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Sample records for nanoparticle solar cell

  1. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  2. Nanoparticle Solar Cell Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Alison, J; Sahoo, Yudhisthira; Reddy, Damoder; Sholin, Veronica; Carter, Sue

    2008-06-17

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells with photovoltaic performance extending into the near-IR region of the solar spectrum as a pathway towards improving power conversion efficiencies. The field of all-inorganic nanoparticle-based solar cells is very new, with only one literature publication in the prior to our project. Very little is understood regarding how these devices function. Inorganic solar cells with IR performance have previously been fabricated using traditional methods such as physical vapor deposition and sputtering, and solution-processed devices utilizing IR-absorbing organic polymers have been investigated. The solution-based deposition of nanoparticles offers the potential of a low-cost manufacturing process combined with the ability to tune the chemical synthesis and material properties to control the device properties. This work, in collaboration with the Sue Carter research group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has greatly expanded the knowledge base in this field, exploring multiple material systems and several key areas of device physics including temperature, bandgap and electrode device behavior dependence, material morphological behavior, and the role of buffer layers. One publication has been accepted to Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells pending minor revision and another two papers are being written now. While device performance in the near-IR did not reach the level anticipated at the beginning of this grant, we did observe one of the highest near-IR efficiencies for a nanoparticle-based solar cell device to date. We also identified several key parameters of importance for improving both near-IR performance and nanoparticle solar cells in general, and demonstrated multiple pathways which showed promise for future commercialization with further research.

  3. Metal nanoparticles for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia

    Among the different renewable ways to produce energy, photovoltaic cells have a big potential and the research is now focusing on getting higher efficiency and at the same time saving the manufacturing costs improving the performance of thin film solar cells. The spectral distribution in the infr......Among the different renewable ways to produce energy, photovoltaic cells have a big potential and the research is now focusing on getting higher efficiency and at the same time saving the manufacturing costs improving the performance of thin film solar cells. The spectral distribution...... characterized. Spectral responses are measured and in two types of measured GaAs solar cells (with Au and Ag nanoparticles) there was no clear efficiency enhancement in the NIR spectral range. In the case of Au nanoparticles it could be explained in similar way to the absorption data: the effect being broad...... cells spectral response to longer wavelengths, through possibly cheap and simple technologies: EBL can be substituted by colloidal solutions implementation and electroless plating is not expensive and results to be effective within a broad set of parameters (size, shape, density). Another application...

  4. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  5. Nanoparticles and nanoimaging for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind

    to a water based ink would provide a production environment without toxic fumes from organic solvents and the nanoparticle structure would provide additional morphological control. The first part of the dissertation maps photodegradation in active layers cast from organic solvents. Reduction in degradation...... in photoactive Landfester nanoparticles. The dispersed particles are characterized by size, internal structure and crystallinity. Crystal orientation and spatial distribution of materials are quantified for cast layers of Landfester particles. A layer of particles is also investigated in a tandem solar cell...... and compared to other layers in the structure using Tomographic 3D mapping. The fourth part presents a projection alignment algorithm for tomographic methods. It works by estimating projection movement through iterative logic using projection distance minimization. It is tested on simulated datasets...

  6. Performance enhancement of polymer solar cells using copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninayake, Aruna P.; Gunashekar, Subhashini; Li, Shengyi; Church, Benjamin C.; Abu-Zahra, Nidal

    2015-06-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.5 eV, this is close to the ideal energy gap of 1.4 eV required for solar cells to allow good solar spectral absorption. The inherent electrical characteristics of CuO nanoparticles make them attractive candidates for improving the performance of polymer solar cells when incorporated into the active polymer layer. The UV-visible absorption spectra and external quantum efficiency of P3HT/PC70BM solar cells containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer, this increased the power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by 24% in comparison to the reference cell. The short circuit current of the reference cell was found to be 5.234 mA cm-2 and it seemed to increase to 6.484 mA cm-2 in cells containing 0.6 mg of CuO NPs; in addition, the fill factor increased from 61.15% to 68.0%, showing an enhancement of 11.2%. These observations suggest that the optimum concentration of CuO nanoparticles was 0.6 mg in the active layer. These significant findings can be applied to design high-efficiency polymer solar cells containing inorganic nanoparticles.

  7. CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ørnsbjerg; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells have the potential to revolutionize the solar energy market. They are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. There are various fabrication...... is furthermore characterized. Photoluminescence measurements indicate which absorber layer are of higher efficiency, which allows us to study why some crystalline configurations enhance the efficiency of resulting solar cells....

  8. A Biphasic Ligand Exchange Reaction on Cdse Nanoparticles: Introducing Undergraduates to Functionalizing Nanoparticles for Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Jennifer M.; Franz, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, including cadmium selenide (CdSe) particles, are attractive as light harvesting materials for solar cells. In the undergraduate laboratory, the size-tunable optical and electronic properties can be easily investigated; however, these nanoparticles (NPs) offer another platform for application-based tunability--the NP…

  9. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingfen, E-mail: lyf350857423@163.com; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver-coated glass frits for solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. • Gum Arabic was used as the activating agent of glass frits. • Silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells. - Abstract: Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  10. Silver Nanoparticle Enhanced Freestanding Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Joshua David

    As the supply of fossil fuels diminishes in quantity the demand for alternative energy sources will consistently increase. Solar cells are an environmentally friendly and proven technology that suffer in sales due to a large upfront cost. In order to help facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to photovoltaics, module costs must be reduced to prices well below $1/Watt. Thin-film solar cells are more affordable because of the reduced materials costs, but lower in efficiency because less light is absorbed before passing through the cell. Silver nanoparticles placed at the front surface of the solar cell absorb and reradiate the energy of the light in ways such that more of the light ends being captured by the silicon. Silver nanoparticles can do this because they have free electron clouds that can take on the energy of an incident photon through collective action. This bulk action of the electrons is called a plasmon. This work begins by discussing the economics driving the need for reduced material use, and the pros and cons of taking this step. Next, the fundamental theory of light-matter interaction is briefly described followed by an introduction to the study of plasmonics. Following that we discuss a traditional method of silver nanoparticle formation and the initial experimental studies of their effects on the ability of thin-film silicon to absorb light. Then, Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation software is used to simulate the effects of nanoparticle morphology and size on the scattering of light at the surface of the thin-film.

  11. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells using dielectric spherical nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, Yu. V.; Zadkov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review recent progress in using plasmonic nanoparticles for improving efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (PV) cells with embedded plasmonic nanoparticles. Specifically, we discuss how the plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for guiding and concentrating the light for enhanced absorption, paying attention to both fundamentals and design considerations, as well as to realization of the broadband plasmonic scattering to better utilize the incoming solar spectrum. Plus to that, we discuss potential advantages of using dielectric nanoparticles in PV solar cells.

  12. Improving Efficiency of Multicrystalline Silicon and CIGS Solar Cells by Incorporating Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the use of gold (Au and silver (Ag nanoparticles in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS solar cells. Au and Ag nanoparticles are deposited by spin-coating method, which is a simple and low cost process. The random distribution of nanoparticles by spin coating broadens the resonance wavelength of the transmittance. This broadening favors solar cell applications. Metal shadowing competes with light scattering in a manner that varies with nanoparticle concentration. Experimental results reveal that the mc-Si solar cells that incorporate Au nanoparticles outperform those with Ag nanoparticles. The incorporation of suitable concentration of Au and Ag nanoparticles into mc-Si solar cells increases their efficiency enhancement by 5.6% and 4.8%, respectively. Incorporating Au and Ag nanoparticles into CIGS solar cells improve their efficiency enhancement by 1.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The enhancement of the photocurrent in mc-Si solar cells is lower than that in CIGS solar cells, owing to their different light scattering behaviors and material absorption coefficients.

  13. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells using dielectric spherical nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimirova Yu.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review recent progress in using plasmonic nanoparticles for improving efficiency of the organic photovoltaic (PV cells with embedded plasmonic nanoparticles. Specifically, we discuss how the plasmonic nanoparticles can be used for guiding and concentrating the light for enhanced absorption, paying attention to both fundamentals and design considerations, as well as to realization of the broadband plasmonic scattering to better utilize the incoming solar spectrum. Plus to that, we discuss potential advantages of using dielectric nanoparticles in PV solar cells.

  14. Solution Processed Silver Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Berginc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A plasmonic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is studied. The solutions of silver nitrate in isopropanol, ethylene glycol, or in TiO2 sol were examined as possible precursors for Ag NPs formation. The solutions were dip-coated on the top of the porous TiO2 layer. The results of optical measurements confirmed the formation of Ag NPs throughout the porous TiO2 layer after the heat treatment of the layers above 100°C. Heat treatment at 220°C was found to be optimal regarding the formation of the Ag NPs. The porous TiO2 layers with Ag NPs have been evaluated also in DSSC by measuring current-voltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency of the cells. In addition, the amount of adsorbed dye has been determined to prove the plasmonic effect in the cells. The I-V characterization of the DSSCs revealed an increase of the short circuit current in the presence of Ag NPs although the amount of the attached dye molecules decreased. These results confirm that the performance enhancement is related to the plasmonic effect. However, neither a thin sol-gel TiO2 layer nor poly(4-vinylpyridine shells provide effective protection for the long term stability of the Ag NPs against the corrosion of I3-/I- based electrolyte.

  15. Use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesized by Bacillus mycoides in quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenes-Aenishanslins, Nicolás Alexis; Saona, Luis Alberto; Durán-Toro, Vicente María; Monrás, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Denisse Margarita; Pérez-Donoso, José Manuel

    2014-07-16

    One of the major challenges of nanotechnology during the last decade has been the development of new procedures to synthesize nanoparticles. In this context, biosynthetic methods have taken hold since they are simple, safe and eco-friendly. In this study, we report the biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by an environmental isolate of Bacillus mycoides, a poorly described Gram-positive bacterium able to form colonies with novel morphologies. This isolate was able to produce TiO2 nanoparticles at 37 ° C in the presence of titanyl hydroxide. Biosynthesized nanoparticles have anatase polymorphic structure, spherical morphology, polydisperse size (40-60 nm) and an organic shell as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and FTIR, respectively. Also, conversely to chemically produced nanoparticles, biosynthesized TiO2 do not display phototoxicity. In order to design less expensive and greener solar cells, biosynthesized nanoparticles were evaluated in Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells (QDSSCs) and compared with chemically produced TiO2 nanoparticles. Solar cell parameters such as short circuit current density (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC) revealed that biosynthesized TiO2 nanoparticles can mobilize electrons in QDSSCs similarly than chemically produced TiO2. Our results indicate that bacterial extracellular production of TiO2 nanoparticles at low temperatures represents a novel alternative for the construction of green solar cells.

  16. Analysis of Solar Cells Efficacy with Imbedded Layer of Spherical Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshetov S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattered sunlight absorption efficacy by a solar cell with imbedded layer of spherical plasmonic nanoparticles is simulated versus the parameters of the imbedded particles, the material they are made of, their density and location in the polymeric buffer layer inclusive. It was shown that the embedded plasmonic nanoparticles cause an increase of the relative efficacy of an organic solar cell with the P3HT:PCBM photosensitive layer and the PEDOT buffer layer of up to 10-20%. This increase depends also on the angle at which the sunlight shines the solar cell, which was also studied in detail.

  17. Polyol-mediated Synthesis of Chalcogenide Nanoparticles for Thin-film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was polyol-mediated syntheses of chalcogenide nanoparticles for printable thin-film solar cells. In this thesis, chalcogenide nanoparticles, such as Cu2Se, In2Se3, CZTS, Se@CuSe and Te@Bi2Te3, have been successfully synthesized via a polyol-mediated method.

  18. Studying of Perovskite Nanoparticles in PMMA Matrix Used As Light Converter for Silicon Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles of CH3NH3PbBr3 hybrid perovskites were synthesized. These perovskite nanoparticles we embedded in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA in order to obtain the composite, which we used as light converter for silicon solar cells. It was shown that the composite emit the light with the intensity maximum at about 527 nm when exited by a short wavelength (300÷450 nm of light. The silicon solar cells were used to examine the effect of down-conversion (DC process by perovskite nanoparticles embedded in PMMA. For experiments, two groups of monocrystalline silicon solar cells were used. The first one included the solar cells without surface texturization and antireflection coating. The second one included the commercial cells with surface texturization and antireflection coating. In every series of the cells one part of the cells were covered by composite (CH3NH3PbBr3 in PMMA layer and second part of cells by pure PMMA for comparison. It was shown that External Quantum Efficiency EQE of the photovoltaic cells covered by composite (CH3NH3PbBr3 in PMMA layer was improved in both group of the cells but unfortunately the Internal Quantum Efficiency was reduced. This reduction was caused by high absorption of the short wavelength light and reabsorption of the luminescence light. Therefore, the CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite nanoparticles embedded in PMMA matrix were unable to increase silicon solar cell efficiency in the tested systems.

  19. Efficiency improvement in dye sensitized solar cells by the plasmonic effect of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has been remarkably increased by incorporation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles into TiO2 photoanodes. Uniform silver nanoparticles were developed by treating silver ions with Peltophorum pterocarpum flower extract at room temperature. The obtained silver nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-vis. spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the obtained silver nanoparticles were polycrystalline in nature with face centered cubic lattice. Silver nanoparticles, with an approximate size in the range of 20–50 nm were examined by the TEM. The plasmonic nanocomposite material was prepared by mixing different green synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% with P25TiO2 nanoparticles and used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Due to the plasmonic effect of the modified electrode, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell was improved from 2.83% to 3.62% with increment around 28% after incorporation of the 2 wt% of the silver nanoparticles. Maximum increases in open-circuit voltage (up to 12.1% and in short-circuit current density (up to 10.7% were observed.

  20. Relating Structure to Efficiency in Surfactant-Free Polymer/Fullerene Nanoparticle-Based Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Clulow, Andrew J; Howard, Ian A; Gilbert, Elliot P; Burn, Paul L; Gentle, Ian R; Colsmann, Alexander

    2017-12-13

    Nanoparticle dispersions open up an ecofriendly route toward printable organic solar cells. They can be formed from a variety of organic semiconductors by using miniemulsions that employ surfactants to stabilize the nanoparticles in dispersion and to prevent aggregation. However, whenever surfactant-based nanoparticle dispersions have been used to fabricate solar cells, the reported performances remain moderate. In contrast, solar cells from nanoparticle dispersions formed by precipitation (without surfactants) can exhibit power conversion efficiencies close to those of state-of-the-art solar cells processed from blend solutions using chlorinated solvents. In this work, we use small-angle neutron scattering measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate why surfactant-free nanoparticles give rise to efficient organic solar cells. We show that surfactant-free nanoparticles comprise a uniform distribution of small semiconductor domains, similar to that of bulk-heterojunction films formed using traditional solvent processing. This observation differs from surfactant-based miniemulsion nanoparticles that typically exhibit core-shell structures. Hence, the surfactant-free nanoparticles already possess the optimum morphology for efficient energy conversion before they are assembled into the photoactive layer of a solar cell. This structural property underpins the superior performance of the solar cells containing surfactant-free nanoparticles and is an important design criterion for future nanoparticle inks.

  1. Periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles for enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    Although organic solar cells show intriguing features such as low-cost, mechanical flexibility and light weight, their efficiency is still low compared to their inorganic counterparts. One way of improving their efficiency is by the use of light-trapping mechanisms from nano- or microstructures......, which makes it possible to improve the light absorption and charge extraction in the device’s active layer. Here, periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles are demonstrated experimentally and theoretically to improve light absorption and thus enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells....... Surface-ordered gold nanoparticle arrangements are integrated at the bottom electrode of organic solar cells. The resulting optical interference and absorption effects are numerically investigated in bulk hetero-junction solar cells based on the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Transfer Matrix...

  2. Preparation and immobilization of noble metal nanoparticles for plasmonic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruoli; Pitzer, Martin; Hu, DongZhi; Schaadt, Daniel M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Centrum fuer Funktionelle Nanostrukturen (CFN), KIT (Germany); Fruk, Ljiljana [DFG Centrum fuer Funktionelle Nanostrukturen (CFN), KIT (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Thin-film solar cells are of high interest due to good electrical properties and low material consumption. Traditional thin-film cells, however, have considerable transmission losses because of the reduced absorption volume. A promising way to enhance absorption in the active layer is the light-trapping by plasmonic nanostructures. Metallic nanoparticles have in particular shown large enhancement of the photocurrent in thin-film devices. In this poster, we present preparation of Au,Ag and Pt nanoparticles by polyol method and seed mediated methods for use in plasmonic solar cells. Polyol method typically uses ethylene glycol as the solvent and reducing agent,and in seed-mediated synthesis small nanoparticle seeds are first prepared and then used to promote the growth of different shapes of nanoparticles. We particularly focus on the use of nanocubes and nanospheres for solar cell design. Following the nanoparticle preparation, a new method to immobilize particles on GaAs surfaces via covalent chemical bonds has been developed which prevents agglomerations and allows control of the surface density. Photocurrent spectra of GaAs pin solar cells with and without particles have been recorded. These measurements show the dependence of the photocurrent enhancement on particle material, shape and density.

  3. Inkjet printed Cu(In,Ga)S2 nanoparticles for low-cost solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Barbe, Jeremy

    2016-12-13

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) thin film solar cells were fabricated by direct inkjet printing of Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) nanoparticles followed by rapid thermal annealing under selenium vapor. Inkjet printing is a low-cost, low-waste, and flexible patterning method which can be used for deposition of solution-based or nanoparticle-based CIGS films with high throughput. XRD and Raman spectra indicate that no secondary phase is formed in the as-deposited CIGS film since quaternary chalcopyrite nanoparticles are used as the base solution for printing. Besides, CIGSe films with various Cu/(In + Ga) ratios could be obtained by finely tuning the composition of CIGS nanoparticles contained in the ink, which was found to strongly influence the devices performance and film morphology. To date, this is the first successful fabrication of a solar device by inkjet printing of CIGS nanoparticles.

  4. Increased electron photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles and photoemission enhanced solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Uskov, Alexander; Gritti, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation shows possibility to enhance substantially (by one-two orders) the electron photoemission through surface of metal nanoparticles embedded into photovoltaic structures. This, in turn, can lead to increase of the solar cells efficiency due to efficient light-to-electricity tran......Numerical simulation shows possibility to enhance substantially (by one-two orders) the electron photoemission through surface of metal nanoparticles embedded into photovoltaic structures. This, in turn, can lead to increase of the solar cells efficiency due to efficient light...

  5. Back scattering involving embedded silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles for c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Siddiqui, M. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Chaudhuri, Partha; Saha, Hiranmay; Banerjee, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    A novel material, structure and method of synthesis for dielectric light trapping have been presented in this paper. First, the light scattering behaviour of silicon nitride nanoparticles have been theoretically studied in order to find the optimized size for dielectric back scattering by FDTD simulations from Lumerical Inc. The optical results have been used in electrical analysis and thereby, estimate the effect of nanoparticles on efficiency of the solar cells depending on substrate thickness. Experimentally, silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles have been formed using hydrogen plasma treatment on SiN layer deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The size and area coverage of the nanoparticles were controlled by varying the working pressure, power density and treatment duration. The nanoparticles were integrated with partial rear contact c-Si solar cells as dielectric back reflector structures for the light trapping in thin silicon solar cells. Experimental results revealed the increases of current density by 2.7% in presence of SiN nanoparticles.

  6. XRD total scattering of the CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for the thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    to revolutionize the solar energy market. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. In order to do so, it is vital to understand in detail their nanoscale atomic structure. CZTS crystallize in the kesterite structure, where Cu and Zn is distributed between......Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. They can be easily manufactured by the deposition of the nanoparticle ink as a thin film followed by a thermal treatment to obtain large grains [2]. Therefore, CZTS has the potential...

  7. Absorption enhancement in metal nanoparticles for photoemission current for solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia; Novitsky, Andrey; Malureanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the photoconversion efficiency, we consider the possibility of increasing the photocurrent in solar cells exploiting the electron photoemission from small metal nanoparticles into a semiconductor. The effect is caused by the absorption of photons and generation of local surfac...

  8. Facile microwave synthesis, characterization, and solar cell application of selenium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panahi-Kalamuei, Mokhtar [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317-51167, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, P.O. Box. 87317-51167, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S. Mostafa [Young Researchers and Elites Club, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • Selenium (Se) nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple microwave method. • The effects of preparation parameters were investigated. • A preliminary study on the possibility of developing a solar cell having FTO/TiO{sub 2}/Se/Pt-FTO. - Abstract: In the current study, selenium (Se) nanoparticles with hexagonal phase were synthesized by applying microwave irradiation using selenium tetrachloride as a starting reagent in distilled water at various conditions. Se nanoparticles were formed using hydrazine in short reaction time (4 min). The effects of reaction time, irradiation power, and types of surfactant including sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyethylene glycol 600 (PEG 600), and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the particle size of the product were investigated. To fabricate a FTO/TiO{sub 2}/Se/Pt-FTO and FTO/Se/CdS/Pt-FTO solar cell, selenium film was directly deposited on top of the TiO{sub 2} and FTO glass prepared by Doctor’s blade method, respectively. Solar cell results indicate that an inexpensive solar cell could be developed by synthesis of Se nanoparticles through microwave method.

  9. Enhanced Electron Photoemission by Collective Lattice Resonances in Plasmonic Nanoparticle-Array Photodetectors and Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Uskov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We propose to use collective lattice resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays to enhance and tailor photoelectron emission in Schottky barrier photodetectors and solar cells. We show that the interaction between narrow-band lattice resonances (the Rayleigh anomaly) and broader-band individual-...

  10. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Raising the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion reduced the zeta-potential from +61 mV at pH 7 to −51 mV at pH 10.5. Coating the CIGS nanoparticles with PSS (CIGS-PSS produced a stable dispersion in water with −56.9 mV zeta-potential. Thin films of oppositely charged CIGS nanoparticles (CIGS/CIGS, CIGS nanoparticles and PSS (CIGS/PSS, and PSS-coated CIGS nanoparticles and polyethylenimine (CIGS-PSS/PEI were constructed through the LbL nanoassembly. Film thickness and resistivity of each bilayer of the films were measured, and photoelectric properties of the films were studied for solar cell applications. Solar cell devices fabricated with a 219 nm CIGS film, when illuminated by 50 W light-source, produced 0.7 V open circuit voltage and 0.3 mA/cm2 short circuit current density.

  11. Low temperature fabrication of perovskite solar cells with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, Masato; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Yamada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Hiroki [Energy Technology Laboratories, Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka 554-0051 (Japan); Minami, Satoshi; Kohno, Kazufumi [Frontier Materials Laboratories, Osaka Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., Osaka 554-0051 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    TiO{sub 2}/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method using a mixture solution. TiO{sub 2} require high-temperature processing to achieve suitably high carrier mobility. TiO{sub 2} electron transport layers and TiO{sub 2} scaffold layers for the perovskite were fabricated from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with different grain sizes. The photovoltaic properties and microstructures of solar cells were characterized. Nanoparticle sizes of these TiO{sub 2} were 23 nm and 3 nm and the performance of solar cells was improved by combination of two TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  12. Embedded vertical dual of silver nanoparticles for improved ZnO/Si heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2017-10-01

    A ZnO/Si heterojunction solar cell is studied with plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in the active layer. Two layers of silver nanoparticles are embedded in the ZnO layer. The effect of various parameters such as vertical-interparticle distance, horizontal-interparticle distance, relative dimensions of nanoparticles, and order of particle diameters are discussed in detail. Finite-difference time-domain studies suggest that particle dimensions of the top layer of silver nanoparticles should be less than the dimensions of the underneath layer of silver nanoparticles. The resulting structure acquires the benefits of each layer and improves the device performance over a broad spectrum. The dielectric separation of plasmonic layers is observed to be an important factor in favorable plasmonic response. Electric field diagrams are used to study the scattering of an incident field by proposed structure. Results are encouraging and suggest more concerted studies of multilayer plasmonic structures.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Antireflective ZnO Nanoparticles Coatings Used for Energy Improving Efficiency of Silicone Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîslaru-Dǎnescu, Lucian; Chitanu, Elena; El-Leathey, Lucia-Andreea; Marinescu, Virgil; Marin, Dorian; Sbârcea, Beatrice-Gabriela

    2018-03-01

    The paper proposes a new and complex process for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antireflective coating corresponding to silicone solar cells applications. The process consists of two major steps: preparation of seed layer and hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanoparticles. Due to the fact that the seed layer morphology influences the ZnO nanoparticles proprieties, the process optimization of the seed layer preparation is necessary. Following the hydrothermal growth of the ZnO nanoparticles, antireflective coating of silicone solar cells is achieved. After determining the functional parameters of the solar cells provided either with glass or with ZnO, it is concluded that all the parameters values are superior in the case of solar cells with ZnO antireflection coating and are increasing along with the solar irradiance.

  14. BaSnO3 perovskite nanoparticles for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Seong Sik; Lee, Sangwook; Cho, In Sun; Kim, Dong Hoe; Lee, Chan Woo; Jung, Hyun Suk; Hong, Kug Sun

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of highly crystalline perovskite BaSnO3 nanoparticles for use as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported, and the photovoltaic properties of DSSCs based on BaSnO3 nanoparticles (BaSnO3 cells) are demonstrated. The resulting DSSCs exhibit remarkably rapid charge collection and a DSSC fabricated with a BaSnO3 film thickness of 43 µm leads to a high energy conversion efficiency of 5.2 %, which is one of the highest reported for ternary oxide-based DSSCs. More importantly, the BaSnO3 cells show superior charge collection in nanoparticle films compared to TiO2 cells and could offer a breakthrough in the efficiencies of DSSCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Silver Nanoparticles in PEDOT:PSS Layer for Polymer Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Iwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs incorporated in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. The structure of constructed solar devices was ITO/PEDOT:PSS:Ag NPs/P3HT:PCBM/Al. Typical polyol chemistry was used to synthesize silver in water solution. Ag nanoparticles were investigated by UV-vis, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS methods. We investigated influence of amount of silver in a hole transporting layer on the performance of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The value of power conversion efficiency (PCE, equal to 2.16% under simulated 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5G irradiation, was found for device created in air with 60 µL of Ag NPs added to 1 mL of PEDOT:PSS. Along with the increase amount of Ag NPs from 60 to 150 µL, the PCE decrease was found. Stability of solar cells with Ag was also investigated. The loss in value of PCE after 8 months was found in the range 13–47% depending on the device architecture. The solar cells were additionally measured with impedance spectroscopy.

  16. Si nanoparticle interfaces in Si/SiO solar cell materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, S.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F.

    2013-01-01

    Novel solar cell materials consisting of Si nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 layers have been studied using positron annihilation spectroscopy in Doppler broadening mode and photoluminescence. Two positron-trapping interface states are observed after high temperature annealing at 1100 °C. One...... of the states is attributed to the (SiO2/Si bulk) interface and the other to the interface between the Si nanoparticles and SiO2. A small reduction in positron trapping into these states is observed after annealing the samples in N2 atmosphere with 5% H2. Enhanced photoluminescence is also observed from...... the samples following this annealing step....

  17. CuTe Nanoparticles/Carbon Nanotubes as Back Contact for CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiu; Xu, Hang; Li, Kang; Ma, Xiao; Wu, Lili; Wang, Wenwu; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Li, Bing; Feng, Lianghuan

    2018-02-01

    The Schottky barrier between the CdTe layer and metal electrode has opposite polarity to the CdS/CdTe cell junction, which can greatly degrade cell performance. Adding a back contact (BC) layer can reduce the Schottky barrier at metal/ p-CdTe interfaces. Paste including CuTe nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CuTe NPs/CNTs) was used as a BC in thin-film CdTe solar cells. The effect of the mass of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the paste and the BC annealing temperature on cell performance was explored. Cu film and paste including Cu nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (Cu NPs/CNTs) were fabricated as the BC for CdTe solar cells. The performance of CdTe solar cells based on different kinds of Cu-containing BCs studied. The fill factor and open-circuit voltage ( V OC) of devices with CuTe NPs/CNTs BC were greatly improved by optimizing the mass of CNTs in the paste and the annealing temperature. The carrier concentration in the CdTe layer was improved by one order of magnitude. The CuTe NPs/CNTs BC showed the best effect on cell efficiency for the Cu-containing BC.

  18. Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles Synthesized by Microwave Heating for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Martínez-Alonso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS-n are excellent electron acceptor for hybrid solar cell applications. However, the particle size and properties of the CdS-n products depend largely on the synthesis methodologies. In this work, CdS-n were synthetized by microwave heating using thioacetamide (TA or thiourea (TU as sulfur sources. The obtained CdS-n(TA showed a random distribution of hexagonal particles and contained TA residues. The latter could originate the charge carrier recombination process and cause a low photovoltage (Voc, 0.3 V in the hybrid solar cells formed by the inorganic particles and poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Under similar synthesis conditions, in contrast, CdS-n synthesized with TU consisted of spherical particles with similar size and contained carbonyl groups at their surface. CdS-n(TU could be well dispersed in the nonpolar P3HT solution, leading to a Voc of about 0.6–0.8 V in the resulting CdS-n(TU : P3HT solar cells. The results of this work suggest that the reactant sources in microwave methods can affect the physicochemical properties of the obtained inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles, which finally influenced the photovoltaic performance of related hybrid solar cells.

  19. Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanoparticle Absorber Layers for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    for the succeeding sulfurization step. For this objective, two main routes have been pursued. The first route was related to synthesizing larger nanoparticles than the typical outcome of the synthesis route used, as these could be a better starting material for grain growth. This was achieved by utilizing a two...... challenging to remove in the succeeding annealing steps. By choosing suitable solvents and precursors, organic ligand-free nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in a facile one-step process. These particles further introduced the advantage that they could be dispersed in simple solvents such as water......%. This thesis is a part of the work done in making the prospects of solutionprocessed CZTS more fruitful. In addition to an inexpensive material, a cheap production pathway is also required for the material to be suitable for solar cells of the future. Solution-processing comprises either a nanoparticle ink...

  20. Enhanced Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Graphene/ZnO Nanoparticles Bilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs with graphene/ZnO nanoparticle bilayer structure. The enhancement of the performance of DSSCs achieved using graphene/ZnO nanoparticle films is attributable to the introduction of an electron-extraction layer and absorption of light in the visible range and especially in the range 300–420 nm. DSSC that was fabricated with graphene/ZnO nanoparticle film composite photoanodes exhibited a Voc of 0.5 V, a Jsc of 17.5 mA/cm2, an FF of 0.456, and a calculated η of 3.98%.

  1. Periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles for enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper

    , on morphological optimizations and on new device structures have led to improved organic solar cell performances. Nevertheless, organic solar cells still show relatively low power conversion efficiencies, mainly due to inherent drawbacks such as short exciton diffusion lengths and low carrier mobility...... in the organic active layer. The resulting loss mechanisms lead to hampered device performances, especially for optically thick devices. One of the approaches to improve the device performance is increasing the light absorption in the active layer, for example by using nano- or micro-structures that diffract...... light at specific wavelengths into large angles in the active layers1, or by using the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs)2. The use of such lighttrapping mechanisms also makes it possible to improve charge extraction, as it allows for the fabrication...

  2. Au Nanoparticles as Interfacial Layer for CdS Quantum Dot-sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells based on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS photoanode and polysulfide electrolyte are fabricated. Au nanoparticles (NPs as interfacial layer between FTO and TiO2 layer are dip-coated on FTO surface. The structure, morphology and impedance of the photoanodes and the photovoltaic performance of the cells are investigated. A power conversion efficiency of 1.62% has been obtained for FTO/Au/TiO2/CdS cell, which is about 88% higher than that for FTO/TiO2/CdS cell (0.86%. The easier transport of excited electron and the suppression of charge recombination in the photoanode due to the introduction of Au NP layer should be responsible for the performance enhancement of the cell.

  3. Study on Production of Silicon Nanoparticles from Quartz Sand for Hybrid Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunmetha, S.; Vinoth, M.; Srither, S. R.; Karthik, A.; Sridharpanday, M.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Nano silicon (nano Si) particles were directly prepared from natural mineral quartz sand and thereafter used to fabricate the hybrid silicon solar cells. Here, in this preparation technique, two process stages were involved. In the first stage, the alkaline extraction and acid precipitation processes were applied on quartz sand to fetch silica nanoparticles. In the second stage, magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reduction reactions were applied on nano silica particles to prepare nano Si particles. The effect of two distinct reduction methodologies on nano Si particle preparation was compared. The magnesiothermic and modified magnesiothermic reductions in the silica to silicon conversion process were studied with the help of x-ray diffraction (XRD) with intent to study the phase changes during the reduction reaction as well as its crystalline nature in the pure silicon phase. The particles consist of a combination of fine particles with spherical morphology. In addition to this, the optical study indicated an increase in visible light absorption and also increases the performance of the solar cell. The obtained nano Si particles were used as an active layer to fabricate the hybrid solar cells (HSCs). The obtained results confirmed that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the magnesiothermically modified nano Si cells (1.06%) is much higher as compared to the nano Si cells that underwent magnesiothermic reduction (1.02%). Thus, this confirms the increased PCE of the investigated nano Si solar cell up to 1.06%. It also revealed that nano Si behaved as an electron acceptor and transport material. The present study provided valuable insights and direction for the preparation of nano Si particles from quartz sand, including the influence of process methods. The prepared nano Si particles can be utilized for HSCs and an array of portable electronic devices.

  4. Synthesis of nanoparticles of P3HT and PCBM for optimizing morphology in polymeric solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satapathi, Soumitra; Gill, Hardeep Singh; Li, Lian; Samuelson, Lynne; Kumar, Jayant; Mosurkal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoparticles (NPs) with opposite charges of a donor polymer, poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and an acceptor molecule, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were synthesized using simple mini-emulsion technique. • The NPs were examined by dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to confirm the formation of the NPs. • The NPs were assembled into thin films by spin-coating of a blend of the NPs dispersion. • The built-up of a five layered film was monitored by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. • Our preliminary study demonstrated that a solar cell made from an annealed NP film can exhibit photovoltaic response. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) with opposite charges of a donor polymer, poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) and an acceptor molecule, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were synthesized using simple mini-emulsion technique. The NPs were examined by dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to confirm the formation of the NPs. The NPs were assembled into thin films by spin-coating of a blend of the NPs dispersion. The built-up of a five layered film was monitored by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. Our preliminary study demonstrated that a solar cell made from an annealed NP film can exhibit photovoltaic response

  5. Enhancing the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared photovoltaic responses of crystalline-silicon solar cell by using aluminum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fei; Zhou, Zhi-Quan; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Lu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    We report to apply Al nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the photovoltaic response of crystalline- or c-Si solar cell from the ultraviolet (UV) throughout the visible and near infrared (NIR) regimes. Al NPs were induced by solid thermal annealing and embedded in a SiO2 layer that was to passivate the front side of solar cell. Upon the excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) on the Al NPs under light illumination, an enhancement of broadband absorption of the solar cell was observed. The incorporation of Al NPs led to a relative 13.8% increase in photoelectric conversion efficiency of c-Si solar cell, and an external quantum efficiency enhancement from the UV throughout the visible and NIR regimes. The improvement of c-Si solar cell performance was attributed to both effects of absorption and scattering by SPs.

  6. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung-Yong

    2010-04-29

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  7. Electrical and optical properties of hybrid polymer solar cells incorporating Au and CuO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna P. Wanninayake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE of the polymer solar cells (PSCs, Gold (Au and Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs are incorporated into the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM active layers respectively. PSCs with a constant CuO-NP content were fabricated with varying amounts of Au NPs. Addition of Au NPs increased the power conversion efficiency by up to 18% compared to a reference cell without Au-NPs. The short circuit current(Jsc of the cells containing 0.06 mg of Au NPs was measured at 7.491 mA/cm2 compared to 6.484 mA/cm2 in the reference cells with 0.6 mg of CuO nanoparticles; meanwhile, the external quantum efficiency(EQE increased from 53% to 61%, showing an enhancement of 15.1%. Au-NPs improved the charge collection at the anode, which results in higher short circuit current and fill factor. However, the strong near field surrounding Au-NPs due to localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR effect is not distributed into the active layer. Instead, it is spread horizontally through the PEDOT:PSS layer, thus minimizing the light absorption in the active layer.

  8. Green Nanochemistry Approach to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle, Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    New research into third-generation solar cells has just begun. These technologies include polymer -based solar cells, nanocrystalline cells, and...silicon solar cells. The dyes and electrolyte solution degrade over time, which makes DSSCs less efficient than silicon solar cells. However, the...their ability to absorb light and convert it into electrons in a natural and inexpensive way (5). Anthocyanin dyes are also powerful antioxidants and

  9. Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanostructures as Advanced Materials for Cathode Application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Calandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the most advanced methods for the fabrication of cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells employing nanostructured materials. The attention is focused on metal nanoparticles and nanostructured carbon, among which nanotubes and graphene, whose good catalytic properties make them ideal for the development of counter electrode substrates, transparent conducting oxide, and advanced catalyst materials.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance effect of silver nanoparticles on a TiO2 electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haeng-Yun; Yeo, In-Seon; Kim, Tae-Un; Ki, Hyun-Chul; Gu, Hal-Bon

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we exploit local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in order to improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to investigate the effect of LSPR, Ag nanoparticles of several sizes were formed using electro-beam equipment; sizes were varied by changing the annealing time. DSSCs were fabricated by coating Ag nanoparticles onto a TiO2 thin film. Finally, TiO2 nanoparticles were layered onto the Ag nanoparticles via a titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) treatment. This study used nanoparticle-coated TiO2 thin films as photoelectrodes, and manufactured the cell in the unit of the DSSCs. We compared the behavior of the electrical properties of DSSCs depending on the presence or absence of Ag nanoparticles, as well as on the nanoparticle size. The Ag particles did not affect dye adsorption because the content of Ag particles is very low (0.13%) compared to that in TiO2 in the photoelectrode. The DSSCs with LSPR showed increased electric current density compared to those without LSPR, and improved the solar conversion efficiency (η) by 24%. The current density of the DSSCs increased because the light absorption of the dye increased. Therefore, we determined that LSPR affects the electrical properties of DSSCs.

  11. Morphology control of polymer: Fullerene solar cells by nanoparticle self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenluan

    During the past two decades, research in the field of polymer based solar cells has attracted great effort due to their simple processing, mechanical flexibility and potential low cost. A standard polymer solar cell is based on the concept of a bulk-heterojunction composed of a conducting polymer as the electron donor and a fullerene derivative as the electron acceptor. Since the exciton lifetime is limited, this places extra emphasis on control of the morphology to obtain improved device performance. In this thesis, detailed characterization and novel morphological design of polymer solar cells was studied, in addition, preliminary efforts to transfer laboratory scale methods to industrialized device fabrication was made. Magnetic contrast neutron reflectivity was used to study the vertical concentration distribution of fullerene nanoparticles within poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (pBTTT) thin film. Due to the wide space between the side chains of polymer, these fullerene nanoparticles intercalate between them creating a stable co-crystal structure. Therefore, a high volume fraction of fullerene was needed to obtain optimal device performance as phase separated conductive pathways are required and resulted in a homogeneous fullerene concentration profile through the film. Small angle neutron scattering was used to find there is amorphous fullerene even at lower concentration since it was previously believed that all fullerene formed a co-crystal. These fullerene molecules evolve into approximately 15 nm sized agglomerates at higher concentrations to improve electron transport. Unfortunately, thermal annealing gives these agglomerates mobility to form micrometer sized crystals and reduce the device performance. In standard poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCMBM) solar cells, a higher concentration of PCBM at the cathode interface is desired due to the band alignment structure. This was

  12. Optimal Design for the Diffusion Plate with Nanoparticles in a Diffusive Solar Cell Window by Mie Scattering Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A diffusive solar cell window comprises a diffusion plate with TiO2 nanoparticles sandwiched between two glass layers. It is a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-made, and highly reliable transparent solar energy module. To improve its power generation efficiency as well as maintain indoor natural lighting, we examined the scattering mechanism in the diffusion plate with TiO2 nanoparticles within a diffusive solar cell window by Mie scattering simulations. In this work, a multiwavelength ASAP ray tracing model for a diffusive solar cell window with acceptable accuracy was developed to investigate the influence of the diffusion plate design parameter, mainly concentration of a diffusion plate with determined particle size distribution, on power generation efficiency and color shift of transmitted sun light. A concept of “effective average radius” was proposed to account for the equivalent scattering effect of a size distribution of quasispherical particles. Simulation results demonstrated that both the transmitted light and its correlated color temperature decreased as the concentration increased for a large-size diffusive solar cell window. However, there existed a maximum power generation efficiency at around 160 ppm concentration. The optimal design for a large-size diffusion plate inside a diffusive solar cell window by taking indoor lighting into account was suggested based on the simulation results.

  13. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Israelowitz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal’s free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost-effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage ϕ of 7% is observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low ϕ, particles are well separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher ϕ, formation of particle strings and clusters causes red-shifting of the PE peak and a narrower spectral response.

  14. Effect of silicon-nanoparticle addition on the nanostructure of polythiophene: fullurene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joonhyeon; Nam, Sungho; Jeong, Jaehoon; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the nanostructure change in bulk heterojunction films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C 61 (PCBM) before and after adding silicon nanoparticles (SiNP) by employing synchrotron radiation grazing incidence-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD) techniques. The GIXD results showed a gradual reduction of the P3HT (100) diffraction intensity in the out-of-plane (OOP) direction as the SiNP content was increased. Interestingly, a (100) intensity in the in-plane (IP) direction newly appeared when a small amount of SiNP was added, but it faded at higher SiNP contents. In particular, the addition of 2 wt.% SiNP increased the (100) intensity in both the OOP and the IP directions, leading to improved solar cell performance due to enhanced charge transport in the P3HT domains.

  15. Nanorods and nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and their use in dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraj, R., E-mail: isrogovindaraj@gmail.com; Magesh, M.; Senthil Pandian, M.; Ramasamy, P. [Department of Physics, Research Centre, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai, Tamilnadu-603 110 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Sumita [Centre of Excellence for Green Energy and sensor systems, IIEST, Howrah, West Bengal-711 103 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanorods/nanorods were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process at 170 °C for 72 hr. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows large fraction of anatase phase with good crystalline behavior of the prepared materials. The specific surface area and pore volume of the synthesized material are about 84.83 m{sup 2}/g and 0.1316 cc/g respectively. The morphological results show that the TiO{sub 2} nanorods had diameter of ~ 25 nm and the length of ~ 80 nm. The nanoparticles have 20 nm in size. The current-voltage curve shows that the synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanostructure results in 36.7 % higher solar cell efficiency than commercial P25.

  16. Efficiency Investigations of Organic/Inorganic Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satbir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research study focuses upon the synthesis, characterization, and performances of optoelectronic properties of organic-inorganic (hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells. Initially, polymer dye A was synthesized using condensation reaction between 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and polyethylenimine and was capped to ZnO nanoparticles. Size and morphology of polymer dye A capped ZnO nanoparticles were analyzed using DLS, SEM, and XRD analysis. Further, the polymer dye was added to ruthenium metal complex (RuCl3 to form polymer-ruthenium composite dye B. Absorption and emission profiles of polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were monitored using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Polymer dye A and polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO nanoparticles were further processed to solar cells using wet precipitation method under room temperature. The results of investigations revealed that, after addition of ruthenium chloride (RuCl3 metal complex dye, the light harvesting capacity of ZnO solar cell was enhanced compared to polymer dye A capped ZnO based solar cell. The polymer-ruthenium composite dye B capped ZnO solar cell exhibited good photovoltaic performance with excellent cell parameters, that is, exciting open circuit voltage (Voc of 0.70 V, a short circuit current density (Jsc of 11.6 mA/cm2, and a fill factor (FF of 0.65. A maximum photovoltaic cell efficiency of 5.28% had been recorded under standard air mass (AM 1.5 simulated solar illuminations for polymer-ruthenium composite dye B based hybrid ZnO solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of hybrid ZnO based dye sensitized solar cell was enhanced by 1.78% and 3.88% compared to polymer dye A (concentrated and polymer dye A (diluted capped ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells, respectively. The hybrid organic/inorganic ZnO nanostructures can be implemented in a variety of optoelectronic applications in the future of clean and

  17. Nanosecond pulsed laser ablated sub-10 nm silicon nanoparticles for improving photovoltaic conversion efficiency of commercial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, H. R.; Ghobadi, A.; Ulusoy Ghobadi, T. G.; Ates, H.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the enhancement of photovoltaic (PV) solar cell efficiency using luminescent silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs). Sub-10 nm Si-NPs are synthesized via pulsed laser ablation technique. These ultra-small Si nanoparticles exhibit photoluminescence (PL) character tics at 425 and 517 nm upon excitation by ultra-violet (UV) light. Therefore, they can act as secondary light sources that convert high energetic photons to ones at visible range. This down-shifting property can be a promising approach to enhance PV performance of the solar cell, regardless of its type. As proof-of-concept, polycrystalline commercial solar cells with an efficiency of ca 10% are coated with these luminescent Si-NPs. The nanoparticle-decorated solar cells exhibit up to 1.64% increase in the external quantum efficiency with respect to the uncoated reference cells. According to spectral photo-responsivity characterizations, the efficiency enhancement is stronger in wavelengths below 550 nm. As expected, this is attributed to down-shifting via Si-NPs, which is verified by their PL characteristics. The results presented here can serve as a beacon for future performance enhanced devices in a wide range of applications based on Si-NPs including PVs and LED applications.

  18. Quantum Dots Sensitized Solar Cell: Effect of CdSe Nanoparticles Purification Procedure of QD Sensitized Photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaacob, K A; Ishak, M N; Alias, N N

    2013-01-01

    In this research the effect of purification of CdSe nanoparticles for application in quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) photoanodes are studied. The CdSe nanoparticles are attached to the titanium dioxide surface using a linker based approached (CdSe nanoparticles disperse in toluene) and direct mode attachment (CdSe re-disperse in dichloromethane (DCM)). Colloidal CdSe nanoparticles with estimated size of 3.0 nm were synthesized by hot injection method in trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as stabilizing solvent. Prior to the sensitization, the CdSe nanoparticles were purified using a common purification step involving the alternate cycles of precipitation / redispersion in non-polar solvent and polar solvent. With increasing the number of purification, the concentrations of CdSe nanoparticles attached to the titanium dioxide were also increased; from 2.47 × 10 15 dots/cc for 3 × wash CdSe nanoparticles to 3.70 × 10 15 dots/cc for 4 × wash CdSe nanoparticles. Polysulfide electrolyte and Cu 2 S counterelectrodes were used to assemble a complete QDSSC. The highest efficiency of 0.05% was obtained from 4 × wash CdSe nanoparticles; V oc = 0.2V, J sc = 0.34 mA/cm 2 and FF = 0.07).

  19. Copper-indium-gallium-diselenide nanoparticles synthesized by a solvothermal method for solar cell application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou Chuan-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS nanoparticles are useful for photovoltaic applications. In this study, the synthesis of CIGS powder was examined, and the powder was successfully synthesized using a relatively simple and convenient elemental solvothermal route. From the reactions of elemental Cu, In, Se and Ga(NO33 powders in an autoclave with ethylenediamine as a solvent, spherical CIGS nanoparticles, with diameters ranging from 20-40 nm, were obtained using a temperature of 200°C for 36h. The structure, morphology, chemical composition and optical properties of the as-synthesized CIGS were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In this sample, the mole ratio of Cu:In:Ga:Se was equal to 0.89:0.71:0.29:2.01, and the optical band gap was found to be 1.18 eV. The solar cell obtained a power conversion efficiency of 5.62% under standard air mass 1.5 global illumination.

  20. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  1. Efficiency of Nb-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuntahirunrat, Jirapat; Sung, Youl-Moon; Pooyodying, Pattarapon

    2017-09-01

    The technological of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) had been improved for several years. Due to its simplicity and low cost materials with belonging to the part of thin films solar cells. DSSCs have numerous advantages and benefits among the other types of solar cells. Many of the DSSC devices had use organic chemical that produce by specific method to use as thin film electrodes. The organic chemical that widely use to establish thin film electrodes are Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and many other chemical substances. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles had been used in DSSCs applications as thin film electrodes. Nanoparticles are a part of nanomaterials that are defined as a single particles 1-100 nm in diameter. From a few year ZnO widely used in DSSC applications because of its optical, electrical and many others properties. In particular, the unique properties and utility of ZnO structure. However the efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles based solar cells can be improved by doped various foreign impurity to change the structures and properties. Niobium (Nb) had been use as a dopant of metal oxide thin films. Using specification method to doped the ZnO nanoparticles thin film can improved the efficiencies of DSSCs. The efficiencies of Nb-doped ZnO can be compared by doping 0 at wt% to 5 at wt% in ZnO nanoparticles thin films that prepared by the spin coating method. The thin film electrodes doped with 3 at wt% represent a maximum efficiencies with the lowest resistivity of 8.95×10-4 Ω·cm.

  2. Nanocomposite of tin sulfide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide in high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Guang; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-14

    A nanocomposite of SnS2 nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide (SnS2@RGO) had been successfully synthesized as a substitute conventional Pt counter electrode (CE) in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) system. The SnS2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed onto graphene sheets, which formed a nanosized composite system. The effectiveness of this nanocomposite exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic properties upon reducing the triiodide, owning to synergistic effects of SnS2 nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheet and improved conductivity. Consequently, the DSSC equipped with SnS2@RGO nanocomposite CE achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12%, which was higher than those of SnS2 nanoparticles (5.58%) or graphene sheet alone (3.73%) as CEs and also comparable to the value (6.79%) obtained with pure Pt CE as a reference.

  3. Organized Hole Conducting Polymer/Nanoparticle Composite Solar Cell Fiber, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent innovations in noncrystalline solar cells are beginning to emerge as viable replacements to traditional CVD grown single crystal counterparts in applications...

  4. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  5. Stability of templated and nanoparticles dye-sensitized solar cells: photovoltaic and electrochemical investigation of degradation mechanisms at the photoelectrode interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalque, Jennifer; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy; Colson, Pierre; Krins, Natacha; Cloots, Rudi; Henrist, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highly porous templated TiO 2 films are promising alternative to nanoparticle layers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications. However, the increase of the electron transfer surface could promote detrimental side reactions and accelerate cell degradation upon ageing. Therefore, stability of templated cells under UV exposure, visible light soaking and thermal stress was studied in comparison to nanoparticle cells. -- Highlights: •Stability of templated and nanoparticle dye-sensitized solar cells is compared. •Templated cells are more sensitive to UV degradation than nanoparticle cells. •Templated cells are as stable as nanoparticle cells under light soaking. •Templated cells are more stable than nanoparticle cells under thermal stress. •Templated cells present better overall performances than nanoparticle cells. -- Abstract: A key issue in the commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells is to maintain high efficiency and long lifetime. As reported in the literature, dye-sensitized solar cells are stable under visible light soaking but thermal stress and UV exposure lead to efficiency degradation. However, all the stability studies published so far have been performed on cells whose TiO 2 electrodes were prepared by tape casting or screen printing of nanoparticle pastes/inks. The present study concerns cells based on highly porous templated TiO 2 electrodes, whose larger surface area could enhance the negative effects of thermal stress, light soaking and UV exposure. The long-term stability of these cells is compared with a classical nanoparticle-based cell using current-voltage measurements (I-V curves) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Due to their higher active interface, templated cells are more sensitive than nanoparticle cells to UV illumination, although this can be easily solved in both cases by the use of a UV filter. The templated cells are as stable as the nanoparticle cells under visible light soaking (UV

  6. Synthesis of Cu-Poor Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide Nanoparticles by Solvothermal Route for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ping Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS thin films were fabricated using precursor nanoparticle ink and sintering technology. The precursor was a Cu-poor quaternary compound with constituent ratios of Cu/(In+Ga=0.603, Ga/(In+Ga=0.674, and Se/(Cu+In+Ga=1.036. Cu-poor CIGS nanoparticles of chalcopyrite for solar cells were successfully synthesized using a relatively simple and convenient elemental solvothermal route. After a fixed reaction time of 36 h at 180°C, CIGS nanocrystals with diameters in the range of 20–70 nm were observed. The nanoparticle ink was fabricated by mixing CIGS nanoparticles, a solvent, and an organic polymer. Analytical results reveal that the Cu-poor CIGS absorption layer prepared from a nanoparticle-ink polymer by sintering has a chalcopyrite structure and a favorable composition. For this kind of sample, its mole ratio of Cu : In : Ga : Se is equal to 0.617 : 0.410 : 0.510 : 2.464 and related ratios of Ga/(In+Ga and Cu/(In+Ga are 0.554 and 0.671, respectively. Under the condition of standard air mass 1.5 global illumination, the conversion efficiency of the solar cell fabricated by this kind of sample is 4.05%.

  7. Monocrystalline solar cells performance coated by silver nanoparticles: Effect of NPs sizes from point of view Mie theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnoby, Rasha M.; Mourad, M. Hussein; Elnaby, Salah L. Hassab; Abou Kana, Maram T. H.

    2018-05-01

    Solar based cells coated by nanoparticles (NPs) acknowledge potential utilizing as a part of photovoltaic innovation. The acquired silicon solar cells (Si-SCs) coated with different sizes of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as well as uncoated were fabricated in our lab. The sizes and optical properties of prepared NPs were characterized by spectroscopic techniques and Mie theory respectively. The reflectivity of Si-SCs showed reduction of this property as the size of NPs increased. Electrical properties as open circuit current, fill factor and output power density were assessed and discussed depending on point of view of Mie theory for the optical properties of NPs. Also, photostabilities of SCs were assessed using diode laser of wavelength 450 nm and power 300 mW. Coated SCs with the largest Ag NPs size showed the highest Photostability due to its highest scattering efficiency according to Mie theory concept.

  8. Plasmonic organic solar cells employing nanobump assembly via aerosol-derived nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kinam; Song, Hyung-Jun; Lee, Gunhee; Ko, Youngjun; Ahn, KwangJun; Choi, Hoseop; Kim, Jun Young; Ha, Kyungyeon; Song, Jiyun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Lee, Changhee; Choi, Mansoo

    2014-03-25

    We report the effect of a nanobump assembly (NBA) constructed with molybdenum oxide (MoO3) covering Ag nanoparticles (NPs) under the active layer on the efficiency of plasmonic polymer solar cells. Here, the NPs with precisely controlled concentration and size have been generated by an atmospheric evaporation/condensation method and a differential mobility classification and then deposited on an indium tin oxide electrode via room temperature aerosol method. NBA structure is made by enclosing NPs with MoO3 layer via vacuum thermal evaporation to isolate the undulated active layer formed onto the underlying protruded NBA. Simulated scattering cross sections of the NBA structure reveal higher intensities with a strong forward scattering effect than those from the flat buffer cases. Experimental results of the device containing the NBA show 24% enhancement in short-circuit current density and 18% in power conversion efficiency compared to the device with the flat MoO3 without the NPs. The observed improvements are attributed to the enhanced light scattering and multireflection effects arising from the NBA structure combined with the undulated active layer in the visible and near-infrared regions. Moreover, we demonstrate that the NBA adopted devices show better performance with longer exciton lifetime and higher light absorption in comparison with the devices with Ag NPs incorporated flat poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Thus, the suggested approach provides a reliable and efficient light harvesting in a broad range of wavelength, which consequently enhances the performance of various organic solar cells.

  9. Optimization of nanoparticle structure for improved conversion efficiency of dye solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructure and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Heavy dye loading and the ability to contain the light within the thin layer (typically ∼12 μm) are the requirement needed for the photoelectrode material in order to enhance the harvesting efficiency of dye solar cell. This can be realized by optimizing the particle size with desirable crystal structure. The paper reports the investigation on the dependency of the dye loading and light scattering on the properties of nanostructured photoelectrode materials by comparing 4 different samples of TiO{sub 2} in the form of nanoparticles and micron-sized TiO{sub 2} aggregates which composed of nanocrystallites. Their properties were evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UVVis spectroscopy while the performance of the fabricated test cells were measured using universal photovoltaic test system (UPTS) under 1000 W/cm{sup 2} intensity of radiation. Nano sized particles provide large surface area which allow for greater dye adsorption but have no ability to retain the incident light in the TiO{sub 2} film. In contrast, micron-sized particles in the form of aggregates can generate light scattering allowing the travelling distance of the light to be extended and increasing the interaction between the photons and dye molecules adsorb on TiO{sub 2}nanocrystallites. This resulted in an improvement in the conversion efficiency of the aggregates that demonstrates the close relation between light scattering effect and the structure of the photolectrode film.

  10. Low-Temperature Processing of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Al Dahoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the low-temperature processing of different organofunctional silanes like TEOS, GPTS, and MPTS to incorporate within TiO2 network, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs processed at low temperatures were obtained. The UV-cured MPTS-modified layer exhibited better performance over the TEOS and GPTS, where better mechanical stable layer is achieved in addition to better interconnection between the TiO2 nanoparticles. The J-V characteristics of the DSC composed of silane-based layer showed that the improved cell performance was due to the high photocurrent density accompanied with more dye adsorption and higher charge injection from TiO2 to FTO substrate resulting from the formation of an ohmic contact with the substrate. The highest conversion efficiency attained for MPTS-TiO2 layer cured with UV and followed by heating at 300∘C was 3.75±0.07%, which is 2.8 times better than the GPTS-based layer.

  11. Highly Efficient and Stable Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells with Metal Oxides Nanoparticle Charge Extraction Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Mehrdad; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Zhang, Dong; Shanmugam, Santhosh; Senes, Alessia; Verhees, Wiljan; Hadipour, Afshin; Galagan, Yulia; Aernouts, Tom; Veenstra, Sjoerd; Andriessen, Ronn

    2018-02-09

    In this study, the fabrication of highly efficient and durable flexible inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is reported. Presynthesized, solution-derived NiO x and ZnO nanoparticles films are employed at room temperature as a hole transport layer (HTL) and electron transport layer (ETL), respectively. The triple cation perovskite films are produced in a single step and for the sake of comparison, ultrasmooth and pinhole-free absorbing layers are also fabricated using MAPbI 3 perovskite. The triple cation perovskite cells exhibit champion power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 18.6% with high stabilized power conversion efficiency of 17.7% on rigid glass/indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates (comparing with 16.6% PCE with 16.1% stabilized output efficiency for the flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN)/thin film barrier/ITO substrates). More interestingly, the durability of flexible PSC under simulation of operative condition is proved. Over 85% of the maximum stabilized output efficiency is retained after 1000 h aging employing a thin MAPbI 3 perovskite (over 90% after 500 h with a thick triple cation perovskite). This result is comparable to a similar state of the art rigid PSC and represents a breakthrough in the stability of flexible PSC using ETLs and HTLs compatible with roll to roll production speed, thanks to their room temperature processing. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Charge collection enhancement by incorporation of gold-silica core-shell nanoparticles into P3HT : PCBM/ZnO nanorod array hybrid solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ting-Chung; Su, Yen-Hsun; Hung, Yun-Kai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Gomulya, Widianta; Lai, Lai-Hung; Loi, Maria A.; Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, gold-silica core-shell (Au@silica) nanoparticles (NPs) with various silica-shell thicknesses are incorporated into P3HT:PCBM/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid solar cells. Enhancement in the short-circuit current density and the efficiency of the hybrid solar cells is attained with the

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, the worst conversion efficiency and current density belongs to solar cell D with the maximum NRs diameter 391 ± 1 nm. According to the fill factor parameters, solar cell D had the least power to transport electrons within its anode layer. 3.2 Microstructure of TiO2 anode layers. To find out the morphologies ...

  14. Excellent anti-fogging dye-sensitized solar cells based on superhydrophilic nanoparticle coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak; Lee, Daeyeon

    2014-06-01

    We present a facile method for producing anti-fogging (AF) and anti-reflection (AR) coating functionalized photoanodes via one-step SiO2 nanoparticle coating for high performance solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). The AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes are prepared by spin-coating of partially aggregated SiO2 colloidal solution. Poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII), prepared via free radical polymerization, is used as a solid electrolyte in I2-free ssDSSCs. We systematically investigate the enhanced light harvesting characteristics of AF and AR coating functionalized photoanode-based ssDSSCs by measuring UV-visible spectroscopy, incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) curves under fogging conditions. Compared with conventional photoanode based ssDSSCs, the AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes substantially suppress fogging and reduce reflection, leading to significantly enhanced light harvesting, especially under fogging conditions. ssDSSCs made of AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes exhibit an improved photovoltaic efficiency of 6.0% and 5.9% under non-fogging and fogging conditions, respectively, and retain their device efficiencies for at least 20 days, which is a significant improvement of ssDSSCs with conventional photoanodes (4.7% and 1.9% under non-fogging and fogging conditions, respectively). We believe that AF and AR functionalization via one-step SiO2 colloidal coating is a promising method for enhancing light harvesting properties in various solar energy conversion applications.We present a facile method for producing anti-fogging (AF) and anti-reflection (AR) coating functionalized photoanodes via one-step SiO2 nanoparticle coating for high performance solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs). The AF and AR coating functionalized photoanodes are prepared by spin-coating of partially aggregated SiO2 colloidal solution. Poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3

  15. Overcoming the efficiency limitations of SnS2 nanoparticle-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Smith, Ryan P.; Park, Chinho

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment, the electron transport layer, and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporation on the performance of hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of tin disulfide (SnS2) nanoparticles (NPs) and low band gap energy polymers poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b3,4-b‧]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PBT7). Inserting an electron transport layer (ETL) (i.e., ZnO) on the top of the photoactive layer improved the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, which led to an improvement in charge transport. Moreover, adding a suitable amount of PCBM to the SnS2/polymer active layer enhanced the device performance, such as short circuit current density (J sc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE). In particular, adding 0.5 mg of PCBM to the composite solution led to a 25% and 1.5% improvement in the J sc value and PCE, respectively. The enhanced performance was due mainly to the improvements in the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, charge carrier mobility within the donor-acceptor interface, and carrier collection efficiency at the cathode.

  16. Plasmon TiO2 nanotube arrays doped with silver nanoparticles act as photo-anode film in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guli, Mina; Deng, Minghan; Bimenyimana, Theogene; Hu, Zhe; Dai, Songyuan

    2018-03-01

    A simple strategy to improve the performance of a TiO2 nanotube film by use of metal nanoparticles is presented in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Metal nanoparticles modified TiO2 nanotubes through a simple soaking method. An excellent enhancement in the optical property has been observed from the TiO2 nanotube film modified with Ag nanoparticles, which is owing to the surface plasmon resonance. The plasmon effects of Ag, together with the straight pathway and porous structure of TiO2 nanotubes have been used to significantly enhance the photo-electric performance of DSSCs. The efficiency of the DSSCs increased significantly from 3.89 to 5.18%, together with corresponding enhancements in current density from 12.30 to 12.55 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage from 0.66 to 0.71 V, respectively.

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Current density–voltage diagrams were preparedby potentiostat and solar simulator devices at air mass (AM) 1.5. It is determined that DSSCs based on composite NP–NR photoelectrode had the best conversion efficiency of 5.07%. Also, the results of the electrochemical modelling of these DSSCs indicated that solar cells ...

  18. Preparation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles using low hydrothermal temperature for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, N.; Ridhova, A.; Yuwono, A. H.; Udhiarto, A.

    2018-03-01

    One device being developed as an alternative source of renewable energy by utilizing solar energy source is dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This device works using simple photosynthetic-electrochemical principle in the molecular level. In this device, the inorganic oxide semiconductor of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a great potential for the absorption of the photon energy from the solar energy source, especially in the form of TiO2 nanoparticle structure. This nanoparticle structure is expected to improve the performance of DSSC because the surface area to weight ratio of this nanostructures is very large. In this study, the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle from its precursors has been performed along with the fabrication of the DSSC device. Effort to improve the size of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 was accomplished by low hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures whereas the crystallinity of the anatase phase in the structure was performed by calcination process. Characterization of the materials was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the DSSC performance was examined through a high precision current versus voltage (I-V) curve analyzer. The results showed that pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles could be obtained at low hydrothermal of 100, 125, and 150 °C followed by calcination at 450 °C. The best performance of photocurrent-voltage characteristic was given by TiO2 hydrothermally synthesized at 150 °C with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.40 %, whereas the standard TiO2 nanoparticles has PCE only 4.02 %. This result is very promising in terms low temperature and thus low cost of anatase TiO2 semiconductor preparation for DSSC application.

  19. Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Guanchao, E-mail: guanchao.yin@helmholtz-berlin.de [Nanooptix Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Steigert, Alexander [Heterogeneous Material System, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Andrae, Patrick [Nanooptix Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Goebelt, Manuela [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Latzel, Michael [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute Nano-Architectures for Energy Conversion, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Manley, Phillip [Nanooptix Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, Iver [Heterogeneous Material System, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Christiansen, Silke [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Schmid, Martina [Nanooptix Concepts for PV, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) solar cells are investigated. Ag diffusion is successfully passivated by reducing the substrate temperature and introducing a 50 nm atomic layer deposition (ALD) prepared Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. This clears the thermal obstacle in incorporating Ag nanoparticles in CIGSe solar cells. Simulations show that Ag nanoparticles have the potential to greatly enhance the light absorption in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles are able to diffuse through ITO substrate into CIGSe absorber even at a low substrate temperature of 440 °C. • The direction (inserting a dielectric passivation layer) to thermally block the Ag diffusion and the requirements for the passivation layer are indicated and generalized. • An atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is experimentally proved to be able to thermally passivate the Ag nanoparticles, which clears the thermal obstacle in using Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. • It is theoretically proved that the Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector have the potential to effectively enhance the absorption in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. - Abstract: Integration of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) solar cells is investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Ag nanoparticles underneath a Sn:In{sub 2}O{sub 3} back contact could not be thermally passivated even at a low substrate temperature of 440 °C during CIGSe deposition. It is shown that a 50 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film prepared by atomic layer deposition is able to block the diffusion of Ag, clearing the thermal obstacle in utilizing Ag nanoparticles as a back reflector in ultra-thin CIGSe solar cells. Via 3-D finite element optical simulation, it is proved that the Ag nanoparticles show the potential to contribute the effective

  20. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods via self-assembled spray pyrolyzed nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Charu; Dutta, V

    2012-01-01

    Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods are fabricated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates via self-assembly of ZnO nanoparticles created using continuous spray pyrolysis (CoSP) technique. The method involves pre-treatment by dip-coating the substrate with a solution comprising of zinc salt for creating a seed layer, and then spray-pyrolyzed ZnO nanoparticles self-assemble on the pre-treated substrate. The effect of the substrate pre-treatment and the deposition time (t dep ) of nanoparticles is investigated. The results show that the substrate pre-treatment influences the growth of ZnO nanorods which are absent without the pre-treatment. Nanoparticle collection and nanorod growth on different substrates are done simultaneously. The thin films of as-grown nanorods are used as photoelectrode materials to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and the effect of nanorods grown for different times has been studied. The best performance with this cell structure is found for the layer with t dep =15 min, which showed a conversion efficiency of 1.77% for the cell area of 0.25 cm 2

  1. Application of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles in organic solar cells with enhanced stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. S.; Lima, F. A. S.; Ribeiro, T. S.; da Silva, M. R.; Almeida, R. Q.; Barros, E. B.; Vasconcelos, I. F.

    2017-02-01

    Solution-processed P3HT:PCBM-based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells were constructed with Fe-doped tin oxide (Fe/SnO2) magnetic nanoparticles (NP) incorporated to the active layer. Performance and stability of devices were evaluated. Devices reinforced with Fe/SnO2 nanoparticles showed improvement in short-circuit current density Jsc up to 10%, when compared with devices without the addition of NPs. Improved Jsc was attributed to the extension of photogenerated exciton lifetime as a result of the magnetic field provided by the NPs. Life time and stability tests revealed extended T80 for samples reinforced with NPs for both indoor and outdoor tests, which can be attributed to slightly improvements of fill factor during aging tests. Moreover, NP-reinforced devices have shown the tendency to overcome the burn-in regime faster. These results are indications that the addition of diluted magnetic semiconductor oxide nanoparticles in the active layer of organic solar cells has the potential to contributed to the extension of lifetime and improvement of stability of these devices.

  2. Investigation of plasmonic gold-silica core-shell nanoparticle stability in dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törngren, Björn; Akitsu, Kenta; Ylinen, Anne; Sandén, Simon; Jiang, Hua; Ruokolainen, Janne; Komatsu, Makoto; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Nakazaki, Jotaro; Kubo, Takaya; Segawa, Hiroshi; Österbacka, Ronald; Smått, Jan-Henrik

    2014-08-01

    Plasmonic core-shell Au@SiO2 nanoparticles have previously been shown to enhance the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A thin silica coating can provide a better stability during thermal processing and chemical stability to survive the corrosive electrolyte used in DSSCs. However, the thickness and completeness of the silica shell has proven crucial for the performance of the plasmonic particles and is largely controlled by the linking chemistry between the gold core and silica shell. We have evaluated four different silica coating procedures of ∼15 nm gold nanoparticles for usage in DSSCs. The chemical stability of these core-shell nanoparticles was assessed by dispersing the particles in iodide/triiodide electrolyte solution and the thermal stability by heating the particles up to 500°C. In order to maintain stable gold cores a complete silica coating was required, which was best obtained by using a mercaptosilane as a linker. In situ TEM characterization indicated that the heating process only had minor effects on the core-shell particles. The final step was to evaluate how the stable Au@SiO2 nanoparticles were influencing a real DSSC device when mixed into the TiO2 photoanode. The plasmon-incorporated DSSCs showed a ∼10% increase in efficiency compared to devices without core-shell nanoparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-Shaped Ag Nanoparticles in the Plasmonic Layer of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Increased Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Da Hyun; Kim, Ho-Sub; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Rho, Won-Yeop

    2017-06-04

    The use of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is widespread owing to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and low cost of manufacturing. We prepared multi-shaped Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and introduced them into DSSCs to further enhance their PCE. The maximum absorption wavelength of the multi-shaped Ag NPs is 420 nm, including the shoulder with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 121 nm. This is a broad absorption wavelength compared to spherical Ag NPs, which have a maximum absorption wavelength of 400 nm without the shoulder of 61 nm FWHM. Therefore, when multi-shaped Ag NPs with a broader plasmon-enhanced absorption were coated on a mesoporous TiO₂ layer on a layer-by-layer structure in DSSCs, the PCE increased from 8.44% to 10.22%, equivalent to an improvement of 21.09% compared to DSSCs without a plasmonic layer. To confirm the plasmon-enhanced effect on the composite film structure in DSSCs, the PCE of DSSCs based on the composite film structure with multi-shaped Ag NPs increased from 8.58% to 10.34%, equivalent to an improvement of 20.51% compared to DSSCs without a plasmonic layer. This concept can be applied to perovskite solar cells, hybrid solar cells, and other solar cells devices.

  4. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  5. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  6. Continuous Size Tuning of Monodispersed ZnO Nanoparticles and Its Size Effect on the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Fei, Chengbin; Li, Bo; Fu, Haoyu; Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-03-22

    ZnO has been demonstrated to be a promising candidate to fabricate high efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in terms of its better electron extraction and transport properties. However, the inability of synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with minimal surface defects and agglomeration remains a great challenge hindering the fabrication of highly efficient PSCs. In this work, highly crystalline and agglomeration-free ZnO NPs with controlled size were synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. Such ZnO NPs were applied in the fabrication of meso-structured PSCs. The solar cells with ∼40 nm ZnO NPs exhibit the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.92%. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements revealed the faster injection and lower charge recombination at the interface of ∼40 nm ZnO NPs and perovskite, resulting in significantly enhanced J SC and V OC .

  7. Design of a plasmonic back reflector using Ag nanoparticles with a mirror support for an a-Si:H solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanse D. Hungerford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles have unique optical properties and these properties are affected by any surrounding structures, or lack thereof. Nanoparticles are often added to a device without fully assessing the effect that each interface will have on the nanoparticle’s response. In this work, we simulate and fabricate devices utilizing hemispherical nanoparticles integrated into the back reflector of an amorphous silicon solar cell. 3D finite difference time domain simulations were used to calculate the optical absorption of a 300nm amorphous silicon layer as a function of the size of the nanoparticles, the distance between the nanoparticles and the active layer, and the distance between the nanoparticles and the mirror. Two transparent conducting oxides, aluminum doped zinc oxide and indium tin oxide, are investigated to determine the importance of the material properties between the nanoparticles and mirror. Silver hemispherical nanoparticles with a diameter of 150nm placed directly on the a-Si:H and a 60nm aluminum doped zinc oxide layer between the nanoparticles and the mirror lead to a maximum absorption increase of 7.2% in the 500nm to 800nm wavelength range. Experimental devices confirmed the trends predicted by theory but did not achieve enhancement, likely due to fabrication challenges. Fabricating a solar cell with the simulated design requires a high quality transparent conductive oxide and high control over the nanoparticle size distribution.

  8. Nanoparticle-induced grain growth of carbon-free solution-processed CuIn(S,Se)2 solar cell with 6% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongan; Ho, John C W; Batabyal, Sudip K; Liu, Wei; Sun, Yun; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Wong, Lydia H

    2013-03-13

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cell deposited by solution processes is of great research interest because of the ease of fabrication and cost effectiveness. Despite the initial promising results, most of the reported methods encounter challenges such as limited grain growth, carbon-rich interlayer, high thermal budget, and the presence of secondary Cu-rich phases, which limit the power conversion efficiency (PCE). In this paper, we develop a new technique to deposit large grain, carbon-free CISSe absorber layers from aqueous nanoparticle/precursor mixture which resulted in a solar cell with PCE of 6.2%. CuCl2, InCl3, and thiourea were mixed with CuS and In2S3 nanoparticles in water to form the unique nanoparticle/precursor solution. The Carbon layer formation was prevented because organic solvents were not used in the precursor. The copper-rich (CuS) nanoparticles were intentionally introduced as nucleation sites which accelerate grain growth. In the presence of nanoparticles, the grain size of CISSe film increased by a factor of 7 and the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is 85% higher than the device without nanoparticle. This idea of using nanoparticles as a means to promote grain growth can be further exploited for other types of chalcopyrite thin film deposited by solution methods.

  9. Planar n-Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid heterojunction solar cells utilizing functionalized carbon nanoparticles synthesized via simple pyrolysis route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Shinde, Sambhaji S.; Song, Jae-Won; Park, Min-Joon; Yu, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-11-01

    Herein, we present a facile and simple strategy for in situ synthesis of functionalized carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) via direct pyrolysis of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on silicon surface. The CNPs were incorporated in hybrid planar n-Si and poly(3,4-etyhlenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solar cells to improve device performance. We demonstrate that the CNPs-incorporated devices showed increased electrical conductivity (reduced series resistance) and minority carrier lifetime (better charge carrier collection) than those of the cells without CNPs due to the existence of electrically conductive sp 2-hybridized carbon at the heterojunction interfaces. With an optimal concentration of CNPs, the hybrid solar cells exhibited power conversion efficiency up to 11.95%, with an open-circuit voltage of 614 mV, short-circuit current density of 26.34 mA cm-2, and fill factor of 73.93%. These results indicate that our approach is promising for the development of highly efficient organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells.

  10. Ambient-Processed Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Individual Pre-Encapsulation of Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Debnath, Ratan

    2010-05-05

    We report colloidal quantum dot solar cells fabricated under ambient atmosphere with an active area of 2.9 mm2 that exhibit 3.6% solar power conversion efficiency. The devices are based on PbS tuned via the quantum size effect to have a first excitonic peak at 950 nm. Because the formation of native oxides and sulfates on PbS leads to p-type doping and deep trap formation and because such dopants and traps dramatically influence device performance, prior reports of colloidal quantum dot solar cells have insisted on processing under an inert atmosphere. Here we report a novel ligand strategy in which we first encapsulate the quantum dots in the solution phase with the aid of a strongly bound N-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl-N-methyldithiocarbamate ligand. This allows us to carry out film formation and all subsequent device fabrication under an air atmosphere. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles biosynthesis for dye sensitized solar cells application: review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbonyiryivuze, A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available -sensitized solar cells, in air and water purification, due to their potential oxidation strength, high photo stability and non-toxicity. Till now, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the cornerstone semiconductors for dye-sensitized (DSSC) nanostructured electrodes for dye...

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) and bi-layer TiO2 nanoparti- cle/nanorod (NP/NR) with the optimized diameter of NRs had been prepared as anode layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Morphology and thickness of anode layers were provided by field emission ...

  13. SnS nanoparticles to boost CuInS2 solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prastani, C.

    2015-01-01

    To make photovoltaics a competitive energy source it is essential to increase its energy conversion efficiency. Quantum dots can play an important role to overcome the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit. Theoretically, a quantum dot based Intermediate Band solar cell can reach an efficiency of 63.2%

  14. Comprehensive investigation of core-shell dimer nanoparticles size, distance and thicknesses on performance of a hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Significant performance enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) solar cell is done using plasmonic embedded core–shell dimer nanoparticles. Three-dimensional finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used. A perovskite absorber with a volume of 400 × 400 × 200 nm3 is considered. At first, a cell with one embedded nanoparticle is simulated. Absorptance of CH3NH3PbI3 absorber and gold nanoparticle are obtained. An optimization is done. Then a cell with embedded dimer nanoparticles is evaluated. The results show higher photocurrent enhancement for that in compared to a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. To further photocurrent enhancement, gold-SiO2 core–shell nanoparticles are used. Photocurrents of 23.37 mA cm‑2, 23.3 mA cm‑2, 22.5 mA cm‑2 and 21.47 mA cm‑2 are obtained for a cell with two embedded core–shell nanoparticles with core radius of 60 nm and shell thickness of 2 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm and 20 nm, respectively. It is important to mention that the photocurrent is 17.9 mA cm‑2 for reference cell and 19.8 mA cm‑2 for a cell with one embedded nanoparticle. Higher photocurrent is due to the near-field plasmonic effect.

  15. High-efficient dye-sensitized solar cell based on novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle bilayer electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Hafez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoda Hafez1,2, Zhang Lan2, Qinghua Li2, Jihuai Wu21Environmental Studies and Research Institute, Minoufiya University, Sadat City, Egypt, 2Institute of Materials Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, ChinaAbstract: High light-to-energy conversion efficiency was achieved by applying novel TiO2 nanorod/nanoparticle (NR/NP bilayer electrode in the N719 dye-sensitized solar cells. The short-circuit current density (JSC, the open-circuit voltage (VOC, the fill factor (FF, and the overall efficiency (η were 14.45 mA/cm2, 0.756 V, 0.65, and 7.1%, respectively. The single-crystalline TiO2 NRs with length 200–500 nm and diameter 30–50 nm were prepared by simple hydrothermal methods. The dye-sensitized solar cells with pure TiO2 NR and pure TiO2 NP electrodes showed only a lower light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.4% and 5.8%, respectively, compared with single-crystalline TiO2 NRs. This can be attributed to the new NR/NP bilayer design that can possess the advantages of both building blocks, ie, the high surface area of NP aggregates and rapid electron transport rate and the light scattering effect of single-crystalline NRs.Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2 nanorod, bilayer electrode

  16. Surface NH2-rich nanoparticles: Solidifying ionic-liquid electrolytes and improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Ma, Pin; Fu, Nianqing; Zhou, Xiaowen; Fang, Shibi; Lin, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    The surface properties of nanoparticles have a significant influence on the properties of the gel electrolytes. Herein, the surface NH2-rich nanoparticle (A-SiO2), with a tightening network, is synthesized by silanizing SiO2 nanoparticles with pre-polymerized aminopropyltriethoxysilane, which is further employed to prepare ionic-liquid gel electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The addition of a small amount of A-SiO2 can effectively solidify the ionic-liquid, whereas a large number of NH2 groups on the SiO2 surface leads to a large negative shift of the TiO2 conduction band edge, and can react with I3- in the form of a Lewis complex, resulting in an increase in the concentration of I- and a decrease in the concentration of I3- in the electrolyte. In addition, the ionic-liquid gel electrolyte possesses thixotropic behavior, which allows it to easily penetrate into the inner part of the TiO2 mesoporous film. As a result, large improvements of the photovoltage from 695 mV to 785 mV and of the photocurrent from 13.3 mA cm-2 to 14.9 mA cm-2 are achieved. This leads to significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency, from 6.2% to 8.1%, for the cell with A-SiO2 compared to that of the pristine ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  17. Colloidal gold nanoparticles. Synthesis, characterization and effect in polymer/fullerene solar cells; Kolloidale Goldnanopartikel. Synthese, Charakterisierung und Wirkung in Polymer/Fulleren-Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Katja

    2011-06-08

    It has been reported in the literature that the efficiency of polymer/fullerene solar cells has been improved by the incorporation of Au nanoparticles. The improvement was attributed to an enhanced electrical conductivity of the active layer and to an enhanced light absorption due to the plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticles. In this work colloidal Au nanoparticles coated with different stabilizing ligands were synthesized and characterized. Then the impact of their incorporation into P3HT/PCBM solar cells was studied. On the one hand the Au nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk heterojunction active layer, otherwise they were deposited as an interlayer in the device set-up. No improvement of the solar cell efficiency could be observed neither for the incorporation of Au nanoparticles with isolating ligand shell nor for those with direct contact to the photoactive molecules. The efficiency even dropped, the more the higher the concentration of the Au nanoparticles was. Possible reasons are pointed out on the basis of detailed photophysical and structural investigations.

  18. Influence of surface plasmon resonances of silver nanoparticles on optical and electrical properties of textured silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardana, Sanjay K.; Chava, Venkata S. N.; Thouti, Eshwar; Chander, Nikhil; Komarala, Vamsi K., E-mail: vamsi@ces.iitd.ac.in [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Kumar, Sanjai [Central Electronics Limited, Sahibabad 201010, Uttar Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. R. [BHEL-Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Plant, BHEL House, Siri Fort, New Delhi 110049 (India)

    2014-02-17

    Here, we report average reflectance reduction of ∼8% in wavelength range of 300–1100 nm after coupling surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of silver nanoparticles (NPs) to textured silicon (T-Si) surface. The enhancement of photocurrent from T-Si solar cell in off-resonant SPR region observed due to better radiative efficiency of NPs leading to outflow of scattered far-field into silicon maximized power generating electrons. Improvement in series resistance, fill factor, and open-circuit voltage (insensitive NPs size and morphology) are also observed with NPs along with photocurrent enhancement (sensitive to NPs sizes), which resulted cell efficiency enhancement from 4.49% to 6.42% for large area of 12.24 cm{sup 2}.

  19. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  20. Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles with Exposed {001} Facets for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2015-01-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were synthesized from Ti powder via a sequential hydrothermal reaction process. At the first-step hydrothermal reaction, H-titanate nanowires were obtained in NaOH solution with Ti powder, and at second-step hydrothermal reaction, anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets were formed in NH4F solution. If the second-step hydrothermal reaction was carried out in pure water, the H-titanate nanowires were decomposed into random shape anatase-TiO2 nanostructures, as well as few impurity of H2Ti8O17 phase and rutile TiO2 phase. Then, the as-prepared TiO2 nanostructures synthesized in NH4F solution and pure water were applied to the photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.06% (VOC of 0.756 V, JSC of 14.80 mA/cm2, FF of 0.631) and 3.47% (VOC of 0.764 V, JSC of 6.86 mA/cm2, FF of 0.662), respectively. The outstanding performance of DSSCs based on anatase TiO2 nanoparticles with exposed {001} facets was attributed to the high activity and large special surface area for excellent capacity of dye adsorption. PMID:26190140

  1. Fabrication and characterization of CH3NH3(Cs)Pb(Sn)I3(Cl) perovskite solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticle layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueoka, Naoki; Oku, Takeo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Yamada, Masahiro; Minami, Satoshi; Miyauchi, Shinsuke

    2018-02-01

    TiO2/CH3NH3(Cs)Pb(Sn)I3(Cl)-based photovoltaic cells were fabricated and investigated. The solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticles on compact TiO2 layers provided better photovoltaic performance than those without TiO2 nanoparticles on the compact TiO2 layers. The short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage were increased by using 16 nm TiO2 nanoparticles, which resulted in improved photoelectric conversion efficiency. The external quantum efficiency increased because of the improved interface between the TiO2 layer and the perovskite layer. X-ray diffraction showed suppression of the formation of PbI2 crystals, and the coverage and grain boundary area of the perovskite crystals with 16 nm TiO2 layers were improved, which resulted in the improved performance of the perovskite solar cell.

  2. Microwave assisted biosynthesis of rice shaped ZnO nanoparticles using Amorphophallus konjac tuber extract and its application in dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Kumar P.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice shaped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized for the first time by a biological process using Amorphophallus konjac tuber extract and used as a photoanode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The glucomannan present in aqueous tuber extract acted as a reducing agent in the synthesis process, further it also acted as a template which modified and controlled the shape of the nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were dried by microwave irradiation followed by annealing at 400 °C. The FESEM and TEM images confirmed that the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had rice shaped morphology. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the prepared ZnO nanoparticles exhibited wurtzite phase with average particle size of 17.9 nm. The UV-Vis spectroscopy studies confirmed the value of band gap energy of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles as 3.11 eV. The photoelectrodes for dye sensitized solar cells were prepared with the biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles using doctor blade method. The photoelectrode was sensitized using the fruit extract of Terminalia catappa, flower extracts of Callistemon citrinus and leaf extracts of Euphorbia pulcherrima. The dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the sensitized photoelectrode and their open circuit voltages and short circuit current densities were found to be in the range of 0.45 V to 0.55 V and 5.6 mA/cm2 to 6.8 mA/cm2, respectively. Thus, the photovoltaic performances of all the natural dye sensitized ZnO solar cells show better conversion efficiencies due to the morphology and preparation technique.

  3. Schottky diodes between Bi2S3 nanorods and metal nanoparticles in a polymer matrix as hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Sudip K.; Pal, Amlan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the use of metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions in a conjugated polymer matrix as solar cells. The Schottky diodes, which were formed between Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles, efficiently dissociated photogenerated excitons. The bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) devices based on such metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes in a polymer matrix therefore acted as an efficient solar cell as compared to the devices based on only the semiconductor nanorods in the polymer matrix or when gold nanoparticles were added separately to the BHJs. In the latter device, gold nanoparticles offered plasmonic enhancement due to an increased cross-section of optical absorption. We report growth and characteristics of the Schottky junctions formed through an intimate contact between Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and gold nanoparticles. We also report fabrication and characterization of BHJ solar cells based on such heterojunctions. We highlight the benefit of using metal-semiconductor Schottky diodes over only inorganic semiconductor nanorods or quantum dots in a polymer matrix in forming hybrid BHJ solar cells

  4. Enhancing efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by combining use of TiO2 nanotubes and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.D.; Zhang, D.W.; Chen, S.; Wang, Z.A.; Sun, Z.; Yin, X.J.; Huang, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiNTs) were fabricated from commercial P25 TiO 2 powders via alkali hydrothermal transformation. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) were constructed by application of TiNTs and P25 nanoparticles with various weight percentages. The influence of the TiNT concentration on the performance of DSCs was investigated systematically. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was employed to quantify the recombination resistance, electron lifetime and time constant in DSCs both under illumination and in the dark. The DSC based on TiNT/P25 hybrids showed a better photovoltaic performance than the cell purely made of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The open-voltage (V oc ), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) continuously increased with the TiO 2 nanotube concentration from 0 to 50 wt%, which was correlated with the suppression of the electron recombination as found out from EIS studies. Respectable photovoltaic performance of ca. 7.41% under the light intensity of 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5G) was achieved for DSCs using 90 wt% TiO 2 nanotubes incorporated in TiO 2 electrodes.

  5. Toward plasmonic solar cells: protection of silver nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition of TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standridge, Stacey D; Schatz, George C; Hupp, Joseph T

    2009-03-03

    Plasmonic silver nanoparticles have unique properties that lend themselves to unusual optical applications, potentially including use as absorption amplifiers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). However, these particles are easily damaged under oxidizing conditions. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 onto transparent-conductive-oxide-supported silver particles was examined as a means of protecting particles while simultaneously incorporating them into DSSC-functional photoelectrodes. The resulting assemblies were exposed to corrosive I-/I3- solutions, and the degree of silver etching was determined via scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. To form a pinhole-free (i.e., fully protective) crystalline TiO2 layer, 7.7 nm (300 cycles) must be deposited. If, however, a 0.2 nm (2 cycles) Al2O3 adhesion layer is included, only 5.8 nm (211 cycles) of TiO2 are necessary for the formation of a pinhole-free coating.

  6. Spectrum-enhanced Au@ZnO plasmonic nanoparticles for boosting dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qisheng; Wei, Yunwei; Shahid, Malik Zeeshan; Yao, Mingming; Xu, Bo; Liu, Guangning; Jiang, Kejian; Li, Cuncheng

    2018-03-01

    Spectrum-enhanced Au@ZnO plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for fabrication of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and their remarkable enhanced performances are achieved due to Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) effects. When being doped different blended amounts of the Au@ZnO NPs within the photoanode layers, various enhanced effects in the SPR-based DSSCs are exhibited. Compared with the power conversion efficiency (PCE, 7.50%) achieved for bare DSSC, device with doped Au@ZnO NPs of 1.93% delivers the top PCE of 8.91%, exhibiting about 20% enhancement. To elaborate the charge transfer process in the Au@ZnO NPs blended DSSCs, the photoluminescence (PL), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), etc are performed. We find that both the enhanced SPR absorption properties and the suppressed recombination process of charges contribute much to the improved performance of Au@ZnO-incorporated DSSCs.

  7. Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Efficiency Using Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanoparticles as Photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is a potential candidate to replace conventional silicon-based solar cells because of high efficiency, cheap cost, and lower energy consumption in comparison with silicon chip manufacture. In this report, mixed-phase (anatase and rutile nanoparticles TiO2 photoanode was synthesized to investigate material characteristics, carriers transport, and photovoltaic performance for future DSSC application. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize mixed TiO2 particles. Subsequently, various mixed-phase TiO2 anodes in DSSC devices were measured by electrical impedance spectra (EIS and energy efficiency conversion. The overall energy conversion efficiency of DSSC chip was improved as a result of the increase of rutile phase of TiO2 (14% in anatase matrix. Synergistic effects including TiO2 crystallization, reduction of defect density level in energy band, longer lifetime of photoexcited electrons, and lower resistance of electron pathway all contributed to high efficiency of light energy conversion.

  8. Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Efficiency Using Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanoparticles as Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Hua; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Yaw-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a potential candidate to replace conventional silicon-based solar cells because of high efficiency, cheap cost, and lower energy consumption in comparison with silicon chip manufacture. In this report, mixed-phase (anatase and rutile nanoparticles) TiO 2 photoanode was synthesized to investigate material characteristics, carriers transport, and photovoltaic performance for future DSSC application. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize mixed TiO 2 particles. Subsequently, various mixed-phase TiO 2 anodes in DSSC devices were measured by electrical impedance spectra (EIS) and energy efficiency conversion. The overall energy conversion efficiency of DSSC chip was improved as a result of the increase of rutile phase of TiO 2 (14%) in anatase matrix. Synergistic effects including TiO 2 crystallization, reduction of defect density level in energy band, longer lifetime of photoexcited electrons, and lower resistance of electron pathway all contributed to high efficiency of light energy conversion.

  9. Hybrid polymer-CdS solar cell active layers formed by in situ growth of CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, S.; Del Gobbo, S.; Borriello, C.; Bizzarro, V.; La Ferrara, V.; Re, M.; Pesce, E.; Minarini, C.; De Crescenzi, M.; Di Luccio, T.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymeric matrix has the potential to enhance the performance of polymer-based solar cells taking advantage of the physical properties of NPs and polymers. We synthesize a new class of CdS-NPs-based active layer employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based on the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a cadmium thiolate precursor in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The casted P3HT:precursor solid foils were heated up from 200 to 300 °C to allow the precursor decomposition and the CdS-NP formation within the polymer matrix. The CdS-NP growth was controlled by varying the annealing temperature. The polymer:precursor weight ratio was also varied to investigate the effects of increasing the NP volume fraction on the solar cell performances. The optical properties were studied by using UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at room temperature. To investigate the photocurrent response of P3HT:CdS nanocomposites, ITO/P3HT:CdS/Al solar cell devices were realized. We measured the external quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of the wavelength. The photovoltaic response of the devices containing CdS-NPs showed a variation compared with the devices with P3HT only. By changing the annealing temperature the EQE is enhanced in the 400–600 nm spectral region. By increasing the NPs volume fraction remarkable changes in the EQE spectra were observed. The data are discussed also in relation to morphological features of the interfaces studied by Focused Ion Beam technique.

  10. A pronounced dispersion effect of crystalline silicon nanoparticles on the performance and stability of polymer:fullerene solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonhyeon; Lee, Seungsoo; Nam, Sungho; Lee, Hyena; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2012-10-24

    We investigated the dispersion effect of crystalline silicon nanoparticles (SiNP) on the performance and stability of organic solar cells with the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(61)BM). To improve the dispersion of SiNP in the BHJ films, we attached octanoic acid (OA) to the SiNP surface via esterification reaction and characterized it with Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The OA-attached SiNP (SiNP-OA) showed improved dispersion in chlorobenzene without change of optical absorption, ionization potential and crystal nanostructure of SiNP. The device performance was significantly deteriorated upon high loading of SiNP (10 wt %), whereas relatively good performance was maintained without large degradation in the case of SiNP-OA. Compared to the control device (P3HT:PC(61)BM), the device performance was improved by adding 2 wt % SiNP-OA, but it was degraded by adding 2 wt % SiNP. In particular, the device stability (lifetime under short time exposure to 1 sun condition) was improved by adding 2 wt % SiNP-OA even though it became significantly decreased by adding 2 wt % SiNP. This result suggests that the dispersion of nanoparticles greatly affects the device performance and stability (lifetime).

  11. Ultrasonic vibration imposed on nanoparticle-based ZnO film improves the performance of the ensuing perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yihe; Du, Peng; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Qianli; Eslamian, Morteza

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the development of nearly annealing-free ZnO-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs), suitable for low-cost manufacturing of PSCs on flexible substrates. To this end, thin film of ZnO nanoparticles is employed as the electron transporting layer (ETL), because of its low-temperature solution-processability and high electron mobility. In order to remove the structural and surface defects, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the substrate of the as-spun wet ZnO films for a short duration of 3 min. It is shown that the ultrasonic excitation bridges the ZnO nanoparticles (cold sintering), and brings about significant improvement in the ZnO film nanostructure and functionality. In addition, ethyl acetate (EA), as an emerging volatile anti-solvent, is employed to deposit the methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskite thin film atop the ZnO ETL, in order to prepare perovskite layers that only need an annealing time of 30 s. The ZnO-based PSCs, with a simple structure and free of additional treatments, except for the ultrasonic vibration, exhibit a promising performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 11%, 40% higher than that of the control device. The ultrasonic vibration treatment is facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and compatible with the scalable coating and printing techniques, such as spray and blade coating.

  12. On the addition of conducting ceramic nanoparticles in solvent-free ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Chuan-Pei

    2009-08-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an extremely hard conducting ceramic material often used as a coating for titanium alloys as well as steel and aluminum components to improve their surface properties. In this study, conducting ceramic nanoparticles (CCNPs) have been used, for the first time, in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the incorporation of TiC nanoparticles in a binary ionic liquid electrolyte on the cell performance has been investigated. Cell conversion efficiency with 0.6 wt% TiC reached 1.68%, which was higher than that without adding TiC (1.18%); however, cell efficiency decreased when the TiC content reached 1.0 wt%. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was employed to analyze the interfacial resistance in DSSCs, and it was found that the resistance of the charge-transfer process at the Pt counter electrode (Rct1) decreased when up to 1.0 wt% TiC was added. Presumably, this was due to the formation of the extended electron transfer surface (EETS) which facilitates electron transfer to the bulk electrolyte, resulting in a decrease of the dark current, whereby the open-circuit potential (VOC) could be improved. Furthermore, a significant increase in the fill factor (FF) for all TiC additions was related to the decrease in the series resistance (RS) of the DSSCs. However, at 1.0 wt% TiC, the largest charge-transfer resistance at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface was observed and resulted from the poor penetration of the electrolyte into the porous TiO2. The long-term stability of DSSCs with a binary ionic liquid electrolyte, which is superior to that of an organic solvent-based electrolyte, was also studied. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Core/shell structured NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+/Gd+3 nanorods with Au nanoparticles or shells for flexible amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z Q; Li, X D; Liu, Q Q; Chen, X H; Sun, Z; Huang, S M; Liu, C; Ye, X J

    2012-01-01

    A simple approach for preparing near-infrared (NIR) to visible upconversion (UC) NaYF 4 :Yb/Er/Gd nanorods in combination with gold nanostructures has been reported. The grown UC nanomaterials with Au nanostructures have been applied to flexible amorphous silicon solar cells on the steel substrates to investigate their responses to sub-bandgap infrared irradiation. Photocurrent–voltage measurements were performed on the solar cells. It was demonstrated that UC of NIR light led to a 16-fold to 72-fold improvement of the short-circuit current under 980 nm illumination compared to a cell without upconverters. A maximum current of 1.16 mA was obtained for the cell using UC nanorods coated with Au nanoparticles under 980 nm laser illumination. This result corresponds to an external quantum efficiency of 0.14% of the solar cell. Mechanisms of erbium luminescence in the grown UC nanorods were analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  14. Structure and crystallinity of water dispersible photoactive nanoparticles for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Pedersen, M.C.; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    2015-01-01

    -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nanoparticles such as the internal structure and crystallinity of the dispersed nanoparticles and the previously unreported drastic changes that occur when the inks are cast into a film. We observe through transmission electron...... microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) that the nanoparticles in dispersion are spherical with the nanodomains of P3HT being partly crystalline. When wet processed and dried into films, the nanoparticles lose their spherical shape and become flattened into oblate shapes with a large aspect...

  15. Solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, W.

    1977-03-03

    A solar collector is described. The absorber consists of a plate onto which the light is focussed through lenses. The heat is transported from the absorber to the heat accumulator via metallic heat conductors. In case of insufficient solar radiation, the heat transport from the collector to the accumulator may be interrupted by a disconnecting switch. The casing consists of Eternit.

  16. Hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and ZnO nanoparticles modified by side-chain functional polythiophenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fan; Du, Yanhui; Chen, Yiwang

    2012-01-01

    We report the investigation of the hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells based on the blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and ZnO nanoparticles modified by side-chain thiol functional poly(3-thiophenehexanethiol) (P3HT-SH). Grafting of P3HT-SH onto ZnO nanoparticles can promote the dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles within P3HT matrix and facilitate electron injection process into ZnO nanoparticles, resulting in a more efficient photoinduced charge transfer than that in simple physical mixture of P3HT and non-modified ZnO nanoparticles (P3HT/ZnO). Furthermore, the performance of hybrid photovoltaic device based on P3HT/P3HT-SH-modified ZnO blend exhibits an improved device efficiency compared with P3HT/ZnO even before thermal treatment. After being annealed at 80 °C, the P3HT/P3HT-SH-modified ZnO device shows the power conversion efficiency as high as 0.68%, with the short-circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm 2 , the open-circuit voltage of 0.599 V and a fill factor of 60.5% under AM 1.5 G illumination with 100 mW/cm 2 light intensity. - Highlights: ► Hybrid solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and modified ZnO nanoparticles ► ZnO nanoparticles modified by side-chain functional polythiophenes ► Uniform dispersion and intimate contact between polymers and nanoparticles ► Efficient charge transfer leading to the improvement of device efficiency

  17. High performance of mixed halide perovskite solar cells: Role of halogen atom and plasmonic nanoparticles on the ideal current density of cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebpour, Mohammad Ali; Saffari, Mohaddeseh; Soleimani, Hamid Rahimpour; Tagani, Meysam Bagheri

    2018-03-01

    To be able to increase the efficiency of perovskite solar cells which is one of the most substantial challenges ahead in photovoltaic industry, the structural and optical properties of perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx for values x = 1-3 have been studied employing density functional theory (DFT). Using the optical constants extracted from DFT calculations, the amount of light reflectance and ideal current density of a simulated single-junction perovskite solar cell have been investigated. The results of DFT calculations indicate that adding halogen bromide to CH3NH3PbI3 compound causes the relocation of energy bands in band structure which its consequence is increasing the bandgap. In addition, the effect of increasing Br in this structure can be seen as a reduction in lattice constant, refractive index, extinction and absorption coefficient. As well, results of the simulation suggest a significant current density enhancement as much as 22% can be achieved by an optimized array of Platinum nanoparticles that is remarkable. This plan is able to be a prelude for accomplishment of solar cells with higher energy conversion efficiency.

  18. Eco-friendly spray coating of organic solar cells through water-based nanoparticles ink (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryckers, Jeroen; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Manca, Jean; Ethirajan, Anitha; Deferme, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating is currently proven to be a reliable, flexible and cost efficient fabrication method for printed electronics [1-2]. Ultrasonic nozzles are by design especially well-suited to deposit nano-suspension dispersions. Due to the ultrasonic vibration of the nozzle, droplets having a median diameter of 20 μm are created in a homogeneous droplet cloud and directed towards the substrate. When one prepares an ink having the right wetting properties, thin and homogeneous layers, fully covering the surface, can be achieved. Together with conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs), emerging as a new class of nanomaterials, [3] it opens possibilities towards eco-friendly roll-to-roll processing of state-of-the-art organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. A ultrasonic spray coater was used to print the conjugated polymer NP layers under different conditions. A first optimization of the spray coater settings (flow rate, spray speed and temperature) and the ink formulation (water and co-solvent mixture and NP content) was performed for polystyrene particles dissolved in a water-ethanol mixture. As a next step, the low bandgap donor polymer poly[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophene-diyl] (PCDTBT) [4] and the fullerene acceptor phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) were combined in a water-based blend NP dispersion which was prepared using the mini-emulsion technique. [5,6] Optical Microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are performed to study the roughness, surface structure, thickness and coverage of the spray coated layers. Finally the printed NP layers are integrated in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells and compared to spin coated reference devices.

  19. Tailoring dispersion and aggregation of Au nanoparticles in the BHJ layer of polymer solar cells: plasmon effects versus electrical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanjung; Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Jung Kyu; Kang, Woonggi; Kim, Eunchul; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Wang, Dong Hwan; Du, Qing Guo; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jaeyun; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2014-12-01

    Plasmonic effects that arise from embedding metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been extensively studied. Many researchers have utilized metallic NPs in PSCs by either incorporating them into the PSC interlayers (e.g., the hole extraction and electron extraction layers) or blending them into the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) active layer. In such studies, the dispersity of the metallic NPs in each layer may vary due to both the different nature of the ligands and the amount of ligands on the metallic NPs. This in turn can produce different PSC performance parameters. Here, we systematically control the amount of attached organic ligands on Au NPs to control their dispersion behavior in the BHJ active layer of PSCs. By controlling the number of capping organic ligands on the Au NPs, the dispersity of the NPs in the BHJ layer is also controlled and the positive effects (particularly the plasmonic and electrical effects) of the Au NPs in the PSCs are investigated. From the obtained results, we find that the electrical contribution of the Au NPs is a more dominant factor for enhancing cell efficiency when compared to the plasmonic effect. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Na-assisted grain growth in CZTS nanoparticle thin films for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the effect of Na in Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films [1]. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [2], which allows us to use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that the user- and environmentally......-friendly NaCl salt can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. This further circumvents the need for later incorporation of dopants, or a ligand-exchange step to functionalize the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, the homogeneous distribution of Na in the ink allows uniform grain growth within...... the deposited absorber layer. By including Na in the nanoparticle ink, micron-sized grains throughout the whole absorber are achieved after annealing in a sulfur atmosphere at 600°C. The absorber layer appeared to be of full density, and no closed porosity could be detected. In addition, the photoluminescence...

  1. Mesoporous anatase TiO2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO 2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO 2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm 2 ).

  2. Nanoparticles for solar spectrum conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Meijerink, Andries; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2010-08-01

    We review the use of nanometer-sized particles (including quantum dots) in the conversion of parts of the solar spectrum incident on solar cells to more usable regions. The modification of the solar spectrum ideally would lead to a narrowbanded incident spectrum at a center wavelength corresponding to an energy that is slightly larger than the band gap of the semiconductor material employed in the solar cell, which would lead to an enhancement of the overall solar energy conversion efficiency. Modification of the spectrum requires down and/or up conversion or shifting of the spectrum, meaning that the energy of photons is modified either to lower (down) or higher (up) energy. Nanostructures such as quantum dots, luminescent dye molecules, and lanthanide-doped glasses are capable of absorbing photons at a certain wavelength and emitting photons at a different (shorter or longer) wavelength. We will discuss down and up conversion and shifting by quantum dots, luminescent dyes, and lanthanide compounds, and assess their potential in contributing to ultimately lowering the cost per kWh of solar generated power.

  3. Photocurrent enhancement by surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles in spray deposited large area dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, Nikhil; Singh, Puneet [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Khan, A.F. [Department of Electronics and Information Technology, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India, New Delhi 110003 (India); Dutta, Viresh [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Komarala, Vamsi K., E-mail: vamsi@ces.iitd.ac.in [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-10-01

    A facile method for fabricating large area TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}–Au nanocomposite films for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is presented using a spray technique. Pre-synthesized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were sprayed together with the TiO{sub 2} NPs and composite films with brilliant coloration due to surface plasmon resonances of Au NPs were prepared. Composite films containing ∼ 15 nm sized Au NPs exhibited enhanced absorption in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. DSSCs with a large area of ∼ 4.5 cm{sup 2} were fabricated and a photocurrent enhancement of ∼ 10% was obtained for plasmonic DSSC containing 0.3 wt.% of ∼ 15 nm Au NPs. Incident photon to current conversion efficiency data conclusively showed enhanced currents in the visible region of the polychromatic spectrum arising due to plasmon enhanced near-field effects of Au NPs around the absorbing dye molecules. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}–Au films with a large area of ∼ 7.5 cm{sup 2} by a spray technique • An efficiency of ∼ 4.5% achieved by the large area plasmonic DSSC • Photocurrent enhancement due to SPR effects of gold NPs observed • Comparison of the spray and conventional doctor blade methods in DSSC performance • Demonstration of technological feasibility and versatility of a simple spray process.

  4. Low-Temperature Modification of ZnO Nanoparticles Film for Electron-Transport Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gill Sang; Shim, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Seongha; Duff, Matthew L; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2017-06-09

    An electron-transport layer (ETL) that selectively collects photogenerated electrons is an important constituent of halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Although TiO 2 films are widely used as ETL of PSCs, the processing of TiO 2 films with high electron mobility requires high-temperature annealing and TiO 2 dissociates the perovskite layer through a photocatalytic reaction. Here, we report an effective surface-modification method of a room-temperature processed ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) layer as an alternative to the TiO 2 ETL. A combination of simple UV exposure and nitric acid treatment effectively removes the hydroxyl group and passivates surface defects in ZnO NPs. The surface modification of ZnO NPs increases the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs to 14 % and decreases the aging of PSCs under light soaking. These results suggest that the surface-modified ZnO film can be a good ETL of PSCs and provide a path toward low-temperature processing of efficient and stable PSCs that are compatible with flexible electronics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. PEDOT:PSS incorporated silver nanoparticles prepared by gamma radiation for the application in organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma A. Ghazy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:Polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS is a dispersion used as a buffer layer on the ITO electrode in the organic solar cells. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are incorporated to the dispersion using two different strategies. The first is by reduction of silver ions in the PEDOT:PSS dispersion. Chemical reduction of silver ions using sodium borohydried is compared with reduction using gamma radiation. The TEM and UV-visible spectra indicates that smaller Ag NPs are obtained for the chemical reduction method than those obtained from the radiochemical. The second strategy, is by preparing Ag NPs in polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP solution using gamma irradiation then adding them to the PEDOT:PSS dispersion. Layers of the PEDOT:PSS incorporated different concentrations of Ag NPs (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% are formed. The SEM and AFM studies of the layers morphology reveal that smooth morphology on the obtained for layers containing Ag NPs up to concentrations of 4%.

  6. On the physics of dispersive electron transport characteristics in SnO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Vijayaraghavan, S. N.; Unni, Gautam E.; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Shanmugam, Mariyappan

    2018-04-01

    The present study elucidates dispersive electron transport mediated by surface states in tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Transmission electron microscopic studies on SnO2 show a distribution of ∼10 nm particles exhibiting (111) crystal planes with inter-planar spacing of 0.28 nm. The dispersive transport, experienced by photo-generated charge carriers in the bulk of SnO2, is observed to be imposed by trapping and de-trapping processes via SnO2 surface states present close to the band edge. The DSSC exhibits 50% difference in performance observed between the forward (4%) and reverse (6%) scans due to the dispersive transport characteristics of the charge carriers in the bulk of the SnO2. The photo-generated charge carriers are captured and released by the SnO2 surface states that are close to the conduction band-edge resulting in a very significant variation; this is confirmed by the hysteresis observed in the forward and reverse scan current–voltage measurements under AM1.5 illumination. The hysteresis behavior assures that the charge carriers are accumulated in the bulk of electron acceptor due to the trapping, and released by de-trapping mediated by surface states observed during the forward and reverse scan measurements.

  7. Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites That Enhance the Device Performance of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Kai Chuang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxides are promising materials for use in various optoelectronic applications because of their unique plasmonic properties. In this paper, a simple, environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticle-decorated graphene oxide that can be used to improve the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs is reported. Here, the amino acid glycine is employed as an environmentally friendly reducing reagent for the reduction of gold ions in the graphene oxide solutions. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the material properties of the resulting nanomaterials. Furthermore, these nanocomposites are employed as the anode buffer layer in OPVs to trigger surface plasmonic resonance, which improved the efficiency of the OPVs. The results indicate that such nanomaterials appear to have great potential for application in OPVs.

  8. Microwave assisted polyol synthesis of CuGaSe2 nanoparticles for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevtsev, A. S.; Levin, O. V.; Tverjanovich, A. S.

    Chalcopyrite CuGaSe2 nanocrystals with average size about 90 nm were synthesized by quick and cheap microwave assisted polyol method without special dissolving of Se in organic solvents. Composition, structure and optical properties of the obtained particles correspond to pure bulk CuGaSe2. CuGaSe2/PCBM composite films produced from the synthesized nanoparticles possess reproducible photovoltaic response.

  9. Broadband photocurrent enhancement and light-trapping in thin film Si solar cells with periodic Al nanoparticle arrays on the front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, Christian; Villesen, Thorbjørn Falk; Tetu, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    it is shown that this broadband enhancement is due to single particle resonances that give rise to light-trapping in the infrared spectral range and to collective resonances that ensure an efficient in-coupling of light in the ultraviolet-blue spectral range. © 2015 Optical Society of America....... on the front of a thin film Si test solar cell. It is demonstrated that the resonances from the Al nanoparticle array cause a broadband photocurrent enhancement ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared with respect to a reference cell. From the experimental results as well as from numerical simulations...

  10. Nanostructured Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....

  11. Improving organic tandem solar cells based on water-processed nanoparticles by quantitative 3D nanoimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Bøje Lind; Angmo, Dechan; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    particle active layer. We extract the layered morphology with structural and density information including the porosity present in the various layers and the silver electrode with high resolution in 3D. The Landfester particle layer is found to have an undesired morphology with negatively correlated top...... and easier access to the printing industry, which has reduced the use of organic solvents since the 1980s. Through ptychographic X-ray computed tomography (PXCT), we image quantitatively a roll-to-roll coated photovoltaic tandem stack consisting of one bulk heterojunction active layer and one Landfester......- and bottom interfaces, wide thickness distribution and only partial surface coverage causing electric short circuits through the layer. By top coating a polymer material onto the Landfester nanoparticles we eliminate the structural defects of the layer such as porosity and roughness, and achieve...

  12. High Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Synthesized SnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. N. M. B. Wanninayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, SnO2 semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized for DSC applications via acid route using tin(ii chloride as a starting material and hydrothermal method through the use of tin(iv chloride. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of the rutile phase of SnO2 with nanoranged particle sizes. A quasi-solid-state electrolyte was employed instead of a conventional liquid electrolyte in order to overcome the practical limitations such as electrolyte leakage, solvent evaporation, and sealing imperfections associated with liquid electrolytes. The gel electrolytes were prepared incorporating lithium iodide (LiI and tetrapropylammonium iodide (Pr4N+I− salts, separately, into the mixture which contains polyacrylonitrile as a polymer, propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate as plasticizers, iodide/triiodide as the redox couple, acetonitrile as the solvent, and 4-tertiary butylpyridine as an electrolyte additive. In order to overcome the recombination problem associated with the SnO2 due to its higher electron mobility, ultrathin layer of CaCO3 coating was used to cover the surface recombination sites of SnO2 nanoparticles. Maximum energy conversion efficiency of 5.04% is obtained for the device containing gel electrolyte incorporating LiI as the salt. For the same gel electrolyte, the ionic conductivity and the diffusion coefficient of the triiodide ions are 4.70 × 10−3 S cm−1 and 4.31 × 10−7 cm2 s−1, respectively.

  13. Facile Preparation of TiO2 Nanobranch/Nanoparticle Hybrid Architecture with Enhanced Light Harvesting Properties for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report TiO2 nanobranches/nanoparticles (NBN hybrid architectures that can be synthesized by a facile solution phase method. The hybrid architecture simultaneously improves light harvesting and charge collection performances for a dye-sensitized solar cell. First, TiO2 nanorods with a trunk length of 2 μm were grown on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO/glass substrate, and then nanobranches and nanoparticles were deposited on the nanorods’ trunks through a solution method using an aqueous TiCl3 solution at 80°C. The relative amount of nanobranches and nanoparticles can be controlled by multiplying the number of TiCl3 treatments to maximize the amount of surface area. We found that the resultant TiO2 NBN hybrid architecture greatly improves the amount of dye adsorption (five times compared to bare nanorods due to the enhanced surface area, while maintaining a fast charge collection, leading to a three times higher current density and thus tripling the maximum power conversion efficiency for a dye-sensitized solar cell.

  14. Comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticles on the performance and charge recombination of water-based gel electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Malihe; Abedi, Mohammad; Amoli, Hossein Salar; Mozaffari, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (V oc ), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (J sc ) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured. For further characterization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the charge transfer at Pt/electrolyte interface and charge recombination and electron transport at TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface. Significant improvements in conversion efficiency and short circuit current density of DSSCs fabricated by chitosan nanoparticle were observed that can be attributed to the higher mobility of I 3 - due to the lower viscosity and smaller size of chitosan nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Well-dispersed CoS nanoparticles on a functionalized graphene nanosheet surface: a counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaohuan; Pan, Kai; Wang, Guofeng; Liao, Yongping; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Baojiang; Pan, Qingjiang; Tian, Guohui

    2014-01-07

    With a facile electrophoretic deposition and chemical bath process, CoS nanoparticles have been uniformly dispersed on the surface of the functionalized graphene nanosheets (FGNS). The composite was employed as a counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which yielded a power conversion efficiency of 5.54 %. It is found that this efficiency is higher than those of DSSCs based on the non-uniform CoS nanoparticles on FGNS (4.45 %) and built on the naked CoS nanoparticles (4.79 %). The achieved efficiency of our cost-effective DSSC is also comparable to that of noble metal Pt-based DSSC (5.90 %). Our studies have revealed that both the exceptional electrical conductivity of the FGNS and the excellent catalytic activity of the CoS nanoparticles improve the conversion efficiency of the uniformly FGNS-CoS composite counter electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and Tafel polarization have evidenced the best catalytic activity and the fastest electron transport. Additionally, the dispersion condition of CoS nanoparticles on FGNS plays an important role for catalytic reduction of I3 (-) . Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Highly efficient ZnO/Au Schottky barrier dye-sensitized solar cells: Role of gold nanoparticles on the charge-transfer process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanujjal Bora

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods decorated with gold (Au nanoparticles have been synthesized and used to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC. The picosecond-resolved, time-correlated single-photon-count (TCSPC spectroscopy technique was used to explore the charge-transfer mechanism in the ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC. Due to the formation of the Schottky barrier at the ZnO/Au interface and the higher optical absorptions of the ZnO/Au photoelectrodes arising from the surface plasmon absorption of the Au nanoparticles, enhanced power-conversion efficiency (PCE of 6.49% for small-area (0.1 cm2 ZnO/Au-nanocomposite DSSC was achieved compared to the 5.34% efficiency of the bare ZnO nanorod DSSC. The TCSPC studies revealed similar dynamics for the charge transfer from dye molecules to ZnO both in the presence and absence of Au nanoparticles. A slower fluorescence decay associated with the electron recombination process, observed in the presence of Au nanoparticles, confirmed the blocking of the electron transfer from ZnO back to the dye or electrolyte by the Schottky barrier formed at the ZnO/Au interface. For large area DSSC (1 cm2, ~130% enhancement in PCE (from 0.50% to 1.16% was achieved after incorporation of the Au nanoparticles into the ZnO nanorods.

  17. Inverted polymer solar cell based on MEH-PPV/PC61BM coupled with ZnO nanoparticles as electron transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A. M. S.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Harraz, Farid A.; Ebrahim, S.; Soliman, M.; Hafez, H. S.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of annealed sol-gel derived ZnO nanoparticles acting as electron transport layer (ETL) in inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). We have examined the photovoltaic performance of devices based on poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV):(6,6)-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blend system employing the ZnO nanoparticles as an ETL with CuI as hole transport layer (HTL) in comparison to the case of using the conventional HTL of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS). The effect of the presence of another layer of ZnO macrospheres attached to the ZnO nanoparticles is also investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 1.35% was achieved for device: ITO/ZnO nanoparticles/MEH-PPV:PC61BM/CuI/Ag, which is 275% more the value obtained when CuI was replaced by PEDOT:PSS. The comprehensive analyses on structural and optical characteristics including SEM, XRD, FTIR, PL and UV-vis spectroscopy indicated that the use of the ZnO nanoparticles alone as ETL, together with the CuI as HTL could effectively reduce trap-assisted recombination and charge accumulation at the interface, which is beneficial for the enhanced device performance.

  18. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... Microscopy and as solar cells in a blend with PCBM. It was concluded that these particles did not show a potential large enough for continuous work due to a high material loss and low efficiency when applied in solar cells. The second method to achieve was preparation of pre-arranged morphology organic...... nanoparticles consisting of a blend of donor and acceptor in an aqueous dispersion, thereby addressing two of the issues remaining in the field of organic solar cells. This approach was used on six different polymers, which all had the ability to prepare aqueous nanoparticle inks. The morphology...

  19. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  20. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  1. Charge collection enhancement by incorporation of gold-silica core-shell nanoparticles into P3HT:PCBM/ZnO nanorod array hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Chung; Su, Yen-Hsun; Hung, Yun-Kai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Gomulya, Widianta; Lai, Lai-Hung; Loi, Maria A; Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2015-08-14

    In this work, gold-silica core-shell (Au@silica) nanoparticles (NPs) with various silica-shell thicknesses are incorporated into P3HT:PCBM/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid solar cells. Enhancement in the short-circuit current density and the efficiency of the hybrid solar cells is attained with the appropriate addition of Au@silica NPs regardless of the silica-shell thickness. Compared to the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid solar cell, a 63% enhancement in the efficiency is achieved by the P3HT:PCBM/Au@silica NP/ZnO NR hybrid solar cell. The finite difference time domain simulations indicate that the strength of the Fano resonance, i.e., the electric field of the quasi-static asymmetric quadrupole, on the surface of Au@silica NPs in the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid significantly decreases with increasing thickness of the silica shell. Raman characterization reveals that the degree of P3HT order increases when Au@silica NPs are incorporated into the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid. The charge separation at the interface between P3HT and PCBM as well as the electron transport in the active layer are retarded by the electric field of the Fano resonance. Nevertheless, the prolongation of the electron lifetime and the reduction of the electron transit time in the P3HT:PCBM/ZnO NR hybrid solar cells, which result in an enhancement of electron collection, are achieved by the addition of Au@silica NPs. This may be attributed to the improvement in the degree of P3HT order and connectivity of PCBM when Au@silica NPs are incorporated into the P3HT:PCBM active layer.

  2. Comprehensive Investigation of Silver Nanoparticle/Aluminum Electrodes for Copper Indium Sulfide/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arar, Mario; Pein, Andreas; Haas, Wernfried

    2012-01-01

    ,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PSiF-DBT) nanocomposite solar cells, which improves the fill factor compared to pure aluminum electrodes. A comprehensive structural investigation was performed by means of transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry revealing the presence of silver...

  3. Enhancement of efficiency by embedding ZnS and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles in P3HT:PCBM hybrid solid state solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Uzma; Adhikari, Tham; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Nunzi, Jean-Michel; Badshah, Amin; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) and Mn-doped ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized by wet chemical method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to find particle size while chemical composition of the synthesized materials was investigated by EDAX. UV-visible absorption spectrum of Mn-doped ZnS was slightly shifted to lower wavelength with respect to the un-doped zinc sulphide with decrease in the size of nanoparticles. Consequently, the band gap was tuned from 3.04 to 3.13 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) emission positioned at 597 nm was ascribed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition within the 3d shell of Mn2+. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the synthesized nanomaterials existed in cubic crystalline state. The effect of embedding un-doped and doped ZnS nanoparticles in the active layer and changing the ratio of PCBM ([6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) to nanoparticles on the performance of hybrid solar cell was studied. The device with active layer consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), and un-doped ZnS nanoparticles combined in the ratio of (1:0.5:0.5) attained an efficiency of 2.42% which was found 71% higher than the reference device under the same conditions but not containing nanoparticles. Replacing ZnS nanoparticles with Mn-doped ZnS had a little effect on the enhancement of efficiency. The packing behavior and morphology of blend of nanoparticles with P3HT:PCBM were examined using atomic force microscope (AFM) and XRD. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  4. Zr-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized via a sol-gel route and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells for thermo-stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Anastasia; Grohe, Bernd; Mittler, Silvia; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2017-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as one of the most promising solar cells amongst third-generation photovoltaic technologies, particularly due to their low cost, easy preparation, and minor environmental impact compared to earlier-generation devices. However, they have been challenged by thermal energy losses and low cell efficiencies. This work examined the incorporation of zirconium (Zr) into the crystal lattice of titania nanoparticles (nTiO2) for subsequent fabrication into the photo anode of the DSSCs. The results showed that Zr doping of nTiO2 inhibited the anatase-rutile phase transition. Higher calcination temperatures gave increased titania crystallinity, and stabilized the nTiO2 aggregate pore structure and specific surface area, consequently improving the DSSC device performance. A doping concentration of 5 mol % Zr into the nTiO2 demonstrated the best resistance against thermal degradation, achieving an optimized retention of specific surface area. Solar simulation confirmed the results, indicating better heat stability, although lowering the DSSC efficiencies.

  5. Solar cell shingle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Sidorak, L. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar cell shingle was made of an array of solar cells on a lower portion of a substantially rectangular shingle substrate made of fiberglass cloth or the like. The solar cells may be encapsulated in flourinated ethylene propylene or some other weatherproof translucent or transparent encapsulant to form a combined electrical module and a roof shingle. The interconnected solar cells were connected to connectors at the edge of the substrate through a connection to a common electrical bus or busses. An overlap area was arranged to receive the overlap of a cooperating similar shingle so that the cell portion of the cooperating shingle may overlie the overlap area of the roof shingle. Accordingly, the same shingle serves the double function of an ordinary roof shingle which may be applied in the usual way and an array of cooperating solar cells from which electrical energy may be collected.

  6. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    Organic hybrid solar cells with a large open-circuit voltage, up to above that of 1.5 V standard battery voltage, were demonstrated using blends of polypyrrole: Fe2O3·ZnO nanoparticles as active-layers. The cell active-layers were readily coated in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance of the cells depends largely on the synthesized blend phase, which is determined by the surfactants, oxidizers, as well as the reactant ratio. Only the solar cells fabricated from the stable dispersions can produce both a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and short-circuit current (up to 7.5 mA cm-2) due to the relatively uniform porous network nanomorphology and higher shunt to series resistance ratio of the active-layers. The cells also display a relatively high power-conversion efficiency of up to ∼3.8%. This journal is

  7. Rectenna solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Moddel, Garret

    2013-01-01

    Rectenna Solar Cells discusses antenna-coupled diode solar cells, an emerging technology that has the potential to provide ultra-high efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion. This book will provide an overview of solar rectennas, and provide thorough descriptions of the two main components: the diode, and the optical antenna. The editors discuss the science, design, modeling, and manufacturing of the antennas coupled with the diodes. The book will provide concepts to understanding the challenges, fabrication technologies, and materials required to develop rectenna structures. Written by e

  8. Strong Enhancement of Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Co-hybridized Polymer Solar Cell by Silver Nanoplates and Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenfei; Tang, Jianguo; Wang, Yao; Liu, Jixian; Huang, Linjun; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Lanlan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yanxin; Yang, Renqiang; Yun, Jungheum; Belfiore, Laurence A

    2017-02-15

    A new way was meticulously designed to utilize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect and the light scattering effect of silver nanoplate (Ag-nPl) and core-shell Ag@SiO 2 nanoparticles (Ag@SiO 2 -NPs) to enhance the photovoltaic performances of polymer solar cells (PSCs). To prevent direct contact between silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and photoactive materials which will cause electrons quenching, bare Ag-nPl were spin-coated on indium tin oxide and silica capsulated Ag-NPs were incorporated to a PBDTTT-C-T:PC 71 BM active layer. As a result, the devices incorporated with Ag-nPl and Ag@SiO 2 -NPs showed great enhancements. With the dual effects of Ag-nPl and Ag@SiO 2 -NPs in devices, all wavelength sensitization in the visible range was realized; therefore, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs showed a great enhancement of 14.0% to 8.46%, with an increased short-circuit current density of 17.23 mA·cm -2 . The improved photovoltaic performances of the devices were ascribed to the LSPR effect and the light scattering effect of metallic nanoparticles. Apart from optical effects, the charge collection efficiency of PSCs was improved after the incorporation of Ag-nPl.

  9. Improved performance of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cell by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as photoelectrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, F. S.; Ahmadi, V.; Samadpour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present novel quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) based on ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite photoanodes for better light harvesting and energy conversion. Photoelectrodes are prepared by doctor blading ZnO NPs/GO nanocomposite paste on a fluorine doped tin oxide substrate which are then sintered at 450 °C to obtain ZnO NPs/RGO nanocomposites. The partial reduction of GO after thermal reduction, is studied by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) and cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots are deposited on the films through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition methods, respectively. The unique properties of ZnO NPs/RGO photoanodes, lead to a significant enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of solar cells in comparison with bare ZnO photoanodes. Current-voltage characteristics of cells are studied and the best results are obtained from ZnO NPs-RGO/CdS/CdSe with photoelectric conversion efficiency of 2.20% which is almost two times higher than cells which are made by pure ZnO NPs as photoanode (1.28%). Electrochemical impedance measurements show that the enhancement can be attributed to the increase of electron transfer rate in the ZnO NPs/RGO nanocomposite photoanode which arises from the ultrahigh electron mobility in graphene (RGO) sheets.

  10. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  11. Solar cell array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  12. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  13. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells by optimization of electrospun ZnO nanowire/nanoparticle hybrid photoanode and combined modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Lixin; Du, Pingfan; Xiong, Jie; Ko, Frank; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) and ZnO nanowires (ZNWs) were fabricated via electrospinning and calcination. The ZNPs and ZNWs were blended with different mass ratio by varying ZNWs from 0% to 100% and serviced as photoanodic film of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via spin coating. The efficiency of these DSSCs reached a maximum of 2.6% at 20 wt% ZNWs. In order to improve the photovoltaic properties of ZNWs/ZNPs hybrid photoanodic film, the ZNWs/ZNPs hybrid film was modified by the incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into ZnO matrix including both ZNPs and ZNWs combined with TiCl 4 post-treatment. As a result, the efficiency of DSSCs increased from 2.6% to 3.8%, which is mainly attributed to the increased dye loading, faster electron transport, and less electron loss

  14. Fabrication of TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays via a two-step method for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles/nanorod composite arrays were prepared on the F-doped tin oxide (FTO substrate through a two-step method of hydrothermal and d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of the samples were characterized respectively by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and UV–vis spectrometer. The results showed that the TiO2 composite nanorod arrays possess the nature of high surface area for more dye molecule absorption and the strong light scattering effects. The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs based on TiO2 composite nanorod arrays exhibited a 80% improvement in the overall energy conversion efficiency compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod arrays photoanode.

  15. Conjugated Polymer Solar Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paraschuk, Dmitry Y

    2006-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Moscow State University as follows: Conjugated polymers are promising materials for many photonics applications, in particular, for photovoltaic and solar cell devices...

  16. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  17. Upconversion induced enhancement of dye sensitized solar cells based on core-shell structured β-NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+@SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Wang, Jiahong; Nan, Fan; Bu, Chenghao; Yu, Zhenhua; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Hu, Hao; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Upconversion materials have been employed as energy relay materials in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to broaden the range of light absorption. However, the origin of the enhancements can be induced by both upconversion and size-dependent light scattering effects. To clarify the role of the upconversion material in the photoelectrode of DSCs, an upconversion induced device was realized here, which has the size-dependent light scattering effect eliminated via the application of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+@SiO2 upconversion nanoparticles (β-NYEY@SiO2 UCNPs). An enhancement of 6% in efficiency was observed for the device. This demonstration provided an insight into the possible further employment of upconversion in DSCs.Upconversion materials have been employed as energy relay materials in dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) to broaden the range of light absorption. However, the origin of the enhancements can be induced by both upconversion and size-dependent light scattering effects. To clarify the role of the upconversion material in the photoelectrode of DSCs, an upconversion induced device was realized here, which has the size-dependent light scattering effect eliminated via the application of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+@SiO2 upconversion nanoparticles (β-NYEY@SiO2 UCNPs). An enhancement of 6% in efficiency was observed for the device. This demonstration provided an insight into the possible further employment of upconversion in DSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of preparations and characterizations; the TEM images, EDX measurements, XRD measurements and upconversion emission spectrum of bared β-NYEY nanocrystals; SEM and AFM images of the photoelectrode with different concentrations of β-NYEY nanocrystals; J-V characteristics, EIS measurements and fitted EIS parameters of the DSCs based on five different photoelectrodes. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04315k

  18. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  19. Iron sulphide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1984-12-01

    The abundant, naturally occurring natural compound pyrite (FeS2) can be used as a semiconducting material for photoelectrochemical and photovoltaic solar cells. Unlike most of the intensively studied photoactive materials, pyrite solar cell production would never be limited by the availability of the elements or by their compatibility with the environment. An energy gap of 0.95 eV has been determined for pyrite, and it is noted that the theoretical efficiency limit for solar energy conversion in this material is of the order of 15-20 percent.

  20. Room-Temperature and Solution-Processable Cu-Doped Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hole-Transport Layers of Flexible Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiqi; Yao, Kai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Xuefeng; Leng, Shifeng; Li, Fan

    2017-12-06

    Flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using plastic substrates have become one of the most attractive points in the field of thin-film solar cells. Low-temperature and solution-processable nanoparticles (NPs) enable the fabrication of semiconductor thin films in a simple and low-cost approach to function as charge-selective layers in flexible PSCs. Here, we synthesized phase-pure p-type Cu-doped NiO x NPs with good electrical properties, which can be processed to smooth, pinhole-free, and efficient hole transport layers (HTLs) with large-area uniformity over a wide range of film thickness using a room-temperature solution-processing technique. Such a high-quality inorganic HTL allows for the fabrication of flexible PSCs with an active area >1 cm 2 , which have a power conversion efficiency over 15.01% without hysteresis. Moreover, the Cu/NiO x NP-based flexible devices also demonstrate excellent air stability and mechanical stability compared to their counterpart fabricated on the pristine NiO x films. This work will contribute to the evolution of upscaling flexible PSCs with a simple fabrication process and high device performances.

  1. Assembly of CdSe nanoparticles on graphene for low-temperature fabrication of quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengrui; Gao, Lian; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2011-02-01

    Quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) was fabricated in a low-temperature process based on graphene-CdSe composite, which was prepared by the procedures of immobilizing CdSe on graphene oxide (GO) and reduction in GO. It was found that the charge separation between excited CdSe and graphene could be tapped to generate photocurrent from photocurrent measurements, which established the ability of graphene to collect and transport electrons. By optimizing the CdSe-to-GO ratio at 4.5:1, the obtained graphene-CdSe-based cells exhibited significantly higher short-circuit photocurrent and energy conversion efficiency (5.8 mA/cm2 and 0.72%, respectively) than the reported values of the C60 or carbon nanotube related QDSSC, demonstrating that the graphene-CdSe composite is an attractive candidate in energy conversion devices.

  2. Energy Conversion: Nano Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad; Yap, Chi Chin; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2009-09-01

    Problems of fossil-fuel-induced climate change have sparked a demand for sustainable energy supply for all sectors of economy. Most laboratories continue to search for new materials and new technique to generate clean energy at affordable cost. Nanotechnology can play a major role in solving the energy problem. The prospect for solar energy using Si-based technology is not encouraging. Si photovoltaics can produce electricity at 20-30 c//kWhr with about 25% efficiency. Nanoparticles have a strong capacity to absorb light and generate more electrons for current as discovered in the recent work of organic and dye-sensitized cell. Using cheap preparation technique such as screen-printing and self-assembly growth, organic cells shows a strong potential for commercialization. Thin Films research group at National University Malaysia has been actively involved in these areas, and in this seminar, we will present a review works on nanomaterials for solar cells and particularly on hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays. The organic layer consisting of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] (MEHPPV) and [6, 6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid 3-ethylthiophene ester (PCBE) was spin-coated on ZnO nanorod arrays. ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on FTO glass substrates which were pre-coated with ZnO nanoparticles using a low temperature chemical solution method. A gold electrode was used as the top contact. The device gave a short circuit current density of 2.49×10-4 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.45 V under illumination of a projector halogen light at 100 mW/cm2.

  3. Fabrication and properties of meso-macroporous electrodes screen-printed from mesoporous titania nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Liu Min; Peng Tianyou; Fan Ke; Lu Lanlan; Dai Ke

    2009-01-01

    A meso-macroporous TiO 2 film electrode was fabricated by using mesoporous TiO 2 (m-TiO 2 ) nanoparticles through a screen-printing technique in order to efficiently control the main fabrication step of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The qualities of the screen-printed m-TiO 2 films were characterized by means of spectroscopy, electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and photoelectrochemical measurements. Under the optimal paste composition and printing conditions, the DSSC based on the meso-macroporous m-TiO 2 film electrode exhibits an energy conversion efficiency of 4.14%, which is improved by 1.70% in comparison with DSSC made with commercially available nonporous TiO 2 nanoparticles (P25, Degussa) electrode printed with a similar paste composition. The meso-macroporous structure within the m-TiO 2 film is of great benefit to the dye adsorption, light absorption and the electrolyte transportation, and then to the improvement of the overall energy conversion efficiency of DSSC.

  4. Origin of Photovoltage Enhancement via Interfacial Modification with Silver Nanoparticles Embedded in an a-SiC:H p-Type Layer in a-Si:H Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Zhang, Qixing; Ni, Jian; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Wei, Changchun; Yan, Baojie; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-03-29

    We used silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded in the p-type semiconductor layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells in the Schottky barrier contact design to modify the interface between aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al, AZO) and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC:H) without plasmonic absorption. The high work function of the Ag-NPs provided a good channel for the transport of photogenerated holes. A p-type nanocrystalline SiC:H layer was used to compensate for the real surface defects and voids on the surface of Ag-NPs to reduce recombination at the AZO/p-type layer interface, which then enhanced the photovoltage of single-junction a-Si:H solar cells to values as high as 1.01 V. The Ag-NPs were around 10 nm in diameter and thermally stable in the p-type a-SiC:H film at the solar-cell process temperature. We will also show that a wide range of photovoltages between 1.01 and 2.89 V could be obtained with single-, double-, and triple-junction solar cells based on the single-junction a-Si:H solar cells with tunable high photovoltage. These solar cells are suitable photocathodes for solar water-splitting applications.

  5. Four-cell solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  6. Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  7. Determination of the energy efficiency of sensitized solar cells with pigments obtained from natural extracts, and microbiological processes and nanoparticles of germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Diaz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Sensitized solar cells are characterized with pigments from natural extracts, pigments extracted from microorganisms and nanoparticles of germanium as co-sensitizers. The assembly process of the cells is enhanced in conjunction with the working group of solar cells of the CELEQ (Centro de Electroquimica y Energia Quimica of the Universidad de Costa Rica), and with the help of the experience of the Ph.D. Thomas Moehl. Improvements in the process have achieved to increase the efficiency of sensitized cells with the dye of reference Z907 from 0,36% to 4,3%. The reproducibility of the assembled cells are characterized with the improved process. 12 sensitized cells are assembled with the dye of reference Z907 and have obtained the averages of the characteristic parameters, J SC 12,6 ± 0,7 mA/cm 2 , V OC 0,71 ± 0,03 V, P max 43,0 ± 4,6 W/m 2 , FF 0,48 ± 0,02 and %η 4,30 ± 0,46%. These values are found within the values generally reported in the literature for cells sensitized with Z907. The electrolyte used in the cells 0,6 M BMII, 0,3 M I 2 and 0,5 M TBP have reported efficiency values between 6% to 7%, therefore, the average value obtained has been low and should be improved until to obtain values similar to those mentioned. However, the deviations with respect to the mean of the data efficiency of the 12 cells, are found mostly between ± 1 S, within a Student-t distribution, so the assembly method has been good and reproducibility of the samples obtained has been statistically reliable. The sensitized cells are characterized with 4 different natural pigments, extracted from picramnia, curcumin, caimito and rosa de jamaica. 7 cells are assembled with each pigment following the same conditions for the dye Z907 and obtained the characteristic parameters for each pigment, , J SC 2,398 ± 0,398 mA/cm 2 , V OC 0,455 ± 0,013 V, P max 0,868 ± 0,148 W/m 2 , FF 0,648 ± 0,038 and %η 0,087 ± 0,015% for the pigment of picramnia. For the pigment of curcumin, J SC 5

  8. Optical and Electrical Performance of MOS-Structure Silicon Solar Cells with Antireflective Transparent ITO and Plasmonic Indium Nanoparticles under Applied Bias Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jeng Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports impressive improvements in the optical and electrical performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS-structure silicon solar cells through the incorporation of plasmonic indium nanoparticles (In-NPs and an indium-tin-oxide (ITO electrode with periodic holes (perforations under applied bias voltage. Samples were prepared using a plain ITO electrode or perforated ITO electrode with and without In-NPs. The samples were characterized according to optical reflectance, dark current voltage, induced capacitance voltage, external quantum efficiency, and photovoltaic current voltage. Our results indicate that induced capacitance voltage and photovoltaic current voltage both depend on bias voltage, regardless of the type of ITO electrode. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, MOS cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO, respectively, presented conversion efficiencies of 17.53% and 15.80%. Under a bias voltage of 4.0 V, the inclusion of In-NPs increased the efficiency of cells with perforated ITO and plain ITO to 17.80% and 16.87%, respectively.

  9. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Photovoltaic research in the Electron Physics Laboratory started in 1993, when laboratory joined the national TEKES/NEMO 2 research program. Since the beginning of the project, characterization as well as experimentally orientated development of the fabrication process of the solar cells were carried out parallery. The process development research started by the initiatives of the Finnish industry. At the moment a large amount of the laboratory personnel works on solar cell research and the financing comes mainly from external projects. The funding for the research has come from TEKES, Ministry of Education, Finnish Academy, GETA graduate school, special equipment grants of the university, and from the laboratory

  10. The effect of dopants on grain growth and PL in CZTS nanoparticle thin films for solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Crovetto, Andrea; Hansen, Ole

    We have studied the effect of dopants such as Na, Sb, and Li in Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticle thin films [1]. The as-synthesized CZTS nanoparticles were inherently ligand-free [2], which allows the use of polar solvents, such as water and ethanol. Another advantage of these particles is that the user......- and environmentally-friendly chloride salts can be directly dissolved in controllable amounts. This further circumvents the need for later incorporation of dopants, or a ligand-exchange step to functionalize the surface of the nanoparticles. In addition, the homogeneous distribution of additives in the ink allows...... uniform grain growth within the deposited absorber layer. By including Na in the nanoparticle ink, micron-sized grains throughout the whole absorber are achieved after annealing in a sulfur atmosphere at 600°C. The absorber layer appeared to be of full density, and no closed porosity could be detected...

  11. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  12. Nature's Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Nature's Solar Cell. Stephen Suresh Gautham Nadig. Research News Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/02/0102-0104 ...

  13. Engineered optical properties of silver-aluminum alloy nanoparticles embedded in SiON matrix for maximizing light confinement in plasmonic silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, Piyush K; Komarala, Vamsi K

    2017-10-02

    Self-assembled silver-aluminum (Ag-Al) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4, and SiON dielectric thin film matrices explored as a hybrid plasmonic structure for silicon solar cells to maximize light confinement. The Ag 2 Al NPs prepared by ex-vacuo solid-state dewetting, and alloy formation confirmed by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Nanoindentation by atomic force microscopy revealed better surface adhesion of alloy NPs on silicon surface than Ag NPs due to the Al presence. The SiON spacer layer/Ag 2 Al NPs reduced silicon average reflectance from 22.7% to 9.2% due to surface plasmonic and antireflection effects. The SiON capping layer on NPs reduced silicon reflectance from 9.2% to 3.6% in wavelength region 300-1150 nm with preferential forward light scattering due to uniform Coulombic restoring force on NPs' surface. Minimum reflectance and parasitic absorptance from 35 nm SiON/Ag 2 Al NPs/25 nm SiON structure reflected in plasmonic cell's photocurrent enhancement from 26.27 mA/cm 2 (of bare cell) to 34.61 mA/cm 2 due to the better photon management. Quantum efficiency analysis also showed photocurrent enhancement of cell in surface plasmon resonance and off-resonance regions of NPs. We also quantified dielectric thin film antireflection and alloy NPs plasmonic effects separately in cell photocurrent enhancement apart from hybrid plasmonic structure role.

  14. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tus of hybrid perovskite solar cells. 1. Introduction. Gradually, primary energy resources such as fossil fuels, coal, and natural gas are depleting, while the global energy consump- tion is increasing. Solar energy, along with wind, biomass, tidal, and geothermal sources is emerging as an answer to our energy- starved planet.

  15. Characterization of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, J.; Tuominen, E.; Nybergh, K.; Ezer, Y.; Yli-Koski, M.; Sinkkonen, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Electrical and Communications Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic research began at the Electron Physics Laboratory of the Helsinki University of Tehnology in 1993, when the laboratory joined the national NEMO 2 research program. During the early stages of the photovoltaic research the main objective was to establish necessary measurement and characterisation routines, as well as to develop the fabrication process. The fabrication process development work has been supported by characterisation and theoretical modelling of the solar cells. Theoretical investigations have been concerned with systematic studies of solar cell parameters, such as diffusion lengths, surface recombination velocities and junction depths. The main result of the modelling and characterisation work is a method which is based on a Laplace transform of the so-called spatial collection efficiency function of the cell. The basic objective of the research has been to develop a fabrication process cheap enough to be suitable for commercial production

  16. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N.; Han, Jin Wook; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs (∼80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm 2 under 80 mW/cm 2 irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  17. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jin Wook, E-mail: jwhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs ({approx}80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2} under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  18. Investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles for thin-film solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Agersted, Karsten; Crovetto, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of the annealing atmosphere on grain growth of ligand-free and ligand-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle-based thin films by thermal analysis. We use thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to simultaneously monitor mass changes and evolved gases...

  19. Light trapping in a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cells by embedded ITO nanoparticles at rear surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sukanta; Mandal, Sourav; Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Mukherjee, Sampad; Banerjee, Chandan; Saha, Hiranmoy; Barua, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The advantages of the amorphous silicon (a-Si)/crystalline silicon (c-Si) hetero junction technology are low temperature (<200 °C) processing and fewer process steps to fabricate the device. In this work, we used indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon material at the rear side of the crystalline wafer. The nanoparticles were embedded in silicon to have higher scattering efficiency, as has been established by simulation studies. It has been shown that significant photocurrent enhancements (32.8 mA cm‑2 to 35.1 mA cm‑2) are achieved because of high scattering and coupling efficiency of the embedded nanoparticles into the silicon device, leading to an increase in efficiency from 13.74% to 15.22%. In addition, we have observed a small increase in open circuit voltage. This may be due to the surface passivation during the ITO nanoparticle formation with hydrogen plasma treatment. We also support our experimental results by simulation, with the help of a commercial finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) software solution.

  20. Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The experimental work in this thesis is focused on the fabrication of nanostructures that can be implemented in organic solar cell (OSC) architecture for enhancement of the device performance. Solar devices made from organic material are gaining increased attention, compared to their inorganic...... for organic solar cell applications, opening new patterning possibilities....

  1. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  2. Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, W R; Neitzert, H C

    2006-01-01

    The world of today must face up to two contradictory energy problems: on the one hand, there is the sharply growing consumer demand in countries such as China and India. On the other hand, natural resources are dwindling. Moreover, many of those countries which still possess substantial gas and oil supplies are politically unstable. As a result, renewable natural energy sources have received great attention. Among these, solar-cell technology is one of the most promising candidates. However, there still remains the problem of the manufacturing costs of such cells. Many attempts have been made

  3. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  4. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic–inorganic halide perovskite, a newcomerin the solar cell industry has proved its potential forincreasing efficiency rapidly from 3.8% in 2009 to 22.1% in2016. High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of theemerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attentionof researchers and technologists in the field.

  5. Emerging Solar Technologies: Perovskite Solar Cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High efficiency, flexibility, and cell architecture of the emerging hybrid halide perovskite have caught the attention of researchers and technologists in the field. This article fo- cuses on the emergence, properties, and current research sta- tus of hybrid perovskite solar cells. 1. Introduction. Gradually, primary energy resources ...

  6. Optimized Packing Density of Large CZTS Nanoparticles Synthesized by Hot-injection for Thin Film Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Lam, Yeng Ming; Schou, Jørgen

    processing to be a feasible fabrication route in the future, the amount of carbon in the film has to be limited. Today, several methods are employed in order to surpass this barrier, for example ligand exchange. A successful ligand exchange was carried out by Carrete et al. [1], where they replace...... to image the faceted/hexagonal nanoparticles and determine their individual composition. Densification of the film will also improve the film-quality. The optimal packing density will be calculated, and size-selective methods can be carried out in order to try to isolate the desired particle sizes. Films...

  7. Enhanced absorption in Au nanoparticles/a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells exploiting Au surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bianco, Giuseppe V.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Au nanoparticles (NPs)/(n-type)a-Si:H/(p-type)c-Si heterojunctions have been deposited combining plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour deposition (PECVD) with Au sputtering. We demonstrate that a density of {proportional_to}1.3 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} of Au nanoparticles with an approximately 20 nm diameter deposited onto (n-type)a-Si:H/(p-type)c-Si heterojunctions enhance performance exploiting the improved absorption of light by the surface plasmon resonance of Au NPs. In particular, Au NPs/(n-type)a-Si:H/(p-type)c-Si show an enhancement of 20% in the short-circuit current, J{sub SC}, 25% in the power output, P{sub max} and 3% in the fill factor, FF, compared to heterojunctions without Au NPs. Structures have been characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and current-voltage (I-V) measurements to correlate the plasmon resonance-induced enhanced absorption of light with photovoltaic performance. (author)

  8. Review of Polymer, Dye-Sensitized, and Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. F. Mohd-Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of inorganic nanoparticles semiconductor, conjugated polymer, and dye-sensitized in a layer of solar cell is now recognized as potential application in developing flexible, large area, and low cost photovoltaic devices. Several conjugated low bandgap polymers, dyes, and underlayer materials based on the previous studies are quoted in this paper, which can provide guidelines in designing low cost photovoltaic solar cells. All of these materials are designed to help harvest more sunlight in a wider range of the solar spectrum besides enhancing the rate of charge transfer in a device structure. This review focuses on developing solid-state dye-synthesized, polymer, and hybrid solar cells.

  9. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  11. Dye solar cell research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 27 November 2009 CONTENT head2rightBackground head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2... rightCollaborations and Links © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za head2rightAcknowledgements BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average of 860 mm head2rightOn upside, we have some...

  12. Ag Nanoparticle-Functionalized Open-Ended Freestanding TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays with a Scattering Layer for Improved Energy Conversion Efficiency in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Won-Yeop; Chun, Myeung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Sub; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2016-06-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays functionalized with Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in the channel to create a plasmonic effect, and then coated with large TiO₂ NPs to create a scattering effect in order to improve energy conversion efficiency. Compared to closed-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube array-based DSSCs without Ag or large TiO₂ NPs, the energy conversion efficiency of closed-ended DSSCs improved by 9.21% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.40%) with Ag NPs, 6.48% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.24%) with TiO₂ NPs, and 14.50% (actual efficiency, from 5.86% to 6.71%) with both Ag NPs and TiO₂ NPs. By introducing Ag NPs and/or large TiO₂ NPs to open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube array-based DSSCs, the energy conversion efficiency was improved by 9.15% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 6.68%) with Ag NPs and 8.17% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 6.62%) with TiO₂ NPs, and by 15.20% (actual efficiency, from 6.12% to 7.05%) with both Ag NPs and TiO₂ NPs. Moreover, compared to closed-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays, the energy conversion efficiency of open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays increased from 6.71% to 7.05%. We demonstrate that each component-Ag NPs, TiO₂ NPs, and open-ended freestanding TiO₂ nanotube arrays-enhanced the energy conversion efficiency, and the use of a combination of all components in DSSCs resulted in the highest energy conversion efficiency.

  13. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayer Modification of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Layer on the Performance and Application of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Zhao, Ting; Cheng, Jiaqi; Eslamian, Morteza; Choy, Wallace C H; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2017-10-09

    Entirely low-temperature solution-processed (≤100 °C) planar p-i-n perovskite solar cells (PSCs) offer great potential for commercialization of roll-to-roll fabricated photovoltaic devices. However, the stable inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) in PSCs is usually processed at high temperature (200-500 °C), which is far beyond the tolerant temperature (≤150 °C) of roll-to-roll fabrication. In this context, inorganic NiO x nanoparticles (NPs) are an excellent candidate to serve as the HTL in PSCs, owing to their excellent solution processability at room temperature. However, the low-temperature processing condition is usually accompanied with defect formation, which deteriorates the film quality and device efficiency to a large extent. To suppress this setback, we used a series of benzoic acid selfassembled monolayers (SAMs) to passivate the surface defects of the NiO x NPs and found that 4-bromobenzoic acid could effectively play the role of the surface passivation. This SAM layer reduces the trap-assisted recombination, minimizes the energy offset between the NiO x NPs and perovskite, and changes the HTL surface wettability, thus enhancing the perovskite crystallization, resulting in more stable PSCs with enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.4 %, exceeding the control device PCE (15.5 %). Also, we incorporated the above-mentioned SAMs into flexible PSCs (F-PSCs) and achieved one of the highest PCE of 16.2 % on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a remarkable power-per-weight of 26.9 W g -1 . This facile interfacial engineering method offers great potential for the large-scale manufacturing and commercialization of PSCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  15. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsatorn Amornpitoksuk

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A dye sensitized solar cell is a new type of solar cell. The operating system of this solar cell type is similar to plant’s photosynthesis process. The sensitizer is available for absorption light and transfer electrons to nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor. The ruthenium(II complexes with polypyridyl ligands are usually used as the sensitizers in solar cell. At the present time, the complex of [Ru(2,2',2'’-(COOH3- terpy(NCS3] is the most efficient sensitizer. The total photon to current conversion efficiency was approximately 10% at AM = 1.5.

  16. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, V.; Braniste, F.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Lisii, C.; Nacu, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  18. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO{sub 2} overlay coating on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle working electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, VIC 3220 (Australia); Gao, Mei [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Melbourne, VIC 3169 (Australia); Wang, Hongxia [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, VIC 3220 (Australia); Yang, Weidong [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Melbourne, VIC 3169 (Australia); Lin, Tong, E-mail: tong.lin@deakin.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, VIC 3220 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    Novel TiO{sub 2} single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO{sub 2} nanorods on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO{sub 2} nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO{sub 2} nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanorods on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO{sub 2} nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency.

  19. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO2 overlay coating on TiO2 nanoparticle working electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Gao, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Weidong; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Novel TiO 2 single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO 2 nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO 2 nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO 2 nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO 2 nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO 2 nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO 2 nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO 2 nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO 2 nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO 2 nanoparticles. • TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency

  20. Reduction of Charge-Carrier Recombination at ZnO-Polymer Blend Interfaces in PTB7-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Using Regular Device Structure: Impact of ZnO Nanoparticle Size and Surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dkhil, Sadok; Gaceur, Meriem; Diallo, Abdou Karim; Didane, Yahia; Liu, Xianjie; Fahlman, Mats; Margeat, Olivier; Ackermann, Jörg; Videlot-Ackermann, Christine

    2017-05-24

    Cathode interfacial layers, also called electron extraction layers (EELs), based on zinc oxide (ZnO) have been studied in polymer-blend solar cells toward optimization of the opto-electric properties. Bulk heterojunction solar cells based on poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 70 BM) were realized in regular structure with all-solution-processed interlayers. A pair of commercially available surfactants, ethanolamine (EA) and ethylene glycol (EG), were used to modify the surface of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in alcohol-based dispersion. The influence of ZnO particle size was also studied by preparing dispersions of two NP diameters (6 versus 11 nm). Here, we show that performance improvement can be obtained in polymer solar cells via the use of solution-processed ZnO EELs based on surface-modified nanoparticles. By the optimizing of the ZnO dispersion, surfactant ratio, and the resulting morphology of EELs, PTB7/PC 70 BM solar cells with a power-conversion efficiency of 8.2% could be obtained using small sized EG-modified ZnO NPs that allow the clear enhancement of the performance of solution-processed photovoltaic devices compared to state-of-the-art ZnO-based cathode layers.

  1. Nanocomposite enables sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuyal, Dibya D.

    Dye Sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising candidate for next generation photovoltaic panels due to their low cost, easy fabrication process, and relative high efficiency. Despite considerable effort on the advancement of DSSCs, the efficiency has been stalled for nearly a decade due to the complex interplay among various DSSC components. DSSCs consist of a photoanode on a conducting substrate, infiltrated dye for light absorption and electron injection, and an electrolyte to regenerate the dye. On the photoanode is a high band-gap semiconducting material, primarily of a nanostructure morphology of titanium (II) dioxide (TiO2), dye molecules whose molar absorption is typically in the visible spectrum, are adsorbed onto the surface of TiO 2. To improve the current DSSCs, there are many parameters that can be investigated. In a conventional DSSC, a thick semiconducting layer such as the nanoparticle TiO2 layer induces charge separation efficiently while concurrently increasing the charge transport distance, leading the cell to suffer from more charge recombination and deterioration in charge collection efficiency. To improve on this limitation, TiO2 nanowires (NW) and nanotubes (NT) are explored to replace the nanoparticle photoanode. One-dimensional nanostructures are known for the excellent electron transport properties as well as maintaining a relatively high surface area. Hence one of the focuses of this thesis explores at using different morphologies and composition of TiO2 nanostructures to enhance electron collection efficiency. Another challenge in conventional DSSCs is the limit in light absorption of solar irradiation. Dyes are limited to absorption only in the visible range, and have a low molar absorption coefficient in the near infrared (NIR). Tuning dyes is extremely complicated and may have more disadvantages than simply by extending light harvesting. Therefore our strategy is to incorporate quantum dots to replace the dye, as well as prepare a

  2. An Introduction to Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Most likely, solar cells will play a significant role in this country's strategy to address the two interrelated issues of global warming and dependence on imported oil. The purpose of this paper is to present an explanation of how solar cells work at an introductory high school, college, or university physics course level. The treatment presented…

  3. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  4. Co-sensitization of quantum dot sensitized solar cells composed of TiO2 nanocrystalline photoanode with CdS and PbS nanoparticles and effect of PbS on the performance of solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Marandi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, CdS and PbS quantum dots were applied as the light sensitizers in TiO2 based nanostructured solar cells. The PbS quantum dots could absorb a wide range of the sunlight spectrum on earth due to their low bandgap energy. As a result, the cell sensitization is more effective by application of both CdS and PbS quantum dots sensitizers. The TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized through a hydrothermal process and deposited on FTO glass substrates as the photoanode scaffold. Then PbS quantum dots were grown on the surface of this nanocrystalline layer by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The CdS quantum dots were over-grown in the next step through a similar deposition method. Finally this sensitized layer was applied as the photoelectrode of the corresponding quantum dot sensitized solar cells. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency was achieved for the cell with a photoanode made of co-sensitization through 2 and 6 cycles of PbS and CdS deposition, respectively. The photovoltaic parameters of this cell were measured as Jsc of 10.81 mA/cm2, Voc of 590 mv and energy conversion efficiency of 2.7+0.2%.

  5. Upconversion in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Modification of the spectrum requires down- and/or upconversion or downshifting of the spectrum, meaning that the energy of photons is modified to either lower (down) or higher (up) energy. Nanostructures such as quantum dots, luminescent dye molecules, and lanthanide-doped glasses are capable of absorbing photons at a certain wavelength and emitting photons at a different (shorter or longer) wavelength. We will discuss upconversion by lanthanide compounds in various host materials and will further demonstrate upconversion to work for thin-film silicon solar cells. PMID:23413889

  6. Route to enhance the efficiency of organic photovoltaic solar cells - by adding ferroelectric nanoparticles to P3HT/PCBM admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black David

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that by adding ferroelectric nanoparticles to poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM photovoltaic devices the relative efficiency can be increased compared to the same blend without these nanoparticles. In this work samples of 20 mg/ml concentrations of P3HT and PCBM were prepared in a 1:1 ratio and the samples prepared using ferroelectric barium titanate (BT and strontium titanate (ST nanoparticles in a 1:1:0.5 ratio. The samples were spin coated onto ITO coated glass with a layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophenepoly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. A top electrode of aluminium 1 cm2 was deposited. The current-voltage characteristics of the devices were determined using a solar simulator and the absorption characteristics by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The samples with BT and ST exhibited increased absorption around 490 nm and increased open circuit voltage and short circuit current compared to the control P3HT/PCBM sample. The possible mechanism that helps to understand the increase in open circuit voltage and short circuit current is also proposed in this work.

  7. Photon management in solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Uwe; Gombert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, appl...

  8. Si Microwire Array Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Warren, Emily L.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    Si microwire-array solar cells with Air Mass 1.5 Global conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9% have been fabricated using an active volume of Si equivalent to a 4 μm thick Si wafer. These solar cells exhibited open-circuit voltages of 500 mV, short-circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) of up to 24 mA cm{sup -2}, and fill factors >65% and employed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric particles that scattered light incident in the space between the wires, a Ag back reflector that prevented the escape of incident illumination from the back surface of the solar cell, and an a-SiN{sub x}:H passivation/anti-reflection layer. Wire-array solar cells without some or all of these design features were also fabricated to demonstrate the importance of the light-trapping elements in achieving a high J{sub sc}. Scanning photocurrent microscopy images of the microwire-array solar cells revealed that the higher J{sub sc} of the most advanced cell design resulted from an increased absorption of light incident in the space between the wires. Spectral response measurements further revealed that solar cells with light-trapping elements exhibited improved red and infrared response, as compared to solar cells without light-trapping elements.

  9. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  10. Dust Removal from Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A solar panel cleaning device includes a solar panel having a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged in rows and embedded in the solar panel with space between the rows. A transparent dielectric overlay is affixed to the solar panel. A plurality of electrode pairs each of which includes an upper and a lower electrode are arranged on opposite sides of the transparent dielectric and are affixed thereto. The electrodes may be transparent electrodes which may be arranged without concern for blocking sunlight to the solar panel. The solar panel may be a dielectric and its dielectric properties may be continuously and spatially variable. Alternatively the dielectric used may have dielectric segments which produce different electrical field and which affects the wind "generated."

  11. Schottky Quantum Dot Solar Cells Stable in Air under Solar Illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2010-01-07

    (Figure Presented) The air stability and power conversion efficiency of solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar cells is dramatically improved by the insertion of 0.8 nm LiF between the PbS nanoparticle film and the Al contact. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. High Efficiency, Deployable Solar Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and easily deployable solar cell (SC) capable of specific power greater than 1kW/kg is the target of this development and are at an...

  13. Augmentation of a solar still distillate yield via absorber plate coated with black nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Kabeel; Z.M. Omara; F.A. Essa; A.S. Abdullah; T. Arunkumar; Ravishankar Sathyamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Effects of utilizing nanomaterial on the solar still productivity investigated experimentally. Cuprous oxides (CuO) chosen as a nanoparticles material. The nanoparticles added to the black paint of the solar still walls to enhance the solar still performance. Experiments conducted with cuprous oxide nanoparticles weight concentrations ranged from 10% to 40%. It is found that adding nanoparticles to paint increase heat transfer rate and saline water temperature. Solar still productivity of the...

  14. Solar cell module assembly jig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofarrell, H. W. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    The invention relates to the manufacture of solar cell modules and more particularly to a jig for assembling, positioning and maintaining the components under resilient pressure, while the entire assembly and the jig is subjected to heat for simultaneously soldering all of the various circuit connections; as well as structurally bonding the layers into a strong light weight structure which minimizes the tendency of the solar cells to crack and the other components and electrical connections to fracture.

  15. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  16. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Holger Neuhaus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future efficiency potential of this technology. In research and development, more various advanced solar cell concepts have demonstrated higher efficiencies. The question which arises is “why are new solar cell concepts not transferred into industrial production more frequently?”. We look into the requirements a new solar cell technology has to fulfill to have an advantage over the current approach. Finally, we give an overview of high-efficiency concepts which have already been transferred into industrial production.

  17. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  18. Radiation hard solar cell and array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    A power generating solar cell for a spacecraft solar array is hardened against transient response to nuclear radiation while permitting normal operation of the cell in a solar radiation environment by shunting the cell with a second solar cell whose contacts are reversed relative to the power cell to form a cell module, exposing the power cell only to the solar radiation in a solar radiation environment to produce an electrical output at the module terminals, and exposing both cells to the nuclear radiation in a nuclear radiation environment so that the radiation induced currents generated by the cells suppress one another

  19. All-solution processed organic solar cells with top illumination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, B.R.; Shanmugam, S.; Teunissen, J.P.; Galagan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    All-solution processed organic solar cells with inverted device architecture were demonstrated. Devices contain opaque bottom electrodes and semitransparent top electrodes, resulting in top illuminated devices. Nanoparticles-based Ag ink was used for inkjet printing both top and bottom electrodes.

  20. Quantum-Tuned Two-Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xihua

    2011-01-01

    We report quantum-size-effect tuned tandem solar cells. Our two-junction photovoltaic devices employ light-absorbing material of a single composition and use two rationally-selected nanoparticle sizes to harvest the sun’s broad spectrum.

  1. A solution process for inverted tandem solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Bundgaard, Eva; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.

    2011-01-01

    Tandem solar cells with normal and inverted device geometries were prepared by a solution process. Both device types were based on the use of zinc(II)oxide as the electron transporting layer (ETL). The hole transporting layer (HTL) was either PEDOT:PSS for normal geometry tandem solar cells...... or vanadium(V)oxide in the case of inverted tandem cells. It was found that the inverted tandem solar cells performed comparable or better than the normal geometry devices, showing that the connection structure of vanadium(V)oxide, Ag nanoparticles and zinc(II)oxide functions both as a good recombination...... layer, ensuring serial connection, and as a solvent barrier, protecting the first photoactive layer from processing of the second layer. This successfully demonstrates a tandem solar cell fabrication process fully compatible with state-of-the-art solution based automated production procedures....

  2. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Spray deposition of water-soluble multiwall carbon nanotube and Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanoparticle composites as highly efficient counter electrodes in a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianwei; Xiong, Dehua; Zhang, Wenjun; Ming, Liqun; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Zhanfeng; Wang, Mingkui; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Yi-Bing

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) based on water-soluble multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanoparticle (CZTSe NP) composites have been successfully introduced into a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) system. Suitable surface modification allows the MWCNTs and CZTSe NPs to be homogeneously dispersed in water, facilitating the subsequent low-temperature spray deposition of high quality composite films with different composite ratios. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the composite CEs has been critically compared by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel-polarization analysis. It is found that the composite CE at the MWCNT : CZTSe ratio of 0.1 offers the best performance, leading to an optimal solar cell efficiency of 4.60%, which is 50.8% higher than that of the Pt reference CE. The as-demonstrated higher catalytic activity of the composite CEs compared to their single components could be ascribed to the combination of the fast electron transport of the MWCNTs and the high catalytic activity of CZTSe NPs.In this paper, low-cost counter electrodes (CEs) based on water-soluble multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanoparticle (CZTSe NP) composites have been successfully introduced into a quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) system. Suitable surface modification allows the MWCNTs and CZTSe NPs to be homogeneously dispersed in water, facilitating the subsequent low-temperature spray deposition of high quality composite films with different composite ratios. The electrochemical catalytic activity of the composite CEs has been critically compared by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel-polarization analysis. It is found that the composite CE at the MWCNT : CZTSe ratio of 0.1 offers the best performance, leading to an optimal solar cell efficiency of 4.60%, which is 50.8% higher than that of the Pt reference CE. The as-demonstrated higher catalytic activity of the composite CEs compared to

  4. Advances in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chuantian; Bolink, Henk J.; Han, Hongwei; Huang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Organolead halide perovskite materials possess a combination of remarkable optoelectronic properties, such as steep optical absorption edge and high absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes. Taken together with the ability for low temperature preparation, also from solution, perovskite‐based devices, especially photovoltaic (PV) cells have been studied intensively, with remarkable progress in performance, over the past few years. The combination of high efficiency, low cost and additional (non‐PV) applications provides great potential for commercialization. Performance and applications of perovskite solar cells often correlate with their device structures. Many innovative device structures were developed, aiming at large‐scale fabrication, reducing fabrication cost, enhancing the power conversion efficiency and thus broadening potential future applications. This review summarizes typical structures of perovskite solar cells and comments on novel device structures. The applications of perovskite solar cells are discussed. PMID:27812475

  5. Concentrator-solar-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L.

    1982-07-01

    A program is described which is a continuation of earlier programs for the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, silicon concentrator solar cells. The base-line process steps and process sequences identified in these earlier contracts were evaluated and specific processes reviewed. In particular, emphasis on the use of Czochralski-grown silicon wafers rather than float-zone wafers were examined. Additionally, a study of the trade-offs between textured and nontextured cells was initiated, and the limits within which the low-cost plated nickel copper metallization can be used in concentrator solar cell applications was identified.

  6. Methodological comparison on hybrid nano organic solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavan, Rajendaran; Hambali, Nor Azura Malini Ahmad; Wahid, Mohamad Halim Abd; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Shahimin, Mukhzeer Mohamad

    2018-02-01

    The development of low cost solar cells has been the main focus in recent years. This has lead to the generation of photovoltaic cells based on hybrid of nanoparticle-organic polymer materials. This type of hybrid photovoltaic cells can overcome the problem of polymeric devices having low optical absorption and carrier mobilities. The hybrid cell has the potential of bridging the efficiency gap, which in present in organic and inorganic semiconductor materials. This project focuses on obtaining an hybrid active layer consisting of nanoparticles and organic polymer, to understand the parameter involved in obtaining this active layer and finally to investigate if the addition of nano particles in to the active layer could enhance the output of the hybrid solar cell. The hybrid active layer have will be deposited using the spin coating technique by using CdTe, CdS nano particles mixed with poly (2-methoxy,5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylvinylene)MEH-PPV.

  7. Localized Surface Plasmons Enhanced Light Transmission into c-Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Premkumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the light incoupling into c-Si solar cells due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances in periodic metallic nanoparticles by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. A significant enhancement of AM1.5G solar radiation transmission has been demonstrated by depositing nanoparticles of various metals on the upper surface of a semi-infinite Si substrate. Plasmonic nanostructures located close to the cell surface can scatter incident light efficiently into the cell. Al nanoparticles were found to be superior to Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles due to the improved transmission of light over almost the entire solar spectrum and, thus, can be a potential low-cost plasmonic metal for large-scale implementation of solar cells.

  8. Core–shell solar cell fabrication using heterostructure of ZnO-nanowires arrays decorated with sputtered CdTe-nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarnejad, Elaheh; Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood

    2018-03-01

    Core–shell heterostructures of ZnO-NWs/CdTe-NPs were fabricated through covering ZnO-NWs arrays using CdTe-NPs and the room temperature RF magnetron sputtering method. The influence of different CdTe-NPs deposition time (5, 20, 40 and 60 min) on the physical properties of core–shell heterostructures were investigated. In order to achieve the highest coverage level and a wide range of optical absorption at a visible range for a ZnO-NWs/CdTe-NPs (60 min) array, FTO/ZnO-NWs/CdTe-NPs (60 min)/Ni/Au core–shell solar cells were used. Solar cell fabrication was performed by soaking the samples in a saturated CdCl2 solution in methanol and a post-annealing treatment at 400 °C for 1 h in air which led to grain growth, the passivation of deep level defects, and the decrease of stacking faults. Short-circuit current and power conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell under illumination with visible light AM1.5 (100 mW cm‑2) were 13.3 mA cm‑2 and 3.41%, respectively. It was found that introducing a thin interfacial layer of CdSe to the configuration (FTO/ZnO-NWs/CdSe (10 nm)/CdTe-NPs (60 min)/Ni/Au) led to a 5.58% enhancement of photovoltaic performance of the solar cell (20.9 mA cm‑2), which is 63.6% more than that of the same configuration without CdSe.

  9. Rehydrating dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs are silicon free, simply producible solar cells. Longevity, however, is a longstanding problem for DSSCs. Due to liquid electrolytes being commonly used, evaporation of the electrolyte causes a dramatic drop in electric output as cells continue to be used unmaintained. Stopping evaporation has been tried in different ways in the past, albeit with differing degrees of success. In a recent project, a different route was chosen, exploring ways of revitalizing DSSCs after varying periods of usage. For this, we focused on rehydration of the cells using distilled water as well as the electrolyte contained in the cells. The results show a significant influence of these rehydration procedures on the solar cell efficiency. In possible applications of DSSCs in tents etc., morning dew may thus be used for rehydration of solar cells. Refillable DSSCs can also be used in tropical climates or specific types of farms and greenhouses where high humidity serves the purpose of rehydrating DSSCs.

  10. One-step fabrication of copper sulfide nanoparticles decorated on graphene sheets as highly stable and efficient counter electrode for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessein, Amr; Wang, Feiju; Masai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Kazunari; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are thin-film photovoltaics and highly promising as next-generation solar cells owing to their high theoretical efficiency, easy fabrication process, and low production cost. However, the practical photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSSCs are still far below the theoretically estimated value owing to the lack of an applicable design of the materials and electrodes. In this work, we developed a highly stable and efficient counter electrode (CE) from copper sulfide nanocrystals and reduced graphene oxide (Cu x S@RGO) for QDSSC applications. The Cu x S@RGO electrocatalyst was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, then directly applied to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by the simple drop-casting technique. Owing to the synergistic effect between Cu x S nanocrystals and conductive RGO sheets, the Cu x S@RGO CE showed high electrocatalytic activity for polysulfide electrolyte reduction. A CdS QDSSC based on the Cu x S@RGO CE yielded a high and reproducible PCE of 2.36%, exceeding those of 1.57 and 1.33% obtained with the commonly used Cu2S/brass and Pt CEs, respectively. Moreover, the QDSSC with the Cu x S@RGO CE showed excellent photostability in a light-soaking test without any obvious decay in the photocurrent, whereas the cell based on the Cu2S/brass CE was severely degraded.

  11. Photon upconversion for thin film solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this research one of the many possible methods to increase the efficiency of solar cells is described. The method investigated is based on adapting the solar light in such a way that the solar cell can convert more light into electricity. The part of the solar spectrum that is adapted is the part

  12. Solar cell circuit and method for manufacturing solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention is a novel manufacturing method for making multi-junction solar cell circuits that addresses current problems associated with such circuits by allowing the formation of integral diodes in the cells and allows for a large number of circuits to readily be placed on a single silicon wafer substrate. The standard Ge wafer used as the base for multi-junction solar cells is replaced with a thinner layer of Ge or a II-V semiconductor material on a silicon/silicon dioxide substrate. This allows high-voltage cells with multiple multi-junction circuits to be manufactured on a single wafer, resulting in less array assembly mass and simplified power management.

  13. Nanorods and nanotubes for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyuk, V V; Dimitriev, O P

    2008-01-01

    Nanorods and nanotubes as photoactive materials as well as electrodes in photovoltaic cells have been launched a few years ago, and the literature in this field started to appear only recently. The first steps have shown both advantages and disadvantages of their application, and the main expectation associated with their effective charge transport has not been realized completely. This article aims to review both the first and the recent tendencies in the development and application of nanorod and nanotube materials in photovoltaic cells. Two basic techniques of synthesis of crystalline nanorod structures are described, the top-down and bottom-up approaches, respectively. Design and photovoltaic performance of solar cells based on various semiconductor nanorod materials, such as TiO2, ZnO, CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CuO, Si are presented and compared with respective solar cells based on semiconductor nanoparticles. Specific of synthesis and application of carbon nanotubes in photovoltaic devices is also reviewed.

  14. A comparative study on the morphology of P3HT:PCBM solar cells with the addition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles by spin and rod coating methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenluan; Nguyen, Ngoc A.; Murray, Roy; Xin, Jiyuan; Mackay, Michael E.

    2017-09-01

    Our previous study presented up to 20% power conversion efficiency (PCE) enhancement of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solar cells under the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) self-assembly (SA) effect by spin coating. Fe3O4 NPs (about 11 nm hydrodynamic diameter) form a thin layer at the top interface of the light absorbing active layer, which results in the generation of PCBM rich region improving the charge transport (Zhang et al. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 160:126-133, 2017). In order to investigate the feasibility of this Fe3O4 NPs SA effect under large-scale production condition, a smooth rod was implemented to mimic roll-to-roll coating technique and yield active layers having about the same thickness as the spin-coated ones. Small angle neutron scattering and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction were employed finding out similar morphologies of the active layers by these two coating techniques. However, rod-coated solar cell's PCE decreases with the addition of Fe3O4 NPs compared with the one without them. This is because PCBM rich region is not created at the top interface of the active layer due to the absence of Fe3O4 NPs, which is attributed to the weak convective flow and low diffusion rate. Moreover, in the rod-coated solar cells, the presence of Fe3O4 NPs causes decrease in P3HT crystallinity, thus the charge transport and the device performance. Our study confirms the role of spin coating in the Fe3O4 NPs SA effect and enables researchers to explore this finding in other polymer nanocomposite systems.

  15. Pt-graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hajime; Tanaka, Shumpei; Miyoshi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene films with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercial graphene. • Pt consumption can be reduced by using Pt-graphene films. • The film showed improved catalytic activity for the reaction I 3 − /I − . • The film can be used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). • The performance of DSSC was superior to that of the Pt electrode. - Abstract: A simple paste method for fabricating graphene films with Pt nanoparticles was developed. First, graphene pastes with Pt nanoparticles were prepared from commercially available graphene. The resulting films of graphene nanoplatelet aggregates with Pt nanoparticles (Pt-GNA) contained Pt nanoparticles distributed over the entire three-dimensional surface of the GNA. Then, the catalytic activity for the I 3 − /I − redox reaction was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. The GNA electrode exhibited higher activity than a graphene nanoplatelet electrode because of its higher effective surface area. Addition of Pt nanoparticles to the electrodes improved the catalytic activity. In particular, a large Faradaic current for the I 3 − /I − reaction was observed for the Pt-GNA electrode. As the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), their performance was consistent with the cyclic voltammetry results. In particular, the DSSC performance of the Pt-GNA electrode was superior to that of the Pt electrodes commonly used in DSSCs

  16. Electron Transport in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Porous Network of Titania Nanoparticles, Incorporating Electrical and Optical Advantages in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Saba; Khosravi, Yusef; Abdi, Yaser

    2016-11-04

    The integration of fast electron transport and large effective surface area is critical to attaining higher gains in the nanostructured photovoltaic devices. Here, we report facilitated electron transport in the quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) porous TiO 2 . Liquid electrolyte dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared by utilizing photoanodes based on the Q2D porous substructures. Due to electron confinement in a microscale porous medium, directional diffusion toward collecting electrode is induced into the electron transport. Our measurements based on the photocurrent and photovoltage time-of-flight transients show that at higher Fermi levels, the electron diffusion coefficient in the Q2D porous TiO 2 is about one order of magnitude higher when compared with the conventional layer of porous TiO 2 . The results show that microstructuring of the porous TiO 2 leads to an approximately threefold improvement in the electron diffusion length. Such a modification may considerably affects the electrical functionality of moderate or low performance dye-sensitized solar cells for which the internal gain or collection efficiency is typically low. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Recent advances in plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Won-Yeop; Song, Da Hyun; Yang, Hwa-Young; Kim, Ho-Sub; Son, Byung Sung; Suh, Jung Sang; Jun, Bong-Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are among the best devices in generating electrons from solar light energy due to their high efficiency, low-cost in processing and transparency in building integrated photovoltaics. There are several ways to improve their energy-conversion efficiency, such as increasing light harvesting and electron transport, of which plasmon and 3-dimensional nanostructures are greatly capable. We review recent advances in plasmonic effects which depend on optimizing sizes, shapes, alloy compositions and integration of metal nanoparticles. Different methods to integrate metal nanoparticles into 3-dimensional nanostructures are also discussed. This review presents a guideline for enhancing the energy-conversion efficiency of DSSCs by utilizing metal nanoparticles that are incorporated into 3-dimensional nanostructures.

  18. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  19. Incineration of organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa, Nieves; Lenz, Markus; Krebs, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of silver from the electrodes of roll-to-roll processed organic solar cells after incineration has been performed quantitatively by extraction with nitric acid. This procedure is more than 10 times faster than previous reports and the amount of acid needed for the extraction is reduced

  20. Graded bandgap perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Onur; Gilbert, S. Matt; Pham, Thang; Turner, Sally J.; Tan, Mark Tian Zhi; Worsley, Marcus A.; Zettl, Alex

    2017-05-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials have emerged as attractive alternatives to conventional solar cell building blocks. Their high light absorption coefficients and long diffusion lengths suggest high power conversion efficiencies, and indeed perovskite-based single bandgap and tandem solar cell designs have yielded impressive performances. One approach to further enhance solar spectrum utilization is the graded bandgap, but this has not been previously achieved for perovskites. In this study, we demonstrate graded bandgap perovskite solar cells with steady-state conversion efficiencies averaging 18.4%, with a best of 21.7%, all without reflective coatings. An analysis of the experimental data yields high fill factors of ~75% and high short-circuit current densities up to 42.1 mA cm-2. The cells are based on an architecture of two perovskite layers (CH3NH3SnI3 and CH3NH3PbI3-xBrx), incorporating GaN, monolayer hexagonal boron nitride, and graphene aerogel.

  1. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  2. Soft X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy study of semiconductor oxide nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cell: ZnSnO3 and Zn2SnO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Eunsook; Kim, D. H.; Seong, Seungho; Moon, Soo Yeon; Shin, Yu-Ju; Baik, J.; Shin, H. J.; Kang, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structures of the Zn-stannate nanoparticles of ZnSnO3 and Zn2SnO4, which are the potential nano-structured semiconductor oxides for a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC), have been investigated by employing photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and compared to those of reference materials. The divalent and tetravalent valence states of Zn2+ and Sn4+ ions are confirmed experimentally. The energy levels of both the valence-band and conduction-band edges are determined experimentally. The top of the valence band in PES is slightly higher in Zn2SnO4 than in ZnSnO3. The onset energies of the O 1s XAS spectra of the Zn-stannates are found to be similar to each other, but higher than that of TiO2. The O 1 s XAS spectrum of ZnSnO3 exhibits the higher unoccupied density of states near the bottom of the conduction band than those of Zn2SnO4, SnO2 and ZnO, reflecting the larger number of holes in the Zn 3 d bands of ZnSnO3. Hence, the easier electron transfer is expected from the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of a dye molecule to the conduction band of ZnSnO3 nanoparticles on the transparent conductive electrode of a DSSC.

  3. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  4. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. A major issue encountered during fabrication of triple junction a-Si solar cells on polyimide sub- strates is the adhesion of the solar cell thin films to the substrates. Here, we present our study of film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells made on different polyimide substrates (Kapton VN, Upilex-S and ...

  5. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A major issue encountered during fabrication of triple junction -Si solar cells on polyimide substrates is the adhesion of the solar cell thin films to the substrates. Here, we present our study of film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells made on different polyimide substrates (Kapton VN, Upilex-S and Gouldflex), and the ...

  6. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-14

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface.

  7. Photon absorption and photocurrent in solar cells below semiconductor bandgap due to electron photoemission from plasmonic nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Uskov, Alexander; Gritti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We model the electron photoemission frommetal nanoparticles into a semiconductor in a Schottky diode with a conductive oxide electrode hosting the nanoparticles. We show that plasmonic effects in the nanoparticles lead to a substantial enhancement in photoemission compared with devices with conti....... Such structure can form the dais of the development of plasmonic photoemission enhanced solar cells....

  8. Sun-believable solar paint. A transformative one-step approach for designing nanocrystalline solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Matthew P; Lightcap, Ian V; Kamat, Prashant V

    2012-01-24

    A transformative approach is required to meet the demand of economically viable solar cell technology. By making use of recent advances in semiconductor nanocrystal research, we have now developed a one-coat solar paint for designing quantum dot solar cells. A binder-free paste consisting of CdS, CdSe, and TiO(2) semiconductor nanoparticles was prepared and applied to conducting glass surface and annealed at 473 K. The photoconversion behavior of these semiconductor film electrodes was evaluated in a photoelectrochemical cell consisting of graphene-Cu(2)S counter electrode and sulfide/polysulfide redox couple. Open-circuit voltage as high as 600 mV and short circuit current of 3.1 mA/cm(2) were obtained with CdS/TiO(2)-CdSe/TiO(2) electrodes. A power conversion efficiency exceeding 1% has been obtained for solar cells constructed using the simple conventional paint brush approach under ambient conditions. Whereas further improvements are necessary to develop strategies for large area, all solid state devices, this initial effort to prepare solar paint offers the advantages of simple design and economically viable next generation solar cells. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small...... cells. Ptychography offers desirable properties such as potentially high resolution, quantitative contrast and possibility for tomography. Both these X-ray imaging techniques were used to measure the samples with high spatial and chemical resolution. In addition, these experiments explored and reviewed...

  10. Augmentation of a solar still distillate yield via absorber plate coated with black nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of utilizing nanomaterial on the solar still productivity investigated experimentally. Cuprous oxides (CuO chosen as a nanoparticles material. The nanoparticles added to the black paint of the solar still walls to enhance the solar still performance. Experiments conducted with cuprous oxide nanoparticles weight concentrations ranged from 10% to 40%. It is found that adding nanoparticles to paint increase heat transfer rate and saline water temperature. Solar still productivity of the proposed system is higher than that for the conventional still. Results acquired that utilizing CuO nanoparticles boosted the distillate by 16% and 25% as compared to the conventional solar still (CSS at weight fraction concentration of 10% and 40%, respectively. Payback period of the distillation system for the modified still using CuO nanomaterials is about 96 days, at weight fraction 10%, which is considerable as compared by 89 days for CSS. Keywords: Nanomaterial, Solar still, Distillation, Nanoparticle

  11. Gallium nitride nanoparticles for solar-blind detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the properties of GaN semiconducting nanoparticles as a potential candidate for photodetection in the solar-blind region. The photocurrent spectral response is studied spanning the range 1.6-5.5 eV. A significant fraction of the response is in the range 4-5.5 eV. The results are compared to other optical ...

  12. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  13. Nanobump assembly for plasmonic organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Kinam; Lee, Gunhee; Ko, Youngjun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Choi, Mansoo; Lee, Changhee

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate novel plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) by embedding an easy processible nanobump assembly (NBA) for harnessing more light. The NBA is consisted of precisely size-controlled Ag nanoparticles (NPs) generated by an aerosol process at atmospheric pressure and thermally deposited molybdenum oxide (MoO3) layer which follows the underlying nano structure of NPs. The active layer, spin-casted polymer blend solution, has an undulated structure conformably covering the NBA structure. To find the optimal condition of the NBA structure for enhancing light harvest as well as carrier transfer, we systematically investigate the effect of the size of Ag NPs and the MoO3 coverage on the device performance. It is observed that the photocurrent of device increases as the size of Ag NP increases owing to enhanced plasmonic and scattering effect. In addition, the increased light absorption is effectively transferred to the photocurrent with small carrier losses, when the Ag NPs are fully covered by the MoO3 layer. As a result, the NBA structure consisted of 40 nm Ag NPs enclosed by 20 nm MoO3 layer leads to 18% improvement in the power conversion efficiency compared to the device without the NBA structure. Therefore, the NBA plasmonic structure provides a reliable and efficient light harvesting in a broad range of wavelength, which consequently enhances the performance of organic solar cells.

  14. SLAM examination of solar cells and solar cell welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, P. M.; Vorres, C. L.; Yuhas, D. E.

    The scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) has been evaluated for non-destructive examination of solar cells and interconnector bonds. Using this technique, it is possible to view through materials in order to reveal regions of discontinuity such as microcracks and voids. Of particular interest is the ability to evaluate, in a unique manner, the bonds produced by parallel gap welding. It is possible to not only determine the area and geometry of the bond between the tab and cell, but also to reveal any microcracks incurred during the welding. By correlating the SLAM results with conventional techniques of weld evaluation a more confident weld parameter optimization can be obtained.

  15. Three-Terminal Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many defects exist within amorphous silicon since it is not crystalline. This provides recombination centers, thus reducing the efficiency of a typical a-Si solar cell. A new structure is presented in this paper: a three-terminal a-Si solar cell. The new back-to-back p-i-n/n-i-p structure increased the average electric field in a solar cell. A typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was also simulated for comparison using the same thickness and material parameters. The 0.28 μm-thick three-terminal a-Si solar cell achieved an efficiency of 11.4%, while the efficiency of a typical a-Si p-i-n solar cell was 9.0%. Furthermore, an efficiency of 11.7% was achieved by thickness optimization of the three-terminal solar cell.

  16. Concentrated sunlight for organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . A high solar intensity study of inverted P3HT:PCBM solar cells is presented. Performance peak positions were found to be in the range of 1-5 suns, with smaller cells peaking at higher solar concentrations. Additionally, concentrated sunlight is demonstrated as a practical tool for accelerated stability...

  17. Inverted polymer solar cells with reduced interface recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Song; Small, Cephas E.; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Lai, Tzung-han; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Manders, Jesse R.; So, Franky [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Amb, Chad M. [The George and Josephine Butler Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Center of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Reynolds, John R. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Altanta, GA, 30332-0400 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Interface recombination induced by the defect states in zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-based electron extraction layer is reported as a significant loss-mechanism of photocurrent collection. By choosing appropriate UV-ozone treatment conditions on the zinc oxide layer, inverted polymer solar cells show reduced interface recombination and thus improved power conversion efficiencies of up to 8.1%. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Chemical welding of binary nanoparticles: room temperature sintering of CuSe and In2S3 nanoparticles for solution-processed CuInS(x)Se(1-x) solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Lim, Hui; Batabyal, Sudip K; Pramana, Stevin S; Wong, L H; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mhaisalkar, S G

    2013-06-14

    Chemical welding of oppositely charged dissimilar metal chalcogenide nanomaterials is reported to produce a quaternary metal chalcogenide. CuSe and In2S3 nanoparticles were synthesized with opposite surface charges by stabilizing with polyacrylic acid and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Upon mixing these nanoparticles at room temperature, the electrostatic attraction induced coalescence of these nanoparticles and led to the formation of CuInSxSe1-x nanoparticles.

  19. Recent Advances in Solar Cell Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The advances in solar cell efficiency, radiation tolerance, and cost over the last decade are reviewed. Potential performance of thin-film solar cells in space are discussed, and the cost and the historical trends in production capability of the photovoltaics industry are considered with respect to the requirements of space power systems. Concentrator cells with conversion efficiency over 30%, and nonconcentrating solar cells with efficiency over 25% are now available, and advanced radiation-tolerant cells and lightweight, thin-film arrays are both being developed. Nonsolar applications of solar cells, including thermophotovoltaics, alpha- and betavoltaics, and laser power receivers, are also discussed.

  20. Design and feasibility of high temperature nanoparticle fluid filter in hybrid thermal/photovoltaic concentrating solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Brekke, Nick; Tunkara, Ebrima; Hari, Parameswar; Roberts, Kenneth; Otanicar, Todd

    2015-09-01

    A nanoparticle fluid filter used with concentrating hybrid solar/thermal collector design is presented. Nanoparticle fluid filters could be situated on any given concentrating system with appropriate customized engineering. This work shows the design in the context of a trough concentration system. Geometric design and physical placement in the optical path was modeled using SolTrace. It was found that a design can be made that blocks 0% of the traced rays. The nanoparticle fluid filter is tunable for different concentrating systems using various PV cells or operating at varying temperatures.

  1. Supramolecular photochemistry and solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHA NEYDE YUKIE MURAKAMI

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecular photochemistry as well as solar cells are fascinating topics of current interest in Inorganic Photochemistry and very active research fields which have attracted wide attention in last two decades. A brief outline of the investigations in these fields carried out in our Laboratory of Inorganic Photochemistry and Energy Conversion is given here with no attempt of an exhaustive coverage of the literature. The emphasis is placed on recent work and information on the above mentioned subjects. Three types of supramolecular systems have been the focus of this work: (i cage-type coordination compounds; (ii second-sphere coordination compounds, exemplified by ion-pair photochemistry of cobalt complexes and (iii covalently-linked systems. In the latter, modulation of the photoluminescence and photochemistry of some rhenium complexes are discussed. Solar energy conversion and development of thin-layer photoelectrochemical solar cells based on sensitization of nanocrystalline semiconductor films by some ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are presented as an important application that resulted from specifically engineered artificial assemblies.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Pure Rutile TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Study and Thin Films for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Siou Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure rutile-phase TiO2 (r-TiO2 was synthesized by a simple one pot experiment under hydrothermal condition using titanium (IV n-butoxide as a Ti-precursor and HCl as a peptizer. The TiO2 products were characterized by XRD, TEM, ESCA, and BET surface area measurement. The r-TiO2 were rodlike in shape with average size of ∼61×32 nm at hydrothermal temperature of 220°C for 10 h. Hydrothermal treatment at longer reaction time increased the tendency of crystal growth and also decreased the BET surface area. The degradation of methylene blue was selected as a test reaction to confer the photocatalytic activity of as-obtained r-TiO2. The results showed a strong correlation between the structure evolution, particle size, and photocatalytic performance of r-TiO2. Furthermore, the r-TiO2-based solar cell was prepared for the photovoltaic characteristics study, and the best efficiency of ~3.16% was obtained.

  3. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  4. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Plasmonic Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Adam, Jost; Madsen, Morten

    The organic bulk hetero-junction solar cell has remarkable advantages such as low cost, mechanical flexibility and simple process techniques. Recently, low-band gap photoactive materials have obtained a significant attention due to their potential to absorb a wider range of the solar spectrum...... to attain higher power conversion efficiencies. Many low-band gap photoactive materials, however, still show a relatively low external quantum efficiency of less than 60% [1]. One possible approach to improve the device performance is to increase the light absorption in the active layer. This may, amongst...... other approaches, be achieved by using nano- or micro-structures that trap light at specific wavelengths [2], or by using the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of metal nanoparticles in the devices. In this work, we theoretically studied planar polymer solar cell based on finite-difference time...

  6. Enhanced Erbium-Doped Ceria Nanostructure Coating to Improve Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Nader; Clavel, Michael; Meehan, Kathleen; Samir, Effat; Gaballah, Soha; Salah, Mohammed

    2015-11-12

    This paper discusses the effect of adding reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (REDC NPs) as a coating on silicon solar cells. Reduced ceria nanoparticles doped with erbium have the advantages of both improving conductivity and optical conversion of solar cells. Oxygen vacancies in ceria nanoparticles reduce Ce 4+ to Ce 3+ which follow the rule of improving conductivity of solar cells through the hopping mechanism. The existence of Ce 3+ helps in the down-conversion from 430 nm excitation to 530 nm emission. The erbium dopant forms energy levels inside the low-phonon ceria host to up-convert the 780 nm excitations into green and red emissions. When coating reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles on the back side of a solar cell, a promising improvement in the solar cell efficiency has been observed from 15% to 16.5% due to the mutual impact of improved electric conductivity and multi-optical conversions. Finally, the impact of the added coater on the electric field distribution inside the solar cell has been studied.

  7. Enhanced Erbium-Doped Ceria Nanostructure Coating to Improve Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Shehata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of adding reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (REDC NPs as a coating on silicon solar cells. Reduced ceria nanoparticles doped with erbium have the advantages of both improving conductivity and optical conversion of solar cells. Oxygen vacancies in ceria nanoparticles reduce Ce4+ to Ce3+ which follow the rule of improving conductivity of solar cells through the hopping mechanism. The existence of Ce3+ helps in the down-conversion from 430 nm excitation to 530 nm emission. The erbium dopant forms energy levels inside the low-phonon ceria host to up-convert the 780 nm excitations into green and red emissions. When coating reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles on the back side of a solar cell, a promising improvement in the solar cell efficiency has been observed from 15% to 16.5% due to the mutual impact of improved electric conductivity and multi-optical conversions. Finally, the impact of the added coater on the electric field distribution inside the solar cell has been studied.

  8. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Biswajit [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-05-07

    nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  9. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  10. Modeling and optimizing the performance of plasmonic solar cells using effective medium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piralaee, M. [Research Institute of Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51665-163 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Group, Aras International Campus, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asgari, A., E-mail: asgari@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Institute of Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51665-163 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Siahpoush, V. [Research Institute of Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51665-163 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-05

    In this paper, the effects of random Ag nanoparticle used within the active layer of Si based thin film solar cell are investigated. To avoid the complexity of taking into account all random nanoparticles, an effective dielectric function for random Ag nanoparticles and Si nanocomposites is used that is the Maxwell–Garnet theory along with Percus–Yevick correction term. Considering the energy reservation law and using the effective dielectric function, the absorbance of the active layer, therefore, the solar cell's maximum short current density is obtained. Also, the maximum external quantum efficiency of the solar cell is obtained using the optimum values for the radius and filling fraction of Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A random plasmonic thin film solar cells is studied theoretically. • Silver nanoparticles are randomly distributed through the active layer of solar cell. • The Maxwell–Garnett effective medium theory is used to describe the optical properties. • We have found an optimum situation in which maximum short circuit current density is obtained. • The maximum EQE are found for Ag particles of 7.5 nm radius and filling fraction of 0.05.

  11. Modeling and optimizing the performance of plasmonic solar cells using effective medium theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piralaee, M.; Asgari, A.; Siahpoush, V.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of random Ag nanoparticle used within the active layer of Si based thin film solar cell are investigated. To avoid the complexity of taking into account all random nanoparticles, an effective dielectric function for random Ag nanoparticles and Si nanocomposites is used that is the Maxwell–Garnet theory along with Percus–Yevick correction term. Considering the energy reservation law and using the effective dielectric function, the absorbance of the active layer, therefore, the solar cell's maximum short current density is obtained. Also, the maximum external quantum efficiency of the solar cell is obtained using the optimum values for the radius and filling fraction of Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A random plasmonic thin film solar cells is studied theoretically. • Silver nanoparticles are randomly distributed through the active layer of solar cell. • The Maxwell–Garnett effective medium theory is used to describe the optical properties. • We have found an optimum situation in which maximum short circuit current density is obtained. • The maximum EQE are found for Ag particles of 7.5 nm radius and filling fraction of 0.05.

  12. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Greenfield, M.J.; Mehta, Y.U.; Merchan-Merchan, W.; Salkar, G.; Saveliev, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  13. Bypass diode for a solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Seung Bum [Palo Alto, CA; Kim, Taeseok [San Jose, CA; Smith, David D [Campbell, CA; Cousins, Peter J [Menlo Park, CA

    2012-03-13

    Bypass diodes for solar cells are described. In one embodiment, a bypass diode for a solar cell includes a substrate of the solar cell. A first conductive region is disposed above the substrate, the first conductive region of a first conductivity type. A second conductive region is disposed on the first conductive region, the second conductive region of a second conductivity type opposite the first conductivity type.

  14. Solar Cells Using Quantum Funnels

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots offer broad tuning of semiconductor bandstructure via the quantum size effect. Devices involving a sequence of layers comprised of quantum dots selected to have different diameters, and therefore bandgaps, offer the possibility of funneling energy toward an acceptor. Here we report a quantum funnel that efficiently conveys photoelectrons from their point of generation toward an intended electron acceptor. Using this concept we build a solar cell that benefits from enhanced fill factor as a result of this quantum funnel. This concept addresses limitations on transport in soft condensed matter systems and leverages their advantages in large-area optoelectronic devices and systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Device operation of organic tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, A.; de Boer, B.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    A generalized methodology is developed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of polymer tandem solar cells by knowing the electrical performance of both sub cells. We demonstrate that the electrical characteristics of polymer tandem solar cells are correctly predicted for both the series and

  16. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  17. Theoretical investigation on heterojunction solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prema, K.; Geetha, K.

    1986-11-01

    The study of thin film solar cells has proved that the surface is rough. A two-dimensional method based on the integral equation technique to analyse thin film solar cells has been developed by DeMey et al. In this paper we present our analysis of a thin film solar cell using the above techniques. Variation of the minority carrier concentration, the saturation current and the junction current of the solar cell with surface roughness is presented. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs

  18. Nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickert, Jonas; Dunbar, Ricky B; Hesse, Holger C; Wiedemann, Wolfgang; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2011-04-26

    This Progress Report highlights recent developments in nanostructured organic and hybrid solar cells. The authors discuss novel approaches to control the film morphology in fully organic solar cells and the design of nanostructured hybrid solar cells. The motivation and recent results concerning fabrication and effects on device physics are emphasized. The aim of this review is not to give a summary of all recent results in organic and hybrid solar cells, but rather to focus on the fabrication, device physics, and light trapping properties of nanostructured organic and hybrid devices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Machine for welding solar cell connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorans, D.Y.

    1977-08-09

    A machine for welding a connection wire over a solar cell electrode is described which comprises a base, a welding mount for the solar cell which is supported on the base, means for holding the solar cell on the welding mount, welding electrodes, means to lower the welding electrodes over the solar cell and the connection wire superimposed thereon, means for applying electric current pulses to said welding electrodes. It is characterized by the fact that it further comprises means for imparting to said mount an alternating transverse movement in relation to said base before and during the welding operation.

  20. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nady, J.; Kashyout, A.B.; Ebrahim, Sh.; Soliman, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temper...

  1. Ion mediated targeting of cells with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Vivek; Fu, Jinlong

    2010-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, Ca^2+ ions are necessary for intracellular signaling, in activity of mitochondria and a variety of other cellular process that have been linked to cell apoptosis, proteins synthesis and cell-cycle regulation. Here we show that Ca^2+ ions, serving as the bio-compatible interface can be used to target Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SaC, baker's yeast), a model eukaryotic cell, with Au nanoparticles (10 nm). The Ca^2+ ions bind to the carboxylic acid groups in the citrate functionalized Au nanoparticles. This transforms the nanoparticles into micron long 1-D branched chain assemblies due to inter-particle dipole-dipole interaction and inter-particle bonding due to the divalent nature of the Ca^2+ ion. A similar transformation is observed with the use of divalent ions Mg^2+, Cd^2+ and Fe^2+. The 1-D assembly aids the interfacing of ion-nanoparticles on the cell by providing multiple contact points. Further monovalent ions such as Na^+ are also effective for the targeting of the cell with nanoparticles. However Na-Au nanoparticles are limited in their deposition as they exist in solution as single particles. The cells remain alive after the deposition process and their vitality is unaffected by the interfacing with ion-nanoparticles.

  2. [Magnetic nanoparticles as tools for cell therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Labelling living cells with magnetic nanoparticles creates opportunities for numerous biomedical applications such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) cell tracking, cell manipulation, cell patterning for tissue engineering and magnetically-assisted cell delivery. The unique advantage of magnetic-based methods is to activate or monitor cell behavior by a remote stimulus, the magnetic field. Cell labelling methods using superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been widely developed, showing no adverse effect on cell proliferation and functionalities while conferring magnetic properties to various cell types. This paper first describes how cells can become responsive to magnetic field by safely internalizing magnetic nanoparticles. We next show how magnetic cells can be detected by MRI, giving the opportunity for non-invasive in vivo monitoring of cell migration. We exemplify the fact that MRI cell tracking has become a method of choice to follow the fate of administrated cells in cell therapy assay, whether the cells are grafted locally or administrated in the circulation. Finally we give different examples of magnetic manipulation of cells and their applications to regenerative medicine. Magnetic cell manipulation are forecasted to be more and more developed, in order to improve tissue engineering technique and assist cell-based therapies. Owing to the clinical approval of iron-oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent, there is no major obstacle in the translation to human clinics of the magnetic methods summarized in this paper. © Société de Biologie, 2013.

  3. Enhanced near-infrared to visible upconversion nanoparticles of Ho³⁺-Yb³⁺-F⁻ tri-doped TiO₂ and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells with 37% improvement in power conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Yang, Yulin; Fan, Ruiqing; Liu, Danqing; Wei, Liguo; Chen, Shuo; Li, Liang; Yang, Bin; Cao, Wenwu

    2014-08-04

    New near-infrared (NIR)-to-green upconversion nanoparticles of Ho(3+)-Yb(3+)-F(-) tridoped TiO2 (UC-F-TiO2) were designed and fabricated via the hydrosol-hydrothermal method. Under 980 nm NIR excitation, UC-F-TiO2 emit strong green upconversion fluorescence with three emission bands at 543, 644, and 751 nm and convert the NIR light in situ to the dye-sensitive visible light that could effectively reduce the distance between upconversion materials and sensitizers; thus, they minimize the loss of the converted light. Our results show that this UC-F-TiO2 offers excellent opportunities for the other types of solar cells applications, such as organic solar cells, c-Si solar cells, multijunction solar cells, and so on. When integrating the UC-F-TiO2 into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), superior total energy conversion efficiency was achieved. Under AM1.5G light, open-circuit voltage reached 0.77 ± 0.01 V, short-circuit current density reached 21.00 ± 0.69 mA cm(-2), which resulted in an impressive overall energy conversion efficiency of 9.91 ± 0.30%, a 37% enhancement compared to DSSCs with pristine TiO2 photoanode.

  4. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  5. Increasing photon absorption and stability of PbS quantum dot solar cells using a ZnO interlayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Lai-Hung; Speirs, Mark J.; Chang, Feng-Kuei; Piveteau, Laura; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Chen, Jen-Sue; Wu, Jih-Jen; Loi, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    We compared PbS quantum dot (QD) solar cells with different cathode interlayer materials, namely, LiF and ZnO nanoparticles, using the same device structure. Solar cells fabricated with the ZnO interlayer gave a power conversion efficiency of 4.8%, which is higher (above the experimental variation)

  6. Fabrication of green dye-sensitized solar cell based on ZnO nanoparticles as a photoanode and graphene quantum dots as a photo-sensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamiri, Golnoush; Bagheri, Samira

    2018-02-01

    Zero-dimensional graphene quantum dots (GQDs) consist of single- or few-layer graphene with a size less than 20 nm and stand for a new type of QDs with unique properties combining the graphene nature and size-resulted quantum effects. GQDs possess unique optical and electronic properties, and in particular possess a band-gap less than 2.0 eV because of quantum confinement and edge effects. In this study, we investigated the performance of DSSCs using different thicknesses of ZnO nanoparticles as a photo-anode and GQDs as a green photosensitizer. The current voltage (I-V) test results indicate that the performance of DSSCs is improved by increasing the thickness of the photo-anode and the thickness of 40 μm shows the highest efficiency for DSSC device based on ZnO nanoparticles photo-anodes. The DSSC using ZnO nanoparticles as a photo-anode with thickness of 40 μm shows almost same efficiency when we replaced N-719 with GQDs which is confirmed that using GQDs as an alternative to ruthenium based dyes is a new approach for DSSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gold Nanoparticle Quantitation by Whole Cell Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Aric W; Jeerage, Kavita M; Schwartz, Cindi L; Curtin, Alexandra E; Chiaramonti, Ann N

    2015-12-22

    Many proposed biomedical applications for engineered gold nanoparticles require their incorporation by mammalian cells in specific numbers and locations. Here, the number of gold nanoparticles inside of individual mammalian stem cells was characterized using fast focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy based tomography. Enhanced optical microscopy was used to provide a multiscale map of the in vitro sample, which allows cells of interest to be identified within their local environment. Cells were then serially sectioned using a gallium ion beam and imaged using a scanning electron beam. To confirm the accuracy of single cross sections, nanoparticles in similar cross sections were imaged using transmission electron microscopy and scanning helium ion microscopy. Complete tomographic series were then used to count the nanoparticles inside of each cell and measure their spatial distribution. We investigated the influence of slice thickness on counting single particles and clusters as well as nanoparticle packing within clusters. For 60 nm citrate stabilized particles, the nanoparticle cluster packing volume is 2.15 ± 0.20 times the volume of the bare gold nanoparticles.

  8. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  9. Perovskite Solar Cells with Large-Area CVD-Graphene for Tandem Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Felix; Gluba, Marc A; Albrecht, Steve; Rappich, Jörg; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Nickel, Norbert H

    2015-07-16

    Perovskite solar cells with transparent contacts may be used to compensate for thermalization losses of silicon solar cells in tandem devices. This offers a way to outreach stagnating efficiencies. However, perovskite top cells in tandem structures require contact layers with high electrical conductivity and optimal transparency. We address this challenge by implementing large-area graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition as a highly transparent electrode in perovskite solar cells, leading to identical charge collection efficiencies. Electrical performance of solar cells with a graphene-based contact reached those of solar cells with standard gold contacts. The optical transmission by far exceeds that of reference devices and amounts to 64.3% below the perovskite band gap. Finally, we demonstrate a four-terminal tandem device combining a high band gap graphene-contacted perovskite top solar cell (Eg = 1.6 eV) with an amorphous/crystalline silicon bottom solar cell (Eg = 1.12 eV).

  10. Achieving 15% Tandem Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    final support also enabled us to explore novel hybrid perovskite solar cells in depth. For example, single junction cell efficiency of 19.3% under...novel hybrid perovskite solar cells in depth. For example, single junction cell efficiency of 19.3% under reverse bias was achieved and the results...solar cells with 10.2% power conversion efficiency via stacking two PDTP-DFBT:PC71BM bulk heterojunctions, connected by MoO3/PEDOT:PSS/ ZnO as an

  11. Towards upconversion for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.; Meijerink, A.; Rath, J.K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Upconversion of subbandgap light of thin film single junction amorphous silicon solar cells may enhance their performance in the near infrared (NIR). In this paper we report on the application of the NIR–vis upconverter β-NaYF4:Yb3+(18%) Er3+(2%) at the back of an amorphous silicon solar cell in

  12. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel system that harnesses solar energy is the nano-crystalline TiO dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using...

  13. Film adhesion in amorphous silicon solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    flexible triple junction, amorphous silicon solar cells. At the Malaysia Energy Centre (MEC), we fabricated triple junction amorphous silicon solar cells (up to 12⋅7% efficiency (Wang et al 2002)) and laser-interconnected modules on steel, glass and polyimide substrates. A major issue encountered is the adhesion of thin film ...

  14. Scaling up ITO-Free solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E.W.C.; Zimmermann, B.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Jørgensen, M.; Krebs, F.C.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm and

  15. P3HT-based nanoarchitectural Fano solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Pin; Su, Yen-Hsun; Huang, Yun-Kai; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Wen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-10-22

    The finite difference time domain simulation shows the existence of an asymmetric quadrupole of Fano resonance on the surface of a gold-silica core-shell (Au@silica) nanoparticle (NP) as being incorporated into the metal oxide nanoarchitecture/P3HT hybrid. Compared to the metal oxide nanoarchitecture/P3HT hybrid solar cell, a 30% enrichment of the short-circuit current density (Jsc) is attained in the P3HT-based nanoarchitectural Fano solar cell with the Au@silica NPs. The enhancement of charge separation in the cell by the electric field of the Fano resonance is directly evidenced by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The increase of the degree of P3HT order in the hybrid by the incorporation of Au@silica NPs into the hybrid active layer may also contribute to the enhancement in the Jsc. Charge carrier dynamic measurements show that an electron collection efficiency of ∼97% can be maintained in the P3HT-based nanoarchitectural Fano solar cell. Significant improvement of the efficiency of the inverted metal oxide/P3HT hybrid solar cell is therefore achieved.

  16. Predicted solar cell edge radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Cell Orbital Test (ASCOT) will test six types of solar cells in a high energy proton environment. During the design of the experiment a question was raised about the effects of proton radiation incident on the edge of the solar cells and whether edge radiation shielding was required. Historical geosynchronous data indicated that edge radiation damage is not detectable over the normal end of life solar cell degradation; however because the ASCOT radiation environment has a much higher and more energetic fluence of protons, considerably more edge damage is expected. A computer analysis of the problem was made by modeling the expected radiation damage at the cell edge and using a network model of small interconnected solar cells to predict degradation in the cell's electrical output. The model indicated that the deepest penetration of edge radiation was at the top of the cell near the junction where the protons have access to the cell through the low density cell/cover adhesive layer. The network model indicated that the cells could tolerate high fluences at their edge as long as there was high electrical resistance between the edge radiated region and the contact system on top of the cell. The predicted edge radiation related loss was less than 2% of maximum power for GaAs/Ge solar cells. As a result, no edge radiation protection was used for ASCOT

  17. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  18. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  19. Improved CMX solar cell coverglasses and optical solar reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, A. M.; Jones, D. P.; Dollery, A. A.; Murphy, N.; Porter, D. A.

    Recent development programs have demonstrated that considerable improvements in optical and thermooptical performance as well as mechanical properties of CMX solar cell coverglasses and optical solar reflectors (OSRs) can be achieved. Optical coatings can increase infrared emittance by 4 percent and decrease solar absorptance by 50 percent. Chemical treatments can be used to increase glass strength to four times its untreated value or to provide integral antireflection layers which reduce reflection to 0.5 percent per surface. Automated test equipment for proving the strength of each coverglass and mirror has been designed and manufactured.

  20. Coating Processes Boost Performance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    NASA currently has spacecraft orbiting Mercury (MESSENGER), imaging the asteroid Vesta (Dawn), roaming the red plains of Mars (the Opportunity rover), and providing a laboratory for humans to advance scientific research in space (the International Space Station, or ISS). The heart of the technology that powers those missions and many others can be held in the palm of your hand - the solar cell. Solar, or photovoltaic (PV), cells are what make up the panels and arrays that draw on the Sun s light to generate electricity for everything from the Hubble Space Telescope s imaging equipment to the life support systems for the ISS. To enable NASA spacecraft to utilize the Sun s energy for exploring destinations as distant as Jupiter, the Agency has invested significant research into improving solar cell design and efficiency. Glenn Research Center has been a national leader in advancing PV technology. The Center s Photovoltaic and Power Technologies Branch has conducted numerous experiments aimed at developing lighter, more efficient solar cells that are less expensive to manufacture. Initiatives like the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiments I and II in which PV cells developed by NASA and private industry were mounted outside the ISS have tested how various solar technologies perform in the harsh conditions of space. While NASA seeks to improve solar cells for space applications, the results are returning to Earth to benefit the solar energy industry.

  1. Interactions of Model Cell Membranes with Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, S. M.; Camesano, T. A.; Nagarajan, R.

    2011-12-01

    The same properties that give nanoparticles their enhanced function, such as high surface area, small size, and better conductivity, can also alter the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials. Ultimately, many of these nanomaterials will be released into the environment, and can cause cytotoxic effects to environmental bacteria, aquatic organisms, and humans. Previous results from our laboratory suggest that nanoparticles can have a detrimental effect on cells, depending on nanoparticle size. It is our goal to characterize the properties of nanomaterials that can result in membrane destabilization. We tested the effects of nanoparticle size and chemical functionalization on nanoparticle-membrane interactions. Gold nanoparticles at 2, 5,10, and 80 nm were investigated, with a concentration of 1.1x1010 particles/mL. Model cell membranes were constructed of of L-α-phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), which has negatively charged lipid headgroups. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to measure frequency changes at different overtones, which were related to mass changes corresponding to nanoparticle interaction with the model membrane. In QCM-D, a lipid bilayer is constructed on a silicon dioxide crystal. The crystals, oscillate at different harmonic frequencies depending upon changes in mass or energy dissipation. When mass is added to the crystal surface, such as through addition of a lipid vesicle solution, the frequency change decreases. By monitoring the frequency and dissipation, we could verify that a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) formed on the silica surface. After formation of the SLB, the nanoparticles can be added to the system, and the changes in frequency and dissipation are monitored in order to build a mechanistic understanding of nanoparticle-cell membrane interactions. For all of the smaller nanoparticles (2, 5, and 10 nm), nanoparticle addition caused a loss of mass from the lipid bilayer, which appears to be due to the formation of holes

  2. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  3. A four-functional composite-hierarchical anatase TiO2 microsphere consisting of nanoparticles, nanowires and submicron ellipsoidal spheres for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Niu; Chen, Feitai; Sun, Panpan; Sun, Xiaohua; Sebo, Bobby; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this paper, we prepare a composite-hierarchical microsphere (HMS) which is composed of two kinds of HMSs: one flower-like microsphere (FMS, ∼1.5 μm, containing nanoparticles and nanowires) and plentiful mesoporous submicron ellipsoidal spheres (ESs, ∼200 nm, assembled with nanoparticles) which are embedded evenly in the FMS. For comparing, pure FMS and ES are prepared, respectively. It is found that the composite-HMS possesses (a) the highest BET surface area, (b) the highest light scattering ability, (c) the fastest electron transport and the longest electron life time, and (d) light trapping ability enabled by multiple light reflection and scattering between ESs and nanowires inside each FMS*ESs particle. The energy conversion efficiency of 7.91% of the DSSC based on FMS*ESs is higher than devices based on ES and FMS (7.22% and 7.24%, respectively), which also benefits from the structural advantages of the composite-HMS compared with non-composite HMSs

  4. Fabrication of CdTe/Si heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Swades Ranjan; Saha, Satyajit

    2016-10-01

    A simple cost effective method is preferred to grow nanoparticles of CdTe. Nanoparticles of CdTe are grown by simple chemical reduction route using EDA as capping agent and Sodium Borohydride as reducing agent. The grown nanoparticles are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and photoluminescence study. From optical absorption study, the band-gap was found to be 2.46 eV. From TEM study, the average particle size was found to be within 8-12 nm which confirms the formation of CdTe nanoparticles. Pl spectra indicate the luminescence from surface states at 2.01 eV, which is less compared to the increased band-gap of 2.46 eV. The grown nanoparticles are used to fabricate a heterojunction of CdTe on P-Si by a spin coating technique for solar cell fabrication in a cost effective way. I-V characteristics of the grown heterojunction in dark as well as under light are measured. Efficiency and fill-factor of the device are estimated.

  5. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  6. Recent Advances in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kietzke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells based on organic semiconductors have attracted much attention. The thickness of the active layer of organic solar cells is typically only 100 nm thin, which is about 1000 times thinner than for crystalline silicon solar cells and still 10 times thinner than for current inorganic thin film cells. The low material consumption per area and the easy processing of organic semiconductors offer a huge potential for low cost large area solar cells. However, to compete with inorganic solar cells the efficiency of organic solar cells has to be improved by a factor of 2-3. Several organic semiconducting materials have been investigated so far, but the optimum material still has to be designed. Similar as for organic light emitting devices (OLED small molecules are competing with polymers to become the material of choice. After a general introduction into the device structures and operational principles of organic solar cells the three different basic types (all polymer based, all small molecules based and small molecules mixed with polymers are described in detail in this review. For each kind the current state of research is described and the best of class reported efficiencies are listed.

  7. Improved efficiency of organic solar cells using Au NPs incorporated into PEDOT:PSS buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Francis; Shumbula, Ndivhuwo P.; Airo, Mildred; Mbuso, Mlambo; Moloto, Nosipho; Erasmus, Rudolph M.; Quandt, Alexander; Wamwangi, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Au based plasmonic phenomenon inside the hole transport layer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) of an organic solar cell based on blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6:6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid (PCBM) is investigated. The concentration of the Au nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical reduction is one of the key factors to strong light trapping when the spherical gold nanoparticles are blended into the PEDOT:PSS solution. Studies of the influence of the concentration of nanoparticles distribution in the PEDOT:PSS were carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Electrical characteristics of the pristine device and of device with metallic nanostructures were analyzed from J -V characteristics to observe the plasmonic effects on the performance in the P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells. The origin of the photocurrent enhancements with varying Au nanoparticles concentrations on PEDOT:PSS are discussed.

  8. Coupling of Luminescent Solar Concentrators to Plasmonic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yi

    To make inexpensive solar cells is a continuous goal for solar photovoltaic (PV) energy industry. Thin film solar cells of various materials have been developed and continue to emerge in order to replace bulk silicon solar cells. A thin film solar cell not only uses less material but also requires a less expensive refinery process. In addition, other advantages coming along with small thickness are higher open circuit voltage and higher conversion efficiency. However, thin film solar cells, especially those made of silicon, have significant optical losses. In order to address this problem, this thesis investigates the spectral coupling of thin films PV to luminescent solar concentrators (LSC). LSC are passive devices, consisting of plastic sheets embedded with fluorescent dyes which absorb part of the incoming radiation spectrum and emit at specific wavelength. The emitted light is concentrated by total internal reflection to the edge of the sheet, where the PVs are placed. Since the light emitted from the LSC edge is usually in a narrow spectral range, it is possible to employ diverse strategies to enhance PV absorption at the peak of the emission wavelength. Employing plasmonic nanostructures has been shown to enhance absorption of thin films via forward scattering, diffraction and localized surface plasmon. These two strategies are theoretically investigated here for improving the absorption and elevating the output power of a thin film solar cell. First, the idea of spectral coupling of luminescent solar concentrators to plasmonic solar cells is introduced to assess its potential for increasing the power output. This study is carried out employing P3HT/PC60BM organic solar cells and LSC with Lumogen Red dyes. A simplified spectral coupling analysis is employed to predict the power density, considering the output spectrum of the LSC equivalent to the emission spectrum of the dye and neglecting any angular dependence. Plasmonic tuning is conducted to enhance

  9. Characterising dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Laura L.; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic; Sheridan, John T.

    2009-08-01

    With growing energy and environmental concerns due to fossil fuel depletion and global warming there is an increasing attention being attracted by alternative and/or renewable sources of power such as biomass, hydropower, geothermal, wind and solar energy. In today's society there is a vast and in many cases not fully appreciated dependence on electrical power for everyday life and therefore devices such as PV cells are of enormous importance. The more widely used and commercially available silicon (semiconductor) based cells currently have the greatest efficiencies, however the manufacturing of these cells is complex and costly due to the cost and difficulty of producing and processing pure silicon. One new direction being explored is the development of dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). The SFI Strategic Research Centre for Solar Energy Conversion is a new research cluster based in Ireland, formed with the express intention of bringing together industry and academia to produce renewable energy solutions. Our specific area of research is in biomimetic dye sensitised solar cells and their electrical properties. We are currently working to develop test equipment, and optoelectronic models describing the performance and behaviors of dye-sensitised solar cells (Grätzel Cells). In this paper we describe some of the background to our work and also some of our initial experimental results. Based on these results we intend to characterise the opto-electrical properties and bulk characteristics of simple dye-sensitised solar cells and then to proceed to test new cell compositions.

  10. Solar cells based on gallium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. M.; Sorokina, S. V.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-phase epitaxy and diffusion from the gas phase have been used to create various kinds of GaSb-based solar cell structures intended for use in cascaded solar-radiation converters. A narrow-gap (GaSb) solar cell was studied in tandem based on a combination of semiconductors GaAs-GaSb (two p-n junctions) and GaInP/GaAs-GaSb (three p-n junctions). The maximum efficiency of photovoltaic conversion in GaSb behind the wide-gap cells is η = 6.5% (at sunlight concentration ratio of 275X, AM1.5D Low AOD spectrum).

  11. Recent Advances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Mehmood

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an abundant and accessible source of renewable energy available on earth, and many types of photovoltaic (PV devices like organic, inorganic, and hybrid cells have been developed to harness the energy. PV cells directly convert solar radiation into electricity without affecting the environment. Although silicon based solar cells (inorganic cells are widely used because of their high efficiency, they are rigid and manufacturing costs are high. Researchers have focused on organic solar cells to overcome these disadvantages. DSSCs comprise a sensitized semiconductor (photoelectrode and a catalytic electrode (counter electrode with an electrolyte sandwiched between them and their efficiency depends on many factors. The maximum electrical conversion efficiency of DSSCs attained so far is 11.1%, which is still low for commercial applications. This review examines the working principle, factors affecting the efficiency, and key challenges facing DSSCs.

  12. Development and Prospect of Nanoarchitectured Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the development and prospect of nanotechnologies utilized in the solar cell applications. Even though it is not clearly pointed out, nanostructures indeed have been used in the fabrication of conventional solar cells for a long time. However, in those circumstances, only very limited benefits of nanostructures have been used to improve cell performance. During the last decade, the development of the photovoltaic device theory and nanofabrication technology enables studies of more complex nanostructured solar cells with higher conversion efficiency and lower production cost. The fundamental principles and important features of these advanced solar cell designs are systematically reviewed and summarized in this paper, with a focus on the function and role of nanostructures and the key factors affecting device performance. Among various nanostructures, special attention is given to those relying on quantum effect.

  13. Solar cell with a gallium nitride electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1979-01-01

    A solar cell which comprises a body of silicon having a P-N junction therein with a transparent conducting N-type gallium nitride layer as an ohmic contact on the N-type side of the semiconductor exposed to solar radiation.

  14. Post-fabrication annealing effects on the performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells with/without ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntwaeaborwa, O.M., E-mail: ntwaeab@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); Zhou Renjia; Qian Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Pitale, Shreyas S. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); Xue, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); Holloway, P.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, with or without ZnO nanoparticles buffer layer between the photoactive layer (P3HT:PCBM) and the cathode (Al top electrode), were fabricated. The devices were annealed at 145 Degree-Sign C either before or after depositing the top electrode. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the ZnO buffer layer and pre-/post-fabrication annealing on the general performance of these devices. The short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}), open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the OPV devices were improved by the insertion of the ZnO layer and post-fabrication annealing. The post-fabrication annealed devices, with or without the ZnO layer, exhibited higher values of J{sub SC}, V{sub OC} and EQE than those of similar devices annealed before depositing the Al metal. This can be attributed to, among other things, improved charge transport across the interface between the photoactive layer and the Al top electrode as a result of post-annealing induced modification of the interface morphology.

  15. Solar-Pumping Upconversion of Interfacial Coordination Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Ayumi; Hasegawa, Miki

    2017-01-01

    An interfacial coordination nanoparticle successfully exhibited an upconversion blue emission excited by very low-power light irradiation, such as sunlight. The interfacial complex was composed of Yb ions and indigo dye, which formed a nano-ordered thin shell layer on a Tm2O3 nanoparticle. At the surface of the Tm2O3 particle, the indigo dye can be excited by non-laser excitation at 640 nm, following the intramolecular energy transfer from the indigo dye to the Yb ions. Additionally, the excitation energy of the Yb ion was upconverted to the blue emission of the Tm ion at 475 nm. This upconversion blue emission was achieved by excitation with a CW Xe lamp at an excitation power of 0.14 mW/cm2, which is significantly lower than the solar irradiation power of 1.4 mW/cm2 at 640 ± 5 nm.

  16. Mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles as a top scattering layer to enhance performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaohua, E-mail: mksxh@163.com; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yalong; Sun, Panpan; Huang, Niu; Sun, Yihua

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles were employed to form a top scattering layer. • The top scattering layer exhibits superior light scattering effect. • The bottom nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} layer can make good use of the back-scattered light. • Bilayer TiO{sub 2} photoanode shows faster interfacial electron transfer and slower charge recombination process. • Bilayer photoanode enhances the DSSC efficiency by a factor of 25%. - Abstract: Herein, we report a bilayer TiO{sub 2} photoanode composed of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} (NCT) bottom layer and mixed P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles (PR) top scattering layer. The present structure performs well in solar light harvesting which is mainly attributed to the fact that the top scattering layer exhibits superior light scattering effect and meanwhile the NCT bottom layer with large dye-loading capacity can make better use of the back-scattered light. Moreover, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay measurements demonstrate that DSSC based on bilayer photoanode shows faster interfacial electron transfer and slower charge recombination process than that based on NCT monolayer photoanode. These advantages render the DSSCs based on NCT-PR bilayer photoanode exhibiting superior performance under AM1.5G simulated solar irradiation. As an example, by tuning mass ratio between P25 nanoparticles and large rutile particles in the top scattering layer, the DSSC based on NCT-PR bilayer photoanode exhibits an optimum solar energy conversion efficiency of 9.0%, which is about 1.25 times higher than that of monolayer NCT device (7.2%) with the same film thickness.

  17. Multijunction Solar Cells Optimized for the Mars Surface Solar Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Kenneth M.; Fetzer, Chris; Karam, Nasser H.; Stella, Paul; Mardesich, Nick; Mueller, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an update on the performance of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) which have been continually performing for more than 3 years beyond their original 90-day missions. The paper also gives the latest results on the optimization of a multijunction solar cell that is optimized to give more power on the surface of Mars.

  18. Electrical characterization of dye sensitized nano solar cell using natural pomegranate juice as photosensitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithi, U.; Thomas, Sara; Uma, V.; Pradeep, N.

    2013-02-01

    This paper shows Electrical characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell using natural dye, extracted from the pomegranate as a photo sensitizer and ZnO nanoparticles as semiconductor. The constituents of fabricated dye sensitized solar cell were working electrode, dye, electrolyte and counter electrode. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and used as semiconductor in working electrode. Carbon soot was used as counter electrode. The resistance of ZnO film on ITO film was found out. There was an increase in the resistance of the film and film changes from conducting to semiconducting. Photovoltaic parameters of the fabricated cell like Short circuit current, open circuit voltage, Fill factor and Efficiency were found out. This paper shows that usage of natural dyes like pomegranate juice as sensitizer enables faster and simpler production of cheaper and environmental friendly solar cell.

  19. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  20. Advanced Silicon Space Solar Cells Using Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Ruby, D.S.; Zaidi, S.H.

    1999-03-31

    Application of nanotechnology and advanced optical structures offer new possibilities for improved radiation tolerance in silicon solar cells. We describe the application of subwavelength diffractive structures to enhance optical absorption near the surface, and thereby improve the radiation tolerance.

  1. Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 Australia; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPV), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Ibaraki Tsukuba 305-8568 Japan; Warta, Wilhelm [Department: Characterisation and Simulation/CalLab Cells, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2 Freiburg D-79110 Germany; Dunlop, Ewan D. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Directorate C-Energy, Transport and Climate, Via E. Fermi 2749 Ispra IT-21027 VA Italy; Levi, Dean H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen [Department: Characterisation and Simulation/CalLab Cells, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2 Freiburg D-79110 Germany; Ho-Baillie, Anita W. H. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 Australia

    2017-06-21

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since January 2017 are reviewed.

  2. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  3. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Solar Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A single crystal SiGe has enormous potentials for high performance chips and solar cells. This project seeks to fabricate a rudimentary but 1st cut quantum-well...

  4. Electrospun Polymer-Fiber Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Nagata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrospun polymer-fiber solar cell was synthesized by electrospinning a 1 : 2.5 weight% ratio mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM resulting in bulk heterojunctions. Electrospinning is introduced as a technique that may increase polymer solar cell efficiency, and a list of advantages of the technique applied to solar cells is discussed. The device achieved a power conversion efficiency of %. The absorption and photoluminescence of MEH-PPV nanofibers are compared to thin films of the same material. Electrospun nanofibers are discussed as a favorable structure for application in polymer solar cells.

  5. TiO2-Anatase Nanowire Dispersed Composite Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asagoe, K; Suzuki, Y; Ngamsinlapasathian, S; Yoshikawa, S

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 anatase nanowires have been prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by post-heat treatment in air. TiO 2 nanoparticle/TiO 2 nanowire composite electrodes were prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) in order to improve light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The TiO 2 NP/TiO 2 NW composite cells showed higher DSC performance than ordinary nanoparticle cells and fully nanowire cells: efficiency (η = 6.53 % for DSC with 10% nanowire, whereas 5.59% for 0% nanowire, and 2.42% for 100% nanowire

  6. Photovoltaic characteristics of natural light harvesting dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H. S.; Shenouda, S. S.; Fadel, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work of research, anthocyanin as a natural dye obtained from raspberry fruits, was used and tested as a photon harvesting/electron donating dye in titanium dioxide nanoparticle-based DSSCs. A working photoelectrode made from TiO2 nanoparticles with an average particle size (10-40 nm) that is coated on Florine doped tin-oxide substrate, was prepared via a simple and low cost hydrothermal method. A detailed structural and morphological analysis of the TiO2 photoactive electrode was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrometer, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Complete photovoltaic characteristics including (current, voltage, outpower, and responsivity) of the natural anthocyanin based dye sensitized solar cell have been investigated under different illumination intensity ranging from 10 to 100 mW.cm- 2. The cell responsivity and efficiency of the fabricated solar cell under different illumination intensity were found to be in the range (R = 15.6-23.8 mA.W- 1 and η = 0.13-0.25) at AM = 1.5 conditions. This study is important for enhancing the future applications of the promising DSSC technology.

  7. Investigating dye-sensitised solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Laura L.; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-05-01

    At present there is considerable global concern in relation to environmental issues and future energy supplies, for instance climate change (global warming) and the rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources. This trepidation has initiated a more critical investigation into alternative and renewable sources of power such as geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind and solar energy. The immense dependence on electrical power in today's society has prompted the manufacturing of devices such as photovoltaic (PV) cells to help alleviate and replace current electrical demands of the power grid. The most popular and commercially available PV cells are silicon solar cells which have to date the greatest efficiencies for PV cells. The drawback however is that the manufacturing of these cells is complex and costly due to the expense and difficulty of producing and processing pure silicon. One relatively inexpensive alternative to silicon PV cells that we are currently studying are dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC or Grätzel Cells). DSSC are biomimetic solar cells which are based on the process of photosynthesis. The SFI Strategic Research Centre for Solar Energy Conversion is a research cluster based in Ireland formed with the express intention of bringing together industry and academia to produce renewable energy solutions. Our specific research area is in DSSC and their electrical properties. We are currently developing testing equipment for arrays of DSSC and developing optoelectronic models which todescribe the performance and behaviour of DSSCs.

  8. Investigation of the Interaction of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles and Nonmagnetic Nanoparticles with Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    create stable magnetite nanoparticles , to functionalize them with a biocompatible ligand, and to study the rheology of the colloidal suspension... nanoparticles showed excellent superparamagnetic behavior The surface functionalization phase focused on binding bipolar organic compounds to nanoparticles ...results will be presented in thesis report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Superparamagnetic. magnetite , nanoparticles , magnetic properties, fcrrofluids. cell

  9. Perovskite Solar Cells: Progress and Advancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Elumalai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs have emerged as a new class of optoelectronic semiconductors that revolutionized the photovoltaic research in the recent years. The perovskite solar cells present numerous advantages include unique electronic structure, bandgap tunability, superior charge transport properties, facile processing, and low cost. Perovskite solar cells have demonstrated unprecedented progress in efficiency and its architecture evolved over the period of the last 5–6 years, achieving a high power conversion efficiency of about 22% in 2016, serving as a promising candidate with the potential to replace the existing commercial PV technologies. This review discusses the progress of perovskite solar cells focusing on aspects such as superior electronic properties and unique features of halide perovskite materials compared to that of conventional light absorbing semiconductors. The review also presents a brief overview of device architectures, fabrication methods, and interface engineering of perovskite solar cells. The last part of the review elaborates on the major challenges such as hysteresis and stability issues in perovskite solar cells that serve as a bottleneck for successful commercialization of this promising PV technology.

  10. Improved protection for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    Fluorinated ethylene propylene /FEP/ film is substituted for epoxy cement in bonding glass covers to silicon solar cells. Insensitivity of FEP to ultraviolet radiation reduces requirement for filtering and does not impair cell performance. Cell costs are reduced and cover mounting is simplified.

  11. Method to manufacture solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanschmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt has been made to outwit physics and to improve the solar energy utilization in households and space ships by means of power storers, gravitational drive and other futuristic means. (DG) [de

  12. Targeting Endothelial Cells with Multifunctional GaN/Fe Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Andrée, Birgit; Cebotari, Serghei; Boyle, Erin C; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2017-08-10

    In this paper, we report on the interaction of multifunctional nanoparticles with living endothelial cells. The nanoparticles were synthesized using direct growth of gallium nitride on zinc oxide nanoparticles alloyed with iron oxide followed by core decomposition in hydrogen flow at high temperature. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that porcine aortic endothelial cells take up GaN-based nanoparticles suspended in the growth medium. The nanoparticles are deposited in vesicles and the endothelial cells show no sign of cellular damage. Intracellular inert nanoparticles are used as guiding elements for controlled transportation or designed spatial distribution of cells in external magnetic fields.

  13. Targeting Endothelial Cells with Multifunctional GaN/Fe Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniste, Tudor; Tiginyanu, Ion; Horvath, Tibor; Raevschi, Simion; Andrée, Birgit; Cebotari, Serghei; Boyle, Erin C.; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the interaction of multifunctional nanoparticles with living endothelial cells. The nanoparticles were synthesized using direct growth of gallium nitride on zinc oxide nanoparticles alloyed with iron oxide followed by core decomposition in hydrogen flow at high temperature. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that porcine aortic endothelial cells take up GaN-based nanoparticles suspended in the growth medium. The nanoparticles are deposited in vesicles and the endothelial cells show no sign of cellular damage. Intracellular inert nanoparticles are used as guiding elements for controlled transportation or designed spatial distribution of cells in external magnetic fields.

  14. Tunable plasmon-enhanced broadband light harvesting for perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Meidan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Yawei; Liu, Jie; Chen, Peng; Chen, Wei; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Wenxiu

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we report a reliable method for synthesizing (Au, Au/Ag core)/(TiO2 shell) nanostructures with their plasmonic wavelengths covering the visible light region for perovskite solar cells. The mono- and bi-metallic core-shell nanoparticles exhibit tunable localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength and function as "light tentacle" to improve the photo-electricity conversion efficiency. Plasmonic nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes, different thicknesses of TiO2 shell and Ag interlayer are found to have a strong influence on the localized surface plasmon resonance enhancement effect. The experimental photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells is significantly enhanced when the plasmonic nanoparticles are embedded inmesoporous TiO2 scaffolds. A champion photo-electricity conversion efficiency of 17.85% is achieved with nanoparticles (Au/Ag, λLSPR = 650 nm), giving a 18.7% enhancement over that of the pristine device (15.04%). Finite-difference time-domain simulations show that nanorod Au in mesoporus TiO2 scaffold induces the most intense electromagnetic coupling, and provides a novel emitter for photon flux in mesoporous perovskite solar cells. These theoretical results are consistent with the corresponding experimental those. Thus, enhancing the incident light intensities around 650 nm will be most favorable to the improvement of the photo-electricity conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells.

  15. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  16. SnO₂(β-Bi₂O₃)/Bi₂Sn₂O₇ nanohybrids doped with Pt and Pd nanoparticles: applications in visible light photocatalysis, electrical conductivity and dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, M; Mohamed, Mohamed Mokhtar

    2015-09-07

    Bi2O3-SnO2 nanocomposites formed at a nominal molar ratio of 3 : 1 and loaded with Pd/Pt nanoparticles synthesized by a sol gel-hydrothermal method with the aid of a template were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, TEM-EDX, N2 sorptiometry, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis, FTIR, photoluminescence and electrical conductivity. It has been shown that Pd and Pt stimulate the existence of β-Bi2O3 and SnO2, respectively together with the key component Bi2Sn2O7. The photocatalytic results indicate that Pd/β-Bi2O3-Bi2Sn2O7 revealed a remarkable performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye as compared to the Pt/SnO2-Bi2Sn2O7 and Bi2O3-SnO2 samples in both the UV and visible regions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Pd/β-Bi2O3-Bi2Sn2O7 nanocomposite is primarily attributed to the broad contact between the β-Bi2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7 phases, which indicates high mesoporosity and heterojunction structures resulting in separation efficacy between photo-induced electron-hole pairs. Specifically, the photosensitive β-Bi2O3 is easily excited and released electrons to be accepted by Bi2Sn2O7 and Pd that might be deposited in the interlayer between β-Bi2O3 and Bi2Sn2O7. The degradation mechanism of MB over Pd/β-Bi2O3-Bi2Sn2O7 in the visible region showed that the dye degradation proceeds through evolution of ˙O2(-) and ˙OH radicals as evaluated using photoluminescence and free radical trapping experiments. An insight into the electrical properties including the dielectric constant and impedance of the materials indicates that Pd/β-Bi2O3-Bi2Sn2O7 has the highest conductivity based on increasing the ionic transport and defects at the β-Bi2O3/Bi2Sn2O7 heterojunction. This material displayed an improved photocurrent response of a higher power conversion efficiency, exceeding that of Pt/SnO2-Bi2Sn2O7 and SnBi3 by 50% and 250%, respectively, in dye-sensitized solar cells. Picosecond-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and polarization gated PL

  17. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells with plasmonic-enhanced light-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Sergey; Rao, Jing; Soderstrom, Thomas

    2012-07-02

    One of major approaches to cheaper solar cells is reducing the amount of semiconductor material used for their fabrication and making cells thinner. To compensate for lower light absorption such physically thin devices have to incorporate light-trapping which increases their optical thickness. Light scattering by textured surfaces is a common technique but it cannot be universally applied to all solar cell technologies. Some cells, for example those made of evaporated silicon, are planar as produced and they require an alternative light-trapping means suitable for planar devices. Metal nanoparticles formed on planar silicon cell surface and capable of light scattering due to surface plasmon resonance is an effective approach. The paper presents a fabrication procedure of evaporated polycrystalline silicon solar cells with plasmonic light-trapping and demonstrates how the cell quantum efficiency improves due to presence of metal nanoparticles. To fabricate the cells a film consisting of alternative boron and phosphorous doped silicon layers is deposited on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation. An Initially amorphous film is crystallised and electronic defects are mitigated by annealing and hydrogen passivation. Metal grid contacts are applied to the layers of opposite polarity to extract electricity generated by the cell. Typically, such a ~2 μm thick cell has a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 14-16 mA/cm(2), which can be increased up to 17-18 mA/cm(2) (~25% higher) after application of a simple diffuse back reflector made of a white paint. To implement plasmonic light-trapping a silver nanoparticle array is formed on the metallised cell silicon surface. A precursor silver film is deposited on the cell by thermal evaporation and annealed at 23°C to form silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticle size and coverage, which affect plasmonic light-scattering, can be tuned for enhanced cell performance by varying the precursor film thickness and its annealing

  18. Low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing silver nanowires as top electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Fushan, E-mail: fushanli@hotmail.com; Yang, Kaiyu; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All solution processed perovskite solar cells were realized with Ag nanowires. • ZnO nanoparticles were used as electron transport layer. • The solar cells showed a photovoltaic behavior with efficiency of 9.21%. • Device performance showed negligible difference between forward and reverse scan. - Abstract: In this paper, we reported a low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell employing silver nanowires as the top electrode and ZnO nanoparticles as the electron transport layer. The CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite was grown as the light absorber via two-step spin-coating technique. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.21% with short circuit current density of 19.75 mA cm{sup −2}, open circuit voltage of 1.02, and fill factor value of 0.457. The solar cell's performance showed negligible difference between the forward and reverse bias scan. This work paves a way for realizing low cost solution processable solar cells.

  19. 24% efficient PERL structure silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Green, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the performance of silicon solar cells have been significantly improved using an improved PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally-diffused) cell structure. This structure overcomes deficiencies in an earlier PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) cell structure by locally diffusing boron into contact areas at the rear of the cells. Terrestrial energy conversion efficiencies up to 24% are reported for silicon cells for the first time. Air Mass O efficiencies approach 21%. The first batches of concentrator cells using the new structure have demonstrated significant improvement with 29% efficient concentrator silicon cells expected in the near future

  20. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  1. Third Working Meeting on Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G. H. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    Research results are reported for GaAs Schottky barrier solar cells, GaAlAs/GaAs heteroface solar cells, and GaAlAs graded band gap solar cells. Related materials studies are presented. A systems study for GaAs and Si solar concentrator systems is given.

  2. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  3. Origin of Open-Circuit Voltage Loss in Polymer Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Do; Yanagawa, Nayu; Shimazaki, Ai; Endo, Masaru; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2017-06-14

    Herein, the open-circuit voltage (V OC ) loss in both polymer solar cells and perovskite solar cells is quantitatively analyzed by measuring the temperature dependence of V OC to discuss the difference in the primary loss mechanism of V OC between them. As a result, the photon energy loss for polymer solar cells is in the range of about 0.7-1.4 eV, which is ascribed to temperature-independent and -dependent loss mechanisms, while that for perovskite solar cells is as small as about 0.5 eV, which is ascribed to a temperature-dependent loss mechanism. This difference is attributed to the different charge generation and recombination mechanisms between the two devices. The potential strategies for the improvement of V OC in both solar cells are further discussed on the basis of the experimental data.

  4. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  5. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  6. Scaling Up ITO-free solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galagan, Yulia; Coenen, Erica W. C.; Zimmermann, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide-free (ITO-free) polymer solar cells with composite electrodes containing current-collecting grids and a semitransparent poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductor are demonstrated. The up-scaling of the length of the solar cell from 1 to 6 cm...... and the effect of the grid line resistance are explored for a series of devices. Laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping is used for quality control of the devices. A theoretical modeling study is presented that enables the identification of the most rational cell dimension for the grids with different...... resistances. The performance of ITO-free organic solar cells with different dimensions and different electrode resistances are evaluated for different light intensities. The current generation and electric potential distribution are found to not be uniformly distributed in large-area devices at simulated 1...

  7. Microscopic optoelectronic defectoscopy of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallaeva D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopes are powerful tool for micro- or nanoscale diagnostics of defects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Solar cell is a large p-n junction semiconductor device. Its quality is strongly damaged by the presence of defects. If the cell works under low reverse-biased voltage, defects emit a light in visible range. The suggested method combines three different measurements: electric noise measurement, local topography and near-field optical beam induced current and thus provides more complex information. To prove its feasibility, we have selected one defect (truncated pyramid in the sample, which emitted light under low reverse-biased voltage.

  8. Organic solar cells fundamentals, devices, and upscaling

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    Solution-Processed DonorsB. Burkhart, B. C. ThompsonSmall-Molecule and Vapor-Deposited Organic Photovoltaics R. R. Lunt, R. J. HolmesAcceptor Materials for Solution-Processed Solar Cells Y. HeInterfacial Layers R. Po, C. Carbonera, A. BernardiElectrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Cells S. Yoo, J.-Y. Lee, H. Kim, J. LeeTandem and Multi-Junction Organic Solar Cells J. Gilot, R. A. J. JanssenBulk Heterojunction Morphology Control and Characterization T. Wang, D. G. LidzeyOptical Modeling and Light Management

  9. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  10. Dye-sensitised solar cell (artificial photosynthesis)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available is the nano- crystalline TiO2dye- sensitised solar cell (DSC), in conjunction with several new concepts, such as nanotechnology and molecular devices. An efficient and low-cost cell can be produced by using simple materials. The production process generates...

  11. Thermal stability of gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papež, Nikola; Škvarenina, Ľubomír.; Tofel, Pavel; Sobola, Dinara

    2017-12-01

    This article summarizes a measurement of gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells during their thermal processing. These solar cells compared to standard silicon cells have better efficiency and high thermal stability. However, their use is partly limited due to high acquisition costs. For these reasons, GaAs cells are deployed only in the most demanding applications where their features are needed, such as space applications. In this work, GaAs solar cells were studied in a high temperature range within 30-650 °C where their functionality and changes in surface topology were monitored. These changes were recorded using an electron microscope which determined the position of the defects; using an atomic force microscope we determined the roughness of the surface and an infrared camera that showed us the thermal radiated places of the defected parts of the cell. The electrical characteristics of the cells during processing were determined by its current-voltage characteristics. Despite the occurrence of subtle changes on the solar cell with newly created surface features after 300 °C thermal processing, its current-voltage characteristic remained without a significant change.

  12. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  13. All-inorganic inverse perovskite solar cells using zinc oxide nanocolloids on spin coated perovskite layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Fukumoto, Shota; Baranwal, Ajay K.; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ito, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density ( Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage ( Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it is important to use the oxide nanoparticles with a small particle diameter and to reduce the water content in the oxide forming material in order to manufacture a highly efficient all inorganic perovskite solar cells.

  14. Microbial solar cells: applying photosynthetic and electrochemically active organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Timmers, R.A.; Helder, M.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solar cells (MSCs) are recently developed technologies that utilize solar energy to produce electricity or chemicals. MSCs use photoautotrophic microorganisms or higher plants to harvest solar energy, and use electrochemically active microorganisms in the bioelectrochemical system to

  15. Nanoparticle-doped Polymer Foils for Use in Solar Control Glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. B.; Deller, C. A.; Swift, P. D.; Gentle, A.; Garrett, P. D.; Fisher, W. K.

    2002-04-01

    Since nanoparticles can provide spectrally selective absorption without scattering they can be used to dope polymers for use in windows, to provide a clear view while strongly attenuating both solar heat gain and UV, at lower cost than alternative technologies. The underlying physics and how it influences the choice and concentration of nanoparticle materials is outlined. Spectral data, visible and solar transmittance, and solar heat gain coefficient are measured for clear polymers and some laminated glass, in which the polymer layer is doped with conducting oxide nanoparticles. Simple models are shown to apply making general optical design straightforward. Use with clear glass and tinted glass is considered and performance shown to match existing solar control alternatives. A potential for widespread adoption in buildings and cars is clearly demonstrated, and scopes for further improvements are identified, so that ultimately both cost and performance are superior.

  16. Nanoparticle-doped Polymer Foils for Use in Solar Control Glazing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.B.; Deller, C.A.; Swift, P.D.; Gentle, A.; Garrett, P.D.; Fisher, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    Since nanoparticles can provide spectrally selective absorption without scattering they can be used to dope polymers for use in windows, to provide a clear view while strongly attenuating both solar heat gain and UV, at lower cost than alternative technologies. The underlying physics and how it influences the choice and concentration of nanoparticle materials is outlined. Spectral data, visible and solar transmittance, and solar heat gain coefficient are measured for clear polymers and some laminated glass, in which the polymer layer is doped with conducting oxide nanoparticles. Simple models are shown to apply making general optical design straightforward. Use with clear glass and tinted glass is considered and performance shown to match existing solar control alternatives. A potential for widespread adoption in buildings and cars is clearly demonstrated, and scopes for further improvements are identified, so that ultimately both cost and performance are superior

  17. Light-trapping in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Qing Guo, E-mail: duqi0001@e.ntu.edu.sg [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Institute of High Performance Computing, A* STAR, Singapore, 138632 (Singapore); Shen, Guansheng [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); John, Sajeev [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 ST. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Department of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-15

    We numerically demonstrate enhanced light harvesting efficiency in both CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} and CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3}-based perovskite solar cells using inverted vertical-cone photonic-crystal nanostructures. For CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells, the maximum achievable photocurrent density (MAPD) reaches 25.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 92% of the total available photocurrent in the absorption range of 300 nm to 800 nm. Our cell shows 6% absorption enhancement compared to the Lambertian limit (23.7 mA/cm{sup 2}) and has a projected power conversion efficiency of 12.9%. Excellent solar absorption is numerically demonstrated over a broad angular range from 0 to 60 degree for both S- and P- polarizations. For the corresponding CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based perovskite solar cell, with absorption range of 300 nm to 850 nm, we find a MAPD of 29.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, corresponding to 95.4% of the total available photocurrent. The projected power conversion efficiency of the CH(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}PbI{sub 3} based photonic crystal solar cell is 23.4%, well above the current world record efficiency of 20.1%.

  18. Space Radiation Effect on Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Jin Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High energy charged particles are trapped by geomagnetic field in the region named Van Allen Belt. These particles can move to low altitude along magnetic field and threaten even low altitude spacecraft. Space Radiation can cause equipment failures and on occasions can even destroy operations of satellites in orbit. Sun sensors aboard Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT-1 was designed to detect sun light with silicon solar cells which performance was degraded during satellite operation. In this study, we try to identify which particle contribute to the solar cell degradation with ground based radiation facilities. We measured the short circuit current after bombarding electrons and protons on the solar cells same as STSAT-1 sun sensors. Also we estimated particle flux on the STSAT-1 orbit with analyzing NOAA POES particle data. Our result clearly shows STSAT-1 solar cell degradation was caused by energetic protons which energy is about 700 keV to 1.5 MeV. Our result can be applied to estimate solar cell conditions of other satellites.

  19. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  1. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  2. A TiO2nanotube network electron transport layer for high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Gollon, Sam; Qiu, Ming; Guan, Dongsheng; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong; Yuan, Chris

    2017-02-15

    The electron transport layer (ETL) plays a critical role in high efficiency perovskite solar cells. In this study, an anodic TiO 2 nanotube film was transformed into a TiO 2 nanotube network film, which maintained its advantage as an efficient ETL for perovskite solar cells. Compared with the mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticle ETL, the TiO 2 nanotube network ETL can increase the efficiency of perovskite solar cells by 26.6%, which is attributed to its superior charge collection property and light trapping ability. The results confirm the importance of optimizing the electron collecting layer and suggest another way to design and fabricate novel perovskite solid state solar cells, potentially by using a TiO 2 nanotube network film as an alternative high efficiency electrode.

  3. Low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells employing silver nanowires as top electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Fushan; Yang, Kaiyu; Veeramalai, Chandrasekar Perumal; Guo, Tailiang

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we reported a low temperature processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell employing silver nanowires as the top electrode and ZnO nanoparticles as the electron transport layer. The CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite was grown as the light absorber via two-step spin-coating technique. The as-fabricated perovskite solar cell exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.21% with short circuit current density of 19.75 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage of 1.02, and fill factor value of 0.457. The solar cell's performance showed negligible difference between the forward and reverse bias scan. This work paves a way for realizing low cost solution processable solar cells.

  4. Silicon MIS/inversion-layer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1982-10-01

    Silicon Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor/Inversion-Layer (MIS-IL) solar cells were investigated as an approach to low cost terrestrial photovoltaics. Considerable progress was made concerning the development of procedures for SiO deposition for inversion-layer formation, the characterization of the fixed charge in deposited SiO layers, surface state density at the Si-SiO interface, fabrication and characterization of MIS-IL solar cells. Improvements were also made in the theory of MIS-IL solar cells, and utilized to calculate cell performance for a range of insulator charge and base resistivities. Inversion layer formation was studied in several ways. MOS devices was analyzed to determine the magnitude of the net positive charge, Q/sub POS/, vensus surface potential, Psi/sub S/. In situ sheet resistance measurements was made to determine the charge distribution within the deposited SiO layer. Finally, estimates of Q/sub POS/ obtained by comparing experimental results for MIS-IL cells and theory are compared with values of Q/sub POS/ determined for MOS structures fabricated simultaneously with the solar cells. Cell fabrication procedures emphasized low temperature processing.

  5. Doctor Blade-Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-10-25

    In this work, we report polymer solar cells based on blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM and PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM bulk heterojunction photoactive layers. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of 2.75 (conventional structure) and 3.03% (inverted structure) with improved reproducibility was obtained from blade-coated P3HT:PC71BM solar cells, compared to spin-coated ones. Furthermore, by demonstrating 3.10% efficiency flexible solar cells using blade-coated PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM films on the plastic substrates, we suggest the potential applicability of blade coating technique to the high throughput roll-to-roll fabrication systems.

  6. Questionable effects of antireflective coatings on inefficiently cooled solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Galster, Georg; Larsen, Esben

    1998-01-01

    A model for temperature effects in p-n junction solar cells is introduced. The temperature of solar cells and the losses in the solar cell junction region caused by elevating temperature are discussed. The model developed is examined for low-cost silicon solar cells. In order to improve the shape...... of the output power and efficiency curves throughout the day the coherence between technical parameters of the solar cells and the climate in the operation region is observed and examined. It is shown how the drop in output power around noon can be avoided by fitting technical parameters of the solar cells...

  7. Solar Cells Having a Nanostructured Antireflection Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    An solar cell having a surface in a first material is provided, the optical device having a non-periodic nanostructure formed in the surface, the nanostructure comprising a plurality of cone -haped structures wherein the cones are distributed non-periodically on the surface and have a random height...... distribution, at least a part of the cone-shaped structures having a height of at least 100 nm. The first material may be SiC or GaN. A method of manufacturing a non-periodic nanostructured surface on a solar cell, is furthermore provided, the method comprising the steps of providing a surface comprising Si...

  8. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  9. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: hanqing.jiang@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: hongyu.yu@asu.edu [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  10. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics

  11. Flexible ITO-Free Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the material-of-choice for transparent conductors in any optoelectronic application. However, scarce resources of indium and high market demand of ITO have created large price fluctuations and future supply concerns. In polymer solar cells (PSCs), ITO is the single......-most cost driving factor due to expensive raw materials and processing. Given the limited lifetime and stability of PSCs as compared with other mature technologies such as silicon-based solar cells, the technological future of PSCs beyond that of academic interests rests in reducing cost of production...

  12. Preparation of electron buffer layer with crystalline ZnO nanoparticles in inverted organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghwan; Kang, Taeho; Choi, Yoon-Young; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2017-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method were used to fabricate the electron buffer layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) after thermal treatment. To investigate the effect of thermal treatment on the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles, the amorphous ZnO nanoparticles were treated via hydrothermal method. The crystalline phase of ZnO with well-ordered structure could be obtained when the amorphous phase of ZnO was processed under hydrothermal treatment at 170 °C. The crystalline structure of ZnO thin film in inverted organic solar cell could be obtained under relatively low annealing temperature by using thermally treated ZnO nanoparticles. The OPVs fabricated by using crystalline ZnO nanoparticles for electron buffer layer exhibited higher efficiency than the conventional ZnO nanoparticles. The best power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for 7.16% through the ZnO film using the crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. The proposed method to prepared ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) could effectively reduce energy consumption during the fabrication of OPVs, which would greatly contribute to advantages such as lower manufacturing costs, higher productivity and application on flexible substrates.

  13. Controlling the microstructure and properties of titania nanopowders for high efficiency dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalan, A.E.; Rashad, M.M.; Yu, Youhai; Lira-Cantú, Mónica; Abdel-Mottaleb, M.S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) A highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO 2 nanorods compared with TiO 2 nanopaticles and (b) Dye sensitized solar cell fabricated using sealing technique. Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanorods particles size of 3–5 nm was synthesized hydrothermally at 100 °C. ► S BET was 78.14 m 2 /g and the band gap energy was 3.2 eV. ► (J sc ) and (V oc ) of the DSSC were in the range 10.84–13.23 mA cm −2 and 0.71–0.78 V. ► Conversion efficiency of DSSCs was 7.2%. ► IPCE analyses of the DSSC showed two peaks, at ∼350 and 520 nm. -- Abstract: A low temperature hydrothermal process have been developed to synthesize titania nanorods (NRs) and nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled size for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Effect of calcination temperature on the performance of TiO 2 nanoparticles for solar cells was investigated and discussed. The crystallite size and the relative crystallinity of the anatase phase were increased with increasing the calcination temperature. The structures and morphologies of both (TiO 2 nanorods and nanoparticles) were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM/HRTEM, UV–vis Spectroscopy, FTIR and BET specific surface area (S BET ) as well as pore-size distribution by BJH. The size of the titania nanorods was 6.7 nm width and 22 nm length while it was 13 nm for nanoparticles. Efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated with oriented TiO 2 nanorods was reported to be more superior compared to DSSC based on mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles due to their high surface area, hierarchically mesoporous structures, low charge recombination and fast electron-transfer rate. With increasing calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency (η) decreased. The efficiency of the assembly solar cells was decreased due to the agglomeration of the particles and difficulty of electron movement. The power efficiency was enhanced from 1.7% for TiO 2 nanoparticles cells at

  14. Advances in solar cell welding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, L.G.; Lott, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    In addition to developing the rigid substrate welded conventional cell panels for an earlier U.S. flight program, LMSC recently demonstrated a welded lightweight array system using both 2 x 4 and 5.9 x 5.9 cm wraparound solar cells. This weld system uses infrared sensing of weld joint temperature at the cell contact metalization interface to precisely control weld energy on each joint. Modules fabricated using this weld control system survived lowearth-orbit simulated 5-year tests (over 30,000 cycles) without joint failure. The data from these specifically configured modules, printed circuit substrate with copper interconnect and dielectric wraparound solar cells, can be used as a basis for developing weld schedules for additional cell array panel types.

  15. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Ahmad, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2013-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are heavily utilized in semiconductor devices, gas sensor, batteries, solar energy converter, microelectronics and heat transfer fluids. It has been reported that liver is one of the target organs for nanoparticles after they gain entry into the body through any of the possible routes. Recent studies have shown cytotoxic response of CuO NPs in liver cells. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis in liver cells due to CuO NPs exposure is largely lack...

  16. Calculation of the Performance of Solar Cells With Spectral Down Shifters Using Realistic Outdoor Solar Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Spectral down converters and shifters have been proposed as a good means to enhance the efficiency of underlying solar cells. In this paper, we focus on the simulation of the outdoor performance of solar cells with spectral down shifters, i.e., multicrystalline silicon solar cells with semiconductor

  17. Solution-processed, nanostructured hybrid solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjia; Zheng, Ying; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Holloway, Paul H; Xue, Jiangeng

    2012-06-07

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, as an alternative to all-organic solar cells, have received significant attention for their potential advantages in combining the solution-processability and versatility of organic materials with high charge mobility and environmental stability of inorganic semiconductors. Here we report efficient and air-stable hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells with broad spectral sensitivity based on a low-gap polymer poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and spherical CdSe nanoparticles. The solvents used for depositing the hybrid PCPDTBT:CdSe active layer were shown to strongly influence the film morphology, and subsequently the photovoltaic performance of the resulted solar cells. Appropriate post-deposition annealing of the hybrid film was also shown to improve the solar cell efficiency. The inclusion of a thin ZnO nanoparticle layer between the active layer and the metal cathode leads to a significant increase in device efficiency especially at long wavelengths, due to a combination of optical and electronic effects including more optimal light absorption in the active layer and elimination of unwanted hole leakage into the cathode. Overall, maximum power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7 ± 0.2% and spectral sensitivity extending above 800 nm were achieved in such PCPDTBT:CdSe nanosphere hybrid solar cells. Furthermore, the devices with a ZnO nanoparticle layer retained ∼70% of the original efficiency after storage under ambient laboratory conditions for over 60 days without any encapsulation.

  18. Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah M. Johnson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication and characterization of photochromic dye sensitized solar cells that possess the ability to change color depending on external lighting conditions. This device can be used as a “smart” window shade that tints, collects the sun's energy, and blocks sunlight when the sun shines, and is completely transparent at night.

  19. Assembly jig assures reliable solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofarrell, H. O.

    1966-01-01

    Assembly jig holds the components for a solar cell module in place as the assembly is soldered and bonded by the even heat of an oven. The jig is designed to the configuration of the planned module. It eliminates uneven thermal conditions caused by hand soldering methods.

  20. Energy. From firewood to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2006-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of energy and the options to secure the energy supply for the future. Much information is given about energy efficiency, the exploitation of tar sands, reopening of the coal mines in the Netherlands, nuclear fusion and fission, wave energy and solar cells, etc [nl

  1. Baselines for Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Ciammaruchi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The process of accurately gauging lifetime improvements in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) or other similar emerging technologies, such as perovskites solar cells is still a major challenge. The presented work is part of a larger effort of developing a worldwide database of lifetimes that can help...

  2. CPV solar cell modeling and metallization optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.K.; Barink, M.; Langelaar, M.

    2018-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) has recently gained popularity due to its ability to deliver significantly more power at relatively lower absorber material costs. In CPVs, lenses and mirrors are used to concentrate illumination over a small solar cell, thereby increasing the incident light by

  3. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications...

  4. CPV solar cell modeling and metallization optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.K.; Barink, Marco; Langelaar, M.

    2018-01-01

    Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV) has recently gained popularity due to its ability to deliver significantly more power at relatively lower absorber material costs. In CPVs, lenses and mirrors are used to concentrate illumination over a small solar cell, thereby increasing the incident light by

  5. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone–Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sangmoo

    2012-06-13

    Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices because the Schottky junction between the Si and organic material can be formed by solution processes at a low temperature. In this study, we demonstrate a hybrid solar cell composed of Si nanocones and conductive polymer. The optimal nanocone structure with an aspect ratio (height/diameter of a nanocone) less than two allowed for conformal polymer surface coverage via spin-coating while also providing both excellent antireflection and light trapping properties. The uniform heterojunction over the nanocones with enhanced light absorption resulted in a power conversion efficiency above 11%. Based on our simulation study, the optimal nanocone structures for a 10 μm thick Si solar cell can achieve a short-circuit current density, up to 39.1 mA/cm 2, which is very close to the theoretical limit. With very thin material and inexpensive processing, hybrid Si nanocone/polymer solar cells are promising as an economically viable alternative energy solution. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR CELLS BASED ON DYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional solid-state solar cells convert light into electricity by ... network via diffusion [2] due to electron scattering to the conductive .... The surface network morphology of these film layers was examined with an atomic force microscope in contact mode. (AFM: Nanoscope Illa from digital instruments version 4.42r4).

  7. Upconverter solar cells: materials and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, J.; Meijerink, A.; Rath, J.K.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral conversion of sunlight is a promising route to reduce spectral mismatch losses that are responsible for the major part of the efficiency losses in solar cells. Both upconversion and downconversion materials are presently explored. In an upconversion process, photons with an energy lower

  8. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance...

  9. Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 51)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Dean H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Martin A. [University of New South Wales; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST); Dunlop, Ewan D. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems; Ho-Baillie, Anita W. Y. [University of New South Wales

    2017-12-14

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since July 2017 are reviewed, together with progress over the last 25 years. Appendices are included documenting area definitions and also listing recognised test centres.

  10. Floating-Emitter Solar-Cell Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, C. T.; Cheng, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual transistor embedded in photovoltaic diode promises to increase efficiency to more than 20 percent. Solar-cell transistor has front-surface contact, rear contact, and floating emitter. Variety of other contact and junction configurations possible, but do not offer ease of fabrication in combination with high performance.

  11. Design and optimization of nanoparticle-pigmented solar selective absorber coatings for high-temperature concentrating solar thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin; Yu, Xiaobai; Fu, Sidan; Lee, Eldred; Kekalo, Katerina; Liu, Jifeng

    2018-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for the design and optimization of nanoparticle-pigmented solar selective absorbers for operation at 750 °C. Using the scattering and absorption cross-sections calculated by Lorenz-Mie scattering theory as input, we employ a four-flux radiative transfer method to investigate the solar selectivity mechanism and optimize the optical-to-thermal conversion efficiency (ηtherm) as a function of the metallic nanoparticle material, the nanoparticle diameter, the volume fraction, and the coating thickness. Among the nanoparticle material candidates in this study, C54-TiSi2 is the best option with an optimized ηtherm = 87.0% for a solar concentration ratio of C = 100 and ηtherm = 94.4% for C = 1000 at 750 °C. NiSi is also a promising candidate comparable to TiSi2 in thermal efficiency. Experimentally, an un-optimized 200 nm-diameter TiSi2 nanoparticle-silicone solar selective coating has already achieved ηtherm = 89.8% for C = 1000 at 750 °C. This performance is consistent with the theoretical model and close to the thermal efficiency of the commercial Pyromark 2500 coatings (90.1%). We also demonstrate that Ni/NiSi core-shell structures embedded in the SiO1.5 matrix is thermally stable at 750 °C for 1000 h in air. These results indicate that silicide cermet coatings are promising to achieve high optical performance and high temperature thermal stability simultaneously.

  12. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  13. How the relative permittivity of solar cell materials influences solar cell performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crovetto, Andrea; Huss-Hansen, Mathias K.; Hansen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The relative permittivity of the materials constituting heterojunction solar cells is usually not considered as a design parameter when searching for novel combinations of heterojunction materials. In this work, we investigate the validity of such an approach. Specifically, we show the effect...... of the materials permittivity on the physics and performance of the solar cell by means of numerical simulation supported by analytical relations. We demonstrate that, depending on the specific solar cell configuration and materials properties, there are scenarios where the relative permittivity has a major...... the heterojunction partner has a high permittivity, solar cells are consistently more robust against several non-idealities that are especially likely to occur in early-stage development, when the device is not yet optimized....

  14. Local Structure Analysis of Materials for Solar Cell Absorber Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Leila Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines solar cell absorber materials that have the potential to replace silicon in solar cells, including several copper-based sulfides and perovskites. Earth-abundant absorbers such as these become even more cost-effective when used in a nanostructured solar cell. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) deposit highly conformal films and hence are important tools for developing extremely thin absorber solar cells with scalability. Thus, the prima...

  15. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fan-Tai Kong; Song-Yuan Dai; Kong-Jia Wang

    2007-01-01

    We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC). The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from sma...

  16. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  17. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Peter H [Glendale, CA; Brandt, Randolph J [Palmdale, CA

    2012-06-19

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  19. Nanostructured GaAs solar cells via metal-assisted chemical etching of emitter layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunwon; Choi, Keorock; Jun, Dong-Hwan; Oh, Jungwoo

    2017-10-02

    GaAs solar cells with nanostructured emitter layers were fabricated via metal-assisted chemical etching. Au nanoparticles produced via thermal treatment of Au thin films were used as etch catalysts to texture an emitter surface with nanohole structures. Epi-wafers with emitter layers 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 um in thickness were directly textured and a window layer removal process was performed before metal catalyst deposition. A nanohole-textured emitter layer provides effective light trapping capabilities, reducing the surface reflection of a textured solar cell by 11.0%. However, because the nanostructures have high surface area to volume ratios and large numbers of defects, various photovoltaic properties were diminished by high recombination losses. Thus, we have studied the application of nanohole structures to GaAs emitter solar cells and investigated the cells' antireflection and photovoltaic properties as a function of the nanohole structure and emitter thickness. Due to decreased surface reflection and improved shunt resistance, the solar cell efficiency increased from 4.25% for non-textured solar cells to 7.15% for solar cells textured for 5 min.

  20. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junhong [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these

  1. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Dual-Function Au@Y2O3:Eu3+ Smart Film for Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency and Long-Term Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Woo; Eom, Tae Young; Yang, In Seok; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Wan In; Kang, Yong Soo; Kang, Young Soo

    2017-07-28

    In the present study, a dual-functional smart film combining the effects of wavelength conversion and amplification of the converted wave by the localized surface plasmon resonance has been investigated for a perovskite solar cell. This dual-functional film, composed of Au nanoparticles coated on the surface of Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor (Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ ) nanoparticle monolayer, enhances the solar energy conversion efficiency to electrical energy and long-term stability of photovoltaic cells. Coupling between the Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ phosphor monolayer and ultraviolet solar light induces the latter to be converted into visible light with a quantum yield above 80%. Concurrently, the Au nanoparticle monolayer on the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer amplifies the converted visible light by up to 170%. This synergy leads to an increased solar light energy conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells. Simultaneously, the dual-function film suppresses the photodegradation of perovskite by UV light, resulting in long-term stability. Introducing the hybrid smart Au@Y 2 O 3 :Eu 3+ film in perovskite solar cells increases their overall solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency to 16.1% and enhances long-term stability, as compared to the value of 15.2% for standard perovskite solar cells. The synergism between the wavelength conversion effect of the phosphor nanoparticle monolayer and the wave amplification by the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Au nanoparticle monolayer in a perovskite solar cell is comparatively investigated, providing a viable strategy of broadening the solar spectrum utilization.

  3. Dye sensitized solar cell based on environmental friendly eosin Y dye and Al doped titanium dioxide nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Swati S.; Bodkhe, Gajanan A.; Shirsat, Sumedh M.; Hussaini, S. S.; Shejwal, N. N.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-03-01

    Present communication deals with the development of cost effective dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with eco-friendly materials. Eco-friendly Eosin Y dye was used to sensitize photo anode which was fabricated using undoped and Aluminium doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Undoped and Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple and cost effective sol-gel method. Aluminium doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, x-ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Micrograph with EDX. The photo-voltaic activity of the cell was studied under light irradiation of 100 milliwatt cm-2. Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode exhibits more than 60% increase in cell efficiency as compared to the undoped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode.

  4. Uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into cells for cell tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Christiane; Hodenius, Michael; Blendinger, Gitta; Sechi, Antonio; Hieronymus, Thomas; Mueller-Schulte, Detlef; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Zenke, Martin

    2007-01-01

    A challenge for future applications in nanotechnology is the functional integration of nano-sized materials into cellular structures. Here we investigated superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a lipid bilayer for uptake into cells and for targeting subcellular compartments. It was found that magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are effectively taken up into cells and make cells acquire magnetic activity. Biotin-conjugated MNPs were further functionalized by binding of the fluorescent tag streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and, following uptake into cells, shown to confer magnetic activity and fluorescence labeling. Such FITC-MNPs were localized in the lysosomal compartment of cells which suggests a receptor-mediated uptake mechanism

  5. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  6. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  7. Laser scanning of experimental solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, B. C.; Lasswell, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a laser scanning instrument which makes it possible to display and measure the spatial response of a solar cell. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of generated micrographs in the isolation of flaws and features of the cell. The laser scanner system uses a 4 mW, CW helium-neon laser, operating a wavelength of 0.633 micrometers. The beam is deflected by two mirror galvanometers arranged to scan in orthogonal directions. After being focused on the solar cell by the beam focusing lens, the moving light spot raster scans the specimen. The current output of the photovoltaic device under test, as a function of the scan dot position, can be displayed in several modes. The laser scanner has proved to be a very useful diagnostic tool in optimizing the process design of transparent metal film photovoltaic devices on Zn3P2, a relatively new photovoltaic material.

  8. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...... by pressing a silicon stamp containing a mu m size raised grid structure into the TiO2 by use of a hydraulic press (1 ton/50 cm(2)). The performance of these microstructured substrates in a ETA cell sensitized by a thermally evaporated or chemical bath deposited PbS film and completed by a PEDOT:PSS hole...

  9. Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with TiO_2 Scaffold in Perovskite Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Renjie; Zeng, Zhaobing; Huang, Xiaokun; Wang, Liming; Xu, Jie; Hu, Ziyang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-01-01

    TiO_2 nanoparticle is employed as mesoporous scaffold under low temperature in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI_3) perovskite layer for planar heterojunction solar cells (PH PSCs). It has been found that the high quality perovskite crystalline is obtained by adding TiO_2 nanoparticles into perovskite layer. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) has been significantly improved due to the enhanced light scattering of TiO_2 nanoparticles and efficient electron transport in perovskite layer. Specially, interconnected TiO_2 nanoparticles improves the electron transport property, leading to reducing hysteresis and obtaining the much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) (12.96%) with V_o_c = 0.99 V, J_s_c = 22.9 mA/cm"2 and FF = 0.562. This fabrication method is promising for flexible PH PSCs application and reducing the preparation cost.

  10. Space solar cell technology development - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J.

    1982-01-01

    The developmental history of photovoltaics is examined as a basis for predicting further advances to the year 2000. Transistor technology was the precursor of solar cell development. Terrestrial cells were modified for space through changes in geometry and size, as well as the use of Ag-Ti contacts and manufacture of a p-type base. The violet cell was produced for Comsat, and involved shallow junctions, new contacts, and an enhanced antireflection coating for better radiation tolerance. The driving force was the desire by private companies to reduce cost and weight for commercial satellite power supplies. Liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) GaAs cells are the latest advancement, having a 4 sq cm area and increased efficiency. GaAs cells are expected to be flight ready in the 1980s. Testing is still necessary to verify production techniques and the resistance to electron and photon damage. Research will continue in CVD cell technology, new panel technology, and ultrathin Si cells.

  11. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  12. Photostability of the solar cell dye sensitizer N719

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz

    The photostability of the sensitizer dye [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2] (Bu4N)2 (referred to as N719) was investigated in a simple model system instead of a complete nanocrystaline dye sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells (nc-DSSC). The applied model system consisted of N719 dyed titanium dioxide...... it was possible to calculate an average value for the oxidative degradation rate of the N719 dye attached to the TiO2 nanoparticles, kdeg = 4 × 10–2 s–1 . Heating and illumination of the model system in the presence of 4-tert-butylpyridine (4-TBP), the commonly used additive in nc-DSSC, revealed the possible...

  13. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs.

  14. Single-cell nanotoxicity assays of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F

    2012-01-01

    Properly evaluating the nanotoxicity of nanoparticles involves much more than bulk-cell assays of cell death by necrosis. Cells exposed to nanoparticles may undergo repairable oxidative stress and DNA damage or be induced into apoptosis. Exposure to nanoparticles may cause the cells to alter their proliferation or differentiation or their cell-cell signaling with neighboring cells in a tissue. Nanoparticles are usually more toxic to some cell subpopulations than others, and toxicity often varies with cell cycle. All of these facts dictate that any nanotoxicity assay must be at the single-cell level and must try whenever feasible and reasonable to include many of these other factors. Focusing on one type of quantitative measure of nanotoxicity, we describe flow and scanning image cytometry approaches to measuring nanotoxicity at the single-cell level by using a commonly used assay for distinguishing between necrotic and apoptotic causes of cell death by one type of nanoparticle. Flow cytometry is fast and quantitative, provided that the cells can be prepared into a single-cell suspension for analysis. But when cells cannot be put into suspension without altering nanotoxicity results, or if morphology, attachment, and stain location are important, a scanning image cytometry approach must be used. Both methods are described with application to a particular type of nanoparticle, a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION), as an example of how these assays may be applied to the more general problem of determining the effects of nanomaterial exposure to living cells.

  15. Superstrate sub-cell voltage-matched multijunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Angelo; Alberi, Kirstin

    2016-03-15

    Voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cell and methods of producing cells having upper CdTe pn junction layers formed on a transparent substrate which in the completed device is operatively positioned in a superstate configuration. The solar cell also includes a lower pn junction formed independently of the CdTe pn junction and an insulating layer between CdTe and lower pn junctions. The voltage-matched thin film multijunction solar cells further include a parallel connection between the CdTe pn junction and lower pn junctions to form a two-terminal photonic device. Methods of fabricating devices from independently produced upper CdTe junction layers and lower junction layers are also disclosed.

  16. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioz Etgar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered.

  17. Semiconductor Nanocrystals as Light Harvesters in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz

    2013-02-04

    Photovoltaic cells use semiconductors to convert sunlight into electrical current and are regarded as a key technology for a sustainable energy supply. Quantum dot-based solar cells have shown great potential as next generation, high performance, low-cost photovoltaics due to the outstanding optoelectronic properties of quantum dots and their multiple exciton generation (MEG) capability. This review focuses on QDs as light harvesters in solar cells, including different structures of QD-based solar cells, such as QD heterojunction solar cells, QD-Schottky solar cells, QD-sensitized solar cells and the recent development in organic-inorganic perovskite heterojunction solar cells. Mechanisms, procedures, advantages, disadvantages and the latest results obtained in the field are described. To summarize, a future perspective is offered.

  18. Tuning the colors of c-Si solar cells by exploiting plasmonic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharz, G.; Grosschädl, B.; Prietl, C.; Waldhauser, W.; Wenzl, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    The color of a crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell is mainly determined by its anti-reflective coating. This is a lambda/4 coating made from a transparent dielectric material. The thickness of the anti-reflective coating is optimized for maximal photocurrent generation, resulting in the typical blue or black colors of c-Si solar cells. However, for building-integrated photovoltaic (BiPV) applications the color of the solar cells is demanded to be tunable - ideally by a cheap and flexible coating process on standard (low cost) c-Si solar cells. Such a coating can be realized by applying plasmonic coloring which is a rapidly growing technology for high-quality color filtering and rendering for different fields of application (displays, imaging,…). In this contribution, we present results of an approach for tuning the color of standard industrial c-Si solar cells that is based on coating them with metallic nano-particles. In particular, thin films (green and brownish/red. The position of the resonance peak in the reflection spectrum was found to be almost independent from the angle of incidence. This low angular sensitivity is a clear advantage compared to alternative color tuning methods, for which additional dielectric thin films are deposited on c-Si solar cells.

  19. Rational Strategies for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jangwon; Noh, Jun Hong; Seok, Sang Il

    2016-03-15

    A long-standing dream in the large scale application of solar energy conversion is the fabrication of solar cells with high-efficiency and long-term stability at low cost. The realization of such practical goals depends on the architecture, process and key materials because solar cells are typically constructed from multilayer heterostructures of light harvesters, with electron and hole transporting layers as a major component. Recently, inorganic-organic hybrid lead halide perovskites have attracted significant attention as light absorbers for the fabrication of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells via a solution process. This mainly stems from long-range ambipolar charge transport properties, low exciton binding energies, and suitable band gap tuning by managing the chemical composition. In our pioneering work, a new photovoltaic platform for efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was proposed, which yielded a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12%. The platform consisted of a pillared architecture of a three-dimensional nanocomposite of perovskites fully infiltrating mesoporous TiO2, resulting in the formation of continuous phases and perovskite domains overlaid with a polymeric hole conductor. Since then, the PCE of our PSCs has been rapidly increased from 3% to over 20% certified efficiency. The unprecedented increase in the PCE can be attributed to the effective integration of the advantageous attributes of the refined bicontinuous architecture, deposition process, and composition of perovskite materials. Specifically, the bicontinuous architectures used in the high efficiency comprise a layer of perovskite sandwiched between mesoporous metal-oxide layer, which is a very thinner than that of used in conventional dye-sensitized solar cells, and hole-conducting contact materials with a metal back contact. The mesoporous scaffold can affect the hysteresis under different scan direction in measurements of PSCs. The hysteresis also greatly depends on

  20. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A program to investigate the reliability characteristics of unencapsulated low-cost terrestrial solar cells using accelerated stress testing is described. Reliability (or parametric degradation) factors appropriate to the cell technologies and use conditions were studied and a series of accelerated stress tests was synthesized. An electrical measurement procedure and a data analysis and management system was derived, and stress test fixturing and material flow procedures were set up after consideration was given to the number of cells to be stress tested and measured and the nature of the information to be obtained from the process. Selected results and conclusions are presented.

  1. Dynamics of Receptor-Mediated Nanoparticle Internalization into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process. PMID:25901833

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FATHALLAH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC constitutes a real revolution in the conversion of solar energy into electricity after 40 years of the invention of silicon solar cells. The working mechanism is based on a photoelectrochemical system, similar to the photosynthesis in plant leaves. The efficiencies of the DSSC are high as those obtained from amorphous silicon solar cells (10-11 % and intensive efforts are done in different directions to improve this efficiency.

  3. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bull,1 Seyed Yazdan Madani,1 Roosey Sheth,1 Amelia Seifalian,1 Mark Green,2 Alexander M Seifalian1,31UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, 2Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, UK; 3Royal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.Keywords: stem cells, nanoparticle, magnetic

  4. Reduction of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells by silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Rajabnia

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Since silver nanoparticles can reduce the proliferation of Saos-2 cells and to eradicate them by induction of apoptosis, these nanoparticles can be taken as a candidate for treating osteosarcoma cells.

  5. Gallium Arsenide solar cell radiation damage experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.; Herbert, G. A.; Meulenberg, A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells for space applications from three different manufactures were irradiated with 10 MeV protons or 1 MeV electrons. The electrical performance of the cells was measured at several fluence levels and compared. Silicon cells were included for reference and comparison. All the GaAs cell types performed similarly throughout the testing and showed a 36 to 56 percent power areal density advantage over the silicon cells. Thinner (8-mil versus 12-mil) GaAs cells provide a significant weight reduction. The use of germanium (Ge) substrates to improve mechanical integrity can be implemented with little impact on end of life performance in a radiation environment.

  6. All-inorganic inverse perovskite solar cells using zinc oxide nanocolloids on spin coated perovskite layer

    OpenAIRE

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Fukumoto, Shota; Baranwal, Ajay K.; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ito, Seigo

    2017-01-01

    We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage (Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it...

  7. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:26733112

  8. Interface engineering of Graphene-Silicon heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dikai; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Lifei; Yang, Deren

    2016-11-01

    Graphene has attracted great research interests due to its unique mechanical, electrical and optical properties, which opens up a huge number of opportunities for applications. Recently, Graphene-Silicon (Grsbnd Si) solar cell has been recognized as one interesting candidate for the future photovoltaic. Since the first Grsbnd Si solar cell reported in 2010, Grsbnd Si solar cell has been intensively investigated and the power converse efficiency (PCE) of it has been developed to 15.6%. This review presents and discusses current development of Grsbnd Si solar cell. Firstly, the basic concept and mechanism of Grsbnd Si solar cell are introduced. Then, several key technologies are introduced to improve the performance of Grsbnd Si solar cells, such as chemical doping, annealing, Si surface passivation and interlayer insertion. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for Grsbnd Si interface engineering. Finally, new pathways and opportunities of "MIS-like structure" Grsbnd Si solar cells are described.

  9. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF A SOLAR CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    ; and estimating variations in the solar cell, thereby electrically characterizing the solar cell. The disclosure further relates to a solar cell characterization apparatus for characterization of a solar cell, comprising: a light source for generating an optical probe light; a modulation unit, configured......The present disclosure relates to a method for characterization of a solar cell, comprising the steps of: providing an optical probe light; modulating the optical probe light with a modulation frequency of between 100 kHz and 50 MHz, thereby obtaining a modulated probe light; scanning the modulated...... probe light such that said modulated probe light is incident on at least a part of the surface of the solar cell, and such that the part of the solar cell exposed to the modulated probe light converts the modulated probe light to an electrical signal; detecting and analyzing said electrical signal...

  10. A Bicontinuous Double Gyroid Hybrid Solar Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Crossland, Edward J. W.

    2009-08-12

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous gyroid semiconducting network in a hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cell. The freestanding gyroid network is fabricated by electrochemical deposition into the 10 nm wide voided channels of a self-assembled, selectively degradable block copolymer film. The highly ordered pore structure is ideal for uniform infiltration of an organic hole transporting material, and solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only 400 nm thick exhibit up to 1.7% power conversion efficiency. This patterning technique can be readily extended to other promising heterojunction systems and is a major step toward realizing the full potential of self-assembly in the next generation of device technologies. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

    1980-08-01

    Thirty-four new solar cells were fabricated on Wacker Sislo substrates and the AM-1 parameters were measured. A detailed comparison was made between the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length by the OE method and the penetrating light laser scan grain boundary photoresponse linewidth method. The laser scan method has more experimental uncertainty and agrees within 10 to 50% with the QE method. It allows determination of L over a large area. Atomic hydrogen passivation studies continued on Wacker material by three techniques. A method of determining surface recombination velocity, s, from laser scan data was developed. No change in s in completed solar cells after H-plasma treatment was observed within experimental error. H-passivation of bare silicon cars as measured by the new laser scan photoconductivity technique showed very large effects.

  12. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure, and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.

  13. Promises and challenges of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Saliba, Michael; Buonassisi, Tonio; Grätzel, Michael; Abate, Antonio; Tress, Wolfgang; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The efficiencies of perovskite solar cells have gone from single digits to a certified 22.1% in a few years’ time. At this stage of their development, the key issues concern how to achieve further improvements in efficiency and long-term stability. We review recent developments in the quest to improve the current state of the art. Because photocurrents are near the theoretical maximum, our focus is on efforts to increase open-circuit voltage by means of improving charge-selective contacts and charge carrier lifetimes in perovskites via processes such as ion tailoring. The challenges associated with long-term perovskite solar cell device stability include the role of testing protocols, ionic movement affecting performance metrics over extended periods of time, and determination of the best ways to counteract degradation mechanisms.

  14. The photophysics of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Tze Chien

    2014-09-01

    Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells, a newcomer to the photovoltaic arena, have taken the field by storm with their extraordinary power conversion efficiencies exceeding 17%. In this paper, the photophysics and the latest findings on the carrier dynamics and charge transfer mechanisms in this new class of photovoltaic material will be examined and distilled. Some open photophysics questions will also be discussed.

  15. Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, I-Kang

    2010-12-14

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a plasmonic back reflector, overlaid with simulated field intensity plots when monochromatic light is incident on the device. Plasmonic back reflectors, which consist of 2D arrays of silver nanodomes, can enhance absorption through excitation of plasmonic modes and increased light scattering, as reported by Michael D. McGehee, Yi Cui, and co-workers.

  16. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T. L.

    1987-10-01

    Cadmium telluride, with a room-temperature band-gap energy of 1.5 eV, is a promising thin-film photovoltaic material. The major objective of this research has been to demonstrate thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells with a total area greater than 1 sq cm and photovoltaic efficiencies of 13 percent or more. Thin-film p-CdTe/CdS/SnO2:F/glass solar cells with an AM1.5 efficiency of 10.5 percent have been reported previously. This report contains results of work done on: (1) the deposition, resistivity control, and characterization of p-CdTe films by the close-spaced sublimation process; (2) the deposition of large-band-gap window materials; (3) the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions; (4) the formation of stable, reproducible, ohmic contacts (such as p-HgTe) to p-CdTe; and (5) the preparation and evaluation of heterojunction solar cells.

  17. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  18. Gallium arsenide solar cell radiation damage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, R. H.; Herbert, G. A.; Kinnison, J. D.; Meulenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A thorough analysis has been made of electron- and proton- damaged GaAs solar cells suitable for use in space. It is found that, although some electrical parametric data and spectral response data are quite similar, the type of damage due to the two types of radiation is different. An I-V analysis model shows that electrons damage the bulk of the cell and its currents relatively more, while protons damage the junction of the cell and its voltages more. It is suggested that multiple defects due to protons in a strong field region such as a p/n junction cause the greater degradation in cell voltage, whereas the individual point defects in the quasi-neutral minority-carrier-diffusion regions due to electrons cause the greater degradation in cell current and spectral response.

  19. Internalization of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Ingo Werner; Li, Shi-Pu; Han, Ying-Chao; Yuan, Lin; Yin, Mei-Zhen

    2008-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the main inorganic component of hard tissues and shows excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity properties. Nanoparticles of HAP can be synthesised by the precipitation method in distilled water. The needle shaped particles are below 100 nm in size with low-crystallinity and high-surfacial activation. Recent studies showed toxic effects of HAP nanoparticles on cancer cells. Other studies focus on the application of HAP nanoparticles as drug and gene delivery system or cell marker. However, to date, the exact internalization pathway of HAP nanoparticles into cells has not been determined. When HAP nanoparticles were added to cell culture medium, the particles immediately became instable and formed agglomerates with a size of about 500-700 nm. Hence, cells seldom encounter single HAP nanoparticles in the environment of cell culture or body fluid. The TEM showed internalized HAP captured by vacuoles in the cytoplasm of the hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The invaginations in the cell membrane before nanoparticle uptake suggested endocytic pathways as internalization mechanism. This study revealed that agglomerated HAP nanoparticles were internalized by cells through the energy-dependent process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of intracellular potassium arrested the formation of coated pit, which inhibited the uptake of HAP.

  20. Plasmonic heating from indium nanoparticles on a floating microporous membrane for enhanced solar seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Xing, Jun; Wen, Xinglin; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Shijie; Xiong, Qihua

    2017-09-14

    Passive solar evaporation represents a promising and environmentally benign method of water purification/desalination. Plasmonic nanoparticles have been demonstrated as an effective approach for enhancing solar steam generation through a plasmonic heating effect, nonetheless the efficiency is constrained by unnecessary bulk heating of the entire liquid volume, while the noble metals commonly used are not cost-effective in terms of availability and their sophisticated preparation. Herein, a paper-like plasmonic device consisting of a microporous membrane and indium nanoparticles (In NPs/MPM) is fabricated through a simple thermal evaporation method. Due to the light-weight and porous nature of the device, the broadband light absorption properties, and theoretically the excellent plasmonic heating effect from In NP which could be even higher than gold, silver and aluminium nanoparticles, our device can effectively enhance solar water evaporation by floating on the water surface and its utility has been demonstrated in the solar desalination of a real seawater sample. The durability of the device in solar seawater desalination has also been investigated over multiple cycles with stable performances. This portable device could provide a solution for individuals to do water/seawater purification in under-developed areas with limited/no access to electricity or a centralized drinking water supply.

  1. Experimental quantification of useful and parasitic absorption of light in plasmon-enhanced thin silicon films for solar cells application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morawiec, S.; Holovský, Jakub; Mendes, M.J.; Müller, Martin; Ganzerová, Kristína; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Ledinský, Martin; Priolo, F.; Fejfar, Antonín; Crupi, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Mar (2016), 1-10, č. článku 22481. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA14-15357S; GA ČR GA13-12386S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoparticles * nanophotonics and plasmonics * solar cells * solar energy and photovoltaic technology Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  2. Plasmonic nanoparticle-semiconductor composites for efficient solar water splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, M.; Jonsson, M.P.; Biskos, G.; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Smith, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising technology that uses light absorbing semiconductors to convert solar energy directly into a chemical fuel (i.e., hydrogen). PEC water splitting has the potential to become a key technology in achieving a sustainable society, if high solar

  3. Development of gallium arsenide solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The potential of ion implantation as a means to the development of high efficiency gallium arsenide solar cells is investigated. Summaries are included of the results of computer calculations of GaAs cell characteristics, based on a model which includes the effects of surface recombination, junction space-charge region recombination, and built-in fields produced by nonuniform doping in the region; of the fabrication technology developed under the program; and of the results of electrical and optical measurements on the samples produced during the program. It was determined that measured AMO efficiencies were more than a factor of two lower than the calculated values.

  4. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  5. High Temperature InGaN-based Solar Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An efficient generation of solar power in a space environment is an enduring challenging for all NASA missions. The current available solar cells, however, suffer...

  6. Transparent antennas for solar cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Tursunjan

    Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

  7. Electric field assisted sintering to improve the performance of nanostructured dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeifar, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Fathollahi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we report the application of electric field assisted sintering (EFAS) procedure in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The EFAS process improved DSSC performance by enhancing optical and electrical characteristics simultaneously. The EFAS procedure is shown to be capable of reducing the TiO2 nanoparticle aggregation leading to the higher surface area for dye molecules adsorbates. Lower nanoparticle aggregation can be evidently observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy imaging. By applying an external electric field, the current density and conversion efficiency improved significantly about 30% and 45%, respectively. UV-Visible spectra of the desorbed dye molecules on the porous nanoparticles bedding confirm a higher amount of dye loading in the presence of an external electric field. Correspondingly, comprehensive J-V characteristics modeling reveals the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient by EFAS process. The proposed method can be applied to improve the efficiency of the mesostructured hybrid perovskite solar cells, photodetectors, and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, as well as reduction of the surface area loss in all porous media.

  8. Photovoltaic Technology: The Case for Thin-Film Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arvind; Torres, Pedro; Tscharner, Reto; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Keppner, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of photovoltaic solar modules for energy generation are reviewed with their operation principles and physical efficiency limits. Although the main materials currently used or investigated and the associated fabrication technologies are individually described, emphasis is on silicon-based solar cells. Wafer-based crystalline silicon solar modules dominate in terms of production, but amorphous silicon solar cells have the potential to undercut costs owing, for exa...

  9. Inorganic nanoparticles as nucleic acid transporters into eukaryotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanov, R. N.; Zarytova, V. F.; Zenkova, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    The review is concerned with inorganic nanoparticles (gold, titanium dioxide, silica, iron oxides, calcium phosphate) used as nucleic acid transporters into mammalian cells. Methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and approaches to surface modification through covalent or noncovalent attachment of low- or high-molecular-weight compounds are considered. The data available from the literature on biological action of nucleic acids delivered into the cells by nanoparticles and on the effect of nanoparticles and their conjugates and complexes on the cell survival are summarized. Pathways of cellular internalization of nanoparticles and the mechanism of their excretion, as well as the ways of release of nucleic acids from their complexes with nanoparticles after the cellular uptake are described. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  10. Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

  11. Self-ordering anodized nanotubes: Enhancing the performance by surface plasmon for dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, S.; Ho, G.W.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, electrochemical anodization has been used to prepare uniform TiO 2 nanotube array photoelectrode. The average internal diameter, tube length and wall thickness of the optimized morphology is ∼180 nm, 14 μm and 10 nm, respectively. It was found that the tube diameter increases with the anodization voltage. Diffraction data reveals that the nanotubes consist solely of anatase phase. Back illuminated geometry of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), with nanotubes grown at 60 V for 2 h, gave a cell performance of 4.5%. TiO 2 nanotubes are loaded with silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The Ag particle size is controlled resulting in solar conversion efficiency to increase by 22%. The DSSC based on TiO 2 nanotube with Ag nanoparticles shows power conversion efficiency of 5.5%. Detailed characterization are performed, presented and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Enhanced solar conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by decorating TiO 2 nanotube array with Ag nanoparticles. Highlights: ► Uniform array of TiO 2 nanotubes synthesized via electrochemical anodization. ► Back illuminated DSSC gave a cell performance of 4.5%. ► TiO 2 nanotubes are loaded with Ag nanoparticles, which increased the power conversion efficiency to 5.5%.

  12. Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Kelly, Timothy L.

    2014-02-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells that combine a mesoporous scaffold, a perovskite light absorber and an organic hole transporter have emerged at the forefront of solution-processable photovoltaic devices; however, they require processing temperatures of up to 500 °C to sinter the mesoporous metal-oxide support. Here, we report the use of a thin film of ZnO nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer in CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells; in contrast to mesoporous TiO2, the ZnO layer is both substantially thinner and requires no sintering. We took advantage of these facts to prepare flexible solar cells with power-conversion efficiencies in excess of 10%. The use of ZnO also results in improvements to device performance for cells prepared on rigid substrates. Solar cells based on this design exhibit power-conversion efficiencies as high as 15.7% when measured under AM1.5G illumination, which makes them some of the highest-performing perovskite solar cells reported to date.

  13. OPTEC: A Cubesat for Solar Cell Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Arutyunov, Dennis; White, Kelsey; Witsberger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new type of small spacecraft, the cubesat, has introduced a new concept for extremely small, low-cost missions into space. Cubesats are designed to be launched as secondary payloads on other missions, and are made up of unit elements (U) of size 10 cm by 10 cm by 10 cm, with a nominal mass of no more than 1.33 kg per U. We have designed a cubesat, OPTEC (Orbital Photovoltaic Testbed Cubesat) as a low-cost testbed to demonstrate, calibrate, and test solar cell technologies in space. Size of the cubesat is 2U (10x10x20cm, and the mass 2.66 kg. The cubesat deploys from the International Space Station into Low Earth Orbit at an altitude of about 420 km. Up to two 4x8cm test solar panels can be flown, with full I-V curves and temperature measurements taken.

  14. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiency Using Photon Upconversion Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Shang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic cells are able to convert sunlight into electricity, providing enough of the most abundant and cleanest energy to cover our energy needs. However, the efficiency of current photovoltaics is significantly impeded by the transmission loss of sub-band-gap photons. Photon upconversion is a promising route to circumvent this problem by converting these transmitted sub-band-gap photons into above-band-gap light, where solar cells typically have high quantum efficiency. Here, we summarize recent progress on varying types of efficient upconversion materials as well as their outstanding uses in a series of solar cells, including silicon solar cells (crystalline and amorphous, gallium arsenide (GaAs solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other types of solar cells. The challenge and prospect of upconversion materials for photovoltaic applications are also discussed

  15. Simulation of an electrowetting solar concentration cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iftekhar; Rosengarten, Gary

    2015-09-01

    Electrowetting control of liquid lenses has emerged as a novel approach for solar tracking and concentration. Recent studies have demonstrated the concept of steering sunlight using thin electrowetting cells without the use of any bulky mechanical equipment. Effective application of this technique may facilitate designing thin and flat solar concentrators. Understanding the behavior of liquid-liquid and liquid-solid interface of the electrowetting cell through trial and error experimental processes is not efficient and is time consuming. In this paper, we present a simulation model to predict the liquid-liquid and liquid-solid interface behavior of electrowetting cell as a function of various parameters such as applied voltage, dielectric constant, cell size etc. We used Comsol Multiphysics simulations incorporating experimental data of different liquids. We have designed both two dimensional and three dimensional simulation models, which predict the shape of the liquid lenses. The model calculates the contact angle using the Young-Lippman equation and uses a moving mesh interface to solve the Navier-stokes equation with Navier slip wall boundary condition. Simulation of the electric field from the electrodes is coupled to the Young-Lippman equation. The model can also be used to determine operational characteristics of other MEMS electrowetting devices such as electrowetting display, optical switches, electronic paper, electrowetting Fresnel lens etc.

  16. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  17. An interim report on the NTS-2 solar cell experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, R. L.; Walker, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Data obtained from the fourteen solar cell modules on the NTS-2 satellite are presented together with a record of panel temperature and sun inclination. The following flight data are discussed: (1) state of the art solar cell configurations which embody improvements in solar cell efficiency through new silicon surface and bulk technology, (2) improved coverslip materials and coverslip bonding techniques, (3) short and long term effects of ultraviolet rejection filters vs. no filters on the cells, (4) degradation on a developmental type of liquid epitaxy gallium-aluminum-arsenide solar cell, and (5) space radiation effects.

  18. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  19. N-type solar cells: advantages, issues, and current scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan S.

    2017-07-01

    Crystalline silicon, including p-type czochralski (CZ) mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline (mc) silicon, has been the workhorse for solar cell production for decades. In recent years, there has been many developments in n-type c-Si solar cells basically due to the advantages of n-type c-Si wafers over p-type wafers. However, there are some limitations in making n-type solar cells considering the technologies involved to fabricate p-type cells. In this paper, different advantages of n-types wafers, their limitations in solar cell production, and an analysis of total market coverage are discussed.

  20. Plasmonic near-touching titanium oxide nanoparticles to realize solar energy harvesting and effective local heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiahao; Liu, Pu; Ma, Churong; Lin, Zhaoyong; Yang, Guowei

    2016-04-28

    Through the excitation of plasmon resonance, the energy of plasmonic nanoparticles either reradiates through light scattering or decays into energetic electrons (absorption). The plasmon-induced absorption can greatly enhance the efficiency of solar energy harvesting, local heating, photodetection and photocatalysis. Here, we demonstrate that heavily self-doped titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO1.67 analogue arising from oxygen vacancies in rutile TiO2) with the plasmon resonance dominated by an interband transition shows strong absorption to build a broadband perfect absorber in the wavelength range from 300 to 2000 nm covering the solar irradiation spectrum completely. The absorptivity of the fabricated array is greater than 90% in the whole spectral range. And the broadband and strong absorption is due to the plasmon hybridization and hot spot generation from near-touching TiO1.67 nanoparticles with different sizes. What is more, the local heating of a TiO1.67 nanoparticle layer is fast and effective. The temperature increases quickly from 30 °C to 80 °C within 200 seconds. This local heating can realize rapid solar-enabled evaporation which can find applications in large-scale distillation and seawater desalination. These findings actually open a pathway for applications of these newly developed plasmonic materials in the energy and environment fields.

  1. Quantitative detection of gold nanoparticles on individual, unstained cancer cells by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; van Es, Peter; Petersen, Wilhelmina; van Leeuwen, Ton; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Otto, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are rapidly emerging for use in biomedical applications. Characterization of the interaction and delivery of nanoparticles to cells through microscopy is important. Scanning electron microscopes have the intrinsic resolution to visualize gold nanoparticles on cells. A novel sample

  2. Quantitative detection of gold nanoparticles on individual, unstained cancer cells by scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartsuiker, L.; van Es, P.; Petersen, W.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Terstappen, L. W. M. M.; Otto, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are rapidly emerging for use in biomedical applications. Characterization of the interaction and delivery of nanoparticles to cells through microscopy is important. Scanning electron microscopes have the intrinsic resolution to visualize gold nanoparticles on cells. A novel sample

  3. Fate of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in endothelial cells: exocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Strobel@med.uni-jena.de [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Oehring, Hartmut [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Anatomy II (Germany); Herrmann, Rudolf [University of Augsburg, Department of Physics (Germany); Förster, Martin [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergy/Immunology (Germany); Reller, Armin [University of Augsburg, Department of Physics (Germany); Hilger, Ingrid, E-mail: ingrid.hilger@med.uni-jena.de [Jena University Hospital – Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Although cytotoxicity and endocytosis of nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous studies, investigations regarding exocytosis as an important mechanism to reduce intracellular nanoparticle accumulation are rather rare and there is a distinct lack of knowledge. The current study investigated the behavior of human microvascular endothelial cells to exocytose cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (18.8 nm) by utilization of specific inhibitors [brefeldin A; nocodazole; methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβcD)] and different analytical methods (flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Overall, it was found that endothelial cells were able to release CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles via exocytosis after the migration of nanoparticle containing endosomes toward the plasma membrane. The exocytosis process occurred mainly by fusion of vesicular membranes with plasma membrane resulting in the discharge of vesicular content to extracellular environment. Nevertheless, it seems to be likely that nanoparticles present in the cytosol could leave the cells in a direct manner. MβcD treatment led to the strongest inhibition of the nanoparticle exocytosis indicating a significant role of the plasma membrane cholesterol content in the exocytosis process. Brefeldin A (inhibitor of Golgi-to-cell-surface-transport) caused a higher inhibitory effect on exocytosis than nocodazole (inhibitor of microtubules). Thus, the transfer from distal Golgi compartments to the cell surface influenced the exocytosis process of the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles more than the microtubule-associated transport. In conclusion, endothelial cells, which came in contact with nanoparticles, e.g., after intravenously applied nano-based drugs, can regulate their intracellular nanoparticle amount, which is necessary to avoid adverse nanoparticle effects on cells.

  4. Industrialization of polymer solar cells - phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, H.; Krebs, F.C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Andersen, Rasmus B. [Mekoprint A/S, Stoevrimg (Denmark); Bork, J.; Bentzen, B.

    2012-03-15

    A three-phased project with the objective to industrialize DTU's basic polymer solar cell technology was started in the summer of 2009. The technology comprises a specific design of the polymer solar cell and a corresponding roll-to-roll manufacturing process. This basic technology is referred to as ProcessOne in the open literature. The present report relates to the project's phase 1.The key tasks in phase 1 are to stream-line DTU's tech-nology for the industrial utilization, to demonstrate production according to this stream-lined technology at Mekoprint A/S and finally to fertilize the market for polymer solar cells by demonstrating their use in appli-cations that harmonize with their present maturity level. The main focus in the stream-lining of DTU's technology has been to demonstrate a convincing rate of reduction for the production cost, and thereby make a competitive price plausible. This has been materialized as a learning curve showing that the polymer technology presently develops considerably faster than the silicon technology. The polymer solar cells will, under the assumption that both technologies follow a projection of the learning curve, gain a cost-leading position within a reasonable time. A production cost of 5 Euro/Wp has already been demonstrated in DTU's pilot plant, and a road map for the further decrease to 1 Euro/Wp is drawn. This target is expected to be reached in 2013 in the ongoing phase 2 of the project. Another activity essential for the industrialization has been the launch of specialized materials, equipment and services required for the processing of DTU's polymer solar cells. Relevant products and services are made available for sale on DTU's homepage, www.energyconversion.dtu.dk. A production line for polymer solar cells has been established at Mekoprint. For this a retrofit solution was chosen where the core of an existing screen-printing line was dismantled and fitted to a slot-die printing head manufactured in DTU's workshop

  5. Manipulating directional cell motility using intracellular superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Clemons, Tristan D.; Ho, Diwei; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Lázaro, Francisco J.; House, Michael J.; St. Pierre, Timothy G.; Fear, Mark W.; Wood, Fiona M.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the ability for magnetic nanoparticles to influence cellular migration in the presence of an external magnetic field. We found that the direction of migrating keratinocytes can be controlled and the migration speed of fibroblasts can be increased with the internalisation of these nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The possibility of shepherding cells towards a region of interest through the use of internalized nanoparticles is an attractive prospect for cell tracking, cell therapies, and tissue engineering applications.This study investigated the ability for magnetic nanoparticles to influence cellular migration in the presence of an external magnetic field. We found that the direction of migrating keratinocytes can be controlled and the migration speed of fibroblasts can be increased with the internalisation of these nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The possibility of shepherding cells towards a region of interest through the use of internalized nanoparticles is an attractive prospect for cell tracking, cell therapies, and tissue engineering applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Nanoparticle characterisation, supporting experimental data, video time course study of cellular uptake of the nanoparticles and complete experimental details are all provided in the ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06594h

  6. Investigation of Indoor Stability Testing of Polymer Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Kavak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated organic solar cell of a new low bandgap polymer poly[4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b:3,4-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-4,7-bis(2-thienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-5′,5′′-diyl] (PCPDTTBTT. We have investigated for the first time the stability tests, ISOS-L-1 and ISOS-D-3, of PCPDTTBTT solar cells. Thermal annealing of PCPDTTBTT solar cells at 80°C brought about an improvement of photocurrent generation, stability, and efficiency of the solar cells. T80 value of PCPDTTBTT solar cell is about 150 hours which is close to P3HT (235 h. PCPDTTBTT is very promising polymer for both polymer solar cell efficiency and stability.

  7. Advantages of thin silicon solar cells for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A system definition study on the Solar Power Satellite System showed that a thin, 50 micrometers, silicon solar cell has significant advantages. The advantages include a significantly lower performance degradation in a radiation environment and high power-to-mass ratios. The advantages of such cells for an employment in space is further investigated. Basic questions concerning the operation of solar cells are considered along with aspects of radiation induced performance degradation. The question arose in this connection how thin a silicon solar cell had to be to achieve resistance to radiation degradation and still have good initial performance. It was found that single-crystal silicon solar cells could be as thin as 50 micrometers and still develop high conversion efficiencies. It is concluded that the use of 50 micrometer silicon solar cells in space-based photovoltaic power systems would be advantageous.

  8. Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Haw Ong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.

  9. Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kok-Haw; Liu, Bin

    2017-05-29

    Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.

  10. Insertion of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells in Textiles using a Conventional Weaving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Min Ju; Cha, Seung I.; Seo, Seon Hee; Kim, Han Seong; Lee, Dong Y.

    2015-06-01

    Increasing demands for wearable energy sources and highly flexible, lightweight photovoltaic devices have stimulated the development of textile-structured solar cells. However, the former approach of wire-type solar cell fabrication, followed by weaving of these devices, has had limited success, due to device failure caused by high friction forces and tension forces during the weaving process. To overcome this limitation, we present a new approach for textile solar cell fabrication, in which dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) electrodes are incorporated into the textile during the weaving process, using the textile warp as a spacer to maintain the DSSC structure. Porous, dye-loaded TiO2-coated holed metal ribbon and Pt nanoparticle-loaded carbon yarn were used as the photoanode and counterelectrode, respectively. The highly flexible textile-based solar cell was fabricated using a common weaving process with a loom. The inserted DSSCs in the textile demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 2.63% (at 1 sun, 1.5 A.M.). Our results revealed that additional performance enhancement was possible by considering other electrode materials and textile structures, as well as where and how the DSSC electrodes are inserted. In addition, we demonstrated that the inserted DSSCs could be electrically connected using a parallel configuration.

  11. Design and optimization of Ag-dielectric core-shell nanostructures for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xiang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal-dielectric core-shell nanostructures have been proposed as a light trapping scheme for enhancing the optical absorption of silicon solar cells. As a potential application of such enhanced effects, the scattering efficiencies of three core-shell structures (Ag@SiO2, Ag@TiO2, and Ag@ZrO2 are discussed using the Mie Scattering theory. For compatibility with experiment results, the core diameter and shell thickness are limited to 100 and 30 nm, respectively, and a weighted scattering efficiency is introduced to evaluate the scattering abilities of different nanoparticles under the solar spectrum AM 1.5. The simulated results indicate that the shell material and thickness are two key parameters affecting the weighted scattering efficiency. The SiO2 is found to be an unsuitable shell medium because of its low refractive index. However, using the high refractive index mediumTiO2 in Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles, only the thicker shell (30 nm is more beneficial for light scattering. The ZrO2 is an intermediate refractive index material, so Ag@ZrO2 nanoparticles are the most effective core-shell nanostructures in these silicon solar cells applications.

  12. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  13. Elongated nanostructures for radial junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yinghuan; Vece, Marcel Di; Rath, Jatindra K; Dijk, Lourens van; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2013-10-01

    In solar cell technology, the current trend is to thin down the active absorber layer. The main advantage of a thinner absorber is primarily the reduced consumption of material and energy during production. For thin film silicon (Si) technology, thinning down the absorber layer is of particular interest since both the device throughput of vacuum deposition systems and the stability of the devices are significantly enhanced. These features lead to lower cost per installed watt peak for solar cells, provided that the (stabilized) efficiency is the same as for thicker devices. However, merely thinning down inevitably leads to a reduced light absorption. Therefore, advanced light trapping schemes are crucial to increase the light path length. The use of elongated nanostructures is a promising method for advanced light trapping. The enhanced optical performance originates from orthogonalization of the light's travel path with respect to the direction of carrier collection due to the radial junction, an improved anti-reflection effect thanks to the three-dimensional geometric configuration and the multiple scattering between individual nanostructures. These advantages potentially allow for high efficiency at a significantly reduced quantity and even at a reduced material quality, of the semiconductor material. In this article, several types of elongated nanostructures with the high potential to improve the device performance are reviewed. First, we briefly introduce the conventional solar cells with emphasis on thin film technology, following the most commonly used fabrication techniques for creating nanostructures with a high aspect ratio. Subsequently, several representative applications of elongated nanostructures, such as Si nanowires in realistic photovoltaic (PV) devices, are reviewed. Finally, the scientific challenges and an outlook for nanostructured PV devices are presented.

  14. Nanoparticle-labeled stem cells: a novel therapeutic vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir O El-Sadik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abir O El-Sadik1, Afaf El-Ansary2, Sherif M Sabry31Stem Cell Unit, Anatomy Department, College of Medicine, Health Science Colleges; 2Biochemistry Department, Science College, King Saud University; 3Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Nanotechnology has been described as a general purpose technology. It has already generated a range of inventions and innovations. Development of nanotechnology will provide clinical medicine with a range of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities such as medical imaging, medical diagnosis, drug delivery, and cancer detection and management. Nanoparticles such as manganese, polystyrene, silica, titanium oxide, gold, silver, carbon, quantum dots, and iron oxide have received enormous attention in the creation of new types of analytical tools for biotechnology and life sciences. Labeling of stem cells with nanoparticles overcame the problems in homing and fixing stem cells to their desired site and guiding extension of stem cells to specific directions. Although the biologic effects of some nanoparticles have already been assessed, information on toxicity and possible mechanisms of various particle types remains inadequate. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the mechanisms of internalization and distribution of nanoparticles inside stem cells, as well as the influence of different types of nanoparticles on stem cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and cytotoxicity, and to assess the role of nanoparticles in tracking the fate of stem cells used in tissue regeneration.Keywords: nanoparticles, stem cells, uptake, differentiation, cytotoxicity, tracking

  15. Nanoscale dimples for improved absorption in organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    Organic solar cells (OSC’s) have attracted much attention in the past years due to their potential low-cost, light-weight and mechanical flexibility. A method for improving the power conversion efficiencies of the devices is by incorporating structured electrodes in the solar cell architecture, a...... ordered and discorded dimple arrangement and their contribution to light management is presented. Such dimples can later be employed to fabricate nanostructured electrodes in P3HT/PCBM organic solar cells....

  16. On transport mechanisms in solar cells involving organic semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Nolasco Montaño, Jairo César

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of transport mechanisms in solar cells is useful to determine electrical losses. In my doctoral thesis we studied the transport mechanisms in solar cells involving organic semiconductors. We show that models which have been used to study amorphous inorganic solar cells can be applied on organic ones. We conclude that: multitunelling capture emission and tunelling-enhanced interface recombination mechanisms contribute to the dark current characteristics in P3HT/Si, Pc/C60 and P3H...

  17. Temperature optimization of high concentrated active cooled solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry, M.

    2016-01-01

    Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coe...

  18. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  19. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available Franscious Cummings Energy and Processes Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research P.O. Box 395 Pretoria 0001, South Africa 13 November 2009 © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za CONTENT head2right...Background head2rightCSIR Dye Solar Cell Research head2rightCollaborations and Links head2rightAcknowledgements © CSIR 2007 www.csir.co.za BACKGROUND head2rightSA is dry: Annual rainfall average of 450 mm compared with a world average...

  20. Cold crucible Czochralski for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency and radiation resistance of present silicon solar cells are a function of the oxygen and carbon impurities and the boron doping used to provide the proper resistivity material. The standard Czochralski process used grow single crystal silicon contaminates the silicon stock material due to the use of a quartz crucible and graphite components. The use of a process which replaces these elements with a water cooled copper to crucible has provided a major step in providing gallium doped (100) crystal orientation, low oxygen, low carbon, silicon. A discussion of the Cold Crucible Czochralski process and recent float Zone developments is provided.

  1. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of battery-powere...

  2. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  3. The Photophysics of Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Tze-Chien

    2015-03-01

    Solution processed organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells, with power conversion efficiencies approaching 20%, are presently the forerunner amongst the next generation photovoltaic technologies. These remarkable performances can be attributed to their large absorption coefficients, long charge carrier diffusion lengths and low non-radiative recombination rates. In addition, these materials also possess excellent light emission and optical gain properties. In this talk, I will review the developmental milestones in this field and distil the recent findings on the photophysical mechanisms of this remarkable material. I will also highlight some of our latest charge dynamics studies and other investigations on the novel properties of this amazing material system.

  4. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  5. Progress in batteries and solar cells. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotake, H.

    1984-01-01

    The 89 articles in this book are on research in batteries, solar cells and fuel cells. Topics include uses of batteries in electric powered vehicles, load management in power plants, batteries for miniature electronic devices, electrochemical processes, and various electrode and electrolyte materials, including organic compounds. Types of batteries discussed are lithium, lead-acid, manganese dioxide, Silver cells, Air cells, Nickel cells and solar cells. Problems of recharging and life cycle are also discussed

  6. Recyclable organic solar cells on cellulose nanocrystal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinhua Zhou; Canek Fuentes-Hernandez; Talha M. Khan; Jen-Chieh Liu; James Hsu; Jae Won Shim; Amir Dindar; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Bernard. Kippelen

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is potentially the largest source of renewable energy at our disposal, but significant advances are required to make photovoltaic technologies economically viable and, from a life-cycle perspective, environmentally friendly, and consequently scalable. Cellulose nanomaterials are emerging high-value nanoparticles extracted from plants that are abundant,...

  7. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  8. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells with multilayer photoanodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sensitized solar cells. The aim of this study was to search how a thin sub-layer of the hydrothermally grown TiO2 NCs in the photoanodes could improve the efficiency of TiO2 P25-based solar cells. The highest efficiency of 6.5% was achieved for a cell ...

  9. Photon recycling in the graded bandgap solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafat, N.H. [Cairo Univ., Dept. of Mathematics and Engineering Physics, Giza (Egypt); Haleem, A.M. Abdel [Cairo Univ., Dept. of Mathematics and Engineering Physics, EIFayoum (Egypt); Habib, S.E.D. [Cairo Univ., Electronics and Communication Dept., Giza (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    We derived a general integral expression for the carrier radiative recombination rate in solar cells. The photon Boltzmann equation is solved taking into account the photon recycling effect inside the cell and assuming arbitrary spatial variation of the absorption coefficient. This expression can thus be used for graded bandgap solar cells. (Author)

  10. Silicon bulk growth for solar cells: Science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi; Gao, Bing; Nakano, Satoshi; Harada, Hirofumi; Miyamura, Yoshiji

    2017-02-01

    The photovoltaic industry is in a phase of rapid expansion, growing by more than 30% per annum over the last few decades. Almost all commercial solar cells presently use single-crystalline or multicrystalline silicon wafers similar to those used in microelectronics; meanwhile, thin-film compounds and alloy solar cells are currently under development. The laboratory performance of these cells, at 26% solar energy conversion efficiency, is now approaching thermodynamic limits, with the challenge being to incorporate these improvements into low-cost commercial products. Improvements in the optical design of cells, particularly in their ability to trap weakly absorbed light, have also led to increasing interest in thin-film cells based on polycrystalline silicon; these cells have advantages over other thin-film photovoltaic candidates. This paper provides an overview of silicon-based solar cell research, especially the development of silicon wafers for solar cells, from the viewpoint of growing both single-crystalline and multicrystalline wafers.

  11. [Advances in microbial solar cells--A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyun; Yu, Changping; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-04

    The energy crisis has become one of the major problems hindering the development of the world. The emergence of microbial fuel cells provides a new solution to the energy crisis. Microbial solar cells, integrating photosynthetic organisms such as plants and microalgae into microbial fuel cells, can convert solar energy into electrical energy. Microbial solar cell has steady electric energy, and broad application prospects in wastewater treatment, biodiesel processing and intermediate metabolites production. Here we reviewed recent progress of microbial solar cells from the perspective of the role of photosynthetic organisms in microbial fuel cells, based on a vast amount of literature, and discussed their advantages and deficiency. At last, brief analysis of the facing problems and research needs of microbial fuel cells are undertaken. This work was expected to be beneficial for the application of the microbial solar cells technology.

  12. C60-SIMS imaging of nanoparticles within mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, Anna N.; Tian, Hua; Winograd, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    To achieve successful drug delivery via nanoparticles the interactions between the nanoparticle and the chemistry of the surrounding biological environment is of central importance. A thorough understanding of these interactions is necessary in order to better elucidate information regarding drug pathways and mechanisms of action in treatment protocols. As such, it is important to identify the location of the nanoparticle, the state of its functionalization, as well as any changes in the cell...

  13. Nanogel-quantum dot hybrid nanoparticles for live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Urara; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.; Kaul, Sunil C.; Hirano, Takashi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2005-01-01

    We report here a novel carrier of quantum dots (QDs) for intracellular labeling. Monodisperse hybrid nanoparticles (38 nm in diameter) of QDs were prepared by simple mixing with nanogels of cholesterol-bearing pullulan (CHP) modified with amino groups (CHPNH 2 ). The CHPNH 2 -QD nanoparticles were effectively internalized into the various human cells examined. The efficiency of cellular uptake was much higher than that of a conventional carrier, cationic liposome. These hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising fluorescent probe for bioimaging

  14. Solar cells: photovoltaic energy; Les cellules solaires: energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.P.; Faraggi, B.; Labouret, A.; Cumunel, P.

    2001-07-01

    This book presents the principles of the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, the characteristics of solar cells of various technologies, the related equipments (batteries, charge controllers) and all necessary knowledge for the design of solar power supplies and circuits. (J.S.)

  15. Nanostructured InGaP Solar Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The operating conditions of conventional multijunction solar cells are severely limited by the current matching requirements of serially connected devices. The goal...

  16. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage.

  17. Testing of gallium arsenide solar cells on the CRRES vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    A flight experiment was designed to determine the optimum design for gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cell panels in a radiation environment. Elements of the experiment design include, different coverglass material and thicknesses, welded and soldered interconnects, different solar cell efficiencies, different solar cell types, and measurement of annealing properties. This experiment is scheduled to fly on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). This satellite will simultaneously measure the radiation environment and provide engineering data on solar cell degradation that can be directly related to radiation damage

  18. Characterization of Inverted Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Tyler; Tzolov, Marian

    Inverted solar cells were proven to be an improvement over polymer solar cells in terms of durability and reliability. We have fabricated the solar cells using P3HT and PCPDTBT as the active polymer with PC60BM as the electron acceptor. The materials we deposited from solution by spin coating on glass substrates with ITO film. Molybdenum oxide was thermally evaporated overtop the spin coated polymer solar cell to realize the inverted design. The devices were finalized by thermally evaporated aluminum contacts which were then mechanically reinforced with silver paste. Current voltage characteristics were performed both in dark and under illumination to characterize the inverted solar cells and to verify the inverted solar cell design. Impedance spectroscopy in dark and under illumination were used to gain more information about the photoelectric processes in the devices and to build a realistic equivalent circuit model of the inverted solar cells. The inverted solar cells were then compared against standard polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells produced with the same active materials.

  19. Study on the development and stability of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shucheng

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the development of perovskite solar cells has aroused the concern of the majority of scholars, the current photoelectric conversion efficiency has reached 21%. So the thorough study of the principle of perovskite type solar cells will make better the use of its special performance. But so far, perovskite type solar cells still have many unstable factors. This paper first discusses the predecessor of perovskite solar cells, dye-sensitized batteries, and then study the working principle of the former, followed by the perovskite-type thermal instability and light instability to be discussed, at last talks about the current Major issues perovskite materials are facing and make a summary.

  20. Organic solar cells theory, experiment, and device simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Tress, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author's dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on