobilized Hb retained its biological activity for the catalysis toward NO. The biosensor showed high sensitivity and fast response upon the addition of NO, under the conditions of pH 7.0, potential ‒0.82 V. The time to reach the stable-state current was less than 3 s, and the linear response range of NO was 0.72–7.92 μM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9991.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of Cobalt(II)-Titanium dioxide nanorods, and electrophoretic deposition of Titanium dioxide nanoparticle/nanorod composite films for self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonjun

    This dissertation consists of two projects. The first project is synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activities of Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods. We modified brookite TiO2 nanorods with cobalt(II) ions to design new photocatalysts with visible light absorption. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data indicated that the local structure of Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods was shown as tetrahedral and octahedral Co(II) sites at TiO2 nanorod surface. Dimethylglyoxime (DMG) has been used to remove surface Co(II) from Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods to determine single-site Co(II) ions selectively attached to the TiO 2 nanorod surface. We proposed a mechanism that the Co-Co bond of the precursor Co2(CO)8 undergoes heterolysis followed by disproportionation of Co(I) to produce Co(II) and Co(0) precipitate. Finally, the Co(II)-TiO2 nanorods showed greater activity than TiO 2 nanorods in the degradation of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DHNQ) dye under visible light irradiation. The second project is electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films for self-cleaning applications. We developed novel electrolyte system for EPD of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composites for self-cleaning coatings. A mixture of TiO2 powder and TiO2 nanorods was used as EPD suspension in a mixture of THF and acetone. TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were fabricated on aluminium substrates via the EPD method, and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM images showed that TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films had a uniform pore structure. The hydrophobic properties of surfaces in TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were evaluated by water contact angle measurements. It was found that the surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticle/nanorod composite films were hydrophobic with contact angle of 103°. These hydrophobic surfaces are expected to have potential applications for self-cleaning.

  9. Functional multi-walled carbon nanotube/polysiloxane composite films as supports of PtNi alloy nanoparticles for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhicai; Ma Zhengming; Li Hulin

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of molecular monolayers to enhance the nucleation of electrocatalytically active PtNi alloy nanoparticles onto the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). After the siloxane was polymerized on the nanotube surfaces, the carbon nanotubes were embedded within the polysiloxane shell with a hydrophilic amino group situated outside. Subsequent deposition of PtNi nanoparticles led to high density of 3-10 nm diameter PtNi alloy nanoparticles uniformly deposited along the length of the carbon nanotubes. The presence of MWCNTs and PtNi in the composite films was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectra analysis (EDS). The electrocatalytic activity of the PtNi-modified MWCNT/polysiloxane (PtNi/Si-MWCNT) composite electrode for electro-oxidation of methanol was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and excellent electrocatalytic activity can be observed

  10. In situ formation of silver nanoparticles on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes for biofouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    The potential to incorporate silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as biocides in membranes for water purification has gained much interest in recent years. However, a viable strategy for loading the Ag-NPs on the membrane remains challenging. This paper presents a novel, facile procedure for loading Ag-NPs on thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis membranes. Reaction of silver salt with a reducing agent on the membrane surface resulted in uniform coverage of Ag-NPs, irreversibly bound to the membrane, as confirmed by XPS, TEM, and SEM analyses. Salt selectivity of the membrane as well its surface roughness, hydrophilicity, and zeta potential were not impacted by Ag-NP functionalization, while a slight reduction (up to 17%) in water permeability was observed. The formed Ag-NPs imparted strong antibacterial activity to the membrane, leading to reduction of more than 75% in the number of live bacteria attached to the membrane for three model bacteria strains. In addition, confocal microscopy analyses revealed that Ag-NPs significantly suppressed biofilm formation, with 41% reduction in total biovolume and significant reduction in EPS, dead, and live bacteria on the functionalized membrane. The simplicity of the method, the short reaction time, the ability to load the Ag-NPs on site, and the strong imparted antibacterial activity highlight the potential of this method in real-world RO membrane applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. In situ formation of silver nanoparticles on thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes for biofouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Lu, Xinglin; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Zodrow, Katherine R.; Nejati, Siamak; Qi, Genggeng; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    The potential to incorporate silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as biocides in membranes for water purification has gained much interest in recent years. However, a viable strategy for loading the Ag-NPs on the membrane remains challenging. This paper presents a novel, facile procedure for loading Ag-NPs on thin-film composite (TFC) reverse osmosis membranes. Reaction of silver salt with a reducing agent on the membrane surface resulted in uniform coverage of Ag-NPs, irreversibly bound to the membrane, as confirmed by XPS, TEM, and SEM analyses. Salt selectivity of the membrane as well its surface roughness, hydrophilicity, and zeta potential were not impacted by Ag-NP functionalization, while a slight reduction (up to 17%) in water permeability was observed. The formed Ag-NPs imparted strong antibacterial activity to the membrane, leading to reduction of more than 75% in the number of live bacteria attached to the membrane for three model bacteria strains. In addition, confocal microscopy analyses revealed that Ag-NPs significantly suppressed biofilm formation, with 41% reduction in total biovolume and significant reduction in EPS, dead, and live bacteria on the functionalized membrane. The simplicity of the method, the short reaction time, the ability to load the Ag-NPs on site, and the strong imparted antibacterial activity highlight the potential of this method in real-world RO membrane applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  13. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  14. One-Step Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles on Polydopamine-Coated Sericin/Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite Films for Potential Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin has great potential as a biomaterial for biomedical applications due to its good hydrophilicity, reactivity, and biodegradability. To develop multifunctional sericin materials for potential antibacterial application, a one-step synthesis method for preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs modified on polydopamine-coated sericin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA composite films was developed. Polydopamine (PDA acted as both metal ion chelating and reducing agent to synthesize AgNPs in situ on the sericin/PVA composite film. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed that polydopamine could effectively facilitate the high-density growth of AgNPs as a 3-D matrix. X-ray diffractometry studies suggested the synthesized AgNPs formed good face-centered cubic crystalline structures. Contact angle measurement and mechanical test indicated AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had good hydrophilicity and mechanical property. The bacterial growth curve and inhibition zone assays showed the AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA composite film had long-term antibacterial activities. This work develops a new method for the preparation of AgNPs modified PDA-sericin/PVA film with good hydrophilicity, mechanical performance and antibacterial activities for the potential antimicrobial application in biomedicine.

  15. Epoxy based photoresist/carbon nanoparticle composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Richter, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated composites of SU-8 polymer and three different types of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) using ultrasonic mixing. Structures of composite thin films have been patterned on a characterization chip with standard UV photolithography. Using a four-point bending probe, a well defined stress...... is applied to the composite thin film and we have demonstrated that the composites are piezoresistive. Stable gauge factors of 5-9 have been measured, but we have also observed piezoresistive responses with gauge factors as high as 50. As SU-8 is much softer than silicon and the gauge factor of the composite...

  16. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  17. Anti-microbial surfaces: An approach for deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on PVA-Gelatin composite film by screen printing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshram, J.V.; Koli, V.B.; Phadatare, M.R.; Pawar, S.H., E-mail: shpawar1946@gmail.com

    2017-04-01

    Initially micro-organisms get exposed to the surfaces, this demands development of anti-microbial surfaces to inhibit their proliferation. Therefore, herein, we attempt screen printing technique for development of PVA-GE/ZnO nanocomposite (PG/ZnO) films. The synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite includes two steps as: (i) Coating of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) by poly ethylene glycol in order to be compatible with organic counterparts. (ii) Deposition of coated nanoparticles on the PG film surface. The results suggest the enhancement in anti-microbial activity of PG/ZnO nanocomposite over pure ZnO NPs against both Gram positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative Escherichia coli from zone of inhibition. The uniformity in deposition is further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The phase identification of ZnO NPs and formation of PG/ZnO nanocomposite has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The Attenuated total reflection Spectroscopy (ATR) analysis indicates the ester bond between PVA and gelatin molecules. The thermal stability of nanocomposite is studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealing increase in crystallinity due to ZnO NPs which could be utilized to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. The tensile strength is found to be higher and percent elongation is double of PG/ZnO nanocomposite than PG composite film. - Highlights: • Synthesis of PG/ZnO nanocomposite by screen printing technique • Antimicrobial activity is due presence of ZnO nanoparticles on PG composite. • Improved tensile strength due to ZnO nanoparticles.

  18. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins immobilised in carbon-coated nickel magnetic nanoparticle-chitosan-dimethylformamide composite films in room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Tu, Jiaojiao; Xiong, Huayu; Wang, Shengfu

    2013-12-01

    The direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins entrapped in carbon-coated nickel magnetic nanoparticle-chitosan-dimethylformamide (CNN-CS-DMF) composite films were investigated in the hydrophilic ionic liquid [bmim][BF4]. The surface morphologies of a representative set of films were characterised via scanning electron microscopy. The proteins immobilised in the composite films were shown to retain their native secondary structure using UV-vis spectroscopy. The electrochemical performance of the heme proteins-CNN-CS-DMF films was evaluated via cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of stable and well-defined redox peaks was observed for the heme protein films at formal potentials of -0.151 V (HRP), -0.167 V (Hb), -0.155 V (Mb) and -0.193 V (Cyt c) in [bmim][BF4]. Moreover, several electrochemical parameters of the heme proteins were calculated by nonlinear regression analysis of the square-wave voltammetry. The addition of CNN significantly enhanced not only the electron transfer of the heme proteins but also their electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H2O2. Low apparent Michaelis-Menten constants were obtained for the heme protein-CNN-CS-DMF films, demonstrating that the biosensors have a high affinity for H2O2. In addition, the resulting electrodes displayed a low detection limit and improved sensitivity for detecting H2O2, which indicates that the biocomposite film can serve as a platform for constructing new non-aqueous biosensors for real detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Zhihua, E-mail: zhwang@henu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Sun, Lei, E-mail: sunlei@hneu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8 nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules. - Highlights: • Ag NPs embedded in the PVA electropun nanofibrous films were synthesized successfully. • The as-synthesized nanofibrous film mats exhibit excellent antibacterial properties and SERS activates. • The mechanism of antibacterial and SERS effects were proposed.

  20. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8 nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules. - Highlights: • Ag NPs embedded in the PVA electropun nanofibrous films were synthesized successfully. • The as-synthesized nanofibrous film mats exhibit excellent antibacterial properties and SERS activates. • The mechanism of antibacterial and SERS effects were proposed.

  1. Nanostructured composite films of ceria nanoparticles with anti-UV and scratch protection properties constructed using a layer-by-layer strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Songsong; Li, Jie; Guo, Xianpeng; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yingwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabrication of LbL multilayers used functional nanoparticles. • The film structure can be controlled in the nanoscopic range. • The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and presented anti-UV properties. • The multilayers presented scratch protection properties. - Abstract: Rare earth cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles have attracted extensive research attention due to their advantageous anti-UV and anti-scratch properties. However, a general and facile method for the fabrication of composite films using ceria and possessing these advantages is still lacking. Here, we report the fabrication of multilayers of ceria and polymeric species poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) via the layer-by-layer deposition strategy. The thickness of the multilayers increased linearly with the number of bilayers, indicating accurate control of the film structure in the nanoscopic range. The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and at the same time presented anti-UV properties. In addition, the multilayers also presented scratch protection properties.

  2. One-step synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yujia; Pu, Xianjuan; Jiang, Yong; Cheng, Lingli, E-mail: chenglingli@shu.edu.cn; Jiao, Zheng, E-mail: zjiao@shu.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both graphene oxide and silver ion were reduced simultaneously by electron beam-based method. • The size of AgNPs can be controlled by changing the irradiation dose of electron beam. • The AgNPs/rGO nanocomposite exhibits much lower sheet resistivity (0.06 Ω m). - Abstract: A rapid, eco-friendly, one-step electron beam (EB)-based method for both the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved. Further, the effects of irradiation dose on the morphology of AgNPs and the sheet resistance of Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) were studied. The results reveal that when the irradiation dose increased from 70 kGy to 350 kGy, the size of the AgNPs decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the rGO nanosheets. However the size of the AgNPs increased when the irradiation dose reached 500 kGy. Four-point probe measurement showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistivity of 0.06 Ω m was obtained in the film corresponding to 350 kGy irradiation dose, which showed a much lower resistivity than the GO film (5.04 × 10{sup 5} Ω m). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites were proposed. This study provides a fast and eco-friendly EB irradiation induced method to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites, which can strongly support the mass production of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites for practical applications.

  3. One-step synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yujia; Pu, Xianjuan; Jiang, Yong; Cheng, Lingli; Jiao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both graphene oxide and silver ion were reduced simultaneously by electron beam-based method. • The size of AgNPs can be controlled by changing the irradiation dose of electron beam. • The AgNPs/rGO nanocomposite exhibits much lower sheet resistivity (0.06 Ω m). - Abstract: A rapid, eco-friendly, one-step electron beam (EB)-based method for both the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved. Further, the effects of irradiation dose on the morphology of AgNPs and the sheet resistance of Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) were studied. The results reveal that when the irradiation dose increased from 70 kGy to 350 kGy, the size of the AgNPs decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the rGO nanosheets. However the size of the AgNPs increased when the irradiation dose reached 500 kGy. Four-point probe measurement showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistivity of 0.06 Ω m was obtained in the film corresponding to 350 kGy irradiation dose, which showed a much lower resistivity than the GO film (5.04 × 10 5 Ω m). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites were proposed. This study provides a fast and eco-friendly EB irradiation induced method to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites, which can strongly support the mass production of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites for practical applications

  4. Formation of Ag nanoparticles in percolative Ag–PbTiO3 composite thin films through lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Su, Yanbo; Tang, Liwen; Shen, Ge; Song, Chenlu; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2012-01-01

    The Ag nanoparticle dispersed percolative PbTiO 3 ceramic thin film was prepared in situ by sol–gel method with excess lead introduced into a sol precursor. The influence of excess lead and the heat treatment time on the formation of Ag nanoparticles was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. Results showed that the excess lead introduced into the sol precursor was in favor of the crystallization of the thin film and in favor of formation of the perovskite phase without the pyrochlore phase. Lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles first formed in the thin films and then decomposed to become large numbers of Ag nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size in the thin films when the heat treatment time was longer than 2 min. The content of the Ag nanoparticles increased with increasing the heat treatment time. The percolative behavior appears typically in the Ag nanoparticle dispersed thin films. The dielectric constant of the thin film was about 3 times of that without Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: ► The Ag nanoparticles formed in the PbTiO 3 percolative ceramic thin film. ► The Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase during thin film preparation. ► The lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles decomposed to form Ag nanoparticles in the film. ► Permittivity of the thin film is 3 times higher than that without Ag nanoparticles.

  5. Manufacturing and investigation of surface morphology and optical properties of composite thin films reinforced by TiO2, Bi2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Paweł; Tański, Tomasz; Matysiak, Wiktor; Krzemiński, Łukasz; Hajduk, Barbara; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of submitted paper is to present influence of manufacturing parameters on optical properties and surface morphology of composite materials with a polymer matrix reinforced by TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The novelty proposed by the authors is the use of TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles simultaneously in polymeric matrix. This allows using the combined effect of nanoparticles to a result composite material. The thin films of composite material were prepared by using spin-coating method with various spinning rates from solutions of different concentration of nanoparticles. In order to prepare the spinning solution polymer, Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used as a matrix. The reinforcing phase was the mixture of the nanoparticles of SiO2, TiO2 and B2O3. In order to identify the surface morphology of using thin films and arrangement of the reinforcing phase Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used. In order to study the optical properties of the obtained thin films, the thin films of composites was subjected to an ellipsometry analysis. The measurements of absorbance of the obtained materials, from which the value of the band gap width was specified, were carried out using the UV/VIS spectroscopy. The optical properties of obtain composite thin films depend not only on the individual components used, but also on the morphology and the interfacial characteristics. Controlling the participation of three kinds of nanoparticles of different sizes and optical parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal optical properties of nanocomposites and also controlling the deposition parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal surface morphology of nanocomposites.

  6. Preparation and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles, WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites and PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} composite thin films for photocatalytic and electrochromic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, Stefan I., E-mail: boiajiev@gmail.com [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Santos, Gustavo dos Lopes; Szűcs, Júlia [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Szilágyi, Imre M., E-mail: imre.szilagyi@mail.bme.hu [MTA-BME Technical Analytical Chemistry Research Group, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Szent Gellért tér 4, Budapest, H-1111 (Hungary)

    2016-03-25

    In this study, monoclinic WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were obtained by thermal decomposition of (NH{sub 4}){sub x}WO{sub 3} in air at 600 °C. On them by atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO{sub 2} films were deposited, and thus core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared. We prepared composites of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles with conductive polymer as PEDOT:PSS, and deposited thin films of them on glass and ITO substrates by spin coating. The formation, morphology, composition and structure of the as-prepared pure and composite nanoparticles, as well thin films, were studied by TEM, SEM-EDX and XRD. The photocatalytic activity of both the WO{sub 3} and core/shell WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied by decomposing methyl orange in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation. Cyclic voltammetry measurements were performed on the composite PEDOT:PSS/WO{sub 3} thin films, and the coloring and bleaching states were studied.

  7. Mechanisms of charge transport and resistive switching in composite films of semiconducting polymers with nanoparticles of graphene and graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestennikov, A. S.; Aleshin, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    We have investigated the effect of the resistive switching in the composite films based on polyfunctional polymers - PVK, PFD and PVC mixed with particles of Gr and GO with the concentration of ˜ 1 - 3 wt.%. We have developed the solution processed hybrid memory structures based on PVK and GO particles composite films. The effect of the resistive switching in Al/PVK(PFD; PVC):Gr(GO)/ITO/PET structures manifests itself as a sharp change of the electrical resistance from a low-conducting state to a relatively high-conducting state when applying a bias to Al-ITO electrodes of ˜ 0.2-0.4 V. It has been established that a sharp conductivity jump characterized by S-shaped current-voltage curves and the presence of their hysteresis occurs upon applying a voltage pulse to the Au/PVK(PFD; PVC):Gr(GO)/ITO/PET structures, with the switching time in the range from 1 to 30 μs. The mechanism of resistive switching associated with the processes of capture and accumulation of charge carriers by Gr(GO) particles introduced into the matrixes of the PVK polymer due to the reduction/oxidation processes. The possible mechanisms of energy transfer between organic and inorganic components in PVK(PFD; PVC):GO(Gr) films causes increase mobility are discussed. Incorporating of Gr (GO) particles into the polymer matrix is a promising route to enhance the performance of hybrid memory structures, as well as it is an effective medium for memory cells.

  8. Surface vertical deposition for gold nanoparticle film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, J J; Qiu, F S; Chen, G D; Reeves, M E

    2003-01-01

    In this rapid communication, we present the surface vertical deposition (SVD) method to synthesize the gold nanoparticle films. Under conditions where the surface of the gold nanoparticle suspension descends slowly by evaporation, the gold nanoparticles in the solid-liquid-gas junction of the suspension aggregate together on the substrate by the force of solid and liquid interface. When the surface properties of the substrate and colloidal nanoparticle suspension define for the SVD, the density of gold nanoparticles in the thin film made by SVD only depends on the descending velocity of the suspension surface and on the concentration of the gold nanoparticle suspension. (rapid communication)

  9. Flexible Nanocellulose - Nanoparticle Composites: Structures and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    UTHPALA MANAVI GARUSINGHE

    2018-01-01

    Nanocellulose is biodegradable and renewable and has many attractive properties of technological interest. Therefore, nanocellulose can be converted into thin films, which is used in wide range of applications. However, the property range achievable with nanocellulose by itself still has limitations. This thesis focuses on the production of nanocellulose-inorganic nanoparticle composites to combine the advantage associated with both individual components together to extend the range of proper...

  10. Gold nanoparticles/water-soluble carbon nanotubes/aromatic diamine polymer composite films for highly sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Zhen, E-mail: happylizhen@yeah.ne [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Lin; Wu Mengshi; Lei Xiaoxia; Liu Yuanyuan; Liu Can; Pang Ya; Zhang Yi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > Gold nanoparticles/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) modified electrode was fabricated. > The sensor was applied for the detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase genes. > An effective method to distribute MWCNTs and attach to the electrode was proposed. > The composite films greatly improved the sensitivity and enhanced the DNA immobilization. > The DNA biosensor exhibited fairly high sensitivity and quite low detection limit. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) films modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated. The effectiveness of the sensor was confirmed by sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) gene which was extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The monomer of 1,5-naphthalenediamine was electropolymerized on the GCE surface with abundant free amino groups which enhanced the stability of MWCNTs modified electrode. Congo red (CR)-functionalized MWCNTs possess excellent conductivity as well as high solubility in water which enabled to form the uniform and stable network nanostructures easily and created a large number of binding sites for electrodeposition of GNPs. The continuous GNPs together with MWCNTs greatly increased the surface area, conductivity and electrocatalytic activity. This electrode structure significantly improved the sensitivity of sensor and enhanced the DNA immobilization and hybridization. The thiol modified capture probes were immobilized onto the composite films-modified GCE by a direct formation of thiol-Au bond and horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin (HRP-SA) conjugates were labeled to the biotinylated detection probes through biotin-streptavidin bond. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to investigate the film assembly and DNA hybridization processes

  11. Controlling thin film structure for the dewetting of catalyst nanoparticle arrays for subsequent carbon nanofiber growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, S J; Fowlkes, J D; Melechko, A V; Klein, K L; III, H M Meyer; Simpson, M L; Rack, P D

    2007-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (CNF) growth is a catalytic chemical vapor deposition process in which structure and functionality is controlled by the plasma conditions and the properties of the catalyst nanoparticles that template the fiber growth. We have found that the resultant catalyst nanoparticle network that forms by the dewetting of a continuous catalyst thin film is dependent on the initial properties of the thin film. Here we report the ability to tailor the crystallographic texture and composition of the nickel catalyst film and subsequently the nanoparticle template by varying the rf magnetron sputter deposition conditions. After sputtering the Ni catalyst thin films, the films are heated and exposed to an ammonia dc plasma, to chemically reduce the native oxide on the films and induce dewetting of the film to form nanoparticles. Subsequent nanoparticle treatment in an acetylene plasma at high substrate temperature results in CNF growth. Evidence is presented that the texture and composition of the nickel thin film has a significant impact on the structure and composition of the formed nanoparticle, as well as the resultant CNF morphology. Nickel films with a preferred (111) or (100) texture were produced and conditions favoring interfacial silicidation reactions were identified and investigated. Both compositional and structural analysis of the films and nanoparticles indicate that the properties of the as-deposited Ni catalyst film influences the subsequent nanoparticle formation and ultimately the catalytic growth of the carbon nanofibers

  12. Very sensitive electrochemical determination of diuron on glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle-Nafion composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, K; Khodadadi, A

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a very sensitive electrochemical sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticles/Nafion (rGO-AuNPs/Nafion) composite film was applied to determine diuron. Synthesized GO was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the rGO-AuNPs/Nafion film was also characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry (AdDPV) were applied to investigate the electrochemical response of the diuron on the modified electrode. The electrode showed a linear response at 1.0×10 -9 -1.0×10 -7 M and a detection limit of 0.3nM under the optimized conditions. The effect of some other species on the determination of diuron was investigated and the sensor showed good selectivity for determination of diuron. The constructed sensor was applied to determine diuron in enriched samples of orange juice, mineral and tap water which statistical t-test showed accuracy of method. Also the sensor was applied to obtain diuron content in the tea sample. The reliability of the proposed sensor was confirmed after comparing the results with those obtained using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a comparative method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) composite thin films highly loaded with platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao-Ching, E-mail: ccchang@tku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Ming-Tai [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chen-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Lan [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Energy and Opto-Electronic Materials Research Center, Tamkang University, No. 151, Yingzhuan Rd., Danshui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Nano-sized and mono-dispersed Pt nanoparticles were synthesized by a polyol method. {yields} A thin film of PEDOT:PSS loaded with high concentration of Pt nanoparticles has been prepared. {yields} The PEDOT:PSS-Pt modified electrode has good potential to serve as a counter electrode in DSSC. - Abstract: In this work, we propose a simple and efficient, low-temperature ({approx}120 deg. C) process to prepare transparent thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) loaded with high concentration (up to 22.5 wt%) of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles. Firstly, an improved polyol method was modified to synthesize nano-sized ({approx}5 nm) and mono-dispersed Pt particles. These nanoparticles were incorporated into the matrix of PEDOT:PSS thin films via a spin coating/drying procedure. The electrochemical activities of the PEDOT:PSS thin film modified electrodes with respect to the I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox reactions were investigated. It was found that the modified electrode of PEDOT:PSS thin film containing 22.5 wt% Pt exhibited the electrochemical activity comparable to the conventional Pt thin film electrode, suggesting that this electrode has good potential to serve as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  14. Deposition of Nanostructured Thin Film from Size-Classified Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camata, Renato P.; Cunningham, Nicholas C.; Seol, Kwang Soo; Okada, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Materials comprising nanometer-sized grains (approximately 1_50 nm) exhibit properties dramatically different from those of their homogeneous and uniform counterparts. These properties vary with size, shape, and composition of nanoscale grains. Thus, nanoparticles may be used as building blocks to engineer tailor-made artificial materials with desired properties, such as non-linear optical absorption, tunable light emission, charge-storage behavior, selective catalytic activity, and countless other characteristics. This bottom-up engineering approach requires exquisite control over nanoparticle size, shape, and composition. We describe the design and characterization of an aerosol system conceived for the deposition of size classified nanoparticles whose performance is consistent with these strict demands. A nanoparticle aerosol is generated by laser ablation and sorted according to size using a differential mobility analyzer. Nanoparticles within a chosen window of sizes (e.g., (8.0 plus or minus 0.6) nm) are deposited electrostatically on a surface forming a film of the desired material. The system allows the assembly and engineering of thin films using size-classified nanoparticles as building blocks.

  15. Nanoparticles inclusions in self assembly thin smectic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdoun, B.; Charara, J.; Zaiour, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text. Processing of nanocomposites based on nanoparticles inclusion in thin smectic-A liquid crystal was reviewed. Thin smectic-A liquid crystal consists of a stack of regularly spaced membranes that are frequently formed in thin diblock copolymers. Particular attention was given to the scientific concepts that underpin the fabrication of special composite derived copolymer components. The complex interplay between suspension stability and its structural evolution during nanomaterials processing was highlighted. Inclusions, such as nanoparticles, coupled locally to the smectic may deform the membranes over a large length scale. We determined the distortion field due to one inclusion using the Landau-de Gennes description of smectic liquid crystals and by neglecting the interactions between nanoparticles. The equilibrium position of the particle was shown to depend on both the surface tension at the film boundary and the volume fraction of the nanoparticles

  16. Enhanced tribological behavior of anodic films containing SiC and PTFE nanoparticles on Ti6Al4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Songmei; Zhu, Mengqi; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Jindan; Liang, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly sodium tartrate (C 4 O 6 H 4 Na 2 ) electrolyte is used. • SiC and PTFE nanoparticles reduce friction coefficient of composite films. • SiC and PTFE nanoparticles demonstrate a favorable synergistic effect on improving tribological properties of composite films. • Lubricating mechanisms of SiC and PTFE nanoparticles are discussed. - Abstract: Anodic films containing SiC and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticles were successfully fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy by using anodic oxidation method in an environmental friendly electrolyte. The morphology, structure and composition of the films were studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that the film contained a layered structure and have a surface full of petaloid bulges, which was totally different from the common anodic oxide film of the porous kind. The tribological properties of the films were investigated with dry friction tests in terms of the friction coefficient, wear rate and the morphology of worn surfaces. The results indicated that the SiC/PTFE composite film exhibited much better anti-wear and anti-friction performances than that of the SiC composite film, the PTFE composite film and the ordinary film without nanoparticles. The SiC/PTFE composite film has friction coefficient of 0.1 and wear rate of 20.133 mg/m, which was decreased respectively by 80% and 44.5% compared with that of the ordinary film. The lubricating mechanisms of the composite film containing SiC and PTFE nanoparticles were discussed. PTFE nanoparticles could lead to the formation of lubricating layer while SiC nanoparticles inside the lubricating layer turned sliding friction to rolling friction

  17. Magnetic coupling mechanisms in particle/thin film composite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Badini Confalonieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 20 nm and size distribution of 7% were chemically synthesized and spin-coated on top of a Si-substrate. As a result, the particles self-assembled into a monolayer with hexagonal close-packed order. Subsequently, the nanoparticle array was coated with a Co layer of 20 nm thickness. The magnetic properties of this composite nanoparticle/thin film system were investigated by magnetometry and related to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. Herein three systems were compared: i.e. a reference sample with only the particle monolayer, a composite system where the particle array was ion-milled prior to the deposition of a thin Co film on top, and a similar composite system but without ion-milling. The nanoparticle array showed a collective super-spin behavior due to dipolar interparticle coupling. In the composite system, we observed a decoupling into two nanoparticle subsystems. In the ion-milled system, the nanoparticle layer served as a magnetic flux guide as observed by magnetic force microscopy. Moreover, an exchange bias effect was found, which is likely to be due to oxygen exchange between the iron oxide and the Co layer, and thus forming of an antiferromagnetic CoO layer at the γ-Fe2O3/Co interface.

  18. Multiscale patterning of nanocomposite polyelectrolyte/nanoparticle films using inkjet printing and AFM scratching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, S J; Bowen, J; Preece, J A

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of structured polymer/nanoparticle composite films through a combination of additive, subtractive and self-assembly methodologies is investigated. Consumer grade inkjet printing hardware is employed to deposit cationic polyelectrolytes on (i) hydrophilic and (ii) hydrophobised glass substrates. The hydrophobisation process controls the spreading of the droplets and hence the lateral size of printed features. The printed cationic polyelectrolyte regions are used as a template to direct the self-assembly of negatively charged gold nanoparticles onto the surface. Micro-scale features are created in the polyelectrolyte/nanoparticle films using AFM scratching to selectively displace material. The effect of substrate wettability on film morphology is discussed. (paper)

  19. Fabrication of barium titanate nanoparticles/poly (methylmethacrylate composite films by a combination of deposition process and spin-coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Kobayashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a method for fabricating poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA film containing barium titanate (BT nanoparticles (BT/PMMA film. BT particles with an average size of 77.6 ± 30.5 nm and a crystal size of 28.1 nm were synthesized by adding sodium hydroxide aqueous solution to titanium tetraisopropoxide/acetylacetone/i-propanol solution suspending barium hydroxide. A sodium glass plate, of which surface was modified with polyvinylpyrrolidone, was immersed into water suspending the BT particles, which resulted in deposition of the BT particles on the plate. A BT/PMMA film was fabricated by twice performance of a process composed of spin-coating of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP dissolving PMMA on the plate, and then drying the coated plate in the atmosphere at room temperature. Spin-coating of a PMMA/NMP solution with a PMMA concentration of 150 g/L at a rotating speed of 5000 rpm provided fabrication of a BT/PMMA film with a BT volume fraction of 35.5%, a thickness of ca. 300 nm, and a transmittance of ca. 90% in the visible light region.

  20. 1 composite mixture of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes in dye

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. TiO2-based nanotubes (NTs), nanoparticles (NPs) and composite structural film (50% NP + 50% ... of faster electron injection ratio compared with other .... exist in this system. .... the open circuit voltage, Im the maximum current and.

  1. High-negative effective refractive index of silver nanoparticles system in nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, Konstantin K.; Gadomsky, Oleg N.

    2012-03-01

    We have proved on the basis of the experimental optical reflection and transmission spectra of the nanocomposite film of poly(methyl methacrylate) with silver nanoparticles that (PMMA + Ag) nanocomposite films have quasi-zero refractive indices in the optical wavelength range. We show that to achieve quasi-zero values of the complex index of refraction of composite materials is necessary to achieve high-negative effective refractive index in the system of spherical silver nanoparticles.

  2. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of FePt nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.; Lo, C.C.H. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Yu, A.C.C. [Sony Corporation, Sendai Technology Center, 3-4-1 Sakuragi, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan); Fan, M. [School of Materials Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The optical properties of a FePt nanoparticle film were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The FePt nanoparticle film of thickness about 15 nm was prepared by deposition of FePt nanoparticles directly on a Si substrate. The nanoparticle film was annealed at 600 C in vacuum for two hours before the measurements. The optical properties of the FePt nanoparticle film showed distinctively different spectra from those obtained from the bulk and thin film FePt samples, in particular in the low photon energy range (below 3.5 eV) where the nanoparticle film exhibited a relatively flat refractive index and a substantially lower extinction coefficient than the bulk and epitaxial thin film samples. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Polymer−metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, S.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Soccol, D.; Kapteijn, F.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, J.; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer. Sensing

  4. Polymer-metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, Sumit; Soccol, Dimitri; Gravesteijn, Dirk J.; Kapteijn, Freek; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, Jorge; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-
    MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid
    polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer.

  5. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO2 nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly transparent films of TiO 2 nanotube arrays were directly fabricated on FTO glasses. • Semitransparent TNT-Au composite films were obtained and exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability. • Back-side of TNT-Au composite films was firstly irradiated and tested to compare with front-side of films. - Abstract: Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO 2 nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO 2 nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  6. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO{sub 2} nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); College of Applied Science, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liang, Wei, E-mail: 986903124@qq.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Highly transparent films of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were directly fabricated on FTO glasses. • Semitransparent TNT-Au composite films were obtained and exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability. • Back-side of TNT-Au composite films was firstly irradiated and tested to compare with front-side of films. - Abstract: Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO{sub 2} nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  7. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L; Sanchez Ramirez, J F

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm -1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  8. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Perez, M; Delgado Macuil, R; Rojas Lopez, M; Gayou, V L [Centro de Investigacion en BiotecnologIa Aplicada del IPN, Tepetitla Tlaxcala Mexico C.P. 90700 (Mexico); Sanchez Ramirez, J F, E-mail: mrosalespe@ipn.m [CICATA Legaria Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm{sup -1} due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  9. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Antoniou, John; Li, Yue; Yi, Jiang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2015-04-22

    Gelatin films incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles in various free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios were prepared in order to investigate the influence of different ratios on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of films. The TP-containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking chitosan hydrochloride (CSH) with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBE-β-CD) at three different encapsulation efficiencies (EE; ∼50%, ∼80%, and ∼100%) of TP. The stability of TP-loaded nanoparticles was maintained during the film drying process from the analysis of free TP content in the redissolved film solutions. Composite films showed no significant difference in visual aspects, while the light transmittance (250-550 nm) was decreased with incorporation of TP. Nanoparticles appeared to be homogeneously dispersed within the film matrix by microstructure analysis (SEM and AFM). TP-loaded films had ferric reducing and DPPH radical scavenging power that corresponded to the EEs. Sunflower oil packaged in bags made of gelatin films embedded with nanoparticles of 80% EE showed the best oxidation inhibitory effect, followed by 100% EE, 50% EE, and free TP, over 6 weeks of storage. However, when the gelatin film was placed over the headspace and was not in contact with the oil, the free TP showed the best effect. The results indicate that sustained release of TP in the contacting surface can ensure the protective effects, which vary with free/encapsulated mass ratios, thus improving antioxidant activities instead of increasing the dosage.

  10. Action of colloidal silica films on different nano-composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdalla

    Full Text Available Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work to develop the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nano-particles size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that form an insulating film between conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of 4 high pure amorphous polymer films: polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher break down performance is a character of polyimide PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer. Keywords: Dielectric break down, Polymers, Nano-composite, Colloidal silica

  11. Dynamic mechanical behaviour of nanoparticle loaded biodegradable PVA films for vaginal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Yannick L; Fumakia, Miral; Gu, Jijin; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of polyvinyl alcohol films formulated along with carrageenan, plasticizing agents (polyethylene glycol and glycerol), and when loaded with nanoparticles as a model for potential applications as microbicides. The storage modulus, loss modulus and glass transition temperature were determined using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Films fabricated from 2% to 5% polyvinyl alcohol containing 3 mg or 5 mg of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles were evaluated. The storage modulus and loss modulus values of blank films were shown to be higher than the nanoparticle-loaded films. Glass transition temperature determined using the storage modulus, and loss modulus was between 40-50℃ and 35-40℃, respectively. The tensile properties evaluated showed that 2% polyvinyl alcohol films were more elastic but less resistant to breaking compared to 5% polyvinyl alcohol films (2% films break around 1 N load and 5% films break around 7 N load). To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the influence of nanoparticle and film composition on the physico-mechanical properties of polymeric films for vaginal drug delivery.

  12. Novel hybrid coatings with controlled wettability by composite nanoparticle aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hritcu, Doina, E-mail: dhritcu@ch.tuiasi.ro; Dodi, Gianina; Iordache, Mirabela L.; Draganescu, Dan; Sava, Elena; Popa, Marcel I.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Magnetite-grafted chitosan composite nanoparticles were synthesized. • The particles are able to assemble under the influence of a silane derivative. • Thin films containing composites, chitosan and hydrolyzed silane were optimized. • The novel hybrid coatings show hierarchical roughness and high wetting angle. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate novel hybrid materials as potential candidates for producing coatings with hierarchical roughness and controlled wetting behaviour. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles obtained by co-precipitation were embedded in matrices synthesized by radical graft co-polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), hexyl acrylate (HA) or styrene (ST) with ethylene glycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA) onto previously modified chitosan bearing surface vinyl groups. The resulting composite particles were characterized regarding their average size, composition and magnetic properties. Hybrid thin films containing suspension of composite particles in ethanol and pre-hydrolysed hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTS) as a coupling/crosslinking agent were deposited by spin coating or spraying. The films were cured by heating and subsequently characterized regarding their morphology (scanning electron microscopy), contact angle with water and adhesion to substrate (scratch test). The structure-property relationship is discussed.

  13. Superhydrophobicity and regeneration of PVDF/SiO2 composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Xianfeng; Wang, Daohui; Huang, Qinglin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Nana; Xiao, Changfa

    2017-02-01

    Superhydrophobicity of polymers is easily destroyed by careless touching due to the softness of microstructures. In this study, based on a well-constructed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surface, a novel superhydrophobic PVDF/SiO2 composite film was fabricated by adding hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticle and solvent into a coagulation bath. The water contact angle of the composite film reached 162.3° and the sliding angle was as low as 1.5°. More importantly, the composite film could be regenerated only through immersing the composite film in the designed regeneration agent. The composition of the designed regeneration agent ensured that SiO2 nanoparticles were firmly adhered on the film surface even under the ultrasonic cleaning. Hence, the superhydrophobicity and self-cleaing property could be regenerated and maintained effectively, and moreover, these propeties could resist a proper pressure. In addition, after many rubbing-regenerating cycles, the regeneration method was still valid.

  14. The study of structural properties of carbon nanotubes decorated with NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles and application of nano-composite thin film as H₂S gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, R; Rashidi, Ali M; Alaie, M; Mohammadzadeh, R; Izadi, N

    2014-11-01

    Nano-composite of multiwall carbon nanotube, decorated with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-MWCNT), was synthesized using the sol-gel method. NiFe2O4-MWCNTs were characterized using different methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of the crystallites is 23.93 nm. The values of the saturation magnetization (MS), coercivity (HC) and retentivity (MR) of NiFe2O4-MWCNTs are obtained as 15 emu g(-1), 21Oe and 5 emu g(-1), respectively. In this research, NiFe2O4-MWCNT thin films were prepared with the spin-coating method. These thin films were used as the H2S gas sensor. The results suggest the possibility of the utilization of NiFe2O4-MWCNT nano-composite, as the H2S detector. The sensor shows appropriate response towards 100 ppm of H2S at 300°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated. Keywords. Polar crystal; uniaxial orientational order; thin film; second harmonic gen- eration; silver ... able content of metal nanoparticles would be of considerable value from an appli- ... polar chain and perpendicular to it [10].

  16. Optical properties of monodispersive FePt nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.J.; Lo, C.C.H. [Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Yu, A.C.C. [Sony Corporation, Sendai Technology Center, 3-4-1 Sakuragi, Miyagi 985-0842 (Japan); Fan, M. [Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The optical properties of monodispersive FePt nanoparticle films were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the energy range of 1.5 to 5.5 eV. The monodispersive FePt nanoparticle film was stabilized on a Si substrate by means of an organosilane coupling film, resulting in the formation of a (Si/SiO{sub 2}/APTS/FePt nanoparticles monolayer) structure. Multilayer optical models were employed to study the contribution of the FePt nanoparticles to the measured optical properties of the monodispersive FePt nanoparticle film, and to estimate the optical properties of the FePt nanoparticle layer. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Thermal Analysis of Sintered Silver Nanoparticles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keikhaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin bonded films have many applications in antireflection and reflection coating, insulating and conducting films and semiconductor industries. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameter for power packaging since the thermal resistance of the interconnections is directly related to the heat removal capability and thermal management of the power package. The defects in materials play very important role on the effective thermal conductivity. In this paper, finite element method (FEM was utilized to simulate the effect of pores on the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver nanoparticles film. The simulation results indicate that the effective thermal conductivity of film is different at different directions and would be enhanced when the pore angle is 90. The simulation results will help us to further understand the heat transfer process across highly porous structures and will provide us a powerful guide to design coating with high thermal insulation or conductor property. Because of there is no similar experimental data for this simulation results, this paper is a comparative work among three different models.

  18. Biosensors Based on Ultrathin Film Composite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-25

    composite membranes should have a number C •’ of potential advantages including fast response time, simplicity of construction, and applicability to a number...The support membrane for the ultrathin film composite was an Anopore ( Alltech Associates) microporous alumina filter, these membranes are 55 Pm thick...constant 02 concentration in this solution. Finally, one of the most important potential advantage of a sensor based on an ultrathin film composite

  19. Preparation and electrochemical properties of gold nanoparticles containing carbon nanotubes-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aimin; Zhang Xing; Zhang Haili; Han, Deyan; Knight, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gold nanoparticles containing carbon nanotubes-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films were prepared via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. → The electron transfer behaviour of the hybrid thin films were investigated using an electrochemical probe. → The resulting thin films exhibited an electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitric oxide. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/polyelectrolyte (PE) hybrid thin films were fabricated by alternatively depositing negatively charged MWCNT and positively charged (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The stepwise growth of the multilayer films of MWCNT and PDDA was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the MWCNT were uniformly embedded in the film to form a network and the coverage density of MWCNT increased with layer number. Au nanoparticles (NPs) could be further adsorbed onto the film to form PE/MWCNT/Au NPs composite films. The electron transfer behaviour of multilayer films with different compositions were studied by cyclic voltammetry using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- as an electrochemical probe. The results indicated that the incorporation of MWCNT and Au NPs not only greatly improved the electronic conductivity of pure polyelectrolyte films, but also provided excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO).

  20. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Film Containing Re-Doped MoS₂ Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom, Hila; Feldman, Yishay; Rosentsveig, Rita; Pinkas, Iddo; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Moshkovich, Alexey; Perfilyev, Vladislav; Rapoport, Lev; Tenne, Reshef

    2018-02-26

    Films combining hydroxyapatite (HA) with minute amounts (ca. 1 weight %) of (rhenium doped) fullerene-like MoS₂ (IF) nanoparticles were deposited onto porous titanium substrate through electrophoretic process (EPD). The films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM analysis showed relatively uniform coatings of the HA + IF on the titanium substrate. Chemical composition analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the coatings revealed the presence of calcium phosphate minerals like hydroxyapatite, as a majority phase. Tribological tests were undertaken showing that the IF nanoparticles endow the HA film very low friction and wear characteristics. Such films could be of interest for various medical technologies. Means for improving the adhesion of the film to the underlying substrate and its fracture toughness, without compromising its biocompatibility are discussed at the end.

  1. Electrophoretic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite Film Containing Re-Doped MoS2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Shalom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Films combining hydroxyapatite (HA with minute amounts (ca. 1 weight % of (rhenium doped fullerene-like MoS2 (IF nanoparticles were deposited onto porous titanium substrate through electrophoretic process (EPD. The films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM analysis showed relatively uniform coatings of the HA + IF on the titanium substrate. Chemical composition analysis using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS of the coatings revealed the presence of calcium phosphate minerals like hydroxyapatite, as a majority phase. Tribological tests were undertaken showing that the IF nanoparticles endow the HA film very low friction and wear characteristics. Such films could be of interest for various medical technologies. Means for improving the adhesion of the film to the underlying substrate and its fracture toughness, without compromising its biocompatibility are discussed at the end.

  2. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sonia C.; Conde, Ana; Arenas, Mar?a A.; Rocha, Luis A.; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodi...

  3. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Männl, U; Van den Berg, C; Magunje, B; Härting, M; Britton, D T; Jones, S; Van Staden, M J; Scriba, M R

    2014-01-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used. (paper)

  4. Enhanced electrochromic coloration in Ag nanoparticle decorated WO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharade, Rohini R.; Mali, Sawanta S.; Patil, Satish P.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Gang, Myong G.; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin H.; Bhosale, Popatrao N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrochromic WO 3 /Ag nanocomposites prepared by hybrid physico-chemical route. • XRD and XPS results confirm formation of Ag 8 W 4 O 16 phase. • WO 3 /Ag thin films showed good optical transmittance change and coloration efficiency. • SPR enhanced coloration and bleaching mechanism is well explained for electrochromism. • Color stimuli are quantified using CIE chromaticity principles. -- Abstract: WO 3 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by microwave assisted sol–gel synthesis (MW-SGS) of WO 3 followed by vacuum evaporation of Ag nanoparticles and their enhanced electrochromic coloration was investigated. The composition and morphology of WO 3 thin films with different thickness of Ag layer obtained by vacuum evaporation were investigated. Distinct plasmon absorption bands of Ag nanoparticle thin films were obtained. The optical band gap energy of WO 3 /Ag films decreased with increasing the Ag layer thickness. The surface of these films has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to gain information about the chemical states of species present at surfaces. Experimental results indicated that the conductivity of the films increased after surface modification by Ag layer. To investigate the origin of enhanced electrochromic absorption in optical properties, working electrode consisting of WO 3 /Ag thin film was used and observed the optical properties during electrochemical reaction. It was found that composite electrode shows enhancement in electrochromic properties in terms of optical modulation (ΔOD) and coloration efficiency (η)

  5. Achieving 3-D Nanoparticle Assembly in Nanocomposite Thin Films via Kinetic Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jingyu; Xiao, Yihan; Xu, Ting [UCB

    2017-02-20

    Nanocomposite thin films containing well-ordered nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are ideal candidates for the fabrication of metamaterials. Achieving 3-D assembly of NPs in nanocomposite thin films is thermodynamically challenging as the particle size gets similar to that of a single polymer chain. The entropic penalties of polymeric matrix upon NP incorporation leads to NP aggregation on the film surface or within the defects in the film. Controlling the kinetic pathways of assembly process provides an alternative path forward by arresting the system in nonequilibrium states. Here, we report the thin film 3-D hierarchical assembly of 20 nm NPs in supramolecules with a 30 nm periodicity. By mediating the NP diffusion kinetics in the supramolecular matrix, surface aggregation of NPs was suppressed and NPs coassemble with supramolecules to form new 3-D morphologies in thin films. The present studies opened a viable route to achieve designer functional composite thin films via kinetic control.

  6. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  7. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jin Young

    2015-07-13

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  8. Application of composition modulated thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Film produced by evaporating two components through a rotating pinwheel shutter which cuts off the vapor first from one source and then the other are evaluated. These films have a modulated composition rather than a layered structure. Mechanical properties were determined using a bulge tester

  9. Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Segal, Amir [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Markovich, Gil, E-mail: gilmar@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Gerber, Alexander, E-mail: gerber@post.tau.ac.il [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field. - Highlights: • Ni nanoparticle ink capable of forming conductive films on drying. • The Ni nanoparticle films exhibit significant extraordinary Hall effect. • This system could be used for preparing printed magnetic field sensors integrated in 3D printed structures.

  10. Nanoparticles doped film sensing based on terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Fan, Fei; Chang, Shengjiang; Hou, Jiaqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Xianghui; Bai, Jinjun

    2017-12-01

    A nanoparticles concentration sensor based on doped film and terahertz (THz) metamaterial has been proposed. By coating the nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film on the surface of THz metamaterial, the effects of nanoparticle concentration on the metamaterial resonances are investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Results show that resonant frequency of the metamaterial linearly decreases with the increment of doping concentration. Furthermore, numerical simulations illustrate that the redshift of resonance results from the changes of refractive index of the doped film. The concentration sensitivity of this sensor is 3.12 GHz/0.1%, and the refractive index sensitivity reaches 53.33 GHz/RIU. This work provides a non-contact, nondestructive and sensitive method for the detection of nanoparticles concentration and brings out a new application on THz film metamaterial sensing.

  11. Thin films on the basis of magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alimbekova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is to study the adsorption of magnetic nanoparticles in the structure of nanohybrid films by layer-by-layer (LbL method. Obtained by UV-VIS absorption spectra of 5% magnetic nanoparticles and the aqueous solution polyvinyl alcohol consisting of 5 and 10 nanohybrid layers. Analysis of the optical absorption spectra shows the homogeneity and mechanical stability of the nanohybrid films.

  12. Flame spray pyrolysis synthesis and aerosol deposition of nanoparticle films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoli, Antonio; Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of nanoparticle films by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis and deposition on temperature‐controlled substrates (323–723 K) was investigated for several application‐relevant conditions. An exemplary SnO2 nanoparticle aerosol was generated by FSP and its properties (e.g., particle...

  13. Structure and Morphology Effects on the Optical Properties of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Films Laser Deposited on a Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Kucherik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving nanosecond laser system is used for laser-assisted thermodiffusion deposition of metallic nanoparticles from water-based colloidal solutions. The results obtained for both gold and silver nanoparticles show that film morphology strongly depends on laser scanning speed and the number of passages. We show, furthermore, the possibility of producing bimetallic Au:Ag thin films by laser irradiation of the mixed solutions. As a result of several laser scans, granular nanometric films are found to grow with a well-controlled composition, thickness, and morphology. By changing laser scanning parameters, film morphology can be varied from island structures to quasi-periodic arrays. The optical properties of the deposited structures are found to depend on the film composition, thickness, and mean separation between the particles. The transparency spectra of the deposited films are shown to be defined by their morphology.

  14. Antibacterial performance on plasma polymerized heptylamine films loaded with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial performance of the plasma-polymerized (pp) heptylamine thin films loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against the colonization of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including the thickness and chemical composition of the as deposited HApp films were modulated by adjusting plasma parameters. The acquired results showed that the film thickness was controlled in the range of 20 to 400 nm by adjusting deposition time. The subsequent immersion of the HApp thin films in silver nitrate solutions result in the formation of amine-metal complexes, in which the silver nanoparticles were reduced directly on the matrices to form Ag@HApp. The reduction reaction of silver was facilitated by applying NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The results of physicochemical analyses including morphological analysis and ellipsometry revealed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully reduced on the HApp films, and the amount of reduced silver was closely associated which the thickness of the plasma-polymerized films, the concentration of applied metal ions solutions, and the time of immobilization. Regarding the antibacterial performance, the Ag@HApp films reduced by NaBH4 showed antibacterial abilities of 70.1 and 68.2% against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively.

  15. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  16. One-step aerosol synthesis of nanoparticle agglomerate films: simulation of film porosity and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, Lutz; Lall, Anshuman A; Friedlander, Sheldon K

    2006-01-01

    A method is described for designing nanoparticle agglomerate films with desired film porosity and film thickness. Nanoparticle agglomerates generated in aerosol reactors can be directly deposited on substrates to form uniform porous films in one step, a significant advance over existing technologies. The effect of agglomerate morphology and deposition mechanism on film porosity and thickness are discussed. Film porosity was calculated for a given number and size of primary particles that compose the agglomerates, and fractal dimension. Agglomerate transport was described by the Langevin equation of motion. Deposition enhancing forces such as thermophoresis are incorporated in the model. The method was validated for single spherical particles using previous theoretical studies. An S-shape film porosity dependence on the particle Peclet number typical for spherical particles was also observed for agglomerates, but films formed from agglomerates had much higher porosities than films from spherical particles. Predicted film porosities compared well with measurements reported in the literature. Film porosities increased with the number of primary particles that compose an agglomerate and higher fractal dimension agglomerates resulted in denser films. Film thickness as a function of agglomerate deposition time was calculated from the agglomerate deposition flux in the presence of thermophoresis. The calculated film thickness was in good agreement with measured literature values. Thermophoresis can be used to reduce deposition time without affecting the film porosity

  17. High-coercivity FePt nanoparticle assemblies embedded in silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q; Purkayastha, A; Singh, A P; Li, H; Ramanath, G; Li, A; Ramanujan, R V

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process assemblies using thin film techniques in a scalable fashion would be a key to transmuting the assemblies into manufacturable devices. Here, we embed FePt nanoparticle assemblies into a silica thin film by sol-gel processing. Annealing the thin film composite at 650 deg. C transforms the chemically disordered fcc FePt phase into the fct phase, yielding magnetic coercivity values H c >630 mT. The positional order of the particles is retained due to the protection offered by the silica host. Such films with assemblies of high-coercivity magnetic particles are attractive for realizing new types of ultra-high-density data storage devices and magneto-composites.

  18. Electrodeposition of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles on ionic liquid-chitosan composite film and its application in fabricating an amperometric cholesterol biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Afsaneh; Farjami, Fatemeh

    2011-01-15

    An electrodeposition method was applied to form gold-platinum (AuPt) alloy nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) and chitosan (Ch) (AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE). AuPt nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE electrocatalyzed the reduction of H(2)O(2) and thus was suitable for the preparation of biosensors. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was then, immobilized on the surface of the electrode by cross-linking ChOx and chitosan through addition of glutaraldehyde (ChOx/AuPt-Ch-IL/GCE). The fabricated biosensor exhibited two wide linear ranges of responses to cholesterol in the concentration ranges of 0.05-6.2 mM and 6.2-11.2 mM. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 90.7 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) and the limit of detection was 10 μM of cholesterol. The response time was less than 7 s. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) was found as 0.24 mM. The effect of the addition of 1 mM ascorbic acid and glucose was tested on the amperometric response of 0.5 mM cholesterol and no change in response current of cholesterol was observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of polar crystalline phase formation in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Goo; Ha, Jong-Wook, E-mail: jongwook@krict.re.kr; Sohn, Eun-Ho; Park, In Jun; Lee, Soo-Bok

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The crystalline phase in transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films was investigated. • CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phases in PVDF matrix. • Ordered γ-phase was obtained by thermal treatment of as-cast films at the vicinity of its melting temperature. - Abstract: We consider the influence of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the crystalline phase formation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) for the first time. The transparent PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite films were prepared by casting on PET substrates using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as a solvent. It was found that CaF{sub 2} promoted the formation of polar crystalline phase of PVDF in composites, whereas nonpolar α-phase was dominant in the neat PVDF film prepared at the same condition. The portion of polar crystalline phase increased in proportional to the weight fraction of CaF{sub 2} in the composite films up to 10 wt%. Further addition of CaF{sub 2} suppressed completely the α-phase formation. Polar crystalline phase observed in as-cast composite films was a mixture of β- and γ-polymorph structures. It was also shown that much ordered γ-phase could be obtained through thermal treatment of as-cast PVDF-CaF{sub 2} composite film at the temperatures above the melting temperature of the composite films, but below that of γ-phase.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of permalloy nanostructured films by deposition of laser ablated nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chong; Yun, Eui-Jung; Ma, James; Keto, John W.; Becker, Michael F.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2009-01-01

    A permalloy (Ni 81 Fe 19 ; at%) microparticle (MP) aerosol was ablated to produce a nanoparticle (NP) aerosol that was then impacted at high velocity onto a substrate to produce porous thick films. The structure of the NPs was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and the morphologies of the NPs and the nanostructured films were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses showed that the original composition and structure of the MPs were preserved in the NPs and films. The majority of NPs that were produced ranged in size between 2 and 15 nm with some larger particles present. Magnetization-temperature curves showed that the films consisted of a mixture of small superparamagnetic NPs and larger ferromagnetic NPs. A high saturation magnetization of 62.3 emu/g at 300 K was retained in the films indicating that they remained free of significant oxidation.

  1. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles—yet size–effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector. PMID:26165185

  2. X-ray excited luminescence of polystyrene composites loaded with SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkiv, T.M.; Halyatkin, O.O.; Vistovskyy, V.V. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Hevyk, V.B. [Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, 15 Karpatska St., 76019 Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine); Yakibchuk, P.M. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Gektin, A.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenina Ave, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Voloshinovskii, A.S. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8a Kyryla i Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2017-03-01

    The polystyrene film nanocomposites of 0.3 mm thickness with embedded SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles up to 40 wt% have been synthesized. The luminescent and kinetic properties of the polystyrene composites with embedded SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles upon the pulse X-ray excitation have been investigated. The luminescence intensity of the pure polystyrene scintillator film significantly increases when it is loaded with the inorganic SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles. The film nanocomposites show fast (∼2.8 ns) and slow (∼700 ns) luminescence decay components typical for a luminescence of polystyrene activators (p-Terphenyl and POPOP) and SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively. It is revealed that the fast decay luminescence component of the polystyrene composites is caused by the excitation of polystyrene by the photoelectrons escaped from the nanoparticles due to photoeffect, and the slow component is caused by reabsorption of the self-trapped exciton luminescence of SrF{sub 2} nanoparticles by polystyrene.

  3. The Effects of SiO2 Nanoparticles on Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Potato Starch Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Torabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper effect of SiO2 nanoparticles was investigated on potato starch films. Potato starch films were prepared by casting method with addition of nano-silicon dioxide and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 as plasticizers. SiO2 nanoparticles incorporated to the potato starch films at different concentrations 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5% of total solid, and the films were dried under controlled conditions.  Physicochemical properties such as water absorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films were measured. Results show that by increasing the concentration of silicon dioxide nanoparticles, mechanical properties of films can be improved. Also incorporation of silicon dioxide nanoparticles in the structure of biopolymer decrease permeability of the gaseous molecules such as water vapor. In summary, addition of silicon dioxide nanoparticles improves functional properties of potato starch films and these bio Nano composites can be used in food packaging.

  4. Dynamic Response and Simulations of Nanoparticle-Enhanced Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mantena, P. R; Al-Ostaz, Ahmed; Cheng, Alexander H

    2007-01-01

    ...) molecular dynamics simulations of nanoparticle-enhanced composites and fly- ash based foams that are being considered for the future generation naval structures or retrofitting of existing ones...

  5. k-Carrageenan/poly vinyl pyrollidone/polyethylene glycol/silver nanoparticles film for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Moustafa M G; El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Hafez, Elsayed E; Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Biopolymer composite film containing k-carrageenan (KC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was formulated by dissolving KC and PVP in water containing PEG. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was produced by Honeybee and added to solution. Finally, all solutions were poured onto dishes and dried overnight at 40°C to form the final films. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E %) is evaluated. The water contact angle is inspected. Thermal properties (TGA) and swelling behavior for water were considered. Fungal activity is also examined. Morphology of all films was also explored using scanning electron microscope. AgNPs induced significant hydrophilicity to KC-PVP-PEG film with contact angle of 41.6 and 34.7 for KC-PVP-PEG-AgNPs. Films with AgNPs exhibited higher thermal stability and strength properties than other films without. Films with AgNPs explore lower swelling behavior than other films without. Both SEM and EDX proved the deposition of AgNPs on the surface of films. Films with AgNPs showed higher activity against pathogenic fungi compared with the chemical fungicide; fluconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of films made with chayote tuber and potato starches blending with cellulose nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aila-Suárez, Selene; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M; Rodríguez-Hernández, Adriana I; Hernández-Uribe, Juan P; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize chayotextle starch films reinforced with cellulose (C) and cellulose nanoparticle (CN) (at concentrations of 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2%), using thermal, mechanical, physicochemical, permeability, and water solubility tests. C was acid-treated to obtain CN. The films were prepared by casting; potato starch and C were used as the control. The solubility of the starch films decreased with the addition of C and CN compared with its respective film without C and CN. No statistical difference (α=0.05) was found in the films added with different concentrations of C and CN. In general, the mechanical properties were improved with the addition of C and CN, and higher values of tensile strength and elastic modulus were determined in the films reinforced with CN. The melting temperature and enthalpy increased with the addition of C and CN, and the values of both thermal parameters were higher in the films with CN than with C; the enthalpy value of the film decreased when the concentration of C or CN increased in the composite. Low concentration of C and CN is better distributed in the matrix film. The addition of C and CN in the starch films improved some mechanical, barrier, and functional properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obtaining and characterization of thin films polyelectrolyte with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popiolski, Tatiane M.; Crespo, Janaina S.; Silva, Renato B.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of polyelectrolytes are manufactured via sequential adsorption of weak polyelectrolytes from aqueous solutions based on electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged polymers. Metal containing polymeric compounds are of particular interest to the production of materials with electrical interface and optical properties. In this sense, the objective of this study was to obtain thin films of weak polyelectrolytes and analyze the distribution of gold nanoparticles stabilized by sodium citrate and by poly (vinylpyrrolidone). The characterization was performed using UV-visible, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The techniques of UV-visible and X-ray diffraction was confirmed the presence of gold in the films, the atomic force microscopy images were used to analyze the morphology of the films and check the behavior of the diffusion of gold nanoparticles. (author)

  8. Introduction of gold nanoparticles into myoglobin-Nafion film for direct electrochemistry application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenting; Kong, Linlin; Kan, Meixiu; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Xueji; Zhang, Hui-Min

    2010-10-01

    An effective myoglobin-Nafion film is prepared by introducing gold nanoparticles in through a simple procedure by ion-exchange combined with electrochemical reduction. Gold nanoparticles are highly dispersed in myoglobin-Nafion film with an average size of 2.3 +/- 0.2 nm. The electrochemical behavior of myoglobin entrapped in the film has been carefully investigated with cyclic voltammetry. The results show that the introduction of gold nanoparticles into myoglobin-Nafion film makes the direct electron transfer of myoglobin efficient. A pair of well-defined redox peaks for myoglobin heme Fe(II)/Fe(III) is observed with a formal potential of -0.150 V in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The electrochemical parameters of myoglobin in the composite film are further calculated with the results of the electron-transfer rate constant (k(s)) as 0.93 s(-1) and the charge transfer coefficient (alpha) as 0.69. The experimental results also demonstrate that the immobilized myoglobin retains its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and the catalytic reduction peak of myoglobin appear in a linear relationship with H2O2 concentration in the range of 10.0-235.0 microM with correlation coefficient of 0.9970. Thus fabricated Au/Mb/Nafion electrode should give a new approach for developing redox protein or enzyme-based biosensors.

  9. Electrochromic properties of self-assembled nanoparticle multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Bo; Li Hong; Zhang Lanlan; Peng Jun

    2010-01-01

    Hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB) nanocrystal and TiO 2 nanoparticles were assembled into thin films by layer-by-layer self-assembly method. HTB nanocrystals were synthesized by hydrothermal route at 155 o C. UV-Vis spectra showed that the HTB/TiO 2 films exhibit a linear increase in film thickness with assembly exposure steps. The electrochromic property of the film was carefully investigated. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the redox peak was around -0.5 V. The electrochromic contrast, coloration efficiency, switching speed, stability and optical memory were carefully investigated. The films vary from white to blue and finally dark brown. The electrochromic contrast is 63.9% at 633 nm. The coloration efficiency of the films is relatively high. The response time is less than 3 s.

  10. Local Fatigue Evaluation in PZT Thin Films with Nanoparticles by Piezoresponse Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Li

    2012-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films with the morphotropic phase boundary composition (Zr/Ti = 52/48) have been prepared using a modified diol-based sol-gel route by introducing 1–5 mol% barium titanate (BT) nanoseeds into the precursor solution on platinized silicon substrates (Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si). Macroscopic electric properties of PZT film with nanoparticle showed a significant improvement of ferroelectric properties. This work aims at the systematic study of the local switching polarizatio...

  11. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  12. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention relates to magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites and methods of preparing the same. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and surfactant. The composites may have enhanced mechanical, thermal, and/or electrical properties.

  13. Fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by spinodal dewetting of thin films: A high-throughput approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, William D.; Miller, James B. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15262 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Yolcu, Cem [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Gellman, Andrew J., E-mail: gellman@cmu.edu [U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15262 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Metal nanoparticles on structured supports are used in a variety of technological applications including biosensing, energy harvesting, and electronics. In every case, the functions and properties of the metallic nanostructures depend on both their composition and structure (i.e. size, shape, and spatial distribution). Among the challenges to the development of metal nanoparticles for these applications is the characterization of relationships between their structure and their functional properties over multiple structural degrees of freedom spanning a large range of values. In this work, a method for creating a morphological gradient of metal nanoparticles on a substrate is described. The approach, suited for high-throughput fabrication and characterization, is based on spinodal dewetting of a metallic thin film from its substrate. Through control of initial film thickness, anneal temperature, and anneal time, spinodal dewetting results in supported nanoparticles with well-defined and controlled structure. The approach is demonstrated through its application to preparation of Pd nanoparticles on a silicon nitride substrate. The morphologies of the particles were characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Free energy-based stability and topological analyses were used to confirm the dewetting mechanism. In addition, the stability theory provides a connection to the thermophysical properties of the resulting nanoparticle array. The dewetting approach is general to any metal/support system and provides an alternative, inexpensive, and robust means to rapidly create metal nanostructures with control of morphology. It shows promise for large scale production of metal nanoparticles structures, as well as understanding basic stability properties of thin metal films. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pd dewetting from SiN occurs by a spinodal dewetting mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dewetting occurs at temperatures well below the

  14. Fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by spinodal dewetting of thin films: A high-throughput approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, William D.; Miller, James B.; Yolcu, Cem; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles on structured supports are used in a variety of technological applications including biosensing, energy harvesting, and electronics. In every case, the functions and properties of the metallic nanostructures depend on both their composition and structure (i.e. size, shape, and spatial distribution). Among the challenges to the development of metal nanoparticles for these applications is the characterization of relationships between their structure and their functional properties over multiple structural degrees of freedom spanning a large range of values. In this work, a method for creating a morphological gradient of metal nanoparticles on a substrate is described. The approach, suited for high-throughput fabrication and characterization, is based on spinodal dewetting of a metallic thin film from its substrate. Through control of initial film thickness, anneal temperature, and anneal time, spinodal dewetting results in supported nanoparticles with well-defined and controlled structure. The approach is demonstrated through its application to preparation of Pd nanoparticles on a silicon nitride substrate. The morphologies of the particles were characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Free energy-based stability and topological analyses were used to confirm the dewetting mechanism. In addition, the stability theory provides a connection to the thermophysical properties of the resulting nanoparticle array. The dewetting approach is general to any metal/support system and provides an alternative, inexpensive, and robust means to rapidly create metal nanostructures with control of morphology. It shows promise for large scale production of metal nanoparticles structures, as well as understanding basic stability properties of thin metal films. - Highlights: ► Pd dewetting from SiN occurs by a spinodal dewetting mechanism. ► Dewetting occurs at temperatures well below the melting point of Pd. ► Spinodal dewetting allows

  15. Active Chicken Meat Packaging Based on Polylactide Films and Bimetallic Ag-Cu Nanoparticles and Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Jasim; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Bher, Anibal; Mulla, Mehrajfatema; Jacob, Harsha; Auras, Rafael

    2018-04-16

    Plasticized polylactide (PLA) composite films with multifunctional properties were created by loading bimetallic silver-copper (Ag-Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) and cinnamon essential oil (CEO) into polymer matrix via compression molding technique. Rheological, structural, thermal, barrier, and antimicrobial properties of the produced films, and its utilization in the packaging of chicken meat were investigated. PLA/PEG/Ag-Cu/CEO composites showed a very complex rheological system where both plasticizing and antiplasticizing effects were evident. Thermal properties of plasticized PLA film with polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhanced considerably with the reinforcement of NPs whereas loading of CEO decreased glass transition, melting, and crystallization temperature. The barrier properties of the composite films were reduced with the increase of CEO loading (P films were visualized by FTIR spectra. Rough and porous surfaces of the films were evident by scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of composite films was tested against Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in chicken samples, and it was found that the films loaded with Ag-Cu NPs and 50% CEO showed maximum antibacterial action during 21 days at the refrigerated condition. The produced PLA/Ag-Cu/CEO composite films can be applied to active food packaging. The nanoparticles and essential oil loaded PLA composite films are capable of exhibiting antimicrobial effects against Gram (+) and (-) bacteria, and extend the shelf-life of chicken meat. The bionanocomposite films showed the potential to be manufactured commercially because of the thermal stability of the active components during the hot-press compression molding process. The developed bionanocomposites could have practical importance and open a new direction for the active food packaging to control the spoilage and the pathogenic bacteria associated with the fresh chicken meat. © 2018 Institute of Food

  16. Nanocomposite films containing Au nanoparticles formed by electrochemical reduction of metal ions in the multilayer films as electrocatalyst for dioxygen reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Minghua; Shen Yan; Cheng Wenlong; Shao Yong; Sun Xuping; Liu Baifeng; Dong Shaojun

    2005-01-01

    Through electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly, AuCl 4 - anions and [tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrinato] cobalt (CoTMPyP) cations were alternately deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, and 4-aminobenzoic acid modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochemical reduction of AuCl 4 - anions sandwiched between CoTMPyP layers leads to the in situ formation of Au nanoparticles in the multilayer films. Regular growth of the multilayer films is monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry confirm the formation of Au nanoparticles in the multilayer films after electrochemical reduction of AuCl 4 - anions. Atomic force spectroscopy verifies that the as-prepared Au nanoparticles are uniformly distributed with average particles diameters of 20-25 nm. The resulting composite films containing Au nanoparticles with high stability exhibit high electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of dioxygen. Rotating disk electrode voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry demonstrate the Au nanoparticles-containing films can catalyze two-electron reduction of O 2 to H 2 O 2 in O 2 -saturated 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 solution

  17. Intrinsic stress modulation in diamond like carbon films with incorporation of gold nanoparticles by PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Madapu, Kishore K.; Kamruddin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Intrinsic stress modulation in the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with incorporation of gold nanoparticles was studied qualitatively from Raman shift. The films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates by using Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of pure pyrolytic graphite target and with a gold foil on it. Films compositional and chemical behavior was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Visible Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The sp3 content obtained from XPS shows dramatic variation in DLC, DLC-Au(100), DLC-Au(200) and DLC-Au(300) as 39%, 41%, 47% and 66% with various gold contentsas 0%, 12%, 7.3% and 4.7%, respectively. The Raman spectra of DLC/Au films showed G-peak shift towards lower wavenumber indicating the reduction of intrinsic stress (internal compressive stress). The sp2, sp3 fraction in the films are also determined from FWHM (G-Peak).

  18. New compositions of cadmium selenium nanoparticles and dye molecules with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asimov, M.M.; Anufrik, S.S.; Tarkovsky, V.V.; Sazonko, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of new heterogeneous multicolor compositions based on cadmium selenium (CdSe/ZnS) nano crystal and inclusion complexes of dye molecule with cyclodextrin are presented. Spectral fluorescence of proposed compositions investigated in thin films. Signals from multicolor fluorescence of proposing compositions may be combined to definite spectral codes that could be used for tracking or verification of different objects. Calibration bar of signal within spectral codes guarantee high reliability in practical application of proposed multicolor compositions. Express analysis the size of nanoparticles during their synthesis and purification by spectroscopic methods is suggested. Application of Cyclodextrin molecules as target delivery systems is considered. (authors)

  19. High-quality CdTe films from nanoparticle precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, D.L.; Pehnt, M.; Urgiles, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    In this paper the authors demonstrate that nanoparticulate precursors coupled with spray deposition offers an attractive route into electronic materials with improved smoothness, density, and lower processing temperatures. Employing a metathesis approach, cadmium iodide was reacted with sodium telluride in methanol solvent, resulting in the formation of soluble NaI and insoluble CdTe nanoparticles. After appropriate chemical workup, methanol-capped CdTe colloids were isolated. CdTe thin film formation was achieved by spray depositing the nanoparticle colloids (25-75 {Angstrom} diameter) onto substrates at elevated temperatures (T = 280-440{degrees}C) with no further thermal treatment. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cubic CdTe phase formation was observed by XRD, with a contaminant oxide phase also detected. XPS analysis showed that CdTe films produced by this one-step method contained no Na or C and substantial O. AFM gave CdTe grain sizes of {approx}0.1-0.3 {mu}m for film sprayed at 400{degrees}C. A layer-by-layer film growth mechanism proposed for the one-step spray deposition of nanoparticle precursors will be discussed.

  20. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I.; Williamson, Erik H.; Rubner, Michael F.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2009-03-11

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Targeted functionalization of nanoparticle thin films via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I; Williamson, Erik H; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane).

  3. Synthesis and characterization of rhodium sulfide nanoparticles and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosibo, Ndabenhle M.; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a rhodium complex, [Rh(S 2 CNEt 2 ) 2 ] is described. The complex was thermolysed at a high temperature (280 deg. C) in the presence of capping agent, hexadecylamine (HDA) to form Rh 2 S 3 nanoparticles. Rod-shaped Rh 2 S 3 nanoparticles with an average length of 26.7 nm and an average breadth of 7.8 nm were synthesized. The complex was also used as a single molecule precursor for the deposition of Rh 2 S 3 thin films on a glass substrate at 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C using the Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) technique. The resultant thin films showed temperature dependent morphologies and showed (0 2 2), (4 1 1) and (6 1 1) lattice planes characteristic of to the orthorhombic Rh 2 S 3 phase. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the films

  4. Effect of Addition of Colloidal Silica to Films of Polyimide, Polyvinylpyridine, Polystyrene, and Polymethylmethacrylate Nano-Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Soliman; Al-Marzouki, Fahad; Obaid, Abdullah; Gamal, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work for developing the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nanoparticle size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that forms the insulating film between the conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of...

  5. Model Lung Surfactant Films: Why Composition Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selladurai, Sahana L.; Miclette Lamarche, Renaud; Schmidt, Rolf; DeWolf, Christine E.

    2016-10-18

    Lung surfactant replacement therapies, Survanta and Infasurf, and two lipid-only systems both containing saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and one containing additional palmitic acid were used to study the impact of buffered saline on the surface activity, morphology, rheology, and structure of Langmuir monolayer model membranes. Isotherms and Brewster angle microscopy show that buffered saline subphases induce a film expansion, except when the cationic protein, SP-B, is present in sufficient quantities to already screen electrostatic repulsion, thus limiting the effect of changing pH and adding counterions. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction results indicate an expansion not only of the liquid expanded phase but also an expansion of the lattice of the condensed phase. The film expansion corresponded in all cases with a significant reduction in the viscosity and elasticity of the films. The viscoelastic parameters are dominated by liquid expanded phase properties and do not appear to be dependent on the structure of the condensed phase domains in a phase separated film. The results highlight that the choice of subphase and film composition is important for meaningful interpretations of measurements using model systems.

  6. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.

    KAUST Repository

    Mangal, Rahul

    2015-06-05

    Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  7. Phase stability and dynamics of entangled polymer-nanoparticle composites.

    KAUST Repository

    Mangal, Rahul; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-polymer composites, or polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs), exhibit unusual mechanical and dynamical features when the particle size approaches the random coil dimensions of the host polymer. Here, we harness favourable enthalpic interactions between particle-tethered and free, host polymer chains to create model PNCs, in which spherical nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in high molecular weight entangled polymers. Investigation of the mechanical properties of these model PNCs reveals that the nanoparticles have profound effects on the host polymer motions on all timescales. On short timescales, nanoparticles slow-down local dynamics of the host polymer segments and lower the glass transition temperature. On intermediate timescales, where polymer chain motion is typically constrained by entanglements with surrounding molecules, nanoparticles provide additional constraints, which lead to an early onset of entangled polymer dynamics. Finally, on long timescales, nanoparticles produce an apparent speeding up of relaxation of their polymer host.

  8. High Rate Micromechanical Behavior of Grafted Polymer Nanoparticle Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edwin

    We report the ultra high strain rate behavior of films comprised of polymer grafted nanoparticles (NPs) and compare the results to homopolymer films. The films are formed by flow coating a suspension of polystyrene (PS) chains of 230 kg/mol grafted to 16nm diameter SiO2\\ at a graft density of 0.6 chains/nm2 resulting a film with 1 vol % SiO2. Films of 267 kg/mol PS were also flow coated and both films were impacted at velocities 350-700 ms-1 using 3.7 micron SiO2\\ projectiles to achieve increments in kinetic energy (KE) of 1:2:4. The KE of the projectiles before and after penetration was measured to determine the penetration energy. TEM and SEM suggest the projectile initially induces plastic flow due to the adiabatic temperature rise from impact. As the projectile deforms the film, the lower magnitude, biaxial stress state in the peripherial regions causes material microvoid formation and initiation of craze growth in the radial and tangential directions. The anchoring of the grafted polymer chains to the NPs increases the penetration energy relative to the pure homopolymer by 50% and the films capacity to delocalize the impact by 200%. These results suggest that highly grafted NP films may be useful in lightweight protection systems. In collaboration with Omri Fried, Olawale Lawal, Yang Jiao, Victor Hsaio, Thevamaran Ramathasan, Mujin Zhou, Richard Vaia.

  9. Locally formation of Ag nanoparticles in chalcogenide phase change thin films induced by nanosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Ze; Gan, Fuxi

    2012-01-01

    A simple method to optically synthesize Ag nanoparticles in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change matrix is described. The fine structures of the locally formed phase change chalcogenide nanocomposite are characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite is discussed with temperature evolution and distribution simulations. This easy-prepared metal nano-particle-embedded phase change microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications, such as for plasmonic functional structures. This also provides a generalized approach to the preparation of well-dispersed nanoparticle-embedded composite thin films in principle. -- Highlights: ► We describe a method to prepare chalcogenide microstructures with Ag nanoparticles. ► We give the fine structural images of phase change nanocomposites. ► We discuss the laser-induced fusion mechanism by temperature simulation. ► This microstructure will have great potential in nanophotonics applications.

  10. Nanodiamond embedded ta-C composite film by pulsed filtered vacuum arc deposition from a single target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ajai; Etula, Jarkko; Ge, Yanling; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari

    2016-11-01

    Detonation Nanodiamonds (DNDs) are known to have sp3 core, sp2 shell, small size (few nm) and are gaining importance as multi-functional nanoparticles. Diverse methods have been used to form composites, containing detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) embedded in conductive and dielectric matrices for various applications. Here we show a method, wherein DND-ta-C composite film, consisting of DNDs embedded in ta-C matrix have been co-deposited from the same cathode by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis of these films revel the presence of DNDs embedded in the matrix of amorphous carbon. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the presence of DNDs does not adversely affect the sp3 content of DND-ta-C composite film compared to ta-C film of same thickness. Nanoindentation and nanowear tests indicate that DND-ta-C composite films possess improved mechanical properties in comparison to ta-C films of similar thickness.

  11. Brush-Coated Nanoparticle Polymer Thin Films: structure-mechanical-optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-08-15

    Our work was devoted to understanding the structure and properties of a class of thin film polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). PNCs are composed of polymer hosts into which nanoparticles (metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanorods, C60, nanotubes) are incorporated. PNCs exhibit a diverse range of functional properties (optical, electronic, mechanical, biomedical, structural), determined in part by the chemical composition of the polymer host and the type of nanoparticle. The properties PNCs rely not only on specific functional, size-dependent, behavior of the nanoparticles, but also on the dispersion, and organizational order in some cases, inter-nanoparticle separation distances, and on relative interactions between the nanoparticles and the host. Therefore the scientific challenges associated with understanding the interrelations between the structure and function/properties of PNCs are far more complex than may be understood based only on the knowledge of the compositions of the constituents. The challenges of understanding the structure-function behavior of PNCs are further compounded by the fact that control of the dispersion of the nanoparticles within the polymer hosts is difficult; one must learn how to disperse inorganic particles within an organic host. The goal of this proposal was to develop an understanding of the connection between the structure and the thermal (glass transition), mechanical and optical properties of a specific class of PNCs. Specifically PNCs composed of polymer chain grafted gold nanoparticles within polymer hosts. A major objective was to understand how to develop basic principles that enable the fabrication of functional materials possessing optimized morphologies and combinations of materials properties.

  12. Temperature evolution in silver nanoparticle doped PETN composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswari, D. P. S. L.; Kiran, P. Prem

    2018-04-01

    Optical absorption and the associated spatio-temporal evolution of temperature silver nanoparticles doped energetic material composite is presented. Silver nanoparticles of radii 10 - 150 nm are doped in Penta Erythrtol Tetra Nitrate (PETN), a secondary energetic material to form the composite materials. Of all the composites the ones doped with 35 nm sized nanoparticles have shown maximum absorption at excitation wavelength of 532 nm. The spatio-temporal evolution of temperature within these composites up on excitation with ns laser pulses of energy density 0.5 J/cm2 is studied. The role of particle sizes on the temperature of composites is studied and a maximum temperature of 2200 K at the nanoparticle interface is observed for 35 nm doped PETN composite.

  13. Large third-order optical nonlinearity in vertically oriented mesoporous silica thin films embedded with Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min; Liu, Qiming, E-mail: qmliu@whu.edu.cn [Wuhan University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Taking advantage of the channel confinement of mesoporous films to prevent the agglomeration of Ag nanoparticles to achieve large third-order optical nonlinearity in amorphous materials, Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film was prepared by the electrochemical deposition method on ITO substrate. Ag ions were firstly transported into the channels of mesoporous film by the diffusion and binding force of channels, which were reduced to nanoparticles by applying suitable voltage. The existence and uniform distribution of Ag nanoparticles ranging in 1–10 nm in the mesoporous silica thin films were exhibited by UV spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The third-order optical nonlinearity induced by Ag nanoparticles was studied by the Z-scan technique. Due to the local field surface plasmon resonance, the maximum third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of Ag-loaded composite mesoporous silica film is 1.53×10{sup −10} esu, which is 1000 times larger than that of the Ag-contained chalcogenide glasses which showed large nonlinearity in amorphous materials.

  14. Oxidation and sensing of ascorbic acid and dopamine on self-assembled gold nanoparticles incorporated within polyaniline film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Wenya [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhou, Qun, E-mail: zhq@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Shuangshuang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zhao, Wei; Li, Na [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zheng, Junwei, E-mail: jwzheng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles assembled on electrodes are incorporated into polyaniline film. • Composite film electrodes exhibit synergistic effect on electrocatalytic oxidation. • Ascorbic acid and dopamine can be detected simultaneously on composite electrodes. - Abstract: Electrochemical biosensors based on conducting polymers incorporated with metallic nanoparticles can greatly enhance sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we report a facile fabrication approach for polyaniline (PAN) incorporated with a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) composite electrode by electrodeposition of PAN on a self-assembled AuNP layer on the surface of an indium tin oxide electrode. The resulting AuNP/PAN composite electrode exhibits a remarkable synergistic effect on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). It is demonstrated that the oxidation reaction of AA mainly occurs at AuNPs inside the PAN film as the ascorbate anions are doped into the polymer during the oxidation of the PAN film. Conversely, the oxidation of positively charged DA may only take place at the PAN/solution interface. The different mechanisms of the electrode reactions result in the oxidation of AA and DA occurring at different potentials. As a result, the AuNP/PAN composite electrode can be employed to simultaneously detect AA and DA with a good linear range, high sensitivity, and low detection limit.

  15. Oxidation and sensing of ascorbic acid and dopamine on self-assembled gold nanoparticles incorporated within polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Wenya; Zhou, Qun; Li, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Li, Na; Zheng, Junwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles assembled on electrodes are incorporated into polyaniline film. • Composite film electrodes exhibit synergistic effect on electrocatalytic oxidation. • Ascorbic acid and dopamine can be detected simultaneously on composite electrodes. - Abstract: Electrochemical biosensors based on conducting polymers incorporated with metallic nanoparticles can greatly enhance sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we report a facile fabrication approach for polyaniline (PAN) incorporated with a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) composite electrode by electrodeposition of PAN on a self-assembled AuNP layer on the surface of an indium tin oxide electrode. The resulting AuNP/PAN composite electrode exhibits a remarkable synergistic effect on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). It is demonstrated that the oxidation reaction of AA mainly occurs at AuNPs inside the PAN film as the ascorbate anions are doped into the polymer during the oxidation of the PAN film. Conversely, the oxidation of positively charged DA may only take place at the PAN/solution interface. The different mechanisms of the electrode reactions result in the oxidation of AA and DA occurring at different potentials. As a result, the AuNP/PAN composite electrode can be employed to simultaneously detect AA and DA with a good linear range, high sensitivity, and low detection limit.

  16. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  17. PEO + PVP blended polymer composite films for multifunctional

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been noticed from PEO + PVP : Ni2+ polymer film at 373 K. Emission analysis of Co2+: ... suggested that these TM ions doped PEO + PVP polymer films are found to be potential ... by undertaking some nanoparticles for obtaining the sev-.

  18. Thermal Vapor Deposition and Characterization of Polymer-Ceramic Nanoparticle Thin Films and Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagoshi, Joel A.

    Research on alternative energies has become an area of increased interest due to economic and environmental concerns. Green energy sources, such as ocean, wind, and solar power, are subject to predictable and unpredictable generation intermittencies which cause instability in the electrical grid. This problem could be solved through the use of short term energy storage devices. Capacitors made from composite polymer:nanoparticle thin films have been shown to be an economically viable option. Through thermal vapor deposition, we fabricated dielectric thin films composed of the polymer polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and the ceramic nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2). Fully understanding the deposition process required an investigation of electrode and dielectric film deposition. Film composition can be controlled by the mass ratio of PVDF:TiO2 prior to deposition. An analysis of the relationship between the ratio of PVDF:TiO2 before and after deposition will improve our understanding of this novel deposition method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were used to analyze film atomic concentrations. The results indicate a broad distribution of deposited TiO2 concentrations with the highest deposited amount at an initial mass concentration of 17% TiO2. The nanoparticle dispersion throughout the film is analyzed through atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Images from these two techniques confirm uniform TiO2 dispersion with cluster size less than 300 nm. These results, combined with spectroscopic analysis, verify control over the deposition process. Capacitors were fabricated using gold parallel plates with PVDF:TiO 2 dielectrics. These capacitors were analyzed using the atomic force microscope and a capacohmeter. Atomic force microscope images confirm that our gold films are acceptably smooth. Preliminary capacohmeter measurements indicate capacitance values of 6 nF and break down voltages of 2.4 V

  19. Synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticle film by cathodic electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Lee, Hochun; Park, Chang Min; Jung, Yongju

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional SnO2 nanoparticle films were deposited onto a copper substrate by cathodic electrodeposition in a nitric acid solution. A new formation mechanism for SnO2 films is proposed based on the oxidation of Sn2+ ion to Sn4+ ion by NO+ ion and the hydrolysis of Sn4+. The particle size of SnO2 was controlled by deposition potential. The SnO2 showed excellent charge capacity (729 mAh/g) at a 0.2 C rate and high rate capability (460 mAh/g) at a 5 C rate.

  20. Preparation and characterization of layer-by-layer self-assembled polyelectrolyte multilayer films doped with surface-capped SiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangbin; Ma, Hongxia; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2009-05-15

    SiO(2) nanoparticles capped with gamma-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane were doped into polyelectrolyte (poly(allylamine hydrochloride), PAH, and poly(acrylic acid), PAA) multilayer films via spin-assisted layer-by-layer self-assembly. The resulting as-prepared multilayer films were heated at a proper temperature to generate cross-linked composite films with increased adhesion to substrates. The tribological behavior of the multilayer films was evaluated on a microtribometer. It was found that SiO(2)-doped composite films had better wear resistance than pure polyelectrolyte multilayers, possibly because doped SiO(2) nanoparticles were capable of enhancing load-carrying capacity and had "miniature ball bearings" effect. Moreover, heat-treatment had significant effect on the morphology of the composite films. Namely, heat-treated (SiO(2)/PAA)(9) film had a larger roughness than the as-prepared one, due to heat-treatment-induced agglomeration of SiO(2) nanoparticles and initiation of defects. However, heat-treated (PAH/PAA)(3)/(SiO(2)/PAA)(3)(PAH/PAA)(3) film had greatly reduced roughness than the as-prepared one, and it showed considerably improved wear resistance as well. This could be closely related to the "sandwich-like" structure of the composite multilayer film. Namely, the outermost strata of composite multilayer film were able to eliminate defects associated with the middle strata, allowing nanoparticles therein to maintain strength and robustness while keeping soft and fluid-like exposed surface. And the inner strata were well anchored to substrate and acted as an initial "bed" for SiO(2) nanoparticles to be inhabited, resulting in good antiwear ability.

  1. Structure and frictional properties of Langmuir-Blodgett films of Cu nanoparticles modified by dialkyldithiophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jun; Dai Shuxi; Cheng Gang; Jiang Xiaohong; Tao Xiaojun; Zhang Pingyu; Du Zuliang

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of dialkyldithiophosphate (DDP) modified Cu nanoparticles were prepared. The structure, microfrictional behaviors and adhesion of the LB films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Our results showed that the modified Cu nanoparticles have a typical core-shell structure and fine film-forming ability. The images of AFM/FFM showed that LB films of modified Cu nanoparticles were composed of many nanoparticles arranged closely and orderly and the nanoparticles had favorable behaviors of lower friction. The friction loop of the films indicated that the friction force was affected prominently by the surface slope of the Cu nanoparticles and the microfrictional behaviors showed obvious 'ratchet effect'. The adhesion experiment showed that the modified Cu nanoparticle had a very small adhesive force

  2. Transparent Conducting Film Fabricated by Metal Mesh Method with Ag and Cu@Ag Mixture Nanoparticle Pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Min Nam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting electrode film is highly desirable for application in touch screen panels (TSPs, flexible and wearable displays, sensors, and actuators. A sputtered film of indium tin oxide (ITO shows high transmittance (90% at low sheet resistance (50 Ω/cm2. However, ITO films lack mechanical flexibility, especially under bending stress, and have limitation in application to large-area TSPs (over 15 inches due to the trade-off in high transmittance and low sheet resistance properties. One promising solution is to use metal mesh-type transparent conducting film, especially for touch panel application. In this work, we investigated such inter-related issues as UV imprinting process to make a trench layer pattern, the synthesis of core-shell-type Ag and Cu@Ag composite nanoparticles and their paste formulation, the filling of Ag and Cu@Ag mixture nanoparticle paste to the trench layer, and touch panel fabrication processes.

  3. Supercapacitor electrodes based on polyaniline-silicon nanoparticle composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang; Yau, Siu-Tung [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Nayfeh, Munir H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A composite material formed by dispersing ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles in polyaniline has been used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization of the composite indicates that the nanoparticles give rise to double-layer capacitance while polyaniline produces pseudocapacitance. The composite shows significantly improved capacitance compared to that of polyaniline. The enhanced capacitance results in high power (220 kW kg{sup -1}) and energy-storage (30 Wh kg{sup -1}) capabilities of the composite material. A prototype supercapacitor using the composite as the charge storage material has been constructed. The capacitor showed the enhanced capacitance and good device stability during 1000 charging/discharging cycles. (author)

  4. Mn doped GaN thin films and nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Huber, Š.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Macková, Anna; Fiala, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, 8-9 (2012), s. 809-824 ISSN 1475-7435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0621 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : GaN nanoparticles * GaN thin films * manganese * transition metals * MOVPE * ion implantations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2012

  5. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles filled poly(d,l lactid acid) (PDLLA) matrix composites for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhardt, L.C.; Jell, G.M.R.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were investigated for bone tissue engineering applications with regard to bioactivity and particle cytotoxicity. Composite films on the basis of poly(d,l lactid acid) (PDLLA) filled with 0, 5 and 30 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles were processed by solvent casting.

  6. Formulation and Characterization of Acetaminophen Nanoparticles in Orally Disintegrating Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    AI-Nemrawi, Nusaiba K.

    The purpose of this study is to prepare acetaminophen loaded nanoparticles to be cast directly, while still in the emulsion form, into Orally Disintegrating Films (ODF). By casting the nanoparticles in the films, we expected to keep the particles in a stable form where the nanoparticles would be away from each other to prevent their aggregation. Once the films are applied on the buccal mucosa, they are supposed to dissolve within seconds, releasing the nanoparticles. Then the nanoparticles could be directly absorbed through the mucosa to the blood stream and deliver acetaminophen there. The oral cavity mucosa is one of the most attractive sites for systemic drug delivery due to its high permeability and blood supply. Furthermore, it is robust and shows short recovery times after stress or damage, and the drug bypasses first pass effect and avoids presystemic elimination in the GI tract. Nanoencapsulation increases drug efficacy, specificity, tolerability and therapeutic index. These Nanocapsules have several advantages in the protection of premature degradation and interaction with the biological environment, enhancement of absorption into a selected tissue, bioavailability, retention time and improvement of intracellular penetration. The most important characteristics of nanoparticles are their size, encapsulation efficiency (EE), zeta potential (surface charge), and the drug release profiles. Unfortunately, nanoparticles tend to precipitate or aggregate into larger particles within a short time after preparation or during storage. Some solutions for this problem were mentioned in literature including lyophilization and spray drying. These methods are usually expensive and give partial solutions that might have secondary problems; such as low re-dispersion efficacy of the lyophilized NPs. Furthermore, most of the formulations of NPs are invasive or topical. Few formulas are available to be given orally. Fast disintegrating films (ODFs) are rapidly gaining interest

  7. Silver loaded WO{sub 3-x}/TiO{sub 2} composite multifunctional thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnill, Charles W.; Noimark, Sacha; Parkin, Ivan P., E-mail: I.P.Parkin@ucl.ac.uk

    2012-06-30

    Multifunctional WO{sub 3-x}-TiO{sub 2} composite thin films have been prepared by sol-gel synthesis and shown to be good visible light photocatalysts whilst retaining a desirable underlying blue colouration. The WO{sub 3-x}-TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were further enhanced using silver nanoparticles synthesised in-situ on the surface from the photo-degradation of silver nitrate solution. Thin films were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman, Scanning electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy and shown to photo degrade stearic acid, using white light {lambda} = 420-800 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3-X} TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were synthesised by sol-gel methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue tinted glass is desirable for the value added glass industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silver nanoparticle island formation enhances the activity of the films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue tinted 'value added' coated glass is now possible.

  8. Silver loaded WO3−x/TiO2 composite multifunctional thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnill, Charles W.; Noimark, Sacha; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2012-01-01

    Multifunctional WO 3−x –TiO 2 composite thin films have been prepared by sol–gel synthesis and shown to be good visible light photocatalysts whilst retaining a desirable underlying blue colouration. The WO 3−x –TiO 2 composite thin films were further enhanced using silver nanoparticles synthesised in-situ on the surface from the photo-degradation of silver nitrate solution. Thin films were characterised using X-ray diffraction, Raman, Scanning electron microscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy and shown to photo degrade stearic acid, using white light λ = 420–800 nm. - Highlights: ► WO 3−X TiO 2 composite thin films were synthesised by sol–gel methods. ► Blue tinted glass is desirable for the value added glass industry. ► Silver nanoparticle island formation enhances the activity of the films. ► Blue tinted “value added” coated glass is now possible.

  9. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.llorca@upc.edu; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (Spain); Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica Inorganica (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration.

  10. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi; Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O 2 -H 2 mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration

  11. Electric field modulation of magnetic anisotropy and microwave absorption properties in Fe50Ni50/Teflon composite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Xia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fe50Ni50 nanoparticle films with the size about 6 nm were deposited by a high energetic cluster deposition source. An electric field of about 0 - 40 kV was applied on the sample platform when the films were prepared. The field assisted deposition technique can dramatically induce in-plane magnetic anisotropy. To probe the microwave absorption properties, the Fe50Ni50 nanoparticles were deliberately deposited on the dielectric Teflon sheet. Then the laminated Fe50Ni50/Teflon composites were used to do reflection loss scan. The results prove that the application of electric field is an effective avenue to improve the GHz microwave absorption performance of our magnetic nanoparticles films expressed by the movement of reflection loss peak to high GHz region for the composites.

  12. Composite magnetic nanoparticles: Synthesis and cancer-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ping; Chen Hong-Min; Xie Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the preparation and applications of composite magnetic nanoparticles are reviewed and summarized, with a focus on cancer-related applications. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  13. ToF-SIMS study of growth behavior in all-nanoparticle multilayer films using a novel indicator layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.-J.; Yin, Y.-S.; Ling, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    All-nanoparticle multilayer films found novel applications in the areas of photonics, catalysis, sensors, and biomaterials. The assembly of nanoparticles into conformal and uniform films with precise control over chemical and physical properties poses a significant challenge. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), we have investigated the growth behavior in all-nanoparticle multilayer films using a novel indicator layer. The all-nanoparticle multilayer films were prepared by dipping the polyester substrate with electrostatic charges alternatively into solutions containing three different types of nanoparticles (TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 ). Upon the deposition of each layer, ToF-SIMS was employed to determine the surface chemical composition of intermediate products. The intermixing extent of TiO 2 indicator layer was used to reveal the stratification of each layer. Combining with zeta-potential measurements, the solvation and deposition of the under-layer species in the aqueous environment during fresh layer formation was proposed as a plausible cause for mutilayers not stratified into well-defined layers but displaying a nonlinear growth behavior.

  14. Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Todd Ashley

    Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces was monitored by spectroscopic techniques. Adsorption of elemental mercury to colloidal gold nanoparticles causes a color change from wine-red to orange that was quantified by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The wavelength of the surface plasmon mode of 5, 12, and 31 nm gold particles blue-shifts 17, 14, and 7.5 nm, respectively, after a saturation exposure of mercury vapor. Colorimetric detection of inorganic mercury was demonstrated by employing 2.5 nm gold nanoparticles. The addition of low microgram quantities of Hg 2+ to these nanoparticles induces a color change from yellow to peach or blue. It is postulated that Hg2+ is reduced to elemental mercury by SCN- before and/or during adsorption to the nanoparticle surface. It has been demonstrated that surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS) is sensitive to mercury adsorption to gold and silver surfaces. By monitoring the maximum change in reflectivity as a function of amount of mercury adsorbed to the surface, 50 nm Ag films were shown to be 2--3 times more sensitive than 50 nm Au films and bimetallic 15 nm Au/35 nm Ag films. In addition, a surface coverage of ˜40 ng Hg/cm2 on the gold surface results in a 0.03° decrease in the SPR angle of minimum reflectivity. SPRS was employed to follow Hg exposure to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au. The data indicate that the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of the SAM has a significant effect on the efficiency of Hg penetration. Water adsorbed to carboxylic acid end group of the hydrophilic SAMs is believed to slow the penetration of Hg compared to methyl terminated SAMs. Finally, two protocols were followed to remove mercury from gold films: immersion in concentrated nitric acid and thermal annealing up to 200°C. The latter protocol is preferred because it removes all of the adsorbed mercury from the gold surface and does not affect the morphology of the gold surface.

  15. Polymer-Nanoparticle Composites: From Synthesis to Modern Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hanemann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The addition of inorganic spherical nanoparticles to polymers allows the modification of the polymers physical properties as well as the implementation of new features in the polymer matrix. This review article covers considerations on special features of inorganic nanoparticles, the most important synthesis methods for ceramic nanoparticles and nanocomposites, nanoparticle surface modification, and composite formation, including drawbacks. Classical nanocomposite properties, as thermomechanical, dielectric, conductive, magnetic, as well as optical properties, will be summarized. Finally, typical existing and potential applications will be shown with the focus on new and innovative applications, like in energy storage systems.

  16. Phase-transfer and film formation of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjana; Chadha, Ridhima; Biswas, Nandita; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2009-04-01

    In this article, a simple method for either transfer of silver nanoparticles from formamide to chloroform or to form a film at their interface is demonstrated. The transfer of the particles is a two-step size-dependent process. The size distribution of the colloidal hydrophobic silver particles in chloroform was almost the same as that before its transfer. Particles can be isolated by evaporation of chloroform. During evaporation, the hydrophobic particles become hydrophilic (charged) due to the formation of bilayer of CTAB over their surface. The isolated particles can be re-dispersed easily in polar solvents such as water and methanol. Nanocrystalline film of Ag is also prepared at the formamide-chloroform interface using suitable stabilizers in two immiscible layers. The nanocrystals have been characterized by various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The free standing film could be easily transferred on solid support.

  17. Mechanism of large optical nonlinearity in gold nanoparticle films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, I; McCloskey, D; Blau, W J; Lunney, J G

    2018-04-01

    The Z-scan technique, using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 1480 nm laser pulses, was used to measure the nonlinear optical properties of gold (Au) nanoparticle (NP) films made by both nanosecond (ns) and fs pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum. At irradiance levels of 1×10 12   Wm -2 , the ns-PLD films displayed induced absorption with β=4×10 -5   mW -1 , and a negative lensing effect with n 2 =-4.7×10 -11   m 2  W -1 with somewhat smaller values for the fs-PLD films. These values of n 2 imply an unphysically large change in the real part of the refractive index, demonstrating the need to take account of nonlinear changes of the Fresnel coefficients and multiple beam interference in Z-scan measurements on nanoscale films. Following this approach, the Z-scan observations were analyzed to determine the effective complex refractive index of the NP film at high irradiance. It appears that at high irradiance the NP film behaves as a metal, while at low irradiance it behaves as a low-loss dielectric. Thus, it is conjectured that, for high irradiance near the waist of the Z-scan laser beam, laser driven electron tunneling between NPs gives rise to metal-like optical behavior.

  18. Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Metal Composite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORRISON, M. L.; BUCHANAN, R. A.; LIAW, P. K.; BERRY, C. J.; BRIGMON, R.; RIESTER, L.; JIN, C.; NARAYAN, R. J.

    2005-05-11

    Implants containing antimicrobial metals may reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with medical device-related infections. We have deposited diamondlike carbon-silver (DLC-Ag), diamondlike carbon-platinum (DLC-Pt), and diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum (DLC-AgPt) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films revealed that the silver and platinum self-assemble into nanoparticle arrays within the diamondlike carbon matrix. The diamondlike carbon-silver film possesses hardness and Young's modulus values of 37 GPa and 331 GPa, respectively. The diamondlike carbon-metal composite films exhibited passive behavior at open-circuit potentials. Low corrosion rates were observed during testing in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) electrolyte. In addition, the diamondlike carbon-metal composite films were found to be immune to localized corrosion below 1000 mV (SCE). DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. It is believed that a galvanic couple forms between platinum and silver, which accelerates silver ion release and provides more robust antimicrobial activity. Diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum films may provide unique biological functionalities and improved lifetimes for cardiovascular, orthopaedic, biosensor, and implantable microelectromechanical systems.

  19. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  20. Nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alayo, Nerea; Bausells, Joan; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Conde-Rubio, Ana; Labarta, Amilcar; Batlle, Xavier; Borrisé, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Cone-like and empty cup-shaped nanoparticles of noble metals have been demonstrated to provide extraordinary optical properties for use as optical nanoanntenas or nanoresonators. However, their large-scale production is difficult via standard nanofabrication methods. We present a fabrication approach to achieve arrays of nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition by a combination of nanoimprint lithography, hard-mask definition and various forms of metal deposition. In particular, we have obtained arrays of empty cup-shaped Au nanoparticles showing an optical response with distinguishable features associated with the excitations of localized surface plasmons. Finally, this route avoids the most common drawbacks found in the fabrication of nanoparticles by conventional top-down methods, such as aspect ratio limitation, blurring, and low throughput, and it can be used to fabricate nanoparticles with heterogeneous composition. (paper)

  1. Nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition fabricated by nanoimprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayo, Nerea; Conde-Rubio, Ana; Bausells, Joan; Borrisé, Xavier; Labarta, Amilcar; Batlle, Xavier; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2015-11-06

    Cone-like and empty cup-shaped nanoparticles of noble metals have been demonstrated to provide extraordinary optical properties for use as optical nanoanntenas or nanoresonators. However, their large-scale production is difficult via standard nanofabrication methods. We present a fabrication approach to achieve arrays of nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition by a combination of nanoimprint lithography, hard-mask definition and various forms of metal deposition. In particular, we have obtained arrays of empty cup-shaped Au nanoparticles showing an optical response with distinguishable features associated with the excitations of localized surface plasmons. Finally, this route avoids the most common drawbacks found in the fabrication of nanoparticles by conventional top-down methods, such as aspect ratio limitation, blurring, and low throughput, and it can be used to fabricate nanoparticles with heterogeneous composition.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan—Agarose Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS and agarose (AG in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS, elongation-at-break (EB, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film’s tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  3. Novel manufacturing process of nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas welding by accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattahi, M., E-mail: fattahi.put@gmail.com [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noei Aghaei, V. [Aerospace Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabiri, A.R. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkhanlou, S. [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhavan, S.; Fattahi, Y. [Materials Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-11

    In the present work, accumulative roll bonding (ARB) was used as an effective method for manufacturing nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding. After welding, the distribution of ceramic nanoparticles and mechanical properties of welds were investigated. By applying ARB, ceramic nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed in the composite filler metals. Consequently, the welds produced by these filler metals had a uniform dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles in their compositions. The test results showed that the yield strength of welds was greatly increased when using the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals. The improvement in the yield strength was attributed to the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and Orowan strengthening mechanisms. Therefore, according to the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle/Al composite filler metals can serve as a novel filler metal for TIG welding of aluminum and its alloys.

  4. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  5. Improved polymer thin-film wetting behavior through nanoparticle segregation to interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, R S; Mackay, M E; Duxbury, P M; Hawker, C J; Asokan, Suba; Wong, Michael S; Goyette, Rick; Thiyagarajan, P

    2007-01-01

    We report a systematic study of improved wetting behavior for thin polymer films containing nanoparticles, as a function of nanoparticle size and concentration, the energy of the substrate and the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles. An enthalpy matched system consisting of polystyrene nanoparticles in linear polystyrene is used to show that nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in the film after spin coating and drying. However, on annealing the film above its bulk glass transition temperature these nanoparticles segregate strongly to the solid substrate. We find that for a wide range of film thicknesses and nanoparticle sizes, a substrate coverage of nanoparticles of approximately a monolayer is required for dewetting inhibition. Cadmium selenide quantum dots also inhibit dewetting of polystyrene thin films, again when a monolayer is present. Moreover, TEM microscopy images indicate that CdSe quantum dots segregate primarily to the air interface. Theoretical interpretation of these phenomena suggests that gain of linear chain configurational entropy promotes segregation of nanoparticles to the solid substrate, as occurs for polystyrene nanoparticles; however, for CdSe nanoparticles this is offset by surface energy or enthalpic terms which promote segregation of the nanoparticles to the air interface

  6. Nanoparticulate cerium dioxide and cerium dioxide-titanium dioxide composite thin films on glass by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Uzma; Dunnill, Charles W.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2009-01-01

    Two series of composite thin films were deposited on glass by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD)-nanoparticulate cerium dioxide and nanoparticulate cerium dioxide embedded in a titanium dioxide matrix. The films were analysed by a range of techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis by X-rays. The AACVD prepared films showed the functional properties of photocatalysis and super-hydrophilicity. The CeO 2 nanoparticle thin films displaying photocatalysis and photo-induced hydrophilicity almost comparable to that of anatase titania.

  7. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira; Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I.; Domb, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  8. Antibacterial effect of composite resins containing quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovin-Farber, Ira [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Beyth, Nurit; Weiss, Ervin I. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry (Israel); Domb, Abraham J., E-mail: avid@ekmd.huji.ac.i [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine (Israel)

    2010-02-15

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine (QA-PEI)-based nanoparticles were synthesized by crosslinking with dibromopentane followed by N-alkylation with various alkyl halides and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. Insoluble pyridinium-type particles were prepared by suspension polymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine followed by N-alkylation with alkyl halides. Polyamine-based nanoparticles embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w were tested for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans using direct contact test. Activity analysis revealed that the alkyl chain length of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl-alkylated QA-PEI embedded in restorative composite resin at 1% w/w that totally inhibited S. mutans growth in 3-month-aged samples. This data indicates that restorative composite resin with antibacterial properties can be produced by the incorporation of QA-PEI nanoparticles.

  9. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8–17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9–5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm"2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Visan, A.; Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, Bucharest, 011061 Romania (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest - ICUB, Bucharest, 77206 (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF{sup *} excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M.; Chifiriuc, M.C.; Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J.; Chrisey, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF * excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of rhodium sulfide nanoparticles and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosibo, Ndabenhle M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886 (South Africa); Revaprasadu, Neerish [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886 (South Africa)], E-mail: nrevapra@pan.uzulula.za

    2008-05-15

    The synthesis and characterization of a rhodium complex, [Rh(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2}){sub 2}] is described. The complex was thermolysed at a high temperature (280 deg. C) in the presence of capping agent, hexadecylamine (HDA) to form Rh{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles. Rod-shaped Rh{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles with an average length of 26.7 nm and an average breadth of 7.8 nm were synthesized. The complex was also used as a single molecule precursor for the deposition of Rh{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films on a glass substrate at 350 deg. C and 450 deg. C using the Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition (AACVD) technique. The resultant thin films showed temperature dependent morphologies and showed (0 2 2), (4 1 1) and (6 1 1) lattice planes characteristic of to the orthorhombic Rh{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the films.

  13. Preparation of Novel Thin-Film Composite Nanofiltration Membranes for Separation of Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several novel composite membranes were prepared to separate and recycle amoxicillin from pharmaceutical wastewater via nanofiltration process. The synthesis of these membranes included three stages: 1- preparation of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes as a support via phase separation process, 2- modification of its surface by interfacial polymerization as a selective layer (polyamide, and 3- self-assembly of TiO2 nanoparticles on the selective layer as an anti-fouling agent. The rejection of all nanofiltration membranes was more than 99% and only its flux was changed proportional to different conditions. In the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles, the pure water flux of polyamide thin-film membrane also obtained 44.4 and 38.4 L/h.m2 at 4 bar pressure, respectively. These were equal to 34 L/h.m2 for amoxicillin solutions. The results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles increased hydrophilicity of polyamide selective layer and therefore, nanoparticles decreased the fouling level. SEM images illustrated the excellent establishment of polyamide layer and distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles on the selective layer. The properties of membrane surface were taken into consideration by using AFM, indicating the increment of surface roughness with interfacial polymerization and TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembly. The pore size of membranes was in the nanoscale (2.653 and 2.604 nm without and with TiO2 nanoparticles self-assembly, respectively

  14. Strong saturable absorption of black titanium oxide nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Fang; Guo, Deng-Zhu; Zhang, Geng-Min

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear optical materials with strong saturable absorption (SA) properties play an essential role in passive mode-locking generation of ultrafast lasers. Here we report black TiO2-x nanoparticles are promising candidate for such an application. Black TiO2-x nanoparticles are synthesized by using cathodic plasma electrolysis, and nanoparticle films are deposited on optical glass plates via natural sedimentation and post annealing. Characterization of the samples with TEM, SEM, XRD and XPS reveal that nanoparticles have diameters of 8-70 nm, and are in polycrystalline structure and co-existence of anatase, rutile and abundant oxygen-deficient phases. Optical transmittance and reflectance measurements with a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer evidence an excellent wide-spectral optical absorption property. The nonlinear optical properties of the samples were measured by using open-aperture Z-scan technique with picosecond 532-nm laser, and verified by direct transmission measurements using nanosecond 1064-nm laser. Strong SA behavior was detected, and the nonlinear absorption coefficient is as high as β = - 4.9 × 10-8 m/W, at least two orders larger than most previous reports on ordinary TiO2. The strong SA behaviors are ascribed to the existence of plenty surface states and defect states within bandgap, and the relaxation rates of electrons from upper energy levels to lower ones are much slower than excitation rates.

  15. Nanoparticle and nanorod films deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cesaria, M.; Luches, A.; Martino, M.

    2012-07-01

    The promising results obtained with the MAPLE-deposition of nanostructured thin films, to be used in different fields, are reviewed. Nanoparticles (TiO2, SnO2, CdS) and nanorods (TiO2) with well defined dimensions were suspended in appropriate solvents (distilled water, toluene) with low concentration (1wt% or less). The solutions were flash frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature to form the targets to be laser irradiated. The MAPLE process allowed a successful transfer from the target to rough and flat substrates, preserving the starting composition and crystalline phase of the nanostructures in a wide range of experimental conditions. In contrast, a careful choice of the laser fluence is mandatory to avoid shape modifications. Growth of metal nanoparticles with a low dispersion in size was also obtained by the MAPLE technique, starting from target solutions of a metallorganic element (AcPd) diluted in different solvents (acetone, diethyl ether). It seems that selecting the solvent with appropriate values of viscosity and boiling temperatures, it is possible to modulate the nanoparticles size. Most of the deposited nanostructured films were tested as sensing elements for gas sensors.

  16. Templated assembly of Co-Pt nanoparticles via thermal and laser-induced dewetting of bilayer metal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong-Jun; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Thompson, Carl V; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-01-07

    Templated dewetting of a Co/Pt metal bilayer film on a topographic substrate was used to assemble arrays of Co-Pt alloy nanoparticles, with highly uniform particle size, shape and notably composition compared to nanoparticles formed on an untemplated substrate. Solid-state and liquid-state dewetting processes, using furnace annealing and laser irradiation respectively, were compared. Liquid state dewetting produced more uniform, conformal nanoparticles but they had a polycrystalline disordered fcc structure and relatively low magnetic coercivity. In contrast, solid state dewetting enabled formation of magnetically hard, ordered L1(0) Co-Pt single-crystal particles with coercivity >12 kOe. Furnace annealing converted the nanoparticles formed by liquid state dewetting into the L1(0) phase.

  17. Electrocatalytic properties of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles-incorporated polypyrrole films for electro-oxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Hamerton, I. [Chemistry Division, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-06

    Oxidative electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) is accomplished from a neat monomer solution with a supporting electrolyte (0.3M n-tetrabutyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) by multiple-scan cyclic voltammetry. Polypyrrole (Ppy) films containing nanometer-sized platinum and Pt/Pd bimetallic particles are electro-synthesized on ITO glass plates by voltammetric cycling between -0.1 and +1V (versus Ag/AgCl/3M NaCl). The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on the nanoparticle-modified polypyrrole films is studied by means of electrochemical techniques. The modified electrode exhibits significant eletrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The enhanced electrocatalytic activities may be due to the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the polypyrrole film and a synergistic effect of the highly-dispersed metal particles so that the polypyrrole film reduces electrode poisoning by adsorbed CO species. The monometallic (Pt) and bimetallic (Pt/Pd) nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in polypyrrole matrixes, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis is used to characterize the composition of metal present in the nanoparticle-modified electrodes. (author)

  18. Plasmonic nanoparticle films for solar cell applications fabricated by size-selective aerosol deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeiffer, T.V.; Ortiz Gonzalez, J.; Santbergen, R.; Tan, H.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Zeman, M.; Smets, A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A soft deposition method for incorporating surface plasmon resonant metal nanoparticles within photovoltaic devices was studied. This self-assembly method provides excellent control over both nanoparticle size and surface coverage. Films of spherical Ag nanoparticles with diameter of ?100 nm were

  19. Effective non-retarded method as a tool for the design of tunable nanoparticle composite absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Guillermo; Inchaussandague, Marina; Skigin, Diana; Depine, Ricardo; Mochán, W Luis

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the capabilities of an effective non-retarded formalism (ENR) for the exploration and design of nanoparticle composites with specific optical properties. We consider a composite material comprising periodically distributed metallic spheres in a dielectric host matrix. The effective macroscopic dielectric function of the composite medium is obtained by means of the ENR and is used to calculate the electromagnetic response of a slab made of an inhomogeneous material. This response is compared with that obtained by using the layer Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker wave calculation method (LKKR). We analyze the optical properties for different filling fractions, especially in the vicinity of the resonance frequencies of the macroscopic dielectric function. We notice that for dense systems within the long wavelength regime, the results of some analytical theories developed by other authors do not properly describe the multipolar excitations and interactions of orders higher than the dipole, in contrast with the results obtained by using an ENR. Therefore, those methods are not suitable for the design of compound films with novel properties. We show that by appropriately choosing the parameters of the composite, it is possible to achieve a tunable absorber film, and more generally, we show that ENR is a versatile tool for the design of nanoparticle composite materials with specific properties. (paper)

  20. Optical study on doped polyaniline composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G; Zheng, P; Wang, N L; Long, Y Z; Chen, Z J; Li, J C; Wan, M X

    2004-01-01

    Localization driven by disorder has a strong influence on the conducting properties of conducting polymers. Some authors hold the opinion that disorder in the material is homogeneous and that the conducting polymer is a disordered metal close to the Anderson-Mott metal-insulator (MI) transition, while others treat the disorder as inhomogeneous and have the opinion that conducting polymers are a composite of ordered metallic regions and disordered insulating regions. The morphology of conducting polymers is an important factor that has an influence on the type and extent of disorder. Different protonic acids used as dopants and moisture have influence on the polymer chain arrangement and interchain interactions. We performed optical reflectance measurements on several PANI-CSA/PANI-DBSA composite films with different dopant ratios and moisture contents. Optical conductivity and the real part of the dielectric function are calculated by Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations. σ 1 (ο) and ε 1 (ο) deviate from the simple Drude model in the low frequency range and the tendencies of the three sample are different and non-monotonic. The localization modified Drude model (LMD) in the framework of the Anderson-Mott theory cannot give a good fit to the experimental data. By introducing the distribution of relaxation time into the LMD, reasonable fits for all three samples are obtained. This result supports the inhomogeneous picture

  1. Design, characterization and ex vivo evaluation of chitosan film integrating of insulin nanoparticles composed of thiolated chitosan derivative for buccal delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavian, Elaheh; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to optimize and characterize of chitosan buccal film for delivery of insulin nanoparticles that were prepared from thiolated dimethyl ethyl chitosan (DMEC-Cys). Insulin nanoparticles composed of chitosan and dimethyl ethyl chitosan (DMEC) were also prepared as control groups. The release of insulin from nanoparticles was studied in vitro in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) pH 7.4. Optimization of chitosan buccal films has been carried out by central composite design (CCD) response surface methodology. Independent variables were different amounts of chitosan and glycerol as mucoadhesive polymer and plasticizer, respectively. Tensile strength and bioadhesion force were considered as dependent variables. Ex vivo study was performed on excised rabbit buccal mucosa. Optimized insulin nanoparticles were obtained with acceptable physicochemical properties. In vitro release profile of insulin nanoparticles revealed that the highest solubility of nanoparticles in aqueous media is related to DMEC-Cys nanoparticles. CCD showed that optimized buccal film containing 4% chitosan and 10% glycerol has 5.81 kg/mm(2) tensile strength and 2.47 N bioadhesion forces. Results of ex vivo study demonstrated that permeation of insulin nanoparticles through rabbit buccal mucosa is 17.1, 67.89 and 97.18% for chitosan, DMEC and DMEC-Cys nanoparticles, respectively. Thus, this study suggests that DMEC-Cys can act as a potential enhancer for buccal delivery of insulin.

  2. Design of the Elastic Modulus of Nanoparticles-Containing PVA/PVAc Films by the Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinska, N.; Kalnins, M.; Kovalovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2015-11-01

    By the surface response method, a regression equation is constructed, and the tensile elastic modulus of films made from polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinyl acetate (PVA/PVAc) blends filled with montmorillonite clay and microcrystalline cellulose nanoparticles is investigated. It is established that the introduction of the nanoparticles improves the mechanical properties of the blends in tension considerably: their strength and elastic modulus increase with content of the particles. Using the regression equation, the optimum composition of nanoparticlefilled PVA/PVAc blends with the highest value of elastic modulus is found.

  3. X-ray synthesis of nickel-gold composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chong-Cook; Wang Changhai; Yang, Y.-C.; Hwu, Y.K.; Seol, Seung-Kwon; Kwon, Yong-Bum; Chen, C.-H.; Liou, Huey-Wen; Lin, H.-M.; Margaritondo, Giorgio; Je, Jung-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We developed a novel approach to prepare Ni-Au composite nanoparticles using synchrotron radiation X-rays. Ni-Au particles dispersed in aqueous solutions were synthesized with two different irradiation strategies. The first is by exposing to X-rays a mixed electroless solution of Ni and Au at two different temperatures, trying to nucleate Ni nanoparticles homogeneously at room temperature and to deposit Au subsequently on them at the high temperature of 70 deg. C. The second strategy is to change the pH value of the mixed solution, directly leading to the formation of Ni-Au nanoparticles. In both cases, the Ni-Au composite nanoparticles were successfully formed, as confirmed by the observed ferromagnetic behavior and by the evolution of the Au surface plasmon resonance band

  4. Sintering effect on the optoelectronic characteristics of HgSe nanoparticle films on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Kwangsub; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    The optoelectronic characteristics of HgSe nanoparticle films spin-coated on flexible plastic substrates are investigated under the illumination of 1.3 μm wavelength light. The sintering process improves the optoelectronic characteristics of the HgSe nanoparticle films. The photocurrent of the sintered HgSe nanoparticle films under the illumination of 1.3 μm wavelength light is approximately 20 times larger in magnitude than that of the non-sintered films in air at room temperature. Moreover, the endurance of the flexible optoelectronic device investigated by the continuous substrate bending test reveals that the photocurrent efficiency changes negligibly up to 250 cycles.

  5. Radiation-induced synthesis of gold, iron-oxide composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takao; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Kojima, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Okuda, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were synthesized using gamma-rays or electron beam. Ionizing irradiation induces the generation of reducing species inside the aqueous solution, and gold ions are reduced to form metallic Au nanoparticles. The size of Au nanoparticles depended on the dose rate and the concentration of support iron oxide. The gold nanoparticles on iron oxide nanoparticles selectively adsorb biomolecules via Au-S bonding. By using magnetic property of the support iron oxide nanoparticles, the composite nanoparticles are expected as a new type of magnetic nanocarrier for biomedical applications. (author)

  6. Ultrathin free-standing close-packed gold nanoparticle films: Conductivity and Raman scattering enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Huang, Hongwen; Peng, Xinsheng; Ye, Zhizhen

    2011-09-01

    A simple filtration technique was developed to prepare large scale free-standing close-packed gold nanoparticle ultrathin films using metal hydroxide nanostrands as both barrier layer and sacrificial layer. As thin as 70 nm, centimeter scale robust free-standing gold nanoparticle thin film was obtained. The thickness of the films could be easily tuned by the filtration volumes. The electronic conductivities of these films varied with the size of the gold nanoparticles, post-treatment temperature, and thickness, respectively. The conductivity of the film prepared from 20 nm gold nanoparticles is higher than that of the film prepared from 40 nm gold nanoparticle by filtering the same filtration volume of their solution, respectively. Their conductivities are comparable to that of the 220 nm thick ITO film. Furthermore, these films demonstrated an average surface Raman scattering enhancement up to 6.59 × 105 for Rhodamine 6 G molecules on the film prepared from 40 nm gold nanoparticles. Due to a lot of nano interspaces generated from the close-packed structures, two abnormal enhancements and relative stronger intensities of the asymmetrical vibrations at 1534 and 1594 cm-1 of R6G were observed, respectively. These robust free-standing gold nanoparticle films could be easily transferred onto various solid substrates and hold the potential application for electrodes and surface enhanced Raman detectors. This method is applicable for preparation of other nanoparticle free-standing thin films.A simple filtration technique was developed to prepare large scale free-standing close-packed gold nanoparticle ultrathin films using metal hydroxide nanostrands as both barrier layer and sacrificial layer. As thin as 70 nm, centimeter scale robust free-standing gold nanoparticle thin film was obtained. The thickness of the films could be easily tuned by the filtration volumes. The electronic conductivities of these films varied with the size of the gold nanoparticles, post

  7. Strongly nonlinear electronic transport in Cr-Si composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.T.; Vinzelberg, H.; Schumann, J.; Nakama, T.; Yagasaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    The phase formation, the resistivity and the thermopower of amorphous Cr 0.15 Si 0.85 , and nanocrystalline CrSi 2 -Si thin film composites have been studied. The films were produced by a magnetron sputtering of a composite target onto unheated substrates with subsequent crystallization of the film at high temperatures. As the film composite develops under the heat treatment from the initial amorphous state into the final polycrystalline material, two percolation thresholds were found. At first, the percolating cluster of nanocrystalline CrSi 2 is formed. However, this cluster is destroyed with further annealing due to crystallization and redistribution of Si. The composite films which are close to this insulating threshold reveal a strongly nonlinear conductivity. The conductivity increases with the current by two orders of magnitude

  8. Supercapacitors based on flexible graphene/polyaniline nanofiber composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Xu, Yuxi; Yao, Zhiyi; Liu, Anran; Shi, Gaoquan

    2010-04-27

    Composite films of chemically converted graphene (CCG) and polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs) were prepared by vacuum filtration the mixed dispersions of both components. The composite film has a layered structure, and PANI-NFs are sandwiched between CCG layers. Furthermore, it is mechanically stable and has a high flexibility; thus, it can be bent into large angles or be shaped into various desired structures. The conductivity of the composite film containing 44% CCG (5.5 x 10(2) S m(-1)) is about 10 times that of a PANI-NF film. Supercapacitor devices based on this conductive flexible composite film showed large electrochemical capacitance (210 F g(-1)) at a discharge rate of 0.3 A g(-1). They also exhibited greatly improved electrochemical stability and rate performances.

  9. Photocatalytic composites based on titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a review on recent experimental works toward the formation of visible light responsive composite photocatalysts on the basis of titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials of different types. The research results achieved in last years has shown that the nanocomposite photocatalysts comprising titania nanoparticles and graphene or graphene oxide sheets, and also nanoparticles of noble metals and metallic oxides, exhibited the evident priority compared to the others. Therefore our review emphasizes the research on these promising visible light responsive nanophotocatalysts. (review)

  10. Film Formation of Ag Nanoparticles at the Organic-Aqueous Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorita, John

    2005-03-01

    A wet-chemical method to make films by spontaneous assembly of passivated Ag nanoparticles at the organic-aqueous liquid interface is presented. The interfacial films exhibit a blue opalescence, or in other cases a silvery color, and are characterized with transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Measurements indicate that nanoparticles in the interfacial film can form superlattices and in some cases nanostructures.

  11. Decoration of PbS nanoparticles on Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiung; Chen, Chao-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Dong-Hwang, E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► AZO nanorod array thin film is used as a photoanode for solar water splitting. ► Hydrogen treatment and sensitization by PbS nanoparticles enhance photocurrent. ► A novel ITO/FTO-free composite photoelectrode is developed. ► The pre-fabrication and use of an extra TCO thin film substrate is unnecessary. -- Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanorod arrays thin film with hydrogen treatment is directly used as a photoelectrode for solar water splitting without an extra transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin film because it possesses the functions of TCO thin film and photoactive 1-dimensional nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible region, PbS nanoparticles decorated the AZO nanorods via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction route. The PbS nanoparticles have a face-centered cubic structure and their decoration does not destroy the 1-dimensional morphology of AZO nanorod arrays. With increasing the cycle number of PbS nanoparticles decoration, the grain size and loading of PbS nanoparticles become larger gradually which leads to lower energy bandgap and stronger absorption. A maximum photocurrent density of 1.65 mW cm{sup −2} is obtained when the cycle number is 20, which is much higher than those without PbS nanoparticles sensitization or hydrogen treatment. This demonstrates that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment can be directly used as a photoelectrode without an extra TCO thin film. Because the use of expensive metals can be avoided and the pre-fabrication of TCO thin film substrate is necessary no more, the fabrication of such a composite photoelectrode becomes simple and low-cost. So, it has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption.

  12. Interfaces study of all-polysaccharide composite films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkovic, I.; Kelnar, Ivan; Mendichi, R.; Tracz, A.; Filip, J.; Bertók, T.; Kasák, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2018), s. 711-718 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : all-polysaccharide composites * elemental analysis * film properties study Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  13. DESIGN OF A NOVEL CONDUCTING COMPOSITE SUPPORTED BY PLATINUM NANOPARTICLES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem BALUN KAYAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the decrease in fossil fuel resources and the continuous increase in energy demands, clean energy requirements become extremely important for future energy generation systems. Hydrogen is well known as an efficient and environmentally friendly energy carrier. Highly catalytic active and low-cost electrocatalysts for hydrogen production are key issues for sustainable energy technologies. Here we report an aluminium electrode modified with polypyrrole (PPy-chitosan (Chi composite film decorated with Pt nanoparticles for hydrogen production from water. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV, Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in 0.5M H2SO4. The structural properties of the modified surfaces analyses were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The stability tests also performed for aluminium electrode coted with PPy-Chi/Pt composite film.

  14. Au/CeO2-chitosan composite film for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Xie Guoming; Li Shenfeng; Lu Lingsong; Liu Bei

    2012-01-01

    Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were in situ synthesized at the cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 NPs)-chitosan (CS) composite film by one-step direct chemical reduction, and the resulting Au/CeO 2 -CS composite were further modified for enzyme immobilization and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) biosensing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-vis spectra and electrochemical techniques have been utilized for characterization of the prepared composite. The stepwise assembly process and electrochemical performances of the biosensor were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and typical amperometric response (i-t). The Au/CeO 2 -CS composite exhibited good conductibility and biocompatibility, and the developed biosensor exhibited excellent response to hydrogen peroxide in the linear range of 0.05-2.5 mM (r = 0.998) with the detection limit of 7 μM (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor presented high affinity (K m app =1.93mM), good reproducibility and storage stability. All these results demonstrate that the Au/CeO 2 -CS composite film can provide a promising biointerface for the biosensor designs and other biological applications.

  15. Photoluminescence enhancement in few-layer WS2 films via Au nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Yuk Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-composites of two-dimensional atomic layered WS2 and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs have been fabricated by sulfurization of sputtered W films followed by immersing into HAuCl4 aqueous solution. The morphology, structure and AuNPs distribution have been characterized by electron microscopy. The decorated AuNPs can be more densely formed on the edge and defective sites of triangle WS2. We have compared the optical absorption and photoluminescence of bare WS2 and Au-decorated WS2 layers. Enhancement in the photoluminescence is observed in the Au-WS2 nano-composites, attributed to localized surface plasmonic effect. This work provides the possibility to develop photonic application in two-dimensional materials.

  16. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, R.; Visan, A.; Socol, G.; Surdu, A. V.; Oprea, A. E.; Grumezescu, A. M.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Boehm, R. D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R. J.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  18. Percolation model for electron conduction in films of metal nanoparticles linked by organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, K.H.; Herrmann, J.; Raguse, B.; Baxter, G.; Reda, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have investigated theoretically and experimentally the temperature dependence of the conductance of films of Au nanoparticles linked by alkane dithiol molecules in the temperature range between 5 K and 300 K. Conduction in these films is due to tunneling of single electrons between neighbouring metal nanoparticles. During tunnelling an electron has to overcome the Coulomb charging energy. We find that the observed temperature dependence of the conductance is non-Arrhenius like and can be described in terms of a percolation theory which takes account of disorder in the system. Disorder in our nanoparticle films is caused by variations in the nanoparticle size, fluctuations in the separation gaps between adjacent nanoparticles and by offset charges. To explain in detail our experimental data, a wide distribution of separation gaps and charging energies is needed. We find that a wide Coulomb charging energy distribution can arise from random offset charges even if the nanoparticle size distribution is narrow

  19. Gold nanoparticles and films produced by a laser ablation/gas deposition (LAGD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yuji; Seto, Takafumi; Yoshida, Toshinobu; Ozawa, Eiichi

    2002-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have great potential for various nanoelectronic applications such as single electron transistors, an infrared absorption sensor and so on. It is very important to understand and control the size distribution of the particles for such a variety of applications. In this paper, we report the size distribution of gold nanoparticles and the relationship between the nanoparticle-films and the electrical property produced by a laser ablation method. Gold nanoparticle-films were prepared by a technique, which sprays nanoparticles on the substrate through a nozzle. We call it a gas deposition method. The nanoparticles were generated by the nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of a gold substrate under a low-pressure inert gas atmosphere. The ambient pressure was changed to control the average size and their distribution. The particles produced in the generation chamber were transported by a helium carrier gas to the deposition chamber and deposited on a substrate to form the films composed of gold nanoparticles. The electrical resistivity of the generated gold nanoparticle-films on the glass substrates was measured using a four-probe method. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer (LP-DMA). The relationship between the particle size and the electrical properties of each film made by the different synthesis conditions were analyzed. The electrical resistivity changed from the order of 10 -5 to 10 -1 Ω cm depending on the ambient pressure and the size distribution

  20. Material influence on hot spot distribution in the nanoparticle heterodimer on film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Huang, Yingzhou; Wei, Hua; Wang, Shuxia; Zeng, Xiping; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia

    2018-04-01

    The metal nanoparticle aggregated on film, as an effective plasma enhancement pathway, has been widely used in various surface plasmon-related fields. In this study, the hot spots on the metal nanoparticle dimer composed of different materials (Agsbnd Au, Agsbnd Pd, and Agsbnd Cu) on metal (Au) film were investigated with finite element method. Based on the results, the hot spot distribution affected by the material can be confirmed by the electric field distribution of the metal nanoparticle dimer on the film. The aggregation effects of Au and Ag nanoparticles in Ausbnd Ag dimer system are not significant. However, for the Pdsbnd Ag dimer system, the hot spot aggregation effect is slightly larger than that of the Pd nanoparticle under the Ag nanoparticle. Besides, the non-uniform hot spots would bring about the light focusing phenomenon that the light intensity under Ag nanoparticle is almost 100 times greater than that under Cu nanoparticle in Agsbnd Cu dimer system. These results were further confirmed by the surface charge distribution, and analyzed based on the plasmonic hybridization theory. The data about the nanoparticle dimer on the dielectric (Si) film demonstrate the importance of induced image charges on the film surface in such a light focusing phenomenon. Our findings can enhance the understanding of the surface plasmon coupling in different materials, which may have great application prospects in surface plasmon-related fields, such as SERS, plasmonic enhanced solar cell, and plasmonic sensoring, etc.

  1. Sub-10 ohm resistance gold films prepared by removal of ligands from thiol-stabilized 6 nm gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Mark W; Richardson, Tim H; Leggett, Graham

    2010-03-16

    The optical and electrical properties of dodecanethiol-stabilized nanoparticles (6 nm diameter gold core) have been investigated over a range of film thicknesses and temperatures. The surface plasmon resonance absorbance is found to be dependent on temperature. Heating of the nanoparticle film causes desorption of the thiol from the surface of the gold nanoparticle, resulting in irreversible changes to the absorption spectra of the nanoparticle film. Atomic force microscopy images of the samples before and after heating for different film thicknesses reveal structural changes and increased domain connectivity for thicker films leading to sub-10 ohm resistances measured for the 15-layer film.

  2. Fabrication of molecular hybrid films of gold nanoparticle and polythiophene by covalent assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman, E-mail: jsu2@np.edu.sg [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore); Environmental & Water Technology Centre of Innovation, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 599489 (Singapore); Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam [CERAR, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Srinivasan, M.P., E-mail: chesmp@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-08-31

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of molecular hybrid films comprising gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) incorporated in covalently assembled, substituted polythiophene (poly(3-(2-bromoethoxy)ethoxymethylthiophene-2,5-diyl (PBrEEMT))) films by different surface chemistry routes. AuNPs are incorporated in the immobilized polythiophene matrix due to its affinity for amine and sulfur. The amount of AuNPs present depends on the nature of the incorporation, the extent of film coverage and interaction of thiophene and amine groups. PBrEEMT films functionalized with amine rich polyallylamine immobilize greater numbers of AuNPs due to more extensive gold–amine interactions. Covalent binding between AuNP and PBrEEMT films was accomplished by using pre-functionalised AuNPs (4-aminothiophenol functionalized AuNPs). Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and chemical constituents of assembled films. These approaches will pave the way for developing facile methods for nanoparticle incorporation and will also facilitate direct interaction of nanoparticles with the conducting polymer matrix and enhance the electrical properties of the films. - Highlights: • Covalent molecular assembly enabled the fabrication of molecular hybrid films. • Monomeric and polymeric species were employed as intermediate linkers. • Adopted approaches facilitated the direct interaction of gold nanoparticle in films. • The amount of nanoparticle incorporation depended on the extent of film coverage.

  3. Characterization of Corn Starch Films Reinforced with CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Xi, Tingting; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of corn starch (CS) films impregnated with CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. Criteria such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and mechanical properties were the focus of the investigation. It was found that the CaCO3 contents had significant effects on the tensile properties of the nanocomposite films. The addition of CaCO3 nanoparticles to the CS films significantly increased tensile strength from 1.40 to 2.24 MPa, elongation from 79.21 to 118.98%, and Young’s modulus from 1.82 to 2.41 MPa. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticles increased the opacity of films, lowered the degree of WVP and film solubility value compared to those of the CS films. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with the increase of CaCO3 nanoparticles content in starch films, the roughness of the films increased, and pores or cavities were found on the surface of the films, while small cracks were observed in the structures of the fractured surfaces. X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of nanoparticles increased the peaks in the intensity of films. PMID:25188503

  4. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Raising the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion reduced the zeta-potential from +61 mV at pH 7 to −51 mV at pH 10.5. Coating the CIGS nanoparticles with PSS (CIGS-PSS produced a stable dispersion in water with −56.9 mV zeta-potential. Thin films of oppositely charged CIGS nanoparticles (CIGS/CIGS, CIGS nanoparticles and PSS (CIGS/PSS, and PSS-coated CIGS nanoparticles and polyethylenimine (CIGS-PSS/PEI were constructed through the LbL nanoassembly. Film thickness and resistivity of each bilayer of the films were measured, and photoelectric properties of the films were studied for solar cell applications. Solar cell devices fabricated with a 219 nm CIGS film, when illuminated by 50 W light-source, produced 0.7 V open circuit voltage and 0.3 mA/cm2 short circuit current density.

  5. SERS of semiconducting nanoparticles (TIO{sub 2} hybrid composites).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajh, T.; Musumeci, A.; Gosztola, D.; Schiller, T.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Mujica, V.; Martin, D.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2009-05-06

    Raman scattering of molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was investigated. We find strong enhancement of Raman scattering in hybrid composites that exhibit charge transfer absorption with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. An enhancement factor up to {approx}10{sup 3} was observed in the solutions containing TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and biomolecules, including the important class of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and dopac (3,4-dihydroxy-phenylacetic acid). Only selected vibrations are enhanced, indicating molecular specificity due to distinct binding and orientation of the biomolecules coupled to the TiO{sub 2} surface. All enhanced modes are associated with the asymmetric vibrations of attached molecules that lower the symmetry of the charge transfer complex. The intensity and the energy of selected vibrations are dependent on the size and shape of nanoparticle support. Moreover, we show that localization of the charge in quantized nanoparticles (2 nm), demonstrated as the blue shift of particle absorption, diminishes SERS enhancement. Importantly, the smallest concentration of adsorbed molecules shows the largest Raman enhancements suggesting the possibility for high sensitivity of this system in the detection of biomolecules that form a charge transfer complex with metal oxide nanoparticles. The wavelength-dependent properties of a hybrid composite suggest a Raman resonant state. Adsorbed molecules that do not show a charge transfer complex show weak enhancements probably due to the dielectric cavity effect.

  6. Synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles using DNA-complex as template for solution-processable hybrid dielectric composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.C. [Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry, 153 Gilbert Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Mejia, I.; Murphy, J.; Quevedo, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Garcia, P.; Martinez, C.A. [Engineering and Technology Institute, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We developed a synthesis method to produce TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using a DNA complex. • The nanoparticles were anatase phase (~6 nm diameter), and stable in alcohols. • Composites showed a k of 13.4, 4.6 times larger than the k of polycarbonate. • Maximum processing temperature was 90 °C. • Low temperature enables their use in low-voltage, low-cost, flexible electronics. - Abstract: We report the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) in the presence of a DNA complex for solution processable dielectric composites. The nanoparticles were incorporated as fillers in polycarbonate at low concentrations (1.5, 5 and 7 wt%) to produce hybrid dielectric films with dielectric constant higher than thermally grown silicon oxide. It was found that the DNA complex plays an important role as capping agent in the formation and suspension stability of nanocrystalline anatase phase TiO{sub 2} at room temperature with uniform size (∼6 nm) and narrow distribution. The effective dielectric constant of spin-cast polycarbonate thin-films increased from 2.84 to 13.43 with the incorporation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles into the polymer host. These composites can be solution processed with a maximum temperature of 90 °C and could be potential candidates for its application in low-cost macro-electronics.

  7. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp produced by powder metallurgy (PM were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA. In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050 anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film.

  8. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C.; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A.; Rocha, Luis A.; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiCnp) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiCnp on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiCnp. The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiCnp volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiCnp. The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiCnp composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiCnp in the anodic film. PMID:28788295

  9. Anodization Mechanism on SiC Nanoparticle Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by Power Metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sonia C; Conde, Ana; Arenas, María A; Rocha, Luis A; Velhinho, Alexandre

    2014-12-19

    Specimens of aluminum-based composites reinforced by silicon carbide nanoparticles (Al/SiC np ) produced by powder metallurgy (PM) were anodized under voltage control in tartaric-sulfuric acid (TSA). In this work, the influence of the amount of SiC np on the film growth during anodizing was investigated. The current density versus time response and the morphology of the porous alumina film formed at the composite surface are compared to those concerning a commercial aluminum alloy (AA1050) anodized under the same conditions. The processing method of the aluminum alloys influences the efficiency of the anodizing process, leading to a lower thicknesses for the unreinforced Al-PM alloy regarding the AA1050. The current density versus time response is strongly dependent on the amount of SiC np . The current peaks and the steady-state current density recorded at each voltage step increases with the SiC np volume fraction due to the oxidation of the SiC np . The formation mechanism of the anodic film on Al/SiC np composites is different from that occurring in AA1050, partly due the heterogeneous distribution of the reinforcement particles in the metallic matrix, but also to the entrapment of SiC np in the anodic film.

  10. TiO2 nanoparticle thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Capone, S.; Ciccarella, G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Romano, F.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.

    2007-01-01

    The MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of nanostructured titania (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles thin films to be used for gas sensors applications. An aqueous solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles, synthesised by a novel chemical route, was frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed ArF excimer laser in a vacuum chamber. A uniform distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm was deposited on Si and interdigitated Al 2 O 3 substrates as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy-field emission gun inspection (SEM-FEG). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of only the titanium and oxygen signals and FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) revealed the TiO 2 characteristic composition and bond. A comparison with a spin coated thin film obtained from the same solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles is reported. The sensing properties of the films deposited on interdigitated substrates were investigated, too

  11. Ferroelectric properties of composites containing BaTiO3 nanoparticles of various sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Jens; Lehnert, Tobias; Klein, Gabi; McMeeking, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Size effects, including the occurrence of superparaelectric phases associated with small scale, are a significant research topic for ferroelectrics. Relevant phenomena have been explored in detail, e.g. for homogeneous, thin ferroelectric films, but the related effects associated with nanoparticles are usually only inferred from their structural properties. In contrast, this paper describes all the steps and concepts necessary for the direct characterization and quantitative assessment of the ferroelectric properties of as-synthesized and as-received nanoparticles. The method adopted uses electrical polarization measurements on polymer matrix composites containing ferroelectric nanoparticles. It is applied to ten different BaTiO 3 particle types covering a size range from 10 nm to 0.8 μm. The influence of variations of particle characteristics such as tetragonality and dielectric constant is considered based on measurements of these properties. For composites containing different particle types a clearly differing polarization behaviour is found. For decreasing particle size, increasing electric field is required to achieve a given level of polarization. The size dependence of a measure related to the coercive field revealed by this work is qualitatively in line with the state of the knowledge for ferroelectrics having small dimensions. For the first time, such results and size effects are described based on data from experiments on collections of actual nanoparticles. (paper)

  12. Ferroelectric properties of composites containing BaTiO 3 nanoparticles of various sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jens; Lehnert, Tobias; Klein, Gabi; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Size effects, including the occurrence of superparaelectric phases associated with small scale, are a significant research topic for ferroelectrics. Relevant phenomena have been explored in detail, e.g. for homogeneous, thin ferroelectric films, but the related effects associated with nanoparticles are usually only inferred from their structural properties. In contrast, this paper describes all the steps and concepts necessary for the direct characterization and quantitative assessment of the ferroelectric properties of as-synthesized and as-received nanoparticles. The method adopted uses electrical polarization measurements on polymer matrix composites containing ferroelectric nanoparticles. It is applied to ten different BaTiO3 particle types covering a size range from 10 nm to 0.8 μm. The influence of variations of particle characteristics such as tetragonality and dielectric constant is considered based on measurements of these properties. For composites containing different particle types a clearly differing polarization behaviour is found. For decreasing particle size, increasing electric field is required to achieve a given level of polarization. The size dependence of a measure related to the coercive field revealed by this work is qualitatively in line with the state of the knowledge for ferroelectrics having small dimensions. For the first time, such results and size effects are described based on data from experiments on collections of actual nanoparticles.

  13. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed

  14. Composite nanoparticles containing rare earth metal and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandapallil, Binil Itty Ipe; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Johnson, Francis

    2018-04-10

    The present invention is directed to composite nanoparticles comprising a metal, a rare earth element, and, optionally, a complexing ligand. The invention is also directed to composite nanoparticles having a core-shell structure and to processes for preparation of composite nanoparticles of the invention.

  15. Using sub-micron silver-nanoparticle based films to counter biofilm formation by Gram-negative bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, A. R.; Baxter, S. N.; Hodgson, S. D.; Smith, G. C.; Thomas, P. J.

    2018-06-01

    Composite films comprised of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) grown using a low-cost straightforward chemical bath based method have been deposited on glass microscope slides to investigate their potential as a sacrificial antibacterial coating. The as-deposited films have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometry. These suggested that the films were relatively uniform in coverage. Chemical composition of the AgNP films has been studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS analysis indicated that the Ag was in a metallic form able to sustain plasmon behaviour, and that low levels of residual nanoparticle precursors were present. Particle size was characterised using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which showed an average particle size of 10.6 nm. The effectiveness of the films as an antibacterial coating was tested against Escherichia coli. The AgNP film was determined to be effective in the killing of E. coli cells over a 24 h period when compared to equivalent samples that contained no silver. Of particular note was that only minimal bacterial growth was detected over the first 12 h of testing, up to 78.6 times less than the control samples, suggesting the film is very efficient at slowing initial biofilm formation. The use of AgNP based films that have been synthesised using a novel low-cost, low-temperature and highly upscalable method is demonstrated as a promising solution for the deployment of silver as an effective sacrifical antimicrobial coating to counter the formation of potentially hazardous Gram negative biofilms.

  16. Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposite films by incorporation of crystalline BaTiO_3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Tsuyoshi; Han, Yu; Nagao, Daisuke; Kamezawa, Nao; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dielectric barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles incorporated into luminescence films. • Luminescence intensities increased by the BT nanoparticle incorporation. • Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles effective for luminescence enhancement. - Abstract: Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles into luminescent ZnO-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposite films was undertaken to examine the effect of nanoparticle incorporation on luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared as inorganic phosphors by a precipitation method. The ZnO nanoparticles were then surface-modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) to be used for fabrication of the ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite film. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method as the highly dielectric nanoparticles, which were also surface-modified with the MPTMS for the incorporation into the nanocomposite films. Luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films was successfully increased by the nanoparticle incorporation up to a BT content around 15 vol%. The luminescence intensity higher than that measured for the nanocomposite films incorporating SiO_2 nanoparticles indicated that the incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles was an effective approach to enhance the luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymer thin films.

  17. Hexagonally ordered nanoparticles templated using a block copolymer film through Coulombic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Lee, Seung Yong; Zhang Xin; Rabin, Oded; Briber, R M

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel and simple method for forming hexagonal gold nanoparticle arrays that uses Coulombic interactions between negatively charged gold nanoparticles on positively charged vertically oriented poly(4-vinylpyridine) cylinders formed in a spin cast polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer film. Exposure of the block copolymer film to dibromobutane vapor quaternizes and crosslinks the poly(4-vinylpyridine) domains which allows for the templated deposition of gold nanoparticles into a self-assembled hexagonal array through electrostatic interactions. These systems can form the basis for sensors or next generation nanoparticle based electronics. (paper)

  18. Cellulose nanocomposite films with in situ generated silver nanoparticles using Cassia alata leaf extract as a reducing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaranjana, P; Nagarajan, E R; Rajini, N; Jawaid, M; Rajulu, A Varada

    2017-06-01

    Cotton linters were dissolved in aq. (8% LiOH+15% urea) that was pre-cooled to -12.5°C. Using this solution cellulose gel films were prepared by regeneration method with ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. These wet films were diffused with 10wt% Cassia alata leaf extract that acted as a reducing agent. The leaf extract diffused cellulose wet films were used as the matrix. The wet matrix films were dipped individually in lower concentrated 1-5mM aq.AgNO 3 source solutions in the presence of sunlight and allowed the solutions to react with the diffused leaf extract reducing agent which in situ generated the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the films as well as in the source solution. The AgNPs formed in the source solution were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) while those formed in situ the films were observed by SEM and the particle size distribution was determined. The cellulose/AgNP composite films showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli bacteria. These nanocomposite films were also characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. At temperatures below 300°C, the thermal stability of the nanocomposite films was lower than that of the matrix due to the catalytic effect of AgNPs. The nanocomposite films also possessed good tensile properties. The ecofriendly cellulose/AgNP composite films with good antibacterial activity and tensile properties can be considered for medical applications like dressing materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial Bacterial Cellulose-Silver Nanoparticles Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernane S. Barud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-silver nanoparticles composite membranes have been obtained by “in situ” preparation of Ag nanoparticles from hydrolytic decomposition of silver nitrate solution using triethanolamine as reducing and complexing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and absorption in the UV-Visible (350 nm to 600 nm. Thermal and mechanical properties together with swelling behavior for water were considered. TEA concentration was observed to be important in order to obtain only Ag particles and not a mixture of silver oxides. It was also observed to control particle size and amount of silver contents in bacterial cellulose. The composite membranes exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Antimicrobial and cell viability measurement of bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA) loaded collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Rotimi; Hawthrone, Samantha; Vails, Carmen; Gugssa, Ayele; Karim, Alamgir; Stubbs, John; Raghavan, Dharmaraj

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial infection of orthopedic devices has been a major concern in joint replacement procedures. Therefore, this study is aimed at formulating collagen immobilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) film loaded with bovine serum albumin capped silver nanoparticles (Ag/BSA NPs) to inhibit bacterial growth while retaining/promoting osteoblast cells viability. The nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film was characterized for its composition by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. The extent of loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was found to depend on the chemistry of the functionalized PHBV film and the concentration of Ag/BSA NPs solution used for loading nanoparticles. Our results showed that more Ag/BSA NPs were loaded on higher molecular weight collagen immobilized PHEMA-g-PHBV film. Maximum loading of Ag/BSA NPs on collagen immobilized PHBV film was observed when 16ppm solution was used for adsorption studies. Colony forming unit and optical density measurements showed broad antimicrobial activity towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at significantly lower concentration i.e., 0.19 and 0.31μg/disc, compared to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim while MTT assay showed that released nanoparticles from Ag/BSA NPs loaded collagen immobilized PHBV film has no impact on MCTC3-E1 cells viability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of starch films containing starch nanoparticles: part 1: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-07-25

    We report, for the first time, the preparation method and characteristics of starch films incorporating spray dried and vacuum freeze dried starch nanoparticles. Physical properties of these films such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and glass transition temperature (Tg) and mechanical properties (strain versus temperature, strain versus stress, Young's modulus and toughness) were measured. Addition of both starch nanoparticles in starch films increased roughness of surface, lowered degree of crystallinity by 23.5%, WVP by 44% and Tg by 4.3°C, respectively compared to those of starch-only films. Drying method used in preparation of starch nanoparticles only affected opacity of films. The incorporation of nanoparticles in starch films resulted into denser films due to which the extent of variation of strain with temperature was much lower. The toughness and Young's modulus of films containing both types of starch nanoparticles were lower than those of control films especially at <100°C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Roll of NaPSS Surfactant on the Ceria Nanoparticles Embedding in Polypyrrole Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Popescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs in crystalline form have been synthesized by a coprecipitation method. CeO2 nanoparticles were then embedded in polypyrrole (PPy films during the electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py on titanium substrate. The influence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NaPSS surfactant used during polymerization on the embedding of CeO2 NPs in polypyrrole films was investigated. The new films were characterized in terms of surface analysis, wettability, electrochemical behaviour, and antibacterial effect. The surface and electrochemical characterization revealed the role of surfactant on PPy doping process cerium oxide incorporation. In the presence of surfactant, CeO2 NPs are preferentially embedded in the polymeric film while, without surfactant, the ceria nanoparticles are quasiuniformly spread as agglomerates onto polymeric films. The antibacterial effect of studied PPy films was substantially improved in the presence of cerium oxide and depends by the polymerization conditions.

  3. Improvement of the Heat Resistance of Prussian Blue Nanoparticles in a Clay Film Composed of Smectite Clay and ε-Caprolactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kenta; Nakamura, Takashi; Ebina, Takeo; Ishizaki, Manabu; Kurihara, Masato

    2018-06-04

    Prussian blue (PB) is limited in its application by its breakdown at elevated temperatures. To improve the heat resistance of PB, we prepared a composite film comprising PB nanoparticles (NPs), smectite clay, and an organic compound. The composite film had a microstructure in which PB NPs were intercalated between smectite/organic compound layers. The predominant oxidation temperature of the PB NPs in the composite film was around 500 °C in air, higher than the oxidation temperature of bulk PB in air (250 °C). This improvement in the oxidation temperature may be due to the composite film acting as a barrier to oxygen gas. These results indicate the effectiveness of clay materials for the improvement of heat resistance for low-temperature decomposition compounds, not only PB but also other porous coordination polymers.

  4. Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Kanyas

    Full Text Available Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite.

  5. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  6. Ferrite Nanoparticles, Films, Single Crystals, and Metamaterials: High Frequency Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.

    2006-01-01

    Ferrite materials have long played an important role in power conditioning, conversion, and generation across a wide spectrum of frequencies (up to ten decades). They remain the preferred magnetic materials, having suitably low losses, for most applications above 1 MHz, and are the only viable materials for nonreciprocal magnetic microwave and millimeter-wave devices (including tunable filters, isolators, phase shifters, and circulators). Recently, novel processing techniques have led to a resurgence of research interest in the design and processing of ferrite materials as nanoparticles, films, single crystals, and metamaterials. These latest developments have set the stage for their use in emerging technologies that include cancer remediation therapies such as magnetohyperthermia, magnetic targeted drug delivery, and magneto-rheological fluids, as well as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. With reduced dimensionality of nanoparticles and films, and the inherent nonequilibrium nature of many processing schemes, changes in local chemistry and structure have profound effects on the functional properties and performance of ferrites. In this lecture, we will explore these effects upon the fundamental magnetic and electronic properties of ferrites. Density functional theory will be applied to predict the properties of these ferrites, with synchrotron radiation techniques used to elucidate the chemical and structural short-range order. This approach will be extended to study the atomic design of ferrites by alternating target laser-ablation deposition. Recently, this approach has been shown to produce ferrites that offer attractive properties not found in conventionally grown ferrites. We will explore the latest research developments involving ferrites as related to microwave and millimeter-wave applications and the attempt to integrate these materials with semiconductor materials platforms

  7. Thin composite films consisting of polypyrrole and polyparaphenylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovtsov, I.; Bereznev, S.; Traksmaa, R.; Opik, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the combined method for the formation of thin composite films, consisting of polypyrrole (PPy) as a film forming agent and polyparaphenylene (PPP) with controlled electrical properties and high stability, enables one to avoid the low processability of PPP and to extend the possibilities for the development of electronic devices. The high temperature (250-600 deg. C) doping method was used for PPP preparation. The crystallinity and grindability of PPP was found to be increasing with the thermochemical modification. Thin composite films were prepared onto the light transparent substrates using the simple electropolymerization technique. The properties of films were characterized by the optical transmittance and temperature-dependent conductivity measurements. The morphology and thickness of the prepared films were determined using the scanning electron microscopy. The composite films showed a better adhesion to an inorganic substrate. It was found to be connected mostly with the improved properties of the high temperature doped PPP. The current-voltage characteristics of indium tin oxide/film/Au hybrid organic-inorganic structures showed the influence of the doping conditions of PPP inclusions in the obtained films

  8. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Films Based on LDPE/Ag Nanoparticles with Potential Uses in Food and Health Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes-Quero, Gloria María; Corral, Angélica

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles in polyethylene based nanocomposites has been investigated using a non-conventional processing method to produce homogeneous materials. High energy ball milling under cryogenic conditions was used to achieve a powder of well-blended low-density polyethylene and commercial silver nanoparticles. The final composites in the form of films were obtained by hot pressing. The effect of various silver nanoparticles content (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt %) on the properties of low-density polyethylene and the antimicrobial effectiveness of the composite against DH5α Escherichia coli were studied. The presence of silver nanoparticles did not seem to affect the surface energy and thermal properties of the materials. Apart from the inhibition of bacterial growth, slight changes in the aspect ratio of the bacteria with the content of particles were observed, suggesting a direct relationship between the presence of silver nanoparticles and the proliferation of DH5α E. coli (Escherichia coli) cells. Results indicate that these materials may be used to commercially produce antimicrobial polymers with potential applications in the food and health industries. PMID:29364193

  10. Growth of Au nanoparticle films and the effect of nanoparticle shape on plasmon peak wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikoshi, S., E-mail: horikoshi@sstl.info; Matsumoto, N.; Kato, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Omata, Y. [Application and Technical Support, Elionix, Inc., 3-7-6 Motoyokoyama Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0063 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and thus have potential for use in a wide range of applications. A facile technique for the preparation of NP films using an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering method without a dewetting process is described. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed that the Au NPs grew independently as island-like particles during the first stage of sputtering and then coalesced with one another as sputtering time increased to ultimately form a continuous film. A plasmon absorption peak was observed via optical measurement of absorption efficiency. The LSPR peak shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) with an increase in sputtering time. The cause of this plasmon peak shift was theoretically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain calculation method. A realistic statistical distribution of the particle shapes based on FE-SEM observations was applied for the analysis, which has not been previously reported. It was determined that the change in the shape of the NPs from spheroidal to oval or slender due to coalescence with neighbouring NPs caused the LSPR peak shift. These results may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as their size, shape, number density, and coverage.

  11. Growth of Au nanoparticle films and the effect of nanoparticle shape on plasmon peak wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, S.; Matsumoto, N.; Omata, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and thus have potential for use in a wide range of applications. A facile technique for the preparation of NP films using an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering method without a dewetting process is described. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed that the Au NPs grew independently as island-like particles during the first stage of sputtering and then coalesced with one another as sputtering time increased to ultimately form a continuous film. A plasmon absorption peak was observed via optical measurement of absorption efficiency. The LSPR peak shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) with an increase in sputtering time. The cause of this plasmon peak shift was theoretically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain calculation method. A realistic statistical distribution of the particle shapes based on FE-SEM observations was applied for the analysis, which has not been previously reported. It was determined that the change in the shape of the NPs from spheroidal to oval or slender due to coalescence with neighbouring NPs caused the LSPR peak shift. These results may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as their size, shape, number density, and coverage.

  12. Determination of diffusion coefficient for released nanoparticles from developed gelatin/chitosan bilayered buccal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdizadeh Barzoki, Zahra; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mortazavian, Elaheh; Rafiee-Tehrani, Niyousha; Behmadi, Homa; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2018-06-01

    This study aims at the mathematical optimization by Box-Behnken statistical design, fabrication by ionic gelation technique and in vitro characterization of insulin nanoparticles containing thiolated N- dimethyl ethyl chitosan (DMEC-Cys) conjugate. Then Optimized insulin nanoparticles were loaded into the buccal film, and in-vitro drug release from films was investigated, and diffusion coefficient was predicted. The optimized nanoparticles were shown to have mean particle size diameter of 148nm, zeta potential of 15.5mV, PdI of 0.26 and AE of 97.56%. Cell viability after incubation with optimized nanoparticles and films were assessed using an MTT biochemical assay. In vitro release study, FTIR and cytotoxicity also indicated that nanoparticles made of this thiolated polymer are suitable candidates for oral insulin delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles formed in chitosan/sodium alginate multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Sun, Yujie; Xie, Xiaodong

    2014-05-01

    Chitosan/alginate multilayers were fabricated using a spin-coating method, and ZnS:Cu nanoparticles were generated within the network of two natural polysaccharides, chitosan and sodium alginate. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that cubic zinc blende-structured ZnS:Cu nanoparticles with an average crystal size of ~ 3 nm were uniformly distributed. UV-vis spectra indicate a large quantum size effect and the absorption edge for the ZnS:Cu nanoparticles slightly shifted to longer wavelengths with increasing Cu ion concentrations. The photoluminescence of the Cu-doped ZnS nanoparticles reached a maximum at a 1% doping level. The ZnS:Cu nanoparticles form and are distributed uniformly in the composite multilayer films with a surface average height of 25 nm. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Incorporation of europium III complex into nanoparticles and films obtained by the Sol-Gel methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faley Jean de Sousa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is very effective for the preparation of new materials with potential applications in optics, sensors, catalyst supports, coatings, and specialty inorganic polymers that can be used as hosts for the accommodation of organic molecules. The low temperature employed in the process is the main advantage of this methodology. In this work, the europium (III complex with 1,10-phenantroline was prepared, and this luminescent complex was incorporated into silica nanoparticles and films by the sol-gel process. The nanoparticles were obtained by the modified Stöber methodology. The films were obtained by the dip-coating technique, at different deposition rates and numbers of layers. The nanoparticles and films were characterized by photoluminescence, thermal analysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Characterization revealed that the europium (III complex was not affected upon incorporation into the nanoparticles and films, opening a new field for the application of these materials.

  15. Carbon composites with metal nanoparticles for Alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Siddhardha, R. S.; Podilla, Ramakrishna; Muthukumar, V. S.; Creager, Stephen; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2015-03-01

    Graphene due to its high surface area and superior conductivity has attracted wide attention from both industrial and scientific communities. We chose graphene as a substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition for fuel cell applications. There are many chemical routes for fabrication of metal-graphene composites, but they have an inherent disadvantage of low performance due to the usage of surfactants, that adsorb on their surface. Here we present a design for one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and simultaneous deposition on graphene with laser ablation of gold strip and functionalized graphene. In this process there are two natural advantages, the nanoparticles are synthesized without any surfactants, therefore they are pristine and subsequent impregnation on graphene is linker free. These materials are well characterized with electron microscopy to find their morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis. for functionality. This gold nanoparticle decorated graphene composite has been tested for its electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols for alkaline fuel cell applications. An electrode made of this composite showed good stability for more than 200 cycles of operation and reported a low onset potential of 100 mV more negative, an important factor for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  16. Nanoparticle size and morphology control using ultrafast laser induced forward transfer of Ni thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Abere, Michael J.; Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-26

    We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) printing technique using Ni thin film lift-off from glass substrates after ultrafast irradiation in air. Unique interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with thin films allow for control over NP faceting and size distributions. Control is achieved by changing the laser fluence, film thickness, and film-substrate distance. We demonstrate 20 nm Ni film removal from substrates and rapid NP printing, with size distributions centered at a 6 nm diameter. When the Ni film thickness is lowered to 10 nm, NPs are printed with distributions peaked at a 2 nm diameter.

  17. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the spectral luminescent properties of a gelatin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehfendiev, T.Sh.; Kruchenok, Yu.V.; Rubinov, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of a rhodamine 6G-activated gelatin film of thickness 10 μm, with and without silver nanoparticles.We observed that doping the film with nanoparticles of diameter 5 nm leads to an increase in the intensity of the absorption spectrum by a factor of 1.17 and its short-wavelength shift (~1.5 nm), while the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum increases by a factor of ~2. (author)

  18. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the spectral luminescent properties of a gelatin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, T. Sh.; Kruchenok, J. V.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2013-03-01

    We studied the absorption and fluorescence spectra of a rhodamine 6G-activated gelatin film of thickness 10 μm, with and without silver nanoparticles. We observed that doping the film with nanoparticles of diameter 5 nm leads to an increase in the intensity of the absorption spectrum by a factor of 1.17 and its short-wavelength shift (~1.5 nm), while the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum increases by a factor of ~2.

  19. Photocatalysed (Methacrylate Polymerization by (Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoparticles and Photoconduction of Their Crosslinked Polymer Nanoparticle Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. M. Brokken-Zijp

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of another (photoradical initiator Sb:SnO2 nanoparticles (0≤Sb≤13 at % photocatalyze during irradiation with UV light the radical polymerization of (methacrylate monomers. When cured hard and transparent (>98% films with a low haze (0 at % nanoparticles can be attractive fillers for other photocatalytic applications photorefractive materials, optoelectronic devices and sensors.

  20. Fabrication of submicron structures in nanoparticle/polymer composite by holographic lithography and reactive ion etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. Ping; He, Sailing; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Burzynski, Ryszard; Samoc, Marek; Prasad, Paras N.

    2008-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of nanoparticle/polymer submicron structures by combining holographic lithography and reactive ion etching. Silica nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in a (SU8) polymer matrix at a high concentration, and in situ polymerization (cross-linking) is used to form a nanoparticle/polymer composite. Another photosensitive SU8 layer cast upon the nanoparticle/SU8 composite layer is structured through holographic lithography, whose pattern is finally transferred to the nanoparticle/SU8 layer by the reactive ion etching process. Honeycomb structures in a submicron scale are experimentally realized in the nanoparticle/SU8 composite.

  1. Laser-Induced, Local Oxidation of Copper Nanoparticle Films During Raman Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Cheng, Guangjun; Calizo, Irene

    2011-03-01

    The optical properties of gold and silver nanoparticles and their films have been thoroughly investigated as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates and chemical reaction promoters. Similar to gold and silver nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles exhibit distinct plasmon absorptions in the visible region. The work on copper nanoparticles and their films is limited due to their oxidization in air. However, their high reactivity actually provides an opportunity to exploit the laser-induced thermal effect and chemical reactions of these nanoparticles. Here, we present our investigation of the local oxidation of a copper nanoparticle film induced by a visible laser source during Raman spectroscopic measurements. The copper nanoparticle film is prepared by drop-casting chemically synthesized copper colloid onto silicon oxide/silicon substrate. The local oxidation induced by visible lasers in Raman spectroscopy is monitored with the distinct scattering peaks for copper oxides. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the laser-induced morphological changes in the film. The results of this oxidation process with different excitation wavelengths and different laser powers will be presented.

  2. Graphene oxide/carbon nanoparticle thin film based IR detector: Surface properties and device characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Aktar Chowdhury

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the synthesis, characterization, and application of carbon nanoparticles (CNP adorned graphene oxide (GO nanocomposite materials. Here we mainly focus on an emerging topic in modern research field presenting GO-CNP nanocomposite as a infrared (IR radiation detector device. GO-CNP thin film devices were fabricated from liquid phase at ambient condition where no modifying treatments were necessary. It works with no cooling treatment and also for stationary objects. A sharp response of human body IR radiation was detected with time constants of 3 and 36 sec and radiation responsivity was 3 mAW−1. The current also rises for quite a long time before saturation. This work discusses state-of-the-art material developing technique based on near-infrared photon absorption and their use in field deployable instrument for real-world applications. GO-CNP-based thin solid composite films also offer its potentiality to be utilized as p-type absorber material in thin film solar cell, as well.

  3. Graphene oxide/carbon nanoparticle thin film based IR detector: Surface properties and device characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Farzana Aktar [Experimental Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, 4, Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mohammad Abul [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Uchida, Koji; Tamura, Takahiro; Sugawa, Kosuke; Mochida, Tomoaki; Otsuki, Joe [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Mohiuddin, Tariq [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Boby, Monny Akter [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Alam, Mohammad Sahabul, E-mail: msalam@ksu.edu.sa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering & King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work deals with the synthesis, characterization, and application of carbon nanoparticles (CNP) adorned graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials. Here we mainly focus on an emerging topic in modern research field presenting GO-CNP nanocomposite as a infrared (IR) radiation detector device. GO-CNP thin film devices were fabricated from liquid phase at ambient condition where no modifying treatments were necessary. It works with no cooling treatment and also for stationary objects. A sharp response of human body IR radiation was detected with time constants of 3 and 36 sec and radiation responsivity was 3 mAW{sup −1}. The current also rises for quite a long time before saturation. This work discusses state-of-the-art material developing technique based on near-infrared photon absorption and their use in field deployable instrument for real-world applications. GO-CNP-based thin solid composite films also offer its potentiality to be utilized as p-type absorber material in thin film solar cell, as well.

  4. Formation of nanoparticles from thin silver films irradiated by laser pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastulyavichus, A. A.; Smirnov, N. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Ionin, A. A.; Saraeva, I. N.; Busleev, N. I.; Rudenko, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, R. A.; Zayarnyi, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Some specific features of the transport of silver nanoparticles onto a SiO2 substrate under focused nanosecond IR laser pulses is experimentally investigated. A possibility of obtaining silver coatings is demonstrated. The formation of silver nanostructures as a result of pulsed laser ablation in air is studied. Nanoparticles are formed by exposing a silver film to radiation of an HTF MARK (Bulat) laser marker (λ = 1064 nm). The thus prepared nanoparticles are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticle-Coated Film for Potential Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2 have involved various applications which include the food industry. This study aims to develop TiO2 nanoparticle-coated film for potential food packaging applications due to the photocatalytic antimicrobial property of TiO2. The TiO2 nanoparticles with varying concentrations (0–0.11 g/ 100 mL organic solvent were coated on food packaging film, particularly low density polyethylene (LDPE film. The antimicrobial activity of the films was investigated by their capability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli in an actual food packaging application test under various conditions, including types of light (fluorescent and ultraviolet (UV and the length of time the film was exposed to light (one–three days. The antimicrobial activity of the TiO2 nanoparticle-coated films exposed under both types of lighting was found to increase with an increase in the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration and the light exposure time. It was also found that the antimicrobial activity of the films exposed under UV light was higher than that under fluorescent light. The developed film has the potential to be used as a food packaging film that can extend the shelf life, maintain the quality, and assure the safety of food.

  6. Assembly of tantalum porous films with graded oxidation profile from size-selected nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Cassidy, Cathal; Benelmekki, Maria; Bohra, Murtaza; Hawash, Zafer; Baughman, Kenneth W.; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2014-05-01

    Functionally graded materials offer a way to improve the physical and chemical properties of thin films and coatings for different applications in the nanotechnology and biomedical fields. In this work, design and assembly of nanoporous tantalum films with a graded oxidation profile perpendicular to the substrate surface are reported. These nanoporous films are composed of size-selected, amorphous tantalum nanoparticles, deposited using a gas-aggregated magnetron sputtering system, and oxidized after coalescence, as samples evolve from mono- to multi-layered structures. Molecular dynamics computer simulations shed light on atomistic mechanisms of nanoparticle coalescence, which govern the films porosity. Aberration-corrected (S) TEM, GIXRD, AFM, SEM, and XPS were employed to study the morphology, phase and oxidation profiles of the tantalum nanoparticles, and the resultant films.

  7. A Humidity Sensor Based on Silver Nanoparticles Thin Film Prepared by Electrostatic Spray Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thutiyaporn Thiwawong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, thin film of silver nanoparticles for humidity sensor application was deposited by electrostatic spray deposition technique. The influence of the deposition times on properties of films was studied. The crystal structures of sample films, their surface morphology, and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer, respectively. The crystalline structure of silver nanoparticles thin film was found in the orientation of (100 and (200 planes of cubic structure at diffraction angles 2θ  =  38.2° and 44.3°, respectively. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles thin films humidity sensor was fabricated onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensor exhibited the humidity adsorption and desorption properties. The sensing mechanisms of the device were also elucidated by complex impedance analysis.

  8. The fabrication and characterization of inkjet-printed polyaniline nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrin, Aoife; Ngamna, Orawan; O'Malley, Eimer; Kent, Nigel; Moulton, Simon E.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Smyth, Malcolm R.; Killard, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of electrodes modified with conducting polymer nanoparticle films, produced via inkjet printing. The polyaniline nanoparticle formulations were deposited via a desktop inkjet printer onto screen-printed carbon-paste electrodes (SPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and gold-PET and their morphology studied at a range of length scales using profilometry, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The deposited films were found to form continuous polymer films depending upon film thickness, which was in turn dependent on the number of prints performed. The inkjet-printed films exhibited a smooth morphology on the SPEs at the micro-dimensional scale, as a result of the aggradation and coalescing of the nanoparticles upon deposition. The resulting modified electrodes were both conductive and electroactive, possessing good reversible polyaniline electrochemistry. Such a combination of materials and processing offers the potential of producing a range of low cost, solid state devices such as sensors, actuators and electrochromic devices

  9. Existence, release, and antibacterial actions of silver nanoparticles on Ag–PIII TiO2 films with different nanotopographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinhua Li, Yuqin Qiao, Hongqin Zhu, Fanhao Meng, Xuanyong Liu State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanotopographical TiO2 films (including nanorod, nanotip, and nanowire topographies were successfully fabricated on the metallic Ti surface via hydrothermal treatment and then underwent Ag plasma immersion ion implantation to incorporate Ag with TiO2. The surface morphology, phase component, and chemical composition before and after Ag–PIII were characterized. In view of the potential clinical applications, both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were used to estimate their antimicrobial effect. The nanostructured TiO2 films on a Ti surface exhibit a better bacteriostatic effect on both microbes compared to the pristine Ti. The nanotopographies of the TiO2 films affect the nucleation, growth, and distribution of Ag nanoparticles in the films during Ag–PIII process. The Ag nanoparticles are completely embedded into the nanorod film while partially exposed out of the nanotip and nanowire films, which account for the significant differences in the release behaviors of Ag ions in vitro. However, no significant difference exists in their antimicrobial activity against both microbes. The antimicrobial actions of the Ag@TiO2 system described here consist of two methods – the contact-killing action and the release-killing action. Nevertheless, based on the observed results, the contact-killing action should be regarded as the main method to destroy microbes for all the Ag plasma-modified TiO2 nanofilms. This study provides insight to optimize the surface design of Ti-based implants to acquire more effective antimicrobial surfaces to meet clinical applications. Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, titania, nanostructure, antibacterial, plasma

  10. Thermal analysis of compositionally modulated Fe/Y films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiura, M.; Morishita, T.; Togami, Y.; Tsushima, K.

    1987-01-01

    Structures of compositionally modulated Fe/Y films were studied by thermal analysis. The exothermic peak found in the DSC curve of (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) most probably corresponds to crystallization of an amorphous material. SEM analysis suggested that the composition of crystallized (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) was YFe2. It is concluded that a compositionally modulated (Fe 12 A/Y 12 A) is amorphous in structure as well as in magnetic properties

  11. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, Mohamad M., E-mail: mayad12000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt); Zaki, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO{sub 3}. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO{sub 3} solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamad M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3 . Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad. M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  14. [Spectroscopic study on film formation mechanism and structure of composite silanes-V-Zr passive film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Chang-sheng; Shi, Lei; An, Cheng-qiang

    2015-02-01

    A composite silanes-V-Zr passive film was overlayed on hot-dip galvanized steel. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (rf-GD-OES) were used to characterize the molecular structure of the silanes-V-Zr passive film. The mechanism of film formation was discussed: The results show that the silane molecules are crosslinked as the main film former and inorganic inhibitor is even distributed in the film. The fitting peak of 100.7 eV in XPS single Si2p energy range spectra of the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film and the widening and strengthening of the Si--O infrared absorption peak at 1100 cm(-1) indicate that the silanes were adsorbed on the surface of zinc with chemical bond of Si--O--Zn, and the silane molecules were connected with each other by bond of Si--O--Si. Two characteristic absorption peaks of amide at 1650 and 1560 cm(-1) appear in the infrared spectroscopy of the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film, and a characteristic absorption peak of epoxy groups at 910 cm(-1) disappears in the infrared spectroscopy of the passive film. The results indicate that gamma-APT can be prepared through nucleophilic ring-opening of ethylene oxide in gamma-GPT molecule to form C--N covalent bonds. The rf-GD-OES results indicate that there is a oxygen enriched layer in 0.3 microm depth of the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film. Moreover, ZrF4, ZrO2 and some inorganic matter obtained by the reaction during the forming processof the composite silanes-V-Zr passive film are distributed evenly throughout the film. According to the film composition, the physical processes and chemical reactions during the film forming process were studied by using ATR-FTIR. Based on this, the film forming mechanism was proposed.

  15. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the technical field of imaging compositions useful for diagnosing cancer and other diseases in a subject. In particular, the invention relates to a class of diagnostic compounds comprising a novel liposome composition with encapsulated metal entities such as r...... tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique.......The present invention is directed to the technical field of imaging compositions useful for diagnosing cancer and other diseases in a subject. In particular, the invention relates to a class of diagnostic compounds comprising a novel liposome composition with encapsulated metal entities...... such as radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  16. Charge transport in conjugated polymer-semiconductor nanoparticle composite near the percolation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, L. S.; Gonçalves, G. E.; Kanda, D. H. F.; Bianchi, R. F.; Nagashima, H. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a new statistical model to predict the frequency dependence of the conductivity of conjugated polymer-semiconductor nanoparticle composites. The model considers AC conduction in an inhomogeneous medium represented by a two-dimensional model of resistor network. The conductivity between two neighboring sites in the polymer matrix and the semiconductor particles is assumed to obey the random free energy barrier model and the Drude model, respectively. The real and imaginary parts of the AC conductivity were determined using the transfer-matrix technique, and the statistical model was applied to experimental data of thin films composed of polyaniline (PANI) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles. The conductivity critical exponent ( s) obtained in two dimensions for PANI/ITO films below the percolation threshold was found to be 2.7, which is greater than the universal value of s described by the classical percolation theory ( s = 1.3). This non-universality is explained by the existence of a local electric field distribution in the bulk of the nanocomposite. Finally, these results are discussed in terms of the distribution of potential barriers that vary according to the concentration of ITO amount in the composite.

  17. Digital Compositing Dalam Film Animasi 3 Dimensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cito Yasuki Yasuki Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animation is a technique mostly used in the film world. Nowadays it is growing intechnical animation creation. Animation has evolved from 2D animation to the nextstage in the new form, more realistic and interesting, that is the 3D animation. With thedevelopment of existing technology, the 3D animation is more amazing for the audience,especially 3D animation combined with real action (live action. With the digitalcompositing, the result of a combination of 3D and real action to make the film seemmore alive, because the animation is really close to the original in real life.

  18. Assessment of morphology, topography and chemical composition of water-repellent films based on polystyrene/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolvardi, Beleta; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Iman; Otadi, Maryam; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Drechsler, Astrid; Holzschuh, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    In this study, polystyrene (PS)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were fabricated through simple solution casting technique via a modified phase separation process. The presented approach resulted in a remarkable reduction in the required amount of nanoparticles for achieving superhydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D confocal microscopy were utilized to characterize surface morphology and topography of samples, respectively. An attempt was made to give an in-depth analysis on the surface rough structure using 3D roughness profiles. It was found that high inclusions of non-solvent and nanoparticles resulted in a stable self-cleaning behavior due to the strong presence of hydrophobic TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface. Quite unexpectedly, low inclusions of nanoparticles and non-solvent also resulted in superhydrophobic property mainly due to the proper level of induced surface roughness. XPS analysis was also utilized to determine the chemical composition of the films' surfaces. The results of falling drop experiments showed that the sample containing a higher level of nanoparticles had a much lower mechanical resistance against the induced harsh conditions. All in all, the presented method has shown promising potential in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning behavior using the lowest content of nanoparticles.

  19. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  20. Detection of Nanoparticles Released at Finishing of Dental Composite Materials.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bradna, P.; Ondráčková, Lucie; Ždímal, Vladimír; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 531-537 ISSN 0026-9247. [International Conference on Modern Electrochemical Methods /36./. Jetřichovice, 23.05.2016-27.05.2016] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : dental composite * grinding * nanoparticles * aerosol * health risk Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  1. Controlling the alloy composition of PtNi nanocrystals using solid-state dewetting of bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Okkyun; Oh, Se An; Lee, Ji Yeon; Ha, Sung Soo; Kim, Jae Myung; Choi, Jung Won; Kim, Jin-Woo [Department of Physics and Photon Science & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyon Chol [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 61542 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Do Young, E-mail: dynoh@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that solid-state dewetting of bilayer films is an effective way for obtaining bimetallic alloy nanocrystals of controlled composition. When a Pt–Ni bilayer film were annealed near 700 °C, Pt and Ni atoms inter-diffused to form a PtNi bimetallic alloy film. Upon annealing at higher temperatures, the bilayer films transformed into <111> oriented PtNi alloy nanocrystals in small-rhombicuboctahedron shape through solid-state dewetting process. The Pt content of the nanocrystals and the alloy films, estimated by applying the Vegard's law to the relaxed lattice constant, was closely related to the thickness of each layer in the as-grown bilayer films which can be readily controlled during bilayer deposition. - Highlights: • Composition control of PtNi nanoparticles using solid state dewetting is proposed. • PtNi alloy composition was controlled by thickness ratio of Pt–Ni bilayer films. • PtNi alloy nanocrystals were obtained in small-rhombicuboctahedron shape.

  2. Polyvinylpyrrolidone Matrix as an Effective Reducing Agent and Stabilizer during Reception of Silver Nanoparticles in Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Semenyuk, Nataliya; Kostiv, Ulyana; Dudok, Galyna; Nechay, Jaroslav; Skorokhoda, Volodymyr

    2013-01-01

    The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix as an effective reducing agent and stabilizer during reception of silver nanoparticles in composites is substantiated. The influence of various factors on patterns of obtaining silver nanoparticles and their size.

  3. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles for carboxymethylcellulose film applications in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Maria C; Coelho, Gustavo F; de Moura, Márcia R; Bresolin, Joana D; Hubinger, Silviane Z; Marconcini, José M; Mattoso, Luiz H C

    2014-07-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were prepared and incorporated into carboxymethylcellulose films to evaluate the antimicrobial activity for food packaging applications. The techniques carried out for material characterization were: infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis for the silver nanoparticles and films, as well as particle size distribution for the nanoparticles and water vapor permeability for the films. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by casting method was investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the silver nanoparticles to test Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) microorganisms was carried out by the serial dilution technique, tested in triplicate to confirm the concentration used. The results were developed using the Mcfarland scale which indicates that the presence or absence of turbidity tube demonstrates the inhibition of bacteria in relation to the substance inoculated. It was found that the silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of the tested microorganisms. The carboxymethylcellulose film embedded with silver nanoparticles showed the best antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive (E. faecalis) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria (0.1 microg cm(-3)).

  4. Photonic sintering of thin film prepared by dodecylamine capped CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} nanoparticles for printed photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manjeet, E-mail: msitbhu@gmail.com; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-08-28

    In this paper, we report solution phase large scale synthesis of monodisperse phase pure CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) nanoparticles by using dodecylamine as solvent and dispersant. Various compositions of CIGS nanoparticles with different Ga content are synthesized by simply adding different amounts of Ga precursors. The band gap of CIGS nanoparticles can be tuned by changing Ga content. Effort is given to understand the formation pathway of CIGS phase so as to make the synthesis easier for the desired product. High intensity pulsed light technique, which provides extreme local heating, is used to sinter the thin film prepared using these nanoparticles on a Mo–glass surface. A uniformly conductive and dense CIGS film can be prepared by adjusting the energy of light and exposure time. The high intensity light irradiation of the CIGS film leads to diffusion of smaller CIGS nanoparticles to form a particle with larger grain size and thus enables sintering of particles without using high temperature processing. - Highlights: • Large scale synthesis of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) is reported. • Dodecylamine is used as surfactant and solvent. • CIGS phase formation mechanism is described. • High intensity pulsed light technique is used to sinter the CIGS film.

  5. Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of oxide (Cu2O and ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films preparation by the dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, G.; Tenailleau, C.; Dufour, P.; Guillemet-Fritsch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Oxide thin solid films were prepared by dip-coating into colloidal dispersions of oxide nanoparticles stabilized at room temperature without the use of chelating or complex organic dispersing agents. Crystalline oxide nanoparticles were obtained by inorganic polycondensation and characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticle method was optimized to prepare two different structural and compositional materials, namely Cu 2 O and ZnO. The influence of hydrodynamic parameters over the particle shape and size is discussed. Spherical and rod shape nanoparticles were formed for Cu 2 O and ZnO, respectively. Isoelectric point values of 7.5 and 8.2 were determined for cuprous and zinc oxides, respectively, after zeta potential measurements. A shear thinning and thixotropic behavior was observed in both colloidal sols after peptization at pH ~ 6 with dilute nitric acid. Every colloidal dispersion stabilized in a low cost and environmentally friendly azeotrope solution composed of 96 vol.% of ethanol with water was used for the thin film preparation by the dip-coating technique. Optical properties of the light absorber cuprous oxide and transparent zinc oxide thin solid films were characterized by means of transmittance and reflectance measurements (300–1100 nm). - Highlights: • Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of crystalline oxides • Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticles • Low cost method for thin solid film preparation

  6. Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of oxide (Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO) nanoparticles and thin films preparation by the dip-coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salek, G.; Tenailleau, C., E-mail: tenailleau@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Dufour, P.; Guillemet-Fritsch, S.

    2015-08-31

    Oxide thin solid films were prepared by dip-coating into colloidal dispersions of oxide nanoparticles stabilized at room temperature without the use of chelating or complex organic dispersing agents. Crystalline oxide nanoparticles were obtained by inorganic polycondensation and characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscopy. Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticle method was optimized to prepare two different structural and compositional materials, namely Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO. The influence of hydrodynamic parameters over the particle shape and size is discussed. Spherical and rod shape nanoparticles were formed for Cu{sub 2}O and ZnO, respectively. Isoelectric point values of 7.5 and 8.2 were determined for cuprous and zinc oxides, respectively, after zeta potential measurements. A shear thinning and thixotropic behavior was observed in both colloidal sols after peptization at pH ~ 6 with dilute nitric acid. Every colloidal dispersion stabilized in a low cost and environmentally friendly azeotrope solution composed of 96 vol.% of ethanol with water was used for the thin film preparation by the dip-coating technique. Optical properties of the light absorber cuprous oxide and transparent zinc oxide thin solid films were characterized by means of transmittance and reflectance measurements (300–1100 nm). - Highlights: • Room temperature inorganic polycondensation of crystalline oxides • Water and ethanol synthesis and solution stabilization of oxide nanoparticles • Low cost method for thin solid film preparation.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using Ag nanoparticle films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.A., E-mail: smythc2@tcd.ie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Mirza, I.; Lunney, J.G.; McCabe, E.M. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) produces silver nanoparticle films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These films can be used for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Commercial film shows good SERS reproducibility but poor signal intensity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PLD shows a good SERS response coupled with good reproducibility. - Abstract: Thin silver nanoparticle films, of thickness 7 nm, were deposited onto glass microslides using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were then characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy before Rhodamine 6G was deposited onto them for investigation using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The sensitivity obtained using SERS was compared to that obtained using a colloidal silver suspension and also to a commercial SERS substrate. The reproducibility of the films is also examined using statistical analysis.

  8. Stability and dewetting of metal nanoparticle filled thin polymer films: control of instability length scale and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Das, Soma; Das, Anindya; Sharma, Satinder K; Raychaudhuri, Arup K; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2010-07-27

    We investigate the influence of gold nanoparticle addition on the stability, dewetting, and pattern formation in ultrathin polymer-nanoparticle (NP) composite films by examining the length and time scales of instability, morphology, and dynamics of dewetting. For these 10-50 nm thick (h) polystyrene (PS) thin films containing uncapped gold nanoparticles (diameter approximately 3-4 nm), transitions from complete dewetting to arrested dewetting to absolute stability were observed depending on the concentration of the particles. Experiments show the existence of three distinct stability regimes: regime 1, complete dewetting leading to droplet formation for nanoparticle concentration of 2% (w/w) or below; regime 2, partial dewetting leading to formation of arrested holes for NP concentrations in the range of 3-6%; and regime 3, complete inhibition of dewetting for NP concentrations of 7% and above. Major results are (a) length scale of instability, where lambdaH approximately hn remains unchanged with NP concentration in regime 1 (n approximately 2) but increases in regime 2 with a change in the scaling relation (n approximately 3-3.5); (b) dynamics of instability and dewetting becomes progressively sluggish with an increase in the NP concentration; (c) there are distinct regimes of dewetting velocity at low NP concentrations; (d) force modulation AFM, as well as micro-Raman analysis, shows phase separation and aggregation of the gold nanoparticles within each dewetted polymer droplet leading to the formation of a metal core-polymer shell morphology. The polymer shell could be removed by washing in a selective solvent, thus exposing an array of bare gold nanoparticle aggregates.

  9. Convenient preparation of ITO nanoparticles inks for transparent conductive thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Masuko, Keiichiro; Weintraub, Benjamin A.; McKenzie, Lallie C.; Hutchison, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanoparticles are useful precursors to transparent electrodes in a variety of technologically important applications. We synthesized ITO nanoparticles from indium and tin acetylacetonates in oleyl alcohol using a novel temperature ramp profile. The monodispersed ITO nanoparticles have an average diameter of 8.6 nm and form dense, flat films by simple spin coating. The thickness of the film can be controlled by varying the number of additional depositions. The resulting ITO film is transparent and has a resistivity of 7 × 10 −3 Ω cm after sintering at 300 °C. Using a suitable solvent, it is possible to coat high-aspect-ratio structures with ITO nanoparticles. This approach to ITO coatings is greener and offers a number of advantages for transparent electrodes because it is highly versatile, easily scalable, and supports low-cost manufacturing.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 films using solvothermal synthesized nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badkoobehhezaveh, Amir Masoud; Abdizadeh, Hossein; Golobostanfard, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, practical, and fast solvothermal route is presented for synthesizing the Cu2ZnSn(S0.5Se0.5)4 nanoparticles (CZTSSe). In this method, the precursors were dissolved in triethylenetetramine and placed in an autoclave at 240 °C for 1 h under controlled pressure and constant stirring. After washing the samples for several times with absolute ethanol, the obtained CZTSSe nanoparticles were successfully deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates by convenient electrophoretic deposition (EPD) using colloidal nanoparticles. The most appropriate parameters for EPD of pre-synthesized CZTSSe nanoparticles which result in proper surface properties, controlled thickness, and high film quality are investigated by adjusting applied voltage, pH, and deposition time. X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectroscopy of the pre-synthesized nanoparticles show kesterite structure formation. The particle size of the CZTSSe nanoparticles is in the range of 100 to 400 nm and for some agglomerates, it is about 2 µm confirmed by scanning electron microscope. The deposited film with optimized parameter has acceptable quality without any crack in it with the thickness of about 4-5 µm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms that the chemical composition of the samples is in near stoichiometric Cu-poor and Zn-rich region, which guarantees the p-type character of the film. The diffuse reflectance spectroscopy also demonstrates that the optical band gap of the sample is about 1.2 eV.

  11. Fabrication of polypeptide-based piezoelectric composite polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, Dawnielle; West, James E.; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J.; Yu, Seungju M.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of molecular composite piezoelectric material was produced by simultaneous poling and curing of a homogeneous solution comprising poly(γ-benzyl α,L-glutamate) and methylmethacrylate via corona discharge methods. This film exhibited high piezoelectricity (d 33 = 23 pC N -1 ), and its mechanical characteristics (modulus = 450 MPa) were similar to those of low molecular weight poly(methylmethacrylate). As it is produced via solution-based fabrication processes, the composite film is conducive to miniaturization for small sensors with integrated electronics, and could also potentially be used in piezoelectric coating applications

  12. Effect of silver nanoparticles on photo-induced reorientation of azo groups in polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jingli; Yang Jianjun; Sun Youyi; Zhang Douguo; Shen Jing; Zhang Qijin; Wang Keyi

    2007-01-01

    A series of polymer films containing azo groups and silver nanoparticles were prepared. Photo-induced reorientation of the film was conducted under irradiation of polarized light with wavelength at 365 nm, 442 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The influence of the concentration of dopant silver on the reorientation of the azo groups was studied. An enhancement of about 50% for the reorientation rate and about 70% for the reorientation amplitude was achieved. From a comparison of the enhancement obtained by irradiating with three different light sources, it was realized that the mechanism for enhancement of reorientation of azo groups is due to plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles doped in the polymer films

  13. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul 136-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwook [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongnam, E-mail: jnpark@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids.

  14. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kim, Jungwook; Park, Jongnam

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO 2 ) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids

  15. Non-monotonic wetting behavior of chitosan films induced by silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praxedes, A.P.P.; Webler, G.D.; Souza, S.T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.S. [Instituto de Química e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Fonseca, E.J.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Oliveira, I.N. de, E-mail: italo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • The addition of silver nanoparticles modifies the morphology of chitosan films. • Metallic nanoparticles can be used to control wetting properties of chitosan films. • The contact angle shows a non-monotonic dependence on the silver concentration. - Abstract: The present work is devoted to the study of structural and wetting properties of chitosan-based films containing silver nanoparticles. In particular, the effects of silver concentration on the morphology of chitosan films are characterized by different techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of dynamic contact angle measurements, we study the modification on surface properties of chitosan-based films due to the addition of silver nanoparticles. The results are analyzed in the light of molecular-kinetic theory which describes the wetting phenomena in terms of statistical dynamics for the displacement of liquid molecules in a solid substrate. Our results show that the wetting properties of chitosan-based films are high sensitive to the fraction of silver nanoparticles, with the equilibrium contact angle exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior.

  16. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  17. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  18. The immobilization of titania nanoparticles on hyaluronan films and their photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqui, Daniela; Atrei, Andrea; Barbucci, Rolando

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a method to bind titania nanoparticles onto hyaluronic films (HA) photoimmobilized on silanized glass. Titania nanoparticles were deposited on the HA films from commercially available dispersions by casting and dip-coating methods at various pH values. XPS was used to monitor the deposition of titania and to estimate the surface coverage of the nanoparticles. The topography of the titania-modified HA films was investigated by means of AFM. XPS results indicate that the titania surface coverage depends on the preparation method and the pH of the dispersion. We found that the maximum titania nanoparticle surface coverage was obtained by the casting method with the formation of aggregates and multilayers of particles. The titania surface coverage for the surfaces prepared by the dip-coating method is pH-dependent. The surfaces prepared at pH 2 show a surface coverage of 65% and a rather uniform distribution of particles. We found that titania nanoparticles are anchored in a stable way to the HA substrate in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and that the interaction between the HA and the titania is through the carbonyl group of carboxylates and amidic groups of the polymer. AFM images clearly show that titania nanoparticles are uniformly distributed over the HA films. By measuring the average diameter and the average height of the nanoparticles deposited on HA films it appears that the particles are partially embedded in the polysaccharide films. The results of the study on the photobleaching of methylene blue indicate that the characteristic photocatalytic activity of titania is maintained when the nanoparticles are anchored to the HA substrate.

  19. Plasmonic characterization of photo-induced silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based TEM film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in; Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Varshney, G. K. [Laser Bio-medical Applications & Instrumentation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Photo-reduction process is carried out to convert the silver halide grains into the metallic silver. The centrifuge technique is used for separating the silver nanoparticles from the residual solution. Morphological study performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows that all the nanoparticles have an average diameter of ~120 nm with a high degree of mono dispersion in size. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak at ~537 nm confirms the presence of large size silver nanoparticles.

  20. Size-dependent filtration of nanoparticles on porous films composed by polystyrene microsphere monolayers and applications in site-selective deposition of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Weidong; Zhou, Tieli; Sun, Chengbin; Tao, Yanchun; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Bing; Cui, Yinqiu

    2015-01-01

    Composite films composed of polystyrene (PS) microsphere monolayers and gold (Au) and/or silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) decorations were prepared by a novel size-dependent filtration effect on close-packed PS microsphere arrays. The uniform pores inlaid in the PS monolayer films acted as the transport tunnels for NPs. The steric restriction induced by the size of the pores was used as a main strategy to fabricate hybrid micro/nano films, which were composed of PS microspheres with inhomogeneous anisotropic decorations. The Au and Ag NPs were used as the building blocks to decorate the PS microspheres through a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with the aid of polyelectrolyte coupling agents. Only the small particles which could pass through the micropores could reach to and deposit on the inner surfaces of the PS microsphere monolayer films. Large particles remained on the outside and could only deposit on the outer surfaces. Thus, the inhomogeneous anisotropic decoration was obtained. This study provides a novel strategy for fabricating anisotropic micro/nanostructures by the size-dependent filtration effect of NPs on porous films and has the potential in applications of anisotropic self-assembly, sensor, and surface modifications at nanoscale.

  1. Size-dependent filtration of nanoparticles on porous films composed by polystyrene microsphere monolayers and applications in site-selective deposition of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Weidong [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials (China); Zhou, Tieli [Changchun University, College of Food Engineering and Landscape Architecture (China); Sun, Chengbin; Tao, Yanchun; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Bing, E-mail: zhaob@mail.jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials (China); Cui, Yinqiu, E-mail: cuiyq@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin University, School of Life Sciences (China)

    2015-10-15

    Composite films composed of polystyrene (PS) microsphere monolayers and gold (Au) and/or silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) decorations were prepared by a novel size-dependent filtration effect on close-packed PS microsphere arrays. The uniform pores inlaid in the PS monolayer films acted as the transport tunnels for NPs. The steric restriction induced by the size of the pores was used as a main strategy to fabricate hybrid micro/nano films, which were composed of PS microspheres with inhomogeneous anisotropic decorations. The Au and Ag NPs were used as the building blocks to decorate the PS microspheres through a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique with the aid of polyelectrolyte coupling agents. Only the small particles which could pass through the micropores could reach to and deposit on the inner surfaces of the PS microsphere monolayer films. Large particles remained on the outside and could only deposit on the outer surfaces. Thus, the inhomogeneous anisotropic decoration was obtained. This study provides a novel strategy for fabricating anisotropic micro/nanostructures by the size-dependent filtration effect of NPs on porous films and has the potential in applications of anisotropic self-assembly, sensor, and surface modifications at nanoscale.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Protein-Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles/Silver Salt Loaded Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) Film for Prevention of Bacterial Infections and Potential Use in Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Rotimi Ayotunde

    /BSA nanoparticles solution used for loading and on the molecular weight of type I collagen used in collagen immobilization on PHBV film. At physiological pH, optimum amount of nanoparticles was retained on Type I collagen immobilized PHBV film because at pH 7.4, protonated amino groups of collagen immobilized PHBV film promote strong electrostatic interaction with the carboxylate anions of BSA stabilized silver nanoparticles. The second part of this study dealt with formulating AgCl/PHBV film that can potentially release silver ions for effective antimicrobial activity. In this study, we formulated AgCl/PHBV composite film by a salt exchange mechanism. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to quantify the amount of NaCl present before and after salt exchange. The Na content in the pre-washed and partially washed NaCl/PHBV film was found to be 43.60% and 1.24% by mass, respectively. The AgCl/PBHV composite film was acid digested and assayed for Na+ and Ag+ content by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and was found to be 2.15 and 10.25 ppm, respectively. XPS technique was used to characterize the surface elemental composition of the AgCl/PHBV composite film. The survey spectrum of AgCl/PHBV film showed emergence of Ag 3d and Cl 2s peaks compared to pure PHBV which was predominantly composed of C 1s and O 1s peaks. The release kinetics of silver ions from AgCl/PHBV composite film showed an initial burst of about 1.5 ppm of silver ions during the first day of desorption followed by a gradual release of silver ions at an average rate of 0.3 ppm per day during the span of two weeks studied. Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV films and AgCl/PHBV composite films were tested for antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Colony forming unit and optical density measurements of Ag/BSA nanoparticles loaded collagen immobilized PHBV films showed broad antimicrobial activity at low Ag/BSA nanoparticles

  3. Preparation of novel film-forming armoured latexes using silica nanoparticles as a pickering emulsion stabiliser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraz, Hana; Peake, Simon J; Davey, Tim; Cameron, Neil R; Tabor, Rico F

    2018-05-15

    Film-forming polymer latex particles of diameter acrylate (BA) as co-monomers, potassium persulphate (KPS) as an initiator and a commercially available colloidal nano-silica (Ludox®-TM40). It was found that pH control before polymerisation using methacrylic acid (MAA) facilitated the formation of armoured latexes, and mechanistic features of this process are discussed. An alternative, more robust protocol was developed whereby addition of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) to control wettability resulted in latexes completely armoured in colloidal nano-silica. The latexes were characterised using SEM, cryo-TEM and AFM imaging techniques. The mechanism behind the adsorption was investigated through surface pressure and contact angle measurements to understand the factors that influence this irreversible adsorption. Results indicate that nanoparticle attachment (but intriguingly not latex size) is dependent on particle wettability, providing new insight into the formation of nanoparticle-armoured latexes, along with opportunities for further development of diversely functionalized inorganic/organic polymer composite particles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of thin film grain size on the size of nanoparticles generated during UV femtosecond laser ablation of thin gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haustrup, N., E-mail: natalie.haustrup@nuigalway.ie [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); O’Connor, G.M. [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    The upsurge in the number of thin film products has encouraged studies into every aspect of their fabrication and application. An additional source of industrial interest is the laser ablation of thin films to generate nanoparticles. This technique offers advantages over other fabrication methods, as no chemical pre-cursers are required, thereby giving rise to a pure product. The main disadvantage lies in the difficulty with controlling the size of the nanoparticles. This study aims to clarify the influence of the microstructure of a thin film on its optical properties and also to establish the size relationship between the film grain and the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation. A comprehensive sample set of Gold (Au) films with different grain sizes was achieved using different deposition rates, temperatures, film thicknesses (<100 nm) and substrates: Silica, Quartz and Sapphire. The microstructure of each film was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Single femtosecond laser pulses, above the ablation threshold fluence of each film, were applied to generate nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to image the re-deposited nanoparticles, from which the nanoparticle size distribution was established. Results confirm that the film microstructure is directly linked to the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation.

  5. The influence of thin film grain size on the size of nanoparticles generated during UV femtosecond laser ablation of thin gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustrup, N.; O’Connor, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The upsurge in the number of thin film products has encouraged studies into every aspect of their fabrication and application. An additional source of industrial interest is the laser ablation of thin films to generate nanoparticles. This technique offers advantages over other fabrication methods, as no chemical pre-cursers are required, thereby giving rise to a pure product. The main disadvantage lies in the difficulty with controlling the size of the nanoparticles. This study aims to clarify the influence of the microstructure of a thin film on its optical properties and also to establish the size relationship between the film grain and the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation. A comprehensive sample set of Gold (Au) films with different grain sizes was achieved using different deposition rates, temperatures, film thicknesses (<100 nm) and substrates: Silica, Quartz and Sapphire. The microstructure of each film was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Single femtosecond laser pulses, above the ablation threshold fluence of each film, were applied to generate nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to image the re-deposited nanoparticles, from which the nanoparticle size distribution was established. Results confirm that the film microstructure is directly linked to the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation.

  6. Polyelectrolyte multilayer film-assisted formation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles onto polymer nanofibrous mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shili; Shi Xiangyang; Wu Siqi; Shen Mingwu; Guo Rui; Wang Shanyuan

    2009-01-01

    A facile approach that combines the electrospinning technique and layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method has been developed to synthesize and immobilize zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) onto the surface of nanofibers for potential environmental applications. In this approach, negatively charged cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning CA solution were modified with bilayers composed of positively charged poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride) (PDADMAC) and negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) through electrostatic LbL assembly approach to form composite nanofibrous mats. The composite nanofibrous mats were immersed into the ferrous iron solution to allow Fe(II) ions to complex with the free carboxyl groups of PAA, and then ZVI NPs were immobilized onto the composite nanofibrous mats instantly by reducing the ferrous cations. Combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetry analysis demonstrated that the ZVI NPs are successfully synthesized and uniformly distributed into the polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer films assembled onto the CA nanofibers. The present approach to synthesis ZVI NPs opens a new avenue to fabricating various materials with high surface area for environmental, catalytic, and sensing applications.

  7. Dewetting dynamics of a gold film on graphene: implications for nanoparticle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsani, Sadanandam; Singh, Jayant K

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of dewetting of gold films on graphene surfaces is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The effect of temperature (973-1533 K), film diameter (30-40 nm) and film thickness (0.5-3 nm) on the dewetting mechanism, leading to the formation of nanoparticles, is reported. The dewetting behavior for films ≤5 Å is in contrast to the behavior seen for thicker films. The retraction velocity, in the order of ∼300 m s(-1) for a 1 nm film, decreases with an increase in film thickness, whereas it increases with temperature. However at no point do nanoparticles detach from the surface within the temperature range considered in this work. We further investigated the self-assembly behavior of nanoparticles on graphene at different temperatures (673-1073 K). The process of self-assembly of gold nanoparticles is favorable at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures, based on the free-energy landscape analysis. Furthermore, the shape of an assembled structure is found to change from spherical to hexagonal, with a marked propensity towards an icosahedral structure based on the bond-orientational order parameters.

  8. A new concept in polymeric thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes with antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollahosseini, Arash; Rahimpour, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A new, thin film, biofouling resistant, nanofiltration (NF) membrane was fabricated with two key characteristics, viz. a low rate of silver (Ag) release and long-lasting antibacterial properties. In the new approach, nanoparticles were embedded completely in a polymeric thin-film layer. A comparison was made between the new thin-film composite (TFC), NF membrane and thin-film nanocomposite (TFN), and antibacterial NF membranes. Both types of NF membrane were fabricated by interfacial polymerization on a polysulphone sublayer using m-phenylenediamine and trimesoyl chloride as an amine monomer and an acid chloride monomer, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis demonstrated the presence of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the cross-sectional and surface morphological properties of the NF membranes. Permeability and salt rejection were tested using a dead-end filtration cell. Ag leaching from the membranes was measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Morphological studies showed that the TFC NF membranes had better thin-film formation (a more compact structure and a smoother surface) than TFN NF membranes. Performance experiments on TFC NF membranes revealed that permeability was good, without sacrificing salt rejection. The antibacterial properties of the fabricated membranes were tested using the disk diffusion method and viable plate counts. The antibiofouling properties of the membranes were examined by measuring the quantity of bacterial cells released from the biofilm formed (as a function of the amount of biofilm present). A more sensitive surface was observed compared to that of a typical antibacterial NF membrane. The Ag leaching rates were low, which will likely result in long-lasting antibacterial and biofouling resistant properties.

  9. Design principle for absorption enhancement with nanoparticles in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuanpei; Xuan, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in solar cells has created many controversies. In this paper, different mechanisms of nanoparticles with different materials with diameters varying from 50 to 200 nm, surface coverage at 5, 20, and 60 %, and different locations are analyzed systematically for efficient light trapping in a thin-film c-Si solar cell. Mie theory and the finite difference time domain method are used for analysis to give a design principle with nanoparticles for the solar cell application. Metals exhibit plasmonic resonances and angular scattering, while dielectrics show anti-reflection and scattering in the incident direction. A table is given to summarize the advantages and disadvantages in different conditions. The silicon absorption enhancement with nanoparticles on top is mainly in the shorter wavelengths below 700 nm, and both Al and SiO 2 nanoparticles with diameter around 100 nm show the most significant enhancement. The silicon absorption enhancement with embedded nanoparticles takes place in the longer wavelengths over 700 nm, and Ag and SiO 2 nanoparticles with larger diameter around 200 nm perform better. However, the light absorbed by Ag nanoparticles will be converted to heat and will lead to decrease in cell efficiency; hence, the choice of metallic nanoparticles in applications to solar cells should be carefully considered. The design principle proposed in this work gives a guideline by choosing reasonable parameters for the different requirements in the application of thin-film solar cells

  10. Facile Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticle and Graphene Composite Materials: Comparison of Electrocatalytic Activity with Analogous CNT Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jihye; Jang, Ho Young; Jung, Insub; Yoon, Yeoheung; Jang, Heejeong; Lee, Hyoyoung; Park, Sungho [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Here, we present a facile method to synthesize Pt nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene composite materials (Pt/G) via vacuum filtration. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates were used to separate Pt/G composite and liquid phase. This method can be used to easily tune the mass ratio of Pt NPs and graphene. Pt NPs, graphene, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as building blocks were characterized by a variety of techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We compared the electrocatalytic activities of Pt/G with Pt NP and CNT films (Pt/CNT) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), CO oxidation, and methanol oxidation. Pt/G was much more stable than pure Pt films. Also, Pt/G had better electrochemical activity, CO tolerance and methanol oxidation than Pt/CNT loaded with the same amount of Pt NPs due to the better dispersion of Pt NPs on graphene flakes without aggregation. We further synthesized Au Pt disk/G and Pt nanorods/G to determine if our synthetic method can be applied to other NP shapes such as nanodisks and nanorods, for further electrocatalysis studies.

  11. Synthesis of Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juan; Wang, Ruiyu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites (FGC) are successfully synthesized by forming a complex Fe 3+ -GO and further reducing it with NaBH4 as one step at ambient condition. The morphology and structure studies of FGC indicate that Fe nanoparticles with size of about 5 nm are finely dispersed on graphene sheets. Decolorization experiments show that the FGC hybrids display better removal capacities to decolorize methyl blue (MB), a model dye in the dyeing and printing industry, compared with bare Fe particles. On the other hand, FGC hybrids exhibit superparamagnetic properties and can be separated from MB solution leaving a colorless solution by using a magnet. All of these suggest FGC an excellent candidate for dye removal. Highlights: ► Graphene oxide (GO) and Fe 3+ are used as precursors. ► By adding NaBH 4 , Fe 3+ and GO are in situ reduced to Fe and graphene, respectively, thus forming FGC hybrids. ► Fe nanoparticles with size of about 5 nm are finely dispersed on graphene sheets. ► FGC hybrids have better decolorization capacities than bare Fe nanoparticles. - Abstract: Fe nanoparticles-graphene composites (FGC) are successfully synthesized by using graphene oxide (GO) as a supporting matrix. GO is first treated with Fe 3+ to form Fe 3+ -GO complexes. Then, by adding NaBH 4 solution, Fe 3+ and GO are simultaneously reduced in situ to Fe and graphene respectively, forming FGC hybrid composites. The structures, properties and applications of the hybrids thus obtained are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and magnetization measurements. The hybrids are also evaluated for decolorization of methyl blue solution, a model dye in wastewater of dyeing industry. Compared with bare Fe particles, the high removal capacities of FGC are due to the

  12. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  13. Bioinspired Transparent Laminated Composite Film for Flexible Green Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daewon; Lim, Young-Woo; Im, Hyeon-Gyun; Jeong, Seonju; Ji, Sangyoon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Park, Jang-Ung; Lee, Jung-Yong; Jin, Jungho; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2017-07-19

    Herein, we report a new version of a bioinspired chitin nanofiber (ChNF) transparent laminated composite film (HCLaminate) made of siloxane hybrid materials (hybrimers) reinforced with ChNFs, which mimics the nanofiber-matrix structure of hierarchical biocomposites. Our HCLaminate is produced via vacuum bag compressing and subsequent UV-curing of the matrix resin-impregnated ChNF transparent paper (ChNF paper). It is worthwhile to note that this new type of ChNF-based transparent substrate film retains the strengths of the original ChNF paper and compensates for ChNF paper's drawbacks as a flexible transparent substrate. As a result, compared with high-performance synthetic plastic films, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ether sulfone), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and polyimide, our HCLaminate is characterized to exhibit extremely smooth surface topography, outstanding optical clarity, high elastic modulus, high dimensional stability, etc. To prove our HCLaminate as a substrate film, we use it to fabricate flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel. As far as we know, this work is the first to demonstrate flexible optoelectronics, such as flexible perovskite solar cells and a touch-screen panel, actually fabricated on a composite film made of ChNF. Given its desirable macroscopic properties, we envision our HCLaminate being utilized as a transparent substrate film for flexible green optoelectronics.

  14. Oxidation and sensing of ascorbic acid and dopamine on self-assembled gold nanoparticles incorporated within polyaniline film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenya; Zhou, Qun; Li, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Li, Na; Zheng, Junwei

    2015-10-01

    Electrochemical biosensors based on conducting polymers incorporated with metallic nanoparticles can greatly enhance sensitivity and selectivity. Herein, we report a facile fabrication approach for polyaniline (PAN) incorporated with a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) composite electrode by electrodeposition of PAN on a self-assembled AuNP layer on the surface of an indium tin oxide electrode. The resulting AuNP/PAN composite electrode exhibits a remarkable synergistic effect on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA). It is demonstrated that the oxidation reaction of AA mainly occurs at AuNPs inside the PAN film as the ascorbate anions are doped into the polymer during the oxidation of the PAN film. Conversely, the oxidation of positively charged DA may only take place at the PAN/solution interface. The different mechanisms of the electrode reactions result in the oxidation of AA and DA occurring at different potentials. As a result, the AuNP/PAN composite electrode can be employed to simultaneously detect AA and DA with a good linear range, high sensitivity, and low detection limit.

  15. Manufacturing and Morphological Analysis of Composite Material of Polystyrene Nanospheres/Cadmium Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratama Jujur Wibawa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A very simple nanocomposite material has been in-situ manufactured from an aqueous polystyrene nanospheres dispersion and cadmium (Cd metal nanoparticles. The manufacturing was performed by using a high frequency of 40 kHz ultrasonic (US agitation for 45 minute at atmospheric pressure and at room temperature 20 oC. No chemical reducing agent and surfactant added in this manufacturing technique due to the US could reduce Cd2+ ions of cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate to Cd atomic metals nanoparticles whereas water molecules could act as a pseudo stabilizer for the manufactured material. A thin film was manufactured from aqueous colloidal nanocomposite material of Polystyrene nanospheres/Cd metal nanoparticles (PSNs/CdMNp fabricated on a hydrophilic silicon wafer. The thin film was then characterized by a JEOL-FESEM for its surface morphology characteristic and by ATR-FTIR spectrometry for its molecular change investigation. It could be clearly observed that surface morphology of the thin film material was not significantly changed under 633 nm wavelength continuous laser radiation exposure for 20 minute. In addition, its ATR-FTIR spectra of wave number peaks around 3400 cm-1 have been totally disappeared under the laser exposure whereas that at around 699 cm-1 and 668 cm-1 have not been significantly changed. The first phenomenon indicated that the hydrogen bond existed in PSNs/CdMNp material was collapsed by the laser exposure. The second phenomena indicated that the PSNs phenyl ring moiety was not totally destroyed under the laser exposure. It was suspected due to the existence of Cd nanoparticles covered throughout the spherical surface of PSNs/CdMNp material particles. Therefore a nice model of material structure of the mentioned PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite material could be suggested in this research. It could be concluded that this research have been performed since the material structure model of the manufactured PSNs/CdMNp nanocomposite could be

  16. 3-dimensional free standing micro-structures by proton beam writing of Su 8-silver nanoParticle polymeric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbenehi, H.; Jiguet, S.

    2012-09-01

    Proton beam lithography a maskless direct-write lithographic technique (well suited for producing 3-Dimensional microstructures in a range of resist and semiconductor materials) is demonstrated as an effective tool in the creation of electrically conductive freestanding micro-structures in an Su 8 + Nano Silver polymer composite. The structures produced show non-ohmic conductivity and fit the percolation theory conduction model of tunneling of separated nanoparticles. Measurements show threshold switching and a change in conductivity of at least 4 orders of magnitude. The predictable range of protons in materials at a given energy is exploited in the creation of high aspect ratio, free standing micro-structures, made from a commercially available SU8 Silver nano-composite (GMC3060 form Gersteltec Inc. a negative tone photo-epoxy with added metallic nano-particles(Silver)) to create films with enhanced electrical properties when exposed and cured. Nano-composite films are directly written on with a finely focused MeV accelerated Proton particle beam. The energy loss of the incident proton beams in the target polymer nano- composite film is concentrated at the end of its range, where damage occurs; changing the chemistry of the nano-composite film via an acid initiated polymerization - creating conduction paths. Changing the energy of the incident beams provide exposed regions with different penetration and damage depth - exploited in the demonstrated cantilever microstructure.

  17. Creating surfactant nanoparticles for block copolymer composites through surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoon J; Bang, Joona; Hawker, Craig J; Chiu, Julia J; Pine, David J; Jang, Se Gyu; Yang, Seung-Man; Kramer, Edward J

    2007-12-04

    A simple strategy to tailor the surface of nanoparticles for their specific adsorption to and localization at block copolymer interfaces was explored. Gold nanoparticles coated by a mixture of low molecular weight thiol end-functional polystyrene (PS-SH) (Mn = 1.5 and 3.4 kg/mol) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) homopolymers (P2VP-SH) (Mn = 1.5 and 3.0 kg/mol) were incorporated into a lamellar poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) (Mn = 196 kg/mol). A library of nanoparticles with varying PS and P2VP surface compositions (FPS) and high polymer ligand areal chain densities was synthesized. The location of the nanoparticles in the PS-b-P2VP block copolymer was determined by transmission electron microscopy. Sharp transitions in particle location from the PS domain to the PS/P2VP interface, and subsequently to the P2VP domain, were observed at FPS = 0.9 and 0.1, respectively. This extremely wide window of FPS values where the polymer-coated gold nanoparticles adsorb to the interface suggests a redistribution of PS and P2VP polymers on the Au surface, inducing the formation of amphiphilic nanoparticles at the PS/P2VP interface. In a second and synthetically more challenging approach, gold nanoparticles were covered with a thiol terminated random copolymer of styrene and 2-vinylpyridine synthesized by RAFT polymerization. Two different random copolymers were considered, where the molecular weight was fixed at 3.5 kg/mol and the relative incorporation of styrene and 2-vinylpyridine repeat units varied (FPS = 0.52 and 0.40). The areal chain density of these random copolymers on Au is unfortunately not high enough to preclude any contact between the P2VP block of the block copolymer and the Au surface. Interestingly, gold nanoparticles coated by the random copolymer with FPS = 0.4 were dispersed in the P2VP domain, while those with FPS = 0.52 were located at the interface. A simple calculation for the adsorption energy to the interface of the nanoparticles

  18. Effect of Addition of Colloidal Silica to Films of Polyimide, Polyvinylpyridine, Polystyrene, and Polymethylmethacrylate Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Abdalla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work for developing the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nanoparticle size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that forms the insulating film between the conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of four highly pure amorphous polymer films: polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher breakdown performance is a character of polyimide (PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance caused by gold nanoparticles formed on sprayed TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oja Acik, I., E-mail: ilona.oja@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Dolgov, L. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Krunks, M.; Mere, A.; Mikli, V. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Pikker, S.; Loot, A.; Sildos, I. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-02-28

    Titania films covered by gold nanoparticles are prepared by combination of spray pyrolysis and spin-coating methods. Proposed combination of techniques is prospective for photovoltaic coatings with plasmonic properties. The prepared TiO{sub 2} films with Au nanoparticles demonstrate variation in size of the gold nanocrystallites from 36 to 56 nm depending on the concentration of the HAuCl{sub 4}∙ 3H{sub 2}O solution and plasmonic light extinction in the spectral range of 600–650 nm. It is shown that gold nanocrystallites enhance Raman scattering from the underlying thin TiO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films with Au-nanoparticles were produced by chemical solution methods. • The size and shape of Au-nanoparticles are controlled by the [HAuCl{sub 4}∙ 3H{sub 2}O]. • Plasmon light extinction was tuned from 600 to 650 nm by changing [HAuCl{sub 4}∙ 3H{sub 2}O]. • Raman scattering intensity of TiO{sub 2} films is enhanced by the Au-nanoparticles.

  20. Tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles and cellulose and their applications as electrochemical electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiming; Wang, Xuefeng; Wu, Wenjian; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Conductive hybrid films of metal nanoparticles and polymers have practical applications in the fields of sensing, microelectronics and catalysis, etc. Herein, we present the electrochemical availability of tunnelling conductive hybrid films of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and cellulose. The hybrid films were provided with stable tunnelling conductive properties with 12 nm GNPs of 12.7% (in weight). For the first time, the conductive hybrid films were used as substrates of electrochemical electrodes to load calmodulin (CaM) proteins for sensing of calcium cations. The electrodes of hybrid films with 20 nm GNPs of 46.7% (in weight) exhibited stable electrochemical properties, and showed significant responses to calcium cations with concentrations as low as 10 −9 M after being loaded with CaM proteins. (paper)

  1. Thick film magnetic nanoparticulate composites and method of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinqing (Inventor); Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Ge, Shihui (Inventor); Zhang, Zongtao (Inventor); Yan, Dajing (Inventor); Xiao, Danny T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Thick film magnetic/insulating nanocomposite materials, with significantly reduced core loss, and their manufacture are described. The insulator coated magnetic nanocomposite comprises one or more magnetic components, and an insulating component. The magnetic component comprises nanometer scale particles (about 1 to about 100 nanometers) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase. While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase provides the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides high resistivity, which reduces eddy current loss.

  2. mwnts composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: A poly p-aminosalicylic acid (Poly(p-ASA)) and multiwall carbon nanotubes. (MWCNTs) composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode was constructed by casting the MWNTs on the GC electrode surface followed by electropolymerization of the p-ASA on the MWCNTs/GCE. The electrochemical behaviours ...

  3. Tunable Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticle Sol-Gel Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David D.; Snow, Lanee A.; Sibille, Laurent; Ignont, Erica

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that the linear and non-linear optical properties of sol-gels containing metal nanoparticles are highly tunable with porosity. Moreover, we extend the technique of immersion spectroscopy to inhomogeneous hosts, such as aerogels, and determine rigorous bounds for the average fractional composition of each component, i.e., the porosity of the aerogel, or equivalently, for these materials, the catalytic dispersion. Sol-gels containing noble metal nanoparticles were fabricated and a significant blue-shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was observed upon formation of an aerogel, as a result of the decrease in the dielectric constant of the matrix upon supercritical extraction of the solvent. However, as a result of chemical interface damping and aggregation this blue-shift does not strictly obey standard effective medium theories. Mitigation of these complications is achieved by avoiding the use of alcohol and by annealing the samples in a reducing atmosphere.

  4. Composite Scaffolds Based on Silver Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Marian Patrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro testing of homogenous and heterogeneous materials containing silver nanoparticles (nanoAg. Three types of antiseptic materials based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HA, and collagen/hydroxyapatite (COLL/HA composite materials were obtained. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was realized by chemical reaction as well as plasma sputtering deposition. The use of chemical reduction allows the synthesis of homogenous materials while the plasma sputtering deposition can be easily used for the synthesis of homogeneous and heterogeneous support. Based on the in vitro assays clear antiseptic activity against Escherichia coli was relieved even at low content of nanoAg (10 ppm.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of novel antimicrobial films derived from thymol-loaded zein-sodium caseinate (SC) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang-Kang; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Tang, Chuan-He; Wei, Zi-Hao

    2012-11-21

    The objective of this research was to fabricate novel antimicrobial films based on zein colloidal nanoparticles coated with sodium caseinate (SC), an emulsifier/stabilizer. Thymol-loaded zein-SC nanoparticles were prepared using an antisolvent technique, with the average particle size and zeta potential about 200 ± 20 nm and -40 mV, respectively. Zein-SC nanoparticle-based films exhibited higher mechanical resistance and water barrier capacity than the SC films and concomitant good extensibility as compared with zein films. Thymol loadings endowed zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella as well as DPPH radical scavenging activity. Water vapor permeability, microstructure, mechanical, and controlled release properties of the films were evaluated. The possible relationship between some selected physical properties and microstructure were also discussed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that thymol loadings resulted in the emergence phenomena of the nanoparticles to form large particles or packed structure, consisting of clusters of nanoparticles, within the film matrix, in a thymol loading dependent manner. The appearance of large particles or an agglomerate of particles may weaken the compactness of protein network of films and thus impair the water barrier capacity, mechanical resistance, and extensibility of the films. The release kinetics of thymol from nanoparticle-based films can be described as a two-step biphasic process, that is, an initial burst effect followed by subsequent slower release, and zein-SC nanoparticles within the films matrices gave them the ability to sustain the release of thymol. In addition, a schematic illustration of the formation pathway of zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with or without thymol was proposed to illuminate the possible relationship between some selected physical properties and the microstructure of the films.

  6. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on MgB2 superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparan, E.T.; Sidorenko, A.; Yanmaz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of superconductivity in binary MgB 2 compounds, extensive studies have been carried out because of its excellent properties for technological applications, such as high transition temperature (T c = 39 K), high upper critical field (H c2 ), high critical current density (J c ). Thin films are important for fundamental research as well as technological applications of any functional materials. Technological applications primarily depend on critical current density. The strong field dependence of J c for MgB 2 necessitates an enhancement in flux pinning performance in order to improve values in high magnetic fields. An effective way to improve the flux pinning is to introduce flux pinning centers into MgB 2 through a dopant having size comparable to the coherence length of MgB 2 . In this study, MgB 2 film with a thickness of about 600 nm was deposited on the MgO (100) single crystal substrate using a 'two-step' synthesis technique. Firstly, deposition of boron thin film was carried out by rf magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates and followed by a post deposition annealing at 850 degrees Celsius in magnesium vapour. In order to investigate the effect of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the structural and magnetic properties of films, MgB 2 films were coated with different concentrations of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles by a spin coating process. The effects of different concentrations of ferromagnetic Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on superconducting properties of obtained films were carried out by using structural (XRD, SEM, AFM), electrical (R-T) and magnetization (M-H, M-T and AC Susceptibility) measurements. It was calculated that anisotropic coefficient was about γ = 1.2 and coherence length of 5 nm for the uncoated film. As a result of coherence length, the appropriate diameters of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were found to be 10 nm, indicating that these nanoparticles served as the pinning centers. Based on the data obtained from this study, it can be

  7. Diazonium-derived aryl films on gold nanoparticles: evidence for a carbon-gold covalent bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurentius, Lars; Stoyanov, Stanislav R; Gusarov, Sergey; Kovalenko, Andriy; Du, Rongbing; Lopinski, Gregory P; McDermott, Mark T

    2011-05-24

    Tailoring the surface chemistry of metallic nanoparticles is generally a key step for their use in a wide range of applications. There are few examples of organic films covalently bound to metal nanoparticles. We demonstrate here that aryl films are formed on gold nanoparticles from the spontaneous reduction of diazonium salts. The structure and the bonding of the film is probed with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Extinction spectroscopy and SERS show that a nitrobenzene film forms on gold nanoparticles from the corresponding diazonium salt. Comparison of the SERS spectrum with spectra computed from density functional theory models reveals a band characteristic of a Au-C stretch. The observation of this stretch is direct evidence of a covalent bond. A similar band is observed in high-resolution electron energy loss spectra of nitrobenzene layers on planar gold. The bonding of these types of films through a covalent interaction on gold is consistent with their enhanced stability observed in other studies. These findings provide motivation for the use of diazonium-derived films on gold and other metals in applications where high stability and/or strong adsorbate-substrate coupling are required.

  8. Preparation and antibacterial properties of hybrid-zirconia films with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azócar, Ignacio; Vargas, Esteban; Duran, Nicole; Arrieta, Abel; González, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNps) into zirconia matrix–polyether glycol was studied. AgNps of 4–6 nm in size were synthesized using the inverse micelles method, and different doses of metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into zirconia–polyether glycol mixtures during the ageing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modified hybrid film showed a homogenous distribution of 20–80 nm diameter AgNps, indicating agglomeration of these structures during film modification; such agglomerations were greater when increasing the dosage of the colloidal system. The AgNps-hybrid films showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than for Gram-negative bacteria. Hybrid films prepared with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) stabilized AgNps presented enhanced antibacterial activity compared to that obtained through the addition of a high AgNO 3 concentration (0.3 wt%). -- Graphical abstract: Atomic Force Micrographs, top and cross section view, showing silver nanoparticles embedded in a zirconia–polyether glycol hybrid film. Highlights: ► Antibacterial activity of films (zirconia–polyether glycol) modified with silver nanoparticles. ► Biofilm formation is prevented. ► High sensibility against gram positive bacteria.

  9. Preparation and antibacterial properties of hybrid-zirconia films with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Ignacio, E-mail: manuel.azocar@usach.cl [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Vargas, Esteban [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Duran, Nicole [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Arrieta, Abel [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Gonzalez, Evelyn [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Chile, Sergio Livingstone Polhammer 1007, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2012-11-15

    The antimicrobial effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNps) into zirconia matrix-polyether glycol was studied. AgNps of 4-6 nm in size were synthesized using the inverse micelles method, and different doses of metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into zirconia-polyether glycol mixtures during the ageing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modified hybrid film showed a homogenous distribution of 20-80 nm diameter AgNps, indicating agglomeration of these structures during film modification; such agglomerations were greater when increasing the dosage of the colloidal system. The AgNps-hybrid films showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than for Gram-negative bacteria. Hybrid films prepared with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) stabilized AgNps presented enhanced antibacterial activity compared to that obtained through the addition of a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.3 wt%). -- Graphical abstract: Atomic Force Micrographs, top and cross section view, showing silver nanoparticles embedded in a zirconia-polyether glycol hybrid film. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibacterial activity of films (zirconia-polyether glycol) modified with silver nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biofilm formation is prevented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensibility against gram positive bacteria.

  10. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photocatalytic properties of P25-doped TiO2 composite film synthesized via sol-gel method on cement substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Rao, Lei; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Wanzhong

    2018-04-01

    TiO 2 films have received increasing attention for the removal of organic pollutants via photocatalysis. To develop a simple and effective method for improving the photodegradation efficiency of pollutants in surface water, we herein examined the preparation of a P25-TiO 2 composite film on a cement substrate via a sol-gel method. In this case, Rhodamine B (RhB) was employed as the target organic pollutant. The self-generated TiO 2 film and the P25-TiO 2 composite film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photodegradation efficiencies of the two films were studied by RhB removal in water under UV (ultraviolet) irradiation. Over 4day exposure, the P25-TiO 2 composite film exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than the self-generated TiO 2 film. The photodegradation rate indicated that the efficiency of the P25-TiO 2 composite film was enhanced by the addition of the rutile phase Degussa P25 powder. As such, cooperation between the anatase TiO 2 and rutile P25 nanoparticles was beneficial for separation of the photo-induced electrons and holes. In addition, the influence of P25 doping on the P25-TiO 2 composite films was evaluated. We found that up to a certain saturation point, increased doping enhanced the photodegradation ability of the composite film. Thus, we herein demonstrated that the doping of P25 powders is a simple but effective strategy to prepare a P25-TiO 2 composite film on a cement substrate, and the resulting film exhibits excellent removal efficiency in the degradation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Wound Healing Bionanocomposites Based on Castor Oil Polymeric Films Reinforced with Chitosan-Modified ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2015-09-14

    Castor oil (CO), which is a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally benign nonedible oil, has been successfully used as matrix material to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposite films filled with chitosan (CS)-modified ZnO nanoparticles. The biocomposites were synthesized via a simple and versatile solution mixing and casting method. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, water absorption, biodegradability, cytocompatibility, barrier, mechanical, viscoelastic, antibacterial, and wound healing properties of the films have been analyzed. FT-IR spectra were used to obtain information about the nanoparticle-matrix interactions. The thermal stability, hydrophilicity, degree of porosity, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability (Dk), and biodegradability of the films increased with the CS-ZnO loading. The WVTR and Dk data obtained are within the range of values reported for commercial wound dressings. Tensile tests demonstrated that the nanocomposites displayed a good balance between elasticity, strength, and flexibility under both dry and simulated body fluid (SBF) environments. The flexibility increased in a moist atmosphere due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water. The nanocomposites also exhibited significantly enhanced dynamic mechanical performance (storage modulus and glass transition temperature) than neat CO under different humidity conditions. The antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus bacteria was investigated in the presence and the absence of UV light. The biocide effect increased progressively with the CS-ZnO content and was systematically stronger against Gram-positive cells. Composites with nanoparticle loading ≤5.0 wt % exhibited very good in vitro cytocompatibility and enabled a faster wound healing than neat CO and control gauze, hence showing great potential to be applied as antibacterial

  13. Magnetic proximity effects in nanoparticle composite systems and macrocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbs, Genevieve

    2017-07-01

    Assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles are of major interest for future applications e.g. in spintronic devices, high density data storage systems or biomedical applications. The reason is not only the obvious miniaturization, but also their novel properties emerging only at the nanoscale. Hence, arranging nanoparticles like atoms in a crystal enables the fabrication of a new class of materials. To gain in-depth understanding of these systems, it is necessary to investigate them on all length scales. The present work provides a novel and extensive contribution to the understanding of the selfassembly of iron oxide nanoparticle superstructures and their influence on polarizable matrix materials. Through the investigation of the samples at all stages of preparation, a comprehensive picture of the unique phenomena observed at the end is derived. For this purpose, oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles were deposited on silicon substrates by spincoating to manufacture two-dimensional arrangements. Hereby, the influence of several parameters has been investigated and optimized. Afterwards, the organic surfactant shell was removed by oxygen plasma treatment. This process has been studied in detail, because it initiates a phase transformation that significantly influences the magnetic properties of the system (e.g. by reducing the blocking temperature). Thin palladium or platinum films were then respectively deposited to create a matrix material. Aside from magnetometry measurements, first order reversal curves were obtained in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems, both revealing that the matrix materials significantly influence the inter-particle interaction and vice versa. However, only by performing X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory, it could be evidenced unambiguously that platinum can be polarized by an oxide. Additionally, these systems were investigated

  14. Magnetic proximity effects in nanoparticle composite systems and macrocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbs, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles are of major interest for future applications e.g. in spintronic devices, high density data storage systems or biomedical applications. The reason is not only the obvious miniaturization, but also their novel properties emerging only at the nanoscale. Hence, arranging nanoparticles like atoms in a crystal enables the fabrication of a new class of materials. To gain in-depth understanding of these systems, it is necessary to investigate them on all length scales. The present work provides a novel and extensive contribution to the understanding of the selfassembly of iron oxide nanoparticle superstructures and their influence on polarizable matrix materials. Through the investigation of the samples at all stages of preparation, a comprehensive picture of the unique phenomena observed at the end is derived. For this purpose, oleic acid coated iron oxide nanoparticles were deposited on silicon substrates by spincoating to manufacture two-dimensional arrangements. Hereby, the influence of several parameters has been investigated and optimized. Afterwards, the organic surfactant shell was removed by oxygen plasma treatment. This process has been studied in detail, because it initiates a phase transformation that significantly influences the magnetic properties of the system (e.g. by reducing the blocking temperature). Thin palladium or platinum films were then respectively deposited to create a matrix material. Aside from magnetometry measurements, first order reversal curves were obtained in cooperation with the Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems, both revealing that the matrix materials significantly influence the inter-particle interaction and vice versa. However, only by performing X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory, it could be evidenced unambiguously that platinum can be polarized by an oxide. Additionally, these systems were investigated

  15. Liquid phase assisted grain growth in Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films by alkali element incorporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    The effect of adding LiCl, NaCl, and KCl to Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle thin-film samples annealed in a nitrogen and sulfur atmosphere is reported. We demonstrate that the organic ligand-free nanoparticles previously developed can be used to produce an absorber layer of high quality. The films...

  16. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  17. Influence of Polycation Composition on Electrochemical Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Schneider

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyelectrolyte composition on the electrodeposition onto platinum is investigated using a counterion switching approach. Film formation of preformed polyelectrolytes is triggered by oxidation of hexacyanoferrates(II (ferrocyanide, leading to polyelectrolyte complexes, which are physically crosslinked by hexacyanoferrate(III (ferricyanide ions due to preferential ferricyanide/polycation interactions. In this study, the electrodeposition of three different linear polyelectrolytes, namely quaternized poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate] (i.e., poly{[2-(methacryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammonium chloride}; PMOTAC, quaternized poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl acrylate] (i.e., poly{[2-(acryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammonium chloride}; POTAC, quaternized poly[N-(3-dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamide] (i.e., poly{[3-(methacrylamidopropyl]trimethylammonium chloride}; PMAPTAC and different statistical copolymers of these polyelectrolytes with N-(3-aminopropylmethacrylamide (APMA, are studied. Hydrodynamic voltammetry utilizing a rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE shows the highest deposition efficiency DE for PMOTAC over PMAPTAC and over POTAC. Increasing incorporation of APMA weakens the preferred interaction of the quaternized units with the hexacyanoferrate(III ions. At a sufficient APMA content, electrodeposition can thus be prevented. Additional electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements reveal the formation of rigid polyelectrolyte films being highly crosslinked by the hexacyanoferrate(III ions. Results indicate a different degree of water incorporation into these polyelectrolyte films. Hence, by adjusting the polycation composition, film properties can be tuned, while different chemistries can be incorporated into these electrodeposited thin hydrogel films.

  18. High resolution selective multilayer laser processing by nanosecond laser ablation of metal nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Seung H.; Pan Heng; Hwang, David J.; Chung, Jaewon; Ryu, Sangil; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2007-01-01

    Ablation of gold nanoparticle films on polymer was explored using a nanosecond pulsed laser, with the goal to achieve feature size reduction and functionality not amenable with inkjet printing. The ablation threshold fluence for the unsintered nanoparticle deposit was at least ten times lower than the reported threshold for the bulk film. This could be explained by the combined effects of melting temperature depression, lower conductive heat transfer loss, strong absorption of the incident laser beam, and the relatively weak bonding between nanoparticles. The ablation physics were verified by the nanoparticle sintering characterization, ablation threshold measurement, time resolved ablation plume shadowgraphs, analysis of ablation ejecta, and the measurement and calculation of optical properties. High resolution and clean feature fabrication with small energy and selective multilayer processing are demonstrated

  19. Improved performance of silicon-nanoparticle film-coated dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Bedja, Idriss M. [CRC, Department of Optometry, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Aldwayyan, Abdullah Saleh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Silicon (Si) nanoparticles with average size of 13 nm and orange-red luminescence under UV absorption were synthesized using electrochemical etching of silicon wafers. A film of Si nanoparticles with thickness of 0.75 {mu}m to 2.6 {mu}m was coated on the glass (TiO{sub 2} side) of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The cell exhibited nearly 9% enhancement in power conversion efficiency ({eta}) at film thickness of {proportional_to}2.4 {mu}m under solar irradiation of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM 1.5) with improved fill factor and short-circuit current density. This study revealed for the first time that the Si-nanoparticle film converting UV into visible light and helping in homogeneous irradiation, can be utilized for improving the efficiency of the DSSCs. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Electrostatically self-assembled films containing II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles: Optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryajaya; Nabok, A.V.; Tsargorodskaya, A.; Hassan, A.K.; Davis, F.

    2008-01-01

    CdS and ZnS semiconducting colloid nanoparticles were deposited as thin films using the technique of electrostatic self-assembly. The process of alternative deposition of Poly-allylamine Hydrochloride (PAH) and CdS (or ZnS) layers were monitored with a novel optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The fitting of TIRE spectra allowed the evaluation of the parameter (thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficients) of all consecutively deposited layers. I-V characteristics of the films obtained were studied in sandwich structures on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) conductive electrodes using the mercury probe technique. The presence of CdS (or ZnS) nanoparticles in the polyelectrolyte films leads to a switching behaviour, which may be attributed to the resonance electron tunneling via semiconducting nanoparticles

  1. XRD total scattering of the CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for the thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. They can be easily manufactured by the deposition of the nanoparticle ink as a thin film followed by a thermal treatment to obtain large grains [2]. Therefore, CZTS has the potential...... to revolutionize the solar energy market. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. In order to do so, it is vital to understand in detail their nanoscale atomic structure. CZTS crystallize in the kesterite structure, where Cu and Zn is distributed between......-ray Diffraction data with X-ray total scattering with Pair Distribution Function analysis. Powder neutron diffraction will furthermore allow characterization of the cation disorder on the metal sites in the kesterite structure. The nanoparticle ink is also characterized by XRD, EDS, and Raman spectroscopy...

  2. Photoconductivity of reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Haifeng; Ren, Wen; Su, Junhong; Cai, Changlong

    2012-01-01

    A photoconductive device was fabricated by patterning magnetron sputtered Pt/Ti electrode and Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)/Graphene Oxide (GO) composite films with a sensitive area of 10 × 20 mm 2 . The surface morphology of as-deposited GO films was observed by scanning electronic microscopy, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The absorption properties and chemical structure of RGO/GO composite films were obtained using a spectrophotometer and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoconductive properties of the system were characterized under white light irradiation with varied output power and biased voltage. The results show that the resistance decreased from 210 kΩ to 11.5 kΩ as the irradiation power increased from 0.0008 mW to 625 mW. The calculated responsiveness of white light reached 0.53 × 10 −3 A/W. Furthermore, the device presents a high photo-conductivity response and displays a photovoltaic response with an open circuit voltage from 0.017 V to 0.014 V with irradiation power. The sources of charge are attributed to efficient excitation dissociation at the interface of the RGO/GO composite film, coupled with cross-surface charge percolation.

  3. UV-cured polymeric films containing ZnO and silver nanoparticles with UV–vis light-assisted photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podasca, Viorica E.; Buruiana, Tinca; Buruiana, Emil C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of photopolymerized films containing ZnO and/or Ag NPs is reported. • Photopolymerization of the acrylic monomers occurred with conversions of 57–90%. • XRD, EDX, and TEM analyses proved the uniform distribution of NPs in the matrix. • MB was photodegradated using the hybrid films under UV–vis irradiation. - Abstract: Hybrid polymer composites incorporating preformed ZnO alone or its mixture with Ag nanoparticles created during UV irradiation of some urethane acrylic monomers including trietoxysilylpropyl carbamoyloxyethyl methacrylate were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic ("1H ("1"3C) NMR, FTIR, UV–vis, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction) and microscopic (AFM, ESEM/EDX, TEM) techniques. The results confirmed that the double bond conversion measured through FTIR spectroscopy varied in the range of 57–90% (after 60 s of irradiation), exhibiting formulation composition dependence. In the crosslinked polymer networks the existence of individual nanoparticles with primarily spherical shape and sizes between 5 and 15 nm for ZnO, and around 3 nm for in situ photogenerated silver nanoparticles was evidenced. Additionally, the photocatalytic effect of the photopolymerized hybrid films was investigated by determining the decomposition rate of the methylene blue (MB) in ethanol (over 90%) under UV (2.7 × 10"−"2 s"−"1) and visible irradiation (2.9 × 10"−"2 min"−"1). It was found that the composite films containing a higher amount of ZnO-Ag nanoparticles placed in water induced the photodecomposition of MB (∼87% after 100 min of visible irradiation; k = 2.1 × 10"−"2 min"−"1). The good efficiency of the NPs from these polymer films make them attractive for applications in photocatalysis of organic dye molecules.

  4. UV-cured polymeric films containing ZnO and silver nanoparticles with UV–vis light-assisted photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podasca, Viorica E.; Buruiana, Tinca; Buruiana, Emil C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.ro

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Synthesis of photopolymerized films containing ZnO and/or Ag NPs is reported. • Photopolymerization of the acrylic monomers occurred with conversions of 57–90%. • XRD, EDX, and TEM analyses proved the uniform distribution of NPs in the matrix. • MB was photodegradated using the hybrid films under UV–vis irradiation. - Abstract: Hybrid polymer composites incorporating preformed ZnO alone or its mixture with Ag nanoparticles created during UV irradiation of some urethane acrylic monomers including trietoxysilylpropyl carbamoyloxyethyl methacrylate were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic ({sup 1}H ({sup 13}C) NMR, FTIR, UV–vis, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction) and microscopic (AFM, ESEM/EDX, TEM) techniques. The results confirmed that the double bond conversion measured through FTIR spectroscopy varied in the range of 57–90% (after 60 s of irradiation), exhibiting formulation composition dependence. In the crosslinked polymer networks the existence of individual nanoparticles with primarily spherical shape and sizes between 5 and 15 nm for ZnO, and around 3 nm for in situ photogenerated silver nanoparticles was evidenced. Additionally, the photocatalytic effect of the photopolymerized hybrid films was investigated by determining the decomposition rate of the methylene blue (MB) in ethanol (over 90%) under UV (2.7 × 10{sup −2} s{sup −1}) and visible irradiation (2.9 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1}). It was found that the composite films containing a higher amount of ZnO-Ag nanoparticles placed in water induced the photodecomposition of MB (∼87% after 100 min of visible irradiation; k = 2.1 × 10{sup −2} min{sup −1}). The good efficiency of the NPs from these polymer films make them attractive for applications in photocatalysis of organic dye molecules.

  5. A protected annealing strategy to enhanced light emission and photostability of YAG:Ce nanoparticle-based films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revaux, Amelie; Dantelle, Geraldine; George, Nathan; Seshadri, Ram; Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-05-01

    A significant obstacle in the development of YAG:Ce nanoparticles as light converters in white LEDs and as biological labels is associated with the difficulty of finding preparative conditions that allow simultaneous control of structure, particle size and size distribution, while maintaining the optical properties of bulk samples. Preparation conditions frequently involve high-temperature treatments of precursors (up to 1400 °C), which result in increased particle size and aggregation, and lead to oxidation of Ce(iii) to Ce(iv). We report here a process that we term protected annealing, that allows the thermal treatment of preformed precursor particles at temperatures up to 1000 °C while preserving their small size and state of dispersion. In a first step, pristine nanoparticles are prepared by a glycothermal reaction, leading to a mixture of YAG and boehmite crystalline phases. The preformed nanoparticles are then dispersed in a porous silica. Annealing of the composite material at 1000 °C is followed by dissolution of the amorphous silica by hydrofluoric acid to recover the annealed particles as a colloidal dispersion. This simple process allows completion of YAG crystallization while preserving their small size. The redox state of Ce ions can be controlled through the annealing atmosphere. The obtained particles of YAG:Ce (60 +/- 10 nm in size) can be dispersed as nearly transparent aqueous suspensions, with a luminescence quantum yield of 60%. Transparent YAG:Ce nanoparticle-based films of micron thickness can be deposited on glass substrates using aerosol spraying. Films formed from particles prepared by the protected annealing strategy display significantly improved photostability over particles that have not been subject to such annealing.A significant obstacle in the development of YAG:Ce nanoparticles as light converters in white LEDs and as biological labels is associated with the difficulty of finding preparative conditions that allow simultaneous

  6. Impacts of zeolite nanoparticles on substrate properties of thin film nanocomposite membranes for engineered osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Tahereh Mombeini; Peyravi, Majid; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Lau, Woei-Jye; Rad, Ali Shokuhi

    2018-04-01

    In this work, microporous substrates modified by zeolite nanoparticles were prepared and used for composite membrane making with the aim of reducing internal concentration polarization (ICP) effect of membranes during engineered osmosis applications. Nanocomposite substrates were fabricated via phase inversion technique by embedding nanostructured zeolite (clinoptilolite) in the range of 0-0.6 wt% into matrix of polyethersulfone (PES) substrate. Of all the substrates prepared, the PES0.4 substrate (with 0.4 wt% zeolite) exhibited unique characteristics, i.e., increased surface porosity, lower structural parameter ( S) (from 0.78 to 0.48 mm), and enhanced water flux. The thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane made of this optimized substrate was also reported to exhibit higher water flux compared to the control composite membrane during forward osmosis (FO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) test, without compromising reverse solute flux. The water flux of such TFN membrane was 43% higher than the control TFC membrane (1.93 L/m2 h bar) with salt rejection recorded at 94.7%. An increment in water flux is ascribed to the reduction in structural parameter, leading to reduced ICP effect.

  7. Hybrid phototransistors based on bulk heterojunction films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and zinc oxide nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Park, Soohyeong; Lee, Sooyong; Jeong, Jaehoon; Lee, Hyena; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2013-02-01

    Hybrid phototransistors (HPTRs) were fabricated on glass substrates using organic/inorganic hybrid bulk heterojunction films of p-type poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and n-type zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO(NP)). The content of ZnO(NP) was varied up to 50 wt % in order to understand the composition effect of ZnO(NP) on the performance of HPTRs. The morphology and nanostructure of the P3HT:ZnO(NP) films was examined by employing high resolution electron microscopes and synchrotron radiation grazing angle X-ray diffraction system. The incident light intensity (P(IN)) was varied up to 43.6 μW/cm², whereas three major wavelengths (525 nm, 555 nm, 605 nm) corresponded to the optical absorption of P3HT were applied. Results showed that the present HPTRs showed typical p-type transistor performance even though the n-type ZnO(NP) content increased up to 50 wt %. The highest transistor performance was obtained at 50 wt %, whereas the lowest performance was measured at 23 wt % because of the immature bulk heterojunction morphology. The drain current (I(D)) was proportionally increased with P(IN) due to the photocurrent generation in addition to the field-effect current. The highest apparent and corrected responsivities (R(A) = 4.7 A/W and R(C) = 2.07 A/W) were achieved for the HPTR with the P3HT:ZnO(NP) film (50 wt % ZnO(NP)) at P(IN) = 0.27 μW/cm² (555 nm).

  8. Chitosan-based films composites for wound healing purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Natali de O.; Silva, Gabriela T. da; Schulz, Gracelie A.S.; Fajardo, Andre R.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan has been extensively applied in the developing of biomaterials due to its desirable good physico-chemical and biological properties. According to this, here films composite of chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) and bovine bone powder were prepared by casting willing to be applied in wound healing purposes. Moreover, the first step was the developing of a suitable method to obtain bovine bone powder, which was utilized here as filler. All the materials and films were fully characterized by FTIR, DRX and thermal analysis. Water uptake capacity was measured by swelling assays. (author)

  9. Direct detection of cysteine using functionalized BaTiO3 nanoparticles film based self-powered biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sophia; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-05-15

    Simple, novel, and direct detection of clinically important biomolecules have continuous demand among scientific community as well as in market. Here, we report the first direct detection and facile fabrication of a cysteine-responsive, film-based, self-powered device. NH 2 functionalized BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT-NH 2 NPs) suspended in a three-dimensional matrix of an agarose (Ag) film, were used for cysteine detection. BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT NPs) semiconducting as well as piezoelectric properties were harnessed in this study. The changes in surface charge properties of the film with respect to cysteine concentrations were determined using a current-voltage (I-V) technique. The current response increased with cysteine concentration (linear concentration range=10µM-1mM). Based on the properties of the composite (BT/Ag), we created a self-powered cysteine sensor in which the output voltage from a piezoelectric nanogenerator was used to drive the sensor. The potential drop across the sensor was measured as a function of cysteine concentrations. Real-time analysis of sensor performance was carried out on urine samples by non-invasive method. This novel sensor demonstrated good selectivity, linear concentration range and detection limit of 10µM; acceptable for routine analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The disclosed transformation of pre-sputtered Ti films into nanoparticles via controlled thermal oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M. A.; Raaif, M.

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO2 were successfully prepared from pre-sputtered Ti films using the controlled thermal oxidation. The effect of oxidation temperature on structural, morphological and optical properties in addition to photocatalysis activity of the sputtered films was tested and explained. Analysis of XRD and EDAX elucidated the enhancement in crystallization and oxygen content with the increase of oxidation temperature. SEM depicted the formation of very fine nanoparticles with no specific border on the films oxidized at 550 and 600 °C, whilst crystallites with larger size of approximately from 16 to 23 nm have been observed for the film oxidized at 650 °C. Both optical transmission and refractive index were increased with increasing the oxidation temperature. A red shift in the absorption edge was obtained for the films oxidized at 650 °C compared to that oxidized at 600 °C. The photocatalysis tests demonstrated the priority of 600 °C nanoparticle films to decompose methyl orange (MO) more than 650 °C treated film.

  11. Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaohong, E-mail: yxhong1981_2004@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Xu, Wenzheng, E-mail: xwz8199@126.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: windhuang325@163.com [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: mjuchen@126.com [Faculty of Clothing and Design, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350121, Fujian (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by magnetron sputtering technique. • Ag film was easily oxidized into Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. • The zinc film coated on the surface of Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. • Polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film can obtained structural color. • The anti-ultraviolet and antistatic properties of polyester fabric coated with Ag/ZnO composite film all were good. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO composite film was successfully deposited on polyester fabric by using direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering and radio frequency (RF) magnetron reaction sputtering techniques with pure silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) targets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the deposited film on the fabric. It was found that the zinc film coated on Ag film before RF reactive sputtering could protect the silver film from oxidation. Anti-ultraviolet property and antistatic property of the coated samples using different magnetron sputtering methods were also investigated. The experimental results showed that Ag film was oxidized into in Ag{sub 2}O film in high vacuum oxygen environment. The deposition of Zn film on the surface of the fabric coated with Ag film before RF reactive sputtering, could successfully obtained Ag/ZnO composite film, and also generated structural color on the polyester fabric.

  12. Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for High-Performance Films and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with extraordinary properties and thus many potential applications have been predicted to be the best reinforcements for the next-generation multifunctional composite materials. Difficulties exist in transferring the most use of the unprecedented properties of individual CNTs to macroscopic forms of CNT assemblies. Therefore, this thesis focuses on two main goals: 1) discussing the issues that influence the performance of bulk CNT products, and 2) fabricating high-performance dry CNT films and composite films with an understanding of the fundamental structure-property relationship in these materials. Dry CNT films were fabricated by a winding process using CNT arrays with heights of 230 mum, 300 im and 360 mum. The structures of the as-produced films, as well as their mechanical and electrical properties were examined in order to find out the effects of different CNT lengths. It was found that the shorter CNTs synthesized by shorter time in the CVD furnace exhibited less structural defects and amorphous carbon, resulting in more compact packing and better nanotube alignment when made into dry films, thus, having better mechanical and electrical performance. A novel microcombing approach was developed to mitigate the CNT waviness and alignment in the dry films, and ultrahigh mechanical properties and exceptional electrical performance were obtained. This method utilized a pair of sharp surgical blades with microsized features at the blade edges as micro-combs to, for the first time, disentangle and straighten the wavy CNTs in the dry-drawn CNT sheet at single-layer level. The as-combed CNT sheet exhibited high level of nanotube alignment and straightness, reduced structural defects, and enhanced nanotube packing density. The dry CNT films produced by microcombing had a very high Young's modulus of 172 GPa, excellent tensile strength of 3.2 GPa, and unprecedented electrical conductivity of 1.8x10 5 S/m, which were records for CNT films or

  13. Physicochemical and antifungal properties of bio-nanocomposite film based on gelatin-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraee, Samar; Milani, Jafar M; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The gelatin-based nanocomposite films containing chitin nanoparticles (N-chitin) with concentrations of 0, 3, 5 and 10% were prepared and their physical, thermal and anti-microbial properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that N-chitin size distribution was around 60-70nm which dispersed appropriately at low concentration in gelatin matrix. The results showed that incorporation of N-chitin significantly influenced apparent color and transparency of the gelatin films. The reduced water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility and higher surface hydrophobicity of the nanocomposite films were obtained by enhancing N-chitin concentration in film formulation. The use of N-chitin up to 5% concentration in the gelatin based nanocomposite film led to improved mechanical properties. Also, the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed improved stability of nanocomposite films against melting and degradation at high temperatures in comparison to neat gelatin film. The well compatibility of chitin nanoparticles with gelatin polymer was concluded from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) plots. Finally, the gelatin based nanocomposite films had anti-fungal properties against Aspergillus niger in the contact surface zone. Increasing the concentration of N-chitin up to 5% enlarged inhibition zone diameter, but the nanocomposite film containing 10% N-chitin showed smaller inhibition zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  15. MAPLE deposition and characterization of SnO2 colloidal nanoparticle thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A P; Martino, M; Romano, F; Tunno, T; Valerini, D; Epifani, M; Rella, R; Taurino, A

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the deposition and characterization of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticle thin films. The films were deposited by the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique. SnO 2 colloidal nanoparticles with a trioctylphosphine capping layer were diluted in toluene with a concentration of 0.2 wt% and frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature. The frozen target was irradiated with a KrF (248 nm, τ = 20 ns) excimer laser (6000 pulses at 10 Hz). The nanoparticles were deposited on silica (SiO 2 ) and (1 0 0) Si substrates and submitted to morphological (high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), structural Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and optical (UV-Vis transmission) characterizations. SEM and FTIR analyses showed that trioctylphosphine was the main component in the as-deposited films. The trioctylphosphine was removed after an annealing in vacuum at 400 0 C, thus allowing to get uniform SnO 2 nanoparticle films in which the starting nanoparticle dimensions were preserved. The energy gap value, determined by optical characterizations, was 4.2 eV, higher than the bulk SnO 2 energy gap (3.6 eV), due to quantum confinement effects.

  16. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria; Antisari, Marco Vittori

    2007-01-01

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm

  17. Simulation study of depositing the carbon film on nanoparticles in the magnetized methane plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Pourali, Nima; Ebadi, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    Plasma coating of nanoparticles in low-temperature magnetized methane plasma is studied by a simulation approach. To this end, by using the global model, the electron temperature and concentration of different species considered in this plasma are determined in the center of a capacitively coupled discharge. Then, the plasma-wall transition region in the presence of an oblique magnetic field is simulated by the multi-component fluid description. Nanoparticles with different radii are injected into the transition region and surface deposition and heating models, as well as dynamics and charging models, are employed to examine the coating process. The results of the simulation show that the non-spherical growth of nanoparticles is affected by the presence of the magnetic field, as with passing time, an oscillating increase is seen in the thickness of the film deposited on nanoparticles. Also, it is shown that the uniformity of the deposited film is dependent on the rotation velocity of nanoparticles. Generally, the obtained results imply that the sphericity of nanoparticles and uniformity of the film coated on them are controllable by the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic field.

  18. Structural studies of thin films of semiconducting nanoparticles in polymer matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luccio, Tiziana [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy)], E-mail: tiziana.diluccio@portici.enea.it; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Laera, Anna Maria [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brindisi, SS7 Appia Km 706, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy); Antisari, Marco Vittori [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 S. Maria di Galeria (Roma) (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    Ordered films of nanoscale materials are issue of wide interest for applications in several fields, such as optics, catalysis, and bioelectronics. In particular, semiconducting nanoparticles incorporation in a processable polymer film is an easy way to manipulate such materials for their application. We deposited thin layers of cadmium sulphide (CdS) and zinc sulphide (ZnS) nanoparticles embedded in a thermoplastic cyclo-olephin copolymer (COC) with elevated optical transparency and highly bio-compatible. The nanoparticles were obtained by thiolate precursors previously dispersed in the polymer upon thermal treatment at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 deg. C depending on the desired size. The precursor/polymer solutions were spin-coated in order to get thin films. The spinning conditions were changed in order to optimise the layer thickness and uniformity. The samples were mainly characterised by X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses. The thinnest layer we have deposited is 8 nm thick, as evaluated by XRR. The HRTEM measurements showed that the nanoparticles have quasi-spherical shape without evident microstructural defects. The size of the nanoparticles depends on the annealing temperature, e.g. at 232 deg. C the size of the CdS nanoparticles is about 4-5 nm.

  19. Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications.

  20. Reconstruction and visualization of nanoparticle composites by transmission electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); Lockwood, R. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada); Malac, M., E-mail: marek.malac@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G7 (Canada); Furukawa, H. [SYSTEM IN FRONTIER INC., 2-8-3, Shinsuzuharu bldg. 4F, Akebono-cho, Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo 190-0012 (Japan); Li, P.; Meldrum, A. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Canada T6H 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    This paper examines the limits of transmission electron tomography reconstruction methods for a nanocomposite object composed of many closely packed nanoparticles. Two commonly used reconstruction methods in TEM tomography were examined and compared, and the sources of various artefacts were explored. Common visualization methods were investigated, and the resulting 'interpretation artefacts' ( i.e., deviations from 'actual' particle sizes and shapes arising from the visualization) were determined. Setting a known or estimated nanoparticle volume fraction as a criterion for thresholding does not in fact give a good visualization. Unexpected effects associated with common built-in image filtering methods were also found. Ultimately, this work set out to establish the common problems and pitfalls associated with electron beam tomographic reconstruction and visualization of samples consisting of closely spaced nanoparticles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron tomography limits were explored by both experiment and simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reliable quantitative volumetry using electron tomography is not presently feasible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volume rendering appears to be better choice for visualization of composite samples.

  1. HI-SCALE Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Stark, Harald [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Browne, Eleanor [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Hanson, David [Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-06-15

    From 21 August to 27 September, 2016, during the second Intensive Operational Period (IOP) of the Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecoystems (HI-SCALE) field campaign, a suite of instruments were placed in the Guest Instrument Facility (GIF) at the Central Facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, Oklahoma. The goal of these measurements was to fully characterize the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosol particles through measurements of gas-phase precursor and ambient nanoparticle composition. Specifically, we sought to: 1. investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new-particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; 2. investigate the contribution of other surface-area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth, such as the uptake of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOCs); 3. evaluate the performance of a new instrument being developed with funding from the DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program for measuring gas-phase amines and related compounds; and 4. together with colleagues measuring on the ground and onboard the ARM Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft during HI-SCALE, create a comprehensive data set related to new particle formation and growth that can be used in modeling efforts by the research team as well as DOE collaborators.

  2. High performance thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 mum) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m(2-)h(-1), while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution.

  3. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 μm) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m2-h-1, while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. One-step synthesis of continuous free-standing Carbon Nanotubes-Titanium oxide composite films as anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hongxu; Hou, Feng; Wan, Zhipeng; Zhao, Sha; Yang, Deming; Liu, Jiachen; Guo, Anran; Gong, Yuxuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNTs/TiO 2 compoiste films synthesized are continuous and free-standing. • The film can be directly used as flexible, binder-free Lithium-Ion Battery electrode. • The CNTs/TiO 2 electrodes exhibit excellent rate capacity and cyclic stability. • Our strategy is readily applicable to fabricate other CNTs-based composite films. - Abstract: Continuous free-standing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)/Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) composite films were fabricated in a vertical CVD gas flow reactor with water sealing by the One-Step Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) approach. The composite films consist of multiple layers of conductive carbon nanotube networks with titanium oxide nanoparticles decorating on carbon nanotube surface. The as-synthesized flexible and transferrable composite films show excellent electrochemical properties, when the content of tetrabutyl titanate is 19.0 wt.%, which can be promising as binder-free anodes for Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB) applications. It demonstrates remarkably high rate capacity of 150 mAh g −1 , as well as excellent high rate cyclic stability over 500 cycles (current density of 3000 mA g −1 ). Such observations can be attributed to the relatively larger surface area and pore volume comparing with pristine CNT films. Great potentials of CNTs/TiO 2 composite films for large-scale production and application in energy devices were shown

  5. Biodegradable Starch/Copolyesters Film Reinforced with Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta A.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Wataya, Célio H.; Moura, Esperidiana A. B.

    Biodegradable starch/copolyesters/silica nanocomposite films were prepared by melt extrusion, using a twin screw extruder machine and blown extrusion process. The influence of the silica nanoparticle addition on mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposite films was investigated by tensile tests; X-rays diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and the correlation between properties was discussed. The results showed that incorporation of 2 % (wt %) of SiO2 nanoparticle in the blend matrix of PBAT/Starch, resulted in a gain of mechanical properties of blend.

  6. TiO2-BASED Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Guan, Ling-Xiao; Feng, Ji-Jun; Li, Fang; Yao, Ming-Ming

    2015-02-01

    The spread of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has been thought as a threat to the safety of drinking water. In this paper, the photocatalytic activity of the nanocrystalline Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 composite film for the degradation of OTC was studied. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and UV-Vis diffraction reflectance absorption spectra (DRS). The FE-SEM results indicated that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film was composed of smaller nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2 or TiO2-SiO2 film. The BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of the pure TiO2, TiO2-SiO2 and Ca2+/Fe3+ co-doped TiO2-SiO2 is 118.3 m2g-1, 294.3 m2g-1 and 393.7 m2g-1, respectively. The DRS and PL spectra revealed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film had strong visible light adsorption and diminished electrons/holes recombination. Experimental results showed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film is effective in the degradation of OTC under both UV and visible light irradiation.

  7. A low-temperature synthesis of electrochemical active Pt nanoparticles and thin films by atomic layer deposition on Si(111) and glassy carbon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Han, Lihao [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Photovoltaic Materials and Devices (PVMD) Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, GA Delft 2600 (Netherlands); Huang, Zhuangqun; Ferrer, Ivonne M. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 210 Noyes Laboratory 127-72, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smets, Arno H.M.; Zeman, Miro [Photovoltaic Materials and Devices (PVMD) Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, GA Delft 2600 (Netherlands); Brunschwig, Bruce S., E-mail: bsb@caltech.edu [Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lewis, Nathan S., E-mail: nslewis@caltech.edu [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 210 Noyes Laboratory 127-72, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit nanoparticles and thin films of Pt onto etched p-type Si(111) wafers and glassy carbon discs. Using precursors of MeCpPtMe{sub 3} and ozone and a temperature window of 200–300 °C, the growth rate was 80–110 pm/cycle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the composition, structure, morphology, and thickness of the ALD-grown Pt nanoparticle films. The catalytic activity of the ALD-grown Pt for the hydrogen evolution reaction was shown to be equivalent to that of e-beam evaporated Pt on glassy carbon electrode. - Highlights: • Pure Pt films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using MeCpPtMe3 and ozone. • ALD-grown Pt thin films had high growth rates of 110 pm/cycle. • ALD-grown Pt films were electrocatalytic for hydrogen evolution from water. • Electrocatalytic activity of the ALD Pt films was equivalent to e-beam deposited Pt. • No carbon species were detected in the ALD-grown Pt films.

  8. A low-temperature synthesis of electrochemical active Pt nanoparticles and thin films by atomic layer deposition on Si(111) and glassy carbon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Han, Lihao; Huang, Zhuangqun; Ferrer, Ivonne M.; Smets, Arno H.M.; Zeman, Miro; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit nanoparticles and thin films of Pt onto etched p-type Si(111) wafers and glassy carbon discs. Using precursors of MeCpPtMe 3 and ozone and a temperature window of 200–300 °C, the growth rate was 80–110 pm/cycle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the composition, structure, morphology, and thickness of the ALD-grown Pt nanoparticle films. The catalytic activity of the ALD-grown Pt for the hydrogen evolution reaction was shown to be equivalent to that of e-beam evaporated Pt on glassy carbon electrode. - Highlights: • Pure Pt films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using MeCpPtMe3 and ozone. • ALD-grown Pt thin films had high growth rates of 110 pm/cycle. • ALD-grown Pt films were electrocatalytic for hydrogen evolution from water. • Electrocatalytic activity of the ALD Pt films was equivalent to e-beam deposited Pt. • No carbon species were detected in the ALD-grown Pt films

  9. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of nanoparticle film formation via nanocolloid drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Yuki

    2017-06-01

    A kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of nanoparticle film formation via nanocolloid drying is presented. The proposed two-dimensional model addresses the dynamics of nanoparticles in the vertical plane of a drying nanocolloid film. The gas-liquid interface movement due to solvent evaporation was controlled by a time-dependent chemical potential, and the resultant particle dynamics including Brownian diffusion and aggregate growth were calculated. Simulations were performed at various Peclet numbers defined based on the rate ratio of solvent evaporation and nanoparticle diffusion. At high Peclet numbers, nanoparticles accumulated at the top layer of the liquid film and eventually formed a skin layer, causing the formation of a particulate film with a densely packed structure. At low Peclet numbers, enhanced particle diffusion led to significant particle aggregation in the bulk colloid, and the resulting film structure became highly porous. The simulated results showed some typical characteristics of a drying nanocolloid that had been reported experimentally. Finally, the potential of the model as well as the remaining challenges are discussed.

  10. Laser-induced atomic assembling of periodic layered nanostructures of silver nanoparticles in fluoro-polymer film matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagratashvili, V N; Minaev, N V; Timashev, P S; Yusupov, V I; Rybaltovsky, A O; Firsov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Fluorinated acrylic polymer (FAP) films have been impregnated with silver precursor (Ag(hfac)COD) by supercritical fluid technique and next irradiated with laser (λ = 532 nm). Laser-chemically reduced Ag atoms have been assembled into massifs of Ag nanoparticles (3 – 8 nm) in FAP/Ag(hfac)COD films matrix in the form of periodic layered nanostructures (horizontal to film surface) with unexpectedly short period (90 – 180 nm). The wavelet analysis of TEM images reveals the existence of even shorter-period structures in such films. Photolysis with non-coherent light or pyrolysis of FAP/Ag(hfac)COD film results in formation of Ag nanoparticles massifs but free of any periodic nanoparticle assemblies. Our interpretation of the observed effect of laser formation of short-period nano-sized Ag nanoparticle assemblies is based on self-enhanced interference process in the course of modification of optical properties of film

  11. Nonlocality and particle-clustering effects on the optical response of composite materials with metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. W.; Chung, H. Y.; Chiang, H.-P.; Lu, J. Y.; Chang, R.; Tsai, D. P.; Leung, P. T.

    2010-10-01

    The optical properties of composites with metallic nanoparticles are studied, taking into account the effects due to the nonlocal dielectric response of the metal and the coalescing of the particles to form clusters. An approach based on various effective medium theories is followed, and the modeling results are compared with those from the cases with local response and particles randomly distributed through the host medium. Possible observations of our modeling results are illustrated via a calculation of the transmission of light through a thin film made of these materials. It is found that the nonlocal effects are particularly significant when the particles coalesce, leading to blue-shifted resonances and slightly lower values in the dielectric functions. The dependence of these effects on the volume fraction and fractal dimension of the metal clusters is studied in detail.

  12. Gold-coated iron nanoparticles in transparent Si3N4 matrix thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Céspedes, E.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Prieto, C.

    2013-06-01

    A new method to prepare thin films containing gold-coated iron nanoparticles is presented. The ternary Fe-Au-Si3N4 system prepared by sequential sputtering has revealed a progressive variation of microstructures from Au/Fe/Au/Si3N4 multilayers to iron nanoparticles. Microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, analysis of the magnetic properties and probing of the iron short-range order by X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirm the existence of a gold-coated iron nanoparticles of 1-2 nm typical size for a specific range of iron and gold contents per layer in the transparent silicon nitride ceramic matrix.

  13. Photochemical oxygen reduction by zinc phthalocyanine and silver/gold nanoparticle incorporated silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Manas; Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com; Azad, Uday Pratap

    2012-12-15

    Silver or gold nanoparticles are synthesized using a borohydride reduction method and are anchored simultaneously into/onto the mercaptopropyl functionalized silica. Later, zinc phthalocyanine is adsorbed onto the above materials. Thin films of these materials are prepared by coating an aqueous colloidal suspension of the respective material onto glass plates. Visible light irradiation of these films in oxygen saturated, stirred aqueous solutions effectively reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalytic reduction of oxygen is explained on the basis of the semiconducting properties of the silica films. The back electron transfer reaction is largely prevented by means of a sacrificial electron donor, triethanolamine. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc phthalocyanine adsorbed silica materials were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of these materials photocatalytically reduce oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis is explained based on semiconductor properties of the materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticles increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the materials.

  14. Polypyrrole–gold nanoparticle composites for highly sensitive DNA detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, Elaine; Keyes, Tia E.; Forster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    DNA capture surfaces represent a powerful approach to developing highly sensitive sensors for identifying the cause of infection. Electrochemically deposited polypyrrole, PPy, films have been functionalized with electrodeposited gold nanoparticles to give a nanocomposite material, PPy–AuNP. Thiolated capture strand DNA, that is complementary to the sequence from the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus that causes mammary gland inflammation, was then immobilized onto the gold nanoparticles and any of the underlying gold electrode that is exposed. A probe strand, labelled with horse radish peroxidase, HRP, was then hybridized to the target. The concentration of the target was determined by measuring the current generated by reducing benzoquinone produced by the HRP label. Semi-log plots of the pathogen DNA concentration vs. faradaic current are linear from 150 pM to 1 μM and pM concentrations can be detected without the need for molecular, e.g., PCR or NASBA, amplification. The nanocomposite also exhibits excellent selectivity and single base mismatches in a 30 mer sequence can be detected

  15. Assessment of morphology, topography and chemical composition of water-repellent films based on polystyrene/titanium dioxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolvardi, Beleta [Chemical Engineering Department, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hejazi, Iman, E-mail: Imanhe64@gmail.com [Applied Science Nano Research Group, ASNARKA, P.C. 1619948753, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Otadi, Maryam [Chemical Engineering Department, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Drechsler, Astrid; Holzschuh, Matthias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Self-cleaning behavior was attained for PS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films. • A modified phase separation process resulted in a hierarchical morphology. • A proper level of uniformity in surface roughness is mandatory for superhydrophobicity. • The required amount of nanoparticles was highly reduced via the presented method. - Abstract: In this study, polystyrene (PS)/titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) films were fabricated through simple solution casting technique via a modified phase separation process. The presented approach resulted in a remarkable reduction in the required amount of nanoparticles for achieving superhydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and 3D confocal microscopy were utilized to characterize surface morphology and topography of samples, respectively. An attempt was made to give an in-depth analysis on the surface rough structure using 3D roughness profiles. It was found that high inclusions of non-solvent and nanoparticles resulted in a stable self-cleaning behavior due to the strong presence of hydrophobic TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the surface. Quite unexpectedly, low inclusions of nanoparticles and non-solvent also resulted in superhydrophobic property mainly due to the proper level of induced surface roughness. XPS analysis was also utilized to determine the chemical composition of the films’ surfaces. The results of falling drop experiments showed that the sample containing a higher level of nanoparticles had a much lower mechanical resistance against the induced harsh conditions. All in all, the presented method has shown promising potential in fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning behavior using the lowest content of nanoparticles.

  16. Synthesis of Ag-TiO2 composite nano thin film for antimicrobial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binyu; Leung, Kar Man; Guo, Qiuquan; Lau, Woon Ming; Yang, Jun

    2011-03-01

    TiO2 photocatalysts have been found to kill cancer cells, bacteria and viruses under mild UV illumination, which offers numerous potential applications. On the other hand, Ag has long been proved as a good antibacterial material as well. The advantage of Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite is to expand the nanomaterial's antibacterial function to a broader range of working conditions. In this study neat TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 composite nanofilms were successfully prepared on silicon wafer via the sol-gel method by the spin-coating technique. The as-prepared composite Ag-TiO2 and TiO2 films with different silver content were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the topologies, microstructures and chemical compositions, respectively. It was found that the silver nanoparticles were uniformly distributed and strongly attached to the mesoporous TiO2 matrix. The morphology of the composite film could be controlled by simply tuning the molar ratio of the silver nitrate aqueous solution. XPS results confirmed that the Ag was in the Ag0 state. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized nanofilms was carried out against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 29425) by using an 8 W UV lamp with a constant relative intensity of 0.6 mW cm - 2 and in the dark respectively. The synthesized Ag-TiO2 thin films showed enhanced bactericidal activities compared to the neat TiO2 nanofilm both in the dark and under UV illumination.

  17. Synthesis of Ag-TiO2 composite nano thin film for antimicrobial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Binyu; Guo Qiuquan; Yang Jun; Leung, Kar Man; Lau, Woon Ming

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 photocatalysts have been found to kill cancer cells, bacteria and viruses under mild UV illumination, which offers numerous potential applications. On the other hand, Ag has long been proved as a good antibacterial material as well. The advantage of Ag-TiO 2 nanocomposite is to expand the nanomaterial's antibacterial function to a broader range of working conditions. In this study neat TiO 2 and Ag-TiO 2 composite nanofilms were successfully prepared on silicon wafer via the sol-gel method by the spin-coating technique. The as-prepared composite Ag-TiO 2 and TiO 2 films with different silver content were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the topologies, microstructures and chemical compositions, respectively. It was found that the silver nanoparticles were uniformly distributed and strongly attached to the mesoporous TiO 2 matrix. The morphology of the composite film could be controlled by simply tuning the molar ratio of the silver nitrate aqueous solution. XPS results confirmed that the Ag was in the Ag 0 state. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized nanofilms was carried out against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 29425) by using an 8 W UV lamp with a constant relative intensity of 0.6 mW cm -2 and in the dark respectively. The synthesized Ag-TiO 2 thin films showed enhanced bactericidal activities compared to the neat TiO 2 nanofilm both in the dark and under UV illumination.

  18. Synthesis of Ag-TiO{sub 2} composite nano thin film for antimicrobial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Binyu; Guo Qiuquan; Yang Jun [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Leung, Kar Man [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Lau, Woon Ming [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-03-18

    TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts have been found to kill cancer cells, bacteria and viruses under mild UV illumination, which offers numerous potential applications. On the other hand, Ag has long been proved as a good antibacterial material as well. The advantage of Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite is to expand the nanomaterial's antibacterial function to a broader range of working conditions. In this study neat TiO{sub 2} and Ag-TiO{sub 2} composite nanofilms were successfully prepared on silicon wafer via the sol-gel method by the spin-coating technique. The as-prepared composite Ag-TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} films with different silver content were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the topologies, microstructures and chemical compositions, respectively. It was found that the silver nanoparticles were uniformly distributed and strongly attached to the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} matrix. The morphology of the composite film could be controlled by simply tuning the molar ratio of the silver nitrate aqueous solution. XPS results confirmed that the Ag was in the Ag{sup 0} state. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized nanofilms was carried out against gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 29425) by using an 8 W UV lamp with a constant relative intensity of 0.6 mW cm{sup -2} and in the dark respectively. The synthesized Ag-TiO{sub 2} thin films showed enhanced bactericidal activities compared to the neat TiO{sub 2} nanofilm both in the dark and under UV illumination.

  19. Development of Chitosan/Bacterial Cellulose Composite Films Containing Nanodiamonds as a Potential Flexible Platform for Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ostadhossein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/bacterial cellulose composite films containing diamond nanoparticles (NDs with potential application as wound dressing are introduced. Microstructural studies show that NDs are uniformly dispersed in the matrix, although slight agglomeration at concentrations above 2 wt % is seen. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals formation of hydrogen bonds between NDs and the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates reduced crystallinity of the polymer matrix in the presence of NDs. Approximately 3.5-fold increase in the elastic modulus of the composite film is obtained by the addition of 2 wt % NDs. The results of colorimetric analysis show that the composite films are transparent but turn to gray-like and semitransparent at high ND concentrations. Additionally, a decrease in highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO gap is also seen, which results in a red shift and higher absorption intensity towards the visible region. Mitochondrial activity assay using L929 fibroblast cells shows that the nanocomposite films are biocompatible (>90% after 24 h incubation. Multiple lamellapodia and cell-cell interaction are shown. The results suggest that the developed films can potentially be used as a flexible platform for wound dressing.

  20. Noble metals nanoparticles on titanium dioxide nanostructured films and the influence of their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Liana Key Okada

    2012-01-01

    Currently, nanoscience and nanotechnology are considered an emerging field and continuously breaking the barrier among various disciplines. The main focus of study involves controlling structures at molecular level, arranging the atoms in order to achieve an understanding and controlling the fundamental properties of matter. In this study, molecular changes on the basis of morphology, optical and crystalline properties of TiO 2 hin films in order to increase their photon efficiency were proposed. The TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol gel process evaluating the influence of different acids and templates to obtain the nano structured arrangements. Then, metal nanoparticles like Au, Ag, Pd and Pt were incorporated on TiO 2 thin films. This incorporation might minimize the electron-hole recombination, so it could improve the photon efficiency. From the several routes studied, the TiO 2 thin films prepared with acetic acid showed the best performance by the reason of low agglomeration of TiO 2 grains, which favors the exposure of the photoactive sites. The presence of template in the formulation had a slightly effect on photon efficiency, possible due to the higher agglomeration of the grains on the TiO 2 thin films. The addition of Pt and Au nanoparticles on TiO 2 thin films showed superior photon efficiency. The TiO 2 thin films with hexamine and metallic nanoparticles did not show the improvement on photon efficiency except for Pt and Au nanoparticles. On these situations, the improvement on photon efficiency is might be due to a possible decrease at the electron-hole recombination's velocity. Thus, the present work demonstrates the great influence of preparation conditions on the optical, morphological properties and the photon efficiency. In the future, with greater understanding of the mechanism of this influence, the properties of TiO 2 thin films will be able tailoring depending on the application. (author)

  1. Visible luminescence in polyaniline/(gold nanoparticle) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renata F. S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais (Brazil); Andrade, Cesar A. S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Bioquimica (Brazil); Santos, Clecio G. dos [Instituto de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (Brazil); Melo, Celso P. de, E-mail: celso@df.ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    We describe the use of solution chemistry methods to prepare polyaniline/(gold nanoparticles)-PANI/AuNPs-composites as colloidal particles that exhibit an intense green fluorescence after excitation in the ultraviolet region. Measurements of the relative fluorescence quantum yield indicate that the intensity of the observed luminescence of these nanocomposites is a few orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding fluorescence of either the isolated polymer or the pure AuNPs. Hence, cooperative effects between the conducting polymer chains and the metallic particles must dominate the emission behavior of these materials. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the existence of metal nanoparticle aggregates with sizes in the 2-3 nm range dispersed in the polymer matrix. By implementing an experimental planning, we have been able to change the preparation parameters so as to vary in a controlled manner the intensity and the profile of the luminescence spectrum as well as the size and aggregation characteristics of the colloidal particles. We also show that when the pH of the medium is varied, the dielectric properties (such as the degree of conductivity) of the PANI/AuNPs colloidal solutions and the intensity of their luminescence change in a consistent manner. Due to the polycation nature of the doped PANI chains, we suggest that these composites may find interesting applications as fluorescent markers of biologic molecules.

  2. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Taizo; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.Graphical abstract

  3. Determining the composition of gold nanoparticles: a compilation of shapes, sizes, and calculations using geometric considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Taizo, E-mail: MORI.Taizo@nims.go.jp; Hegmann, Torsten, E-mail: thegmann@kent.edu [Kent State University, Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program, Liquid Crystal Institute (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Size, shape, overall composition, and surface functionality largely determine the properties and applications of metal nanoparticles. Aside from well-defined metal clusters, their composition is often estimated assuming a quasi-spherical shape of the nanoparticle core. With decreasing diameter of the assumed circumscribed sphere, particularly in the range of only a few nanometers, the estimated nanoparticle composition increasingly deviates from the real composition, leading to significant discrepancies between anticipated and experimentally observed composition, properties, and characteristics. We here assembled a compendium of tables, models, and equations for thiol-protected gold nanoparticles that will allow experimental scientists to more accurately estimate the composition of their gold nanoparticles using TEM image analysis data. The estimates obtained from following the routines described here will then serve as a guide for further analytical characterization of as-synthesized gold nanoparticles by other bulk (thermal, structural, chemical, and compositional) and surface characterization techniques. While the tables, models, and equations are dedicated to gold nanoparticles, the composition of other metal nanoparticle cores with face-centered cubic lattices can easily be estimated simply by substituting the value for the radius of the metal atom of interest.Graphical abstract.

  4. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above

  5. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Mercante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride (Au@PAH NPs, as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc. Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment.

  6. Addition of silica nanoparticles to tailor the mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eita, Mohamed; Arwin, Hans; Granberg, Hjalmar; Wågberg, Lars

    2011-11-15

    Over the last decade, the use of nanocellulose in advanced technological applications has been promoted both due the excellent properties of this material in combination with its renewability. In this study, multilayered thin films composed of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), polyvinyl amine (PVAm) and silica nanoparticles were fabricated on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a layer-by-layer adsorption technique. The multilayer build-up was followed in situ by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, which indicated that the PVAm-SiO(2)-PVAm-NFC system adsorbs twice as much wet mass material compared to the PVAm-NFC system for the same number of bilayers. This is accompanied with a higher viscoelasticity for the PVAm-SiO(2)-PVAm-NFC system. Ellipsometry indicated a dry-state thickness of 2.2 and 3.4 nm per bilayer for the PVAm-NFC system and the PVAm-SiO(2)-PVAm-NFC system, respectively. Atomic force microscopy height images indicate that in both systems, a porous network structure is achieved. Young's modulus of these thin films was determined by the Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) technique. The Young's modulus of the PVAm/NFC films was doubled, from 1 to 2 GPa, upon incorporation of silica nanoparticles in the films. The introduction of the silica nanoparticles lowered the refractive index of the films, most probably due to an increased porosity of the films. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of prepared films containing nanoparticles of titanium oxide based on soy flour polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Salarbashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The natural derived biopolymers are highly interested in recent years. These polymers are considering as the alternative for un-biodegradable plastic films. This is due to the low cost and their availability from biodegradable and renewable sources. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Tio2 nanoparticles on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of prepared edible films based on soy flour soluble polysaccharide was investigated. MethodS: The nanocomposite films were prepared by adding the Tio2 nanoparticles (5, 10 and 15%/ db to the soy flour. In order to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological properties, the resulted nanocomposite films were synthetized based on the casting method. Results: When the content of nanoparticles increased, the moisture content and solubility of the film specimens were significantly decreased, whereas the mechanical resistance was significantly increased. Tio2 nanoparticle was highly effective against basillus cereus, staphylococus ureus and staphylococuss epidermidis. Meanwhile, MIC and MBC of molds were not affected by these films. MIC for penicilium expansum was significantly affected when the Tio2 nanoparticles increased. Conclusion: the results indicated that Tio2 nanoparticles are applicable into the polysaccharide soy films. The nanocomposite film developed in the current study could be used in food applications and as a biodegradable film.

  8. Superhydrophilic Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membranes for Organic Fouling Control: Fouling Behavior and Antifouling Mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-10-16

    This study investigates the fouling behavior and fouling resistance of superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles. Fouling experiments in both forward osmosis and reverse osmosis modes are performed with three model organic foulants: alginate, bovine serum albumin, and Suwannee river natural organic matter. A solution comprising monovalent and divalent salts is employed to simulate the solution chemistry of typical wastewater effluents. Reduced fouling is consistently observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to control thin-film composite polyamide membranes, in both reverse and forward osmosis modes. The fouling resistance and cleaning efficiency of the functionalized membranes is particularly outstanding in forward osmosis mode where the driving force for water flux is an osmotic pressure difference. To understand the mechanism of fouling, the intermolecular interactions between the foulants and the membrane surface are analyzed by direct force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Lower adhesion forces are observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to the control thin-film composite polyamide membranes. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces for the different membrane surfaces suggest that the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membranes originate from the barrier provided by the tightly bound hydration layer at their surface, as well as from the neutralization of the native carboxyl groups of thin-film composite polyamide membranes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes for organic fouling control: fouling behavior and antifouling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Kang, Yan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-10-16

    This study investigates the fouling behavior and fouling resistance of superhydrophilic thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles. Fouling experiments in both forward osmosis and reverse osmosis modes are performed with three model organic foulants: alginate, bovine serum albumin, and Suwannee river natural organic matter. A solution comprising monovalent and divalent salts is employed to simulate the solution chemistry of typical wastewater effluents. Reduced fouling is consistently observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to control thin-film composite polyamide membranes, in both reverse and forward osmosis modes. The fouling resistance and cleaning efficiency of the functionalized membranes is particularly outstanding in forward osmosis mode where the driving force for water flux is an osmotic pressure difference. To understand the mechanism of fouling, the intermolecular interactions between the foulants and the membrane surface are analyzed by direct force measurement using atomic force microscopy. Lower adhesion forces are observed for the superhydrophilic membranes compared to the control thin-film composite polyamide membranes. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces for the different membrane surfaces suggest that the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membranes originate from the barrier provided by the tightly bound hydration layer at their surface, as well as from the neutralization of the native carboxyl groups of thin-film composite polyamide membranes.

  10. Study of carbon nanotubes based Polydimethylsiloxane composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M I; Giorcelli, M; Shahzad, N; Guastella, S; Castellino, M; Jagdale, P; Tagliaferro, A

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to their remarkable characteristics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fields of applications which are growing every day. Among them, the use of CNTs as filler for polymers is one of the most promising. In this work we report on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites with different weight percentages (0.0% to 3.0%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter 10–30 nm and length 20–30 μm. To achieve optimum dispersion of CNTs in PDMS matrix, high speed mechanical stirring and ultrasonication were performed. By using the doctor blade technique, 70 μm thick uniform films were produced on glass. They were subsequently thermally cured and detached from the glass to get flexible and self standing films. The surface morphological study done by FESEM, shows that CNTs are well dispersed in the PDMS. Raman spectroscopy and FTIR were used to investigate the possible structural changes in the polymer composite. To examine the optical behavior UV-VIS spectroscopy was employed in both specular and diffused modes. A linear increase in absorption coefficient is found with the increasing percentage of CNTs while the transmittance decreases exponentially. The results confirm the dependence of optical limiting effect on the quantity of MWCNTs. Based on optical study, MWCNTs/PDMS composite films can be a promising material to extend performances of optical limiters against laser pulses, which is often required in lasing systems.

  11. Molecular interactions in gelatin/chitosan composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Congde; Ma, Xianguang; Zhang, Jianlong; Yao, Jinshui

    2017-11-15

    Gelatin and chitosan were mixed at different mass ratios in solution forms, and the rheological properties of these film-forming solutions, upon cooling, were studied. The results indicate that the significant interactions between gelatin and chitosan promote the formation of multiple complexes, reflected by an increase in the storage modulus of gelatin solution. Furthermore, these molecular interactions hinder the formation of gelatin networks, consequently decreasing the storage modulus of polymer gels. Both hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions are formed between gelatin and chitosan, as evidenced by the shift of the amide-II bands of polymers. X-ray patterns of composite films indicate that the contents of triple helices decrease with increasing chitosan content. Only one glass transition temperature (T g ) was observed in composite films with different composition ratios, and it decreases gradually with an increase in chitosan proportion, indicating that gelatin and chitosan have good miscibility and form a wide range of blends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Zeta-potential of fouled thin film composite membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Hachisuka, H.; Nakamura, T. [Nitto denko Corp., Ibaraki, (Japan); Kimura, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Environ. Chemical Engineering; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-10-01

    The surface zeta-potential of a cross-linked polyamide thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane was measured using an electrophoresis method. It was confirmed that this method could be effectively applied to analyze the fouling of such membranes. It is known that the water flux of membranes drastically decreases as a result of fouling by surfactants. Although the surfactants adsorbed on reverse osmosis membranes could not be detected by conventional methods such as SEM, EDX and FT-IR, their presence could be clarified by the profile measurements of the surface zeta-potential. The profiles of the membrane surface zeta-potentials changed to more positive values in the measured pH range as a result of fouling by cationic or amphoteric surfactants. This measuring method of surface zeta-potentials allowed us to analyze a very small amount of fouling of a thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane. This method could be used to analyze the fouled surface of the thin film composite reverse osmosis membrane which is used for production of ultrapure water and shows a remarkable decrease in flux. It also became clear that this method is easy and effective for the reverse osmosis membrane surface analysis of adsorbed materials such as surfactants. (author)

  13. Tribological performance of the epoxy-based composite reinforced by WS{sub 2} fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneider, Mark; Dodiuk, Hanna; Kenig, Shmuel [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel); Rapoport, Lev; Moshkovich, Alexey; Zak, Alla [Department of Science, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Tenne, Reshef [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2013-11-15

    Recently large amounts of inorganic nanotubes (INT) and inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles of WS{sub 2} became available and methods for their dispersion in different media were developed. In the present work the tribological properties of epoxy composite compounded with tungsten disulfide particles of different sizes and morphologies, including quasi-spherical IF nanoparticles, one-dimensional INT as well as micron-size platelets (2H) were investigated. The coefficient of friction and wear loss were measured under dry contact conditions using different tribological rigs. Remarkable reduction in wear and also friction (under high load) was demonstrated for the IF/INT epoxy nanocomposite. The reduced wear is attributed in general to the reinforcement of the polymer matrix by nanoparticles and the simultaneous reduction of the epoxy brittleness. Contrarily, the friction of the neat epoxy sample and epoxy mixed with platelets was accompanied with strong wear and transfer of a polymer film onto the rubbed surfaces. These results are consistent with the recently reported improvements in the fracture toughness, peel and shear strength of the epoxy-nanoparticles (IF/INT) composites. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Tribological performance of the epoxy-based composite reinforced by WS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shneider, Mark; Dodiuk, Hanna; Kenig, Shmuel; Rapoport, Lev; Moshkovich, Alexey; Zak, Alla; Tenne, Reshef

    2013-01-01

    Recently large amounts of inorganic nanotubes (INT) and inorganic fullerene-like (IF) nanoparticles of WS 2 became available and methods for their dispersion in different media were developed. In the present work the tribological properties of epoxy composite compounded with tungsten disulfide particles of different sizes and morphologies, including quasi-spherical IF nanoparticles, one-dimensional INT as well as micron-size platelets (2H) were investigated. The coefficient of friction and wear loss were measured under dry contact conditions using different tribological rigs. Remarkable reduction in wear and also friction (under high load) was demonstrated for the IF/INT epoxy nanocomposite. The reduced wear is attributed in general to the reinforcement of the polymer matrix by nanoparticles and the simultaneous reduction of the epoxy brittleness. Contrarily, the friction of the neat epoxy sample and epoxy mixed with platelets was accompanied with strong wear and transfer of a polymer film onto the rubbed surfaces. These results are consistent with the recently reported improvements in the fracture toughness, peel and shear strength of the epoxy-nanoparticles (IF/INT) composites. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Beyond the Compositional Threshold of Nanoparticle-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portehault, David; Delacroix, Simon; Gouget, Guillaume; Grosjean, Rémi; Chan-Chang, Tsou-Hsi-Camille

    2018-04-17

    The design of inorganic nanoparticles relies strongly on the knowledge from solid-state chemistry not only for characterization techniques, but also and primarily for choosing the systems that will yield the desired properties. The range of inorganic solids reported and studied as nanoparticles is however strikingly narrow when compared to the solid-state chemistry portfolio of bulk materials. Efforts to enlarge the collection of inorganic particles are becoming increasingly important for three reasons. First, they can yield materials more performing than current ones for a range of fields including biomedicine, optics, catalysis, and energy. Second, looking outside the box of common compositions is a way to target original properties or to discover genuinely new behaviors. The third reason lies in the path followed to reach these novel nano-objects: exploration and setup of new synthetic approaches. Indeed, willingness to access original nanoparticles faces a synthetic challenge: how to reach nanoparticles of solids that originally belong to the realm of solid-state chemistry and its typical protocols at high temperature? To answer this question, alternative reaction pathways must be sought, which may in turn provide tracks for new, untargeted materials. The corresponding strategies require limiting particle growth by confinement at high temperatures or by decreasing the synthesis temperature. Both approaches, especially the latter, provide a nice playground to discover metastable solids never reported before. The aim of this Account is to raise attention to the topic of the design of new inorganic nanoparticles. To do so, we take the perspective of our own work in the field, by first describing synthetic challenges and how they are addressed by current protocols. We then use our achievements to highlight the possibilities offered by new nanomaterials and to introduce synthetic approaches that are not in the focus of recent literature but hold, in our opinion

  16. Evaluating Weathering of Food Packaging Polyethylene-Nano-clay Composites: Release of Nanoparticles and their Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changseok; Zhao, Amy; Varughese, Eunice; Sahle-Demessie, E

    2018-01-01

    Nano-fillers are increasingly incorporated into polymeric materials to improve the mechanical, barrier or other matrix properties of nanocomposites used for consumer and industrial applications. However, over the life cycle, these nanocomposites could degrade due to exposure to environmental conditions, resulting in the release of embedded nanomaterials from the polymer matrix into the environment. This paper presents a rigorous study on the degradation and the release of nanomaterials from food packaging composites. Films of nano-clay-loaded low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composite for food packaging applications were prepared with the spherilene technology and exposed to accelerated weathering of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or low concentration of ozone at 40 °C. The changes in the structural, surface morphology, chemical and physical properties of the films during accelerated weathering were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative changes in properties of pristine and aged materials and the release of nano-clay proceeded slowly until 130 hr irradiation and then accelerated afterward resulting complete degradation. Although nano-clay increased the stability of LDPE and improved thermal and barrier properties, they accelerated the UV oxidation of LDPE. With increasing exposure to UV, the surface roughness, chemiluminescence index, and carbonyl index of the samples increased while decreasing the intensity of the wide-angle X-ray diffraction pattern. Nano-clay particles with sizes ranging from 2-8 nm were released from UV and ozone weathered composite. The concentrations of released nanoparticles increased with an increase in aging time. Various toxicity tests, including reactive oxygen species generation and cell activity/viability were also performed on the released nano-clay and clay polymer. The released nano-clays basically did not show toxicity. Our combined results demonstrated the degradation properties of nano-clay particle-embedded LDPE composites

  17. Size and composition tunable Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles by replacement reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingbo; Lee, J Y; Yang Jun; Boothroyd, Chris; Zhang Jixuan

    2007-01-01

    Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles with tunable size and composition were prepared by a replacement reaction between Ag nanoparticles and HAuCl 4 at elevated temperatures. The formation of homogeneous alloy nanoparticles was confirmed by selected-area energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SAEDX), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction. This method leverages upon the rapid interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms in the reduced dimension of a nanoparticle, elevated temperatures and the large number of vacancy defects created in the replacement reaction. This method of preparation has several notable advantages: (1) independent tuning of the size and composition of alloy nanoparticles; (2) production of alloy nanoparticles in high concentrations; (3) general utility in the synthesis of alloy nanoparticles that cannot be obtained by the co-reduction method

  18. The improvement of characteristics of biodegradable films made from kefiran-whey protein by nanoparticle incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2014-08-30

    Biodegradable kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI) nanocomposites were produced using montmorillonite (MMT) and nano-TiO2 as nanoparticles in the percentage of 1, 3, and 5% (w/w) by a casting and solvent-evaporation method. Physical, mechanical, and water-vapor permeability (WVP) properties were determined as a function of nanoparticle concentration. The results revealed that the effect of these nanoparticles was different according to their nature and percentage. The films incorporated with 5% (w/w) MMT showed the highest tensile strength, Young's modulus, puncture strength, and the lowest WVP compared with the control and TiO2 added films. In contrast to MMT, addition of TiO2 nanoparticles due to the plasticizing effect led to a significant change in color and transparency of nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations demonstrated the films' properties in relation to their microstructures. The surface topography results also showed a considerable increase in roughness parameters by incorporating the nanoparticles in kefiran-WPI matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoparticles Stabilize Thin Polymer Films: A Fundamental Study to Understand the Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael E. Mackay

    2009-03-04

    A new understanding of thermodynamics at the nanoscale resulted in a recently discovered first order phase transition that nanoparticles in a polymer film will all segregate to the supporting substrate. This is an unusual phase transition that was predicted using a modeling technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories and required the equivalent of many computational years on one computer. This project is a collaboration between Prof. Michael Mackay's group and Dr. Amalie Frischknecht (Sandia National Laboratories) where experimental observation and theoretical rationalization and prediction are brought together. Other discoveries were that this phase transition could be avoided by changing the nanoparticle properties yielding control of the assembly process at the nanoscale. In fact, the nanoparticles could be made to assemble to the supporting substrate, to the air interface or not assemble at all within a thin polymer film of order 100 nm in thickness. However, when the assembly process is present it is so robust that it is possible to make rough liquid films at the nanoscale due to nanoparticles assembling around three-dimensional objects. From this knowledge we are able to design and manufacture new coatings with particular emphasis on polymer-based solar cells. Careful control of the morphology at the nanoscale is expected to provide more efficient devices since the physics of these systems is dictated at this length scale and assembly of nanoparticles to various interfaces is critical to operation.

  20. Effect of chitosan nanoparticles and pectin content on mechanical properties and water vapor permeability of banana puree films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Milena R; Barros, Taís T; de Moura, Márcia R; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Assis, Odilio B G

    2013-01-01

    Puree prepared from over-ripe peeled bananas was used as raw material for films processing in a laboratory padder. Pectin and glycerol as plasticizer were added in small concentrations and chitosan nanoparticles (88.79 ± 0.42 nm medium size) incorporated at 0.2% (dry weight basis) as reinforcement material. The mechanical properties, water vapor transmission, thermal stability, and scanning electron microscopy of fractured film surfaces were characterized. Both pectin and glycerol demonstrated an important role in promoting elongation and film handability as was expected. The incorporation of nanoparticles promoted noticeable improvement of the mechanical properties and acted in reducing the water vapor permeation rate, by 21% for films processed with pectin and up to 38% for films processed without pectin, when compared to the control (puree films with no pectin and nanoparticles additions). Microscopic observation revealed a denser matrix when nanoparticles are incorporated into the films. The development of films from fruit purees head to a new strategy for plastic processing from natural resources. The over-ripe or even waste banana can be adequately prepared for batch films processed with reasonable mechanical and barrier properties, suitable for applications in the food segment. The addition of small fractions of chitosan nanoparticles, form nanocomposites enhancing mechanical and thermal stability broadening potential film applications. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  2. Antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles and their assembly in mesostructured film

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, V.; Rasp, M.; Stefanic, G.; Günther, S.; Rathouský, Jiří; Niederberger, M.; Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2011), s. 1759-1763 ISSN 1862-6351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : transparent conducting oxides * mesoporous films * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the embedding of a nano-particle into a polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, J G Diaz; Binder, K; Paul, W

    2006-01-01

    In this work we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the embedding process of a nano-particle into a polymeric film as a function of temperature. This process has been employed experimentally in recent years to test for a shift of the glass transition of a material due to the confined film geometry and to test for the existence of a liquid-like layer on top of a glassy polymer film. The embedding process is governed thermodynamically by the prewetting properties of the polymer on the nano-particle. We show that the dynamics of the process depends on the Brownian motion characteristics of the nano-particle in and on the polymer film. It displays large sample to sample variations, suggesting that it is an activated process. On the timescales of the simulation an embedding of the nano-particle is only observed for temperatures above the bulk glass transition temperature of the polymer, agreeing with experimental observations on noble metal clusters of comparable size

  4. Electron transport in disordered films of metal nanoparticles linked by organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.; Wei, G.; Herrmann, J.; Raguse, B.; Baxter, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have investigated theoretically and experimentally the mechanism of electron transport in films made of ∼10 nm sized gold nanoparticles linked by alkanedithiol molecules. Conduction in these films is due to linker-molecule assisted single-electron tunnelling between neighbouring nanoparticles where electrons have to overcome the Coulomb blockade energy. Strong disorder in our films in the form of separation gap fluctuations between adjacent nanoparticles and variations in Coulomb blockade energies cause electron current percolation. We have found that the dependence of the conduction on the length of the alkanedithiol molecules is affected by the degree of disorder. In addition, we have observed that percolation leads to a non-Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of the conduction and to a film-thickness dependent conductivity. I-V characteristics at low temperatures reveal Coulomb blockade effects. The strong dependence of the electrical conduction on the separation gaps between adjacent nanoparticles can be utilized in strain gauge and gas sensor applications

  5. Characterization of starch films containing starch nanoparticles. Part 2: viscoelasticity and creep properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-07-25

    Starch films were successfully produced by incorporating spray dried and vacuum-freeze dried starch nanoparticles. The frequency sweep, creep-recovery behavior and time-temperature superposition (TTS) on these films were studied. All these films exhibited dominant elastic behavior (than viscous behavior) over the entire frequency range (0.1-100 rad/s). The incorporation of both types of starch nanoparticles increased the storage and loss modulus, tanδ, creep strain, creep compliance and creep rate at long time frame and reduced the recovery rate of films while the effect of different kinds of starch nanoparticles on these parameters was similar both in magnitude and trend. TTS method was successfully used to predict long time (over 20 days) creep behavior through the master curves. The addition of these nanoparticles could increase the activation energy parameter used in TTS master curves. Power law and Burger's models were capable of fitting storage and loss modulus (R(2)>0.79) and creep data (R(2)>0.96), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nano-Protrusive Gold Nanoparticle-Hybridized Polymer Thin Film as a Sensitive, Multipatternable, and Antifouling Biosensor Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Byung-Soo; Ghang, Hyun-Gu; Song, Hyunjoon; Yang, Sung Yun

    2018-04-25

    Hybrid films consisting of anisotropic octahedral gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and polymers had their surfaces functionalized and were immobilized on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors for biomolecule detection. Specifically, carboxylated octahedral AuNPs (C-Oh-AuNPs) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were assembled as ultrathin films by using a layer-by-layer process. The ionic strength generated from the functional groups of C-Oh-AuNP and PAH influenced the composition, its surface morphology, and the reactivity of the film toward further chemical reactions such as the synthesis of spherical AuNPs (S-AuNPs). We were thus able to control the size and the structure of the C-Oh-AuNP and S-AuNPs converted to nano-raspberry-shaped particles. This hierarchical AuNP hybrid film exhibits much more sensitive and stable detection of biomolecules than regular flat chip systems, and this result may be due to the SPR of the AuNP at its surface being able to markedly enhance the local optical field of the chip. The micropatterning of the hybrid coating was also studied by using a soft lithographic patterning method. We, in particular, worked on creating multiplex patterns having different combinations of shapes and fluorescent colors. We expect our hybrid coating system with multicode biomolecular arrays to be used as a powerful platform for biosensor applications.

  7. Nanoparticle Thin Films for Gas Sensors Prepared by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rella

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO2, SnO2 nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the solution was frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed excimer laser. The dioxide nanoparticles were deposited on Si and Al2O3 substrates. A rather uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm and of SnO2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 3 nm was obtained, as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG inspections. Gas-sensing devices based on the resistive transduction mechanism were fabricated by depositing the nanoparticle thin films onto suitable rough alumina substrates equipped with interdigitated electrical contacts and heating elements. Electrical characterization measurements were carried out in controlled environment. The results of the gas-sensing tests towards low concentrations of ethanol and acetone vapors are reported. Typical gas sensor parameters (gas responses, response/recovery time, sensitivity, and low detection limit towards ethanol and acetone are presented.

  8. Nanoparticle thin films for gas sensors prepared by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, Anna Paola; Luches, Armando; Rella, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) technique has been used for the deposition of metal dioxide (TiO(2), SnO(2)) nanoparticle thin films for gas sensor applications. For this purpose, colloidal metal dioxide nanoparticles were diluted in volatile solvents, the solution was frozen at the liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed excimer laser. The dioxide nanoparticles were deposited on Si and Al(2)O(3) substrates. A rather uniform distribution of TiO(2) nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm and of SnO(2) nanoparticles with an average size of about 3 nm was obtained, as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG) inspections. Gas-sensing devices based on the resistive transduction mechanism were fabricated by depositing the nanoparticle thin films onto suitable rough alumina substrates equipped with interdigitated electrical contacts and heating elements. Electrical characterization measurements were carried out in controlled environment. The results of the gas-sensing tests towards low concentrations of ethanol and acetone vapors are reported. Typical gas sensor parameters (gas responses, response/recovery time, sensitivity, and low detection limit) towards ethanol and acetone are presented.

  9. Resonant silicon nanoparticles for enhancement of light absorption and photoluminescence from hybrid perovskite films and metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiguntseva, E; Chebykin, A; Ishteev, A; Haroldson, R; Balachandran, B; Ushakova, E; Komissarenko, F; Wang, H; Milichko, V; Tsypkin, A; Zuev, D; Hu, W; Makarov, S; Zakhidov, A

    2017-08-31

    Recently, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising types of materials for thin-film photovoltaic and light-emitting devices because of their low-cost and potential for high efficiency. Further boosting their performance without detrimentally increasing the complexity of the architecture is critically important for commercialization. Despite a number of plasmonic nanoparticle based designs having been proposed for solar cell improvement, inherent optical losses of the nanoparticles reduce photoluminescence from perovskites. Here we use low-loss high-refractive-index dielectric (silicon) nanoparticles for improving the optical properties of organo-metallic perovskite (MAPbI 3 ) films and metasurfaces to achieve strong enhancement of photoluminescence as well as useful light absorption. As a result, we observed experimentally a 50% enhancement of photoluminescence intensity from a perovskite layer with silicon nanoparticles and 200% enhancement for a nanoimprinted metasurface with silicon nanoparticles on top. Strong increase in light absorption is also demonstrated and described by theoretical calculations. Since both silicon nanoparticle fabrication/deposition and metasurface nanoimprinting techniques are low-cost, we believe that the developed all-dielectric approach paves the way to novel scalable and highly effective designs of perovskite based metadevices.

  10. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH)2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Wu; Jun Liang; Weixue Li

    2015-01-01

    Mg(OH)2/graphene oxide (GO) composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH)2 film, the Mg(OH)2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compac...

  11. Electron field emission from screen-printed graphene/DWCNT composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Pan, Rong; Chen, Yiwei; Piao, Xianqin; Qian, Min; Feng, Tao; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The field emission performance improved significantly when adding graphene into DWCNTs as the emission material. ► We set up a model of pure DWCNT films and graphene/DWCNT composite films. ► We discussed the contact barrier between emission films and electric substrates by considering the Fermi energies of silver, DWCNT and graphene. - Abstract: The electron field emission properties of graphene/double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) composite films prepared by screen printing have been systematically studied. Comparing with the pure DWCNT films and pure graphene films, a significant enhancement of electron emission performance of the composite films are observed, such as lower turn-on field, higher emission current density, higher field enhancement factor, and long-term stability. The optimized composite films with 20% weight ratio of graphene show the best electron emission performance with a low turn-on field of 0.62 V μm −1 (at 1 μA cm −2 ) and a high field enhancement factor β of 13,000. A model of the graphene/DWCNT composite films is proposed, which indicate that a certain amount of graphene will contribute the electron transmission in the silver substrate/composite films interface and in the interior of composite films, and finally improve the electron emission performance of the graphene/DWCNT composite films.

  12. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, S., E-mail: fujii.s.ap@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Department of Information and Communication System Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Okinawa College, Nago, Okinawa 905-2192 (Japan); Kawamura, S.; Maitani, M. M.; Suzuki, E.; Wada, Y. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8522 (Japan); Mochizuki, D. [Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Center for Energy and Environmental Science, Shinshu University, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  14. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fujii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of silk fibroin/bioactive glass composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hailin; Liu Na; Feng Xinxing; Chen Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Composite films of silk fibroin (SF) with nano bioactive glass (NBG) were prepared by the solvent casting method, and the structures and properties of the composite films were characterized. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis shows that the random coil and β-sheet structure co-exist in the SF films. Results of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) indicate that the NBG particles are uniformly dispersed in the SF films. The measurements of the water contact angles suggest that the incorporation of NBG into SF can improve the hydrophilicity of the composites. The bioactivity of the composite films was evaluated by soaking in 1.5 times simulated body fluid (1.5 × SBF), and formation of a hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer was determined by XRD and FESEM. The results show that the SF/NBG composite film is bioactive as it induces the formation of HCA on the surface of the composite film after soaking in 1.5 × SBF for 7 days. In vitro osteoblasts attachment and proliferation tests show that the composite film is a good matrix for the growth of osteoblasts. Consequently, the incorporation of NBG into the SF film can enhance both the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the film, which suggests that the SF/NBG composite film may be a potential biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: ► The incorporation of NBG into SF can improve the hydrophilicity of the SF/NBG composite films. ► The SF/NBG composite films show the better bioactivity than the pure SF film. ► The SF/NBG composite films facilitate cell growth and promote cell proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Controlled release of ketorolac through nanocomposite films of hydrogel and LDH nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiping; Gu Zi; Cheng Xiaoxi; Rasoul, Firas; Whittaker, Andrew K.; Lu Gaoqing Max

    2011-01-01

    A novel nanocomposite film for sustained release of anionic ophthalmic drugs through a double-control process has been examined in this study. The film, made as a drug-loaded contact lens, consists principally of a polymer hydrogel of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), in whose matrix MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) nanoparticles intercalated with the anionic drug are well dispersed. Such nanocomposite films (hydrogel-LDH-drug) contained 0.6–0.8 mg of MgAl-LDH and 0.08–0.09 mg of the ophthalmic drug (ketorolac) in 1.0 g of hydrogel. MgAl-drug-LDH nanoparticles were prepared with the hydrodynamic particle size of 40–200 nm. TEM images show that these nanoparticles are evenly dispersed in the hydrogel matrix. In vitro release tests of hydrogel-LDH-drug in pH 7.4 PBS solution at 32 °C indicate a sustained release profile of the loaded drug for 1 week. The drug release undergoes a rapid initial burst and then a monotonically decreasing rate up to 168 h. The initial burst release is determined by the film thickness and the polymerization conditions, but the following release rate is very similar, with the effective diffusion coefficient being nearly constant (3.0 × 10 −12 m 2 /s). The drug release from the films is mechanistically attributed to anionic exchange and the subsequent diffusion in the hydrogel matrix.

  17. Synthesis and luminescent properties of PEO/lanthanide oxide nanoparticle hybrid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubard, F.; Vidal, F.; Bazzi, R.; Tillement, O.; Chevrot, C.; Teyssie, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the optical properties of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles dispersed in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) network as thermally stable polymeric films. The aim of this work is both to keep a good optical transparency in the visible domain and to obtain luminescent materials after incorporation of nanoparticles. For this purpose, we develop luminescent nanocrystals of oxides containing terbium ion as a doping element in Gd 2 O 3 . These sub-5-nm lanthanide oxides nanoparticles have been prepared by direct oxide precipitation in high-boiling polyalcohol solutions and characterized by luminescence spectroscopy. PEO/lanthanide oxide nanohybrid films are prepared by radical polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate after introduction of lanthanide oxide particles. As a first result; the obtained films present interesting luminescence properties with a very low lanthanide oxide content (up to 0.29 wt%). Furthermore, these films are still transparent and keep their original mechanical properties. Prior to describe the specific applications to optical use, we report here the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and luminescent properties of. nanohybrid films

  18. Organized mesoporous silica films as templates for the elaboration of organized nanoparticle networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacoin, T; Besson, S; Boilot, J P

    2006-01-01

    Tremendous work achieved in the last 20 years on nanoparticle synthesis has allowed us to study many new physical properties that are found in the nanometre size range. New developments are now expected when considering assemblies of nanoparticles such as 2D or 3D organized arrays. These systems are indeed expected to exhibit original physical properties resulting from particle-particle interactions. Studies in this field are clearly dependent on the elaboration of materials with controlled particle size, organization and interparticle distance. This paper presents a strategy of elaboration that is based on the use of organized mesoporous silica films as templates. These films are made by sol-gel polymerization around surfactant assemblies and further elimination of the surfactant. This provides porous matrices with a pore organization that is the almost perfect replica of the initial micellar structure. The use of such films for the elaboration of organized arrays of nanoparticles is detailed in the case of CdS and Ag particles. The formation of particles inside the pores is achieved through impregnation with precursors that are allowed to diffuse inside the pores. This leads to particles with a size and a spatial arrangement that is directly related to the initial pore structure of the films. This process opens a wide range of investigations due to the relative ease of fabrication over large surfaces and the numerous possibilities offered by the elaboration of porous films with different pore sizes and organizations

  19. Synthesis and luminescent properties of PEO/lanthanide oxide nanoparticle hybrid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubard, F. [LPPI, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France)]. E-mail: fabrice.goubard@u-cergy.fr; Vidal, F. [LPPI, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); Bazzi, R. [LPCML, Universite Lyon 1, 43 Bd. du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Tillement, O. [LPCML, Universite Lyon 1, 43 Bd. du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Nano-H, 23 rue Royal, 69001 Lyon (France); Chevrot, C. [LPPI, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); Teyssie, D. [LPPI, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 Mail Gay-Lussac, Neuville-sur-Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France)

    2007-10-15

    In this study, we investigate the optical properties of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles dispersed in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) network as thermally stable polymeric films. The aim of this work is both to keep a good optical transparency in the visible domain and to obtain luminescent materials after incorporation of nanoparticles. For this purpose, we develop luminescent nanocrystals of oxides containing terbium ion as a doping element in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These sub-5-nm lanthanide oxides nanoparticles have been prepared by direct oxide precipitation in high-boiling polyalcohol solutions and characterized by luminescence spectroscopy. PEO/lanthanide oxide nanohybrid films are prepared by radical polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate after introduction of lanthanide oxide particles. As a first result; the obtained films present interesting luminescence properties with a very low lanthanide oxide content (up to 0.29 wt%). Furthermore, these films are still transparent and keep their original mechanical properties. Prior to describe the specific applications to optical use, we report here the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and luminescent properties of. nanohybrid films.

  20. Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposite films by incorporation of crystalline BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamori, Tsuyoshi; Han, Yu; Nagao, Daisuke, E-mail: dnagao@tohoku.ac.jp; Kamezawa, Nao; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Dielectric barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles incorporated into luminescence films. • Luminescence intensities increased by the BT nanoparticle incorporation. • Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles effective for luminescence enhancement. - Abstract: Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles into luminescent ZnO-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposite films was undertaken to examine the effect of nanoparticle incorporation on luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared as inorganic phosphors by a precipitation method. The ZnO nanoparticles were then surface-modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) to be used for fabrication of the ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite film. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method as the highly dielectric nanoparticles, which were also surface-modified with the MPTMS for the incorporation into the nanocomposite films. Luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films was successfully increased by the nanoparticle incorporation up to a BT content around 15 vol%. The luminescence intensity higher than that measured for the nanocomposite films incorporating SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles indicated that the incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles was an effective approach to enhance the luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymer thin films.

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-coated films: fabrication, characterization, and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yunhong, E-mail: y.jiang@leeds.ac.uk [University of Leeds, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering (United Kingdom); O’Neill, Alex J. [University of Leeds, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology (United Kingdom); Ding, Yulong [University of Leeds, Institute of Particle Science and Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    In this article, novel antibacterial PVC-based films coated with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated, characterized, and studied for their antibacterial properties. It was shown that the ZnO NPs were coated on the surface of the PVC films uniformly and that the coating process did not affect the size and shape of the NPs on the surface of PVC films. Films coated with concentrations of either 0.2 or 0.075 g/L of ZnO NPs exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, but exhibited no antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum. Smaller particles (100 nm) exhibited more potent antibacterial activity than larger particles (1000 nm). All ZnO-coated films maintained antibacterial activity after 30 days in water.

  2. Guided assembly of nanoparticles on electrostatically charged nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verveniotis Elisseos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We apply atomic force microscope for local electrostatic charging of oxygen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD thin films deposited on silicon, to induce electrostatically driven self-assembly of colloidal alumina nanoparticles into micro-patterns. Considering possible capacitive, sp2 phase and spatial uniformity factors to charging, we employ films with sub-100 nm thickness and about 60% relative sp2 phase content, probe the spatial material uniformity by Raman and electron microscopy, and repeat experiments at various positions. We demonstrate that electrostatic potential contrast on the NCD films varies between 0.1 and 1.2 V and that the contrast of more than ±1 V (as detected by Kelvin force microscopy is able to induce self-assembly of the nanoparticles via coulombic and polarization forces. This opens prospects for applications of diamond and its unique set of properties in self-assembly of nano-devices and nano-systems.

  3. Preparation of sensitive and recyclable porous Ag/TiO{sub 2} composite films for SERS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Yu, Jiajie; Yang, Jingying; Lv, Xiang; Wang, Tianhe, E-mail: thwang56@126.com

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new but simple method of fabricating robust TiO{sub 2} films on glass. • AgNPs were deposited on the surface of TiO{sub 2} films with the assistance of UV irradiation. • Substrates with high SERS sensitivity and excellent recyclability. - Abstract: Porous Ag/TiO{sub 2} composite films were prepared by spin coating of titania on normal glass slides and subsequent photochemical deposition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The films were characterized by XRD and FESEM to reveal micro structural and morphological differences between films obtained under varied conditions. The SERS properties of these films were investigated using aqueous crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. The results indicate that the content of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and photo-reduction time had significant influences on both the microstructure and SERS performance of Ag/TiO{sub 2} films. The highest SERS sensitivity that allowed as low as 10{sup −10} M aqueous CV to be detected, was achieved with the PEG/(C{sub 4}H{sub 9}O){sub 4}Ti molar ratio being 0.08% and with 30 min of UV irradiation. With this film a linear relationship was established through experiment between SERS intensity and CV concentration from 10{sup −10} to 10{sup −5} M, which could be used as a calibration curve for CV concentration measurement. In addition, the film could be reused as a SERS substrate for up to four times without significantly losing SERS sensitivity if a simple regeneration was followed. It is visualized that the Ag/TiO{sub 2} film on glass has potentials for being developed into a practical SERS substrate with high sensitivity and good reusability.

  4. Blue shift in the luminescence spectra of MEH-PPV films containing ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ton-That, Cuong; Phillips, Matthew R.; Nguyen, Thien-Phap

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence properties of nanocomposites consisting of ZnO nanoparticles in a conjugated polymer, poly [2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl hexyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), were investigated. Photoluminescence measurements reveal a blue shift in the emission spectrum of MEH-PPV upon incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the polymer film while the emission is increasingly quenched with increasing ZnO concentration. In contrast, the structure of the polymer and its conjugation length are not affected by the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (up to 16 wt% ZnO) as revealed by Raman spectroscopy. The blue shift and photoluminescence quenching are explained by the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface and the charging of the nanoparticles

  5. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowire-nanoparticle composite electrodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, C-H; Wu, J-J [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2007-12-19

    ZnO nanowire (NW)-layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA)/ZnO nanoparticle (NP) composite electrodes with different NP occupying extents have been synthesized using a simple wet-chemical route for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By employing mercurochrome as the sensitizer, superior efficiencies ({eta}) of 1.27-2.37% are obtained using the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite electrodes composed of a 5.5 {mu}m thick NW array with different NP occupying extents in comparison with the ZnO NW DSSC ({eta} = 0.45%). It suggests that the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite films which possess a considerable enlarged surface area by NPs growth, without sacrificing electron transport efficiency of single-crystalline ZnO NWs at the same time, are promising photoanodes for use in DSSCs. In addition to the extent of NP occupation, the overall efficiency of the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite DSSC is also influenced by the thickness of the composite film as well as the LBZA fraction and the cracks within the composite. The fraction of LBZA affected by the NP growth period and post-annealing conditions is found to play a crucial role in electron transport through the composite anode. Up to now, a high efficiency DSSC of 3.2% is achieved using a mercurochrome-sensitized and 6.2 {mu}m thick NW-NP composite film.

  6. Tuneable nanoparticle-nanofiber composite substrate for improved cellular adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Ariana M; Toth, Tyler D; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a novel technique using a reverse potential electrospinning mode for fabricating nanoparticle-embedded composites that can be tailored to represent various fiber diameters, surface morphologies, and functional groups necessary for improved cellular adhesion. Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun in both traditional positive (PP) and reverse potential (RP) electrical fields. The fibers were incorporated with 300nm polystyrene (PS) fluorescent particles, which contained carboxyl, amine groups, and surfactants. In the unconventional RP, the charged colloidal particles and surfactants were shown to have an exaggerated effect on Taylor cone morphology and fiber diameter caused by the changes in charge density and surface tension of the bulk solution. The RP mode was shown to lead to a decrease in fiber diameter from 1200±100nm (diameter±SE) for the nanofibers made with PCL alone to 440±80nm with the incorporation of colloidal particles, compared to the PP mode ranging from 530±90nm to 350±50nm, respectively. The nanoparticle-nanofiber composite substrates were cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and evaluated for cellular viability and adhesion for up to 5 days. Adhesion to the nanofibrous substrates was improved by 180±10% with the addition of carboxylated particles and by 480±60% with the functionalization of an RGD ligand compared to the PCL nanofibers. The novel approach of electrospinning in the RP mode with the addition of colloids in order to alter charge density and surface tension could be utilized towards many applications, one being implantable biomaterials and tissue engineered scaffolds as demonstrated in this work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of chitosan nanoparticles for use in food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, Renata; Feitosa, Leandro; do Espírito Santo Pereira, Anderson; de Moura, Márcia Regina; Ahmad Aouada, Fauze; Henrique Capparelli Mattoso, Luiz; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2010-08-01

    The use of nanoparticles in food packaging has been proposed on the basis that it could improve protection of foods by, for example, reducing permeation of gases, minimizing odor loss, and increasing mechanical strength and thermal stability. Consequently, the impacts of such nanoparticles on organisms and on the environment need to be investigated to ensure their safe use. In an earlier study, Moura and others (2008a) described the effect of addition of chitosan (CS) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) nanoparticles on the mechanical properties, water vapor, and oxygen permeability of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films used in food packaging. Here, the genotoxicity of different polymeric CS/PMAA nanoparticles (size 60, 82, and 111 nm) was evaluated at different concentration levels, using the Allium cepa chromosome damage test as well as cytogenetic tests employing human lymphocyte cultures. Test substrates were exposed to solutions containing nanoparticles at polymer mass concentrations of 1.8, 18, and 180 mg/L. Results showed no evidence of DNA damage caused by the nanoparticles (no significant numerical or structural changes were observed), however the 82 and 111 nm nanoparticles reduced mitotic index values at the highest concentration tested (180 mg/L), indicating that the nanoparticles were toxic to the cells used at this concentration. In the case of the 60 nm CS/PMAA nanoparticles, no significant changes in the mitotic index were observed at the concentration levels tested, indicating that these particles were not toxic. The techniques used show promising potential for application in tests of nanoparticle safety envisaging the future use of these materials in food packaging.

  8. Conduction and reversible memory phenomena in Au-nanoparticles-incorporated TeO{sub 2}–ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempo, L., E-mail: bontempo@usp.br [Laboratório de Sistemas Integráveis, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 158, Travessa 3, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Materiais Fotônicos e Optoeletrônicos, Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo, Praça Cel. Fernando Prestes, 30, 01124-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos Filho, S.G. dos, E-mail: sgsantos@usp.br [Laboratório de Sistemas Integráveis, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 158, Travessa 3, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kassab, L.R.P., E-mail: kassablm@osite.com.br [Laboratório de Materiais Fotônicos e Optoeletrônicos, Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo, Praça Cel. Fernando Prestes, 30, 01124-060 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-29

    A reversible memory behavior in TeO{sub 2}–ZnO thin films containing Au nanoparticles prepared using the sputtering technique has been observed. The current–voltage characteristics of the films, having Al and Si as electrodes, showed a switching behavior starting from an initial state of low conductivity to a high conductivity one. As a result, an abrupt increase of current (10{sup −7} to 10{sup −3} A) was observed for 6.5 V (100 nm thickness). Au nanoparticles provide a larger electron storage capability, and do not favor the transport through the insulator; they present a higher trapped charge concentration, which reduces the leakage current to lower levels. The influence of the Au nanoparticle diameter and volumetric concentration to reach the abrupt current transition and the value of the transition voltage was studied. These parameters were found to play an important role on reversible memory phenomena as they determine the facility/difficulty to fill and saturate the traps (Au nanoparticles) with electrons. - Highlights: • TeO{sub 2}–ZnO thin films with Au nanoparticles grown by magnetron co-sputtering for memory devices • Nucleation of gold nanoparticles by annealing process • Electrical properties of TeO{sub 2}–ZnO thin films with and without gold nanoparticles • Reversible memory phenomenum in Au-nanoparticles-incorporated TeO{sub 2}–ZnO thin films.

  9. Properties of CuInS₂ Nano-Particles on TiO₂ by Spray Pyrolysis for CuInS₂/TiO₂ Composite Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gye-Choon; Li, Zhen-Yu; Yang, O-Bong

    2017-04-01

    In this letter, for the absorption layer of a CuInS₂/TiO₂ composite solar cell, I–III–VI2 chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInS₂ nano-particles were deposited by using spray pyrolysis method on TiO2 porous film. Their material characteristics including structural and optical properties of CuInS₂ nano-particles on TiO₂ nanorods were analyzed as a function of its composition ratios of Cu:In:S. Crystalline structure, surface morphology and crystalline size were also investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), and High-Resolution TEM (HRTEM), respectively. On the other hand, optical property was characterized by an UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. As a result, it was found that the size of CuInS₂ nano-particles, which was formed at 300±5 °C, was smaller than 16 nm from HRTEM analyses, and it was identified that the CuInS₂ particle size was increased as increasing the heat-treatment temperature and time. However, as the size of CuInS₂ nano-particle becomes smaller, optical absorption edge of ternary compound film tends to move to the blue wavelength band. It turns out that the optical energy-band gap of the compound films was ranging from 1.48 eV to 1.53 eV.

  10. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Panat, Rahul, E-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu, E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163 (United States); Ramana, C. V., E-mail: rahul.panat@wsu.edu, E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24–500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  11. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Panat, Rahul; Ramana, C. V.

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24–500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  12. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24-500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  13. Nanoparticle Encapsulation in Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blend Thin Film Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junnan; Chen, Xi; Green, Peter

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the organization of low concentrations of poly (2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) grafted gold nanoparticles within a diblock copolymer polystyrene-b-poly (2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP)/homopolymer polystyrene (PS) blend thin film. The PS-b-P2VP copolymers formed micelles, composed of inner cores of P2VP block and outer coronae of PS blocks, throughout the homopolymer PS. All nanoparticles were encapsulated within micelle cores and each micelle contained one or no nanoparticle, on average. When the host PS chains are much longer than corona chains, micelles tended to self-organize at the interfaces. Otherwise, they were dispersed throughout the PS host. In comparison to the neat PS-b-P2VP/PS blend, the nanoparticles/PS-b-P2VP/PS system had a higher density of smaller micelles, influenced largely by the number of nanoparticles in the system. The behavior of this system is understood in terms of the maximization of the nanoparticle/micelle core interactions and of the translational entropies of the micelles and the nanoparticles.

  14. Effect of composition on properties of In2O3-Ga2O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, I. E.; Kozlov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The In2O3-Ga2O3 mixed oxide polycrystalline thin films with various ratios of components were obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of films composition on surface morphology, electrophysical and gas sensing properties and energies of adsorption and desorption of combustible gases was studied. The films with50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 composition showed maximum gas response (˜25 times) combined with minimum optimal working temperature (˜530 °C) as compared with the other films. The optical transmittance of the films in visible range was investigated. For 50%In2O3-50%Ga2O3 films, the transmittance is higher in comparison with the other films. The explanation of the dependency of films behaviors on their composition was presented.The In2O3-Ga2O3 films were assumed to have perspectives as gas sensing material for semiconducting gas sensors.

  15. Antimicrobial Carvacrol-Containing Polypropylene Films: Composition, Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Krepker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been directed toward the incorporation of bioactive plant extracts or essential oils (EOs into polymers to endow the latter with antimicrobial functionality. EOs offer a unique combination of having broad antimicrobial activity from a natural source, generally recognized as safe (GRAS recognition in the US, and a volatile nature. However, their volatility also presents a major challenge in their incorporation into polymers by conventional high-temperature-processing techniques. Herein, antimicrobial polypropylene (PP cast films were produced by incorporating carvacrol (a model EO or carvacrol, loaded into halloysite nanotubes (HNTs, via melt compounding. We studied the composition-structure-property relationships in these systems, focusing on the effect of carvacrol on the composition of the films, the PP crystalline phase and its morphology and the films’ mechanical and antimicrobial properties. For the first time, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to reveal the complex interactions between the components of these carvacrol-containing systems. We show that strong molecular interactions between PP and carvacrol minimize the loss of this highly-volatile EO during high-temperature polymer processing, enabling semi-industrial scale production. The resulting films exhibit outstanding antimicrobial properties against model microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Alternaria alternata. The PP/(HNTs-carvacrol nanocomposite films, containing the carvacrol-loaded HNTs, display a higher level of crystalline order, superior mechanical properties and prolonged release of carvacrol, in comparison to PP/carvacrol blends. These properties are ascribed to the role of HNTs in these nanocomposites and their effect on the PP matrix and retained carvacrol content.

  16. Effect of adjustable molecular chain structure and pure silica zeolite nanoparticles on thermal, mechanical, dielectric, UV-shielding and hydrophobic properties of fluorinated copolyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Liao, Guangfu; Zhang, Shulai; Pang, Long; Tong, Hao; Zhao, Wenzhe; Xu, Zushun

    2018-01-01

    A series of polyimide (PI) films, polyimide/pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (PSZN) blend films and polyimide/amine-functionalized pure silica zeolite nanoparticles (APSZN) composite films were successfully prepared by random copolycondensation. Thereinto, PSZN were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The polyimides were derived from 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl ether (ODA), and three adjustable molar ratios (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) of 2,2-bis[4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl] propane dianhydride (BPADA) and 4,4‧-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride (6FDA). The effects of PSZN, APSZN and different chain structure on PI films were specifically evaluated in terms of morphology, thermal, mechanical, dielectric and UV-shielding properties, etc. Comparison was given among pure PI flims, PI/PSZN blend films and PI/APSZN composite flims. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of PI films were drastically impaired after adding PSZN. On the contrary, the strength, toughness and thermal stability were improved after adding APSZN. Moreover, the dielectric constants of the PI/APSZN composite flims were lowered but UV-shielding properties were enhanced. Interestingly, we found that the greatest effects were obtained through introducing APSZN in PI derived by the 1:1 ratio of BPADA:6FDA. The corresponding PI/APSZN composite flim exhibited the most reinforced and toughened properties, the largest decrement of dielectric constant and the best UV-shielding efficiency, which made the composite flim be used as ultraviolet shielding material in outer space filled with high temperature and intensive ultraviolet light. Meanwhile, this work also provided a facile way to synthesize composite materials with adjustable performance.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis of Actuation Performance of Shape Memory Alloy Composite Film Based on Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical model of the shape memory alloy (SMA composite film with silicon (Si substrate was established by the method of mechanics of composite materials. The coupled action between the SMA film and Si substrate under thermal loads was analyzed by combining static equilibrium equations, geometric equations, and physical equations. The material nonlinearity of SMA and the geometric nonlinearity of bending deformation were both considered. By simulating and analyzing the actuation performance of the SMA composite film during one cooling-heating thermal cycle, it is found that the final cooling temperature, boundary condition, and the thickness of SMA film have significant effects on the actuation performance of the SMA composite film. Besides, the maximum deflection of the SMA composite film is affected obviously by the geometric nonlinearity of bending deformation when the thickness of SMA film is very large.

  18. Electrochemical deposition of Mg(OH2/GO composite films for corrosion protection of magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mg(OH2/graphene oxide (GO composite film was electrochemical deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloys at constant potential. The characteristics of the Mg(OH2/GO composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the flaky GO randomly distributed in the composite film. Compared with the Mg(OH2 film, the Mg(OH2/GO composite film exhibited more uniform and compact structure. Potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that the Mg(OH2/GO composite film could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Mg(OH2 film with an obvious positive shift of corrosion potential by 0.19 V and a dramatic reduction of corrosion current density by more than one order of magnitude.

  19. Modification of physicochemical and thermal properties of starch films by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Zahedi, Younes; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Moayedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-08-01

    In this research, potato starch and TiO2 nanoparticles (0.5, 1 and 2wt%) films were developed. Influences of different concentrations of TiO2 on the functional properties of nanocomposite films (water-related properties, mechanical characteristics, and UV transmittance) were investigated. XRD, FTIR, and DSC analyses were used to characterize the morphology and thermal properties of the films. The results revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles dramatically decreased the values of water-related properties (water vapor permeability: 11-34%; water solubility: 1.88-9.26%; moisture uptake: 2.15-11.18%). Incorporation of TiO2 led to a slight increment of contact angle and tensile strength, and a decrease in elongation at break of the films. TiO2 successfully blocked more than 90% of UV light, while opacity and white index of the films were enhanced. Glass transition temperature and melting point of the films were positively affected by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. The result of XRD study exhibited that due to a limited agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles, the mean crystal size of TiO2 increased. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of starch and nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. In conclusion, TiO2 nanoparticles improved the functional properties of potato starch film and extended the potential for food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casavola C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI. Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

  1. Polypropylene film with silver nanoparticles and nanoclay aiming to action biocidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliani, W.L.; Lima, L.F.C.P.; Lugao, A.B.; Parra, D.F.; Fermino, D.M.; Diaz, F.R.V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study of films made of polypropylene nanoclay and silver nanoparticles. The nanocomposite of polypropylene (iPP), commercial organoclay - montmorillonite (MMT), Cloisite 20A at concentrations of 1.0% and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at a concentration of 0.1% were prepared in a twin-screw-extruder, using polypropylene with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The properties of nanocomposites of PP/MMT/AgNPs are closely related to the dispersion of silver particles and the distribution of sheets of MMT in the polymer matrix, which define its efficiency in the case of the particles and their interaction clay/polymer matrix. However, this combination of MMT and AgNPs that are polar, with the polymer matrix nonpolar in the molten state, presents a challenge. The characterization of the film was performed by analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and reduction of colony forming unit (CFU %). The results indicate the formation of predominantly exfoliated microstructures and agglomeration of silver nanoparticles in the film. The effect of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against bacteria E.coli and S.aureus. (author)

  2. Transport properties of β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded in Nb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Vaidhyanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides is an interesting area of research. In the present work, transport properties of niobium thin films, with β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded within them, are presented. Nanoparticles of β-Ga2O3 embedded in a Nb matrix were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency co-sputtering technique on Si (100 and glass substrates held at room temperature. The thin films deposited on Si substrates were subjected to Ar annealing at a temperature range of 600-650 C for 1 hour. Films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Micro-Raman and elemental identification was performed with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS. Transport measurements were performed down to liquid helium temperatures by four-probe contact technique, showed characteristics analogous to those observed in the context of a Kondo system. A comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical formalism of Kondo and Hamann is presented. It is suggested that this behavior arises from the existence of magnetic moments associated with the oxygen vacancy defects in the nanoparticles of the nonmagnetic oxide Ga2O3.

  3. Fabrication of conducting polymer-gold nanoparticles film on electrodes using monolayer protected gold nanoparticles and its electrocatalytic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Palanisamy [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Dindigul (India); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, N1.3, B4-01, 70 Nanyang Drive, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); John, S. Abraham, E-mail: abrajohn@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Dindigul (India)

    2011-08-01

    We wish to report a simple and new strategy for the fabrication of gold nanoparticles-conducting polymer film on glassy carbon (GC) and indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces using 5-amino-2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole capped gold nanoparticles (AMT-AuNPs) in 0.01 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by electropolymerization. The presence of amine groups on the surface of the AuNPs was responsible for the deposition of the AMT-AuNPs film on the electrode surface. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the fabricated p-AMT-AuNPs film showed homogeneously distributed AuNPs with a spherical shape of {approx}8 nm diameter. The XPS spectrum shows the binding energies at 83.8 and 87.5 eV in the Au 4f region corresponding to 4f{sub 7/2} and 4f{sub 5/2}, respectively. The position and difference between these two peaks (3.7 eV) exactly match the value reported for Au{sup 0}. The N1s XPS showed three binding energies at 396.7, 399.6 and 403.3 eV, corresponding to the =NH, -NH- and -N{sup +}H-, respectively, confirming that the electropolymerization proceeded through the oxidation of -NH{sub 2} groups present on the periphery of the AMT-AuNPs. The application of the present p-AMT-AuNPs modified electrode was demonstrated by studying the electro reduction of oxygen at pH 7.2. The p-AMT-AuNPs film enhanced the oxygen reduction current more than three times than that of p-AMT film prepared under identical conditions.

  4. Improvement of Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Epoxy/boron Nitride/silver Nanoparticle Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungyong; Lim, Soonho [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of BN (boron nitride) on the thermal and the electrical conductivity of composites. In case of epoxy/BN composites, the thermal conductivity was increased as the BN contents were increased. Epoxy/AgNP (Ag nanoparticle) nanocomposites exhibited a slight change of thermal conductivity and showed a electrical percolation threshold at 20 vol% of Ag nanoparticles. At the fixed Ag nanoparticle content below the electrical percolation threshold, increasing the amount of BN enhanced the electrical conductivity as well as thermal conductivity for the epoxy/AgNP/BN composites.

  5. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Yan, Cheng; Azari, Sara; Lee, Sang-Heon; Xu, Yanan; Ma, Jun; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-31

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ~200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs' high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications.

  6. Superior piezoelectric composite films: taking advantage of carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Nasser; Araby, Sherif; Meng, Qingshi; Hsu, Hung-Yao; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ma, Jun; Yan, Cheng; Xu, Yanan; Azari, Sara; Yu, Sirong

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites comprising an active phase of ferroelectric ceramic and a polymer matrix have recently found numerous sensory applications. However, it remains a major challenge to further improve their electromechanical response for advanced applications such as precision control and monitoring systems. We here investigated the incorporation of graphene platelets (GnPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), each with various weight fractions, into PZT (lead zirconate titanate)/epoxy composites to produce three-phase nanocomposites. The nanocomposite films show markedly improved piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical responses (50%) besides an enhancement of ∼200% in stiffness. The carbon nanomaterials strengthened the impact of electric field on the PZT particles by appropriately raising the electrical conductivity of the epoxy. GnPs have been proved to be far more promising in improving the poling behavior and dynamic response than MWNTs. The superior dynamic sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite may be caused by the GnPs’ high load transfer efficiency arising from their two-dimensional geometry and good compatibility with the matrix. The reduced acoustic impedance mismatch resulting from the improved thermal conductance may also contribute to the higher sensitivity of GnP-reinforced composite. This research pointed out the potential of employing GnPs to develop highly sensitive piezoelectric composites for sensing applications. (paper)

  7. Surface composition of magnetron sputtered Pt-Co thin film catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorokhta, Mykhailo, E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Khalakhan, Ivan; Václavů, Michal [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Kovács, Gábor; Kozlov, Sergey M. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, c/ Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kúš, Peter; Skála, Tomáš; Tsud, Natalia; Lavková, Jaroslava [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Potin, Valerie [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanostructured Pt-Co thin catalyst films were grown on carbon by magnetron sputtering. • The surface composition of the nanostructured Pt-Co films was investigated by surface analysis techniques. • We carried out modeling of Pt-Co nanoalloys by computational methods. • Both experiment and modeling based on density functional theory showed that the surface of Pt-Co nanoparticles is almost exclusively composed of Pt atoms. - Abstract: Recently we have tested a magnetron sputtered Pt-Co catalyst in a hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cell and showed its high catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we present further investigation of the magnetron sputtered Pt-Co thin film catalyst by both experimental and theoretical methods. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy experiments confirmed the nanostructured character of the catalyst. The surface composition of as-deposited and annealed at 773 K Pt-Co films was investigated by surface analysis techniques, such as synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Modeling based on density functional theory showed that the surface of 6 nm large 1:1 Pt-Co nanoparticles is almost exclusively composed of Pt atoms (>90%) at typical operation conditions and the Co content does not exceed 20% at 773 K, in agreement with the experimental characterization of such films annealed in vacuum. According to experiment, the density of valence states of surface atoms in Pt-Co nanostructures is shifted by 0.3 eV to higher energies, which can be associated with their higher activity in the oxygen reduction reaction. The changes in electronic structure caused by alloying are also reflected in the measured Pt 4f, Co 3p and Co 2p photoelectron peak binding energies.

  8. Conductive polymer and Si nanoparticles composite secondary particles and structured current collectors for high loading lithium ion negative electrode application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao

    2017-07-11

    Embodiments of the present invention disclose a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses a method for preparing a composition of matter comprising a plurality of silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with a conductive polymer comprising providing Si nanoparticles, providing a conductive polymer, preparing a Si nanoparticle, conductive polymer, and solvent slurry, spraying the slurry into a liquid medium that is a non-solvent of the conductive polymer, and precipitating the silicon (Si) nanoparticles coated with the conductive polymer. Another embodiment discloses an anode comprising a current collector, and a composition of matter comprising a silicon (Si) nanoparticle coated with a conductive polymer.

  9. Synthesis of oxide-free aluminum nanoparticles for application to conductive film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong Lee, Yung; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2018-02-01

    Aluminum nanoparticles are considered promising as alternatives to conventional ink materials, replacing silver and copper nanoparticles, due to their extremely low cost and low melting temperature. However, a serious obstacle to realizing their use as conductive ink materials is the oxidation of aluminum. In this research, we synthesized the oxide-free aluminum nanoparticles using catalytic decomposition and an oleic acid coating method, and these materials were applied to conductive ink for the first time. The injection time of oleic acid determines the size of the aluminum nanoparticles by forming a self-assembled monolayer on the nanoparticles instead of allowing the formation of an oxide phase. Fabricated nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify their structural and chemical composition. In addition, conductive inks made of these nanoparticles exhibit electrical properties when they are sintered at over 300 °C in a reducing atmosphere. This result shows that aluminum nanoparticles can be used as an alternative conductive material in printed electronics and can solve the cost issues associated with noble metals.

  10. High-density arrays of titania nanoparticles using monolayer micellar films of diblock copolymers as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Lau, King Hang Aaron; Kim, Dong Ha; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2005-05-24

    Highly dense arrays of titania nanoparticles were fabricated using surface micellar films of poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymers (PS-b-P2VP) as reaction scaffolds. Titania could be introduced selectively within P2VP nanodomains in PS-b-P2VP films through the binary reaction between water molecules trapped in the P2VP domains and the TiCl(4) vapor precursors. Subsequent UV exposure or oxygen plasma treatment removed the organic matrix, leading to titania nanoparticle arrays on the substrate surface. The diameter of the titania domains and the interparticle distance were defined by the lateral scale present in the microphase-separated morphology of the initial PS-b-P2VP films. The typical diameter of titania nanoparticles obtained by oxygen plasma treatment was of the order of approximately 23 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated for films before and after plasma treatment. Both samples showed PL properties with major physical origin due to self-trapped excitons, indicating that the local environment of the titanium atoms is similar.

  11. Large enhancement of Faraday rotation by localized surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles embedded in Bi:YIG film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, H.; Masuda, Y.; Fujikawa, R.; Baryshev, A.V.; Inoue, M.

    2009-01-01

    A large enhancement of the Faraday rotation, which is associated with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), was obtained in a sample with Au nanoparticles embedded in a Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Bi:YIG) film. On a quartz substrate, Au nanoparticles were formed by heating an Au thin film, and a Bi:YIG film was then deposited on them. A sample containing the Au nanoparticles produced by 1000 deg. C heating showed a resonant attenuation with narrower bandwidth in the transmission spectrum than nanoparticles of other samples formed by low-temperature heating. The sharp resonant Faraday rotation angle was 4.4 times larger than the estimated intrinsic Bi:YIG film at the LSPR wavelength; the angular difference was 0.14 deg. A discrepancy in the bandwidth between the transmission attenuation and the resonant Faraday rotation is discussed

  12. Enhanced photoluminescence in transparent thin films of polyaniline–zinc oxide nanocomposite prepared from oleic acid modified zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajimol Augustine, M., E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Teresa' s College, Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Jeeju, P.P.; Varma, S.J.; Francis Xavier, P.A. [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: lakshminathcusat@gmail.com [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-07-01

    Oleic acid capped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet chemical route. The chemical oxidative method is employed to synthesize polyaniline (PANI) and PANI/ZnO nanocomposites doped with four different dopants such as orthophosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), hydrochloric acid (HCl), naphthalene-2-sulphonic acid and camphor sulphonic acid (CSA). The samples have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques. A comparison of the photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity of PANI and PANI/ZnO nanocomposites is attempted. The enhanced PL intensity in PANI/ZnO nanocomposites is caused by the presence of nanostructured and highly fluorescent ZnO in the composites. It has been observed that, among the composites, the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} doped PANI/ZnO nanocomposite is found to exhibit the highest PL intensity because of the higher extent of (pi) conjugation and the more orderly arrangement of the benzenoid and quinonoid units. In the present work, transparent thin films of PANI and PANI/ZnO nanocomposite for which PL intensity is found to be maximum, have been prepared after re-doping with CSA by the spin-coating technique. The XRD pattern of the PANI/ZnO film shows exceptionally good crystallanity compared to that of pure PANI, which suggests that the addition of ZnO nanocrystals helps in enhancing the crystallanity of the PANI/ZnO nanocomposite. There is a significant increase in the PL emission intensity of the PANI/ZnO nanocomposite film making it suitable for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Oleic acid capped zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. • Polyaniline/zinc oxide nanocomposites are prepared by in-situ polymerization. • Polyaniline and polyaniline/zinc oxide thin films are deposited using spin-coating. • Enhanced photoluminescence is observed in polyaniline

  13. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  14. Enzymatic glucose sensor based on Au nanoparticle and plant-like ZnO film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kun [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Alex, Saji [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695014 (India); Siegel, Gene [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Tiwari, Ashutosh, E-mail: tiwari@eng.utah.edu [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical glucose sensor was developed by employing a composite film of plant-like Zinc oxide (ZnO) and chitosan stabilized spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on which Glucose oxidaze (GOx) was immobilized. The ZnO was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the AuNPs of average diameter of 23 nm were loaded on ZnO as the second layer. The prepared ITO/ZnO/AuNPs/GOx bioelectrode exhibited a low value of Michaelis–Menten constant of 1.70 mM indicating a good bio-matrix for GOx. The studies of electrochemical properties of the electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that, the presence of AuNPs provides significant enhancement of the electron transfer rate during redox reactions. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) shows that the ITO/ZnO/AuNPs/GOx based sensor has a high sensitivity of 3.12 μA·mM{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} in the range of 50 mg/dL to 400 mg/dL glucose concentration. The results show promising application of the gold nanoparticle modified plant-like ZnO composite bioelectrode for electrochemical sensing of glucose.

  15. New intelligent multifunctional SiO2/VO2 composite films with enhanced infrared light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and superhydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Li; Liang, Zihui; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2017-01-01

    Highly transparent, energy-saving, and superhydrophobic nanostructured SiO 2 /VO 2 composite films have been fabricated using a sol-gel method. These composite films are composed of an underlying infrared (IR)-regulating VO 2 layer and a top protective layer that consists of SiO 2 nanoparticles. Experimental results showed that the composite structure could enhance the IR light regulation performance, solar modulation capability, and hydrophobicity of the pristine VO 2 layer. The transmittance of the composite films in visible region ( T lum ) was higher than 60%, which was sufficient to meet the requirements of glass lighting. Compared with pristine VO 2 films and tungsten-doped VO 2 film, the near IR control capability of the composite films was enhanced by 13.9% and 22.1%, respectively, whereas their solar modulation capability was enhanced by 10.9% and 22.9%, respectively. The water contact angles of the SiO 2 /VO 2 composite films were over 150°, indicating superhydrophobicity. The transparent superhydrophobic surface exhibited a high stability toward illumination as all the films retained their initial superhydrophobicity even after exposure to 365 nm light with an intensity of 160 mW . cm -2 for 10 h. In addition, the films possessed anti-oxidation and anti-acid properties. These characteristics are highly advantageous for intelligent windows or solar cell applications, given that they can provide surfaces with anti-fogging, rainproofing, and self-cleaning effects. Our technique offers a simple and low-cost solution to the development of stable and visible light transparent superhydrophobic surfaces for industrial applications.

  16. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA) 3 (TPPO) 2 /polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe 3 O 4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10 -2 S cm -1 , and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe 3 O 4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous