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Sample records for nanomechanical resonators due

  1. Fundamentals of nanomechanical resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, Silvan; Roukes, Michael Lee

    2016-01-01

    This authoritative book introduces and summarizes the latest models and skills required to design and optimize nanomechanical resonators, taking a top-down approach that uses macroscopic formulas to model the devices. The authors cover the electrical and mechanical aspects of nano electromechanical system (NEMS) devices. The introduced mechanical models are also key to the understanding and optimization of nanomechanical resonators used e.g. in optomechanics. Five comprehensive chapters address: The eigenmodes derived for the most common continuum mechanical structures used as nanomechanical resonators; The main sources of energy loss in nanomechanical resonators; The responsiveness of micro and nanomechanical resonators to mass, forces, and temperature; The most common underlying physical transduction mechanisms; The measurement basics, including amplitude and frequency noise. The applied approach found in this book is appropriate for engineering students and researchers working with micro and nanomechanical...

  2. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  3. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. PMID:26501294

  4. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ming Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators.

  5. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  6. Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.

  7. Nonlinear nanomechanical resonators for quantum optoelectromechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rips, S; Hartmann, M J

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for enhancing the anharmonicity of nanomechanical resonators by subjecting them to inhomogenous electrostatic fields. We show that this approach enables access to a novel regime of optomechanics, where the nonlinearity per quanta of the mechanical motion becomes comparable to the linewidth of the optical cavities employed. In this "resolved nonlinearity regime" transitions between phonon Fock states of the mechanical resonator can be selectively addressed. As one application we show that our approach would allow to prepare stationary phonon Fock states in experimentally realistic devices. Such states are manifestly non-classical as they show pronounced negative Wigner functions. We calculate the mechanical steady state by tracing out the cavity modes in the weak optomechanical coupling limit and corroborate our results by a numerical analysis of the full dynamics including the cavity modes. Finally, we show how the negativity of the stationary states' Wigner function can be read off the ou...

  8. Adiabatic embedment of nanomechanical resonators in photonic microring cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Chi; Li, Mo; Rooks, Michael; Tang, Hong X

    2014-01-01

    We report a circuit cavity optomechanical system in which a nanomechanical resonator is adiabatically embedded inside an optical ring resonator with ultralow transition loss. The nanomechanical device forms part of the top layer of a horizontal silicon slot ring resonator, which enables dispersive coupling to the dielectric substrate via a tapered nanogap. Our measurements show nearly uncompromised optical quality factors (Q) after the release of the mechanical beam.

  9. Optical racetrack resonator transduction of nanomechanical cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, V T K; Diao, Z; Freeman, M R; Hiebert, W K

    2014-02-07

    Optomechanical transduction has demonstrated its supremacy in probing nanomechanical displacements. In order to apply nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) as force and mass sensors, knowledge about the transduction responsivity (i.e. the change in measured optical transmission with nanomechanical displacement) and its tradeoffs with system design is paramount. We compare the measured responsivities of NOMS devices with varying length, optomechanical coupling strength gom, and optical cavity properties. Cantilever beams 1.5 to 5 μm long are fabricated 70 to 160 nm from a racetrack resonator optical cavity and their thermomechanical (TM) noise signals are measured. We derive a generic expression for the transduction responsivity of the NOMS in terms of optical and mechanical system parameters such as finesse, optomechanical coupling constant, and interaction length. The form of the expression holds direct insight as to how these parameters affect the responsivity. With this expression, we obtain the optomechanical coupling constants using only measurements of the TM noise power spectra and optical cavity transmission slopes. All optical pump/probe operation is also demonstrated in our side-coupled cantilever-racetrack NOMS. Finally, to assess potential operation in a gas sensing environment, the TM noise signal of a device is measured at atmospheric pressure.

  10. Towards airborne nanoparticle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Airborne nanoparticles can cause severe harm when inhaled. Therefore, small and cheap portable airborne nanoparticle monitors are highly demanded by authorities and the nanoparticle producing industry. We propose to use nanomechanical resonators to build the next generation cheap and portable...

  11. Photothermal probing of plasmonic hotspots with nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures (hotspots) are key components e.g. in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, plasmonic solar cells, or as nano heat sources. The characterization of single hotspots is still challenging due to a lack of experimental tools. We present the direct photothermal probing and mapping...... of single plasmonic nanoslits via the thermally induced detuning of nanomechanical string resonators. A maximum relative frequency detuning of 0.5 % was measured for a single plasmonic nanoslit for a perpendicularly polarized laser with a power of 1350 nW. Finally, we show the photothermal scan over...

  12. Specific detection of proteins using Nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lee MacKenzie; Wright, V.A.; Guthy, C.;

    2008-01-01

    of probes onto their surfaces in order to enable the specificity of the detection. Such nanoresonator-based specific detection of proteins is here reported using streptavidin as target system, and immobilized biotin as probe. Nanomechanical resonators resistant to stiction were first realized from silicon...... carbonitride using a novel fabrication method. Vapor-phase deposition of mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane was performed, and an added mass of 2.22 +/- 0.07 fg/mu m(2) was measured. This linker molecule was used to attach biotin onto the devices, enabling the specific detection of streptavidin. A mass of 3.6 fg....../mu m(2) was attributed to the added streptavidin, corresponding to one molecule per 27 nm(2). The specificity of this recognition was confirmed by exposing the devices to a solution of streptavidin that was already saturated with biotin. An additional negative control was also performed by also...

  13. Nanofluidics of Single-crystal Diamond Nanomechanical Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Kara, V; Atikian, H; Yakhot, V; Loncar, M; Ekinci, K L

    2015-01-01

    Single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators are being developed for countless applications. A number of these applications require that the resonator be operated in a fluid, i.e., a gas or a liquid. Here, we investigate the fluid dynamics of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonators in the form of nanocantilevers. First, we measure the pressure-dependent dissipation of diamond nanocantilevers with different linear dimensions and frequencies in three gases, He, N$_2$, and Ar. We observe that a subtle interplay between the length scale and the frequency governs the scaling of the fluidic dissipation. Second, we obtain a comparison of the surface accommodation of different gases on the diamond surface by analyzing the dissipation in the molecular flow regime. Finally, we measure the thermal fluctuations of the nanocantilevers in water, and compare the observed dissipation and frequency shifts with theoretical predictions. These findings set the stage for developing diamond nanomechanical resonators o...

  14. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Justin D; MacCabe, Gregory S; Groblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Using an optical probe along with single photon detection we have performed effective phonon counting measurements of the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a nanomechanical resonator. Applying these measurements in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss set-up, phonon correlations of the nanomechanical resonator are explored from below to above threshold of a parametric instability leading to self-oscillation of the resonator. Discussion of the results in terms of a "phonon laser", and analysis of the sensitivity of the phonon counting technique are presented.

  15. Approaching the Landauer limit via nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Josef-Stefan

    According to the von Neumann-Landauer principle (VNL) for every bit of information lost during a computation, kT In 2 amount of heat is dissipated into the environment. Irreversible logic, the basis of modern computing, inevitably leads to loss of information and is thus fundamentally bound by the VNL principle. However, its validity has been challenged since its inception and the case concerning its legitimacy is still open. Due to the tiny energy scales involved, this debate has been entirely academic in nature and an experimental test of the VNL principle is highly desired by both proponents and skeptics. Such a test would entail contrasting the energy dissipation of irreversible and reversible logic. In particular, we need to perform a non trivial logic both reversibly and irreversibly based on identical technology, testing whether or not energy dissipation for the reversible computation can be less than VNL limit while the irreversible computation is limited by the VNL limit Reversible logic does not entail information loss, and hence is not bound by the VNL limit. It offers the potential for indefinite performance improvements of digital electronics. Bennett's Turing machine first proved that any computation can be performed reversibly and, in the proper limit, without energy cost. This promise of computing for free has spurred Fredkin, Toffoli, Wilczek, Feynman and others to propose reversible logic gates, though very few experimentally- realized reversible logic gates have since been reported. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time the core of a logically reversible, CMOS-compatible, scalable nanoelectromechanical Fredkin gate, a universal logic gate from which any reversible computation can be built. In addition to demonstrating the truth table, we show that the nanomechanical Fredkin gate can be operated as a reversible AND-, OR-, NOT- and FANOUT gate. We find that this device exhibits ultra-low energy cost per logic operation, on the

  16. Photonic Cavity Synchronization of Nanomechanical Oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Mahmood; Poot, Menno; Fan, Linran; Marquardt, Florian; Tang, Hong X.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gi...

  17. Tuning piezoresistive transduction in nanomechanical resonators by geometrical asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, J.; Sansa, M.; Lorenzoni, M.; Pérez-Murano, F., E-mail: francesc.perez@csic.es [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Borrisé, X. [Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra Spain (Spain); San Paulo, A. [Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (IMM-CSIC), 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of geometrical asymmetries on the piezoresistive transduction in suspended double clamped beam nanomechanical resonators is investigated. Tapered silicon nano-beams, fabricated using a fast and flexible prototyping method, are employed to determine how the asymmetry affects the transduced piezoresistive signal for different mechanical resonant modes. This effect is attributed to the modulation of the strain in pre-strained double clamped beams, and it is confirmed by means of finite element simulations.

  18. Effect of geometry in frequency response modeling of nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, M. Nasr; Yilmaz, M.; Sonne, M. R.; Hattel, J. H.; Alaca, B. Erdem

    2016-06-01

    The trend towards nanomechanical resonator sensors with increasing sensitivity raises the need to address challenges encountered in the modeling of their mechanical behavior. Selecting the best approach in mechanical response modeling amongst the various potential computational solid mechanics methods is subject to controversy. A guideline for the selection of the appropriate approach for a specific set of geometry and mechanical properties is needed. In this study, geometrical limitations in frequency response modeling of flexural nanomechanical resonators are investigated. Deviation of Euler and Timoshenko beam theories from numerical techniques including finite element modeling and Surface Cauchy-Born technique are studied. The results provide a limit beyond which surface energy contribution dominates the mechanical behavior. Using the Surface Cauchy-Born technique as the reference, a maximum error on the order of 50 % is reported for high-aspect ratio resonators.

  19. Phonon blockade in a nanomechanical resonator resonantly coupled to a qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-01-01

    We study phonon statistics in a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) which is resonantly coupled to a qubit. We find that there are two different mechanisms for phonon blockade in such a resonantly coupled NAMR-qubit system. One is due to the strong anharmonicity of the NAMR-qubit system with large coupling strength; the other one is due to the destructive interference between different paths for two-phonon excitation in the NAMR-qubit system with a moderate coupling strength. In order to enlarge the mean phonon number for strong phonon antibunching with a moderate NAMR-qubit coupling strength, we assume that two external driving fields are applied to the NAMR and qubit, respectively. In this case, we find that the phonon blockades under two mechanisms can appear at the same frequency regime by optimizing the strength ratio and phase difference of the two external driving fields.

  20. Effect of oxygen plasma on nanomechanical silicon nitride resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Niklas; Jachimowicz, Artur; Schalko, Johannes; Sadeghi, Pedram; Sauer, Markus; Foelske-Schmitz, Annette; Schmid, Silvan

    2017-08-01

    Precise control of tensile stress and intrinsic damping is crucial for the optimal design of nanomechanical systems for sensor applications and quantum optomechanics in particular. In this letter, we study the influence of oxygen plasma on the tensile stress and intrinsic damping of nanomechanical silicon nitride resonators. Oxygen plasma treatments are common steps in micro and nanofabrication. We show that oxygen plasma for only a few minutes oxidizes the silicon nitride surface, creating several nanometer thick silicon dioxide layers with a compressive stress of 1.30(16) GPa. Such oxide layers can cause a reduction in the effective tensile stress of a 50 nm thick stoichiometric silicon nitride membrane by almost 50%. Additionally, intrinsic damping linearly increases with the silicon dioxide film thickness. An oxide layer of 1.5 nm grown in just 10 s in a 50 W oxygen plasma almost doubled the intrinsic damping. The oxide surface layer can be efficiently removed in buffered hydrofluoric acid.

  1. GaAs-based micro/nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Micro/nanomechanical resonators have been extensively studied both for device applications, such as high-performance sensors and high-frequency devices, and for fundamental science, such as quantum physics in macroscopic objects. The advantages of GaAs-based semiconductor heterostructures include improved mechanical properties through strain engineering, highly controllable piezoelectric transduction, carrier-mediated optomechanical coupling, and hybridization with quantum low-dimensional structures. This article reviews our recent activities, as well as those of other groups, on the physics and applications of mechanical resonators fabricated using GaAs-based heterostructures.

  2. Nonadiabatic dynamics of two strongly coupled nanomechanical resonator modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Thomas; Rieger, Johannes; Seitner, Maximilian J; Krenn, Peter; Kotthaus, Jörg P; Weig, Eva M

    2012-07-20

    The Landau-Zener transition is a fundamental concept for dynamical quantum systems and has been studied in numerous fields of physics. Here, we present a classical mechanical model system exhibiting analogous behavior using two inversely tunable, strongly coupled modes of the same nanomechanical beam resonator. In the adiabatic limit, the anticrossing between the two modes is observed and the coupling strength extracted. Sweeping an initialized mode across the coupling region allows mapping of the progression from diabatic to adiabatic transitions as a function of the sweep rate.

  3. Evidence of surface loss as ubiquitous limiting damping mechanism in SiN micro- and nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN) micro- and nanomechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention in various research fields due to their exceptionally high quality factors (Qs). Despite their popularity, the origin of the limiting loss mechanisms in these structures has remained controversial. In thi...

  4. Monitoring the hydration of DNA self-assembled monolayers using an extensional nanomechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kosaka, Priscila; Tamayo, Javier; Davis, Zachary James

    2012-05-08

    We have fabricated an ultrasensitive nanomechanical resonator based on the extensional vibration mode to weigh the adsorbed water on self-assembled monolayers of DNA as a function of the relative humidity. The water adsorption isotherms provide the number of adsorbed water molecules per nucleotide for monolayers of single stranded (ss) DNA and after hybridization with the complementary DNA strand. Our results differ from previous data obtained with bulk samples, showing the genuine behavior of these self-assembled monolayers. The hybridization cannot be inferred from the water adsorption isotherms due to the low hybridization efficiency of these highly packed monolayers. Strikingly, we efficiently detect the hybridization by measuring the thermal desorption of water at constant relativity humidity. This finding adds a new nanomechanical tool for developing a label-free nucleic acid sensor based on the interaction between water and self-assembled monolayers of nucleic acids.

  5. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Asjad, Muhammad; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.033606

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  6. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Seán M.; Maccabe, Gregory S.; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-01

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 +/- 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic response of beam and its application in nanomechanical resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Zhang; Yun Liu; Kevin D. Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic response of nanomechanical resonator is of very important characteristics in its application.Two categories of the tension-dominant and curvaturedominant nonlinearities are analyzed.The dynamic nonlinearity of four beam structures of nanomechanical resonator is quantitatively studied via a dimensional analysis approach.The dimensional analysis shows that for the nanomechanical resonator of tension-dominant nonlinearity,its dynamic nonlinearity decreases monotonically with increasing axial loading and increases monotonically with the increasing aspect ratio of length to thickness; the dynamic nonlinearity can only result in the hardening effects.However,for the nanomechanical resonator of the curvature-dominant nonlinearity,its dynamic nonlinearity is only dependent on axial loading.Compared with the tension-dominant nonlinearity,the curvature-dominant nonlinearity increases monotonically with increasing axial loading; its dynamic nonlinearity can result in both hardening and softening effects.The analysis on the dynamic nonlinearity can be very helpful to the tuning application of the nanomechanical resonator.

  8. Real-time single airborne nanoparticle detection with nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Kurek, Maksymilian; Adolphsen, Jens Q;

    2013-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have an unprecedented mass sensitivity sufficient to detect single molecules, viruses or nanoparticles. The challenge with nanomechanical mass sensors is the direction of nano-sized samples onto the resonator. In this work we present an efficient inertial sampling...... technique and gravimetric detection of airborne nanoparticles with a nanomechanical resonant filter-fiber. By increasing the nanoparticle momentum the dominant collection mechanism changes from diffusion to more efficient inertial impaction. In doing so we reach a single filter-fiber collection efficiency...... of 65 ± 31% for 28 nm silica nanoparticles. Finally, we show the detection of single 100 nm silver nanoparticles. The presented method is suitable for environmental or security applications where low-cost and portable monitors are demanded. It also constitutes a unique technique for the fundamental...

  9. Probing the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator using a superconducting qubit: I. Echo scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, A D [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blencowe, M P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)], E-mail: andrew.armour@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: miles.p.blencowe@dartmouth.edu

    2008-09-15

    We propose a scheme in which the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator can be probed using a superconducting qubit. We consider a mechanical resonator coupled capacitively to a Cooper pair box and assume that the superconducting qubit is tuned to the degeneracy point so that its coherence time is maximized and the electro-mechanical coupling can be approximated by a dispersive Hamiltonian. When the qubit is prepared in a superposition of states, this drives the mechanical resonator progressively into a superposition which in turn leads to apparent decoherence of the qubit. Applying a suitable control pulse to the qubit allows its population to be inverted resulting in a reversal of the resonator dynamics. However, the resonator's interactions with its environment mean that the dynamics is not completely reversible. We show that this irreversibility is largely due to the decoherence of the mechanical resonator and can be inferred from appropriate measurements on the qubit alone. Using estimates for the parameters involved based on a specific realization of the system, we show that it should be possible to carry out this scheme with existing device technology.

  10. Photonic cavity synchronization of nanomechanical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mahmood; Poot, Menno; Fan, Linran; Marquardt, Florian; Tang, Hong X

    2013-11-22

    Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gives rise to both reactive and dissipative coupling of the mechanical resonators, leading to coherent oscillation and mutual locking of resonators with dynamics beyond the widely accepted phase oscillator (Kuramoto) model. In addition to the phase difference between the oscillators, also their amplitudes are coupled, resulting in the emergence of sidebands around the synchronized carrier signal.

  11. Monitoring the hydration of DNA self-assembled monolayers using an extensional nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Kosaka, Priscila; Tamayo, Javier;

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated an ultrasensitive nanomechanical resonator based on the extensional vibration mode to weigh the adsorbed water on self-assembled monolayers of DNA as a function of the relative humidity. The water adsorption isotherms provide the number of adsorbed water molecules per nucleotid...

  12. Nanomechanical Pyrolytic Carbon Resonators: Novel Fabrication Method and Characterization of Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Larsen, Frederik K.; Larsen, Peter E.; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja; Keller, Stephan S.

    2016-01-01

    Micro- and nanomechanical string resonators, which essentially are highly stressed bridges, are of particular interest for micro- and nanomechanical sensing because they exhibit resonant behavior with exceptionally high quality factors. Here, we fabricated and characterized nanomechanical pyrolytic carbon resonators (strings and cantilevers) obtained through pyrolysis of photoresist precursors. The developed fabrication process consists of only three processing steps: photolithography, dry etching and pyrolysis. Two different fabrication strategies with two different photoresists, namely SU-8 2005 (negative) and AZ 5214e (positive), were compared. The resonant behavior of the pyrolytic resonators was characterized at room temperature and in high vacuum using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The experimental data was used to estimate the Young’s modulus of pyrolytic carbon and the tensile stress in the string resonators. The Young’s moduli were calculated to be 74 ± 8 GPa with SU-8 and 115 ± 8 GPa with AZ 5214e as the precursor. The tensile stress in the string resonators was 33 ± 7 MPa with AZ 5214e as the precursor. The string resonators displayed maximal quality factor values of up to 3000 for 525-µm-long structures. PMID:27428980

  13. Nanomechanical Pyrolytic Carbon Resonators: Novel Fabrication Method and Characterization of Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Kurek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nanomechanical string resonators, which essentially are highly stressed bridges, are of particular interest for micro- and nanomechanical sensing because they exhibit resonant behavior with exceptionally high quality factors. Here, we fabricated and characterized nanomechanical pyrolytic carbon resonators (strings and cantilevers obtained through pyrolysis of photoresist precursors. The developed fabrication process consists of only three processing steps: photolithography, dry etching and pyrolysis. Two different fabrication strategies with two different photoresists, namely SU-8 2005 (negative and AZ 5214e (positive, were compared. The resonant behavior of the pyrolytic resonators was characterized at room temperature and in high vacuum using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The experimental data was used to estimate the Young’s modulus of pyrolytic carbon and the tensile stress in the string resonators. The Young’s moduli were calculated to be 74 ± 8 GPa with SU-8 and 115 ± 8 GPa with AZ 5214e as the precursor. The tensile stress in the string resonators was 33 ± 7 MPa with AZ 5214e as the precursor. The string resonators displayed maximal quality factor values of up to 3000 for 525-µm-long structures.

  14. Ultra-coherent nanomechanical resonators via soft clamping and dissipation dilution

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Polzik, Eugene S; Schliesser, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The small mass and high coherence of nanomechanical resonators render them the ultimate force probe, with applications ranging from biosensing and magnetic resonance force microscopy, to quantum optomechanics. A notorious challenge in these experiments is thermomechanical noise related to dissipation through internal or external loss channels. Here, we introduce a novel approach to defining nanomechanical modes, which simultaneously provides strong spatial confinement, full isolation from the substrate, and dilution of the resonator material's intrinsic dissipation by five orders of magnitude. It is based on a phononic bandgap structure that localises the mode, without imposing the boundary conditions of a rigid clamp. The reduced curvature in the highly tensioned silicon nitride resonator enables mechanical $Q>10^{8}$ at $ 1 \\,\\mathrm{MHz}$, yielding the highest mechanical $Qf$-products ($>10^{14}\\,\\mathrm{Hz}$) yet reported at room temperature. The corresponding coherence times approach those of optically t...

  15. Probing the charge of a quantum dot with a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, H. B.; Labadze, G.; Schneider, B. H.; Taspinar, A.; Blanter, Ya. M.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Steele, G. A.

    2012-09-01

    We have used the mechanical motion of a carbon nanotube (CNT) as a probe of the average charge on a quantum dot. Variations of the resonance frequency and the quality factor are determined by the change in average charge on the quantum dot during a mechanical oscillation. The average charge, in turn, is influenced by the gate voltage, the bias voltage, and the tunnel rates of the barriers to the leads. At bias voltages that exceed the broadening due to tunnel coupling, the resonance frequency and quality factor show a double dip as a function of gate voltage. We find that increasing the current flowing through the CNT at the Coulomb peak does not increase the damping, but in fact decreases damping. Using a model with energy-dependent tunnel rates, we obtain quantitative agreement between the experimental observations and the model. We theoretically compare different contributions to the single-electron induced nonlinearity, and show that only one term is significant for both the Duffing parameter and the mode coupling parameter. We also present additional measurements which support the model we develop: Tuning the tunnel barriers of the quantum dot to the leads gives a 200-fold decrease of the quality factor. Single-electron tunneling through an excited state of the CNT quantum dot also changes the average charge on the quantum dot, bringing about a decrease in the resonance frequency. In the Fabry-Pérot regime, the absence of charge quantization results in a spring behavior without resonance frequency dips, which could be used, for example, to probe the transition from quantized to continuous charge with a nanomechanical resonator.

  16. A review on the flexural mode of graphene: lattice dynamics, thermal conduction, thermal expansion, elasticity and nanomechanical resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Bing-Shen; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Park, Harold S

    2015-03-04

    Single-layer graphene is so flexible that its flexural mode (also called the ZA mode, bending mode, or out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode) is important for its thermal and mechanical properties. Accordingly, this review focuses on exploring the relationship between the flexural mode and thermal and mechanical properties of graphene. We first survey the lattice dynamic properties of the flexural mode, where the rigid translational and rotational invariances play a crucial role. After that, we outline contributions from the flexural mode in four different physical properties or phenomena of graphene-its thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus and nanomechanical resonance. We explain how graphene's superior thermal conductivity is mainly due to its three acoustic phonon modes at room temperature, including the flexural mode. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is negative in a wide temperature range resulting from the particular vibration morphology of the flexural mode. We then describe how the Young's modulus of graphene can be extracted from its thermal fluctuations, which are dominated by the flexural mode. Finally, we discuss the effects of the flexural mode on graphene nanomechanical resonators, while also discussing how the essential properties of the resonators, including mass sensitivity and quality factor, can be enhanced.

  17. Sub-picometer multi-wavelength detector based on highly sensitive nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Etsuo; Kometani, Reo

    2017-07-01

    The wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) method for near infrared (NIR) optical fiber (1530-1565 nm) is the system that is wildly used for intercontinental communication. WDM achieves high-speed and large-capacity communication, but costs a lot because the high-resolution (˜10 pm) wavelength locker for wavelength stabilization only corresponds to a single wavelength. In this report, we propose a highly sensitive sub-picometer multi-wavelength detector that substitutes a typical single-wavelength detector for WDM. Our wavelength detector consists of a narrow band (FWHM 20 000) nanomechanical resonator. The photonic absorber confines and transforms the illuminated NIR light wave into thermal stress, and then, the thermal stress in the nanomechanical resonator will appear as the eigenfrequency shift of the nanomechanical resonator. Through experimental works with an NIR laser and optical Doppler vibration meter, the sensitivity of our wavelength detector was determined to be 0.196 pm in the 10-nm-range of the NIR region. Our sub-picometer multi-wavelength detector will achieve a fast, wide-band, and cost-effective optical communication system.

  18. Low-Power Photothermal Probing of Single Plasmonic Nanostructures with Nanomechanical String Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Wu, Kaiyu; Larsen, Peter Emil

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the direct photothermal probing and mapping of single plasmonic nanostructures via the temperature-induced detuning of nanomechanical string resonators. Single Au nanoslits and nanorods are illuminated with a partially polarized focused laser beam (λ = 633 nm) with irradiances in t......). Our results show that nanomechanical resonators are a unique and robust analysis tool for the low-power investigation of thermoplasmonic effects in plasmonic hot spots.......We demonstrate the direct photothermal probing and mapping of single plasmonic nanostructures via the temperature-induced detuning of nanomechanical string resonators. Single Au nanoslits and nanorods are illuminated with a partially polarized focused laser beam (λ = 633 nm) with irradiances...... in the range of 0.26–38 μW/μm2. Photothermal heating maps with a resolution of ∼375 nm are obtained by scanning the laser over the nanostructures. Based on the string sensitivities, absorption efficiencies of 2.3 ± 0.3 and 1.1 ± 0.7 are extracted for a single nanoslit (53 nm × 1 μm) and nanorod (75 nm × 185 nm...

  19. High-quality-factor tantalum oxide nanomechanical resonators by laser oxidation of TaSe2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santiago J. CartamiI-Bueno[1; Peter G. Steeneken[1; Frans D. Tichelaar[2; Efren Navarro-Moratalla[3; Warner J. Venstra[1; Ronald van Leeuwen[1; Eugenio Coronado[3; Herre S.J. van der Zant[1; Gary A. Steele[1; Andres Castellanos-Gomez[1

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the strain in two-dimensional (2D) materials is an interesting avenue to tailor the mechanical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems. Here, we demonstrate a technique to fabricate ultrathin tantalum oxide nanomechanical resonators with large stress by the laser oxidation of nano-drumhead resonators composed of tantalum diselenide (TaSe2), a layered 2D material belonging to the metal dichalcogenides. Before the study of their mechanical properties with a laser interferometer, we verified the oxidation and crystallinity of the freely suspended tantalum oxide using high-resolution electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the stress of tantalum oxide resonators increases by 140 MPa (with respect to pristine TaSe2 resonators), which causes an enhancement in the quality factor (14 times larger) and resonance frequency (9 times larger) of these resonators.

  20. Effects of γ-ray radiation on two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) nanomechanical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L., E-mail: philip.feng@case.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Krupcale, Matthew J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2016-01-11

    We report on experimental investigation and analysis of γ-ray radiation effects on two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) drumhead nanomechanical resonators vibrating at megahertz frequencies. Given calibrated dosages of γ-ray radiation of ∼5000 photons with energy at 662 keV, upon exposure over 24 or 12 h, all the MoS{sub 2} resonators exhibit ∼0.5–2.1% resonance frequency upshifts due to the ionizing γ-ray induced charges and their interactions. The devices show γ-ray photon responsivity of ∼30–82 Hz/photon, with an intrinsic γ-ray sensitivity (limit of detection) estimated to approach ∼0.02–0.05 photon. After exposure expires, resonance frequencies return to an ordinary tendency where the frequency variations are dominated by long-term drift. These γ-ray radiation induced frequency shifts are distinctive from those due to pressure variation or surface adsorption mechanisms. The measurements and analyses show that MoS{sub 2} resonators are robust yet sensitive to very low dosage γ-ray, demonstrating a potential for ultrasensitive detection and early alarm of radiation in the very low dosage regime.

  1. Mass and stiffness spectrometry of nanoparticles and whole intact bacteria by multimode nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvar, O.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Domínguez, C. M.; Gil-Santos, E.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.

    2016-11-01

    The identification of species is a fundamental problem in analytical chemistry and biology. Mass spectrometers identify species by their molecular mass with extremely high sensitivity (<10-24 g). However, its application is usually limited to light analytes (<10-19 g). Here we demonstrate that by using nanomechanical resonators, heavier analytes can be identified by their mass and stiffness. The method is demonstrated with spherical gold nanoparticles and whole intact E. coli bacteria delivered by electrospray ionization to microcantilever resonators placed in low vacuum at 0.1 torr. We develop a theoretical procedure for obtaining the mass, position and stiffness of the analytes arriving the resonator from the adsorption-induced eigenfrequency jumps. These results demonstrate the enormous potential of this technology for identification of large biological complexes near their native conformation, a goal that is beyond the capabilities of conventional mass spectrometers.

  2. Phonon Counting and Intensity Interferometry of a Nanomechanical Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-04

    this work consists of a patterned silicon nanobeam which forms an optomechanical crystal ( OMC ) [24, 25] Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...chanical resonator [6]. For the OMC cavities of this work, with their large optomechanical coupling rate and near millisecond-long thermal decoherence time...preparation (2014). Appendix A: Optical and mechanical design The optomechanical crystal ( OMC ) studied in this work is numerically optimized for both

  3. Phase control of electromagnetically induced acoustic wave transparency in a diamond nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Sofia, E-mail: Evangelousof@gmail.com

    2017-05-10

    Highlights: • A high-Q single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonator embedded with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers is studied. • A Δ-type coupling configuration is formed. • The spin states of the ground state triplet of the NV centers interact with a strain field and two microwave fields. • The absorption and dispersion properties of the acoustic wave field are controlled by the use of the relative phase of the fields. • Phase-dependent acoustic wave absorption, transparency, and gain are obtained. • “Slow sound” and negative group velocities are also possible. - Abstract: We consider a high-Q single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonator embedded with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. We study the interaction of the transitions of the spin states of the ground state triplet of the NV centers with a strain field and two microwave fields in a Δ-type coupling configuration. We use the relative phase of the fields for the control of the absorption and dispersion properties of the acoustic wave field. Specifically, we show that by changing the relative phase of the fields, the acoustic field may exhibit absorption, transparency, gain and very interesting dispersive properties.

  4. Dynamic range of atomically thin vibrating nanomechanical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L., E-mail: philip.feng@case.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer attractive properties for making resonant nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) operating at high frequencies. While the fundamental limits of linear operation in such systems are important, currently there is very little quantitative knowledge of the linear dynamic range (DR) and onset of nonlinearity in these devices, which are different than in conventional 1D NEMS such as nanotubes and nanowires. Here, we present theoretical analysis and quantitative models that can be directly used to predict the DR of vibrating 2D circular drumhead NEMS resonators. We show that DR has a strong dependence ∝10log(E{sub Y}{sup 3/2}ρ{sub 3D}{sup -1/2}rtε{sup 5/2}) on device parameters, in which strain ε plays a particularly important role in these 2D systems, dominating over dimensions (radius r, thickness t). This study formulizes the effects from device physical parameters upon DR and sheds light on device design rules toward achieving high DR in 2D NEMS vibrating at radio and microwave frequencies.

  5. Vibrational characteristics of carbon nanotubes as nanomechanical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y W; Manthena, C; Oh, J J; Srivastava, D

    2005-05-01

    Using eigenvalue analysis of mass and stiffness matrices directly computed from atomistic simulations, natural frequencies and mode shapes of various carbon nanotubes are studied. The stiffness matrix was developed from the Tersoff-Brenner potential for carbon-carbon interactions. The computed frequencies of the radial breathing modes of a variety of armchair (n, n) nanotubes agree well with results obtained by others using different techniques. In addition, the study reveals diverse mode shapes such as accordion-like axial modes, lateral bending modes, torsional modes, axial shear modes, and radial breathing modes for a variety of single-wall, multi-wall, and bamboo-type carbon nanotubes. The effects of different constraints on the carbon nanotube ends on the computed frequencies and mode shapes have been investigated for possible applications in vibration sensors or electromechanical resonators.

  6. Probing the quantum coherence of a nanomechanical resonator using a superconducting qubit: II. Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blencowe, M P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Armour, A D [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: miles.p.blencowe@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: andrew.armour@nottingham.ac.uk

    2008-09-15

    We describe a possible implementation of the nanomechanical quantum superposition generation and detection scheme described in the preceding, companion paper (Armour A D and Blencowe M P 2008 New. J. Phys. 10 095004). The implementation is based on the circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED) set-up, with the addition of a mechanical degree of freedom formed out of a suspended, doubly-clamped segment of the superconducting loop of a dc SQUID located directly opposite the centre conductor of a coplanar waveguide (CPW). The relative merits of two SQUID based qubit realizations are addressed, in particular a capacitively coupled charge qubit and inductively coupled flux qubit. It is found that both realizations are equally promising, with comparable qubit-mechanical resonator mode as well as qubit-microwave resonator mode coupling strengths.

  7. Permanent reduction of dissipation in nanomechanical Si resonators by chemical surface protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Navaretti, P.; Hauert, R.; Grob, U.; Poggio, M.; Degen, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    We report on mechanical dissipation measurements carried out on thin (˜100 nm), single-crystal silicon cantilevers with varying chemical surface termination. We find that the 1-2 nm-thick native oxide layer of silicon contributes about 85% to the friction of the mechanical resonance. We show that the mechanical friction is proportional to the thickness of the oxide layer and that it crucially depends on oxide formation conditions. We further demonstrate that chemical surface protection by nitridation, liquid-phase hydrosilylation, or gas-phase hydrosilylation can inhibit rapid oxide formation in air and results in a permanent improvement of the mechanical quality factor between three- and five-fold. This improvement extends to cryogenic temperatures. Presented recipes can be directly integrated with standard cleanroom processes and may be especially beneficial for ultrasensitive nanomechanical force- and mass sensors, including silicon cantilevers, membranes, or nanowires.

  8. Development of a surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical biosensing hybrid platform for multiparametric reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Fariña, David; Escuela, Alfonso M.; Sendra, Jose Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid platform that combines two well-known biosensing technologies based on quite different transducer principles: surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical sensing. The new system allows the simultaneous and real-time detection of two independent parameters, refractive index change (Δn), and surface stress change (Δσ) when a biomolecular interaction takes place. Both parameters have a direct relation with the mass coverage of the sensor surface. The core of the platform is a common fluid cell, where the solution arrives to both sensor areas at the same time and under the same conditions (temperature, velocity, diffusion, etc.).The main objective of this integration is to achieve a better understanding of the physical behaviour of the transducers during sensing, increasing the information obtained in real time in one single experiment. The potential of the hybrid platform is demonstrated by the detection of DNA hybridization.

  9. Development of a surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical biosensing hybrid platform for multiparametric reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Fariña, David; Escuela, Alfonso M; Sendra, Jose Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a hybrid platform that combines two well-known biosensing technologies based on quite different transducer principles: surface plasmon resonance and nanomechanical sensing. The new system allows the simultaneous and real-time detection of two independent parameters, refractive index change (Δn), and surface stress change (Δσ) when a biomolecular interaction takes place. Both parameters have a direct relation with the mass coverage of the sensor surface. The core of the platform is a common fluid cell, where the solution arrives to both sensor areas at the same time and under the same conditions (temperature, velocity, diffusion, etc.).The main objective of this integration is to achieve a better understanding of the physical behaviour of the transducers during sensing, increasing the information obtained in real time in one single experiment. The potential of the hybrid platform is demonstrated by the detection of DNA hybridization.

  10. Controlling Statistical Properties of a Cooper Pair Box Interacting with a Nanomechanical Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Valverde, C; Baseia, a B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the quantum entropy, its power spectrum, and the excitation inversion of a Cooper pair box interacting with a nanomechanical resonator, the first initially prepared in its excited state, the second prepared in a "cat"-state. The method uses the Jaynes-Cummings model with damping, with different decay rates of the Cooper pair box and distinct detuning conditions, including time dependent detunings. Concerning the entropy, it is found that the time dependent detuning turns the entanglement more stable in comparison with previous results in literature. With respect to the Cooper pair box excitation inversion, while the presence of detuning destroys the its collapses and revivals, it is shown that with a convenient time dependent detuning one recovers such events in a nice way.

  11. Time-domain response of atomically thin MoS{sub 2} nanomechanical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen, R. van; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Steele, G. A.; Zant, H. S. J. van der; Venstra, W. J., E-mail: w.j.venstra@tudelft.nl [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-07-28

    We measure the energy relaxation rate of single- and few-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) nanomechanical resonators by detecting the resonator ring-down. Recent experiments on these devices show a remarkably low quality (Q)-factor when taking spectrum measurements at room temperature. The origin of the low spectral Q-factor is an open question, and it has been proposed that besides dissipative processes, frequency fluctuations contribute significantly to the resonance line-width. The spectral measurements performed thus far however, do not allow one to distinguish these two processes. Here, we use time-domain measurements to quantify the dissipation. We compare the Q-factor obtained from the ring-down measurements to those obtained from the thermal noise spectrum and from the frequency response of the driven device. In few-layer and single-layer MoS{sub 2} resonators, the two are in close agreement, which demonstrates that the spectral line-width in MoS{sub 2} membranes at room temperature is limited by dissipation, and that excess spectral broadening plays a negligible role.

  12. The Effect of Viscous Air Damping on an Optically Actuated Multilayer MoS2 Nanomechanical Resonator Using Fabry-Perot Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei She

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 nanomechanical resonator by using optical Fabry-Perot (F-P interferometric excitation and detection. The thin circular MoS2 nanomembrane with an approximate 8-nm thickness was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with an inner diameter of 125 μm, which created a low finesse F-P interferometer with a cavity length of 39.92 μm. The effects of temperature and viscous air damping on resonance behavior of the resonator were investigated in the range of −10–80 °C. Along with the optomechanical behavior of the resonator in air, the measured resonance frequencies ranged from 36 kHz to 73 kHz with an extremely low inflection point at 20 °C, which conformed reasonably to those solved by previously obtained thermal expansion coefficients of MoS2. Further, a maximum quality (Q factor of 1.35 for the resonator was observed at 0 °C due to viscous dissipation, in relation to the lower Knudsen number of 0.0025~0.0034 in the tested temperature range. Moreover, measurements of Q factor revealed little dependence of Q on resonance frequency and temperature. These measurements shed light on the mechanisms behind viscous air damping in MoS2, graphene, and other 2D resonators.

  13. Synchronization of Two Remote Nanomechanical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-17

    oscillators integrated inside an optical racetrack cavity. We show that this leads to a limit cycle in the reduced three- dimensional mechanical phase...linked in an optical racetrack (Fig. 1(a)); The resonators are mechanically isolated, due to their large separation (~ 80 m), ensuring that any...resonators  ~ 2 kHz [13]. Figure 1. (a) Micrograph of a racetrack cavity with two 110nm x 500nm x 10um suspended portions as nanomechanical

  14. Four-wave mixing signal enhancement and optical bistability of a hybrid metal nanoparticle-quantum dot molecule in a nanomechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bo; Liang, Shan; Xiao, Si; He, Meng-Dong; Kim, Nam-Chol; Chen, Li-Qun; Wu, Gui-Hong; Peng, Yu-Xiang; Luo, Xiao-Yu; Guo, Ze-Ping

    2016-02-08

    We investigate theoretically four-wave mixing (FWM) response and optical bistability (OB) in a hybrid nanosystem composed of a metal nanoparticle (MNP) and a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) coupled to a nanomechanical resonator (NR). It is shown that the FWM signal is enhanced by more than three orders of magnitude as compared to that of the system without exciton-phonon interaction, and the FWM signal can also be suppressed significantly and broadened due to the exciton-plasmon interaction. As the MNP couples strongly with the SQD, the bistable FWM response can be achieved by adjusting the SQD-MNP distance and the pumping intensity. For a given pumping constant and a fixed SQD-MNP distance, the enhanced exciton-phonon interaction can promote the occurrence of bistability. Our findings not only present a feasible way to detect the spacing between two nanoparticles, but also hold promise for developing quantum switches and nanoscale rulers.

  15. A nanomechanical Fredkin gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Josef-Stefan; Dunn, Tyler; Toffoli, Tommaso; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2014-01-08

    Irreversible logic operations inevitably discard information, setting fundamental limitations on the flexibility and the efficiency of modern computation. To circumvent the limit imposed by the von Neumann-Landauer (VNL) principle, an important objective is the development of reversible logic gates, as proposed by Fredkin, Toffoli, Wilczek, Feynman, and others. Here, we present a novel nanomechanical logic architecture for implementing a Fredkin gate, a universal logic gate from which any reversible computation can be built. In addition to verifying the truth table, we demonstrate operation of the device as an AND, OR, NOT, and FANOUT gate. Excluding losses due to resonator dissipation and transduction, which will require significant improvement in order to minimize the overall energy cost, our device requires an energy of order 10(4) kT per logic operation, similar in magnitude to state-of-the-art transistor-based technologies. Ultimately, reversible nanomechanical logic gates could play a crucial role in developing highly efficient reversible computers, with implications for efficient error correction and quantum computing.

  16. Femtogram Doubly Clamped Nanomechanical Resonators Embedded in a High-Q Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Xiankai; Poot, Menno; Wong, Chee Wei; Tang, Hong X

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a new optomechanical device system which allows highly efficient transduction of femtogram nanobeam resonators. Doubly clamped nanomechanical resonators with mass as small as 25 fg are embedded in a high-finesse two-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity. Optical transduction of the fundamental flexural mode around 1 GHz was performed at room temperature and ambient conditions, with an observed displacement sensitivity of 0.94 fm/Hz^(1/2). Comparison of measurements from symmetric and asymmetric double-beam devices reveals hybridization of the mechanical modes where the structural symmetry is shown to be the key to obtain a high mechanical quality factor. Our novel configuration opens the way for a new category of "NEMS-in-cavity" devices based on optomechanical interaction at the nanoscale.

  17. Squeezing Effect of a Nanomechanical Resonator Coupled to a Two-Level System:an Equilibrium Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; CHEN Zhi-De

    2009-01-01

    The squeezing effect of a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a two-level system is studied by variational calculations based on both the displaced-squeezed-state (DSS) and the displaced-oscillator-state (DOS).The stable region of the DSS ground state at both T = 0 and T≠0 and the corresponding squeezing factor are alculated.It is found that when the resonator frequency lies in (kBT,△),where △ is the tunnelling splitting of the two-level-system in the presence of dissipation,tunnelling splitting of a DSS ground state decreases with the temperature,while tunnelling splitting of a DOS ground state increases with the temperature in low temperature region.This opposite temperature dependence can help to distinguish between the DSS and DOS ground state in the experiment.

  18. Air damping of atomically thin MoS{sub 2} nanomechanical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesung; Wang, Zenghui; Feng, Philip X.-L., E-mail: philip.feng@case.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); He, Keliang; Shan, Jie [Department of Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We report on experimental measurement of air damping effects in high frequency nanomembrane resonators made of atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) drumhead structures. Circular MoS{sub 2} nanomembranes with thickness of monolayer, few-layer, and multi-layer up to ∼70 nm (∼100 layers) exhibit intriguing pressure dependence of resonance characteristics. In completely covered drumheads, where there is no immediate equilibrium between the drum cavity and environment, resonance frequencies and quality (Q) factors strongly depend on environmental pressure due to bulging of the nanomembranes. In incompletely covered drumheads, strong frequency shifts due to compressing-cavity stiffening occur above ∼200 Torr. The pressure-dependent Q factors are limited by free molecule flow (FMF) damping, and all the mono-, bi-, and tri-layer devices exhibit lower FMF damping than thicker, conventional devices do.

  19. Piezoelectric Electromechanical Coupling in Nanomechanical Resonators with a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    The electrical response of a two-dimensional electron gas to vibrations of a nanomechanical cantilever containing it is studied. Vibrations of perpendicularly oriented cantilevers are experimentally shown to oppositely change the conductivity near their bases. This indicates the piezoelectric nature of electromechanical coupling. A physical model is developed, which quantitatively explains the experiment. It shows that the main origin of the conductivity change is a rapid change in the mechanical stress on the boundary between suspended and nonsuspended areas, rather than the stress itself.

  20. Ground-state cooling of a nanomechanical resonator via single-polariton optomechanics in a coupled quantum-dot-cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ben-yuan; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-09-01

    We propose a rapid ground-state optomechanical cooling scheme in a hybrid system, where a two-level quantum dot (QD) is placed in a single-mode cavity and a nanomechanical resonator (NMR) is also coupled to the cavity via radiation pressure. The cavity is driven by a weak laser field while the QD is driven by another weak laser field. Due to the quantum destructive interference arisen from different transition channels induced by simultaneously driving the QD-cavity system in terms of the two different lasers, two-photon absorption for the cavity field can be effectively eliminated by performing an optimal quantum interference condition. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the QD-cavity system can be unbalancedly prepared in two single-polariton states with different eigenenergies. If the frequency of the NMR is tuned to be resonant with transition between two single-polariton states, it is found that a fast ground-state cooling for the NMR can also be achieved, even when the QD-cavity system is originally in the moderate-coupling regime. Thus the present ground-state cooling scheme for the NMR may be realized with currently available experimental technology.

  1. Damping mechanisms in high-Q micro and nanomechanical string resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Jensen, K. D.; Nielsen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    been concluded that Q is enhanced due to the high energy stored in the string tension. In this paper, damping mechanisms in string resonators are systematically investigated by varying the geometry and the tensile stress of silicon nitride microstrings. The measured quality factors are compared......Resonant micro and nanostrings were found to have extraordinarily high quality factors (Qs). Since the discovery of the high Qs of silicon nitride nanostrings, the understanding of the underlying mechanisms allowing such high quality factors has been a topic of several investigations. So far it has...... to an analytical model for Q based on bending-related damping mechanisms. It is shown that internal material damping is limiting the quality factor of narrow strings with a width of 3 μm. Q is strongly width dependent and clamping losses evidently seem to be the limiting damping mechanism for wider strings...

  2. Quantum Nanomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Nanomechanics is the emerging field which pertains to the mechanical behavior of nanoscale systems in the quantum domain. Unlike the conventional studies of vibration of molecules and phonons in solids, quantum nanomechanics is defined as the quantum behavior of the entire mechanical structure, including all of its constituents--the atoms, the molecules, the ions, the electrons as well as other excitations. The relevant degrees of freedom of the system are described by macroscopic var...

  3. Bistability and steady-state spin squeezing in diamond nanostructures controlled by a nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Wu, E.

    2016-06-01

    As the quantum states of nitrogen vacancy (NV) center can be coherently manipulated and obtained at room temperature, it is important to generate steady-state spin squeezing in spin qubits associated with NV impurities in diamond. With this task we consider a new type of a hybrid magneto-nano-electromechanical resonator, the functionality of which is based on a magnetic-field induced deflection of an appropriate cantilever that oscillates between NV spins in diamond. We show that there is bistability and spin squeezing state due to the presence of the microwave field, despite the damping from mechanical damping. Moreover, we find that bistability and spin squeezing can be controlled by the microwave field and the parameter Vz. Our scheme may have the potential application on spin clocks, magnetometers, and other measurements based on spin-spin system in diamond nanostructures.

  4. Optically Defined Chemical Functionalization of Silicon Nanomechanical Resonators for Mass Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    through MOSIS ). Post-processing release of the dome resonator (Fig. 1) was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory Nanofabrication Facility using a...cost CMOS MEMS resonators using relatively inexpensive cost- sharing services that make use of multi-project wafers, such as MOSIS , that significantly

  5. Perforated SiN membrane resonators for nanomechanical IR spectroscopy poster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Carnoy, Matthias; Boisen, Anja

    behavior. The principle of operation is based on the monitoring of the resonance frequency shift dueto various external factors such as change of temperature. It has been shown that photothermal infrared (IR) spectroscopy based onnanomechanical silicon nitride (SiN) string resonators (NAM-IR) enables...... the exceptionally fast chemical analysis of pictograms of analytedirectly from liquid solution in only a few minutes [1]. However in this technique the coupling of the IR laser beam to the nanometerwidestring resonators is difficult and inefficient. Therefore perforated SiN membranes with thickness of 100 nm......, lateral dimension of1×1 mm2 and 2 µm perforation grid pitch were used instead of strings which makes the IR beam alignment significantly simpler whilemaintaining similar sampling efficiency and photothermal IR absorption sensitivity....

  6. In Situ Tuning of Focused-Ion-Beam Defined Nanomechanical Resonators Using Joule Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, Lasse Vinther; Booth, Tim; Lei, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    min per device. Afterwards, the dynamic and structural properties of a double-clamped beam were measured after subsequent Joule heating events in order to ascertain the dependence of the internal structure on the Q-factor and resonant frequency of the device. It was observed that a change from...

  7. Atomic layer deposition of TiN for the fabrication of nanomechanical resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathan; Guthy, Csaba; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, 2nd Floor ECERF (9107-116 Street), Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Finley, Eric; Harris, Kenneth D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2M9 (Canada); Worfolk, Brian J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11227 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Films of titanium nitride were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) over a range of temperatures from 120 Degree-Sign C to 300 Degree-Sign C, and their deposition rates were characterized by ellipsometry and reflectometry. The stress state of the films was evaluated by interferometry using a wafer bowing technique and varied from compressive (-18 MPa) to tensile (650 MPa). The crystal structure of the films was assessed by x-ray diffraction. The grain size varied with temperature in the range of 2-9 nm. The chemical composition of the films was ascertained by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed the presence of O, Cl, and C contaminants. A mildly tensile (250 MPa) stressed film was employed for the fabrication (by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching) of doubly clamped nanoresonator beams. The resonance frequency of resonators was assayed using an interferometric resonance testing apparatus. The devices exhibited sharp mechanical resonance peaks in the 17-25 MHz range. The uniformity and controllable deposition rate of ALD films make them ideal candidate materials for the fabrication of ultranarrow (<50 nm) nanobeam structures.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of nanomechanical beam resonators: improving the performance of NEMS-based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacem, N; Hentz, S; Pinto, D; Reig, B; Nguyen, V [CEA/LETI-MINATEC, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-08

    In order to compensate for the loss of performance when scaling resonant sensors down to NEMS, it proves extremely useful to study the behavior of resonators up to very high displacements and hence high nonlinearities. This work describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation which includes both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinearities valid up to displacements comparable to the gap in the case of an electrostatically actuated doubly clamped beam. Moreover, the model takes into account the fringing field effects, significant for thin resonators. The model has been compared to both numerical integrations and electrical measurements of devices fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers; it shows very good agreement with both. An important contribution of this work is the provision for closed-form expressions of the critical amplitude and the pull-in domain initiation amplitude including all nonlinearities. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility to drive the resonator beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced to the maximum below the pull-in instability, while keeping a linear behavior.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of nanomechanical beam resonators: improving the performance of NEMS-based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, N; Hentz, S; Pinto, D; Reig, B; Nguyen, V

    2009-07-08

    In order to compensate for the loss of performance when scaling resonant sensors down to NEMS, it proves extremely useful to study the behavior of resonators up to very high displacements and hence high nonlinearities. This work describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation which includes both mechanical and electrostatic nonlinearities valid up to displacements comparable to the gap in the case of an electrostatically actuated doubly clamped beam. Moreover, the model takes into account the fringing field effects, significant for thin resonators. The model has been compared to both numerical integrations and electrical measurements of devices fabricated on 200 mm SOI wafers; it shows very good agreement with both. An important contribution of this work is the provision for closed-form expressions of the critical amplitude and the pull-in domain initiation amplitude including all nonlinearities. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility to drive the resonator beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced to the maximum below the pull-in instability, while keeping a linear behavior.

  10. A review on nanomechanical resonators and their applications in sensors and molecular transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arash, Behrouz; Rabczuk, Timon, E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus Universität Weimar, Marienstr 15, D-99423 Weimar (Germany); Jiang, Jin-Wu [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Nanotechnology has opened a new area in science and engineering, leading to the development of novel nano-electromechanical systems such as nanoresonators with ultra-high resonant frequencies. The ultra-high-frequency resonators facilitate wide-ranging applications such as ultra-high sensitive sensing, molecular transportation, molecular separation, high-frequency signal processing, and biological imaging. This paper reviews recent studies on dynamic characteristics of nanoresonators. A variety of theoretical approaches, i.e., continuum modeling, molecular simulations, and multiscale methods, in modeling of nanoresonators are reviewed. The potential application of nanoresonators in design of sensor devices and molecular transportation systems is introduced. The essence of nanoresonator sensors for detection of atoms and molecules with vibration and wave propagation analyses is outlined. The sensitivity of the resonator sensors and their feasibility in detecting different atoms and molecules are particularly discussed. Furthermore, the applicability of molecular transportation using the propagation of mechanical waves in nanoresonators is presented. An extended application of the transportation methods for building nanofiltering systems with ultra-high selectivity is surveyed. The article aims to provide an up-to-date review on the mechanical properties and applications of nanoresonators, and inspire additional potential of the resonators.

  11. Entanglement of two optically driven quantum dots mediated by phonons in nanomechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Jiang, Meiping

    2017-01-01

    The exciton-phonon coupling between an optically driven quantum dot (QD) and a mechanical resonator can be described by Jaynes-Cummings model under a certain condition, revealing phonon absorption and emission. When two optically driven QDs share a common phonon mode, it shows the phonon-mediated coupling between the QDs. Based on the effective master equation for the reduced density matrix of the two QDs, the temporal evolution of each state and the concurrence (quantum entanglement) between them are studied. The results suggest that the stationary concurrence depends strongly on the resonator temperature. The non-negligible entanglement in the hybrid system is advantaged to develop solid-state quantum information processing.

  12. Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve as a realiza...

  13. Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palyi, Andras [University of Konstanz (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Struck, Philipp R.; Burkard, Guido [University of Konstanz (Germany); Rudner, Mark [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Flensberg, Karsten [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the coupling of electron spin to vibrational motion due to curvature-induced spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve as a realization of the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum electrodynamics in the strong-coupling regime. A quantized flexural mode of the suspended tube plays the role of the optical mode and we identify two distinct two-level subspaces, at small and large magnetic field, which can be used as qubits in this setup. The strong intrinsic spin-mechanical coupling allows for detection, as well as manipulation of the spin qubit, and may yield enhanced performance of nanotubes in sensing applications.

  14. Mass measurements based on nanomechanical devices: differential measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcamone, J; Rius, G; Llobet, J; Borrise, X; Perez-Murano, F [CNM-IMB (CSIC). Campus UAB. E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)], E-mail: francesc.perez@cnm.es, E-mail: julien.arcamone@cnm.es

    2008-03-15

    In the last few years, there has been a strong interest in implementing nano-mechanical devices as mass sensors. Regarding this application, an important question to address is to know to what extent the observed frequency shift is exclusively due to the targeted mass loading. For this purpose, we present a device, a polysilicon double cantilever, with an innovative design that allows the direct determination of the measurement uncertainty. Two almost identical nanomechanical resonators are simultaneously operated: one serves as sensor and the other as reference. In this way, rapid and reliable measurements in air are made possible. In first experimental measurements, some masses in the order of 300 fg, locally deposited by focused ion beam, have been measured with an uncertainty of 30 fg. These results are corroborated by the determination of the deposits size based on SEM images.

  15. Rotation Axis Variation Due To Spin Orbit Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, G

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: rotation axis variation due to spin orbit resonance: conference report; keywords: planetary precession, rigid body, chaos, KAM, Arnold diffusion, averaging, celestial mechanics, classical mechanics, large deviations

  16. Exotic resonances due to η exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2016-10-01

    The meson X (3872) and several related states appear to be in large part hadronic molecules in which a heavy flavored meson (e.g., D0) is bound to another heavy meson (e.g., D bar * 0). Although not the only contribution to the binding, pion exchange seems to play a crucial role in generating the longest-range force between constituents. Mesons without u and d light quarks (such as Ds) cannot exchange pions, but under suitable conditions can bind as a result of η exchange. Channels in which this mechanism is possible are identified, and suggestions are made for searches for the corresponding molecular states, including a manifestly exotic baryonic Λc Dbar s* resonance decaying into J / ψ Λ.

  17. Cooling Torsional Nanomechanical Vibration by Spin-Orbit Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Nan; ZHOU Duan-Lu; ZHU Jia-Lin

    2008-01-01

    We propose and study a spin-orbit interaction based mechanism to actively cool down the torsional vibration of a nanomechanical resonator made by semiconductor materials. We show that the spin-orbit interactions of electrons can induce a coherent coupling between the electron spins and the torsional modes of nanomechanical vibration. This coupling leads to an active cooling for the torsional modes through the dynamical thermalization of the resonator by the spin ensemble.

  18. Detection of bacteria based on the thermomechanical noise of a nanomechanical resonator: origin of the response and detection limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, D [BioNanoMechanics Lab, National Centre for Microelectronics, IMM-CNM, CSIC Isaac Newton 8 (PTM), Tres Cantos E-28760, Madrid (Spain); Tamayo, J [BioNanoMechanics Lab, National Centre for Microelectronics, IMM-CNM, CSIC Isaac Newton 8 (PTM), Tres Cantos E-28760, Madrid (Spain); Mertens, J [BioNanoMechanics Lab, National Centre for Microelectronics, IMM-CNM, CSIC Isaac Newton 8 (PTM), Tres Cantos E-28760, Madrid (Spain); Calleja, M [BioNanoMechanics Lab, National Centre for Microelectronics, IMM-CNM, CSIC Isaac Newton 8 (PTM), Tres Cantos E-28760, Madrid (Spain); Villanueva, L G [STI-IMM-LMIS1, EPFL-Station 17, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Zaballos, A [Genomics Functional Unit, Department of Immunology and Oncology, CNB-CSIC, Darwin 3, Madrid E-28049 (Spain)

    2008-01-23

    We have measured the effect of bacteria adsorption on the resonant frequency of microcantilevers as a function of the adsorption position and vibration mode. The resonant frequencies were measured from the Brownian fluctuations of the cantilever tip. We found that the sign and amount of the resonant frequency change is determined by the position and extent of the adsorption on the cantilever with regard to the shape of the vibration mode. To explain these results, a theoretical one-dimensional model is proposed. We obtain analytical expressions for the resonant frequency that accurately fit the data obtained by the finite element method. More importantly, the theory data shows a good agreement with the experiments. Our results indicate that there exist two opposite mechanisms that can produce a significant resonant frequency shift: the stiffness and the mass of the bacterial cells. Based on the thermomechanical noise, we analyse the regions of the cantilever of lowest and highest sensitivity to the attachment of bacteria. The combination of high vibration modes and the confinement of the adsorption to defined regions of the cantilever allows the detection of single bacterial cells by only measuring the Brownian fluctuations. This study can be extended to smaller cantilevers and other biological systems such as proteins and nucleic acids.

  19. Generalized Landau damping due to multi-plasmon resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Brodin, Gert; Zamanian, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We study wave-particle interaction of Langmuir waves in a fully degenerate plasma using the Wigner-Moyal equation. As is well known, in the short wavelength regime the resonant velocity is shifted from the phase velocity due to the finite energy and momentum of individual plasmon quanta. In the present work we focus on the case when the resonant velocity lies outside the background distribution, i.e. when it is larger than the Fermi velocity. Going beyond the linearized theory we show that we can still have nonlinear wave-particle damping associated with multi-plasmon resonances. Sets of evolution equations are derived for the case of two-plasmon resonance and for the case of three-plasmon resonance. The damping rates of the Langmuir waves are deduced for both cases, and the implications of the results are discussed.

  20. Dynamic range enhancement of nonlinear nanomechanical resonant cantilevers for highly sensitive NEMS gas/mass sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacem, N.; Arcamone, J.; Perez-Murano, F.; Hentz, S.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive nonlinear multiphysics model based on the Euler-Bernoulli equation that remains valid up to large displacements in the case of electrostatically actuated nanocantilevers. This purely analytical model takes into account the fringing field effects which are significant for thin resonators. Analytical simulations show very good agreement with experimental electrical measurements of silicon nanodevices using wafer-scale nanostencil lithography (nSL), monolithically integrated with CMOS circuits. Close-form expressions of the critical amplitude are provided in order to compare the dynamic ranges of NEMS cantilevers and doubly clamped beams. This model allows designers to cancel out nonlinearities by tuning some design parameters and thus gives the possibility of driving the cantilever beyond its critical amplitude. Consequently, the sensor performance can be enhanced by being optimally driven at very large amplitude, while maintaining linear behavior.

  1. Ultrafast nanomechanics in vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, Andrey V.; Czerniuk, Thomas; Yakovlev, Dmitri R.; Bayer, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    The existence of both optical and sub-THz nanomechanical resonances in the same laser microcavity results in strong photon-phonon interaction, and may be explored for the ultrafast control of vertical lasers. In the talk the experiments involving the injection of picosecond strain pulses into optically and electrically pumped vertical lasers, and monitoring of the modulated output laser intensity will be discussed. The results of three recent experiments will be presented: • In the experiments with an optically pumped quantum dot laser, an increase of the lasing output induced by strain pulses by two orders of magnitude has been observed on a picosecond time scale. Such strong and ultrafast increase is due to the inhomogeneous quantum dot ensemble with a spectral broadening much larger than the optical cavity mode width. Thus, the optical resonance required for lasing is achieved for a tiny dot fraction only while non-resonant dots store optical excitation for long time. The strain pulse brings "non-resonant" quantum dots into the resonance with the cavity mode and the stored energy releases almost simultaneously in a form of the intense laser pulses. • Experiments with electrically pumped micropillar lasers show the modulation of the emission wavelength on the frequencies equal to the resonant GHz nanomechanical modes of the micropillar. • Experiments with a quantum well vertical laser showed intensity modulation with the mechanical resonance frequencies (20-40 GHz) of the optomechanical nanoresonator. Prospective application for nanophotonics are discussed.

  2. Inertial imaging with nanomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanay, M. Selim; Kelber, Scott I.; O’Connell, Cathal D.; Mulvaney, Paul; Sader, John E.; Roukes, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Mass sensing with nanoelectromechanical systems has advanced significantly during the last decade. With nanoelectromechanical systems sensors it is now possible to carry out ultrasensitive detection of gaseous analytes, to achieve atomic-scale mass resolution and to perform mass spectrometry on single proteins. Here, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of mass within an individual analyte can be imaged—in real time and at the molecular scale—when it adsorbs onto a nanomechanical resonator. Each single-molecule adsorption event induces discrete, time-correlated perturbations to all modal frequencies of the device. We show that by continuously monitoring a multiplicity of vibrational modes, the spatial moments of mass distribution can be deduced for individual analytes, one-by-one, as they adsorb. We validate this method for inertial imaging, using both experimental measurements of multimode frequency shifts and numerical simulations, to analyse the inertial mass, position of adsorption and the size and shape of individual analytes. Unlike conventional imaging, the minimum analyte size detectable through nanomechanical inertial imaging is not limited by wavelength-dependent diffraction phenomena. Instead, frequency fluctuation processes determine the ultimate attainable resolution. Advanced nanoelectromechanical devices appear capable of resolving molecular-scale analytes. PMID:25822931

  3. Phase synchronization of two anharmonic nanomechanical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Matthew H; Grau, Matt; Villanueva, Luis G; Karabalin, Rassul B; Cross, M C; Roukes, Michael L

    2014-01-10

    We investigate the synchronization of oscillators based on anharmonic nanoelectromechanical resonators. Our experimental implementation allows unprecedented observation and control of parameters governing the dynamics of synchronization. We find close quantitative agreement between experimental data and theory describing reactively coupled Duffing resonators with fully saturated feedback gain. In the synchronized state we demonstrate a significant reduction in the phase noise of the oscillators, which is key for sensor and clock applications. Our work establishes that oscillator networks constructed from nanomechanical resonators form an ideal laboratory to study synchronization--given their high-quality factors, small footprint, and ease of cointegration with modern electronic signal processing technologies.

  4. Chemically Modified Graphene for Sensing and Nanomechanical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    suspended drum resonators (Fig. 4(c)). A blue (412 nm) diode laser ther- moelastically excites the CMG drums into resonance, while a red (633 nm) HeNe...and solid state physics, micro- and nanomechanical devices, optics, and structural acoustics. Dr. Houston received the American University Ross Gunn

  5. Reversible Myelopathy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Due to Cobalamin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Subacute combined degeneration (SCD is known as myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. SCD always involves the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, with the neuropathologic change showing vacuolation of the white matter. We describe 2 patients who presented with ataxic gait, impaired proprioception over limbs, and even mental change due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine showed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and laboratory data showed low serum vitamin B12 level. The 2 patients were treated with vitamin B12 injection intramuscularly. There was clinical improvement after treatment along with normalization of the MRI.

  6. Vibration analysis of nanomechanical mass sensor using carbon nanotubes under axial tensile loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Matsuyama, Nobuhiro; Shi, Jin-Xing; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with many potential applications due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. In this paper, we proposed that CNTs with clamped boundary condition under axial tensile loads were considered as CNT-based resonators. Moreover, the resonant frequencies and frequency shifts of the CNTs with attached mass were investigated based on two theoretical methods, which are Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Rayleigh's energy method. Using the present methods, we analyzed and discussed the effects of the aspect ratio, the concentrated mass and the axial force on the resonant frequency of the CNTs. The results indicate that the length of CNTs could be easily changed and could provide higher sensitivity as nanomechanical mass sensor. Moreover, the resonant frequency shifts of the CNT resonator increase significantly with increasing tensile load acting on the CNTs.

  7. Ultrahigh and microwave frequency nanomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue Ming Henry

    Nanodevices that operate with fundamental frequencies in the previously inaccessible microwave range (greater than 1 gigahertz) have been constructed. Two advances have been crucial to breaking the 1-GHz barrier in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS): the use of 3C- silicon carbide epilayers, and the development of balanced, high frequency displacement transducers. This achievement represents a significant advance in the quest for extremely high frequency nanoelectromechanical systems.However, silicon carbide nanomechanical resonators with fundamental frequencies in the ultrahigh frequency and microwave range have exhibited deteriorating quality factors compared to devices at lower frequencies, which could significantly restrict the application of this developing technology. Our experiments have established a strong correlation between silicon carbide surface roughness and deteriorating quality factor. Also, dissipation in such devices increases as the aspect ratio of the doubly clamped beams is reduced. Based on such observations, we have then demonstrated that the SiC free-free beam nanomechanical resonators offer significant improvement in quality factor compared to doubly clamped beam design operating at similar frequencies.Apart from 3C-SiC epilayers on silicon, polished 6H-SiC bulk material based NEMS are also made possible by our invention. A tilted Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) etching technique has been developed to fabricate suspended nanomechanical structures from bulk 6H-SiC wafers. A suspended nanoscale, doubly clamped beam resonator has been made as an initial demonstration of this new fabrication method. Fundamental flexural mode mechanical resonance is detected at 171.2 MHz, with a quality factor of about 3000. The ability to fabricate 3-D suspended nanostructures from 6H-SiC is an important breakthrough in NEMS not only because it enables electronic integration, but also because it provides a unique platform for exploring the effects of

  8. Investigation of nanomechanical oscillators based on amorphous carbon whiskers in vacuum and at ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashenko, S.; Mukhin, I.; Veniaminov, A.; Sapozhnikov, I.; Mozharov, A.; Kupriyanov, D.; Golubok, A.

    2016-11-01

    Nanomechanical oscillators (NMO) on the base of amorphous C nanowhiskers, localized on the tops of W needles have been created and studied. Trajectories of resonant oscillations were visualized using a scanning electron microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope. Resonant frequencies and the quality factor of NMO were determined at low pressure and in air. Reduction of the nanomechanical oscillators quality factor after the transition from vacuum condition to ambient pressure was not observed.

  9. Nanomechanical sensing in liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrestijn, Marko

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes advances in the field of nanomechanical sensors operating in liquid. Firstly, a novel method for measuring nanoscale displacements is presented. Secondly, microscale Chladnifigures are demonstrated on oscillating cantilevers by means of boundary streaming in the aqueous environment. Thirdly, the physics of boundary streaming is clarified for the first time. The three topics are summarized below. A novel displacement sensor based on a squeezable molecular m...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Silke; Adams, William H; Narak, Jill; Thomas, William B

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts due to metallic foreign bodies may interfere with interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. Additionally, migration of metallic objects may pose a risk to patients undergoing MR imaging. Our purpose was to investigate prevalence, underlying cause, and diagnostic implications of susceptibility artifacts in small animal MR imaging and report associated adverse effects. MR imaging studies performed in dogs and cats between April 2008 and March 2010 were evaluated retrospectively for the presence of susceptibility artifacts associated with metallic foreign bodies. Studies were performed using a 1.0 T scanner. Severity of artifacts was graded as 0 (no interference with area of interest), 1 (extension of artifact to area of interest without impairment of diagnostic quality), 2 (impairment of diagnostic quality but diagnosis still possible), or 3 (severe involvement of area of interest resulting in nondiagnostic study). Medical records were evaluated retrospectively to identify adverse effects. Susceptibility artifacts were present in 99/754 (13.1%) of MR imaging studies and were most common in examinations of the brachial plexus, thorax, and cervical spine. Artifacts were caused by identification microchips, ballistic fragments, skin staples/suture material, hemoclips, an ameroid constrictor, and surgical hardware. Three studies were nondiagnostic due to the susceptibility artifact. Adverse effects were not documented.

  11. Complex Dynamics of Nano-Mechanical Membrane in Cavity Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Akram, Muhammad Javed

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of a suspended nano-mechanical membrane subject to an optical driving field in cavity optomechanics is presented, which is confirmed through numerical simulations. In the presence of an optical field between its mirrors a high finesse nano-mechanical resonator acts as an oscillator driven by radiation pressure force. The periodic nature of the radiation pressure force makes the nano-mechanical membrane in the optomechanical system as kicked harmonic oscillator. Mathematically the physical system displays a stochastic web map that helps to understand several properties of the kicked membrane in classical phase space. We find that our web map is area preserving, and displays quasi-periodic symmetrical structures in phase space which we express as q-fold symmetry. It is shown that under appropriate control of certain parameters, namely the frequency ratio (q) and the kicking strength (K), the dynamics of kicked membrane exhibits chaotic dynamics. We provide the stability analysis by means of...

  12. Unusual resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlocal response of a confined electron gas within the hydrodynamical Drude model. We address the question as to whether plasmonic nanostructures exhibit nonlocal resonances that have no counterpart in the local-response Drude model. Avoiding the usual quasistatic approximation, we...... find that such resonances do indeed occur, but only above the plasma frequency. Thus the recently found nonlocal resonances at optical frequencies for very small structures, obtained within quasistatic approximation, are unphysical. As a specific example we consider nanosized metallic cylinders...

  13. Width of the chaotic layer: maxima due to marginal resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I

    2012-06-01

    Modern theoretical methods for estimating the width of the chaotic layer in the presence of prominent marginal resonances are considered in the perturbed pendulum model of nonlinear resonance. The fields of applicability of these methods are explicitly and precisely formulated. The comparative accuracy is investigated in massive and long-run numerical experiments. It is shown that the methods are naturally subdivided in classes applicable for adiabatic and nonadiabatic cases of perturbation. It is explicitly shown that the pendulum approximation of marginal resonance works well in the nonadiabatic case. In this case, the role of marginal resonances in determining the total layer width is demonstrated to diminish with increasing main parameter λ (equal to the ratio of the perturbation frequency to the frequency of small-amplitude phase oscillations on the resonance). Solely the "bending effect" is important in determining the total amplitude of the energy deviations of the near-separatrix motion at λ≳7. In the adiabatic case, it is demonstrated that the geometrical form of the separatrix cell can be described analytically quite easily by means of using a specific representation of the separatrix map. It is shown that the nonadiabatic (and, to some extent, intermediary) case is most actual, in comparison with the adiabatic one, for the physical or technical applications that concern the energy jumps in the near-separatrix chaotic motion.

  14. Tearing mode velocity braking due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the tearing mode (TM) velocity is studied in EXTRAP T2R. Experimental results show that the RMP produces TM braking until a new steady velocity or wall locking is reached. The braking is initially localized at the TM resonance and then spreads to the other TMs and to the rest of the plasma producing a global velocity reduction via the viscous torque. The process has been used to experimentally estimate the kinematic viscosity profile, in the range 2-40 m2 s-1, and the electromagnetic torque produced by the RMP, which is strongly localized at the TM resonance. Experimental results are then compared with a theoretical model which gives a reasonable qualitative explanation of the entire process.

  15. Quasiperfect absorption by subwavelength acoustic panels in transmission using accumulation of resonances due to slow sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Noé; Romero-García, Vicent; Pagneux, Vincent; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally report subwavelength resonant panels for low-frequency quasiperfect sound absorption including transmission by using the accumulation of cavity resonances due to the slow sound phenomenon. The subwavelength panel is composed of periodic horizontal slits loaded by identical Helmholtz resonators (HRs). Due to the presence of the HRs, the propagation inside each slit is strongly dispersive, with near-zero phase velocity close to the resonance of the HRs. In this slow sound regime, the frequencies of the cavity modes inside the slit are down-shifted and the slit behaves as a subwavelength resonator. Moreover, due to strong dispersion, the cavity resonances accumulate at the limit of the band gap below the resonance frequency of the HRs. Near this accumulation frequency, simultaneously symmetric and antisymmetric quasicritical coupling can be achieved. In this way, using only monopolar resonators quasiperfect absorption can be obtained in a material including transmission.

  16. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems development....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304....... In this article, we report the first highly controlled measurements of the nonlinear response of nanomechanical cantilevers using an ultralinear detection system. This is performed for an extensive range of devices to probe the validity of Euler-Bernoulli theory in the nonlinear regime. We find that its...

  17. Real-Time Particle Mass Spectrometry Based on Resonant Micro Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Dohn, Søren; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Micro- and nanomechanical resonators are widely being used as mass sensors due to their unprecedented mass sensitivity. We present a simple closed-form expression which allows a fast and quantitative calculation of the position and mass of individual particles placed on a micro or nano string...

  18. Brillouin resonance broadening due to structural variations in nanoscale waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Christian; Steel, Michael J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Poulton, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of structural variations (that is slowly varying geometry aberrations and internal strain fields) on the resonance width and shape of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in nanoscale waveguides. We find that they lead to an inhomogeneous resonance broadening through two distinct mechanisms: firstly, the acoustic frequency is directly influenced via mechanical nonlinearities; secondly, the optical wave numbers are influenced via the opto-mechanical nonlinearity leading to an additional acoustic frequency shift via the phase-matching condition. We find that this second mechanism is proportional to the opto-mechanical coupling and, hence, related to the SBS-gain itself. It is absent in intra-mode forward SBS, while it plays a significant role in backward scattering. In backward SBS increasing the opto-acoustic overlap beyond a threshold defined by the fabrication tolerances will therefore no longer yield the expected quadratic increase in overall Stokes amplification. Our results can be tra...

  19. Steady-state negative Wigner functions of nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Rips, Simon; Wilson-Rae, Ignacio; Hartmann, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to prepare nanomechanical oscillators in non-classical steady states, characterized by a pronounced negative Wigner function. In our optomechanical approach, the mechanical oscillator couples to multiple laser driven resonances of an optical cavity. By lowering the resonant frequency of the oscillator via an inhomogeneous electrostatic field, we significantly enhance its intrinsic geometric nonlinearity per phonon. This causes the motional sidebands to split into separate spectral lines for each phonon number and transitions between individual phonon Fock states can be selectively addressed. We show that this enables preparation of the nanomechanical oscillator in a single phonon Fock state. Our scheme can for example be implemented with a carbon nanotube dispersively coupled to the evanescent field of a state of the art whispering gallery mode microcavity.

  20. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Smith, W. W. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Narducci, F. A. [Naval Air Systems Command, EO Sensors Division, Bldg 2187, Suite 3190 Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  1. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P. [University of malaya Centre, Kuala Lumpar (Malaysia). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient`s sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients` sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients` education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 9 refs.

  2. Tunable nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic computations

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N R

    2017-02-14

    There has been remarkable interest in nanomechanical computing elements that can potentially lead to a new era in computation due to their re-configurability, high integration density, and high switching speed. Here we present a nanomechanical device capable of dynamically performing logic operations (NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND). The concept is based on the active tuning of the resonance frequency of a doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical beam resonator through electro-thermal actuation. The performance of this re-configurable logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations. The proposed device can potentially achieve switching rate in μs, switching energy in nJ, and an integration density up to 10 per cm. The practical realization of this re-configurable device paves the way for nano-element-based mechanical computing.

  3. Fast optical cooling of a nanomechanical cantilever by a dynamical Stark-shift gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Leilei; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Feng, Mang

    2015-10-01

    The efficient cooling of nanomechanical resonators is essential to exploration of quantum properties of the macroscopic or mesoscopic systems. We propose such a laser-cooling scheme for a nanomechanical cantilever, which works even for the low-frequency mechanical mode and under weak cooling lasers. The cantilever is coupled by a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center under a strong magnetic field gradient and the cooling is assisted by a dynamical Stark-shift gate. Our scheme can effectively enhance the desired cooling efficiency by avoiding the off-resonant and undesired carrier transitions, and thereby cool the cantilever down to the vicinity of the vibrational ground state in a fast fashion.

  4. Fast optical cooling of a nanomechanical cantilever by a dynamical Stark-shift gate

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Leilei; Zhang, Shuo; Feng, Mang

    2014-01-01

    The efficient cooling of the nanomechanical resonators is essential to exploration of quantum properties of the macroscopic or mesoscopic systems. We propose such a laser-cooling scheme for a nanomechanical cantilever, which works even for the low-frequency mechanical mode and under weak cooling lasers. The cantilever is attached by a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center under a strong magnetic field gradient and the cooling is assisted by a dynamical Stark-shift gate. Our scheme can effectively enhance the desired cooling efficiency by avoiding the off-resonant and unexpected carrier transitions, and thereby cool the cantilever down to the vicinity of the vibrational ground state in a fast fashion.

  5. Nanomechanical Infrared Spectroscopy with Vibrating Filters for Pharmaceutical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Carnoy, Matthias; Larsen, Peter Emil

    2017-01-01

    Standard infrared spectroscopy techniques are well-developed and widely used. However, they typically require milligrams of sample and can involve time-consuming sample preparation. A promising alternative is represented by nanomechanical infrared spectroscopy (NAM-IR) based on the photothermal...... response of a nanomechanical resonator, which enables the chemical analysis of picograms of analyte directly from a liquid solution in only a few minutes. Herein, we present NAM-IR using perforated membranes (filters). The method was tested with the pharmaceutical compound indomethacin to successfully...... perform a chemical and morphological analysis on roughly 100 pg of sample. With an absolute estimated sensitivity of 109±15 fg, the presented method is suitable for ultrasensitive vibrational spectroscopy....

  6. Observation of soliton-induced resonant radiation due to three-wave mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, B; Guo, H R; Zeng, X L; Chen, X F; Chung, H P; Chen, Y H; Bache, M

    2016-01-01

    We show experimental proof that three-wave mixing can lead to formation of resonant radiation when interacting with a temporal soliton. This constitutes a new class of resonant waves, and due to the parametric nature of the three-wave mixing nonlinearity, the resonant radiation frequencies are widely tunable over broad ranges in the visible and mid-IR. The experiment is conducted in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, where a femtosecond self-defocusing soliton is excited in the near-IR, and resonant radiation due to the sum- and difference-frequency generation quadratic nonlinear terms are observed in the near- and mid-IR, respectively. Their spectral positions are widely tunable by changing the poling pitch and are in perfect agreement with theoretical calculations.

  7. Nanotribology and nanomechanics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This textbook and comprehensive reference source and serves as a timely, practical introduction to the principles of nanotribology and nanomechanics. This 4th edition has been completely revised and updated, concentrating on the key measurement techniques, their applications, and theoretical modeling of interfaces. It provides condensed knowledge of the field from the mechanics and materials science perspectives to graduate students, research workers, and practicing engineers.

  8. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  9. Nanomechanical Resonant Structures in Nanocrystalline Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-02

    poses, diamond may be one of the most desirable materials for many NEMS applications because it is chemically very resistant, has a high hardness...Redistribution subject Then, the substrate is removed from the chamber and is it treated in an ultrasonic bath of nanodiamond powder dis- persed in

  10. Broadening of Plasmonic Resonance Due to Electron Collisions with Nanoparticle Boundary: а Quantum Mechanical Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uskov, Alexander; Protsenko, Igor E.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantum mechanical approach to calculate broadening of plasmonic resonances in metallic nanostructures due to collisions of electrons with the surface of the structure. The approach is applicable if the characteristic size of the structure is much larger than the de Broglie electron ...

  11. Are there novel resonances in nanoplasmonic structures due to nonlocal response?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Raza, Søren; Toscano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behaviour with resulting important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. Here we report on nonlocal resonances in the hydrodynamical Drude model for plasmonic...... nanostructures that have no counterpart in the local-response Drude model. Even though there are no additional resonances in the visible due to nonlocal response, plasmonic field enhancements are affected by nonlocal response. We present both analytical results for simple geometries and our numerical...

  12. Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The changing balance of forces at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop a new generation of spatially reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials in which electromagnetic Coulomb, Lorentz and Ampère forces, as well as thermal stimulation and optical signals, can be engaged to dynamically change their optical properties. Individual building blocks of such metamaterials, the metamolecules, and their arrays fabricated on elastic dielectric membranes can be reconfigured to achieve optical modulation at high frequencies, potentially reaching the gigahertz range. Mechanical and optical resonances enhance the magnitude of actuation and optical response within these nanostructures, which can be driven by electric signals of only a few volts or optical signals with power of only a few milliwatts. We envisage switchable, electro-optical, magneto-optical and nonlinear metamaterials that are compact and silicon-nanofabrication-technology compatible with functionalities surpassing those of natural media by orders of magnitude in some key design parameters.

  13. Quasi-perfect absorption by sub-wavelength acoustic panels in transmission using accumulation of resonances due to slow sound

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Pagneux, Vincent; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally report sub-wavelength resonant panels for low-frequency quasi-perfect sound absorption including transmission by using the accumulation of cavity resonances due to the slow sound phenomenon. The sub-wavelength panel is composed of periodic horizontal slits loaded by identical Helmholtz resonators (HRs). Due to the presence of the HRs, the propagation inside each slit is strongly dispersive, with near-zero phase velocity close to the resonance of the HRs. In this slow sound regime, the frequencies of the cavity modes inside the slit are down-shifted and the slit behaves as a subwavelength resonator. Moreover, due to strong dispersion, the cavity resonances accumulate at the limit of the bandgap below the resonance frequency of the HRs. Near this accumulation frequency, simultaneously symmetric and antisymmetric quasi-critical coupling can be achieved. In this way, using only monopolar resonators quasi-perfect absorption can be obtained in a material including transmission.

  14. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Hiebert, W. K., E-mail: wayne.hiebert@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bachman, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2V4 (Canada)

    2016-02-08

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, 153 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, and 112 fm Hz{sup −1/2}, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm{sup −1} mW{sup −1}, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  15. Even nanomechanical modes transduced by integrated photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood-Bachman, J. N.; Diao, Z.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Bachman, D.; Hiebert, W. K.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the actuation and detection of even flexural vibrational modes of a doubly clamped nanomechanical resonator using an integrated photonics transduction scheme. The doubly clamped beam is formed by releasing a straight section of an optical racetrack resonator from the underlying silicon dioxide layer, and a step is fabricated in the substrate beneath the beam. The step causes uneven force and responsivity distribution along the device length, permitting excitation and detection of even modes of vibration. This is achieved while retaining transduction capability for odd modes. The devices are actuated via optical force applied with a pump laser. The displacement sensitivities of the first through third modes, as obtained from the thermomechanical noise floor, are 228 fm Hz-1/2, 153 fm Hz-1/2, and 112 fm Hz-1/2, respectively. The excitation efficiency for these modes is compared and modeled based on integration of the uneven forces over the mode shapes. While the excitation efficiency for the first three modes is approximately the same when the step occurs at about 38% of the beam length, the ability to tune the modal efficiency of transduction by choosing the step position is discussed. The overall optical force on each mode is approximately 0.4 pN μm-1 mW-1, for an applied optical power of 0.07 mW. We show a potential application that uses the resonant frequencies of the first two vibrational modes of a buckled beam to measure the stress in the silicon device layer, estimated to be 106 MPa. We anticipate that the observation of the second mode of vibration using our integrated photonics approach will be useful in future mass sensing experiments.

  16. Resonance frequency shifts due to quantized electronic states in atomically thin NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Deshpande, Vikram; Koshino, Mikito; Lee, Sunwoo; Gondarenko, Alexander; MacDonald, Allan; Kim, Philip; Hone, James

    The classic picture of the force exerted on a parallel plate capacitor assumes infinite density of states (DOS), which implies identical electrochemical and electrostatic potential. However, such assumption can breakdown in low-dimensional devices where the DOS is finite or quantized. Here we consider the mechanical resonance shift of a nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) resonator with small DOS, actuated and detected capacitively at fixed electrochemical potential. We found three leading correction terms to the classical picture: the first term leads to the modulation of static force due to the variation in chemical potential, and the second and third terms are related to the static and dynamic changes in spring constants, caused by quantum capacitance. The theory agrees well with recent experimental findings from graphene resonator in quantum Hall regimes, where the chemical potential and quantum capacitance are tuned by magnetic field, while the gate voltage is kept constant.

  17. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: ryan.wagner@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  18. Magnetic field shift due to mechanical vibration in functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Bernd U; Tomasi, Dardo; Caparelli, Elisabeth C

    2005-11-01

    Mechanical vibrations of the gradient coil system during readout in echo-planar imaging (EPI) can increase the temperature of the gradient system and alter the magnetic field distribution during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This effect is enhanced by resonant modes of vibrations and results in apparent motion along the phase encoding direction in fMRI studies. The magnetic field drift was quantified during EPI by monitoring the resonance frequency interleaved with the EPI acquisition, and a novel method is proposed to correct the apparent motion. The knowledge on the frequency drift over time was used to correct the phase of the k-space EPI dataset. Since the resonance frequency changes very slowly over time, two measurements of the resonance frequency, immediately before and after the EPI acquisition, are sufficient to remove the field drift effects from fMRI time series. The frequency drift correction method was tested "in vivo" and compared to the standard image realignment method. The proposed method efficiently corrects spurious motion due to magnetic field drifts during fMRI. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Is Asteroid 951 Gaspra in a Resonant State with Its Spin Increasing Due to YORP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David Parry; Rowlands, David D.; Ray, Richard D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Asteroid 951 Gaspra appears to be in an obliquity resonance with its spin increasing due to the YORP effect. Gaspra, an asteroid 5.8 km in radius, is a prograde rotator with a rotation period of 7.03 hours. A three million year integration indicates its orbit is stable over at least this time span. From its known shape and spin axis orientation and assuming a uniform density, Gaspra's axial precession period turns out to be nearly commensurate with its orbital precession period, which leads to a resonance condition with consequent huge variations in its obliquity. At the same time its shape is such that the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect (YORP effect for short) is increasing its spin rate. The YORP cycle normally leads from spin-up to spin-down and then repeating the cycle; however, it appears possible that resonance trapping can at least temporarily interrupt the YORP cycle, causing spin-up until the resonance is exited. This behavior may partially explain why there is an excess of fast rotators among small asteroids. YORP may also be a reason for small asteroids entering resonances in the first place.

  20. Study of Intrinsic Dissipation Due to Thermoelastic Coupling in Gyroscope Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changlong; Gao, Shiqiao; Niu, Shaohua; Liu, Haipeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analytical models, as well as numerical and experimental verification of intrinsic dissipation due to thermoelastic loss in tuning-fork resonator. The thermoelastic analytical governing equations are created for resonator vibrating at drive-mode and sense-mode, and thermoelastic vibration field quantities are deduced. Moreover, the theoretical values are verified that coincided well with finite element analysis (FEM) simulation results. Also, the comparison of vibration field quantities is made to investigate the effect of different conditions on resonator thermoelastic vibration behavior. The significant parameters of thermoelastic damping and quality factor are subsequently deduced to analyze the energy dissipation situation in the vibration process. Meanwhile, the corresponding conclusions from other studies are used to verify our theoretical model and numerical results. By comparing with the experimental quality factor, the numerical values are validated. The combination of the theoretical expressions, numerical results and experimental data leads to an important insight into the achievable quality factor value of tuning-fork resonator, namely, that the thermoelastic damping is the main loss mechanism in the micro-comb finger structure and the quality factor varies under different vibration modes. The results demonstrate that the critical geometry dimensions of tuning-fork resonator can be well designed with the assistance of this study.

  1. Extra loss due to Fano resonances in inhibited coupling fibers based on a lattice of tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetti, L; Setti, V

    2012-06-18

    Confinement loss of inhibited coupling fibers with a cladding composed of a lattice of tubes of various shapes is theoretically and numerically investigated. Both solid core and hollow core are taken into account. It is shown that in case of polygonal shaped tubes, confinement loss is affected by extra loss due to Fano resonances between core modes and cladding modes with high spatial dependence. This explains why hollow core Kagome fibers exhibit much higher confinement loss with respect to tube lattice fibers and why hypocycloid core cladding interfaces significantly reduce fiber loss. Moreover it is shown that tube deformations, due for example to fabrication process, affect fiber performances. A relationship between the number of polygon sides and the spectral position of the extra loss is found. This suggests general guide lines for the design and fabrication of fibers free of Fano resonance in the spectral range of interest.

  2. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N., E-mail: neelampg@iastate.edu; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.

  3. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatipoglu, H.G.; Onbasioglu Gurbuz, M.; Sakman, B.; Yuksel, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We present diffusion-weighted imaging findings of a case of rhombencephalitis due to Listeria monocytogenes. It is a rare, life-threatening disorder. The diagnosis is difficult by clinical findings only. In this report, we aim to draw attention to the role of conventional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature with apparent diffusion coefficient values of diseased brain parenchyma.

  4. Bioassays Based on Molecular Nanomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Majumdar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments have shown that when specific biomolecular interactions are confined to one surface of a microcantilever beam, changes in intermolecular nanomechanical forces provide sufficient differential torque to bend the cantilever beam. This has been used to detect single base pair mismatches during DNA hybridization, as well as prostate specific antigen (PSA at concentrations and conditions that are clinically relevant for prostate cancer diagnosis. Since cantilever motion originates from free energy change induced by specific biomolecular binding, this technique is now offering a common platform for label-free quantitative analysis of protein-protein binding, DNA hybridization DNA-protein interactions, and in general receptor-ligand interactions. Current work is focused on developing “universal microarrays” of microcantilever beams for high-throughput multiplexed bioassays.

  5. Spatial Damping of Propagating Kink Waves Due to Resonant Absorption: Effect of Background Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, Roberto; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Observations show the ubiquitous presence of propagating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in the solar atmosphere. Waves and flows are often observed simultaneously. Due to plasma inhomogeneity in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field, kink waves are spatially damped by resonant absorption. The presence of flow may affect the wave spatial damping. Here, we investigate the effect of longitudinal background flow on the propagation and spatial damping of resonant kink waves in transversely nonuniform magnetic flux tubes. We combine approximate analytical theory with numerical investigation. The analytical theory uses the thin tube (TT) and thin boundary (TB) approximations to obtain expressions for the wavelength and the damping length. Numerically, we verify the previously obtained analytical expressions by means of the full solution of the resistive MHD eigenvalue problem beyond the TT and TB approximations. We find that the backward and forward propagating waves have different wavelengths and ...

  6. Vibration of a carbyne nanomechanical mass sensor with surface effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwa, M. A.; Eltaher, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive model to investigate the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface tension on the natural frequency of flexural vibrations of nanomechanical mass sensor using a carbyne resonator. Carbyne is modeled as an equivalent continuum circular cross-section Timoshenko nanobeam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects. Surface stress and surface elasticity are presented via the Young-Laplace equation. The analytical solution is presented and verified with molecular dynamics solution. The results show that the carbyne resonator can measure a very small mass with weight below 10-3 zg. The effects of surface elasticity, residual surface tension, carbyne length, and mass position on the fundamental frequencies are illustrated. This study is helpful for characterizing the mechanical behavior of high-precision measurement devices such as chemical and biological sensor.

  7. Contact nanomechanical measurements with the AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisse, Nicholas

    2013-03-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has found broad use in the biological sciences largely due to its ability to make measurements on unfixed and unstained samples under liquid. In addition to imaging at multiple spatial scales ranging from micro- to nanometer, AFMs are commonly used as nanomechanical probes. This is pertinent for cell biology, as it has been demonstrated that the geometrical and mechanical properties of the extracellular microenvironment are important in such processes as cancer, cardiovascular disease, muscular dystrophy, and even the control of cell life and death. Indeed, the ability to control and quantify these external geometrical and mechanical parameters arises as a key issue in the field. Because AFM can quantitatively measure the mechanical properties of various biological samples, novel insights to cell function and to cell-substrate interactions are now possible. As the application of AFM to these types of problems is widened, it is important to understand the performance envelope of the technique and its associated data analyses. This talk will discuss the important issues that must be considered when mechanical models are applied to real-world data. Examples of the effect of different model assumptions on our understanding of the measured material properties will be shown. Furthermore, specific examples of the importance of mechanical stimuli and the micromechanical environment to the structure and function of biological materials will be presented.

  8. Direct spatial resonance in the laminar boundary layer due to a rotating-disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Turkyilmazoglu; J S B Gajjar

    2000-12-01

    Numerical treatment of the linear stability equations is undertaken to investigate the occurrence of direct spatial resonance events in the boundary layer flow due to a rotating-disk. A spectral solution of the eigenvalue problem indicates that algebraic growth of the perturbations shows up, prior to the amplification of exponentially growing instability waves. This phenomenon takes place while the flow is still in the laminar state and it also tends to persist further even if the non-parallelism is taken into account. As a result, there exists the high possibility of this instability mechanism giving rise to nonlinearity and transition, long before the unboundedly growing time-amplified waves.

  9. Numerical simulation study on spin resonant depolarization due to spin-orbit coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Jie-Qin; Xu Hong-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The spin polarization phenomenon in lepton circular accelerators had been known for many years.It provides a new approach for physicists to study the spin feature of fundamental particles and the dynamics of spin-orbit coupling,such as spin resonances.We use numerical simulation to study the features of spin under the modulation of orbital motion in an electron storage ring.The various cases of depolarization due to spin-orbit coupling through an emitting photon and misalignment of magnets in the ring are discussed.

  10. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from...... dispersion and efficiently collected on nanomechanical string resonators through a non-diffusion limited sampling method. Even very small amounts of sample can convert absorbed IR light into a measurable frequency detuning of the string through photothermal heating. An IR absorption spectrum is thus readily...... obtained by recording this detuning of the resonator over a range of IR wavelengths. Results recorded using NAM-IR agree well with corresponding results obtained through ATR-FTIR, and remarkably, measurement including sample preparation takes only a few minutes, compared to ∼2 days sample preparation...

  11. Reservoir engineering of a mechanical resonator: generating a macroscopic superposition state and monitoring its decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Vitali, David

    2014-02-01

    A deterministic scheme for generating a macroscopic superposition state of a nanomechanical resonator is proposed. The nonclassical state is generated through a suitably engineered dissipative dynamics exploiting the optomechanical quadratic interaction with a bichromatically driven optical cavity mode. The resulting driven dissipative dynamics can be employed for monitoring and testing the decoherence processes affecting the nanomechanical resonator under controlled conditions.

  12. Magnetic-field-mediated coupling and control in hybrid atomic-nanomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretiakov, A

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically coupled hybrid quantum systems enable robust quantum state control through Landau-Zener transitions. Here, we show that an ultracold atomic sample coupled to a nanomechanical resonator via oscillating magnetic fields can be used to cool the resonator's mechanical motion, to measure the mechanical temperature, and to enable entanglement of these mesoscopic objects. We calculate the expected coupling for both permanent-magnet and current-conducting nanostring resonators and describe how this hybridization is attainable using recently developed fabrication techniques, including SiN nanostrings and atom chips.

  13. Ionospheric Alfvén resonator excitation due to nearby thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkov, V. V.; Hayakawa, M.; Schekotov, A. Y.; Fedorov, E. N.; Molchanov, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    A theory of midlatitude Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR) excitation due to random cloud-to-ground lightning discharges is developed. Electromagnetic wave radiated from the lightning discharges penetrates into the ionosphere, thereby exciting the shear Alfvén and magnetosonic waves in the F region of ionosphere. The IAR arises due to wave reflection from the Alfvén velocity gradients in the topside ionosphere. Typically, the ionospheric resonance cavity accumulates the shear Alfvén wave energy with periods from 1 s to a few tenths of seconds. To proceed analytically, a suitably idealized plane-stratified model of the medium was used that ignores the magnetic field line curvature and dip angle but includes plasma conductivity variations with altitude. The thunderstorm centers distributed around a ground-recording station is assumed to be statistically independent sources of the lightning activity, which is a stochastic Poisson process. The lightning onset time and the current moment is supposed to be a random value, while the shape and duration of return strokes are deterministic. Model calculations of the IAR spectrum due to nearby thunderstorm activity were applied to interpret ULF observation made at Karimshino station (52.94°N, 158.25°E) in Kamchatka peninsula. It is shown that the sharp impulses which are in one-to-one correspondence with the appearance of the spectral resonance structure (SRS) in dynamic spectrograms can be the result from nearby lightning discharges followed by impulse IAR excitation. The correlation functions and power spectra of the IAR due to random lightning discharge process is studied both analytically and numerically. We found that the nearby thunderstorms in the range of 1000-2000 km make a main contribution to the SRS signature of the midlatitude IAR, whereas the remote/tropic thunderstorm activity is of minor importance. It is not inconceivable that there may exist other permanent mechanisms of the midlatitude IAR excitation

  14. Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below the standard quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    Observing quantum behavior of mechanical motion is challenging because it is difficult both to prepare pure quantum states of motion and to detect those states with high enough precision. We present displacement measurements of a nanomechanical oscillator with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit [1]. To achieve this, we couple the motion of the oscillator to the microwave field in a high-Q superconducting resonant circuit. The oscillator's displacement imprints a phase modulation on the microwave signal. We attain the low imprecision by reading out the modulation with a Josephson Parametric Amplifier, realizing a microwave interferometer that operates near the shot-noise limit. The apparent motion of the mechanical oscillator due the interferometer's noise is now substantially less than its zero-point motion, making future detection of quantum states feasible. In addition, the phase sensitivity of the demonstrated interferometer is 30 times higher than previous microwave interferometers, providing a critical piece of technology for many experiments investigating quantum information encoded in microwave fields. [4pt] [1] J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, K. W. Lehnert, Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.343, (2009).

  15. Classical Stückelberg interferometry of a nanomechanical two-mode system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitner, Maximilian J.; Ribeiro, Hugo; Kölbl, Johannes; Faust, Thomas; Kotthaus, Jörg P.; Weig, Eva M.

    2016-12-01

    Stückelberg interferometry is a phenomenon that has been well established for quantum-mechanical two-level systems. Here, we present classical two-mode interference of a nanomechanical two-mode system, realizing a classical analog of Stückelberg interferometry. Our experiment relies on the coherent energy exchange between two strongly coupled, high-quality factor nanomechanical resonator modes. Furthermore, we discuss an exact theoretical solution for the double-passage Stückelberg problem by expanding the established finite-time Landau-Zener single-passage solution. For the parameter regime explored in the experiment, we find that the Stückelberg return probability in the classical version of the problem formally coincides with the quantum case, which reveals the analogy of the return probabilities in the quantum-mechanical and the classical version of the problem. This result qualifies classical two-mode systems at large to simulate quantum-mechanical interferometry.

  16. Nanomechanics and Multiscale Modeling of Sustainable Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani Zadeh, Vahid

    characterization of ITZ with direct mechanical tests confirms that the zone is highly heterogeneous. The heterogeneity seemed to be due to admixture effect, amount of available water, shape, size and type of the aggregate or internal curing agent. The nanoscale mechanical behavior of C-S-H phases in cement paste formed by ordinary portland cement, cements blended with fly ash and blast furnace slag, and cement with kenaf and lightweight aggregate are virtually identical. Nevertheless, the volume fractions of the hydration products were different. Mechanical properties of hydration products for damaged concretes were decreased. Lightweight aggregate can alleviate the thermal degradation in the hydration products, although more degradation was identified in lightweight aggregates' ITZ than in bulk paste. Nanomechanical results were linked to the bulk mechanical properties at the macrosale. A multiscale level model was defined based on morphology and length scale of the structural elements in each material. The ultimate goal of this research is to control the bulk mechanical properties of sustainable cementitious materials from their micromechanical properties so that the concrete composition could be optimized. This will help to produce more geo-friendly concrete, which is the second most used material on earth.

  17. Real-Time Particle Mass Spectrometry Based on Resonant Micro Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Boisen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nanomechanical resonators are widely being used as mass sensors due to their unprecedented mass sensitivity. We present a simple closed-form expression which allows a fast and quantitative calculation of the position and mass of individual particles placed on a micro or nano string by measuring the resonant frequency shifts ofthe first two bending modes. The method has been tested by detecting the mass spectrum of micro particles placed on a micro string. This method enables real-time mass spectrometry necessary for applications such as personal monitoring devices for the assessment of theexposure dose of airborne nanoparticles.

  18. Frequency Shifts of Micro and Nano Cantilever Beam Resonators Due to Added Masses

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-21

    We present analytical and numerical techniques to accurately calculate the shifts in the natural frequencies of electrically actuated micro and nano (carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) cantilever beams implemented as resonant sensors for mass detection of biological entities, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) cells. The beams are modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beams, including the nonlinear electrostatic forces and the added biological cells, which are modeled as discrete point masses. The frequency shifts due to the added masses of the cells are calculated for the fundamental and higher-order modes of vibrations. Analytical expressions of the natural frequency shifts under a direct current (DC) voltage and an added mass have been developed using perturbation techniques and the Galerkin approximation. Numerical techniques are also used to calculate the frequency shifts and compared with the analytical technique. We found that a hybrid approach that relies on the analytical perturbation expression and the Galerkin procedure for calculating accurately the static behavior presents the most computationally efficient approach. We found that using higher-order modes of vibration of micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) beams or miniaturizing the sizes of the beams to nanoscale leads to significant improved frequency shifts, and thus increased sensitivities. © 2016 by ASME.

  19. Efficacy of magnetic resonance coronary angiography for evaluating coronary arterial lesions due to Kawasaki disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, Rikako; Suzuki, Atsuko; Sato, Katsuhiko; Ono, Masae; Hosina, Kiyoshi; Furuyama, Tamio; Takemura, Atsusi; Korenaga, Tateo [Tokyo Teishin Hospital (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    To reduce the number of invasive X-ray coronary angiography (XCA) in patients with coronary arterial lesions (CAL) due to Kawasaki disease, we evaluated the efficacy of noninvasive magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA). We preformed MRCA on 30 patients with Kawasaki disease (age 4 months to 37 years; medium 9 years) by SIEMENS MAGNETOM Symphony 1.5 T. MRCA with free respiration using navigator echo 3D fast low angle shot (3D-FLASH) was performed on 10 young children. Evaluation of MRCA was based on the findings of 2D echo cardiogram (30 patients) and XCA (14 patients). All 17 aneurysms (100%) were detected by MRCA; four out of five dilatations were detected by MRCA (80%), but a slight dilatation was not detected (i.e., appeared to be a normal coronary artery). We observed seven stenoses (100%) that were detected on XCA and one new stenosis on MRCA; both of two aortocoronary bypass graphs (one in each of two patients; 100%) were observed to be patent. These results demonstrated that MRCA was highly beneficial, first for detecting CAL after the acute phase even in young infants, second for reducing the number of XCA examination times for following up CAL, and third for screening of CAL in adults with a history of Kawasaki disease. (author)

  20. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Michael John

    inventory of luminescent defect centers (many with direct optical access to highly coherent electron and nuclear spins). Diamond has many potential applications ranging from radio frequency nanoelectromechanical systems (RF-NEMS), to all-optical signal processing and quantum optics. Despite the commercial availability of wafer-scale nanocrystalline diamond thin films on foreign substrates (namely SiO2), this diamond-on-insulator (DOI) platform typically exhibits inferior material properties due to friction, scattering, and absorption losses at grain boundaries, significant surface roughness, and large interfacial stresses. In the absence of suitable heteroepitaxial diamond growth, substantial research and development efforts have focused on novel processing techniques to yield nanoscale single-crystal diamond mechanical and optical elements. In this thesis, we demonstrate a scalable 'angled-etching' nanofabrication method for realizing nanomechanical systems and nanophotonic networks starting from bulk single-crystal diamond substrates. Angled-etching employs anisotropic oxygen-based plasma etching at an oblique angle to the substrate surface, resulting in suspended optical structures with triangular cross-sections. Using this approach, we first realize single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonant structures. These nanoscale diamond resonators exhibit high mechanical quality-factors (approaching Q ~ 105) with mechanical resonances up to 10 MHz. Next, we demonstrate engineered nanophotonic structures, specifically racetrack resonators and photonic crystal cavities, in bulk single-crystal diamond. Our devices feature large optical Q-factors, in excess of 10 5, and operate over a wide wavelength range, spanning visible and telecom. These newly developed high-Q diamond optical nanocavities open the door for a wealth of applications, ranging from nonlinear optics and chemical sensing, to quantum information processing and cavity optomechanics. Beyond isolated nanophotonic

  1. Nanomechanical molecular devices made of DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Ohya, Yuichi

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Eight years have passed since the striking debut of the DNA origami technique ( Rothemund, P. W. K. Nature 2006 , 440 , 297 - 302 ), in which long single-stranded DNA is folded into a designed nanostructure, in either 2D or 3D, with the aid of many short staple strands. The number of proposals for new design principles for DNA origami structures seems to have already reached a peak. It is apparent that DNA origami study is now entering the second phase of creating practical applications. The development of functional nanomechanical molecular devices using the DNA origami technique is one such application attracting significant interest from researchers in the field. Nanomechanical DNA origami devices, which maintain the characteristics of DNA origami structures, have various advantages over conventional DNA nanomachines. Comparatively high assembly yield, relatively large size visible via atomic force microscopy (AFM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the capability to assemble multiple functional groups with precision using multiple staple strands are some of the advantages of the DNA origami technique for constructing sophisticated molecular devices. This Account describes the recent developments of such nanomechanical DNA origami devices and reviews the emerging target of DNA origami studies. First, simple "dynamic" DNA origami structures with transformation capability, such as DNA origami boxes and a DNA origami hatch with structure control, are briefly summarized. More elaborate nanomechanical DNA origami devices are then reviewed. The first example describes DNA origami pinching devices that can be used as "single-molecule" beacons to detect a variety of biorelated molecules, from metal ions at the size of a few tens of atomic mass number units to relatively gigantic proteins with a molecular mass greater than a hundred kilodaltons, all on a single platform. Clamshell-like DNA nanorobots equipped with logic gates can discriminate

  2. Nanomechanical analysis of high performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers who are interested in investigating the nanomechanical properties of materials using advanced instrumentation techniques. The chapters of the book are written in an easy-to-follow format, just like solved examples. The book comprehensively covers a broad range of materials such as polymers, ceramics, hybrids, biomaterials, metal oxides, nanoparticles, minerals, carbon nanotubes and welded joints. Each chapter describes the application of techniques on the selected material and also mentions the methodology adopted for the extraction of information from the raw data. This is a unique book in which both equipment manufacturers and equipment users have contributed chapters. Novices will learn the techniques directly from the inventors and senior researchers will gain in-depth information on the new technologies that are suitable for advanced analysis. On the one hand, fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the nanomechanical behavior of materials is included in t...

  3. Tailoring protein nanomechanics with chemical reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Amy E M; Mora, Marc; Lynham, Steven; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2017-06-06

    The nanomechanical properties of elastomeric proteins determine the elasticity of a variety of tissues. A widespread natural tactic to regulate protein extensibility lies in the presence of covalent disulfide bonds, which significantly enhance protein stiffness. The prevalent in vivo strategy to form disulfide bonds requires the presence of dedicated enzymes. Here we propose an alternative chemical route to promote non-enzymatic oxidative protein folding via disulfide isomerization based on naturally occurring small molecules. Using single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy, supported by DFT calculations and mass spectrometry measurements, we demonstrate that subtle changes in the chemical structure of a transient mixed-disulfide intermediate adduct between a protein cysteine and an attacking low molecular-weight thiol have a dramatic effect on the protein's mechanical stability. This approach provides a general tool to rationalize the dynamics of S-thiolation and its role in modulating protein nanomechanics, offering molecular insights on how chemical reactivity regulates protein elasticity.

  4. Nanomechanical recognition of N-methylammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Marco; Oliviero, Giulio; Menozzi, Daniela; Federici, Stefania; Yebeutchou, Roger M; Schmidtchen, Franz P; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bergese, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    Turning molecular recognition into an effective mechanical response is critical for many applications ranging from molecular motors and responsive materials to sensors. Herein, we demonstrate how the energy of the molecular recognition between a supramolecular host and small alkylammonium salts can be harnessed to perform a nanomechanical task in a univocal way. Nanomechanical Si microcantilevers (MCs) functionalized by a film of tetra-phosphonate cavitands were employed to screen as guests the compounds of the butylammonium chloride series 1-4, which comprises a range of low molecular weight (LMW) molecules (molecular mass 3 ≈ 1 ≫ 4. This trend is consistent with the number of interactions established by each guest with the host. The complementary ITC experiments showed that the host-guest complexation affinity in solution is transferred to the MC bending. These findings were benchmarked by implementing cavitand-functionalized MCs to discriminate sarcosine from glycine in water. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Tailoring protein nanomechanics with chemical reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Amy E. M.; Mora, Marc; Lynham, Steven; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi

    2017-06-01

    The nanomechanical properties of elastomeric proteins determine the elasticity of a variety of tissues. A widespread natural tactic to regulate protein extensibility lies in the presence of covalent disulfide bonds, which significantly enhance protein stiffness. The prevalent in vivo strategy to form disulfide bonds requires the presence of dedicated enzymes. Here we propose an alternative chemical route to promote non-enzymatic oxidative protein folding via disulfide isomerization based on naturally occurring small molecules. Using single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy, supported by DFT calculations and mass spectrometry measurements, we demonstrate that subtle changes in the chemical structure of a transient mixed-disulfide intermediate adduct between a protein cysteine and an attacking low molecular-weight thiol have a dramatic effect on the protein's mechanical stability. This approach provides a general tool to rationalize the dynamics of S-thiolation and its role in modulating protein nanomechanics, offering molecular insights on how chemical reactivity regulates protein elasticity.

  6. Chladni Figures Revisited Based on Nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrestijn, M.; Bietsch, A.; Açıkalın, T.; Raman, A.; Hegner, M.; Meyer, E.; Gerber, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Chladni patterns based on nanomechanics in the microfluidic environment are presented. In contrast with the macroscopic observations in the gaseous environment, nanoparticles are found to move to the nodes, whereas micron-sized particles move to the antinodes of the vibrating interface. This opens the door to size-based sorting of particles in microfluidic systems, and to highly parallel and controlled assembly of biosensors and nanoelectronic circuits.

  7. Chladni Figures Revisited Based on Nanomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrestijn, M.; Bietsch, A.; Acikalin, T.; Raman, Arvind; Hegner, M.; Meyer, E.; Gerber, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Chladni patterns based on nanomechanics in the microfluidic environment are presented. In contrast with the macroscopic observations in the gaseous environment, nanoparticles are found to move to the nodes, whereas micron-sized particles move to the antinodes of the vibrating interface. This opens the door to size-based sorting of particles in microfluidic systems, and to highly parallel and controlled assembly of biosensors and nanoelectronic circuits.

  8. Chladni Figures Revisited based on Nanomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Hegner, Martin

    2007-01-01

    PUBLISHED Chladni patterns based on nanomechanics in the microfluidic environment are presented. In contrast with the macroscopic observations in the gaseous environment, nanoparticles are found to move to the nodes, whereas micron-sized particles move to the antinodes of the vibrating interface. This opens the door to size-based sorting of particles in microfluidic systems, and to highly parallel and controlled assembly of biosensors and nanoelectronic circuits. We gratefully thank U. ...

  9. Uncertainty of Doppler reactivity worth due to uncertainties of JENDL-3.2 resonance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukeran, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan). Power and Industrial System R and D Div.; Hanaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tuneo; Shibata, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    Analytical formula of Resonance Self-shielding Factor (f-factor) is derived from the resonance integral (J-function) based on NR approximation and the analytical expression for Doppler reactivity worth ({rho}) is also obtained by using the result. Uncertainties of the f-factor and Doppler reactivity worth are evaluated on the basis of sensitivity coefficients to the resonance parameters. The uncertainty of the Doppler reactivity worth at 487{sup 0}K is about 4 % for the PNC Large Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  10. Nonuniform three-phase power lines: resonance effects due to conductor transposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao Faria, J.A.; Guerreiro das Neves, M.V. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Centro de Electrotecnia Teorica e Medidas Electricas

    2004-02-01

    This paper is concerned with nonuniform power line modelling. It deals with the resonance effects produced by conductor transposition in long overhead three-phase lines. A frequency- domain analysis is conducted showing that the modal propagation parameters characterising the transmission line structure exhibit a repetitive resonant behaviour for frequencies such that the overall transposition cycle length gets close to an integer multiple of one half wavelength. Consideration of these resonance phenomena is of major importance and should be taken into account in a variety of situations, for example, in power line carrier communications and line transient studies. (author)

  11. Modelling resonant field amplification due to low-n peeling modes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yueqiang; Saarelma, S; Gryaznevich, M P; Hender, T C; Howell, D F, E-mail: yueqiang.liu@ukaea.org.u [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    The MHD code MARS-F is used to model low-n, low-frequency, large-amplitude resonant field amplification peaks observed in JET low-pressure plasmas. The resonant response of a marginally stable, n = 1 ideal peeling mode is offered as a candidate to explain the experimental observation. It is found that, unlike the response of a stable resistive wall mode, the peeling mode response is not sensitive to the plasma rotation, nor to the kinetic effects.

  12. Features of electromagnetic waves in a complex plasma due to surface plasmon resonances on macroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, S V

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric properties of complex plasma containing either metal or dielectric spherical inclusions (macroparticles, dust) are investigated. We focus on surface plasmon resonances on the macroparticle surfaces and their effect on electromagnetic wave propagation. It is demonstrated that the presence of surface plasmon oscillations significantly modifies plasma electromagnetic properties by resonances and cutoffs in the effective permittivity. This leads to related branches of electromagnetic waves and to the wave band gaps. The results are discussed in the context of dusty plasma experiments.

  13. Comparative analysis of nanomechanics of protein filaments under lateral loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J.

    2012-02-01

    Using a combination of explicit solvent atomistic simulation and continuum theory, here we study the lateral deformation mechanics of three distinct protein structures: an amyloid fibril, a beta helix, and an alpha helix. We find that the two β-sheet rich structures - amyloid fibril and beta helix, with persistence lengths on the order of μm - are well described by continuum mechanical theory, but differ in the degree to which shear deformation affects the overall bending behavior. The alpha helical protein structure, however, with a persistence length on the order of one nanometer, does not conform to the continuum theory and its deformation is dominated by entropic elasticity due to significant fluctuations. This study provides fundamental insight into the nanomechanics of widely found protein motifs and insight into molecular-scale deformation mechanisms, as well as quantitative estimates of Young's modulus and shear modulus in agreement with experimental results.

  14. Inverse Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg interferometry for the measurement of a resonator's state using a qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Sergey; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We consider theoretically a superconducting qubit - nanomechanical resonator system, which was realized recently by LaHaye et al. [Nature 459, 960 (2009)]. We formulate and solve the inverse Landau-Zener-Stuckelberg problem, where we assume the driven qubit's state to be known (i.e. measured by some other device) and aim to find the parameters of the qubit's Hamiltonian. In particular, for our system the qubit's bias is defined by the nanomechanical resonator's displacement. This may provide a tool for monitoring the nanomechanical resonator 's position. [S. N. Shevchenko, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 85, 094502 (2012).

  15. Switching Overvoltages in 60 kV reactor compensated cable grid due to resonance after disconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Baldursson, Haukur; Oumarou, Abdoul M.

    2008-01-01

    Some electrical distribution companies are nowadays replacing overhead lines with underground cables. These changes from overhead to underground cable provoke an increased reactive power production in the grid. To save circuit breakers the reactors needed for compensating this excessive reactive...... power could be directly connected to long cables. Switching both cable and reactor together will cause resonance to occur between the cable capacitance and the inductance of the cable during last end disconnection. Similar type of resonance condition is known to have caused switching overvoltages...... on the 400kV grid in Denmark. Therefore it is considered necessary to analyze further whether connecting a reactor directly to 60kV cable can cause switching overvoltages. A model in PSCAD was used to analyze which parameters can cause overvoltage. The switching resonance overvoltage was found to be caused...

  16. Terahertz resonances due to edge magnetoplasmons in a wide armchair graphene ribbon with a weak superlattice potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Balev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A strong modulation of the resonance frequencies and the gaps of edge magnetoplamons (EMPs, in the ribbon at the ν = 2 quantum Hall effect regime with a superlattice and a smooth steplike electrostatic lateral potential, due to a modulation of the interedge distance is shown. We obtain that, in a wide range of the interedge distances, within THz region the EMPs show wide frequency gaps and at peculiar frequencies the response of the system should manifest resonances. For the latter frequencies the group velocities are nullified.

  17. Quasilinear transport due to the magnetic drift resonance with the ion temperature gradient instability in a rotating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Debing; Xu, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaojie

    2017-08-01

    The quasilinear transport fluxes due to the ion temperature gradient instability are calculated in a toroidal plasma, in which the magnetic drift resonance is treated rigorously. The effects of the equilibrium parallel flow and flow shear on the radial particle and heat fluxes are studied numerically in detail. In the radial component of parallel viscosity, there exist the pinches driven by the density gradient, the temperature gradient, and the curvature of the background magnetic field. The direction of these pinches is discussed. It is found that each pinch can be inward or outward, which depends crucially on the resonance condition.

  18. Nanomechanics of cellulose crystals and cellulose-based polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Anahita

    Cellulose-polymer composites have potential applications in aerospace and transportation areas where lightweight materials with high mechanical properties are needed. In addition, these economical and biodegradable composites have been shown to be useful as polymer electrolytes, packaging structures, optoelectronic devices, and medical implants such as wound dressing and bone scaffolds. In spite of the above mentioned advantages and potential applications, due to the difficulties associated with synthesis and processing techniques, application of cellulose crystals (micro and nano sized) for preparation of new composite systems is limited. Cellulose is hydrophilic and polar as opposed to most of common thermoplastics, which are non-polar. This results in complications in addition of cellulose crystals to polymer matrices, and as a result in achieving sufficient dispersion levels, which directly affects the mechanical properties of the composites. As in other composite materials, the properties of cellulose-polymer composites depend on the volume fraction and the properties of individual phases (the reinforcement and the polymer matrix), the dispersion quality of the reinforcement through the matrix and the interaction between CNCs themselves and CNC and the matrix (interphase). In order to develop economical cellulose-polymer composites with superior qualities, the properties of individual cellulose crystals, as well as the effect of dispersion of reinforcements and the interphase on the properties of the final composites should be understood. In this research, the mechanical properties of CNC polymer composites were characterized at the macro and nano scales. A direct correlation was made between: - Dispersion quality and macro-mechanical properties - Nanomechanical properties at the surface and tensile properties - CNC diameter and interphase thickness. Lastly, individual CNCs from different sources were characterized and for the first time size-scale effect on

  19. Resonance broadening due to particle scattering and mode-coupling in the quasi-linear relaxation of electron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bian, Nicolas H; Ratcliffe, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Of particular interest for radio and hard X-ray diagnostics of accelerated electrons during solar flares is the understanding of the basic non-linear mechanisms regulating the relaxation of electron beams propagating in turbulent plasmas. In this work, it is shown that in addition to scattering of beam electrons, scattering of the beam-generated Langmuir waves via for instance mode-coupling, can also result in broadening of the wave-particle resonance. We obtain a resonance-broadened version of weak-turbulence theory with mode-coupling to ion-sound modes. Resonance broadening is presented here as a unified framework which can quantitatively account for the reduction and possible suppression of the beam instability due to background scattering of the beam electrons themselves or due to scattering of the beam-generated Langmuir waves in fluctuating plasmas. Resonance broadening being essentially equivalent to smoothing of the electron phase-space distribution, it is used to construct an intuitive physical pictu...

  20. Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar, E-mail: dibakar.roychowdhury@anu.edu.au [Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); College of Engineering, Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, 500043 (India); Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States); Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-07-14

    Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials.

  1. Frequency shifts of resonant modes of the Sun due to near-surface convective scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Jishnu; Antia, H M

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the "surface term." The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun....

  2. Second-Order Nonlinearity in Triangular Lattice Perforated Gold Film due to Surface Plasmas Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renlong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the excitation second-order nonlinearity through a triangular lattice perforated gold film instead of square lattice in many papers. Under the excitation of surface plasmas resonance effect, the second order nonlinearity exists in the noncentrosymmetric split-ring resonators arrays. Reflection of fundamental frequency wave through a triangular lattice perforated gold film is obtained. We also described the second harmonic conversion efficiencies in the second order nonlinear optical process with the spectra. Moreover, the electric field distributions of fundamental frequency above the gold film region are calculated. The light propagation through the holes results in the enhancement of the second order nonlinearity including second harmonic generation as well as the sum (difference frequency generation.

  3. Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Harald; Bär, Harald; Kreplak, Laurent; Strelkov, Sergei V; Aebi, Ueli

    2007-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a major structural element of animal cells. They build two distinct systems, one in the nucleus and one in the cytoplasm. In both cases, their major function is assumed to be that of a mechanical stress absorber and an integrating device for the entire cytoskeleton. In line with this, recent disease mutations in human IF proteins indicate that the nanomechanical properties of cell-type-specific IFs are central to the pathogenesis of diseases as diverse as muscular dystrophy and premature ageing. However, the analysis of these various diseases suggests that IFs also have an important role in cell-type-specific physiological functions.

  4. All-Optical Nanomechanical Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Andreas; Kiesel, Nikolai; Lutz, Eric

    2015-05-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a nanomechanical heat engine. We show how a levitated nanoparticle in an optical trap inside a cavity can be used to realize a Stirling cycle in the underdamped regime. The all-optical approach enables fast and flexible control of all thermodynamical parameters and the efficient optimization of the performance of the engine. We develop a systematic optimization procedure to determine optimal driving protocols. Further, we perform numerical simulations with realistic parameters and evaluate the maximum power and the corresponding efficiency.

  5. FREQUENCY SHIFTS OF RESONANT MODES OF THE SUN DUE TO NEAR-SURFACE CONVECTIVE SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S.; Antia, H. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India)

    2015-06-20

    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term.” The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary three-dimensional (3D) flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt–Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.

  6. Harmonic Resonance in Power Transmission Systems due to the Addition of Shunt Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hardik U.

    Shunt capacitors are often added in transmission networks at suitable locations to improve the voltage profile. In this thesis, the transmission system in Arizona is considered as a test bed. Many shunt capacitors already exist in the Arizona transmission system and more are planned to be added. Addition of these shunt capacitors may create resonance conditions in response to harmonic voltages and currents. Such resonance, if it occurs, may create problematic issues in the system. It is main objective of this thesis to identify potential problematic effects that could occur after placing new shunt capacitors at selected buses in the Arizona network. Part of the objective is to create a systematic plan for avoidance of resonance issues. For this study, a method of capacitance scan is proposed. The bus admittance matrix is used as a model of the networked transmission system. The calculations on the admittance matrix were done using Matlab. The test bed is the actual transmission system in Arizona; however, for proprietary reasons, bus names are masked in the thesis copy intended for the public domain. The admittance matrix was obtained from data using the PowerWorld Simulator after equivalencing the 2016 summer peak load (planning case). The full Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system data were used. The equivalencing procedure retains only the Arizona portion of the WECC. The capacitor scan results for single capacitor placement and multiple capacitor placement cases are presented. Problematic cases are identified in the form of 'forbidden response. The harmonic voltage impact of known sources of harmonics, mainly large scale HVDC sources, is also presented. Specific key results for the study indicated include: (1) The forbidden zones obtained as per the IEEE 519 standard indicates the bus 10 to be the most problematic bus. (2) The forbidden zones also indicate that switching values for the switched shunt capacitor (if used) at bus 3 should be

  7. Coronary artery stent mimicking intracardiac thrombus on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging due to signal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Vejlstrup, Niels Grove; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov;

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease, thousands of patients have been treated with the implantation of coronary stents. Moreover, several of the patients with coronary stent undergo cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging every year. This case...... report is of a 77-year-old man who was previously treated with the implantation of a coronary stent in the left circumflex artery. He underwent CMR imaging, which revealed a process 14×21 mm in the left atrium. Cardiac contrast computed tomography did not demonstrate any cardiac pathology. While...

  8. Asynchronous partial contact motion due to internal resonance in multiple degree-of-freedom rotordynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. D.; Champneys, A. R.; Friswell, M. I.

    2016-08-01

    Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor-stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits. These results are backed up by a brute-force bifurcation analysis which reveals numerical existence of the corresponding family of bouncing orbits at supercritical drivespeeds, provided the damping is sufficiently low. The numerics reveal many overlapping families of solutions, which leads to significant multi-stability of the response at given drive speeds. Further, secondary bifurcations can also occur within each family, altering the nature of the response and ultimately leading to chaos. It is illustrated how stiffness and damping of the stator have a large effect on the number and nature of the partial contact solutions, illustrating the extreme sensitivity that would be observed in practice.

  9. Nanomechanical DNA origami pH sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Yusei; Tamaki, Takuya; Kaino, Masafumi; Ohya, Yuichi

    2014-10-16

    Single-molecule pH sensors have been developed by utilizing molecular imaging of pH-responsive shape transition of nanomechanical DNA origami devices with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Short DNA fragments that can form i-motifs were introduced to nanomechanical DNA origami devices with pliers-like shape (DNA Origami Pliers), which consist of two levers of 170-nm long and 20-nm wide connected at a Holliday-junction fulcrum. DNA Origami Pliers can be observed as in three distinct forms; cross, antiparallel and parallel forms, and cross form is the dominant species when no additional interaction is introduced to DNA Origami Pliers. Introduction of nine pairs of 12-mer sequence (5'-AACCCCAACCCC-3'), which dimerize into i-motif quadruplexes upon protonation of cytosine, drives transition of DNA Origami Pliers from open cross form into closed parallel form under acidic conditions. Such pH-dependent transition was clearly imaged on mica in molecular resolution by AFM, showing potential application of the system to single-molecular pH sensors.

  10. Nanomechanical DNA Origami pH Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Kuzuya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule pH sensors have been developed by utilizing molecular imaging of pH-responsive shape transition of nanomechanical DNA origami devices with atomic force microscopy (AFM. Short DNA fragments that can form i-motifs were introduced to nanomechanical DNA origami devices with pliers-like shape (DNA Origami Pliers, which consist of two levers of 170-nm long and 20-nm wide connected at a Holliday-junction fulcrum. DNA Origami Pliers can be observed as in three distinct forms; cross, antiparallel and parallel forms, and cross form is the dominant species when no additional interaction is introduced to DNA Origami Pliers. Introduction of nine pairs of 12-mer sequence (5'-AACCCCAACCCC-3', which dimerize into i-motif quadruplexes upon protonation of cytosine, drives transition of DNA Origami Pliers from open cross form into closed parallel form under acidic conditions. Such pH-dependent transition was clearly imaged on mica in molecular resolution by AFM, showing potential application of the system to single-molecular pH sensors.

  11. Nanomechanical DNA Origami pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Yusei; Tamaki, Takuya; Kaino, Masafumi; Ohya, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule pH sensors have been developed by utilizing molecular imaging of pH-responsive shape transition of nanomechanical DNA origami devices with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Short DNA fragments that can form i-motifs were introduced to nanomechanical DNA origami devices with pliers-like shape (DNA Origami Pliers), which consist of two levers of 170-nm long and 20-nm wide connected at a Holliday-junction fulcrum. DNA Origami Pliers can be observed as in three distinct forms; cross, antiparallel and parallel forms, and cross form is the dominant species when no additional interaction is introduced to DNA Origami Pliers. Introduction of nine pairs of 12-mer sequence (5′-AACCCCAACCCC-3′), which dimerize into i-motif quadruplexes upon protonation of cytosine, drives transition of DNA Origami Pliers from open cross form into closed parallel form under acidic conditions. Such pH-dependent transition was clearly imaged on mica in molecular resolution by AFM, showing potential application of the system to single-molecular pH sensors. PMID:25325338

  12. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-01

    . At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip...

  13. Plasma-induced magnetic responses during nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produce magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas. Self-healing (annihilation) of RMP-induced magnetic islands has been observed in helical systems, where a possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by plasma flows, which is well known in tokamaks. Thus, fundamental physics of RMP shielding is commonly investigated in both tokamaks and helical systems. In order to check this mechanism, detailed informations of magnetic island phases are necessary. In experiments, measurement of radial magnetic responses is relatively easy. In this study, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands, behavior of radial magnetic fields during the self-healing is investigated. It is confirmed that flips of radial magnetic fields are typically observed during the self-healing. Such behavior of radial magnetic responses is also observed in LHD experiments.

  14. Hysteresis in the tearing mode locking/unlocking due to resonant magnetic perturbations in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridström, R.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2015-10-01

    The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis in the tearing mode locking and unlocking to a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) are experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. The experiments show that the electromagnetic and the viscous torque increase with increasing perturbation amplitude until the mode locks to the wall. At the wall-locking, the plasma velocity reduction profile is peaked at the radius where the RMP is resonant. Thereafter, the viscous torque drops due to the relaxation of the velocity in the central plasma. This is the main reason for the hysteresis in the RMP locking and unlocking amplitude. The increased amplitude of the locked tearing mode produces further deepening of the hysteresis. Both experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the model in Fitzpatrick et al (2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 4489)

  15. Chirality-mediated bistability and strong frequency downshifting of the gyrotropic resonance of a magnetic vortex due to dynamic destiffening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushruth, Manu; Fried, Jasper P.; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Xavier, Stephane; Deranlot, Cyrile; Cros, Vincent; Metaxas, Peter J.

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate an enhanced, bidirectional, in-plane magnetic field tuning of the gyrotropic resonance frequency of a magnetic vortex within a ferromagnetic disk by introducing a flat edge. When the core is in its vicinity, the flat edge locally reduces the core's directional dynamic stiffness for movement parallel to the edge. This strongly reduces the net dynamic core stiffness, leading to the gyrotropic frequency being significantly less than when the core is centered (or located near the round edge). This leads to the measurable range of gyrotropic frequencies being more than doubled and also results in a clear chirality-mediated bistability of the gyrotropic resonance frequency due to what is effectively a chirality dependence of the core's confining potential.

  16. Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE is an underestimated condition. The purpose of this study is to improve its awareness and early diagnosis. We report five cases of WE secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Classic triad of encephalopathy, ataxia, and ocular signs was seen in four out of five patients. Two unusual features noted in this series were papilledema in one patient and severe sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in one patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was abnormal in all the five patients, and high signal in medial thalamus and surrounding the aqueduct was the most common abnormality (5/5. Involvement of caudate nucleus was seen in two patients with severe psychosis, and two patients had bilateral cerebellar peduncle involvement. Median time delay between onset of neurological symptoms and diagnosis was 7 days. All patients improved with thiamine, but minor sequelae were seen in four patients at 12 months follow-up. One patient had a fetal demise. Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced WE is a common cause of maternal morbidity. Typical MRI findings of symmetric medial thalamic and periaqueductal signal changes may permit a specific diagnosis. A delay in diagnosis, therefore treatment, leads to worse prognosis.

  17. Nonlinear free vibrations of beams in space due to internal resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoykov, S.; Ribeiro, P.

    2011-08-01

    The geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of beams with rectangular cross section are investigated using a p-version finite element method. The beams may vibrate in space, hence they may experience longitudinal, torsional and non-planar bending deformations. The model is based on Timoshenko's theory for bending and assumes that, under torsion, the cross section rotates as a rigid body and is free to warp in the longitudinal direction, as in Saint-Venant's theory. The geometrical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering Green's nonlinear strain tensor. Isotropic and elastic beams are investigated and generalised Hooke's law is used. The equation of motion is derived by the principle of virtual work. Mostly clamped-clamped beams are investigated, although other boundary conditions are considered for validation purposes. Employing the harmonic balance method, the differential equations of motion are converted into a nonlinear algebraic form and then solved by a continuation method. One constant term, odd and even harmonics are assumed in the Fourier series and convergence with the number of harmonics is analysed. The variation of the amplitude of vibration with the frequency of vibration is determined and presented in the form of backbone curves. Coupling between modes is investigated, internal resonances are found and the ensuing multimodal oscillations are described. Some of the couplings discovered lead from planar oscillations to oscillations in the three dimensional space.

  18. Wernicke's encephalopathy due to hyperemesis gravidarum: Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, V V; Prijesh, J; Praveenkumar, R; Saifudheen, K

    2016-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an underestimated condition. The purpose of this study is to improve its awareness and early diagnosis. We report five cases of WE secondary to hyperemesis gravidarum. Classic triad of encephalopathy, ataxia, and ocular signs was seen in four out of five patients. Two unusual features noted in this series were papilledema in one patient and severe sensory-motor peripheral neuropathy in one patient. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was abnormal in all the five patients, and high signal in medial thalamus and surrounding the aqueduct was the most common abnormality (5/5). Involvement of caudate nucleus was seen in two patients with severe psychosis, and two patients had bilateral cerebellar peduncle involvement. Median time delay between onset of neurological symptoms and diagnosis was 7 days. All patients improved with thiamine, but minor sequelae were seen in four patients at 12 months follow-up. One patient had a fetal demise. Hyperemesis gravidarum-induced WE is a common cause of maternal morbidity. Typical MRI findings of symmetric medial thalamic and periaqueductal signal changes may permit a specific diagnosis. A delay in diagnosis, therefore treatment, leads to worse prognosis.

  19. Feshbach Resonance due to Coherent {lambda}-{sigma} Coupling in {sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, San San; Nwe, Tin Tin [Department of Physics, Mandalay University (Myanmar); Myint, Khin Swe [Pro-Rector, Mandalay University (Myanmar)], E-mail: pro-rector@mptmail.net.mm; Akaishi, Y. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Chiba, Japan and RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-04-01

    Coherent {lambda}-{sigma} coupling effect in {sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He is analyzed within three-body framework of two coupled channels, {lambda}-t-t and {sigma}-{tau}-t, where {tau} represents trinulceon which is either {sup 3}H or {sup 3}He. The hyperon-trinucleon (Y{tau}) and trinucleon-trinucleon ({tau}{tau}) interactions are derived by folding G-matrices of YN and NN interactions with trinucleon density distributions. It is found that the binding energy of {sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He is 4.04 MeV below the {lambda}+t+t threshold without {lambda}-{sigma} coupling and the binding energy is increased to 4.46 MeV when the coupling effect is included. This state is 7.85 MeV above the {sup 6}He+{lambda} threshold and it may have a chance to be observed as a Feshbach resonance in {sup 7}Li (e,e{sup '}K{sup +}){sup 7}{sub {lambda}}He experiment done at Jefferson Lab.

  20. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana C., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk; Chronakis, Ioannis S., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Food, Søltofts Plads B227, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 ± 2.7 μm. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 ± 1 MPa. At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip. The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h.

  1. Energy harvesting using parametric resonant system due to time-varying damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapolan, Matteo; Tehrani, Maryam Ghandchi; Bonisoli, Elvio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy harvesting is considered using an electromechanical oscillator. The energy harvester is modelled as a spring-mass-damper, in which the dissipated energy in the damper can be stored rather than wasted. Previous research provided the optimum damping parameter, to harvest maximum amount of energy, taking into account the stroke limit of the device. However, the amount of the maximum harvested energy is limited to a single frequency in which the device is tuned. Active and semi-active strategies have been suggested, which increases the performance of the harvester. Recently, nonlinear damping in the form of cubic damping has been proposed to extend the dynamic range of the harvester. In this paper, a periodic time-varying damper is introduced, which results in a parametrically excited system. When the frequency of the periodic time-varying damper is twice the excitation frequency, the system internal energy increases proportionally to the energy already stored in the system. Thus, for certain parametric damping values, the system can become unstable. This phenomenon can be exploited for energy harvesting. The transition curves, which separate the stable and unstable dynamics are derived, both analytically using harmonic balance method, and numerically using time simulations. The design of the harvester is such that its response is close to the transition curves of the Floquet diagram, leading to stable but resonant system. The performance of the parametric harvester is compared with the non-parametric one. It is demonstrated that performances and the frequency bandwidth in which the energy can be harvested can be both increased using time-varying damping.

  2. Nonmonotonous electron mobility due to structurally induced resonant coupling of subband states in an asymmetric double quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, R. K.; Das, S.; Panda, A. K.; Sahu, T., E-mail: tsahu-bu@rediffmail.com [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Science and Technology, Palur Hills, Berhampur-761 008, Odisha (India)

    2015-11-15

    We show that sharp nonmonotic variation of low temperature electron mobility μ can be achieved in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As barrier delta-doped double quantum well structure due to quantum mechanical transfer of subband electron wave functions within the wells. We vary the potential profile of the coupled structure as a function of the doping concentration in order to bring the subbands into resonance such that the subband energy levels anticross and the eigen states of the coupled structure equally share both the wells thereby giving rise to a dip in mobility. When the wells are of equal widths, the dip in mobility occurs under symmetric doping of the side barriers. In case of unequal well widths, the resonance can be obtained by suitable asymmetric variation of the doping concentrations. The dip in mobility becomes sharp and also the wavy nature of mobility takes a rectangular shape by increasing the barrier width. We show that the dip in mobility at resonance is governed by the interface roughness scattering through step like changes in the subband mobilities. It is also gratifying to show that the drop in mobility at the onset of occupation of second subband is substantially supressed through the quantum mechanical transfer of subband wave functions between the wells. Our results can be utilized for performance enhancement of coupled quantum well devices.

  3. Nanomechanics of Protein Unfolding outside Protease Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Binquan; Zhou, Ruhong

    Protein folding and unfolding have been the subject of active research for decades. Most of previous studies in protein unfolding were focused on temperature, chemical and/or force (such as in AFM) induced denaturations. Recent studies on the functional roles of proteasomes (such as ClpXP) revealed a novel unfolding process in cell, during which a target protein is mechanically unfolded and pulled into a confined, pore-like geometry for degradation. While the proteasome nanomachine has been extensively studied, the mechanism for unfolding proteins with the proteasome pore is still poorly understood. Here, we investigate the mechanical unfolding process of ubiquitin with (or really outside) an idealized proteasome pore, and compare such process with that in the AFM pulling experiment. Unexpectedly, the required force by a proteosome can be much smaller than that by the AFM. Simulation results also unveiled different nanomechanics, tearing fracture vs. shearing friction, in these two distinct types of mechanical unfoldings.

  4. Neutral $Z$ boson pair production due to radion resonance in the Randall-Sundrum model: prospects at the CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Das-Prasanta, Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The Neutral $Z$ boson pair production due to radion resonance at the Large Hadron Collider is an interesting process to explore the notion of warped geometry (Randall-Sundrum model). Because of the enhanced coupling of radion with a pair of gluons due to trace enomaly and top(quark)-loop, the radion can provide larger event rate possibility as compared to any New Physics effect. Using the proper radion-top-antitop (with the quarks being off-shell) coupling, we obtain the correct radion production rate at LHC and explore several features of a heavier radion decaying into a pair of real Z bosons which subsequently decays into charged 4 l (l=e, \\mu) leptons (the gold-plated mode). Using the signal and background event rate, we obtain bounds on radion mass $m_\\phi$ and radion vev $\\vphi$ at the $5\\sigma$, $10\\sigma$ discovery level.

  5. Transport properties of a superconducting single-electron transistor coupled to a nanomechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerting, V.; Schmidt, T. L.; Doiron, C. B.; Trauzettel, B.; Bruder, C.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate a superconducting single-electron transistor capacitively coupled to a nanomechanical oscillator and focus on the double Josephson quasiparticle resonance. The existence of two coherent Cooper-pair tunneling events is shown to lead to pronounced back action effects. Measuring the current and the shot noise provides a direct way of gaining information on the state of the oscillator. In addition to an analytical discussion of the linear-response regime, we discuss and compare results of higher-order approximation schemes and a fully numerical solution. We find that cooling of the mechanical resonator is possible and that there are driven and bistable oscillator states at low couplings. Finally, we also discuss the frequency dependence of the charge noise and the current noise of the superconducting single electron transistor.

  6. On the resonance effects due to ground wires in transmission lines with non-uniform soil conductivity and non-uniform tower resistances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, J.A. B. (Centro de Electrotecnia da Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Inst. Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT))

    1992-01-01

    High frequency resonance effects due to shield wires grounding may affect carrier transmission performance at the vicinity of certain critical frequencies. In this paper the authors investigate if non-uniformities in soil conductivity and in tower footing resistances along the power line may lead to the suppression of such resonance effects. The simulation results the authors have obtained point towards a negative conclusion.

  7. Effects of Colistin on Surface Ultrastructure and Nanomechanics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell Pollas; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Sullivan, Claretta J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients are primarily caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Though difficult to counteract effectively, colistin, an antimicrobial peptide, is proving useful. However, the exact mechanism of action of colistin is not fully understood. In this study, atomic...... force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate, in a liquid environment, the changes in P. aeruginosa morphology and nanomechanical properties due to exposure to colistin. The results of this work revealed that after 1 h of colistin exposure the ratio of individual bacteria to those found to be arrested...

  8. Effects of Colistin on Surface Ultrastructure and Nanomechanics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell Pollas; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Sullivan, Claretta J.

    2009-01-01

    in the process of division changed from 1.9 to 0.4 and the length of the cells decreased significantly. Morphologically, it was observed that the bacterial surface changed from a smooth to a wrinkled phenotype after 3 h exposure to colistin. Nanomechanically, in untreated bacteria, the cantilever indented...... proliferation by repressing cell division. We also found that treatment with colistin caused an increase in the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall while morphologically the cell surface changed from smooth to wrinkled, perhaps due to loss of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or surface proteins....

  9. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  10. Effect of Geometry in Frequency Response Modeling of Nanomechanical Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfahania, M. Nasr; Yilmaz, M.; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard;

    2016-01-01

    Euler and Timoshenko beam theories from numerical techniques including finite element modeling and Surface Cauchy-Borntechnique are studied. The results provide a limit beyond which surface energy contribution dominates the mechanical behavior.Using the Surface Cauchy-Born technique as the reference, a maximum error...

  11. Analytical study of the frequency shifts of micro and nano clamped–clamped beam resonators due to an added mass

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-03-18

    We present analytical formulations to calculate the induced resonance frequency shifts of electrically actuated clamped–clamped micro and nano (Carbon nanotube) beams due to an added mass. Based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, we investigate the linear dynamic responses of the beams added masses, which are modeled as discrete point masses. Analytical expressions based on perturbation techniques and a one-mode Galerkin approximation are developed to calculate accurately the frequency shifts under a DC voltage as a function of the added mass and position. The analytical results are compared to numerical solution of the eigenvalue problem. Results are shown for the fundamental as well as the higher-order modes of the beams. The results indicate a significant increase in the frequency shift, and hence the sensitivity of detection, when scaling down to nano scale and using higher-order modes. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  12. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...

  13. Assessing the Local Nanomechanical Properties of Self-Assembled Block Copolymer Thin Films by Peak Force Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Matteo; Evangelio, Laura; Verhaeghe, Sophie; Nicolet, Célia; Navarro, Christophe; Pérez-Murano, Francesc

    2015-10-27

    The mechanical properties of several types of block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been investigated using PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical mapping. The samples consisted of polystyrene/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PS/PMMA)-based BCP thin films with different pitches both randomly oriented and self-assembled. The measured films have a critical thickness below 50 nm and present features to be resolved of less than 22 nm. Beyond measuring and discriminate surface elastic modulus and adhesion forces of the different phases, we tuned the peak force parameters in order to reliably image those samples, avoiding plastic deformation. The method is able to detect the changes in mechanical response associated with the orientation of the PMMA cylinders with respect to the substrate (parallel versus vertical). The nanomechanical investigation is also capable of recognizing local stiffening due to the preferential growth of alumina deposited by atomic layer deposition on BCP samples, opening up new possibilities in the field of hard mask materials characterization.

  14. Visualizing In Situ Microstructure Dependent Crack Tip Stress Distribution in IN-617 Using Nano-mechanical Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Mohanty, Debapriya P.; Tomar, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Inconel 617 (IN-617) is a solid solution alloy, which is widely used in applications that require high-temperature component operation due to its high-temperature stability and strength as well as strong resistance to oxidation and carburization. The current work focuses on in situ measurements of stress distribution under 3-point bending at elevated temperature in IN-617. A nanomechanical Raman spectroscopy measurement platform was designed and built based on a combination of a customized open Raman spectroscopy (NMRS) system incorporating a motorized scanning and imaging system with a nanomechanical loading platform. Based on the scanning of the crack tip notch area using the NMRS notch tip, stress distribution under applied load with micron-scale resolution for analyzed microstructures is predicted. A finite element method-based formulation to predict crack tip stresses is presented and validated using the presented experimental data.

  15. RECENT PROGRESS OF NANO-MECHANICAL MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Nishi; Sac Nagai; So Fujinami; Ken Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Nano-mechanical mapping by atomic force microscopy has been developed as an useful application to measure mechanical properties of soft materials at nanometer scale.To date,the Hertzian theory was used for analyzing forcedistance curves as the simplest model among several contact mechanics between elastic bodies.However,the preexisting methods based on this theory do not consider the adhesive interaction in principle,which cannot be neglected in the ambient condition.A new analytical method was introduced to estimate the elasticity and the adhesive energy simultaneously by means of the JKR theory,describing adhesive contact between elastic materials.Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and isobutylene-co-isoprene rubber (IIR) were analyzed to verify the applicable limit of the JKR analysis.For elastic samples such as PDMS,the force-deformation plots obtained experimentally were consistent with JKR theoretical curves.Meanwhile,for viscoelastic samples,especially for IIR,the experimental plots revealed large deviations from JKR curves depending on scanning velocity and maximum loading force.Some nano-rheological arguments were employed based on the difference between these specimens.

  16. The nanomechanical signature of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plodinec, Marija; Loparic, Marko; Monnier, Christophe A.; Obermann, Ellen C.; Zanetti-Dallenbach, Rosanna; Oertle, Philipp; Hyotyla, Janne T.; Aebi, Ueli; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Lim, Roderick Y. H.; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann

    2012-12-01

    Cancer initiation and progression follow complex molecular and structural changes in the extracellular matrix and cellular architecture of living tissue. However, it remains poorly understood how the transformation from health to malignancy alters the mechanical properties of cells within the tumour microenvironment. Here, we show using an indentation-type atomic force microscope (IT-AFM) that unadulterated human breast biopsies display distinct stiffness profiles. Correlative stiffness maps obtained on normal and benign tissues show uniform stiffness profiles that are characterized by a single distinct peak. In contrast, malignant tissues have a broad distribution resulting from tissue heterogeneity, with a prominent low-stiffness peak representative of cancer cells. Similar findings are seen in specific stages of breast cancer in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice. Further evidence obtained from the lungs of mice with late-stage tumours shows that migration and metastatic spreading is correlated to the low stiffness of hypoxia-associated cancer cells. Overall, nanomechanical profiling by IT-AFM provides quantitative indicators in the clinical diagnostics of breast cancer with translational significance.

  17. AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Chen, Nianhuan

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of cellular structure and physical and mechanical properties of hair are essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Although the morphology of the cellular structure of human hair has been traditionally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, these techniques provide limited capability to in situ study of the physical and mechanical properties of human hair in various environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) overcomes these problems and can be used for characterization in ambient conditions without requiring specific sample preparations and surface treatment. In this study, film thickness, adhesive forces and effective Young's modulus of various hair surfaces were measured at different environments (humidity and temperature) using force calibration plot technique with an AFM. Torsional resonance mode phase contrast images were also taken in order to characterize the morphology and cellular structure changes of human hair at different humidity. The correlation between the nanomechanical properties and the cellular structure of hair is discussed.

  18. Nano-optomechanical resonators in microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, King Yan; Tang, Hong X

    2015-01-01

    Operation of nanomechanical devices in water environment has been challenging due to the strong viscous damping that greatly impedes the mechanical motion. Here we demonstrate an optomechanical micro-wheel resonator integrated in microfluidic system that supports low-loss optical resonances at near-visible wavelength with quality factor up to 1.5 million. The device can be operated in self-oscillation mode in air with low threshold power of 45 uW. The very high optical Q allows the observation of the thermal Brownian motion of the mechanical mode in both air and water environment with high signal-to-background ratio. A numerical model is developed to calculate the hydrodynamic effect on the device due to the surrounding water, which agrees well with the experimental results. With its very high resonance frequency (170 MHz) and small loaded mass (75 pg), the present device is estimated to have mass sensitivity of attogram level in liquid environment with bandwidth of 1 Hz.

  19. Quantitative measurement of nanomechanical properties in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei

    results significantly, and new, power-law body of revolution models of the probe tip geometry have been applied. Due to the low yield strength of polymers compared with other engineering materials, elastic-plastic contact is considered to better represent the epoxy surface response and was used to acquire more accurate quantitative measurements. Visco-elastic contact response was introduced in the boundary condition of the AFAM cantilever vibration model, due to the creep nature of epoxy, to determine time-dependent effects. These methods have direct impact on the quantitative measurement capabilities of near-filler interphase regions in polymers and composites and the long-term influence of environmental conditions on composites. In addition, quantitative AFAM scans were made on distal surfaces of human bicuspids and molars, to determine the microstructural and spatial variation in nanomechanical properties of the enamel biocomposite. Single point AFAM measurements were performed on individual enamel prism and sheath locations to determine spatial elastic modulus. Mechanical property variation of enamel is associated to the differences in the mineral to organic content and the apatite crystal orientations within the enamel microstructure. Also, variation in the elastic modulus of the enamel ultrastructure was observed in measurements at the outer enamel versus near the dentine enamel junction (DEJ).

  20. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  1. Nanomechanical Properties of Epoxy Composites with Carbon Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Paddubskaya, A.; Pliushch, A.; Stefanutti, E.; Cataldo, A.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.

    2013-05-01

    The key point of this study is investigation of nanomechanical properties of epoxy-based nanocomposites filled with different kinds of carbon nanofillers like exfoliated graphite, high surface-area carbon black, single-walled carbon nanotubes and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

  2. Nanomechanical Characterization of Amyloid Fibrils Using Single-Molecule Experiments and Computational Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumjoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils have recently received much attention due to not only their important role in disease pathogenesis but also their excellent mechanical properties, which are comparable to those of mechanically strong protein materials such as spider silk. This indicates the necessity of understanding fundamental principles providing insight into how amyloid fibrils exhibit the excellent mechanical properties, which may allow for developing biomimetic materials whose material (e.g., mechanical properties can be controlled. Here, we describe recent efforts to characterize the nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils using computational simulations (e.g., atomistic simulations and single-molecule experiments (e.g., atomic force microscopy experiments. This paper summarizes theoretical models, which are useful in analyzing the mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils based on simulations and experiments, such as continuum elastic (beam model, elastic network model, and polymer statistical model. In this paper, we suggest how the nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils can be characterized and determined using computational simulations and/or atomic force microscopy experiments coupled with the theoretical models.

  3. Two Dimensional Array of Piezoresistive Nanomechanical Membrane-Type Surface Stress Sensor (MSS with Improved Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico F. de Rooij

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new generation of piezoresistive nanomechanical Membrane-type Surface stress Sensor (MSS chips, which consist of a two dimensional array of MSS on a single chip. The implementation of several optimization techniques in the design and microfabrication improved the piezoresistive sensitivity by 3~4 times compared to the first generation MSS chip, resulting in a sensitivity about ~100 times better than a standard cantilever-type sensor and a few times better than optical read-out methods in terms of experimental signal-to-noise ratio. Since the integrated piezoresistive read-out of the MSS can meet practical requirements, such as compactness and not requiring bulky and expensive peripheral devices, the MSS is a promising transducer for nanomechanical sensing in the rapidly growing application fields in medicine, biology, security, and the environment. Specifically, its system compactness due to the integrated piezoresistive sensing makes the MSS concept attractive for the instruments used in mobile applications. In addition, the MSS can operate in opaque liquids, such as blood, where optical read-out techniques cannot be applied.

  4. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  5. Braking due to non-resonant magnetic perturbations and comparison with neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Sun, Y.; Fridström, R.; Menmuir, S.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Liang, Y.; Drake, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    The non-resonant magnetic perturbation (MP) braking is studied in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (RFP) and the experimental braking torque is compared with the torque expected by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The EXTRAP T2R active coils can apply magnetic perturbations with a single harmonic, either resonant or non-resonant. The non-resonant MP produces velocity braking with an experimental torque that affects a large part of the core region. The experimental torque is clearly related to the plasma displacement, consistent with a quadratic dependence as expected by the NTV theory. The work show a good qualitative agreement between the experimental torque in a RFP machine and NTV torque concerning both the torque density radial profile and the dependence on the non-resonant MP harmonic.

  6. Tapered silicon nanowires for enhanced nanomechanical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvar, O.; Gil-Santos, E.; Ruz, J. J.; Ramos, D.; Pini, V.; Fernandez-Regulez, M.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.; San Paulo, A.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of controllably induced tapering on the resonant vibrations and sensing performance of silicon nanowires. Simple analytical expressions for the resonance frequencies of the first two flexural modes as a function of the tapering degree are presented. Experimental measurements of the resonance frequencies of singly clamped nanowires are compared with the theory. Our model is valid for any nanostructure with tapered geometry, and it predicts a reduction beyond two orders of magnitude of the mass detection limit for conical resonators as compared to uniform beams with the same length and diameter at the clamp.

  7. Renal transplant failure due to urologic complications: Comparison of static fluid with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D. [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)], E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.de; Koester, A.; Andersen, K.; Kurz, K.D.; Moedder, U.; Cohnen, M. [University Hospital Duesseldorf, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: Postrenal reasons of renal transplant failure can be assessed by magnetic resonance urography. This study was designed to retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of static fluid (T2-)MRU compared to contrast enhanced (CE-)MRU in patients with renal transplant failure. Material and methods: Thirty-five consecutive patients (14 female, 21 men; mean age 48.6 years) with renal transplant failure and sonographically detected hydronephrosis were examined both with T2-MRU as well as CE-MRU resulting in 39 MRU examinations. MRU was performed both using T2-weighted HASTE-sequence (T2-MRU) as well as Gadolinium-enhanced 3D-FLASH-sequence (CE-MRU) on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Medical Solutions). Subjective image quality of resulting maximum intensity projection was assessed in consensus by two readers blinded to the final diagnosis, using a five point scale. MRU findings were correlated to sonography, operative results or clinical follow up. Results: CE-MRU yielded a sensitivity of 85.7% (T2-MRU 76.2%), and a specificity of 83.3% (T2-MRU: 73.7%), however statistical significance was not reached. The subjective image quality was significantly better in CE-MRU. Conclusions: Only concerning subjective image quality CE-MRU proved superior to T2-MRU. Yet, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between T2- and CE-MRU. Thinking of incipient nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, T2-MRU can be used as reliable alternative in patients with decreased renal transplant function due to urological complications.

  8. Renal transplant failure due to urologic complications: Comparison of static fluid with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance urography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, D; Koester, A; Andersen, K; Kurz, K D; Moedder, U; Cohnen, M

    2009-02-01

    Postrenal reasons of renal transplant failure can be assessed by magnetic resonance urography. This study was designed to retrospectively compare the diagnostic accuracy of static fluid (T2-)MRU compared to contrast enhanced (CE-)MRU in patients with renal transplant failure. Thirty-five consecutive patients (14 female, 21 men; mean age 48.6 years) with renal transplant failure and sonographically detected hydronephrosis were examined both with T2-MRU as well as CE-MRU resulting in 39 MRU examinations. MRU was performed both using T2-weighted HASTE-sequence (T2-MRU) as well as Gadolinium-enhanced 3D-FLASH-sequence (CE-MRU) on a 1.5-T clinical MRI scanner (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Medical Solutions). Subjective image quality of resulting maximum intensity projection was assessed in consensus by two readers blinded to the final diagnosis, using a five point scale. MRU findings were correlated to sonography, operative results or clinical follow up. CE-MRU yielded a sensitivity of 85.7% (T2-MRU 76.2%), and a specificity of 83.3% (T2-MRU: 73.7%), however statistical significance was not reached. The subjective image quality was significantly better in CE-MRU. Only concerning subjective image quality CE-MRU proved superior to T2-MRU. Yet, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between T2- and CE-MRU. Thinking of incipient nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, T2-MRU can be used as reliable alternative in patients with decreased renal transplant function due to urological complications.

  9. Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics for Computer Modeling of Nanomechanical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, R E

    2003-11-02

    Unique challenges for computer modeling and simulation arise in the course of the development and design of nanoscale mechanical systems. Materials often exhibit unconventional behavior at the nanoscale that can affect device operation and failure. This uncertainty poses a problem because of the limited experimental characterization at these ultra-small length scales. In this Article we give an overview of how we have used concurrent multiscale modeling techniques to address some of these issues. Of particular interest are the dynamic and temperature-dependent processes found in nanomechanical systems. We focus on the behavior of sub-micron mechanical components of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), especially flexural-mode resonators. The concurrent multiscale methodology we have developed for NEMS employs an atomistic description of millions of atoms in relatively small but key regions of the system, coupled to, and run concurrently with, a generalized finite element model of the periphery. We describe two such techniques. The more precise model, Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics (CGMD), describes the dynamics on a mesh of elements, but the equations of motion are built up from the underlying atomistic physics to ensure a smooth coupling between regions governed by different length scales. In many cases the degrees of smoothness of the coupling provided by CGMD is not necessary. The hybrid Coupling of Length Scales (CLS) methodology, combining molecular dynamics with conventional finite element modeling, provides a suitable technique for these cases at a greatly reduced computation expense. We review these models and some of the results we have obtained regarding size effects in the elasticity and dissipation of nanomechanical systems.

  10. Theoretical Analysis of Vibration Frequency of Graphene Sheets Used as Nanomechanical Mass Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Natsuki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoelectromechanical resonator sensors based on graphene sheets (GS show ultrahigh sensitivity to vibration. However, many factors such as the layer number and dimension of the GSs will affect the sensor characteristics. In this study, an analytical model is proposed to investigate the vibration behavior of double-layered graphene sheets (DLGSs with attached nanoparticles. Based on nonlocal continuum mechanics, the influences of the layer number, dimensions of the GSs, and of the mass and position of nanoparticles attached to the GSs on the vibration response of GS resonators are discussed in detail. The results indicate that nanomasses can easily be detected by GS resonators, which can be used as a highly sensitive nanomechanical element in sensor systems. A logarithmically linear relationship exists between the frequency shift and the attached mass when the total mass attached to GS is less than about 1.0 zg. Accordingly, it is convenient to use a linear calibration for the calculation and determination of attached nanomasses. The simulation approach and the parametric investigation are useful tools for the design of graphene-based nanomass sensors and devices.

  11. Testing the Validity of the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity Model of Torque due to 3D Non-Resonant Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, A. J.; Smith, S. P.; Ferraro, N. M.; Callen, J. D.; Meneghini, O.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the torque applied by resonant and non-resonant magnetic perturbations and its effect on rotation is essential to predict confinement and stability in burning plasmas. Non-axisymmetric 3D fields produced in the DIII-D tokamak apply a torque to the plasma, which can be evaluated through its effect on the plasma rotation. One explanation for this torque is Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) acting through non-resonant field components [1]. We have developed a software framework in which magnetic perturbations calculated by the state of the art two fluid MHD code M3D-C1 can be used in NTV calculations. For discharges with applied external magnetic fields in DIII-D, the experimentally determined torques will be analyzed and compared with NTV models.[4pt] [1] J.D. Callen, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094026 (2011).

  12. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01

    a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  13. Nanomechanical Characterization of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The study of structures and properties of bacterial spores is important to understanding spore formation and biological responses to environmental stresses. While significant progress has been made over the years in elucidating the multilayer architecture of spores, the mechanical properties of the spore interior are not known. Here, we present a thermal atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the nanomechanical properties of internal structures of Bacillus anthracis spores. We developed a nan...

  14. Biophysics of Human Hair Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the biophysics of hair. It deals with the structure of hair, its mechanical properties, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair surface. Another important topic of the book is the health of hair, human hair and skin, hair care, cleaning and conditioning treatments and damaging processes. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

  15. Changes in the carpal tunnel due to action of the flexor tendons : Visualization with magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, SJ; Kolkman, WFA; Heeres, J; den Boer, JA; Vierhout, PAM

    1996-01-01

    Successive cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the carpal tunnel were measured with the fingers in both extension and full flexion in 12 healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging. During flexion, lumbrical muscles could be observed to move into the carpal tunnel up to different revels in all vo

  16. Performance changes of a grated waveguide at resonance wavelengths next to its band-edges due to modified edge sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatas, H.; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Tjia, May-On

    2010-01-01

    An efficient numerical scheme developed on the basis of Green’s function method is applied to the investigation of structural effects on the performance of planar grated waveguide at the first resonance wavelengths next to the band-edges. Restricting ourselves to the transverse-electric waves, this

  17. Acceleration of relativistic electrons due to resonant interaction with oblique monochromatic whistler-mode waves generated in the ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Shklyar, David

    2016-04-01

    One of the most challenging problems of the radiation belt studies is the problem of particles energization. Being related to the process of particle precipitation and posing a threat to scientific instruments on satellites, the problem of highly energetic particles in the radiation belts turns out to be very important. A lot of progress has been made in this field, but still some aspects of the energization process remain open. The main mechanism of particle energization in the radiation belts is the resonant interaction with different waves, mainly, in whistler frequency range. The problem of special interest is the resonant wave-particle interaction of the electrons of relativistic energies. Relativistic resonance condition provides some important features such as the so-called relativistic turning acceleration discovered by Omura et al. [1, 2]. This process appears to be a very efficient mechanism of acceleration in the case of interaction with the whistler-mode waves propagating along geomagnetic field lines. But some whistler-mode waves propagate obliquely to the magnetic field lines, and the efficiency of relativistic turning acceleration in this case is to be studied. In this report, we present the Hamiltonian theory of the resonant interaction of relativistic electrons with oblique monochromatic whistler-mode waves. We have shown that the presence of turning point requires a special treatment when one aims to derive the resonant Hamiltonian, and we have obtained two different resonant Hamiltonians: one to be applied far enough from the turning point, while another is valid in the vicinity of the turning point. We have performed numerical simulation of relativistic electron interaction with whistler-mode waves generated in the ionosphere by a monochromatic source. It could be, for example, a low-frequency transmitter. The wave-field distribution along unperturbed particle trajectory is calculated by means of geometrical optics. We show that the obliquity of

  18. Fabrication and characterization of cell culture microdevice for nanomechanical stimulation of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takayuki; Umegaki, Genki; Ishihara, Yoshitaka; Nagai, Moeto; Kawashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of nanomechanical stimulation on the regulation of cellular functions, we have been developing a cell culture microdevice integrated with piezoelectric thin film actuators. In this paper, we propose a new geometric configuration of the device to allow cell culture on a relatively flat surface and in an open space. An improved fabrication process for PZT actuators overcame a serious problem that sometimes occurred in the previous process; photoresist patterned on PZT film cannot be completely removed due to its degradation in a dry etching process. Then we demonstrate the driving performance of a fabricated prototype microdevice. Moreover, individual cells can be arranged precisely at the desired positions of the PZT actuators by a positive dielectrophoretic force at frequencies above 100 kHz with an application of an AC voltage of 20 Vpp. The trapping rate was dramatically improved up to 90% by using microchannel to efficiently supply cells onto the surface of the PZT actuator.

  19. Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation with AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rivas, Lucia; González-Orive, Alejandro; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Caballero, Francisca G.; Vázquez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The full understanding of the deformation mechanisms in nanostructured bainite requires the local characterization of its mechanical properties, which are expected to change from one phase, bainitic ferrite, to another, austenite. This study becomes a challenging process due to the bainitic nanostructured nature and high Young’s modulus. In this work, we have carried out such study by means of the combination of AFM-based techniques, such as nanoindentation and Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PF-QNM) measurements. We have addressed critically the limits and advantages of these techniques and been able to measure some elastoplastic parameters of both phases. Specifically, we have analyzed by PF-QNM two nanostructured bainitic steels, with a finer and a coarser structure, and found that both phases have a similar Young’s modulus. PMID:26602631

  20. Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation with AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rivas, Lucia; González-Orive, Alejandro; Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Hernández-Creus, Alberto; Caballero, Francisca G; Vázquez, Luis

    2015-11-25

    The full understanding of the deformation mechanisms in nanostructured bainite requires the local characterization of its mechanical properties, which are expected to change from one phase, bainitic ferrite, to another, austenite. This study becomes a challenging process due to the bainitic nanostructured nature and high Young's modulus. In this work, we have carried out such study by means of the combination of AFM-based techniques, such as nanoindentation and Peak Force Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (PF-QNM) measurements. We have addressed critically the limits and advantages of these techniques and been able to measure some elastoplastic parameters of both phases. Specifically, we have analyzed by PF-QNM two nanostructured bainitic steels, with a finer and a coarser structure, and found that both phases have a similar Young's modulus.

  1. Frequency domain laser ultrasonics: Optical transduction of acoustic waves and nanomechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhavar, Suraj

    The concept of optical excitation and detection of nanoscale mechanical motion has led to a variety of tools for non-destructive materials characterization and remote sensing. These techniques, commonly referred to as laser ultrasonics, offer the benefit of high-bandwidth, highly localized measurements, and also allow for the ability to investigate nanoscale devices. The impact of laser ultrasonic systems has been felt in industries ranging from semiconductor metrology to biological and chemical sensing. In this thesis, we develop a variety of techniques utilizing a frequency domain laser ultrasonic approach, where amplitude modulated continuous wave laser light is used instead of traditional pulsed laser sources, and we apply these systems in free-space, optical fiber based, and integrated on-chip configurations. In doing so, we demonstrate the ability to efficiently transduce various types of mechanical motion including surface and bulk acoustic waves, guided acoustic waves, and resonant motion from nanomechanical systems (NEMS). First, we develop a superheterodyne free-space ultrasonic inspection system in an effort to characterize surface acoustic wave dispersion in thin-film material systems. We utilize a similar system to study negative refraction and focusing behavior of guided elastic waves in a thin metal plate, providing a novel approach for the study of negative index physics. Furthermore, we develop a near-field optical technique using optical fibers to simultaneously transduce the motion of 70 NEMS resonators using a single channel. This multiplexed approach serves as a crucial step in moving NEMS technology out of the research laboratory. Finally, we go on to study opto-mechanical interactions between optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators and integrated NEMS devices on the same chip, using the enhanced interactions to study optical forces acting on the nanoscale mechanical devices. This integrated system provides a very efficient mechanical

  2. Quantification of cell viability and rapid screening anti-cancer drug utilizing nanomechanical fluctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shangquan; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiarong; Liang, Xin M; Gao, Dayong; Liu, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-15

    Cancer is a serious threat to human health. Although numerous anti-cancer drugs are available clinically, many have shown toxic side effects due to poor tumor-selectivity, and reduced effectiveness due to cancers rapid development of resistance to treatment. The development of new highly efficient and practical methods to quantify cell viability and its change under drug treatment is thus of significant importance in both understanding of anti-cancer mechanism and anti-cancer drug screening. Here, we present an approach of utilizing a nanomechanical fluctuation based highly sensitive microcantilever sensor, which is capable of characterizing the viability of cells and quantitatively screening (within tens of minutes) their responses to a drug with the obvious advantages of a rapid, label-free, quantitative, noninvasive, real-time and in-situ assay. The microcantilever sensor operated in fluctuation mode was used in evaluating the paclitaxel effectiveness on breast cancer cell line MCF-7. This study demonstrated that the nanomechanical fluctuations of the microcantilever sensor are sensitive enough to detect the dynamic variation in cellular force which is provided by the cytoskeleton, using cell metabolism as its energy source, and the dynamic instability of microtubules plays an important role in the generation of the force. We propose that cell viability consists of two parts: biological viability and mechanical viability. Our experimental results suggest that paclitaxel has little effect on biological viability, but has a significant effect on mechanical viability. This new method provides a new concept and strategy for the evaluation of cell viability and the screening of anti-cancer drugs.

  3. Harmonic force microscope: A new tool for biomolecular identification and material characterization based on nanomechanical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ozgur

    At the molecular level, physical and chemical properties of materials are tightly coupled to the mechanical properties. The potential of mechanics for interacting with matter at the nanoscale has been largely unexplored due to lack of instruments capable of performing mechanical measurements at nanometer length scales. This thesis describes nanomechanical sensing techniques and applications based on time-resolved tip-sample force measurements in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy. Tapping mode is the most successful operation mode of atomic force microscopes. Theoretical calculations presented in the first part of this thesis show that time variations of the tip-sample forces in the tapping-mode depend on the physical and chemical properties of the sample and therefore, have the potential to be used for nanomechanical measurements. Unfortunately, the force-sensing probe of the tapping-mode atomic force microscope, the vibrating cantilever, is limited in its response to the variations of forces in time within a period of oscillations. We are describing two types of special micromachined cantilevers that enable measurements of time variations of tip-sample forces: the harmonic cantilever and the coupled torsional cantilever. These special cantilevers allow sensitive mechanical measurements at the nanoscale and single molecular level. The operation of these cantilevers does not require any modifications to the existing atomic force microscopy systems. With the nanomechanical sensing techniques we have developed, we investigated phase transformations of sub-micron domains of composite polymers and observed their glass transitions for the first time. Conventional measurements on bulk properties of these samples do not provide information on the physical changes at the nanoscale. Studies on nucleic acids attached to a surface, a configuration commonly used in DNA microarray technology, showed that the hybridized DNA molecules can be detected at the single molecule

  4. Resonant Absorption of Fast Magnetoacoustic Waves due to Coupling into the Slow and Alfven Continua in the Solar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Clack, C T M; Douglas, M

    2010-01-01

    Resonant absorption of fast magnetoacoustic (FMA) waves in an inhomogeneous, weakly dissipative, one-dimensional planar, strongly anisotropic and dispersive plasma is investigated. The magnetic configuration consists of an inhomogeneous magnetic slab sandwiched between two regions of semi-infinite homogeneous magnetic plasmas. Laterally driven FMA waves penetrate the inhomogeneous slab interacting with the localised slow or Alfven waves present in the inhomogeneous layer and are partly reflected, dissipated and transmitted by this region. The presented research aims to find the coefficient of wave energy absorption under solar chromospheric and coronal conditions. Numerical results are analyzed to find the coefficient of wave energy absorption at both the slow and Alfven resonance positions. The mathematical derivations are based on the two simplifying assumptions that (i) nonlinearity is weak, and (ii) the thickness of the inhomogeneous layer is small in comparison to the wavelength of the wave, i.e. we empl...

  5. Diamond electro-optomechanical resonators integrated in nanophotonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, P; Diewald, S; Lewes-Malandrakis, G; Brink, D; Heidrich, N; Nebel, C; Pernice, W H P

    2014-01-01

    Diamond integrated photonic devices are promising candidates for emerging applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. Here we demonstrate active modulation of diamond nanophotonic circuits by exploiting mechanical degrees of freedom in free-standing diamond electro-optomechanical resonators. We obtain high quality factors up to 9600, allowing us to read out the driven nanomechanical response with integrated optical interferometers with high sensitivity. We are able to excite higher order mechanical modes up to 115 MHz and observe the nanomechanical response also under ambient conditions.

  6. Dynamical response of multi-walled carbon nanotube resonators based on continuum mechanics modeling for mass sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Myungseok; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Kim, Chang-Wan [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Kilho [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Gwak, Kwanwoong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dai, Mai Duc [Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam)

    2017-05-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has recently received much attention due to its excellent electromechanical properties, indicating that CNT can be employed for development of Nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators. For effective design of CNT-based resonators, it is required to accurately predict the vibration behavior of CNT resonators as well as their frequency response to mass adsorption. In this work, we have studied the vibrational behavior of Multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) resonators by using a continuum mechanics modeling that was implemented in Finite element method (FEM). In particular, we consider a transversely isotropic hollow cylinder solid model with Finite element (FE) implementation for modeling the vibration behavior of Multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) resonators. It is shown that our continuum mechanics model provides the resonant frequencies of various MWCNTs being comparable to those obtained from experiments. Moreover, we have investigated the frequency response of MWCNT resonators to mass adsorption by using our continuum model with FE implementation. Our study sheds light on our continuum mechanics model that is useful in predicting not only the vibration behavior of MWCNT resonators but also their sensing performance for further effective design of MWCNT- based NEMS devices.

  7. Out-of-plane nanomechanical tuning of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Akkipeddi, Ramam

    2013-06-15

    We demonstrate tuning of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities by their out-of-plane nanomechanical deformations. The coupled cavities are pulled by the vertical electrostatic force generated by the potential difference between the device layer and the handle layer in a silicon-on-insulator chip, and the induced deformations are analyzed by the finite element method. Applied with a voltage of 12 V, the cavities obtain a redshift of 0.0405 nm (twice the linewidth) for their second-order odd resonance mode and a blueshift of 0.0635 nm (three times the linewidth) for their second-order even resonance mode, which are mainly attributed to out-of-plane relative displacement. Out-of-plane tuning of coupled cavities does not need actuators and corresponding circuits; thus the device is succinct and compact. This working principle can be potentially applied in chip-level optoelectronic devices, such as sensors, switches, routers, and tunable filters.

  8. Magnetic resonance fistulogram demonstration of urethrovesicovaginal fistula in a case of müllerian agenesis due to traumatic urethral coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashish; Vyas, Surabhi; Patwari, Sriram; Verma, Madhvi; Srivastava, Arvind; Chandra Shukla, Ram

    2012-01-01

    Vesicovaginal fistula is not uncommon in women of childbearing age, and can occur due to a multitude of causes, the chief ones being infection and neoplasia. An extensive PUBMED search yielded only a few reports describing causation of such a lesion due to traumatic urethral coitus. The classic method to demonstrate such fistulas is by direct contrast-enhanced fistulography. Herein we report a case of urethrovesicovaginal fistula with müllerian agenesis caused by traumatic urethral coitus, as demonstrated using indirect magnetic resonance fistulography. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physics of Nanomechanical Spectrometry of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J. J.; Tamayo, J.; Pini, V.; Kosaka, P. M.; Calleja, M.

    2014-08-01

    There is an emerging need of nanotools able to quantify the mechanical properties of single biological entities. A promising approach is the measurement of the shifts of the resonant frequencies of ultrathin cantilevers induced by the adsorption of the studied biological systems. Here, we present a detailed theoretical analysis to calculate the resonance frequency shift induced by the mechanical stiffness of viral nanotubes. The model accounts for the high surface-to-volume ratio featured by single biological entities, the shape anisotropy and the interfacial adhesion. The model is applied to the case in which tobacco mosaic virus is randomly delivered to a silicon nitride cantilever. The theoretical framework opens the door to a novel paradigm for biological spectrometry as well as for measuring the Young's modulus of biological systems with minimal strains.

  10. Phase-controlled Fano resonance by the nanoscale optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Xia, Keyu; Dai, Zhi-Ping; Yang, Wen; Gong, Shangqing; Feng, Mang

    2014-01-01

    Observation of the Fano line shapes is essential to understand properties of the Fano resonance in different physical systems. We explore a tunable Fano resonance by tuning the phase shift in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a single-mode nano-optomechanical cavity. The Fano resonance is resulted from the optomechanically induced transparency caused by a nano-mechanical resonator and can be tuned by applying an optomechanical MZI. By tuning the phase shift in one arm of the MZI, we can observe the periodically varying line shapes of the Fano resonance, which represents an elaborate manipulation of the Fano resonance in the nanoscale optomechanics.

  11. An analytical study on excitation of nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic instability due to seismically induced resonance in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Masashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a scoping study on seismically induced resonance of nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic instability in BWRs, which was conducted by using TRAC-BF1 within a framework of a point kinetics model. As a result of the analysis, it is shown that a reactivity insertion could occur accompanied by in-surge of coolant into the core resulted from the excitation of the nuclear-coupled instability by the external acceleration. In order to analyze this phenomenon more in detail, it is necessary to couple a thermal-hydraulic code with a three-dimensional nuclear kinetics code.

  12. Nanomechanical properties and thermal decomposition of Cu-Al2O3 composites for FGM applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumoulos Elias P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely reported that copper-alumina (Cu-Al2O3 nanocomposite materials exhibit high potential for use in structural applications in which enhanced mechanical characteristics are required. The investigation of Cu-Al2O3 nanocomposites which are to form a functionally graded material (FGM structure in terms of nanomechanical/structural integrity and thermal stability is still scarce. In this work, fully characterized nanosized Al2O3 powder has been incorporated in Cu matrix in various compositions (2, 5 and 10 wt.% of Al2O3 content. The produced composites were evaluated in terms of their morphology, structural analysis, thermal behavior, nanomechanical properties and their extent of viscoplasticity. The results reveal that all nanocomposites degrade at elevated temperatures; increased surface mass gain with decreasing Al2O3 content was observed, while no such difference of % mass gain in 5 and 10 wt.% of Al and Al2O3 content in Cu was observed. The increase of Al2O3 wt.% content results in thermal stability enhancement of the nanocomposites. The thermal decomposition process of the material is reduced in the presence of 10 wt.% of Al2O3 content. This result for the matrix decomposition can be explained by a decrease in the diffusion of oxygen and volatile degradation products throughout the composite material due to the incorporation of Al and Al2O3. The Al2O3 powder enhances the overall thermal stability of the system. All samples exhibited significant pile-up of the materials after nanoindentation testing. Increasing the wt.% of Al2O3 content was found to increase the creep deformation of the samples as well as the hardness and elastic modulus values.

  13. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  14. Convective radial energy flux due to resonant magnetic perturbations and magnetic curvature at the tokamak plasma edge

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, F A; Fuhr, G; Monnier, A; Benkadda, S

    2014-01-01

    With the resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) consolidating as an important tool to control the transport barrier relaxation, the mechanism on how they work is still a subject to be clearly understood. In this work we investigate the equilibrium states in the presence of RMPs for a reduced MHD model using 3D electromagnetic fluid numerical code (EMEDGE3D) with a single harmonic RMP (single magnetic island chain) and multiple harmonics RMPs in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. Two different equilibrium states were found in the presence of the RMPs with different characteristics for each of the geometries used. For the cylindrical geometry in the presence of a single RMP, the equilibrium state is characterized by a strong convective radial thermal flux and the generation of a mean poloidal velocity shear. In contrast, for toroidal geometry the thermal flux is dominated by the magnetic flutter. For multiple RMPs, the high amplitude of the convective flux and poloidal rotation are basically the same in cylindr...

  15. Nanomechanical humidity detection through porous alumina cantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Boytsova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present here the behavior of the resonance frequency of porous anodic alumina cantilever arrays during water vapor adsorption and emphasize their possible use in the micromechanical sensing of humidity levels at least in the range of 10–22%. The sensitivity of porous anodic aluminium oxide cantilevers (Δf/Δm and the humidity sensitivity equal about 56 Hz/pg and about 100 Hz/%, respectively. The approach presented here for the design of anodic alumina cantilever arrays by the combination of anodic oxidation and photolithography enables easy control over porosity, surface area, geometric and mechanical characteristics of the cantilever arrays for micromechanical sensing.

  16. Electron heating enhancement due to plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled RF discharge: Electrical modeling and comparison to experimental measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minglu; Lu, Yijia; Cheng, Jia; Ji, Linhong

    2016-09-01

    The electron heating enhancement due to the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance in capacitively coupled plasmas is revisited by a combination of an equivalent circuit model and experiments. To improve the model accuracy, measured voltage waveforms at the powered electrode are used instead of prescribing a sinusoidal voltage supply in series with a bias capacitance. The results calculated from the electrical model are consistent with the experimental measurements performed by a Langmuir probe with verification of a microwave interferometer, at pressures of 0.2 and 0.3 Torr. High harmonics occurring in the discharge currents agree with observations in previous research. The nonlinear plasma series resonance effect is found to have a notable contribution to both ohmic and stochastic heating evaluated by the electron heating efficiencies.

  17. Nanomechanical Optical Fiber with Embedded Electrodes Actuated by Joule Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Lian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical optical fibers with metal electrodes embedded in the jacket were fabricated by a multi-material co-draw technique. At the center of the fibers, two glass cores suspended by thin membranes and surrounded by air form a directional coupler that is highly temperature-dependent. We demonstrate optical switching between the two fiber cores by Joule heating of the electrodes with as little as 0.4 W electrical power, thereby demonstrating an electrically actuated all-fiber microelectromechanical system (MEMS. Simulations show that the main mechanism for optical switching is the transverse thermal expansion of the fiber structure.

  18. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation due to the translational diffusion of fluid confined to quasi-two-dimensional pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, D. A.; McDonald, P. J.; Howlett, N. C.

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxation experimentation is an effective technique for nondestructively probing the dynamics of proton-bearing fluids in porous media. The frequency-dependent relaxation rate T1-1 can yield a wealth of information on the fluid dynamics within the pore provided data can be fit to a suitable spin diffusion model. A spin diffusion model yields the dipolar correlation function G (t ) describing the relative translational motion of pairs of 1H spins which then can be Fourier transformed to yield T1-1. G (t ) for spins confined to a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) pore of thickness h is determined using theoretical and Monte Carlo techniques. G (t ) shows a transition from three- to two-dimensional motion with the transition time proportional to h2. T1-1 is found to be independent of frequency over the range 0.01-100 MHz provided h ≳5 nm and increases with decreasing frequency and decreasing h for pores of thickness h <3 nm. T1-1 increases linearly with the bulk water diffusion correlation time τb allowing a simple and direct estimate of the bulk water diffusion coefficient from the high-frequency limit of T1-1 dispersion measurements in systems where the influence of paramagnetic impurities is negligible. Monte Carlo simulations of hydrated Q2D pores are executed for a range of surface-to-bulk desorption rates for a thin pore. G (t ) is found to decorrelate when spins move from the surface to the bulk, display three-dimensional properties at intermediate times, and finally show a bulk-mediated surface diffusion (Lévy) mechanism at longer times. The results may be used to interpret NMR relaxation rates in hydrated porous systems in which the paramagnetic impurity density is negligible.

  19. Slippage and boundary layer probed in an almost ideal gas by a nanomechanical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoort, M; Lulla, K J; Crozes, T; Maillet, O; Bourgeois, O; Collin, E

    2014-09-26

    We measure the interaction between ⁴He gas at 4.2 K and a high-quality nanoelectromechanical string device for its first three symmetric modes (resonating at 2.2, 6.7, and 11 MHz with quality factor Q>0.1×10⁶) over almost 6 orders of magnitude in pressure. This fluid can be viewed as the best experimental implementation of an almost ideal monoatomic and inert gas of which properties are tabulated. The experiment ranges from high pressure where the flow is of laminar Stokes-type presenting slippage down to very low pressures where the flow is molecular. In the molecular regime, when the mean-free path is of the order of the distance between the suspended nanomechanical probe and the bottom of the trench, we resolve for the first time the signature of the boundary (Knudsen) layer onto the measured dissipation. Our results are discussed in the framework of the most recent theories investigating boundary effects in fluids (both analytic approaches and direct simulation Monte Carlo methods).

  20. Comprehensive characterization of molecular interactions based on nanomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Ghatkesar

    Full Text Available Molecular interaction is a key concept in our understanding of the biological mechanisms of life. Two physical properties change when one molecular partner binds to another. Firstly, the masses combine and secondly, the structure of at least one binding partner is altered, mechanically transducing the binding into subsequent biological reactions. Here we present a nanomechanical micro-array technique for bio-medical research, which not only monitors the binding of effector molecules to their target but also the subsequent effect on a biological system in vitro. This label-free and real-time method directly and simultaneously tracks mass and nanomechanical changes at the sensor interface using micro-cantilever technology. To prove the concept we measured lipid vesicle (approximately 748*10(6 Da adsorption on the sensor interface followed by subsequent binding of the bee venom peptide melittin (2840 Da to the vesicles. The results show the high dynamic range of the instrument and that measuring the mass and structural changes simultaneously allow a comprehensive discussion of molecular interactions.

  1. Single cell metastatic phenotyping using pulsed nanomechanical indentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babahosseini, Hesam; Strobl, Jeannine S.; Agah, Masoud

    2015-09-01

    The existing approach to characterize cell biomechanical properties typically utilizes switch-like models of mechanotransduction in which cell responses are analyzed in response to a single nanomechanical indentation or a transient pulsed stress. Although this approach provides effective descriptors at population-level, at a single-cell-level, there are significant overlaps in the biomechanical descriptors of non-metastatic and metastatic cells which precludes the use of biomechanical markers for single cell metastatic phenotyping. This study presents a new promising marker for biosensing metastatic and non-metastatic cells at a single-cell-level using the effects of a dynamic microenvironment on the biomechanical properties of cells. Two non-metastatic and two metastatic epithelial breast cell lines are subjected to a pulsed stresses regimen exerted by atomic force microscopy. The force-time data obtained for the cells revealed that the non-metastatic cells increase their resistance against deformation and become more stiffened when subjected to a series of nanomechanical indentations. On the other hand, metastatic cells become slightly softened when their mechanical microenvironment is subjected to a similar dynamical changes. This distinct behavior of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells to the pulsed stresses paradigm provided a signature for single-cell-level metastatic phenotyping with a high confidence level of ∼95%.

  2. Carbon Nanotube-Based Nanomechanical Sensor: Theoretical Analysis of Mechanical and Vibrational Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Natsuki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent research of carbon nanotubes (CNTs used as nanomechanical sensing elements based mainly on theoretical models. CNTs have demonstrated considerable potential as nanomechanical mass sensor and atomic force microscope (AFM tips. The mechanical and vibrational characteristics of CNTs are introduced to the readers. The effects of main parameters of CNTs, such as dimensions, layer number, and boundary conditions on the performance characteristics are investigated and discussed. It is hoped that this review provides knowledge on the application of CNTs as nanomechanical sensors and computational methods for predicting their properties. Their theoretical studies based on the mechanical properties such as buckling strength and vibration frequency would give a useful reference for designing CNTs as nanomechanical mass sensor and AFM probes.

  3. Free-Standing Nanomechanical and Nanophotonic Structures in Single-Crystal Diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Burek, Michael John

    2016-01-01

    Realizing complex three-dimensional structures in a range of material systems is critical to a variety of emerging nanotechnologies. This is particularly true of nanomechanical and nanophotonic systems, both relying on free-standing small-scale components. In the case of nanomechanics, necessary mechanical degrees of freedom require physically isolated structures, such as suspended beams, cantilevers, and membranes. For nanophotonics, elements like waveguides and photonic crystal cavities rel...

  4. Nanomechanical analysis of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, N; Bassi, D; Cappa, F; Cocconcelli, P S; Parmigiani, F; Ferrini, G

    2010-12-01

    In this work we report on the measurement of the Young modulus of the external surface of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in air with an atomic force microscope. The Young modulus can be reliably measured despite the strong tip-spore adhesion forces and the need to immobilize the spores due to their slipping on most substrates. Moreover, we investigate the disturbing factors and consider some practical aspects that influence the measurements of elastic properties of biological objects with the atomic force microscopy indentation techniques.

  5. Observation of decoherence in a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ben H; Singh, Vibhor; Venstra, Warner J; Meerwaldt, Harold B; Steele, Gary A

    2014-12-19

    In physical systems, decoherence can arise from both dissipative and dephasing processes. In mechanical resonators, the driven frequency response measures a combination of both, whereas time-domain techniques such as ringdown measurements can separate the two. Here we report the first observation of the mechanical ringdown of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. Comparing the mechanical quality factor obtained from frequency- and time-domain measurements, we find a spectral quality factor four times smaller than that measured in ringdown, demonstrating dephasing-induced decoherence of the nanomechanical motion. This decoherence is seen to arise at high driving amplitudes, pointing to a nonlinear dephasing mechanism. Our results highlight the importance of time-domain techniques for understanding dissipation in nanomechanical resonators, and the relevance of decoherence mechanisms in nanotube mechanics.

  6. Observation of decoherence in a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ben H.; Singh, Vibhor; Venstra, Warner J.; Meerwaldt, Harold B.; Steele, Gary A.

    2014-12-01

    In physical systems, decoherence can arise from both dissipative and dephasing processes. In mechanical resonators, the driven frequency response measures a combination of both, whereas time-domain techniques such as ringdown measurements can separate the two. Here we report the first observation of the mechanical ringdown of a carbon nanotube mechanical resonator. Comparing the mechanical quality factor obtained from frequency- and time-domain measurements, we find a spectral quality factor four times smaller than that measured in ringdown, demonstrating dephasing-induced decoherence of the nanomechanical motion. This decoherence is seen to arise at high driving amplitudes, pointing to a nonlinear dephasing mechanism. Our results highlight the importance of time-domain techniques for understanding dissipation in nanomechanical resonators, and the relevance of decoherence mechanisms in nanotube mechanics.

  7. Parametric strong mode-coupling in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xiao; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention for use in nanomechanical devices because of their exceptional properties, such as large resonant frequencies, low mass, and high quality factors. Here, we report the first experimental realization of parametric strong coupling between two mechanical modes on a single CNT nanomechanical resonator, by applying an extra microwave pump. This parametric pump method can be used to couple mechanical modes with arbitrary frequency differences. The properties of the mechanical resonator are detected by single-electron tunneling at low temperature, which is found to be strongly coupled to both modes. The coupling strength between the two modes can be tuned by the pump power, setting the coupling regime from weak to strong. This tunability may be useful in further phonon manipulations in carbon nanotubes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fit of the quality factor and similar results in more devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02853e

  8. Nanomechanics of Ferroelectric Thin Films and Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Chen , L.Q.

    2016-08-31

    The focus of this chapter is to provide basic concepts of how external strains/stresses altering ferroelectric property of a material and how to evaluate quantitatively the effect of strains/stresses on phase stability, domain structure, and material ferroelectric properties using the phase-field method. The chapter starts from a brief introduction of ferroelectrics and the Landau-Devinshire description of ferroelectric transitions and ferroelectric phases in a homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal. Due to the fact that ferroelectric transitions involve crystal structure change and domain formation, strains and stresses can be produced inside of the material if a ferroelectric transition occurs and it is confined. These strains and stresses affect in turn the domain structure and material ferroelectric properties. Therefore, ferroelectrics and strains/stresses are coupled to each other. The ferroelectric-mechanical coupling can be used to engineer the material ferroelectric properties by designing the phase and structure. The followed section elucidates calculations of the strains/stresses and elastic energy in a thin film containing a single domain, twinned domains to complicated multidomains constrained by its underlying substrate. Furthermore, a phase field model for predicting ferroelectric stable phases and domain structure in a thin film is presented. Examples of using substrate constraint and temperature to obtain interested ferroelectric domain structures in BaTiO3 films are demonstrated b phase field simulations.

  9. Nanomechanical characterization and molecular mechanism study of nanoparticle reinforced and cross-linked chitosan biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Amrita; Mathesan, Santhosh; Ghosh, Pijush

    2015-03-01

    Chitosan (CS) is a biomaterial that offers many sophisticated and innovative applications in the biomedical field owing to its excellent characteristics of biodegradability, biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, very low mechanical properties of chitosan polymer impose restriction on its further development. Cross-linking and nanoparticle reinforcement are the two possible methods to improve the mechanical properties of chitosan films. In this research, these two methods are adopted individually by using tripolyphosphate as cross-linker and nano-hydroxyapatite as particle reinforcement. The nanomechanical characterizations under static loading conditions are performed on these modified chitosan films. It is observed that nanoparticle reinforcement provided necessary mechanical properties such as ductility and modulus. The mechanisms involved in improvement of mechanical properties due to particle reinforcement are studied by molecular dynamics (MD). Further, improvement in mechanical properties due to combination of particle reinforcement and cross-linking agent with chitosan is investigated. The stress relaxation behavior for all these types of films is characterized under dynamic loading conditions using dynamic mechanical analysis (nanoDMA) experiment. A viscoelastic solid like response is observed for all types of film with modulus relaxing by 3-6% of its initial value. A suitable generalized Maxwell model is fitted with the obtained viscoelastic response of these films. The response to nano-scratch behavior is also studied for particle reinforced composite films.

  10. (Nano-)mechanical properties of intermetallic phases in the Fe-Mo system at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeders, Sebastian; Korte-Kerzel, Sandra [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Topologically close packed (TCP) intermetallic phases which precipitate in nickel-base superalloys are suspected to cause a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the γ - γ* matrix. Although the existing intermetallics, namely Laves-, R-, sigma- and mue-phases are well understood in terms of their structure, their mechanical properties have still not been investigated in detail due to their size and pronounced brittleness. In order to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of these phases, but exclude the effect of complex phase composition in the first instance, the Fe-Mo system was chosen as a model system, where all phases are available as binary alloys. Using nanomechanical testing methods like nanoindentation and micropillar-compression, the experimental challenges of high brittleness and anisotropy encountered in conventional testing can be disregarded and plastic deformation can be achieved due to the confining pressure in nanoindentation and the reduction in specimen size in microcompression. This work aims to examine the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, yield and flow stress of intermetallic Fe-Mo phases over a range of temperatures. To this end, tests were performed in vacuum. Based on this type of study it is envisaged to form a better understanding of the way hard TCP precipitates influence the performance of superalloys.

  11. Stochastic analysis of the motion of DNA nanomechanical bipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Iddo; Boushaba, Khalid; Matzavinos, Anastasios; Roitershtein, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we formulate and analyze a Markov process modeling the motion of DNA nanomechanical walking devices.We consider a molecular biped restricted to a well-defined one-dimensional track and study its asymptotic behavior.Our analysis allows for the biped legs to be of different molecular composition, and thus to contribute differently to the dynamics. Our main result is a functional central limit theorem for the biped with an explicit formula for the effective diffusivity coefficient in terms of the parameters of the model. A law of large numbers, a recurrence/transience characterization and large deviations estimates are also obtained.Our approach is applicable to a variety of other biological motors such as myosin and motor proteins on polymer filaments.

  12. Correlative infrared nanospectroscopic and nanomechanical imaging of block copolymer microdomains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pollard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular interactions and nanoscale phase separation govern the properties of many molecular soft-matter systems. Here, we combine infrared vibrational scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM with force–distance spectroscopy for simultaneous characterization of both nanoscale optical and nanomechanical molecular properties through hybrid imaging. The resulting multichannel images and correlative analysis of chemical composition, spectral IR line shape, modulus, adhesion, deformation, and dissipation acquired for a thin film of a nanophase separated block copolymer (PS-b-PMMA reveal complex structural variations, in particular at domain interfaces, not resolved in any individual signal channel alone. These variations suggest that regions of multicomponent chemical composition, such as the interfacial mixing regions between microdomains, are correlated with high spatial heterogeneity in nanoscale material properties.

  13. Study on Microstructure and Nanomechanics Properties of Antibacterial Bone China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenyu; Li Hongqi; Zhang Jin; Zhou Hongxiu; Wang Lijuan; Zhang Taihua

    2004-01-01

    Fracture appearance, surface and nanomechanics properties of antibacterial ceramics contairing rare earth phosphate composite antibacterial materials were characterized and measured by SEM, AFM and Nanoindenter, respectively. Results show that grain of fracture surface of antibacterial ceramics grows uniform refinement topography of bubble break-up appears at the surface, which is flat and has liquid character, by adding the phosphate composite containing rare earth, nevertheless needle-like crystal and granular outgrowth form at fracture surface and surface of common ceramics, respectively. Young's modulus of antibacterial ceramic film is 74. 397 GPa and hardness is 8. 134 GPa, which increses by 4.4% and 1.6% comparing with common ceramics, respectively. Loading curves of two kind of ceramics have obvious nonlinear character under 700 nm and linear character between 700 ~ 1000 nm, and unloading curve have obvious linear character.

  14. Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, T; Schmid, S; Villanueva, L G; Zeuthen, E; Appel, J; Taylor, J M; Sørensen, A; Usami, K; Schliesser, A; Polzik, E S

    2013-01-01

    Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics has shown that nanomechanical oscillators can couple very strongly to either microwave or optical fields. An oscillator accommodating both functionalities would bear great promise as the intermediate platform in a radio-to-optical transduction cascade. Here, we demonstrate such an opto-electro-mechanical transducer utilizing a high-Q nanomembrane. A moderate voltage bias (<10V) is sufficient to induce strong coupling between the voltage fluct...

  15. In situ nanomechanics of cell-biomaterial composites for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit

    For the first time, we report an experimental design, development and evaluation of in situ nanomechanics of cell-biomaterial composites for tissue engineering applications. A blend of two biopolymers (Chitosan and Polygalacturonic acid) was chosen with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to mimic the natural bone (Chi-PgA-HAP). These substrates swell in presence of cell culture media as found by our in situ topographical, chemical and mechanical analyses for 48 days. Biocompatibility experiments were performed using human osteoblasts (CRL 11732) and results indicate that these substrates favor cell adhesion and proliferation. Over cell culture duration of 22 days, osteoblasts generated bone-like nodules onto Chi-PgA-HAP substrates in absence of any stimulants for osteogenesis. In vitro generated bone nodule mimics the structure, chemistry and nanomechanical properties of natural bone as revealed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses on bone nodule. Hierarchically organized extracellular matrix of bone nodule consisting of mineralized collagen fibers, fibrils and mineral deposits was revealed by high resolution AFM images. FTIR analyses on bone nodule suggests that bone nodule is chemically similar to human bone due to the presence of major bands of collagen (Amide I, II, and III) and biological apatite (CO32- and HPO 43). Live cell and cell-substrate nanoindentation experiments on cell seeded Chi-PgA-HAP nanocomposites were conducted under the physiological conditions (cell culture Name: Rohit Khanna medium; 37°C) for culture duration of 1, 4, 8, and 22 days, respectively. Dynamic mechanical responses of cells are indicated by stiffer elastic responses of flat cells as compared to round cells. Dynamic mechanical behavior of cell-degrading substrate is indicated by their corresponding elastic moduli: ECell-Chi-PgA-HAP, 1 day, 2000 nm= 10.3-20.2 MPa, ECell-Chi-PgA-HAP, 4 days, 2000 nm = 5.2-8.4 MPa and ECell-Chi-PgA-HAP. 8 days

  16. A review on: atomic force microscopy applied to nano-mechanics of the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1986, AFM has been applied to biological studies along with its widespread use in physics, chemistry and engineering fields. Due to its dual capabilities of imaging nano-materials with an atomic level resolution and of directly manipulating samples with high precision, AFM is now considered an indispensable instrument for nano-technological researchers especially in physically oriented fields. In biology in general, however, and in biotechnology in particular, its usefulness must be critically examined and, if necessary as it certainly is, further explored from a practical point of view. In this review, a new trend of applying AFM based technology to elucidate the mechanical basis of the cellular structure and its interaction with the extracellular matrix including cell to cell interaction is reviewed. Some of the recent studies done by using other force measuring or force exerting methods are also covered in the hope that all the nano-mechanical work on the cellular level will eventually contribute to the emergence of the mechano-chemical view of the cell in a unified manner.

  17. Nanomechanical analysis of insulinoma cells after glucose and capsaicin stimulation using atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-guo YANG; Ning XI; King Wai-chiu LAI; Bei-hua ZHONG; Carmen Kar-man Fung; Chen-geng QU; Donna H Wang

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β cells by altering ion channel activity and membrane potential in the β cells. TRPV1 channel is expressed in the β cells and capsaicin induces insulin secretion similarly to glucose. This study aims to investigate the biophysical properties of the β ceils upon stimulation of membrane channels using an atomic force microscopic (AFM)nanoindentation system.Methods: ATCC insulinoma cell line was used. Cell stiffness, a marker of reorganization of cell membrane and cytoskeleton due to ion channel activation, was measured in real time using an integrated AFM nanoindentation system. Cell height that represented structural changes was simultaneously recorded along with cell stiffness.Results: After administration of glucose (16,20,and 40 mmol/L), the cell stiffness was markedly increased in a dose-dependent manner, whereas cell height was changed in an opposite way. Lower concentrations of capsaicin (1.67×10-9 and 1.67×10-8 mol/L)increased the cell stiffness without altering cell height. In contrast, higher concentrations of capsaicin (1.67×10-6 and 1.67×10-7mol/L) had no effect on the cell physical properties.Conclusion: A unique bio-nanomechanical signature was identified for characterizing biophysical properties of insulinoma cells upon general or specific activation of membrane channels. This study may deepen our understanding of stimulus-secretion coupling of pancreatic islet cells that leads to insulin secretion.

  18. Corrosion and Nano-mechanical Behaviors of Magnetron Sputtered Al-Mo Gradient Coated Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, A.; Srinath, J.; Ramesh Narayanan, P.; Sharma, S. C.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    A gradient three-layer Al-Mo coating was deposited on steel using magnetron sputtering method. The corrosion and nano-mechanical properties of the coating were examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and nano-indentation tests and compared with the conventional electroplated cadmium and IVD aluminum coatings. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed by immersing the coated specimens in 3.5% NaCl solution, and the impedance behavior was recorded as a function of immersion time. The mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) were obtained from each indentation as a function of the penetration depth across the coating cross section. The adhesion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by scratch tests on the coated surface using nano-indentation method. The results show that the gradient Al-Mo coating exhibits better corrosion resistance than the other coatings in view of the better microstructure. The impedance results were modeled using appropriate electrical equivalent circuits for all the coated systems. The uniform, smooth and dense Al-Mo coating obtained by magnetron sputtering exhibits good adhesion with the steel substrate as per scratch test method. The poor corrosion resistance of the later coatings was shown to be due to the defects/cracks as well as the lesser adhesion of the coatings with steel. The hardness and elastic modulus of the Al-Mo coating are found to be high when compared to the other coatings.

  19. Nanoengineering of optical probes for in situ nanomechanical studies and biological interrogation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Huang, Qian; Villanueva, Josh

    2016-09-01

    The ability to stimulate, track, and record biological processes with as many data channels as possible is central to decoding complex phenomena in the body. For example, many biological processes involve small mechanical cues that can help drive chemical reactions and/or initiate responses to external stimuli. However, to measure these nanomechanical events, specialized tools are required that can not only achieve piconewton force resolution, but be able to record from multiple sites while maintaining a small footprint to allow embedded or intracellular measurements. This is challenging for state-of-the-art instruments such as atomic force microscopes or optical traps due to the difficulty in multiplexing, their size, and feedback mechanisms. Here we describe a new nanofiber-optic platform that can detect sub-piconewton forces by monitoring far-field scattering signals of plasmonic nanoparticles moving within the near-field. To provide mechanical resistance to the nanoparticles, and allow quantitative forces to be extracted, compressible polymer claddings have been designed that have tunable spring constants and chemical compositions. The transduction mechanism is demonstrated both on detecting local contact forces acting on the nanoparticles as well as acoustic waves propagating in the medium. Because of the small cross-sectional areas ( 1 mm), these nanofibers can also be inserted deep into tissue to locally excite and collect signals from single cells (e.g., neurons) with minimal invasiveness. Experiments focused on stimulating and recording from brain tissue will be discussed.

  20. Nanomechanical properties of friction stir welded AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumoulos, E.P. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Chemical Engineering 9 Heroon, Polytechneiou st., Zografos, Athens, GR-157 80 (Greece); Charitidis, C.A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Chemical Engineering 9 Heroon, Polytechneiou st., Zografos, Athens, GR-157 80 (Greece); Daniolos, N.M.; Pantelis, D.I. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 9 Heroon, Polytechneiou st., Zografos, Athens, GR-157 80 (Greece)

    2011-11-25

    Lightweight alloys are of major concern, due to their functionality and applications in transport and industry applications. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process for joining aluminum and other metallic alloys and has been employed in aerospace, rail, automotive and marine industries. Compared to the conventional welding techniques, FSW produces joints which do not exhibit defects caused by melting. The objective of the present study is to investigate the surface hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) in friction stir welded aluminum alloy AA6082-T6. The findings of the present study reveal that the welding process softens the material, since the weld nugget is the region where the most deformations are recorded (dynamic recrystallization, production of an extremely fine, equiaxial structure), confirmed by optical microscopy and reduced nanomechanical properties in the welding zone. A yield-type pop-in occurs upon low loading and represents the start of phase transformation, which is monitored through a gradual slope change of the load-displacement curve. Significant pile-up is recorded during nanoindentation of the alloy through SPM imaging.

  1. Nanomechanical behaviors of (110) and (111) CdZnTe crystals investigated by nanoindentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; KANG Renke; GAO Hang; WANG Jinghe; LANG Yanju

    2009-01-01

    The nanomechanical behaviors of (110) and (111) CdZnTe crystals were investigated by nanoindentation. It was found that the indenter tip was adhered by the removed materials in scanning testing area although the scanning force on the tested surface was very small (1000 nN), which would affect the testing result of nanoindentation, so the indenter was clean before nanoindentation test. The experimemtal results showed that the hardness and Young's modulus decreased with the increase of indentation loads on the same plane. Because of the anisot-ropy of the CdZnTe crystal, the average hardness of (110) plane is 35% lower than that of (l 11 ) plane, and there are about 30% difference of the hardness along different crystallographic directions on the same plane. The hardness in 0° and 120° testing directions was the same due to the threefold symmetry of a Berkovich indenter. And the anisotropy affected the surface quality during machining of CdZnTe crystal.

  2. Nanomechanical properties of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid film during degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Reyhaneh Neghabat; Aldabbagh, Fawaz; Erxleben, Andrea; Rochev, Yury; McHugh, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Despite the potential applications of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) coatings in medical devices, the mechanical properties of this material during degradation are poorly understood. In the present work, the nanomechanical properties and degradation of PLGA film were investigated. Hydrolysis of solvent-cast PLGA film was studied in buffer solution at 37 °C. The mass loss, water uptake, molecular weight, crystallinity and surface morphology of the film were tracked during degradation over 20 days. Characterization of the surface hardness and Young's modulus was performed using the nanoindentation technique for different indentation loads. The initially amorphous films were found to remain amorphous during degradation. The molecular weight of the film decreased quickly during the initial days of degradation. Diffusion of water into the film resulted in a reduction in surface hardness during the first few days, followed by an increase that was due to the surface roughness. There was a significant delay between the decrease in the mechanical properties of the film and the decrease in the molecular weight. A sudden decline in mechanical properties indicated that significant bulk degradation had occurred.

  3. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lipids: Differential line broadening due to cross-correlation effects as a probe of membrane structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldfield, E.; Adebodun, F.; Chung, J.; Montez, B.; Ki Deok Park; Hongbiao Le; Phillips, B. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-11-19

    The authors have obtained proton-coupled carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a variety of lipid-water and lipid-drug-water systems, at 11.7 T, as a function of temperature, using the 'magic-angle' sample-spinning (MAS) NMR technique. The resulting spectra show a wide range of line shapes, due to interferences between dipole-dipole and dipole-chemical shielding anisotropy interactions. The differential line-broadening effects observed are particularly large for aromatic and olefinic (sp{sup 2}) carbon atom sites. Coupled spectra of the tricyclic antidepressants desipramine and imipramine, in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-water mesophases, show well-resolved doublets having different line shapes for each of the four aromatic methine groups, due to selective averaging of the four C-H dipolar interactions due to rapid motion about the director (or drug C{sub 2}) axis. {sup 2}H NMR spectra of (2,4,6,8-{sup 2}H{sub 4})desipramine (and imipramine) in the same 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-water mesophase exhibit quadrupole splittings of {approximately}0-2 and {approximately}20 kHz, indicating an approximate magic-angle orientation of the C2-{sup 2}H({sup 1}H) and C8-{sup 2}H({sup 1}H) vectors with respect to an axis of motional averaging, in accord with the {sup 13}C NMR results. The good qualitative agreement between {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H NMR results suggests that useful orientational ({sup 2}H NMR like) information can be deduced from natural-abundance {sup 13}C NMR spectra of a variety of mobile solids.

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy of Red-Light Photoreceptors Using PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Marie E.; Sorenson, Blaire A.; Thomas, J. Santoro; Stojković, Emina A.; Tsonchev, Stefan; Nicholson, Kenneth T.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses a pyramidal tip attached to a cantilever to probe the force response of a surface. The deflections of the tip can be measured to ~10 pN by a laser and sectored detector, which can be converted to image topography. Amplitude modulation or “tapping mode” AFM involves the probe making intermittent contact with the surface while oscillating at its resonant frequency to produce an image. Used in conjunction with a fluid cell, tapping-mode AFM enables the imaging of biological macromolecules such as proteins in physiologically relevant conditions. Tapping-mode AFM requires manual tuning of the probe and frequent adjustments of a multitude of scanning parameters which can be challenging for inexperienced users. To obtain high-quality images, these adjustments are the most time consuming. PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping (PF-QNM) produces an image by measuring a force response curve for every point of contact with the sample. With ScanAsyst software, PF-QNM can be automated. This software adjusts the set-point, drive frequency, scan rate, gains, and other important scanning parameters automatically for a given sample. Not only does this process protect both fragile probes and samples, it significantly reduces the time required to obtain high resolution images. PF-QNM is compatible for AFM imaging in fluid; therefore, it has extensive application for imaging biologically relevant materials. The method presented in this paper describes the application of PF-QNM to obtain images of a bacterial red-light photoreceptor, RpBphP3 (P3), from photosynthetic R. palustris in its light-adapted state. Using this method, individual protein dimers of P3 and aggregates of dimers have been observed on a mica surface in the presence of an imaging buffer. With appropriate adjustments to surface and/or solution concentration, this method may be generally applied to other biologically relevant macromolecules and soft materials. PMID

  5. A hybrid on-chip opto-nanomechanical transducer for ultra-sensitive force measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gavartin, Emanuel; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2011-01-01

    Nanomechanical oscillators have been employed as transducers to measure force, mass and charge with high sensitivity. They are also used in opto- or electromechanical experiments with the goal of quantum control and phenomena of mechanical systems. Here, we report the realization and operation of a hybrid monolithically integrated transducer system consisting of a high-$Q$ nanomechanical oscillator with modes in the MHz regime coupled to the near-field of a high-$Q$ optical whispering-gallery-mode microresonator. The transducer system enables a sensitive resolution of the nanomechanical beam's thermal motion with a signal-to-noise of five orders of magnitude and has a force sensitivity of $74\\,\\rm{aN}\\,\\rm{Hz}^{-1/2}$ at room temperature. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the sensitivity of continuous incoherent force detection improves only with the fourth root of the averaging time. Using dissipative feedback based on radiation pressure enabled control, we explicitly demonstrate by detect...

  6. Finite Element Analysis on Nanomechanical Detection of Small Particles: Toward Virus Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-01-01

    Detection of small particles, including viruses and particulate matter (PM), has been attracting much attention in light of increasing need for environmental monitoring. Owing to their high versatility, a nanomechanical sensor is one of the most promising sensors which can be adapted to various monitoring systems. In this study, we present an optimization strategy to efficiently detect small particles with nanomechanical sensors. Adsorption of particles on the receptor layer of nanomechanical sensors and the resultant signal are analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA). We investigate the effect of structural parameters (e.g., adsorption position and embedded depth of a particle and thickness of the receptor layer) and elastic properties of the receptor layer (e.g., Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio) on the sensitivity. It is found that a membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS) has the potential for robust detection of small particles. PMID:27148181

  7. Cavity nano-optomechanics: a nanomechanical system in a high finesse optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Stapfner, Sebastian; Hunger, David; Paulitschke, Philipp; Reichel, Jakob; Karrai, Khaled; Weig, Eva M; 10.1117/12.705901

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of mechanical oscillators with light has seen a recent surge of interest, as recent reviews report.[1, 2] This coupling is enhanced when confining light in an optical cavity where the mechanical oscillator is integrated as back- mirror or movable wall. At the nano-scale, the optomechanical coupling increases further thanks to a smaller optomechanical interaction volume and reduced mass of the mechanical oscillator. In view of realizing such cavity nano- optomechanics experiments, a scheme was proposed where a sub-wavelength sized nanomechanical oscillator is coupled to a high finesse optical microcavity.[3] Here we present such an experiment involving a single nanomechanical rod precisely positioned into the confined mode of a miniature Fabry-P\\'erot cavity.[4] We describe the employed stabilized cavity set-up and related finesse measurements. We proceed characterizing the nanorod vibration properties using ultrasonic piezo-actuation methods. Using the optical cavity as a transducer of nanomechan...

  8. Estimation of torque on mechanical heart valves due to magnetic resonance imaging including an estimation of the significance of the Lenz effect using a computational model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Neil M. [44 Ardgowan Street, Greenock PA16 8EL (United Kingdom). E-mail: neil.robertson at physics.org; Diaz-Gomez, Manuel [Plaza Alcalde Horacio Hermoso, 2, 3-A 41013 Seville (Spain). E-mail: manolo-diaz at latinmail.com; Condon, Barrie [Department of Clinical Physics, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow G51 4TF (United Kingdom). E-mail: barrie.condon at udcf.gla.ac.uk

    2000-12-01

    Mitral and aortic valve replacement is a procedure which is common in cardiac surgery. Some of these replacement valves are mechanical and contain moving metal parts. Should the patient in whom such a valve has been implanted be involved in magnetic resonance imaging, there is a possible dangerous interaction between the moving metal parts and the static magnetic field due to the Lenz effect. Mathematical models of two relatively common forms of single-leaflet valves have been derived and the magnitude of the torque which opposes the motion of the valve leaflet has been calculated for a valve disc of solid metal. In addition, a differential model of a ring-strengthener valve type has been considered to determine the likely significance of the Lenz effect in the context of the human heart. For common magnetic field strengths at present, i.e. 1 to 2 T, the effect is not particularly significant. However, there is a marked increase in back pressure as static magnetic field strength increases. There are concerns that, since field strengths in the range 3 to 4 T are increasingly being used, the Lenz effect could become significant. At 5 to 10 T the malfunction of the mechanical heart valve could cause the heart to behave as though it is diseased. For unhealthy or old patients this could possibly prove fatal. (author)

  9. ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line broadening due to the earth magnetic field, occuring only in the case of an axially symmetric electric field gradient tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Sarra; Guendouz, Laouès; Marande, Pierre-Louis; Canet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated before, the application of a weak static B0 magnetic field (less than 10 G) may produce definite effects on the ¹⁴N Quadrupole Resonance line when the electric field gradient tensor at the nitrogen nucleus level is of axial symmetry. Here, we address more precisely the problem of the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields (the static field and the radio-frequency field of the pure NQR experiment). For a field of 6G, the evolution of the signal intensity, as a function of this relative orientation, is in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions. There is in particular an intensity loss by a factor of three when going from the parallel configuration to the perpendicular configuration. By contrast, when dealing with a very weak magnetic field (as the earth field, around 0.5 G), this effect drops to ca. 1.5 in the case Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).This is explained by the fact that the Zeeman shift (due to the very weak magnetic field) becomes comparable to the natural line-width. The latter can therefore be determined by accounting for this competition. Still in the case of HMT, the estimated natural line-width is half the observed line-width. The extra broadening is thus attributed to earth magnetic field. The latter constitutes therefore the main cause of the difference between the natural transverse relaxation time (T₂) and the transverse relaxation time derived from the observed line-width (T₂(⁎)).

  10. Nanomechanics of Cells and Biomaterials Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Jason I; Revenko, Irène; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-11-18

    The behavior and mechanical properties of cells are strongly dependent on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of their microenvironment. Thus, understanding the mechanical properties of cells, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials is key to understanding cell function and to develop new materials with tailored mechanical properties for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as an indispensable technique for measuring the mechanical properties of biomaterials and cells with high spatial resolution and force sensitivity within physiologically relevant environments and timescales in the kPa to GPa elastic modulus range. The growing interest in this field of bionanomechanics has been accompanied by an expanding array of models to describe the complexity of indentation of hierarchical biological samples. Furthermore, the integration of AFM with optical microscopy techniques has further opened the door to a wide range of mechanotransduction studies. In recent years, new multidimensional and multiharmonic AFM approaches for mapping mechanical properties have been developed, which allow the rapid determination of, for example, cell elasticity. This Progress Report provides an introduction and practical guide to making AFM-based nanomechanical measurements of cells and surfaces for tissue engineering applications.

  11. Fluctuating nanomechanical systems in a high finesse optical microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Favero, I; Hunger, D; Paulitschke, P; Reichel, J; Lorenz, H; Weig, E M; Karrai, K

    2009-01-01

    Confining a laser field between two high reflectivity mirrors of a high-finesse cavity can increase the probability of a given cavity photon to be scattered by an atom traversing the confined photon mode. This enhanced coupling between light and atoms is successfully employed in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and led to a very prolific research in quantum optics. The idea of extending such experiments to sub-wavelength sized nanomechanical systems has been recently proposed in the context of optical cavity cooling. Here we present an experiment involving a single nanorod consisting of about 10^9 atoms precisely positioned to plunge into the confined mode of a miniature high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. We show that the optical transmission of the cavity is affected not only by the static position of the nanorod but also by its vibrational fluctuation. While an imprint of the vibration dynamics is directly detected in the optical transmission, back-action of the light field is also anticipated to qu...

  12. Measuring the momentum of a nanomechanical oscillator using tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Charles; Trauzettel, Bjoern; Bruder, Christoph

    2008-03-01

    We present a way to measure the momentum p of a nanomechanical oscillatorootnotetextC. B. Doiron, B. Trauzettel, C. Bruder. arXiv:0707.2709.. The momentum detector is based on two tunnel junctions in an Aharonov-Bohm-type setup, where one of the tunneling amplitudes depends on the motion of the oscillator and the other one does not. The coupling between the first tunnel junction and the oscillator is assumed to be linear in the position x of the oscillator t(x) = t0+ t1x. However, the presence of two junctions can, under certain conditions, lead to an effective imaginary coupling t(x) = t0+ i t1x. By calculating the equation-of-motion for the density matrix of the coupled (oscillator+tunnel junction) systemootnotetextA.A Clerk, S. Girvin. Phys. Rev. B 70, 121303 (2004)., we show that in this case the finite-frequency current noise of the detector is proportional to the momentum spectrum of the oscillator.

  13. Application of nonlinear systems in nanomechanics and nanofluids analytical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ganji, Davood Domairry

    2015-01-01

    With Application of Nonlinear Systems in Nanomechanics and Nanofluids the reader gains a deep and practice-oriented understanding of nonlinear systems within areas of nanotechnology application as well as the necessary knowledge enabling the handling of such systems. The book helps readers understand relevant methods and techniques for solving nonlinear problems, and is an invaluable reference for researchers, professionals and PhD students interested in research areas and industries where nanofluidics and dynamic nano-mechanical systems are studied or applied. The book is useful in areas suc

  14. Nonlinear mode coupling and internal resonances in MoS2 nanoelectromechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, C.; Yasasvi Gangavarapu, P. R.; Naik, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Atomically thin two dimensional (2D) layered materials have emerged as a new class of material for nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) due to their extraordinary mechanical properties and ultralow mass density. Among them, graphene has been the material of choice for nanomechanical resonator. However, recent interest in 2D chalcogenide compounds has also spurred research in using materials such as MoS2 for the NEMS applications. As the dimensions of devices fabricated using these materials shrink down to atomically thin membrane, strain and nonlinear effects have become important. A clear understanding of the nonlinear effects and the ability to manipulate them is essential for next generation sensors. Here, we report on all electrical actuation and detection of few-layer MoS2 resonator. The ability to electrically detect multiple modes and actuate the modes deep into the nonlinear regime enables us to probe the nonlinear coupling between various vibrational modes. The modal coupling in our device is strong enough to detect three distinct internal resonances.

  15. Modulation of mechanical resonance by chemical potential oscillation in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Deshpande, Vikram V.; Koshino, Mikito; Lee, Sunwoo; Gondarenko, Alexander; MacDonald, Allan H.; Kim, Philip; Hone, James

    2016-03-01

    The classical picture of the force on a capacitor assumes a large density of electronic states, such that the electrochemical potential of charges added to the capacitor is given by the external electrostatic potential and the capacitance is determined purely by geometry. Here we consider capacitively driven motion of a nano-mechanical resonator with a low density of states, in which these assumptions can break down. We find three leading-order corrections to the classical picture: the first of which is a modulation in the static force due to variation in the internal chemical potential; the second and third are changes in the static force and dynamic spring constant due to the rate of change of chemical potential, expressed as the quantum (density of states) capacitance. As a demonstration, we study capacitively driven graphene mechanical resonators, where the chemical potential is modulated independently of the gate voltage using an applied magnetic field to manipulate the energy of electrons residing in discrete Landau levels. In these devices, we observe large periodic frequency shifts consistent with the three corrections to the classical picture. In devices with extremely low strain and disorder, the first correction term dominates and the resonant frequency closely follows the chemical potential. The theoretical model fits the data with only one adjustable parameter representing disorder-broadening of the Landau levels. The underlying electromechanical coupling mechanism is not limited by the particular choice of material, geometry, or mechanism for variation in the chemical potential, and can thus be extended to other low-dimensional systems.

  16. Nanomechanical mapping of bone tissue regenerated by magnetic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Michele; Boi, Marco; Sartori, Maria; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Lopomo, Nicola; Fini, Milena; Dediu, Alek; Tampieri, Anna; Marcacci, Maurilio; Russo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Nanoindentation can provide new insights on the maturity stage of regenerating bone. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the nanomechanical properties of newly-formed bone tissue at 4 weeks from the implantation of permanent magnets and magnetic scaffolds in the trabecular bone of rabbit femoral condyles. Three different groups have been investigated: MAG-A (NdFeB magnet + apatite/collagen scaffold with magnetic nanoparticles directly nucleated on the collagen fibers during scaffold synthesis); MAG-B (NdFeB magnet + apatite/collagen scaffold later infiltrated with magnetic nanoparticles) and MAG (NdFeB magnet). The mechanical properties of different-maturity bone tissues, i.e. newly-formed immature, newly-formed mature and native trabecular bone have been evaluated for the three groups. Contingent correlations between elastic modulus and hardness of immature, mature and native bone have been examined and discussed, as well as the efficacy of the adopted regeneration method in terms of "mechanical gap" between newly-formed and native bone tissue. The results showed that MAG-B group provided regenerated bone tissue with mechanical properties closer to that of native bone compared to MAG-A or MAG groups after 4 weeks from implantation. Further, whereas the mechanical properties of newly-formed immature and mature bone were found to be fairly good correlated, no correlation was detected between immature or mature bone and native bone. The reported results evidence the efficacy of nanoindentation tests for the investigation of the maturity of newly-formed bone not accessible through conventional analyses.

  17. Modeling and experimental vibration analysis of nanomechanical cantilever active probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Bashash, Saeid; Jalili, Nader

    2008-08-01

    Nanomechanical cantilever (NMC) active probes have recently received increased attention in a variety of nanoscale sensing and measurement applications. Current modeling practices call for a uniform cantilever beam without considering the intentional jump discontinuities associated with the piezoelectric layer attachment and the NMC cross-sectional step. This paper presents a comprehensive modeling framework for modal characterization and dynamic response analysis of NMC active probes with geometrical discontinuities. The entire length of the NMC is divided into three segments of uniform beams followed by applying appropriate continuity conditions. The characteristics matrix equation is then used to solve for system natural frequencies and mode shapes. Using an equivalent electromechanical moment of a piezoelectric layer, forced motion analysis of the system is carried out. An experimental setup consisting of a commercial NMC active probe from Veeco and a state-of-the-art microsystem analyzer, the MSA-400 from Polytec, is developed to verify the theoretical developments proposed here. Using a parameter estimation technique based on minimizing the modeling error, optimal values of system parameters are identified. Mode shapes and the modal frequency response of the system for the first three modes determined from the proposed model are compared with those obtained from the experiment and commonly used theory for uniform beams. Results indicate that the uniform beam model fails to accurately predict the actual system response, especially in multiple-mode operation, while the proposed discontinuous beam model demonstrates good agreement with the experimental data. Such detailed and accurate modeling framework can lead to significant enhancement in the sensitivity of piezoelectric-based NMC sensors for use in variety of sensing and imaging applications.

  18. Nanomechanical characterization of multilayered thin film structures for digital micromirror devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua; Bhushan, Bharat; Joshua Jacobs, S

    2004-08-15

    The digital micromirror device (DMD), used for digital projection displays, comprises a surface-micromachined array of up to 2.07 million aluminum micromirrors (14 {mu}m square and 15 {mu}m pitch), which switch forward and backward thousands of times per second using electrostatic attraction. The nanomechanical properties of the thin-film structures used are important to the performance of the DMD. In this paper, the nanomechanical characterization of the single and multilayered thin film structures, which are of interest in DMDs, is carried out. The hardness, Young's modulus and scratch resistance of TiN/Si, SiO{sub 2}/Si, Al alloy/Si, TiN/Al alloy/Si and SiO{sub 2}/TiN/Al alloy/Si thin-film structures were measured using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques, respectively. The residual (internal) stresses developed during the thin film growth were estimated by measuring the radius of curvature of the sample before and after deposition. To better understand the nanomechanical properties of these thin film materials, the surface and interface analysis of the samples were conducted using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nanomechanical properties of these materials are analyzed and the impact of these properties on micromirror performance is discussed.

  19. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40 MHz

  20. Investigation on the remineralization effect of arginine toothpaste for early enamel caries: nanotribological and nanomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Arola, Dwayne D.; Min, Jie; Yu, Dandan; Xu, Zhou; Li, Zhi; Gao, Shanshan

    2016-11-01

    Remineralization is confirmed as a feasible method to restore early enamel caries. While there is evidence that the 8% arginine toothpaste has a good remineralization effect by increasing surface microhardness, the repair effect on wear-resistance and nanomechanical properties still remains unclear. Therefore, this research was conducted to reveal the nanotribological and nanomechanical properties changes of early caries enamel after remineralized with arginine toothpaste. Early enamel caries were created in bovine enamel blocks, and divided into three groups according to the treatment solutions: distilled and deionized water (DDW group), arginine toothpaste slurry (arginine group) and fluoride toothpaste slurry (fluoride group). All of the samples were subjected to pH cycling for 12 d. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties were evaluated via the nanoscratch and nanoindentation tests. The wear depth and scratch morphology were observed respectively by scanning probe microscopic (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for element analysis of remineralized surfaces. Results showed that the wear depth of early caries enamel decreased after remineralization treatment and both the nanohardness and elastic modulus increased. Compared with the fluoride group, the arginine group exhibited higher nanohardness and elastic modulus with higher levels of calcium, fluoride, nitrogen and phosphorus; this group also underwent less wear and related damage. Overall, the synergistic effect of arginine and fluoride in arginine toothpaste achieves better nanotribological and nanomechanical properties than the single fluoride toothpaste, which could have significant impact on fight against early enamel caries.

  1. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40

  2. Nanomechanical properties of dip coated indium tin oxide films on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Nilormi [Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Priyanka; Sarkar, Saswati; Moitra, Debabrata; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar [Sol–Gel Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: sjana@cgcri.res.in [Sol–Gel Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar, E-mail: anoopmukherjee@cgcri.res.in [Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-03-31

    Nanomechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films dip coated from precursor sols of varying equivalent oxide weight percentage (wt.%) onto commercial soda lime silica (SLS) glass substrate were evaluated by nanoindentation technique at an ultralow load of 50 μN. It was found that the increase in wt.% beyond 6 in the precursor sols, had an adverse effect on nanohardness and Young's modulus of the films. Moreover, relatively thicker triple layered film (about 240 nm) had inferior nanomechanical properties as compared to the single layered film. Interestingly, the ITO foam coating on SLS glass substrate had nanomechanical properties nearly as good as those of the single layered films. These observations are explained in terms of the relative differences in crystallinity, stiffness and elastic deformation ability of the films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel indium tin oxide thin films and foam coating • Crystallinity and nanomechanical property inversely relate to sol oxide content. • Foam coating behaves like the thin films.

  3. Modeling the Kelvin polarization force actuation of Micro- and Nanomechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Hierold, C.; Boisen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Polarization forces have become of high interest in micro- and nanomechanical systems. In this paper, an analytical model for a transduction scheme based on the Kelvin polarization force is presented. A dielectric beam is actuated by placing it over the gap of two coplanar electrodes. Finite elem...

  4. Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J

    2009-08-28

    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  5. Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2009-08-01

    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  6. Ultraefficient Cooling of Resonators: Beating Sideband Cooling with Quantum Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Strauch, Frederick; Jacobs, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    There is presently a great deal of interest in cooling high-frequency micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators to their ground states. The present state of the art in cooling mechanical resonators is a version of sideband cooling, which was originally developed in the context of cooling trapped ions. Here we present a method based on quantum control that uses the same configuration as sideband cooling--coupling the resonator to be cooled to a second microwave (or optical) auxiliary resonator--but will cool significantly colder. This is achieved by applying optimal control and varying the strength of the coupling between the two resonators over a time on the order of the period of the mechanical resonator. As part of our analysis, we also obtain a method for fast, high-fidelity quantum information transfer between resonators.

  7. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  8. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  9. Reaction dynamics. Extremely short-lived reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H

    2015-01-02

    The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very short-lived dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules.

  10. Electromechanical coupling in suspended nanomechanical resonators with a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    A physical model describing the piezoelectric-effect-mediated influence of bending of a thin suspended cantilever with a two-dimensional electron gas on the conductivity is proposed. The model shows that the conductivity change is almost entirely caused by the rapid change in mechanical stress near the boundary of suspended and non-suspended areas, rather than by the stress itself. An experiment confirming that the electromechanical coupling is associated with the piezoelectric effect is performed. The experimentally measured conductance sensitivity to the cantilever’s vibrations agree with the developed physical model.

  11. Ultra-low power hydrogen sensing based on a palladium-coated nanomechanical beam resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksson, Jonas; Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Brugger, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    of H 2, therefore generating a stress build-up that causes the frequency of the device to drop. The devices are able to detect H2 concentrations below 0.5% within 1 s of the onset of the exposure using only a few hundreds of pW of power, matching the industry requirements for H 2 safety sensors....... In addition, we investigate the strongly detrimental effect that relative humidity (RH) has on the Pd responsivity to H2, showing that the response is almost nullified at about 70% RH. As a remedy for this intrinsic limitation, we applied a mild heating current through the beam, generating a few μW of power...

  12. A Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a nanomechanical resonator on an atom chip

    CERN Document Server

    Treutlein, P; Hunger, D; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Camerer, Stephan; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David; Reichel, Jakob; Treutlein, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    We study the coupling of the spin of Bose-Einstein condensed atoms to the mechanical oscillations of a nanoscale cantilever with a magnetic tip. This is an experimentally viable hybrid quantum system which allows one to explore the interface of quantum optics and condensed matter physics. We propose an experiment where easily detectable atomic spin-flips are induced by the cantilever motion. This can be used to probe thermal oscillations of the cantilever with the atoms. At low cantilever temperatures, as realized in recent experiments, back-action of the atoms onto the cantilever is significant and the system represents a mechanical analog of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With high but realistic cantilever quality factors, the strong coupling regime can be reached, either with single atoms or collectively with BECs. We discuss an implementation on an atom chip.

  13. In situ nanomechanical testing in focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianola, D. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sedlmayr, A.; Moenig, R.; Kraft, O. [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Volkert, C. A. [Institute for Materials Physics, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Major, R. C.; Cyrankowski, E.; Asif, S. A. S.; Warren, O. L. [Hysitron, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55344 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The recent interest in size-dependent deformation of micro- and nanoscale materials has paralleled both technological miniaturization and advancements in imaging and small-scale mechanical testing methods. Here we describe a quantitative in situ nanomechanical testing approach adapted to a dual-beam focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope. A transducer based on a three-plate capacitor system is used for high-fidelity force and displacement measurements. Specimen manipulation, transfer, and alignment are performed using a manipulator, independently controlled positioners, and the focused ion beam. Gripping of specimens is achieved using electron-beam assisted Pt-organic deposition. Local strain measurements are obtained using digital image correlation of electron images taken during testing. Examples showing results for tensile testing of single-crystalline metallic nanowires and compression of nanoporous Au pillars will be presented in the context of size effects on mechanical behavior and highlight some of the challenges of conducting nanomechanical testing in vacuum environments.

  14. In situ nanomechanical testing in focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianola, D S; Sedlmayr, A; Mönig, R; Volkert, C A; Major, R C; Cyrankowski, E; Asif, S A S; Warren, O L; Kraft, O

    2011-06-01

    The recent interest in size-dependent deformation of micro- and nanoscale materials has paralleled both technological miniaturization and advancements in imaging and small-scale mechanical testing methods. Here we describe a quantitative in situ nanomechanical testing approach adapted to a dual-beam focused ion beam and scanning electron microscope. A transducer based on a three-plate capacitor system is used for high-fidelity force and displacement measurements. Specimen manipulation, transfer, and alignment are performed using a manipulator, independently controlled positioners, and the focused ion beam. Gripping of specimens is achieved using electron-beam assisted Pt-organic deposition. Local strain measurements are obtained using digital image correlation of electron images taken during testing. Examples showing results for tensile testing of single-crystalline metallic nanowires and compression of nanoporous Au pillars will be presented in the context of size effects on mechanical behavior and highlight some of the challenges of conducting nanomechanical testing in vacuum environments.

  15. Nano-mechanical properties of nano-gold/DLC composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Bhadra, Nilanjana; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar; Bhar, Radhaballav; Pal, Arun Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Diamond-like-Carbon composite films, with embedded gold nanoparticles, were deposited onto glass substrates by using capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (CCP-CVD) technique. The volume fraction of the metal nanoparticles in the films as well as the size of the nanoparticles was varied by varying the percentage of argon in the methane + argon mixture during the deposition. Bonding environments in these films were obtained from Raman and GIXRD. The nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of the Au-DLC nanocomposite films were evaluated. In situ SPM imaging was utilized to depict deformation characteristics developed during the static and dynamic contact events. Influence of metal incorporation on the extent of sp2/sp3 hybridization and thereby on the nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of the DLC films was studied.

  16. Nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tark, Soo-Hyun; Dravid, Vinayak P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Das, Aditi; Sligar, Stephen, E-mail: s-sligar@illinois.edu, E-mail: v-dravid@northwestern.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-10-29

    The label-free detection of cholera toxin is demonstrated using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs. The cholera toxin molecules bind specifically to the active membrane protein encased in nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayers surrounded by an amphipathic protein belt, immobilized on the cantilever surface. The specific molecular binding results in cantilever deflection via the formation of a surface stress-induced bending moment. The nanomechanical cantilever response is quantitatively monitored by optical interference. The consistent and reproducible nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin in nanomolar range concentrations is demonstrated. The results validated with such a model system suggest that the combination of a microcantilever platform with receptor nanodiscs is a promising approach for monitoring invasive pathogens and other types of biomolecular detection relevant to drug discovery.

  17. Nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Soo-Hyun; Das, Aditi; Sligar, Stephen; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2010-10-01

    The label-free detection of cholera toxin is demonstrated using microcantilevers functionalized with ganglioside nanodiscs. The cholera toxin molecules bind specifically to the active membrane protein encased in nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayers surrounded by an amphipathic protein belt, immobilized on the cantilever surface. The specific molecular binding results in cantilever deflection via the formation of a surface stress-induced bending moment. The nanomechanical cantilever response is quantitatively monitored by optical interference. The consistent and reproducible nanomechanical detection of cholera toxin in nanomolar range concentrations is demonstrated. The results validated with such a model system suggest that the combination of a microcantilever platform with receptor nanodiscs is a promising approach for monitoring invasive pathogens and other types of biomolecular detection relevant to drug discovery.

  18. Nanomechanical DNA origami 'single-molecule beacons' directly imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Sakai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Xu, Yan; Komiyama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    DNA origami involves the folding of long single-stranded DNA into designed structures with the aid of short staple strands; such structures may enable the development of useful nanomechanical DNA devices. Here we develop versatile sensing systems for a variety of chemical and biological targets at molecular resolution. We have designed functional nanomechanical DNA origami devices that can be used as 'single-molecule beacons', and function as pinching devices. Using 'DNA origami pliers' and 'DNA origami forceps', which consist of two levers ~170 nm long connected at a fulcrum, various single-molecule inorganic and organic targets ranging from metal ions to proteins can be visually detected using atomic force microscopy by a shape transition of the origami devices. Any detection mechanism suitable for the target of interest, pinching, zipping or unzipping, can be chosen and used orthogonally with differently shaped origami devices in the same mixture using a single platform. PMID:21863016

  19. Nanomechanical analysis of high performance materials (solid mechanics and its applications)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers who are interested in investigating the nanomechanical properties of materials using advanced instrumentation techniques. The chapters of the book are written in an easy-to-follow format, just like solved examples. The book comprehensively covers a broad range of materials such as polymers, ceramics, hybrids, biomaterials, metal oxides, nanoparticles, minerals, carbon nanotubes and welded joints. Each chapter describes the application of techniques on the selected material and also mentions the methodology adopted for the extraction of information from the raw data. This is a unique book in which both equipment manufacturers and equipment users have contributed chapters. Novices will learn the techniques directly from the inventors and senior researchers will gain in-depth information on the new technologies that are suitable for advanced analysis. On one hand, fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the nanomechanical behavior of materials is included in the i...

  20. NANOMECHANICAL AND CORROSION PROPERTIES OF ZK60 MAGNESIUM ALLOY IMPROVED BY GD ION IMPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    XUE WEI TAO; ZHANG ZHONG WANG; XIAO BO ZHANG; ZHI XIN BA; YA MEI WANG

    2014-01-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) ion implantation with doses from 2.5 × 1016 to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 into ZK60 magnesium alloy was carried out to improve its surface properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindenter, electrochemical workstation and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to analyze the chemical composition, nanomechanical properties and corrosion characteristics of the implanted layer. The results indicate that Gd ion implantation produces a hybrid-structure protective lay...

  1. Biophysics of skin and its treatments structural, nanotribological, and nanomechanical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the structural, nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of skin with and without cream treatment as a function of operating environment. The biophysics of skin as the outer layer covering human or animal body is discussed as a complex biological structure. Skin cream is used to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft, and flexible surface with moist perception by altering the surface roughness, friction, adhesion, elastic modulus, and surface charge of the skin surface. .

  2. Deformation of nanotubes in peeling contact with flat substrate: An in situ electron microscopy nanomechanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zheng, Meng; Wei, Qing; Signetti, Stefano; Pugno, Nicola M.; Ke, Changhong

    2016-04-01

    Peeling of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from flat substrates is an essential technique in studying their adhesion properties. The mechanical deformation of the nanostructure in the peeling experiment is critical to the understanding of the peeling process and the interpretation of the peeling measurements, but it is challenging to measure directly and quantitatively at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate the peeling deformation of a bundled carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber by using an in situ scanning electron microscopy nanomechanical peeling technique. A pre-calibrated atomic force microscopy cantilever is utilized as the peeling force sensor, and its back surface acts as the peeling contact substrate. The nanomechanical peeling scheme enables a quantitative characterization of the deformational behaviors of the CNT fiber in both positive and negative peeling configurations with sub-10 nm spatial and sub-nN force resolutions. Nonlinear continuum mechanics models and finite element simulations are employed to interpret the peeling measurements. The measurements and analysis reveal that the structural imperfections in the CNT fiber may have a substantial influence on its peeling deformations and the corresponding peeling forces. The research findings reported in this work are useful to the study of mechanical and adhesion properties of 1D nanostructures by using nanomechanical peeling techniques.

  3. Alteration of corrosion and nanomechanical properties of pulse electrodeposited Ni/SiC nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarghami, V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, M., E-mail: Ghorbani@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • Preparing Ni/SiC coatings on the Cu substrate by using of rotating disk electrode. • Optimizing of pulse current density parameters. • Optimizing of SiC content in the bath. • Investigation the effect of codeposited SiC amount on the properties of coatings. - Abstract: Nickel/silicon carbide composite electrodeposits were prepared on a rotating disk electrode (RDE), under pulse current condition. The effect of pulse parameters, current density, SiC content in the electrolyte on the codeposition of SiC were studied. Afterwards, the effect of codeposited SiC amount was investigated on electrochemical behavior and nanomechanical properties of coatings. The coatings were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), linear polarization, nanoindentation and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The Ni–SiC electrocomposites, prepared at optimum conditions, exhibited improved nanomechanical properties in comparison to pure nickel electrodeposits. With increasing current density the morphology changed from flat surface to cauliflower structure. The Ni–SiC electrocomposites exhibited improved nanomechanical properties and corrosion resistances in comparison to pure nickel electrodeposits and these properties were improving with increasing codeposited SiC particles in electrocomposites.

  4. Simultaneous Nanomechanical and Electrochemical Mapping: Combining Peak Force Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy with Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2016-06-21

    Soft electronic devices play a crucial role in, e.g., neural implants as stimulating electrodes, transducers for biosensors, or selective drug-delivery. Because of their elasticity, they can easily adapt to their environment and prevent immunoreactions leading to an overall improved long-term performance. In addition, flexible electronic devices such as stretchable displays will be increasingly used in everyday life, e.g., for so-called electronic wearables. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a versatile tool to characterize these micro- and nanostructured devices in terms of their topography. Using advanced imaging techniques such as peak force tapping (PFT), nanomechanical properties including adhesion, deformation, and Young's modulus can be simultaneously mapped along with surface features. However, conventional AFM provides limited laterally resolved information on electrical or electrochemical properties such as the activity of an electrode array. In this study, we present the first combination of AFM with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in PFT mode, thereby offering spatially correlated electrochemical and nanomechanical information paired with high-resolution topographical data under force control (QNM-AFM-SECM). The versatility of this combined scanning probe approach is demonstrated by mapping topographical, electrochemical, and nanomechanical properties of gold microelectrodes and of gold electrodes patterned onto polydimethylsiloxane.

  5. DNA origami-based shape IDs for single-molecule nanomechanical genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglu; Chao, Jie; Pan, Dun; Liu, Huajie; Qiang, Yu; Liu, Ke; Cui, Chengjun; Chen, Jianhua; Huang, Qing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yongyong; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-04-01

    Variations on DNA sequences profoundly affect how we develop diseases and respond to pathogens and drugs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a nanomechanical imaging approach for genetic analysis with nanometre resolution. However, unlike fluorescence imaging that has wavelength-specific fluorophores, the lack of shape-specific labels largely hampers widespread applications of AFM imaging. Here we report the development of a set of differentially shaped, highly hybridizable self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures serving as shape IDs for magnified nanomechanical imaging of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these origami shape IDs, we directly genotype single molecules of human genomic DNA with an ultrahigh resolution of ~10 nm and the multiplexing ability. Further, we determine three types of disease-associated, long-range haplotypes in samples from the Han Chinese population. Single-molecule analysis allows robust haplotyping even for samples with low labelling efficiency. We expect this generic shape ID-based nanomechanical approach to hold great potential in genetic analysis at the single-molecule level.

  6. The Nanomechanical Properties of Lactococcus lactis Pili Are Conditioned by the Polymerized Backbone Pilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Castelain

    Full Text Available Pili produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis are putative linear structures consisting of repetitive subunits of the major pilin PilB that forms the backbone, pilin PilA situated at the distal end of the pilus, and an anchoring pilin PilC that tethers the pilus to the peptidoglycan. We determined the nanomechanical properties of pili using optical-tweezers force spectroscopy. Single pili were exposed to optical forces that yielded force-versus-extension spectra fitted using the Worm-Like Chain model. Native pili subjected to a force of 0-200 pN exhibit an inextensible, but highly flexible ultrastructure, reflected by their short persistence length. We tested a panel of derived strains to understand the functional role of the different pilins. First, we found that both the major pilin PilB and sortase C organize the backbone into a full-length organelle and dictate the nanomechanical properties of the pili. Second, we found that both PilA tip pilin and PilC anchoring pilin were not essential for the nanomechanical properties of pili. However, PilC maintains the pilus on the bacterial surface and may play a crucial role in the adhesion- and biofilm-forming properties of L. lactis.

  7. Nanomechanical motion measured with an imprecision below the standard quantum limit using a nearly shot-noise limited microwave interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Jennifer; Teufel, John; Donner, Tobias; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Lehnert, Konrad

    2010-03-01

    Observing quantum behavior of mechanical motion is challenging because it is difficult both to prepare pure quantum states of motion and to detect those states with sufficient precision. We present displacement measurements of a nanomechanical oscillator with an imprecision below that at the standard quantum limit [1]. We infer the motion from the phase modulation imprinted on a microwave signal by that motion. The modulation is enhanced by embedding the oscillator in a high-Q microwave cavity. We achieve the low imprecision by reading out the modulation with a Josephson Parametric Amplifier, realizing a microwave interferometer that operates near the shot-noise limit. The apparent motion of the mechanical oscillator due the interferometer's noise is now substantially less than its zero-point motion, making future detection of quantum states feasible. In addition, the phase sensitivity of the demonstrated interferometer is 30 times higher than previous microwave interferometers, providing a critical piece of technology for many experiments investigating quantum information encoded in microwave fields. [1] J. D. Teufel, T. Donner, M. A. Castellanos-Beltran, J. W. Harlow, K. W. Lehnert, Nature Nanotechnology, doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.343, (2009).

  8. Nanomechanical Contribution of Collagen and von Willebrand Factor A in Marine Underwater Adhesion and Its Implication for Collagen Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hee Young; Huang, Jun; Li, Lin; Foo, Mathias; Zeng, Hongbo; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2016-03-14

    Recent works on mussel adhesion have identified a load bearing matrix protein (PTMP1) containing von Willebrand factor (vWF) with collagen binding capability that contributes to the mussel holdfast by manipulating mussel collagens. Using a surface forces apparatus, we investigate for the first time, the nanomechanical properties of vWF-collagen interaction using homologous proteins of mussel byssus, PTMP1 and preCollagens (preCols), as collagen. Mimicking conditions similar to mussel byssus secretion (pH < 5.0) and seawater condition (pH 8.0), PTMP1 and preCol interact weakly in the "positioning" phase based on vWF-collagen binding and strengthen in "locked" phase due to the combined effects of electrostatic attraction, metal binding, and mechanical shearing. The progressive enhancement of binding between PTMP1 with porcine collagen under the aforementioned conditions is also observed. The binding mechanisms of PTMP1-preCols provide insights into the molecular interaction of the mammalian collagen system and the development of an artificial extracellular matrix based on collagens.

  9. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates reversibility of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in gray matter after delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Kondziella, Daniel; Danielsen, Else Rubæk

    2014-01-01

    with cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a dramatically decrease in N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratios and elevated lactate levels in the gray matter. Subsequently, our patient received six additional sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy with only minimal recovery. At six...... in mid-occipital gray matter and partial reversal in white matter. CONCLUSIONS: The present case indicates that cerebral proton magnetic spectroscopy provides valuable information on brain metabolism in patients presenting with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The full...... reversal of N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratios in gray matter has, to our knowledge, never been described before and shows that severe, initial measurements may not predict poor long-term patient outcome....

  10. Nanomechanical identification of liquid reagents in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Faheem; Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu

    2014-01-01

    mechanical bending of the cantilever under infrared (IR) radiation. This technique also allows simultaneous physical characterization of the liquid reagent using variations in resonance frequency. It is useful in lab-on-a-chip devices and has a myriad of applications in drug screening, bioreactor monitoring...

  11. Magneto-thermoelectric effects in the two-dimensional electron gas of a HgTe quantum well due to THz laser heating by cyclotron resonance absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; Bruene, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens; McCombe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    HgTe quantum wells (QWs) have shown a number of interesting phenomena over the past 20 years, most recently the first two-dimensional topological insulating state. We have studied thermoelectric photovoltages of 2D electrons in a 6.1 nm wide HgTe quantum well induced by cyclotron resonance absorption (B = 2 - 5 T) of a focused THz laser beam. We have estimated thermo-power coefficients by detailed analysis of the beam profile at the sample surface and the photovoltage signals developed across various contacts of a large Hall bar structure at a bath temperature of 1.6 K. We obtain reasonable values of the magneto-thermopower coefficients. Work at UB was supported by NSF DMR 1008138 and the Office of the Provost, and at the University of Wuerzburg by DARPA MESO Contract N6601-11-1-4105, by DFG Grant HA5893/4-1 within SPP 1666 and the Leibnitz Program, and the EU ERC-AG Program (Project 3-TOP.

  12. Extended short-wavelength spectral response of organic/(silver nanoparticles/Si nanoholes nanocomposite films) hybrid solar cells due to localized surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhixin [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Wengping; Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Jun [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Su, Weining; Yu, Yao [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials Sciences and Technology, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films were fabricated. • An enhancement of total absorption in the AgNPs/SiNHs nanocomposite films at the short wavelength was exhibited. • Prototype solar cell device with AgNPs exhibits an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2–3. - Abstract: In this letter, we investigated spectral and opto-electronic conversion properties of the inorganic/organic hybrid cells by using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/Si nanoholes (SiNHs) nanocomposite films, which were fabricated by the modified metal-assisted electroless etching (EE) method. It was found that the optical absorption spectra of the films with AgNPs demonstrate a clear peak and show the enhancement of total absorption at the short wavelength. The results of current–voltage (I–V) measurements show that solar cells with AgNPs exhibit an increase of the power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2–3, in comparison with those of the samples without AgNPs. Moreover, higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) values in AgNPs-decorated solar cells were confirmed in the short-wavelength spectral region (400–700 nm), which were essential to achieve high-performance photovoltaic cells. We thought these were mainly attributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects and increased light scattering of AgNPs.

  13. Surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of wheat gluten pretreated by alternate dual-frequency ultrasound and the correlation to enzymolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Cunshan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Xu, Kangkang; Ma, Haile; Ye, Xiaofei; Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y

    2016-07-01

    The effects of alternate dual-frequency ultrasound (ADFU) pretreatment on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of wheat gluten (WG) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity were investigated in this research. The surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of WG were also determined using atomic force microscope (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). The correlations of ACE inhibitory activity and DH with surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of WG were determined using Pearson's correlation analysis. The results showed that with an increase in either pretreatment duration or power, the ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate also increases, reaching maximum at 10 min and 150 W/L, respectively, and then decreases thereafter. Similarly, AFM analysis showed that as the pretreatment duration or power increases, the surface roughness also increase and again a decrease occurs thereafter. As the pretreatment duration or power increased, the Young's modulus and adhesion of WG also increased and then declined. Young's modulus and adhesions average values were compared with ACE inhibitory activity reversely. The result of the CD spectra analysis exhibited losses in the relative percentage of α-helix of WG. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the average values of Young's modulus and the relative percentage of α-helix correlated with ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates linearly and significantly (P<0.05); the relative percentage of β-sheet correlated linearly with DH of WG significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, ADFU pretreatment is an efficient method in proteolysis due to its physical and chemical effect on the Young's modulus, α-helix and β-sheet of WG.

  14. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  15. Can a Resonant Quantum-Well State be Used as the initial and/or Final State of a Golden-Rule Calculation for a Transition Rate due to Photon or Phonon Emission or Absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Ren

    1997-03-01

    According to conventional wisdom, the answer would be `no'. A resonant quantum-well state is an eigen-state with a complex eigen-energy (imaginary part negative), due to tunneling through a potential barrier into a reservoir. Such a state is obtained by demanding that only an `out-going' wave (i.e., away from the tunneling barrier) exists in the reservoir. Its wave function cannot be normalized. Therefore, it cannot be used in the way stated in the title. We have investigated a way to change the answer to `yes', so far with partial success. (I.e., `yes', but with some undesirable features.) An idea to improve it is currently being explored, and will be reported at the meeting. Our main trick is to introduce a suitable optical potential in the reservoir, in order to make the resonant state normalizable, and yet with a complex energy very close to the original value. The Fermi golden rule is then generalized, in order to accommodate a non-hermitian Hamiltonian. Other non-resonant reservoir states should make negligible contributions to the transition rate, if this trick is to work.

  16. Use of T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance ratio to elucidate changes due to amyloid β accumulation in cognitively normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Yasuno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ratio of signal intensity in T1-weighted (T1w and T2-weighted (T2w magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was recently proposed to enhance the sensitivity of detecting changes in disease-related signal intensity. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of T1w/T2w image ratios as an easily accessible biomarker for amyloid beta (Aβ accumulation. We performed the T1w/T2w analysis in cognitively normal elderly individuals. We applied [11C] Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB-PET to the same individuals, and Aβ deposition was quantified by its binding potential (PiB-BPND. The subjects were divided into low and high PiB-BPND groups, and group differences in regional T1w/T2w values were evaluated. In the regions where we found a significant group difference, we conducted a correlation analysis between regional T1w/T2w values and PiB-BPND. Subjects with high global cortical PiB-BPND showed a significantly higher regional T1w/T2w ratio in the frontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. We found a significant positive relationship between the regional T1w/T2w ratio and Aβ accumulation. Moreover, with a T1w/T2w ratio of 0.55 in the medial frontal regions, we correctly discriminated subjects with high PiB-BPND from the entire subject population with a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 80.0%. Our results indicate that early Aβ-induced pathological changes can be detected using the T1w/T2w ratio on MRI. We believe that the T1w/T2w ratio is a prospective stable biological marker of early Aβ accumulation in cognitively normal individuals. The availability of such an accessible marker would improve the efficiency of clinical trials focusing on the initial disease stages by reducing the number of subjects who require screening by Aβ-PET scan or lumbar puncture.

  17. Resonant behavior in heat transfer across weak molecular interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklan, Sophia R. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Alex Greaney, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); School of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvalis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Grossman, Jeffrey C., E-mail: jcg@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study, in detail, the transfer of thermal (vibrational) energy between objects with discrete vibrational spectra to those with a semi-continuum of spectra. The transfer of energy is stochastic and strongly dependent on the instantaneous separation between the bodies. The insight from the MD simulations can be captured with a simple classical model that agrees well with quantum models. This model can be used to optimize systems for efficient frequency selective energy transfer, which can be used in designing a chemical sensor through nanomechanical resonance spectroscopy.

  18. Fabrication of large scale nanostructures based on a modified atomic force microscope nanomechanical machining system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z J; Yan, Y D; Zhao, X S; Gao, D W; Wei, Y Y; Wang, J H

    2011-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-based nanomechanical machining has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for fabricating complex 2D∕3D nanostructures. But the machining scale is very small, which holds back this technique severely. How to enlarge the machining scale is always a major concern for the researches. In the present study, a modified AFM tip-based nanomechanical machining system is established through combination of a high precision X-Y stage with the moving range of 100 mm × 100 mm and a commercial AFM in order to enlarge the machining scale. It is found that the tracing property of the AFM system is feasible for large scale machining by controlling the constant normal load. Effects of the machining parameters including the machining direction and the tip geometry on the uniform machined depth with a large scale are evaluated. Consequently, a new tip trace and an increasing load scheme are presented to achieve a uniform machined depth. Finally, a polymer nanoline array with the dimensions of 1 mm × 0.7 mm, the line density of 1000 lines/mm and the average machined depth of 150 nm, and a 20 × 20 polymer square holes array with the scale of 380 μm × 380 μm and the average machined depth of 250 nm are machined successfully. The uniform of the machined depths for all the nanostructures is acceptable. Therefore, it is verified that the AFM tip-based nanomechanical machining method can be used to machine millimeter scale nanostructures.

  19. Nanomechanical motion transduction with a scalable localized gap plasmon architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxworthy, Brian J.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic structures couple oscillating electromagnetic fields to conduction electrons in noble metals and thereby can confine optical-frequency excitations at nanometre scales. This confinement both facilitates miniaturization of nanophotonic devices and makes their response highly sensitive to mechanical motion. Mechanically coupled plasmonic devices thus hold great promise as building blocks for next-generation reconfigurable optics and metasurfaces. However, a flexible approach for accurately batch-fabricating high-performance plasmomechanical devices is currently lacking. Here we introduce an architecture integrating individual plasmonic structures with precise, nanometre features into tunable mechanical resonators. The localized gap plasmon resonators strongly couple light and mechanical motion within a three-dimensional, sub-diffraction volume, yielding large quality factors and record optomechanical coupling strength of 2 THz.nm-1. Utilizing these features, we demonstrate sensitive and spatially localized optical transduction of mechanical motion with a noise floor of 6 fm.Hz-1/2, representing a 1.5 orders of magnitude improvement over existing localized plasmomechanical systems.

  20. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels...... of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody–antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable...

  1. An Elementary Introduction to Recently Developed Asymptotic Methods and Nanomechanics in Textile Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji-Huan

    This review is an elementary introduction to the concepts of the recently developed asymptotic methods and new developments. Particular attention is paid throughout the paper to giving an intuitive grasp for Lagrange multiplier, calculus of variations, optimization, variational iteration method, parameter-expansion method, exp-function method, homotopy perturbation method, and ancient Chinese mathematics as well. Subsequently, nanomechanics in textile engineering and E-infinity theory in high energy physics, Kleiber's 3/4 law in biology, possible mechanism in spider-spinning process and fractal approach to carbon nanotube are briefly introduced. Bubble-electrospinning for mass production of nanofibers is illustrated. There are in total more than 280 references.

  2. Nanomechanical method to gauge emission quantum yield applied to NV-centers in nanodiamond

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique to nanomechanically vary the distance between a fluorescent source and a mirror, thereby varying the local density of optical states at the source position. Our method can therefore serve to measure the quantum efficiency of fluorophores. Application of our technique to NV defects in diamond nanocrystals shows that their quantum yield can significantly differ from unity. Relying on a lateral scanning mechanism with shear-force probe-sample distance control our technique is straightforwardly implemented in most state-of-the-art near-field microscopes.

  3. Precise mass detector based on “W needle - C nanowire” nanomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashenko, S. Y.; Komissarenko, F. E.; Mukhin, I. S.; Lysak, V. V.; Averkiev, D. A.; Sapozhnikov, I. D.; Golubok, A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Nanomechanical system (NMS) based on amorphous carbon nanowhiskers localized on the top of tungsten tip were fabricated and investigated. The whiskers were grown in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber using focused electron beam technique. The manipulation of SiO2 and TiO2 nanospheres was provided in SEM by means of dielectrophoretic force. Oscillation trajectories and amplitude-frequency characteristic of the oscillator were visualized at low pressure using a scanning electron microscope. The estimation of mass sensitivity of NMS was conducted.

  4. Nanomechanical coupling enables detection and imaging of 5 nm superparamagnetic particles in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Christian; Herruzo, Elena T; Lozano, Jose R; Garcia, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.garcia@imm.cnm.csic.es [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-25

    We demonstrate that a force microscope operated in a bimodal mode enables the imaging and detection of superparamagnetic particles down to 5 nm. The bimodal method exploits the nanomechanical coupling of the excited modes to enhance the sensitivity of the higher mode to detect changes in material properties. The coupling requires the presence of nonlinear forces. Remarkably, bimodal operation enables us to identify changes of slowly varying forces (quasi-linear) in the presence of a stronger nonlinear force. Thus, unambiguous identification of single apoferritin (non-magnetic) and ferritin (magnetic) molecules in air and liquid is accomplished.

  5. In situ TEM visualization of superior nanomechanical flexibility of shear-exfoliated phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Ma, Hongyu; Lei, Shuangying; Sun, Jun; Chen, Jing; Ge, Binghui; Zhu, Yimei; Sun, Litao

    2016-07-01

    Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to 34% were observed. Moreover, a facile liquid-phase shear exfoliation route has been developed to produce such mono-layer and few-layer phosphorene nanoflakes in organic solvents using only a household kitchen blender. The effects of surface tensions of the applied solvents on the ratio of average length and thickness (L/T) of the nanoflakes were studied systematically. The results reported here will pave the way for potential industrial-scale applications of flexible phosphorene nanoelectronic devices.Recently discovered atomically thin black phosphorus (called phosphorene) holds great promise for applications in flexible nanoelectronic devices. Experimentally identifying and characterizing nanomechanical properties of phosphorene are challenging, but also potentially rewarding. This work combines for the first time in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and an in situ micro-manipulation system to directly visualize the nanomechanical behaviour of individual phosphorene nanoflakes. We demonstrate that the phosphorene nanoflakes can be easily bent, scrolled, and stretched, showing remarkable mechanical flexibility rather than fracturing. An out-of-plane plate-like bending mechanism and in-plane tensile strain of up to

  6. Non-ischemic perfusion defects due to delayed arrival of contrast material on stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeo Koon; Park, Eun Ah; Park, Sang Joon; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Whal; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Herein we report about the adenosine stress perfusion MR imaging findings of a 50-year-old man who exhibited two different perfusion defects resulting from two different mechanisms after a coronary artery bypass surgery. An invasive coronary angiography confirmed that one perfusion defect at the mid-anterior wall resulted from an ischemia due to graft stenosis. However, no stenosis was detected on the graft responsible for the mid-inferior wall showing the other perfusion defect. It was assumed that the perfusion defect at the mid-inferior wall resulted from delayed perfusion owing to the long pathway of the bypass graft. The semiquantitative analysis of corrected signal-time curves supported our speculation, demonstrating that the rest-to-stress ratio index of the maximal slope of the myocardial territory in question was similar to those of normal myocardium, whereas that of myocardium with the stenotic graft showed a typical ischemic pattern. A delayed perfusion during long graft pathway in a post-bypass graft patient can mimick a true perfusion defect on myocardial stress MR imaging. Radiologists should be aware of this knowledge to avoid misinterpretation of graft and myocardial status in post bypass surgery patients.

  7. Topology Optimization of Nano-Mechanical Cantilever Sensors Using a C0 Discontinuous Galerkin-Type Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Evgrafov, Anton; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a C0 discontinuous Galerkin method for topology optimization of nano-mechanical sensors, namely temperature, surface stress, and mass sensors. The sensors are modeled using classical thin plate theory, which requires C1 basis functions in the standard finite element method...

  8. Fabrication mechanism of nanostructured HA/TNTs biomedical coatings: an improvement in nanomechanical and in vitro biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shahab; Riahi, Zohreh; Eslami, Aylar; Sadrnezhaad, S K

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a mechanism for fabrication of nanostructured hydroxyapatite coating on TiO2 nanotubes is presented. Also, the physical, biological, and nanomechanical properties of the anodized Ti6Al4V alloy consisting TiO2 nanotubes, electrodeposited hydroxyapatite, and the hydroxyapatite/TiO2 nanotubes double layer coating on Ti6Al4V alloy implants are compared. Mean cell viability of the samples being 84.63 % for uncoated plate, 91.53 % for electrodeposited hydroxyapatite, and 94.98 % for hydroxyapatite/TiO2 nanotubes coated sample were in the acceptable range. Merely anodized prototype had the highest biocompatibility of 110 % with respect to the control sample. Bonding strength of hydroxyapatite deposit to the substrate increased from 12 ± 2 MPa to 25.4 ± 2 MPa using intermediate TiO2 nanotubes layer. Hardness and elastic modulus of the anodized surface were 956 MPa and 64.7 GPa, respectively. The corresponding values for hydroxyapatite deposit were approximately measured 44.3 MPa and 0.66 GPa, respectively, while the average obtained values for hardness (159.3 MPa) and elastic modulus (2.25 GPa) of the hydroxyapatite/TiO2 nanotubes double coating improved more than 30 % of the pure hydroxyapatite deposit. Friction coefficient (ξ) of the anodized surface was 0.32 ± 0.02. The calculated friction coefficient enhanced from 0.65 ± 0.04 for sole hydroxyapatite layer to the 0.46 ± 0.02 for hydroxyapatite/TiO2 nanotubes due to presence of nanotubular TiO2 intermediate layer.

  9. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: oamendoz@unal.edu.co [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  10. Precise structure control of three-state nanomechanical DNA origami devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuya, Akinori; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Hashizume, Mirai; Kaino, Masafumi; Minamida, Shinya; Kameda, Koji; Ohya, Yuichi

    2014-05-15

    Precise structure switching between all of the three forms of three-state nanomechanical DNA origami devices has been accomplished. A nanomechanical DNA origami device called DNA origami pliers, which consists of two levers of 170-nm long, 20-nm wide, and 2-nm thick connected at a Holliday-junction fulcrum, takes three conformations: closed parallel, closed antiparallel, and open cross forms. They were previously applied to construct detection systems for biomolecules in single-molecular resolution by observing the structure switching between cross form and one of the other two forms under atomic force microscope (AFM). We redesigned DNA origami pliers in this study to let them freely switch between all of the three states including parallel-antiparallel direct switching without taking cross form. By the addition of appropriate switcher strands to the solution, hybridization and dehybridization of particular binder strands that fix the levers into predetermined state were selectively triggered as programmed in their sequence. Circuit structure switching through all of the three states in both of the two opposite direction was even successful with the new design.

  11. Nanomechanical properties of bone around cement-retained abutment implants. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.M. de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.

  12. In situ biosensing of the nanomechanical property and electrochemical spectroscopy of Streptococcus mutans-containing biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haochih Liu, Bernard; Li, Kun-Lin; Kang, Kai-Li; Huang, Wen-Ke; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-07-01

    This work presents in situ biosensing approaches to study the nanomechanical and electrochemical behaviour of Streptococcus mutans biofilms under different cultivation conditions and microenvironments. The surface characteristics and sub-surface electrochemistry of the cell wall of S. mutans were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based techniques to monitor the in situ biophysical status of biofilms under common anti-pathogenic procedures such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and alcohol treatment. The AFM nanoindentation suggested a positive correlation between nanomechanical strength and the level of UV radiation of S. mutans; scanning impedance spectroscopy of dehydrated biofilms revealed reduced electrical resistance that is distinctive from that of living biofilms, which can be explained by the discharge of cytoplasm after alcohol treatment. Furthermore, the localized elastic moduli of four regions of the biofilm were studied: septum (Z-ring), cell wall, the interconnecting area between two cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) area. The results indicated that cell walls exhibit the highest elastic modulus, followed by Z-ring, interconnect and EPS. Our approach provides an effective alternative for the characterization of the viability of living cells without the use of biochemical labelling tools such as fluorescence dyeing, and does not rely on surface binding or immobilization for detection. These AFM-based techniques can be very promising approaches when the conventional methods fall short.

  13. Characterization of Skeletonema costatum Intracellular Organic Matter and Study of Nanomechanical Properties under Different Solution Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2016-06-17

    In the current investigation, a rigorous characterization of the high molecular weight (HMW) compounds of Skeletonema costatum (SKC) intracellular organic matter (IOM), including nanomechanical properties, was conducted. HMW SKC-IOM was characterized as a mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provided crucial information of this isolate at a nanoscale resolution. HMW SKC-IOM showed highly responsive to solution chemistry: fully extended chains at low ionic strength, and compressing structures with increasing electrolyte concentration in solution. Interestingly, two regions of different nanomechanical properties were observed: (a) Region #1: located farther from the substrate and showing extended polymeric chains, and (b) Region #2: located <10 nm above the substrate and presenting compressed structures. The polymer length, polymer grafting density, and compressibility of these two regions were highly influenced by solution conditions. Results suggest that steric interactions originating from HMW SKC-IOM polymeric structure would be a dominant interacting mechanism with surfaces. The current investigation has successfully applied models of polymer physics to describe the complex HMW SKC-IOM structural conformation at different solution conditions. The detailed methodology presented provides a tool to characterize and understand biopolymers interactions with surfaces, including filtration membranes, and can be extended to other environmentally relevant organic compounds.

  14. Structural and nanomechanical properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin films for photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawal, Ishpal [Department of Physics, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Panwar, Omvir Singh, E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Tripathi, Ravi Kant; Chockalingam, Sreekumar [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Optoelectronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reports the effect of helium gas pressure upon the structural, nanomechanical, and photoconductive properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin (NCT) films deposited by the filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the nanocrystalline nature of the deposited films with different crystallite sizes (3–7 nm). The chemical structure of the deposited films is further analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest that the deposited films change from graphitelike to diamondlike, increasing in sp{sup 3} content, with a minor change in the dilution of the inert gas (helium). The graphitic character is regained upon higher dilution of the helium gas, whereupon the films exhibit an increase in sp{sup 2} content. The nanomechanical measurements show that the film deposited at a helium partial pressure of 2.2 × 10{sup −4} has the highest value of hardness (37.39 GPa) and elastic modulus (320.50 GPa). At a light intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, the NCT films deposited at 2.2 × 10{sup −4} and 0.1 mbar partial pressures of helium gas exhibit good photoresponses of 2.2% and 3.6%, respectively.

  15. Mapping nanomechanical properties of live cells using multi-harmonic atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A.; Trigueros, S.; Cartagena, A.; Stevenson, A. P. Z.; Susilo, M.; Nauman, E.; Contera, S. Antoranz

    2011-12-01

    The nanomechanical properties of living cells, such as their surface elastic response and adhesion, have important roles in cellular processes such as morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, focal adhesion, motility, metastasis and drug delivery. Techniques based on quasi-static atomic force microscopy techniques can map these properties, but they lack the spatial and temporal resolution that is needed to observe many of the relevant details. Here, we present a dynamic atomic force microscopy method to map quantitatively the nanomechanical properties of live cells with a throughput (measured in pixels/minute) that is ~10-1,000 times higher than that achieved with quasi-static atomic force microscopy techniques. The local properties of a cell are derived from the 0th, 1st and 2nd harmonic components of the Fourier spectrum of the AFM cantilevers interacting with the cell surface. Local stiffness, stiffness gradient and the viscoelastic dissipation of live Escherichia coli bacteria, rat fibroblasts and human red blood cells were all mapped in buffer solutions. Our method is compatible with commercial atomic force microscopes and could be used to analyse mechanical changes in tumours, cells and biofilm formation with sub-10 nm detail.

  16. Nanotribological and nanomechanical characterization of human hair using a nanoscratch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Guohua [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat [Nanotribology Laboratory for Information Storage and MEMS/NEMS, Ohio State University, 650 Ackerman Road, Suite 255, Columbus, OH 43202 (United States)]. E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu

    2006-06-15

    Human hair ({approx}50-100 {mu}m in diameter) is a nanocomposite biological fiber with well-characterized microstructures, and is of great interest for both cosmetic science and materials science. Characterization of nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair including the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance is essential to develop better shampoo and conditioner products and advance biological and cosmetic science. In this paper, the coefficient of friction and scratch resistance of Caucasian and Asian hair at virgin, chemo-mechanically damaged, and conditioner-treated conditions are measured using a nanoscratch technique with a Nano Indenter II system. The scratch tests were performed on both the single cuticle cell and multiple cuticle cells of each hair sample, and the scratch wear tracks were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after the scratch tests. The effect of soaking on the coefficient of friction, scratch resistance, hardness and Young's modulus of hair surface were also studied by performing experiments on hair samples which had been soaked in de-ionized water for 5 min. The nanotribological and nanomechanical properties of human hair as a function of hair structure (hair of different ethnicity), damage, treatment and soaking are discussed.

  17. The application of nanoindentation for determination of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) nanomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, N.; Shaler, S.

    2016-10-01

    Nanocellulose is a polymer which can be isolated from nature (woods, plants, bacteria, and from sea animals) through chemical or mechanical treatments, as cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), cellulose nanocrystals or bacterial celluloses. Focused global research activities have resulted in decreasing costs. A nascent industry of producers has created a huge market interest in CNF. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the nanomechanical properties of CNF, which create barriers for the scientist and producers to optimize and predict behavior of the final product. In this research, the behavior of CNF under nano compression loads were investigated through three different approaches, Oliver-Pharr (OP), fused silica (FS), and tip imaging (TI) via nanoindentation in an atomic force microscope. The CNF modulus estimates for the three approaches were 16.6 GPa, for OP, 15.8 GPa for FS, and 10.9 GPa for TI. The CNF reduced moduli estimates were consistently higher and followed the same estimate rankings by analysis technique (18.2, 17.4, and 11.9 GPa). This unique study minimizes the uncertainties related to the nanomechanical properties of CNFs and provides increased knowledge on understanding the role of CNFs as a reinforcing material in composites and also improvement in making accurate theoretical calculations and predictions.

  18. Non-continuum, anisotropic nanomechanics of random and aligned electrospun nanofiber matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chery, Daphney; Han, Biao; Mauck, Robert; Shenoy, Vivek; Han, Lin

    Polymer nanofiber assemblies are widely used in cell culture and tissue engineering, while their nanomechanical characteristics have received little attention. In this study, to understand their nanoscale structure-mechanics relations, nanofibers of polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were fabricated via electrospinning, and tested via AFM-nanoindentation with a microspherical tip (R ~10 μm) in PBS. For the hydrophobic, less-swollen PCL, a novel, non-continuum linear F-D dependence was observed, instead of the typical Hertzian F-D3/2 behavior, which is usually expected for continuum materials. This linear trend is likely resulted from the tensile stretch of a few individual nanofibers as they were indented in the normal plane. In contrast, for the hydrophilic, highly swollen PVA, the observed typical Hertzian response indicates the dominance of localized deformation within each nanofiber, which had swollen to become hydrogels. Furthermore, for both matrices, aligned fibers showed significantly higher stiffness than random fibers. These results provide a fundamental basis on the nanomechanics of biomaterials for specialized applications in cell phenotype and tissue repair.

  19. An apparatus for high throughput nanomechanical muscle cell experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Webb, M; Hunter, I; Taberner, A

    2004-01-01

    An array of independent muscle cell testing modules is being developed to explore the mechanics of cardiac myocytes. The instrument will be able to perform established physiological tests and utilize novel system identification techniques to measure the dynamic stiffness and stress frequency response of single cells with possible applications in the pharmaceutical industry for high throughput screening. Currently, each module consists of two independently controlled Lorentz force actuators in the form of stainless steel cantilevers with dimensions 0.025 mm x 0.8 mm x 3 mm, 0.1 m/N compliance and 1.5 kHz resonant frequency. Confocal position sensors focused on each cantilever provide position and force resolution 0.1 mm and forces > 0.1 mN. A custom Visual Basic.Net software interface to a National Instruments data acquisition card implements real time digital control over 4 input channels and 2 output channels at 20 kHz. In addition, algorithms for both swept sine and stochastic system identification have been written to probe mechanical systems. The device has been used to find the dynamic stiffness of a 5 microm diameter polymer fiber between 0 and 500 Hz.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance line shifts and line shape changes due to heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids 8. Further experimental and theoretical efforts to separate the effects of the two interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav

    2012-03-22

    The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to

  1. Engineered carbon nanotubes and graphene for nano-electronics and nanomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.

    2010-04-01

    We are exploring nanoelectronic engineering areas based on low dimensional materials, including carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our primary research focus is investigating carbon nanotube and graphene architectures for field emission applications, energy harvesting and sensing. In a second effort, we are developing a high-throughput desktop nanolithography process. Lastly, we are studying nanomechanical actuators and associated nanoscale measurement techniques for re-configurable arrayed nanostructures with applications in antennas, remote detectors, and biomedical nanorobots. The devices we fabricate, assemble, manipulate, and characterize potentially have a wide range of applications including those that emerge as sensors, detectors, system-on-a-chip, system-in-a-package, programmable logic controls, energy storage systems, and all-electronic systems.

  2. Smell identification of spices using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Gaku; Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-11-01

    Artificial olfaction, that is, a chemical sensor system that identifies samples by smell, has not been fully achieved because of the complex perceptional mechanism of olfaction. To realize an artificial olfactory system, not only an array of chemical sensors but also a valid feature extraction method is required. In this study, we achieved the identification of spices by smell using nanomechanical membrane-type surface stress sensors (MSS). Features were extracted from the sensing signals obtained from four MSS coated with different types of polymers, focusing on the chemical interactions between polymers and odor molecules. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the dataset consisting of the extracted parameters demonstrated the separation of each spice on the scatter plot. We discuss the strategy for improving odor identification based on the relationship between the results of PCA and the chemical species in the odors.

  3. Structures, nanomechanics, and disintegration of single-walled GaN nanotubes: atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We have investigated the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of single-walled GaN nanotubes by using atomistic simulations and a Tersoff-type potential. The Tersoff potential for GaN effectively describes the properties of GaN nanotubes. The nanomechanics of GaN nanotubes under tensile and compressive loadings have also been investigated, and Young's modulus has been calculated. The caloric curves of single-walled GaN nanotubes can be divided into three regions corresponding to nanotubes, the disintegrating range, and vapor. Since the stability or the stiffness of a tube decreases with increasing curving sheet-to-tube strain energy, the disintegration temperatures of GaN nanotubes are closely related to the curving sheet-to-tube strain energy.

  4. Measuring the Momentum of a Nanomechanical Oscillator through the Use of Two Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, C. B.; Trauzettel, B.; Bruder, C.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a way to measure the momentum p of a nanomechanical oscillator. The p detector is based on two tunnel junctions in an Aharonov-Bohm-type setup. One of the tunneling amplitudes depends on the motion of the oscillator, the other one not. Although the coupling between the detector and the oscillator is assumed to be linear in the position x of the oscillator, it turns out that the finite-frequency noise output of the detector will in general contain a term proportional to the momentum spectrum of the oscillator. This is a true quantum phenomenon, which can be realized in practice if the phase of the tunneling amplitude of the detector is tuned by the Aharonov-Bohm flux Φ to a p-sensitive value.

  5. Nanomechanical and Corrosion Properties of ZK60 Magnesium Alloy Improved by GD Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xue Wei; Wang, Zhang Zhong; Zhang, Xiao Bo; Ba, Zhi Xin; Wang, Ya Mei

    2014-09-01

    Gadolinium (Gd) ion implantation with doses from 2.5 × 1016 to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 into ZK60 magnesium alloy was carried out to improve its surface properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindenter, electrochemical workstation and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to analyze the chemical composition, nanomechanical properties and corrosion characteristics of the implanted layer. The results indicate that Gd ion implantation produces a hybrid-structure protective layer composed of MgO, Gd2O3 and metallic Gd in ZK60 magnesium alloy. The surface hardness and modulus of the Gd implanted magnesium alloy are improved by about 300% and 100%, respectively with the dose of 1 × 1017 ions/cm2, while the slowest corrosion rate of the magnesium alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution is obtained with the dose of 5 × 1016 ions/cm2.

  6. The limits of nanomechanical applications of shape memory alloys: an optical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolloch, Andreas; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul [Universitaet Konstanz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Shape Memory Alloys (SMA), with their high strain and stress values for small temperature changes and their excellent durability against environmental influences, may prove to be ideal candidates for the driving force of nanomechanical devices. In spite of this promising potential, however, very little is known about the properties of SMA materials, and in particular thin films, on the nanoscale. Our work concentrates on the classic SMA, Nitinol, an intermetallic compound consisting of nickel and titanium. While it is completely reversible, the martensite-austenite transition of this material is accompanied by large strain and stress changes of up to 6-8% and 600 MPa, respectively. The project aims at employing an ultrafast thermo-optical approach to investigating whether there is a lower thickness limit of the martensitic phase transition in NiTi SMAs and what the transition speed for the phase change of these materials is.

  7. Variations in the Nanomechanical Properties of Virulent and Avirulent Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Jae; Abu-Lail, Nehal I

    2010-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify both the nanomechanical properties of pathogenic (ATCC 51776 & EGDe) and non-pathogenic (ATCC 15313 & HCC25) Listeria monocytogenes strains and the conformational properties of their surface biopolymers. The nanomechanical properties of the various L. monocytogenes strains were quantified in terms of Young's moduli of cells. To estimate Young's moduli, the classic Hertz model of contact mechanics and a modified version of it that takes into account substrate effects were used to fit the AFM nanoindentation-force measurements collected while pushing onto the bacterial surface biopolymer brush. When compared, the classic Hertz model always predicted higher Young's moduli values of bacterial cell elasticity compared to the modified Hertz model. On average, the modified Hertz model showed that virulent strains are approximately twice as rigid (88.1 ± 14.5 KPa) as the avirulent strains (47.3 ± 7.6 kPa). To quantify the conformational properties of L. monocytogenes' strains surface biopolymers, two models were used. First, the entropic-based, statistical mechanical, random walk formulation, the wormlike chain (WLC) model was used to estimate the elastic properties of the bacterial surface molecules. The WLC model results indicated that the virulent strains are characterized by a more flexible surface biopolymers as indicated by shorter persistence lengths (L(p) = 0.21 ± 0.08 nm) compared to the avirulent strains (L(p) = 0.24 ± 0.14 nm). Second, a steric model developed to describe the repulsive forces measured between the AFM tip and bacterial surface biopolymers indicated that the virulent strains are characterized by crowded and longer biopolymer brushes compared to those of the avirulent strains. Finally, scaling relationships developed for grafted polyelectrolyte brushes indicated L. monocytogenes strains' biopolymer brushes are charged. Collectively, our data indicate that the conformational properties of the

  8. Effect of high energy X-ray irradiation on the nano-mechanical properties of human enamel and dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xue; Zhang, Jing Yang; Cheng, Iek Ka [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li, Ji Yao, E-mail: jiyao_li@aliyun.com [West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy for malignancies in the head and neck can cause common complications that can result in tooth damage that are also known as radiation caries. The aim of this study was to examine damage to the surface topography and calculate changes in friction behavior and the nano-mechanical properties (elastic modulus, nano hardness and friction coefficient) of enamel and dentine from extracted human third molars caused by exposure to radiation. Enamel and dentine samples from 50 human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups or a control group. The test groups were exposed to high energy X-rays at 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 5 days (10 Gy group), 15 days (30 Gy group), 25 days (50 Gy group), 35 days (70 Gy group); the control group was not exposed. The nano hardness, elastic modulus, and friction coefficient were analyzed using a Hysitron Triboindenter. The nano-mechanical properties of both enamel and dentine showed significant dose-response relationships. The nano hardness and elastic modulus were most variable between 30-50 Gy, while the friction coefficient was most variable between 0-10 Gy for dentine and 30-50 Gy for enamel. After exposure to X-rays, the fracture resistance of the teeth clearly decreased (rapidly increasing friction coefficient with increasing doses under the same load), and they were more fragile. These nano-mechanical changes in dental hard tissue may increase the susceptibility to caries. Radiotherapy caused nano-mechanical changes in dentine and enamel that were dose related. The key doses were 30-50 Gy and the key time points occurred during the 15{sup th}-25{sup th} days of treatment, which is when application of measures to prevent radiation caries should be considered. (author)

  9. Bacterial surface appendages strongly impact nanomechanical and electrokinetic properties of Escherichia coli cells subjected to osmotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Francius

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties and dynamics of bacterial envelope, play a major role in bacterial activity. In this study, the morphological, nanomechanical and electrohydrodynamic properties of Escherichia coli K-12 mutant cells were thoroughly investigated as a function of bulk medium ionic strength using atomic force microscopy (AFM and electrokinetics (electrophoresis. Bacteria were differing according to genetic alterations controlling the production of different surface appendages (short and rigid Ag43 adhesins, longer and more flexible type 1 fimbriae and F pilus. From the analysis of the spatially resolved force curves, it is shown that cells elasticity and turgor pressure are not only depending on bulk salt concentration but also on the presence/absence and nature of surface appendage. In 1 mM KNO(3, cells without appendages or cells surrounded by Ag43 exhibit large Young moduli and turgor pressures (∼700-900 kPa and ∼100-300 kPa respectively. Under similar ionic strength condition, a dramatic ∼50% to ∼70% decrease of these nanomechanical parameters was evidenced for cells with appendages. Qualitatively, such dependence of nanomechanical behavior on surface organization remains when increasing medium salt content to 100 mM, even though, quantitatively, differences are marked to a much smaller extent. Additionally, for a given surface appendage, the magnitude of the nanomechanical parameters decreases significantly when increasing bulk salt concentration. This effect is ascribed to a bacterial exoosmotic water loss resulting in a combined contraction of bacterial cytoplasm together with an electrostatically-driven shrinkage of the surface appendages. The former process is demonstrated upon AFM analysis, while the latter, inaccessible upon AFM imaging, is inferred from electrophoretic data interpreted according to advanced soft particle electrokinetic theory. Altogether, AFM and electrokinetic results clearly demonstrate the

  10. Effect of high energy X-ray irradiation on the nano-mechanical properties of human enamel and dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Zhang, Jing Yang; Cheng, Iek Ka; Li, Ji Yao

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignancies in the head and neck can cause common complications that can result in tooth damage that are also known as radiation caries. The aim of this study was to examine damage to the surface topography and calculate changes in friction behavior and the nano-mechanical properties (elastic modulus, nanohardness and friction coefficient) of enamel and dentine from extracted human third molars caused by exposure to radiation. Enamel and dentine samples from 50 human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups or a control group. The test groups were exposed to high energy X-rays at 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 5 days (10 Gy group), 15 days (30 Gy group), 25 days (50 Gy group), 35 days (70 Gy group); the control group was not exposed. The nanohardness, elastic modulus, and friction coefficient were analyzed using a Hysitron Triboindenter. The nano-mechanical properties of both enamel and dentine showed significant dose-response relationships. The nanohardness and elastic modulus were most variable between 30-50 Gy, while the friction coefficient was most variable between 0-10 Gy for dentine and 30-50 Gy for enamel. After exposure to X-rays, the fracture resistance of the teeth clearly decreased (rapidly increasing friction coefficient with increasing doses under the same load), and they were more fragile. These nano-mechanical changes in dental hard tissue may increase the susceptibility to caries. Radiotherapy caused nano-mechanical changes in dentine and enamel that were dose related. The key doses were 30-50 Gy and the key time points occurred during the 15th-25th days of treatment, which is when application of measures to prevent radiation caries should be considered.

  11. Resonant state due to Bi in the dilute bismide alloy GaAs1-xBix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshya, R. S.; Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Mascarenhas, A.; Kini, R. N.

    2014-10-01

    It has been theoretically predicted that isolated Bi forms a resonant state in the valence band of the dilute bismide alloy, GaAs1-xBix. We present ultrafast pump-probe reflectivity measurements of this interesting alloy system, which provide experimental evidence for the resonant state. The reflectivity transients for pump/probe wavelengths λ ~ 860–900 nm have negative amplitude, which we attribute to the absorption of the probe pulse by the pump induced carriers that are localized at the Bi-resonant state. Our measurements show that the lifetime of carriers localized at the resonant state is ~200 ps at 10 K.

  12. Comparison of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in corticosteroid-naive patients with conduction system disease due to cardiac sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Hiroshi; Birnie, David H.; Mc Ardle, Brian; Dick, Alexander; Klein, Ran; Renaud, Jennifer; DeKemp, Robert A.; Davies, Ross; Hessian, Renee; Liu, Peter; Nery, Pablo B. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Arrhythmia Service, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Pena, Elena; Dennie, Carole [The Ottawa Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Radiology, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Bernick, Jordan; Wells, George A. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Cardiovascular Research Methods Center, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Leung, Eugene [The Ottawa Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsujino, Ichizo; Sato, Takahiro; Nishimura, Masaharu [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, First Department of Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Manabe, Osamu; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Oyama-Manabe, Noriko [Hokkaido University Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hokkaido (Japan); Ruddy, Terrence D.; Beanlands, Rob S.B. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Arrhythmia Service, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, ON (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Radiology, Ottawa, ON (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Benjamin J.W. [University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Molecular Function and Imaging Program, National Cardiac PET Centre, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Arrhythmia Service, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, ON (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Medical Imaging Department, Ottawa, ON (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Radiology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is a cause of conduction system disease (CSD). {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG PET) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are used for detection of CS. The relative diagnostic value of these has not been well studied. The aim was to compare these imaging modalities in this population. We recruited steroid-naive patients with newly diagnosed CSD due to CS. All CS patients underwent both imaging studies within 12 weeks of each other. Patients were classified into two groups: group A with chronic mild CSD (right bundle branch block and/or axis deviation), and group B with new-onset atrioventricular block (AVB, Mobitz type II or third-degree AVB). Thirty patients were included. Positive findings on both imaging studies were seen in 72 % of patients (13/18) in group A and in 58 % of patients (7/12) in group B. The remainder (28 %) of the patients in group A were positive only on CMR. Of the patients in group B, 8 % were positive only on CMR and 33 % were positive only on FDG PET. Patients in group A were more likely to be positive only on CMR, and patients in group B were more likely to be positive only on FDG PET (p = 0.02). Patients in group B positive only on FDG PET underwent CMR earlier relative to their symptomatology than patients positive only on CMR (median 7.0, IQR 1.5 - 34.3, vs. 72.0, IQR 25.0 - 79.5 days; p = 0.03). The number of positive FDG PET and CMR studies was different in patients with CSD depending on their clinical presentation. This study demonstrated that CMR can adequately detect cardiac involvement associated with chronic mild CSD. In patients presenting with new-onset AVB and a negative CMR study, FDG PET may be useful for detecting cardiac involvement due to CS. (orig.)

  13. Continuous depth-sensing nano-mechanical characterization of living, fixed and dehydrated cells attached on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yun-Ta; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chou-Ching K [Department of Neurology, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Ju, Ming-Shaung, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-16

    Continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation on living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells was performed using a dynamic contact module and vertically measured from a pre-contact state to the glass substrate. The nano-indentation tip-on-cell approaches took advantage of finding a contact surface, followed by obtaining a continuous nano-mechanical profile along the nano-indentation depths. In the experiment, serial indentations from the leading edge, i.e., the lamellipodium to nucleus regions of living, fixed and dehydrated fibroblast cells were examined. Nano-indentations on a living cell anchored upon glass substrate were competent in finding the tip-on-cell contact surfaces and cell heights. For the result on the fixed and the dehydrated cells, cellular nano-mechanical properties were clearly characterized by continuous harmonic contact stiffness (HCS) measurements. The relations of HCS versus measured displacement, varied from the initial tip-on-cell contact to the glass substrate, were presumably divided into three stages, respectively induced by cellular intrinsic behavior, the substrate-dominant property, and the substrate property. This manifestation is beneficial to elucidate how the underlying substrate influences the interpretation of the nano-mechanical property of thin soft matter on a hard substrate. These findings, based upon continuous depth-sensing nano-indentations, are presumably valuable as a reference to related work, e.g., accomplished by atomic force microscopy.

  14. Mapping nanoscale elasticity and dissipation using dual frequency contact resonance AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannepalli, A; Proksch, R [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Yablon, D G; Tsou, A H, E-mail: ganil@asylumresearch.com [Corporate Strategic Research, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    2011-09-02

    We report on a technique that simultaneously quantifies the contact stiffness and dissipation of an AFM cantilever in contact with a surface, which can ultimately be used for quantitative nanomechanical characterization of surfaces. The method is based on measuring the contact resonance frequency using dual AC resonance tracking (DART), where the amplitude and phase of the cantilever response are monitored at two frequencies on either side of the contact resonance. By modelling the tip-sample contact as a driven damped harmonic oscillator, the four measured quantities (two amplitudes and two phases) allow the four model parameters, namely, drive amplitude, drive phase, resonance frequency and quality factor, to be calculated. These mechanical parameters can in turn be used to make quantitative statements about localized sample properties. We apply the method to study the electromechanical coupling coefficients in ferroelectric materials and the storage and loss moduli in viscoelastic materials.

  15. Contact resonance atomic force microscopy imaging in air and water using photothermal excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Gannepalli, Anil; Proksch, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Proksch@oxinst.com [Asylum Research, an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Contact Resonance Force Microscopy (CR-FM) is a leading atomic force microscopy technique for measuring viscoelastic nano-mechanical properties. Conventional piezo-excited CR-FM measurements have been limited to imaging in air, since the “forest of peaks” frequency response associated with acoustic excitation methods effectively masks the true cantilever resonance. Using photothermal excitation results in clean contact, resonance spectra that closely match the ideal frequency response of the cantilever, allowing unambiguous and simple resonance frequency and quality factor measurements in air and liquids alike. This extends the capabilities of CR-FM to biologically relevant and other soft samples in liquid environments. We demonstrate CR-FM in air and water on both stiff silicon/titanium samples and softer polystyrene-polyethylene-polypropylene polymer samples with the quantitative moduli having very good agreement between expected and measured values.

  16. Frequency Characteristics of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube Resonator with Different Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ha LEE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations for DWCNTs of various wall lengths to investigate their use as ultrahigh frequency nano-mechanical resonators. We sought to determine the variations in the frequency of these resonators according to changes in the DWCNT wall lengths. For a double-walled carbon nanotube resonator with a shorter inner nanotube, the shorter inner nanotube can be considered to be a flexible core, and thus, the length influences the fundamental frequency. In this paper, we analyze the variation in frequency of ultra-high frequency nano-mechnical resonators constructed from DWCNTs with different wall lengths.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12951

  17. Alumimun nitride piezoelectric NEMS resonators and switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, G.

    2010-04-01

    A major challenge associated with the demonstration of high frequency and fast NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS) components is the ability to efficiently transduce the nanomechanical device. This work presents noteworthy opportunities associated with the scaling of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films from the micro to the nano realm and their application to the making of efficient NEMS resonators and switches that can be directly interfaced with conventional electronics. Experimental data showing NEMS AlN resonators (250 nm thick with lateral features as small as 300 nm) vibrating at record-high frequencies approaching 10 GHz with Qs close to 500 are presented. These NEMS resonators could be employed as sensors to tag analyte concentrations that reach the part per trillion levels or for frequency synthesis and filtering in ultra-compact microwave transceivers. 100 nm thick AlN films have been used to fabricate NEMS actuators for mechanical computing applications. Experimental data confirming that bimorph nanopiezo- actuators have the same piezoelectric properties of microscale counterparts and can be adopted for the implementation of mechanical logic elements are presented.

  18. Piezoelectric Non-linear Nanomechanical Temperature and Acceleration Intensive Clocks (PENNTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    overlaid dashed black line represents the fixed point solution of the Duffing resonator. Resonator non-linearities tend to worsen the oscillator PN by...Schematic and Actual implementation of the Oscillator Setup used to demonstrate PN shaping via a Duffing Resonator. (1) AlN CMR mounted on a PCB, (2...exhibited by the Duffing resonator 3.2 1/f Resonator Flicker Noise In order to identify the main noise sources in our oscillators , and

  19. The nanomechanical signature of liver cancer tissues and its molecular origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengxin; Li, Yiran; Liu, Weiren; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Xifei; Wang, Xinyan; Ding, Zhenbin; Peng, Yuanfei; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yinghong

    2015-07-01

    Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the ``gold standard'' in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus distribution of surgically removed liver cancer tissues can serve as a mechanical fingerprint to evaluate the malignancy of liver cancer. Cirrhotic tissues shared the same LEP as normal tissues. However, a noticeable downward shift in the LEP was detected when the cirrhotic tissues progressed to a malignant state, making the tumor tissues more prone to microvascular invasion. Cell-level mechanistic studies revealed that the expression level of a Rho-family effector (mDia1) was consistent with the mechanical trend exhibited by the tissue. Our findings indicate that the mechanical profiles of liver cancer tissues directly varied with tumor progression, providing an additional platform for the future diagnosis of HCC.Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the ``gold standard'' in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus

  20. Synchronization dynamics of two nanomechanical membranes within a Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemani, F.; Motazedifard, Ali; Roknizadeh, R.; Naderi, M. H.; Vitali, D.

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous synchronization is a significant collective behavior of weakly coupled systems. Due to their inherent nonlinear nature, optomechanical systems can exhibit self-sustained oscillations which can be exploited for synchronizing different mechanical resonators. In this paper, we explore the synchronization dynamics of two membranes coupled to a common optical field within a cavity, and pumped with a strong blue-detuned laser drive. We focus on the system quantum dynamics in the parameter regime corresponding to synchronization of the classical motion of the two membranes. With an appropriate definition of the phase difference operator for the resonators, we study synchronization in the quantum case through the covariance matrix formalism. We find that for sufficiently large driving, quantum synchronization is robust with respect to quantum fluctuations and to thermal noise up to not too large temperatures. Under synchronization, the two membranes are never entangled, while quantum discord behaves similarly to quantum synchronization, that is, it is larger when the variance of the phase difference is smaller.

  1. Nano-Mechanical Characterization of Ataxia Telangiectasia Cells Treated with Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotta, Michele; Biagiotti, Sara; Bartolini, Giulia; Marzia, Bianchi; Orazi, Sara; Germani, Aldo; Chessa, Luciana; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-03-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a rare genetic disease and no therapy is currently available. Glucocorticoid analogues have been shown to improve the neurological symptoms of treated patients. In the present study ataxia telangiectasia and wild type cells were used as a cellular model and treated with dexamethasone. The cells were subsequently investigated for membrane and whole cell mechanical properties by atomic force microscopy. In addition, cytoskeleton protein dynamics and nuclear shapes were assayed by fluorescence microscopy, while western blots were used to assess actin and tubulin content. At the macro level, dexamethasone directly modified the cell shape, Young's modulus and cytoskeleton protein dynamics. At the nano level, the roughness of the cell surface and the local nano-mechanical proprieties were found to be affected by Dexa. Our results show that ataxia telangiectasia and wild type cells are affected by Dexa, although there are dissimilarities in some macro-level and nano-level features between the tested cell lines. The Young's modulus of the cells appears to depend mainly on nuclear shape, with a slight contribution from the tested cytoskeleton proteins. The current study proposes that dexamethasone influences ataxia telangiectasia cell membranes contents, cell components and cell shape.

  2. Nano-Mechanical Behavior and Nano-Tribological Properties of 316 Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; GE Shi-rong

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure and nano-tribological properties of 316 austenitic stainless steel have been investigated by using the in situ nano-mechanical testing system TriboIndenter, in which six different normal forces were chosen to make a scratch and indentation. The results show that the contact depth of the indentation increases with the normal force and material is piled up on the edge of the indentation as plastic distortion. The stable nano-hardness and the reduced modulus of 316 austenitic stainless steel are approximately 6 GPa and 160 GPa, respectively. The friction coefficients of 316 stainless steel with conic-type diamond tip have a typical value of about 0.13, 0.15, 0.17, 0.19, 0.22 and 0.25 when the normal forces are kept at 500 μN, 1000 μN, 1500 μN, 2000 μN, 2500 μN and 3000 μN, revealing an increasing trend with the normal forces. The increase of the friction coefficient in the unloading segment may result from the adhesion force caused by the material piled up.

  3. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G.; Brøgger, Anna L.; Frøhling, Kasper B.; Sonne Alstrøm, Tommy; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Boisen, Anja

    2013-11-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody-antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform.

  4. Nanocolumnar Crystalline Vanadium Oxide-Molybdenum Oxide Antireflective Smart Thin Films with Superior Nanomechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A Carmel Mary; Pradeepkumar, Maurya Sandeep; Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A K; Bera, Parthasarathi; Barshilia, Harish C; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Pandey, Ajoy Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Kumar, D Raghavendra; Sridhara, N; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-11-17

    Vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide (VO-MO) thin (21-475 nm) films were grown on quartz and silicon substrates by pulsed RF magnetron sputtering technique by altering the RF power from 100 to 600 W. Crystalline VO-MO thin films showed the mixed phases of vanadium oxides e.g., V2O5, V2O3 and VO2 along with MoO3. Reversible or smart transition was found to occur just above the room temperature i.e., at ~45-50 °C. The VO-MO films deposited on quartz showed a gradual decrease in transmittance with increase in film thickness. But, the VO-MO films on silicon exhibited reflectance that was significantly lower than that of the substrate. Further, the effect of low temperature (i.e., 100 °C) vacuum (10(-5) mbar) annealing on optical properties e.g., solar absorptance, transmittance and reflectance as well as the optical constants e.g., optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were studied. Sheet resistance, oxidation state and nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and elastic modulus of the VO-MO thin films were also investigated in as-deposited condition as well as after the vacuum annealing treatment. Finally, the combination of the nanoindentation technique and the finite element modeling (FEM) was employed to investigate yield stress and von Mises stress distribution of the VO-MO thin films.

  5. The nanomechanical signature of liver cancer tissues and its molecular origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengxin; Li, Yiran; Liu, Weiren; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Xifei; Wang, Xinyan; Ding, Zhenbin; Peng, Yuanfei; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yinghong

    2015-08-14

    Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the "gold standard" in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus distribution of surgically removed liver cancer tissues can serve as a mechanical fingerprint to evaluate the malignancy of liver cancer. Cirrhotic tissues shared the same LEP as normal tissues. However, a noticeable downward shift in the LEP was detected when the cirrhotic tissues progressed to a malignant state, making the tumor tissues more prone to microvascular invasion. Cell-level mechanistic studies revealed that the expression level of a Rho-family effector (mDia1) was consistent with the mechanical trend exhibited by the tissue. Our findings indicate that the mechanical profiles of liver cancer tissues directly varied with tumor progression, providing an additional platform for the future diagnosis of HCC.

  6. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment.

  7. Long-term nano-mechanical properties of biomodified dentin-resin interface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Karol, Sachin; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina

    2011-06-03

    Failures of dental composite restorative procedures are largely attributed to the degradation of dentin-resin interface components. Biomodification of dentin using bioactive agents may improve the quality and durability of the dentin-resin bonds. The aim of this study was to nanomechanically assess the reduced modulus of elasticity (Er) and nano-hardness (H) of major components of the dentin-resin interface (hybrid layer, adhesive layer and underlying dentin) biomodified by collagen cross-linkers at 24h, 3 and 6 months following restorative procedure. Demineralized dentin surfaces were biomodified with 5% glutaraldehyde (GD) or 6.5% grape seed extract (GSE) prior to placement of adhesive systems and composite resin. Nano-measurements of the interface components in a fluid cell showed that both agents increased the Er and H of underlying dentin after 3 and 6 months when compared to a control. The mechanical properties of the adhesive and hybrid layers decreased over time. Biomodification of the dentin-resin interface structures using GD and GSE can increase the mechanical properties of the interface over time and may contribute to the long-term quality of adhesive restorations.

  8. Nanocolumnar Crystalline Vanadium Oxide-Molybdenum Oxide Antireflective Smart Thin Films with Superior Nanomechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arjun; Nayak, Manish Kumar; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Pradeepkumar, Maurya Sandeep; Porwal, Deeksha; Gupta, A. K.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Barshilia, Harish C.; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Pandey, Ajoy Kumar; Khan, Kallol; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Kumar, D. Raghavendra; Sridhara, N.; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Vanadium oxide-molybdenum oxide (VO-MO) thin (21-475 nm) films were grown on quartz and silicon substrates by pulsed RF magnetron sputtering technique by altering the RF power from 100 to 600 W. Crystalline VO-MO thin films showed the mixed phases of vanadium oxides e.g., V2O5, V2O3 and VO2 along with MoO3. Reversible or smart transition was found to occur just above the room temperature i.e., at ~45-50 °C. The VO-MO films deposited on quartz showed a gradual decrease in transmittance with increase in film thickness. But, the VO-MO films on silicon exhibited reflectance that was significantly lower than that of the substrate. Further, the effect of low temperature (i.e., 100 °C) vacuum (10-5 mbar) annealing on optical properties e.g., solar absorptance, transmittance and reflectance as well as the optical constants e.g., optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were studied. Sheet resistance, oxidation state and nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and elastic modulus of the VO-MO thin films were also investigated in as-deposited condition as well as after the vacuum annealing treatment. Finally, the combination of the nanoindentation technique and the finite element modeling (FEM) was employed to investigate yield stress and von Mises stress distribution of the VO-MO thin films.

  9. Characterization and nanomechanical properties of novel dental implant coatings containing copper decorated-carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasani, N; Vahdati Khaki, J; Mojtaba Zebarjad, S

    2014-09-01

    Fluorapatite-titania coated Ti-based implants are promising for using in dental surgery for restoring teeth. One of the challenges in implantology is to achieve a bioactive coating with appropriate mechanical properties. In this research, simple sol-gel method was developed for synthesis of fluorapatite-titania-carbon nanotube decorated with antibacterial agent. Triethyl phosphate [PO4(C2H5)3], calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) were used as precursors under an ethanol-water based solution for fluorapatite (FA) production. Titanium isopropoxide and isopropanol were used as starting materials for making TiO2 sol-gels. Also, Copper acetate [Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O] was used as precursor for decoration of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with wet chemical method. The decorated MWCNTs (CNT(Cu)) were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The phase identification of the FA-TiO2-CNT(Cu) coating was carried out by XRD analysis. Morphology of coated samples was investigated by SEM observations. The surface elastic modulus and hardness of coatings were studied using nanoindentation technique. The results indicate that novel dental implant coating containing FA, TiO2 and copper decorated MWCNTs have proper morphological features. The results of nanoindentation test show that incorporation of CNT(Cu) in FA-TiO2 matrix can improve the nanomechanical properties of composite coating.

  10. Fabrication, nanomechanical characterization, and cytocompatibility of gold-reinforced chitosan bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Nimitt G. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering PhD Program, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699 (United States); Kumar, Ajeet [Center for Advanced Materials Processing, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699 (United States); Jayawardana, Veroni N. [Department of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699 (United States); Woodworth, Craig D. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699 (United States); Yuya, Philip A., E-mail: pyuya@clarkson.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, 13699 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Chitosan, a naturally derived polymer represents one of the most technologically important classes of active materials with applications in a variety of industrial and biomedical fields. Gold nanoparticles (∼ 32 nm) were synthesized via a citrate reduction method from chloroauric acid and incorporated in Chitosan matrix. Bio-nanocomposite films with varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles were prepared through solution casting process. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles was achieved throughout the chitosan matrix and was confirmed with SEM. Synthesis outcomes and prepared nanocomposites were characterized using SEM, TEM, EDX, SAED, UV–vis, XRD, DLS, and Zeta potential for their physical, morphological and structural properties. Nanoscale properties of materials under the influence of temperature were characterized through nanoindentation techniques. From quasi-static nanoindentation, it was observed that hardness and reduced modulus of the nanocomposites were increased significantly in direct proportion to the gold nanoparticle concentration. Gold nanoparticle concentration also showed positive impact on storage modulus and thermal stability of the material. The obtained films were confirmed to be biocompatible by their ability to support growth of human cells in vitro. In summary, the results show enhanced mechanical properties with increasing gold nanoparticle concentration, and provide better understanding of the structure–property relationships of such biocompatible materials for potential biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We fabricated gold reinforced chitosan nanocomposite for biomedical applications. • Gold nanoparticles significantly enhanced nanomechanical properties of chitosan. • Nanocomposite films supported growth of human cells in vitro. • Gold nanoparticles significantly improved cell proliferation on chitosan films.

  11. Fixed endothelial cells exhibit physiologically relevant nanomechanics of the cortical actin web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo Grimm, Kai; Oberleithner, Hans; Fels, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    It has been unknown whether cells retain their mechanical properties after fixation. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the stiffness properties of the cell cortex (the 50-100 nm thick zone below the plasma membrane) before and after fixation. Atomic force microscopy was used to acquire force indentation curves from which the nanomechanical cell properties were derived. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of actin destabilizing agent cytochalasin D, which results in a gradual softening of the cell cortex. Then cells were studied ‘alive’ or ‘fixed’. We show that the cortical stiffness of fixed endothelial cells still reports functional properties of the actin web qualitatively comparable to those of living cells. Myosin motor protein activity, tested by blebbistatin inhibition, can only be detected, in terms of cortical mechanics, in living but not in fixed cells. We conclude that fixation interferes with motor proteins while maintaining a functional cortical actin web. Thus, fixation of cells opens up the prospect of differentially studying the actions of cellular myosin and actin.

  12. Nanomechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with DAB dendrimers (poly-propylene imine) coatings onto titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charitidis, Costas A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Skarmoutsou, Amalia [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsetsekou, Athena; Brasinika, Despina [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsiourvas, Dimitris [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB). ► The nanomechanical properties of different HAP-DAB coatings onto titanium surfaces. ► Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the synthesized coatings quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. -- Abstract: Coatings of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods onto titanium surfaces were synthesized with the aim to improve coatings’ mechanical properties and adhesion to the substrate. The coatings are consisting of HAP nanorods synthesized in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB) bearing 32 amine end groups employing varying calcium: dendrimer ratios and varying hydrothermal treatments. The quality, surface morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis. Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the coatings onto titanium substrates were studied through nanoindentation analysis. The experimental conditions, namely the calcium: dendrimer molar ratio and the hydrothermal treatment temperature were carefully selected; thus, it was possible to produce coatings of high hardness and elastic modulus values (ranging between 1–4.5 GPa and 40–150 GPa, respectively) and/or high wear resistance and plastic deformation values.

  13. Ageing effects on the diameter, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W; Zhang, S G; Zhang, J K; Chen, S; Zhu, H; Ge, S R

    2016-04-01

    The typical changes to hair associated with ageing are greying, thinning, dryness and brittleness. Research on the influence of ageing on hair properties will enable a detailed understanding of the natural ageing process. The studies were carried out using an SEM (scanning electron microscope), a TriboIndenter and an artificial finger. Three characteristic features of tactile perception that could reflect the perceptual dimensions of the fineness, roughness and slipperiness of hair were extracted. The influences of ageing on the diameter, surface topography, nanomechanical properties and tactile perception of hair were determined. In the three age group hair samples, the children's group hair samples have the smallest diameter. The hair cuticles in the children and young adult groups were relatively complete and less damaged than in the elderly group. The hardness and elastic modulus of the young adult group's hair samples were higher than those in the elderly and children's groups. For all groups, loss modulus E" was smaller than storage modulus E'. Vertical deviations (R) and coefficient of friction (μ) increased, and spectral centroid (SC) decreased, with the increase in age. Ageing decreased the tactile perception of hair. Ageing influences the diameter, surface topography, hardness, loss modulus, storage modulus and tactile perception of human hair. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy with colloidal probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puricelli, Luca; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Schulte, Carsten; Podestà, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.podesta@mi.infn.it; Milani, Paolo [CIMaINa and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells’ fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cellular elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here, we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured Young’s modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in Young’s modulus induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  15. Nanomechanical characterization of chemical interaction between gold nanoparticles and chemical functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyudo; Lee, Hyungbeen; Nam, Kihwan; Han, Jae-Hee; Yang, Jaemoon; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoon, Dae Sung; Eom, Kilho; Kwon, Taeyun

    2012-10-01

    We report on how to quantify the binding affinity between a nanoparticle and chemical functional group using various experimental methods such as cantilever assay, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping, and lateral force microscopy. For the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a microscale silicon substrate, we have considered two different chemical functional molecules of amine and catecholamine (here, dopamine was used). It is found that catecholamine-modified surface is more effective for the functionalization of AuNPs onto the surface than the amine-modified surface, which has been shown from our various experiments. The dimensionless parameter (i.e., ratio of binding affinity) introduced in this work from such experiments is useful in quantitatively depicting such binding affinity, indicating that the binding affinity and stability between AuNPs and catecholamine is approximately 1.5 times stronger than that between amine and AuNPs. Our study sheds light on the experiment-based quantitative characterization of the binding affinity between nanomaterial and chemical groups, which will eventually provide an insight into how to effectively design the functional material using chemical groups.

  16. Compaction properties of crystalline pharmaceutical ingredients according to the Walker model and nanomechanical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egart, M; Ilić, I; Janković, B; Lah, N; Srčič, S

    2014-09-10

    This study investigates the extent to which single-crystal mechanical properties of selected active ingredients (famotidine, nifedipine, olanzapine, piroxicam) influence their bulk compressibility and compactibility. Nanomechanical attributes of oriented single crystals were determined with instrumented nanoindentation, and bulk deformational properties were assessed with the Walker and Heckel models as well as the elastic relaxation index. Good correlations were established between bulk and single-crystal plasticity parameters: the Walker coefficient and indentation hardness. The Walker model showed more practical value for evaluating bulk deformational properties of the APIs investigated because their properties differed more distinctly compared to the Heckel model. In addition, it was possible to predict the elastic properties of the materials investigated at the bulk level because a correlation between the elastic relaxation index and compliance was established. The value of using indentation hardness for crystalline APIs was also confirmed because their compactibility at the bulk level was able to be predicted. Mechanically interlocked structures were characteristic of most polymorphic forms investigated, resulting in single crystals having isotropic mechanical properties. It was revealed that in such cases good correlations between single and bulk mechanical properties can be expected. The results imply that innate crystal deformational properties define their compressibility and compactibility properties to a great extent. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nanomechanical characterization of chemical interaction between gold nanoparticles and chemical functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyudo; Lee, Hyungbeen; Nam, Kihwan; Han, Jae-Hee; Yang, Jaemoon; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoon, Dae Sung; Eom, Kilho; Kwon, Taeyun

    2012-10-31

    We report on how to quantify the binding affinity between a nanoparticle and chemical functional group using various experimental methods such as cantilever assay, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping, and lateral force microscopy. For the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a microscale silicon substrate, we have considered two different chemical functional molecules of amine and catecholamine (here, dopamine was used). It is found that catecholamine-modified surface is more effective for the functionalization of AuNPs onto the surface than the amine-modified surface, which has been shown from our various experiments. The dimensionless parameter (i.e., ratio of binding affinity) introduced in this work from such experiments is useful in quantitatively depicting such binding affinity, indicating that the binding affinity and stability between AuNPs and catecholamine is approximately 1.5 times stronger than that between amine and AuNPs. Our study sheds light on the experiment-based quantitative characterization of the binding affinity between nanomaterial and chemical groups, which will eventually provide an insight into how to effectively design the functional material using chemical groups.

  18. Nanomechanics of Carbon and CxByNz Nanotubes: Via a Quantum Molecular Dynamics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, M.; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Nanomechanics of single-wall C, BN and BC$_3$ and B doped C nanotubes under axial compression and tension are investigated through a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GTBMD) and {\\it ab-initio} electronic structure methods. The dynamic strength of BN, BC$_3$ and B doped C nanotubes for small axial strain are comparable to each other. The main difference is in the critical strain at which structural collapse occurs. For example, even a shallow doping with B lowers the value of critical strain for C nanotubes. The critical strain for BN nanotube is found to be more than that for the similar C nanotube. Once the structural collapse starts to occur we find that carbon nanotubes irreversibly go into plastic deformation regime via the formation of tetrahedral (four-fold coordinated) bonds at the location of sharp pinches or kinks. This finding is considerably different from the classical MD (molecular dynamics) simulation results known so far. The energetics and electronic densities of states of the collapsed structures, investigated with {\\it ab-initio) methods, will also be discussed.

  19. Subharmonic resonant optical excitation of confined acoustic modes in a free-standing semiconductor membrane at GHz frequencies with a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchhausen, A; Gebs, R; Hudert, F; Issenmann, D; Klatt, G; Bartels, A; Schecker, O; Waitz, R; Erbe, A; Scheer, E; Huntzinger, J-R; Mlayah, A; Dekorsy, T

    2011-02-18

    We propose subharmonic resonant optical excitation with femtosecond lasers as a new method for the characterization of phononic and nanomechanical systems in the gigahertz to terahertz frequency range. This method is applied for the investigation of confined acoustic modes in a free-standing semiconductor membrane. By tuning the repetition rate of a femtosecond laser through a subharmonic of a mechanical resonance we amplify the mechanical amplitude, directly measure the linewidth with megahertz resolution, infer the lifetime of the coherently excited vibrational states, accurately determine the system's quality factor, and determine the amplitude of the mechanical motion with femtometer resolution.

  20. Magnetic resonance energy and topological resonance energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-28

    Ring-current diamagnetism of a polycyclic π-system is closely associated with thermodynamic stability due to the individual circuits. Magnetic resonance energy (MRE), derived from the ring-current diamagnetic susceptibility, was explored in conjunction with graph-theoretically defined topological resonance energy (TRE). For many aromatic molecules, MRE is highly correlative with TRE with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. For all π-systems studied, MRE has the same sign as TRE. The only trouble with MRE may be that some antiaromatic and non-alternant species exhibit unusually large MRE-to-TRE ratios. This kind of difficulty can in principle be overcome by prior geometry-optimisation or by changing spin multiplicity. Apart from the semi-empirical resonance-theory resonance energy, MRE is considered as the first aromatic stabilisation energy (ASE) defined without referring to any hypothetical polyene reference.

  1. Nanomechanics of silicon surfaces with atomic force microscopy: an insight to the first stages of plastic deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Güell, Aleix G; Gorostiza, Pau; Sanz, Fausto

    2005-09-15

    The use of stiff cantilevers with diamond tips allows us to perform nanoindentations on hard covalent materials such as silicon with atomic force microscopy. Thanks to the high sensitivity in the force measurements together with the high resolution upon imaging the surface, we can study nanomechanical properties. At this scale, the surface deforms, following a simple non-Hertzian spring model. The plastic onset can be assessed from a discontinuity in the force-distance curves. Hardness measurements with penetration depths as small as 1 nm yield H= approximately 25 GPa, thus showing a drastic increase with penetration depths below 5 nm.

  2. Topology Optimization of Nano-Mechanical Cantilever Sensors Using a C0 Discontinuous Galerkin-Type Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Evgrafov, Anton; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a C0 discontinuous Galerkin method for topology optimization of nano-mechanical sensors, namely temperature, surface stress, and mass sensors. The sensors are modeled using classical thin plate theory, which requires C1 basis functions in the standard finite element method....... A discontinuous Galerkin type approach allows the use of C0 basis functions or any common basis functions, e.g. based on Lagrange elements. Thus the implementation is simple and requires fewer degrees of freedom per element compared to common finite element implementation of plate problems....

  3. Nanomechanical properties of multi-block copolymer microspheres for drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtagh, P R; Rauker, J; Sandker, M J; Zuiddam, M R; Dirne, F W A; Klijnstra, E; Duque, L; Steendam, R; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradable polymeric microspheres are interesting drug delivery vehicles for site-specific sustained release of drugs used in treatment of osteoarthritis. We study the nano-mechanical properties of microspheres composed of hydrophilic multi-block copolymers, because the release profile of the microspheres may be dependent on the mechanical interactions between the host tissues and the microspheres that aim to incorporate between the cartilage surfaces. Three different sizes of monodisperse microspheres, namely 5, 15, and 30μm, were tested in both dry and hydrated (swollen) states. Atomic force microscopy was used for measuring nanoindentation-based force-displacement curves that were later used for calculating the Young׳s moduli using the Hertz׳s contact theory. For every microsphere size and condition, the measurements were repeated 400-500 times at different surface locations and the histograms of the Young׳s modulus were plotted. The mean Young׳s modulus of 5, 15, and 30μm microspheres were respectively 56.1±71.1 (mean±SD), 94.6±103.4, and 57.6±58.6MPa under dry conditions and 226.4±54.2, 334.5±128.7, and 342.5±136.8kPa in the swollen state. The histograms were not represented well by the average Young׳s modulus and showed three distinct peaks in the dry state and one distinct peak in the swollen state. The peaks under dry conditions are associated with the different parts of the co-polymeric material at the nano-scale. The measured mechanical properties of swollen microspheres are within the range of the nano-scale properties of cartilage, which could favor integration of the microspheres with the host tissue.

  4. An investigation into environment dependent nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) exoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation focuses on understanding the influence of change from wet to dry environment on nanomechanical properties of shallow water shrimp exoskeleton. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) based measurements suggest that the shrimp exoskeleton has Bouligand structure, a key characteristic of the crustaceans. As expected, wet samples are found to be softer than dry samples. Reduced modulus values of dry samples are found to be 24.90 ± 1.14 GPa as compared to the corresponding values of 3.79 ± 0.69 GPa in the case of wet samples. Hardness values are found to be 0.86 ± 0.06 GPa in the case of dry samples as compared to the corresponding values of 0.17 ± 0.02 GPa in the case of wet samples. In order to simulate the influence of underwater pressure on the exoskeleton strength, constant load creep experiments as a function of wet and dry environments are performed. The switch in deformation mechanism as a function of environment is explained based on the role played by water molecules in assisting interface slip and increased ductility of matrix material in wet environment in comparison to the dry environment. - Highlights: • Environment dependent (dry-wet) properties of shrimp exoskeleton are analyzed. • Mechanical properties are correlated with the structure and composition. • Presence of water leads to lower reduced modulus and hardness. • SEM images shows the Bouligand pattern based structure. • Creep-relaxation of polymer chains, interface slip is high in presence of water.

  5. Nanomechanical assessment of human and murine collagen fibrils via atomic force microscopy cantilever-based nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Orestis G; Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Zekonyte, Jurgita; Katsamenis, Orestis L; Fabri, Sebastien; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E; Thurner, Philipp J

    2014-11-01

    The nanomechanical assessment of collagen fibrils via atomic force microscopy (AFM) is of increasing interest within the biomedical research community. In contrast to conventional nanoindentation there exists no common standard for conducting experiments and analysis of data. Currently used analysis approaches vary between studies and validation of quantitative results is usually not performed, which makes comparison of data from different studies difficult. Also there are no recommendations with regards to the maximum indentation depth that should not be exceeded to avoid substrate effects. Here we present a methodology and analysis approach for AFM cantilever-based nanoindentation experiments that allows efficient use of captured data and relying on a reference sample for determination of tip shape. Further we show experimental evidence that maximum indentation depth on collagen fibrils should be lower than 10-15% of the height of the fibril to avoid substrate effects and we show comparisons between our and other approaches used in previous works. While our analysis approach yields similar values for indentation modulus compared to the Oliver-Pharr method we found that Hertzian analysis yielded significantly lower values. Applying our approach we successfully and efficiently indented collagen fibrils from human bronchi, which were about 30 nm in size, considerably smaller compared to collagen fibrils obtained from murine tail-tendon. In addition, derived mechanical parameters of collagen fibrils are in agreement with data previously published. To establish a quantitative validation we compared indentation results from conventional and AFM cantilever-based nanoindentation on polymeric samples with known mechanical properties. Importantly we can show that our approach yields similar results when compared to conventional nanoindentation on polymer samples. Introducing an approach that is reliable, efficient and taking into account the AFM tip shape, we anticipate

  6. Structural impact of cations on lipid bilayer models: nanomechanical properties by AFM-force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Giannotti, Marina I; Sanz, Fausto

    2014-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has become an invaluable tool for studying the micro- and nanoworlds. As a stand-alone, high-resolution imaging technique and force transducer, it defies most other surface instrumentation in ease of use, sensitivity and versatility. The main strength of AFM relies on the possibility to operate in an aqueous environment on a wide variety of biological samples, from single molecules - DNA or proteins - to macromolecular assemblies like biological membranes. Understanding the effect of mechanical stress on membranes is of primary importance in biophysics, since cells are known to perform their function under a complex combination of forces. In the later years, AFM-based Force-Spectroscopy (AFM-FS) has provided a new vista on membrane mechanics in a confined area within the nanometer realm, where most of the specific molecular interactions take place. Lipid membranes are electrostatically charged entities that physiologically coexist with electrolyte solutions. Thus, specific interactions with ions are a matter of considerable interest. The distribution of ions in the solution and their interaction with the membranes are factors that substantially modify the structure and dynamics of the cell membranes. Furthermore, signaling processes are modified by the membrane capability of retaining ions. Supported Lipid Bilayers (SLBs) are a versatile tool to investigate phospholipid membranes mimicking biological surfaces. In the present contribution, we review selected experiments on the mechanical stability of SLBs as models of lipid membranes by means of AFM-FS, with special focus on the effect of cations and ionic strength in the overall nanomechanical stability.

  7. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  8. Laser self-mixing interferometry in VCSELs - an ultra-compact and massproduceable deflection detection system for nanomechanical polymer cantilever sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    2008-01-01

    We have realised an ultra-compact deflection detection system based on laser self-mixing interferometry in a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL). The system can be used together with polymer nanomechanical cantilevers to form chemical sensors capable of detecting less than 1nm deflection....

  9. Structure and Nanomechanics of Model Membranes by Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Insights into the Role of Cholesterol and Sphingolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Gumí-Audenis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes mediate several biological processes that are directly associated with their physical properties but sometimes difficult to evaluate. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs are model systems widely used to characterize the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol (Chol plays an essential role in the modulation of membrane physical properties. It directly influences the order and mechanical stability of the lipid bilayers, and it is known to laterally segregate in rafts in the outer leaflet of the membrane together with sphingolipids (SLs. Atomic force microscope (AFM is a powerful tool as it is capable to sense and apply forces with high accuracy, with distance and force resolution at the nanoscale, and in a controlled environment. AFM-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS has become a crucial technique to study the nanomechanical stability of SLBs by controlling the liquid media and the temperature variations. In this contribution, we review recent AFM and AFM-FS studies on the effect of Chol on the morphology and mechanical properties of model SLBs, including complex bilayers containing SLs. We also introduce a promising combination of AFM and X-ray (XR techniques that allows for in situ characterization of dynamic processes, providing structural, morphological, and nanomechanical information.

  10. Structure and Nanomechanics of Model Membranes by Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Insights into the Role of Cholesterol and Sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumí-Audenis, Berta; Costa, Luca; Carlá, Francesco; Comin, Fabio; Sanz, Fausto; Giannotti, Marina I.

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes mediate several biological processes that are directly associated with their physical properties but sometimes difficult to evaluate. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are model systems widely used to characterize the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol (Chol) plays an essential role in the modulation of membrane physical properties. It directly influences the order and mechanical stability of the lipid bilayers, and it is known to laterally segregate in rafts in the outer leaflet of the membrane together with sphingolipids (SLs). Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool as it is capable to sense and apply forces with high accuracy, with distance and force resolution at the nanoscale, and in a controlled environment. AFM-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS) has become a crucial technique to study the nanomechanical stability of SLBs by controlling the liquid media and the temperature variations. In this contribution, we review recent AFM and AFM-FS studies on the effect of Chol on the morphology and mechanical properties of model SLBs, including complex bilayers containing SLs. We also introduce a promising combination of AFM and X-ray (XR) techniques that allows for in situ characterization of dynamic processes, providing structural, morphological, and nanomechanical information. PMID:27999368

  11. Nanomechanical measurements of hair as an example of micro-fibre analysis using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, Charles A., E-mail: charles.clifford@npl.co.uk [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Sano, Naoko [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Doyle, Peter [Unilever R and D, Port Sunlight, Wirral, Merseyside, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom); Seah, Martin P. [Analytical Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    The characterisation of nanoscale surface properties of textile and hair fibres is key to developing new effective laundry and hair care products. Here, we develop nanomechanical methods to characterise fibres using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to give their nanoscale modulus. Good mounting methods for the fibre that are chemically inert, clean and give strong mechanical coupling to a substrate are important and here we detail two methods to do this. We show, for elastic nanoindentation measurements, the situation when the tip radius significantly affects the result via a function of the ratio of the radii of the tip and fibre and indicate the importance of using an AFM for such work. A valid method to measure the nanoscale modulus of fibres using AFM is thus detailed and exampled on hair to show that bleaching changes the nanoscale reduced modulus at the outer surface. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valid AFM nanomechanical characterisation of fibres developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good mounting methods detailed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Errors of not taking the fibre radius into account in indentation theory highlighted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulus of bleached and unbleached hair compared.

  12. Nanomechanical force transducers for biomolecular and intracellular measurements: is there room to shrink and why do it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbuly, Donald J; Friddle, Raymond W; Villanueva, Joshua; Huang, Qian

    2015-02-01

    Over the past couple of decades there has been a tremendous amount of progress on the development of ultrasensitive nanomechanical instruments, which has enabled scientists to peer for the first time into the mechanical world of biomolecular systems. Currently, work-horse instruments such as the atomic force microscope and optical/magnetic tweezers have provided the resolution necessary to extract quantitative force data from various molecular systems down to the femtonewton range, but it remains difficult to access the intracellular environment with these analytical tools as they have fairly large sizes and complicated feedback systems. This review is focused on highlighting some of the major milestones and discoveries in the field of biomolecular mechanics that have been made possible by the development of advanced atomic force microscope and tweezer techniques as well as on introducing emerging state-of-the-art nanomechanical force transducers that are addressing the size limitations presented by these standard tools. We will first briefly cover the basic setup and operation of these instruments, and then focus heavily on summarizing advances in in vitro force studies at both the molecular and cellular level. The last part of this review will include strategies for shrinking down the size of force transducers and provide insight into why this may be important for gaining a more complete understanding of cellular activity and function.

  13. Structure and Nanomechanics of Model Membranes by Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy: Insights into the Role of Cholesterol and Sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumí-Audenis, Berta; Costa, Luca; Carlá, Francesco; Comin, Fabio; Sanz, Fausto; Giannotti, Marina I

    2016-12-19

    Biological membranes mediate several biological processes that are directly associated with their physical properties but sometimes difficult to evaluate. Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are model systems widely used to characterize the structure of biological membranes. Cholesterol (Chol) plays an essential role in the modulation of membrane physical properties. It directly influences the order and mechanical stability of the lipid bilayers, and it is known to laterally segregate in rafts in the outer leaflet of the membrane together with sphingolipids (SLs). Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool as it is capable to sense and apply forces with high accuracy, with distance and force resolution at the nanoscale, and in a controlled environment. AFM-based force spectroscopy (AFM-FS) has become a crucial technique to study the nanomechanical stability of SLBs by controlling the liquid media and the temperature variations. In this contribution, we review recent AFM and AFM-FS studies on the effect of Chol on the morphology and mechanical properties of model SLBs, including complex bilayers containing SLs. We also introduce a promising combination of AFM and X-ray (XR) techniques that allows for in situ characterization of dynamic processes, providing structural, morphological, and nanomechanical information.

  14. Mass and Force Sensing of an Adsorbate on a Beam Resonator Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mass sensing superiority of a micro-/nano-mechanical resonator sensor over conventional mass spectrometry has been, or at least is being firmly established. Because the sensing mechanism of a mechanical resonator sensor is the shifts of resonant frequencies, how to link the shifts of resonant frequencies with the material properties of an analyte formulates an inverse problem. Besides the analyte/adsorbate mass, many other factors, such as position and axial force, can also cause the shifts of resonant frequencies. The in situ measurement of the adsorbate position and axial force is extremely difficult if not impossible, especially when an adsorbate is as small as a molecule or an atom. Extra instruments are also required. In this study, an inverse problem of using three resonant frequencies to determine the mass, position and axial force is formulated and solved. The accuracy of the inverse problem solving method is demonstrated, and how the method can be used in the real application of a nanomechanical resonator is also discussed. Solving the inverse problem is helpful to the development and application of a mechanical resonator sensor for two reasons: reducing extra experimental equipment and achieving better mass sensing by considering more factors.

  15. Quantum correlations of light due to a room temperature mechanical oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Sudhir, Vivishek; Fedorov, Sergey A; Schuetz, Hendrik; Wilson, Dalziel J; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-01-01

    The coupling of laser light to a mechanical oscillator via radiation pressure leads to the emergence of quantum mechanical correlations in the amplitude and phase quadrature of the laser beam. These correlations form a generic non-classical quantum resource which can be employed for quantum enhanced force metrology, and gives rise to ponderomotive squeezing in the limit of strong correlations. To date, this resource has only been observed in a handful of cryogenic cavity optomechanical experiments. Here, we demonstrate the ability to efficiently resolve optomechanical quantum correlations imprinted on an optical laser beam interacting with a room temperature nanomechanical oscillator. Direct measurement of the optical beam in a detuned homodyne detector ("variational readout") at frequencies far from the resonance frequency of the oscillator, reveal quantum correlations at a few percent level. We use these correlations to realize a $7\\%$ quantum-enhancement in thermal force estimation at room temperature. The...

  16. Photothermal resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates to an ap......The present invention relates to a method for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a material utilising a mechanically temperature sensitive resonator (20) and a sample being arrange in thermal communication with the temperature sensitive resonator. The present invention further relates...... to an apparatus for detecting photo-thermal absorbance of a sample....

  17. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Pituitary Hyperplasia Due to Primary Hypothyroidism%原发性甲状腺功能减退症伴垂体增生患者的磁共振成像表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟宏; 朱惠娟; 张学威; 连小兰; 戴为信; 冯逢; 邢小平; 金征宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性甲状腺功能减退症并发垂体增生患者的临床及磁共振成像(MRI)表现.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月至2011年12月我院确诊的11例甲状腺功能减退症伴垂体增生患者鞍区MRI图像特点、临床表现及实验室检查结果.结果 11例患者主要临床表现为生长发育迟缓( 7/8),智力低下(6/8),畏寒、乏力(6/11),体重增加(6/11),月经紊乱(8/9),泌乳(3/11),儿童性早熟和阴道流血(2/2),视力障碍(3/11).实验室检查显示全部患者血清促甲状腺激素水平升高,三碘甲状腺原氨酸、甲状腺素水平降低,催乳素水平轻度升高,6例患者甲状腺抗体阳性.鞍区MRI显示11例垂体均匀对称性增大,病变位于鞍内及鞍上,5例垂体病变增大如“球状”,高度(12.22±3.12) mm;6例垂体增大向鞍上生长,呈“葫芦状”,高度(18.95±2.23)mm.全部垂体病变信号与脑灰质信号接近.垂体后叶的短T1信号均清晰可见.仅4例垂体柄在MRI上清晰可见,位于中线处无左右移位,未见明显增粗.结论 当MRI提示垂体均匀性增大时,鉴别诊断要考虑垂体增生,特别是原发性甲状腺功能减退症这一常见内分泌疾病,诊断时要密切结合患者的临床表现及实验室检查,遵循内分泌疾病定性定位诊断路径有助于正确诊断原发病,避免误诊.%Objective To explore the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) findings of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism. Method The clinical presentations, laboratory examinations , and MRI findings of 11 patients with pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism diagnosed at our hospitals from the beginning of 2008 to the end of 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The clinical manifestationa in 11 patients included growth arrest ( 7/8 ) , mental retardation ( 6/8 ) , cold intolerance and fatigue (6/11) , slightly increased body weight (6/11) , galactorrhea (3/11) , paramenia (8

  19. Nanomechanical sensing of the endothelial cell response to anti-inflammatory action of 1-methylnicotinamide chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodziejczyk AM

    2013-08-01

    cortical cytoskeleton, as well as NO and PGI2 levels. These results allow us to construct the physiological model of sequential intracellular pathways activated in the endothelium by MNA.Keywords: endothelium, cell stiffness, 1-methylnicotinamide chloride, atomic force microscopy, nanomechanical sensing

  20. Coupled resonator vertical cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Chow, W.W.; Hou, H.Q.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The monolithic integration of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. The authors report the first electrically injected coupled resonator vertical-cavity laser diode and demonstrate novel characteristics arising from the cavity coupling, including methods for external modulation of the laser. A coupled mode theory is used model the output modulation of the coupled resonator vertical cavity laser.

  1. Cooperative resonances in light scattering from two-dimensional atomic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Lukin, Mikhail D; Yelin, Susanne F

    2016-01-01

    We consider light scattering off a two-dimensional (2D) dipolar array and show how it can be tailored by properly choosing the lattice constant of the order of the incident wavelength. In particular, we demonstrate that such arrays can operate as nearly perfect mirrors for a wide range of incident angles and frequencies close to the individual atomic resonance. These results can be understood in terms of the cooperative resonances of the surface modes supported by the 2D array. Experimental realizations are discussed, using ultracold arrays of trapped atoms and excitons in 2D semiconductor materials, as well as potential applications ranging from atomically thin metasurfaces to single photon nonlinear optics and nanomechanics.

  2. Application of a Cantilevered SWCNT with Mass at the Tip as a Nanomechanical Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdipour, I.; Barari, Amin; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the continuum mechanics method and a bending model is applied to obtain the resonant frequency of the fixed-free SWCNT where the mass is rigidly attached to the tip. This method used the Euler–Bernoulli theory with cantilevered boundary conditions where the effect of attached mass...... on resonant frequency, is added at the free end condition. The resonant frequencies of the fixed-free SWCNT have been investigated. The results showed the sensitivity of the single walled carbon nanotubes to different masses. Moreover, they indicate that by increasing the value of attached mass, the values...

  3. Note: Nanomechanical characterization of soft materials using a micro-machined nanoforce transducer with an FIB-made pyramidal tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gao, S; Brand, U; Hiller, K; Wollschläger, N; Pohlenz, F

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative nanomechanical characterization of soft materials using the nanoindentation tech-nique requires further improvements in the performances of instruments, including their force resolution in particular. A micro-machined silicon nanoforce transducer based upon electrostatic comb drives featuring the force and depth resolutions down to ∼1 nN and 0.2 nm, respectively, is described. At the end of the MEMS transducer's main shaft, a pyramidal tip is fabricated using a focused ion beam facility. A proof-of-principle setup with this MEMS nanoindenter has been established to measure the mechanical properties of soft polydimethylsiloxane. First measurement results demonstrate that the prototype measurement system is able to quantitatively characterize soft materials with elastic moduli down to a few MPa.

  4. Relation between in-vitro wear and nanomechanical properties of commercial light-cured dental composites coated with surface sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Santos Jr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the correlation between the in-vitro wear resistance and the nanomechanical properties of dental sealants commercially available. Mechanical properties, namely hardness (H and elastic modulus (E, were assessed by nanoindentation technique. The coated samples presented lower H and E values than the Z250 composite resin substrate. Such measurements were used to calculate H/E ratios. Wear tests were carried out in water by using a pin-on-plate apparatus. Scars formed on the samples were qualitatively examined by optical microscopy, while their wear depths were measured by contact profilometry. Based on the findings, an empirical correlation between the wear depths and H/E was obtained. A high H/E ratio was associated to surfaces with enhanced wear resistance. For the tribological conditions here employed, the H/E ratio could be, therefore, considered a useful parameter for ranking the in-vitro wear of dental sealants.

  5. Nanomechanical measurements of hair as an example of micro-fibre analysis using atomic force microscopy nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Charles A; Sano, Naoko; Doyle, Peter; Seah, Martin P

    2012-03-01

    The characterisation of nanoscale surface properties of textile and hair fibres is key to developing new effective laundry and hair care products. Here, we develop nanomechanical methods to characterise fibres using an atomic force microscope (AFM) to give their nanoscale modulus. Good mounting methods for the fibre that are chemically inert, clean and give strong mechanical coupling to a substrate are important and here we detail two methods to do this. We show, for elastic nanoindentation measurements, the situation when the tip radius significantly affects the result via a function of the ratio of the radii of the tip and fibre and indicate the importance of using an AFM for such work. A valid method to measure the nanoscale modulus of fibres using AFM is thus detailed and exampled on hair to show that bleaching changes the nanoscale reduced modulus at the outer surface. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanomechanical measurement of magnetostriction and magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmanidis, S C; Tang, H X; Myers, E B; Li, Mo; De Greve, K; Vermeulen, G; Van Roy, W; Roukes, M L

    2005-10-28

    A GaMnAs nanoelectromechanical resonator is used to obtain the first measurement of magnetostriction in a dilute magnetic semiconductor. Resonance frequency shifts induced by field-dependent magnetoelastic stress are used to simultaneously map the magnetostriction and magnetic anisotropy constants over a wide range of temperatures. Owing to the central role of carriers in controlling ferromagnetic interactions in this material, the results appear to provide insight into a unique form of magnetoelastic behavior mediated by holes.

  7. Fermi resonance in optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Lee, Ji-Won; Kim, Chil-Min

    2015-04-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of quantum mechanical superposition, which most often occurs between normal and overtone modes in molecular systems that are nearly coincident in energy. We find that scarred resonances in deformed dielectric microcavities are the very phenomenon of Fermi resonance, that is, a pair of quasinormal modes interact with each other due to coupling and a pair of resonances are generated through an avoided resonance crossing. Then the quantum number difference of a pair of quasinormal modes, which is a consequence of quantum mechanical superposition, equals periodic orbits, whereby the resonances are localized on the periodic orbits. We derive the relation between the quantum number difference and the periodic orbits and confirm it in an elliptic, a rectangular, and a stadium-shaped dielectric microcavity.

  8. Visual Impairment Due to Lissencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Marqués-Fernández, V. E.; Sánchez-Tocino, H.; Escudero-Caro, M.T.; Cancho-Candela, R.; García-Zamora, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a rare disorder due to abnormal neural migration, causing neurological impairment and clinically characterised by mental retardation and epilepsy. Any disturbance of the visual pathway can cause loss of vision. The authors describe a case of a 6-year-old boy referred to the ophthalmologist presenting poor bilateral vision. This child had no other known medical conditions, and neurological examination was completely normal. Only when a magnetic resonance imaging was made that ...

  9. 轨道梁在磁浮列车以共振速度通过时动力响应分析%DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF GUIDEWAY GIRDERS DUE TO HIGH-SPEED MAGLEV TRAINS MOVING AT RESONANT SPEEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时瑾; 姚忠达; 王英杰

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of dynamic response of a guideway subjected to a maglev train moving with very high speeds. By using modal synthesis technology to establish the guideway-pier model, the equations of motion for the maglev train/guideway coupling system are derived and the dynamic response of the train-guideway system are computed using iterative methods. From the numerical studies of a 24m elevated guideway girder under a high-speed maglev train model of TR08, the results indicate increasing moving speeds may result in an amplified response of the guideway, and the second sub-resonance of the first mode of the guideway would be excited as well once the moving speed reaches around 350km/h. Furthermore, when the moving speed of the malgev train is higher than 400kin/h, the response amplitudes of the guideway girder and moving vehicles are both amplified significantly. To avoid possible train-induced resonance of guideway vibration, the first natural frequency of the guideway should be designed to be higher than the characteristic frequency of the maglev vehicle/guideway system, which is equal to the ratio of the designed speed to the carriage length.%该文研究了高速磁浮列车运行引起的轨道梁动力响应问题。采用模态综合技术建立了梁墩体系模型,推导了高速磁浮列车轨道梁运动方程,运用迭代技术求解了列车轨道梁系统动力学方程,计算分析了高速磁浮列车通过24m简支轨道梁引起的动力响应,结果表明:随着运行速度提高,轨道梁动力响应相应提高,在350km/h左右存在一阶二次谐波共振;当列车运行速度超过400km/h时,轨道梁和列车动力响应将被显着放大,为避免轨道梁出现一阶一次共振现象,在设计上,应使轨道梁的一阶自振频率远高于磁浮列车与轨道梁的特征频率(即设计速度与车长比值)。

  10. Effects of Different pH-Values on the Nanomechanical Surface Properties of PEEK and CFR-PEEK Compared to Dental Resin-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the stability and durability of polyetheretherketone (PEEK and a carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK with 30% short carbon fibers, a dental composite based on Bis-GMA and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA under the influence of different pH-values of the oral environment in vitro. Nanomechanical properties were investigated by nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests before and after incubation of the specimens at 37 °C for 30 days in artificial saliva with pH-values of 3, 7 and 10, respectively. Nanoindentation and nanoscratching tests were performed using the Hysitron TI950 TriboIndenter to evaluate the reduced elastic moduli, nanohardness, viscoelasticity, friction coefficient and residual scratch profiles. After treatment, the nanomechanical properties of unfilled PEEK did not change. The reduced elastic moduli and nanohardness of the carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK increased significantly. The reduced elastic moduli and nanohardness of CHARISMA decreased. The plasticity of all materials except that of the unfilled PEEK increased. This indicates that different pH-values of the artificial saliva solutions had no obvious influences on the nanomechanical properties of the PEEK matrix. Therefore, the aging resistance of the unfilled PEEK was higher than those of other materials. It can be deduced that the PEEK matrix without filler was more stable than with filler in the nanoscale.

  11. Electrothermally Tunable Bridge Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.

    2016-12-05

    This paper demonstrates experimentally, theoretically, and numerically a wide-range tunability of an in-plane clamped-clamped microbeam, bridge, and resonator compressed by a force due to electrothermal actuation. We demonstrate that a single resonator can be operated at a wide range of frequencies. The microbeam is actuated electrothermally, by passing a DC current through it. We show that when increasing the electrothermal voltage, the compressive stress inside the microbeam increases, which leads eventually to its buckling. Before buckling, the fundamental frequency decreases until it drops to very low values, almost to zero. After buckling, the fundamental frequency increases, which is shown to be as high as twice the original resonance frequency. Analytical results based on the Galerkin discretization of the Euler Bernoulli beam theory are generated and compared to the experimental data and to simulation results of a multi-physics finite-element model. A good agreement is found among all the results.

  12. Split-ball resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Rahmani, Mohsen; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kivshar, Yuri; Pickard, Daniel S; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of split-ball resonator and demonstrate a strong omnidirectional magnetic dipole response for both gold and silver spherical plasmonic nanoparticles with nanometer-scale cuts. Tunability of the magnetic dipole resonance throughout the visible spectral range is demonstrated by a change of the depth and width of the nanoscale cut. We realize this novel concept experimentally by employing the laser-induced transfer method to produce near-perfect spheres and helium ion beam milling to make cuts with the nanometer resolution. Due to high quality of the spherical particle shape, governed by strong surface tension forces during the laser transfer process, and the clean, straight side walls of the cut made by helium ion milling, magnetic resonance is observed at 600 nm in gold and at 565 nm in silver nanoparticles. Structuring arbitrary features on the surface of ideal spherical resonators with nanoscale dimensions provides new ways of engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-f...

  13. Overview of baryon resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downie E.J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the physics of any system cannot be said to be complete as long as one cannot predict and fully understand its resonance spectrum. Despite this, due to the experimental challenge of the required double polarization measurements and the difficulty in achieving unambiguous, model-independent extraction and interpretation of the nucleon resonance spectrum of many broad and overlapping resonances, understanding of the structure and dynamics of the nucleon has suffered. The recent improvement in statistical quality and kinematic range of the data made available by such full-solid-angle systems as the CB and TAPS constellation at MAMI, coupled with the high flux polarized photon beam provided by the Glasgow Photon Tagger, and the excellent properties of the Mainz Frozen Spin Target, when paired with new developments in Partial Wave Analysis (PWA methodology make this a very exciting and fruitful time in nucleon resonance studies. Here the recent influx of data and PWA developments are summarized, and the requirements for a complete, unambiguous PWA solution over the first and second resonance region are briefly reviewed.

  14. Multiquark Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties has been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  15. Multiquark resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building. Data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.

  16. A Broadband Dipolar Resonance in THz Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Prabhu, S S

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a THz metamaterial with broadband dipole resonance originating due to the hybridization of LC resonances. The structure optimized by finite element method simulations is fabricated by electron beam lithography and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Numerically, we found that when two LC metamaterial resonators are brought together, an electric dipole resonance arises in addition to the LC resonances. We observed a strong dependence of the width of these resonances on the separation between the resonators. This dependence can be explained based on series and parallel RLC circuit analogies. The broadband dipole resonance appears when both the resonators are fused together. The metamaterial has a stopband with FWHM of 0.47 THz centered at 1.12 THz. The experimentally measured band features are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The experimental power extinction ratio of THz in the stopbands is found to be 15 dB.

  17. Baryon Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Sun, Bao Xi; Vacas, M J Vicente; Ramos, A; Gonzalez, P; Vijande, J; Torres, A Martinez; Khemchandani, K

    2009-01-01

    In this talk I show recent results on how many excited baryon resonances appear as systems of one meson and one baryon, or two mesons and one baryon, with the mesons being either pseudoscalar or vectors. Connection with experiment is made including a discussion on old predictions and recent results for the photoproduction of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonance, as well as the prediction of one $1/2^+$ baryon state around 1920 MeV which might have been seen in the $\\gamma p \\to K^+ \\Lambda$ reaction.

  18. Baryon Resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oset, E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Sarkar, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sun Baoxi [Institute of Theoretical Physics, College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Vicente Vacas, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Ramos, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gonzalez, P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Vijande, J. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Martinez Torres, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Aptdo. 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Khemchandani, K. [Centro de Fisica Computacional, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    In this talk I show recent results on how many excited baryon resonances appear as systems of one meson and one baryon, or two mesons and one baryon, with the mesons being either pseudoscalar or vectors. Connection with experiment is made including a discussion on old predictions and recent results for the photoproduction of the {lambda}(1405) resonance, as well as the prediction of one 1/2{sup +} baryon state around 1920 MeV which might have been seen in the {gamma}p{yields}K{sup +}{lambda} reaction.

  19. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    sessions are achieved via adaptive action-analyzed activities. These interactive virtual environments are designed to empower patients’ creative and/or playful expressions via digital feedback stimuli. Unconscious self- pushing of limits result from innate distractive mechanisms offered by the alternative...... the unencumbered motion-to-computer-generated activities - ‘Music Making’, ‘Painting’, ‘Robotic’ and ‘Video Game’ control. A focus of this position paper is to highlight how Aesthetic Resonance, in this context, relates to the growing body of research on Neuroaesthetics to evolve Neuroaesthetic Resonance....

  20. Vibration signature analysis of single walled carbon nanotube based nanomechanical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand Y.; Harsha, S. P.; Sharma, Satish C.

    2010-06-01

    In the present paper, the simulation of the mechanical responses of individual carbon nanotubes treated as thin shells with thickness has been done using FEM. The resonant frequencies of the fixed free and the bridged SWCNT have been investigated. This analysis explores the resonant frequency shift of SWCNTs caused by the changes in the size of CNT in terms of length as well as the masses. The results showed the sensitivity of the single walled carbon nanotubes to different masses and different lengths. The results indicate that the mass sensitivity of carbon nanotube nanobalances can reach 10 -21 g and the mass sensitivity increases when smaller size nanotube resonators are used in mass sensors. The vibration signature exhibits super-harmonic and sub-harmonic response with different level of mass. In order to explore the suitability of the SWCNT as a mass detector device, the simulation results of the resonant frequency of fixed free SWCNT are compared to the published experimental data. It is shown that the FEM simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and hence the current modelling approach is suitable as a coupled-field design tool for the development of SWCNT-based NEMS applications.

  1. Resonant enhancement of Raman scattering in metamaterials with hybrid electromagnetic and plasmonic resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2016-01-01

    A tri-layer metamaterial perfect absorber of light, consisting of (Al/ZnS/Al) films with the top aluminium layer patterned as an array of circular disk nanoantennas, is investigated for resonantly enhancing Raman scattering from C-60 fullerene molecules deposited on the metamaterial. The metamaterial is designed to have resonant bands due to plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances at the Raman pump frequency (725 nm) as well as Stokes emission bands. The Raman scattering from C60 on the metamaterial with resonantly matched bands is measured to be enhanced by an order of magnitude more than from C60 on metamaterials with off-resonant absorption bands peaked at 1090 nm. The Raman pump is significantly enhanced due to the resonance with a propagating surface plasmon band, while the highly impedance matched electromagnetic resonance is expected to couple out the Raman emission efficiently. The nature and hybridization of the plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances to form compound resonances are investigated by...

  2. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Adiabatic Invariants for Time-Dependent Superconducting Qubit-Oscillators and Resonators in Quantum Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Ryeol Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.

  3. High-speed broadband nanomechanical property quantification and imaging of life science materials using atomic force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juan

    Nanoscale morphological characterization and mechanical properties quantification of soft and biological materials play an important role in areas ranging from nano-composite material synthesis and characterization, cellular mechanics to drug design. Frontier studies in these areas demand the coordination between nanoscale morphological evolution and mechanical behavior variations through simultaneous measurement of these two aspects of properties. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is very promising in achieving such simultaneous measurements at high-speed and broadband owing to its unique capability in applying force stimuli and then, measuring the response at specific locations in a physiologically friendly environment with pico-newton force and nanometer spatial resolution. Challenges, however, arise as current AFM systems are unable to account for the complex and coupled dynamics of the measurement system and probe-sample interaction during high-speed imaging and broadband measurements. In this dissertation, the creation of a set of dynamics and control tools to probe-based high-speed imaging and rapid broadband nanomechanical spectroscopy of soft and biological materials are presented. Firstly, advanced control-based approaches are presented to improve the imaging performance of AFM imaging both in air and in liquid. An adaptive contact mode (ACM) imaging scheme is proposed to replace the traditional contact mode (CM) imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. In this work, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification and the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining a stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next

  4. Autostereogram resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Sean; Rae, Katherine; Murray, Adam; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Autostereograms, or "Magic Eye" pictures, are repeating patterns designed to give the illusion of depth. Here we discuss optical resonators that create light patterns which, when viewed from a suitable position by a monocular observer, are autostereograms of the three-dimensional shape of one of the mirror surfaces.

  5. Efficient primary and parametric resonance excitation of bistable resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-09-12

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient approach to excite primary and parametric (up to the 4th) resonance of Microelectromechanical system MEMS arch resonators with large vibrational amplitudes. A single crystal silicon in-plane arch microbeam is fabricated such that it can be excited axially from one of its ends by a parallel-plate electrode. Its micro/nano scale vibrations are transduced using a high speed camera. Through the parallel-plate electrode, a time varying electrostatic force is applied, which is converted into a time varying axial force that modulates dynamically the stiffness of the arch resonator. Due to the initial curvature of the structure, not only parametric excitation is induced, but also primary resonance. Experimental investigation is conducted comparing the response of the arch near primary resonance using the axial excitation to that of a classical parallel-plate actuation where the arch itself forms an electrode. The results show that the axial excitation can be more efficient and requires less power for primary resonance excitation. Moreover, unlike the classical method where the structure is vulnerable to the dynamic pull-in instability, the axial excitation technique can provide large amplitude motion while protecting the structure from pull-in. In addition to primary resonance, parametrical resonances are demonstrated at twice, one-half, and two-thirds the primary resonance frequency. The ability to actuate primary and/or parametric resonances can serve various applications, such as for resonator based logic and memory devices. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license

  6. Nanomechanical properties of lipid bilayer: Asymmetric modulation of lateral pressure and surface tension due to protein insertion in one leaflet of a bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftouni, Negin; Amininasab, Mehriar; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza; Kowsari, Farshad; Dastvan, Reza

    2013-02-01

    The lipid membranes of living cells form an integral part of biological systems, and the mechanical properties of these membranes play an important role in biophysical investigations. One interesting problem to be evaluated is the effect of protein insertion in one leaflet of a bilayer on the physical properties of lipid membrane. In the present study, an all atom (fine-grained) molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate the binding of cytotoxin A3 (CTX A3), a cytotoxin from snake venom, to a phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. Then, a 5-microsecond coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation is carried out to compute the pressure tensor, lateral pressure, surface tension, and first moment of lateral pressure in each monolayer. Our simulations reveal that the insertion of CTX A3 into one monolayer results in an asymmetrical change in the lateral pressure and corresponding spatial distribution of surface tension of the individual bilayer leaflets. The relative variation in the surface tension of the two monolayers as a result of a change in the contribution of the various intermolecular forces may potentially be expressed morphologically.

  7. 广州管圆线虫病患者中枢神经系统MRI的影像学表现%Magnetic Resonance Imaging Expression of Central Nervous System due to Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 林岚; 刘江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the MRI characteristics of the central nervous system (CNS) due to infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Methods A retrospective study was carried out to analyze MRI expression of CNS in 25 cases of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis in the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province from May 1997 to July 2011. Results Among the 25 patients, 8 cases were normal on MRI, 7 manifested meningitis, 8 showed parenchymal pathological change, and 2 patients showed spinal meningitis and ventriculomegaly, respectively. These lesions diffused or scattered in CNS and appeared as iso- or slightly low signal intensity on T,WI, high signal intensity on T2WI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. After administration of Gd-DTPA, multiple enhanced round- or oval-shaped nodules appeared. Meningeal involvement revealed linear or nodular enhancement in leptomeninges or ependyma. Conclusion MRI image of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis was diverse. Multiple linear and nodular enhancement in the brain and spinal cord and enhancement in the leptomeninges were the main findings, but the MRI findings are mostly nonspecific.%目的 分析广州管圆线虫病患者中枢神经系统磁共振(MRI)的影像学特征.方法 回顾性分析云南省第一人民医院1997年5月至2011年7月收治的25例广州管圆线虫病患者的中枢神经系统的MRI影像学表现. 结果 25例患者中磁共振未见异常者8例,脑膜炎7例,脑实质病变8例,脊髓脊膜炎1例,脑室扩张1例.病变呈弥漫性或散在分布,在T1加权图像(T1WI)上呈低或等信号,在T2加权图像(T2WI)和对应层面液体衰减反转恢复序列(FGAIR)图像上呈高信号,注射扎喷替酸葡甲胺(Gd- DTPA)后病变中央可见圆形或卵圆形强化病灶.脑脊膜受累者可见软脑膜或室管膜呈线条形或结节状强化. 结论 广州管圆线虫病患者中枢神经系统的MRI表现多样,脑脊髓内呈多发长条形或结节状强化和软脑膜

  8. Microstructural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broitman, Esteban, E-mail: esbro@ifm.liu.se [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Flores-Ruiz, Francisco J. [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden and Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Di Giulio, Massimo [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, Francisco; Lorusso, Antonella; Perrone, Alessio [Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce, Italy and INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, the authors compare the morphological, structural, nanomechanical, and microtribological properties of Pb films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques onto Si (111) substrates. Films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, surface probe microscopy, and x-ray diffraction in θ-2θ geometry to determine their morphology, root-mean-square (RMS) roughness, and microstructure, respectively. TE films showed a percolated morphology with densely packed fibrous grains while PLD films had a granular morphology with a columnar and tightly packed structure in accordance with the zone growth model of Thornton. Moreover, PLD films presented a more polycrystalline structure with respect to TE films, with RMS roughness of 14 and 10 nm, respectively. Hardness and elastic modulus vary from 2.1 to 0.8 GPa and from 14 to 10 GPa for PLD and TE films, respectively. A reciprocal friction test has shown that PLD films have lower friction coefficient and wear rate than TE films. Our study has demonstrated for first time that, at the microscale, Pb films do not show the same simple lubricious properties measured at the macroscale.

  9. Nano-mechanical properties and structural of a 3D-printed biodegradable biomimetic micro air vehicle wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, E.; Montazer, E.; Ward, T. A.; Ganesan, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    The biomimetic micro air vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircraft that are bio-inspired from flying organisms to achieve the lift and thrust by flapping their wings. The main objectives of this study are to design a BMAV wing (inspired from the dragonfly) and analyse its nano-mechanical properties. In order to gain insights into the flight mechanics of dragonfly, reverse engineering methods were used to establish three-dimensional geometrical models of the dragonfly wings, so we can make a comparative analysis. Then mechanical test of the real dragonfly wings was performed to provide experimental parameter values for mechanical models in terms of nano-hardness and elastic modulus. The mechanical properties of wings were measured by nanoindentre. Finally, a simplified model was designed and the dragonfly-like wing frame structure was bio-mimicked and fabricated using a 3D printer. Then mechanical test of the BMAV wings was performed to analyse and compare the wings under a variety of simplified load regimes that are concentrated force, uniform line-load and a torque. This work opened up the possibility towards developing an engineering basis for the biomimetic design of BMAV wings.

  10. Nano-mechanical Behaviour and Mmicrostructural Evolution of Cu/Si Thin Films at Different Annealing Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woei-Shyan Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the nano-mechanical properties of as-deposited Cu/Si thin films indented to a depth of 2000 nm using a nanoindentation technique. Cu films with a thickness of 1800 nm are deposited on (100 silicon substrates and the indented specimens are then annealed at temperatures of 160℃ and 210℃, respectively, using rapid thermal annealing (RTA technique. The results show that the hardness and Young’s modulus of the Cu/Si thin films have maximum values of 0.82 GPa and 95 GPa, respectively. The TEM observations show that the specimens annealed at a temperature of 160℃, the amorphous nature of the microstructure within the indented zone is maintained. However, annealed at a higher temperature of 210℃, the indentation affected zone consists of Copper silicide (η-Cu3Si precipitates are observed in the annealed specimens. Overall, the results presented in this study confirm that the annealing temperature has a significant effect on the formation of η-Cu3Si in nanoindented Cu/Si thin-film systems.

  11. Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CNx multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemón, B.; Flores, M.; Canto, C.; Andrade, E.; de Lucio, O. G.; Rocha, M. F.; Broitman, E.

    2014-07-01

    A novel TiAlCN/CNx multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CNx periods with a top layer 0.5 μm of CNx, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti0.5Al0.5 and C targets respectively in a N2/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

  12. Three-body resonance in meteoroid streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, A.; Asher, D. J.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2016-08-01

    Mean-motion resonances play an important role in the evolution of various meteoroid streams. Previous works have studied the effects of two-body resonances in different comets and streams. These already established two-body resonances were mainly induced either by Jovian or Saturnian effects but not both at the same time. Some of these resonances have led to spectacular meteor outbursts and storms in the past. In this work, we find a new resonance mechanism involving three bodies - i.e. meteoroid particle, Jupiter and Saturn, in the Perseid meteoroid stream. Long-term three-body resonances are not very common in real small bodies in our Solar system although they can mathematically exist at many resonant sweet spots in an abstract sense in any dynamical system. This particular resonance combination in the Perseid stream is such that it is close to the ratio of 1:4:10 if the orbital periods of Perseid particle, Saturn and Jupiter are considered, respectively. These resonant Perseid meteoroids stay resonant for typically about 2 kyr. Highly compact dust trails due to this unique resonance phenomenon are present in our simulations. Some past and future years are presented where three-body resonant meteoroids of different sizes (or subject to different radiation pressures) are computed to come near the Earth. This is the first theoretical example of an active and stable three-body resonance mechanism in the realm of meteoroid streams.

  13. Neuroaesthetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Neuroaesthetic Resonance emerged from a mature body of patient- centered gesture-control research investigating non-formal rehabilitation via ICT-enhanced-Art to question ‘Aesthetic Resonance’. Motivating participation, ludic engagement, and augmenting physical motion in non-formal (fun) treatment...... tailored channeling of sensory stimulus aligned as ‘art-making’ and ‘game playing’ core experiences. Thus, affecting brain plasticity and human motoric-performance via the adaptability (plasticity) of digital medias result in closure of the human afferent-efferent neural feedback loop closure through...

  14. Investigation of Nanomechanical Properties of β-Si3N4 Thin Layers in a Prismatic Plane under Tension: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefeng; La, Peiqing; Guo, Xin; Wei, Yupeng; Nan, Xueli; He, Ling

    2013-06-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations of the nanomechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of β-Si3N4 thin layers in a prismatic plane under uniaxial tension. It is found that the thin layers in the y loading direction display a linear stress-strain relationship at ε thin layers increase with strain rates both in both directions. The thin layers exhibit the higher Young's modulus of 0.345 TPa in the z direction, higher than that in the y direction. The origins of crack derive from N(2c-1)-Si and N(6h-1)-Si bonds for the y and z loading directions, respectively.

  15. Micromachined Resonators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abdolvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the remarkable progress that has been made during the past few decades in design, modeling, and fabrication of micromachined resonators. Although micro-resonators have come a long way since their early days of development, they are yet to fulfill the rightful vision of their pervasive use across a wide variety of applications. This is partially due to the complexities associated with the physics that limit their performance, the intricacies involved in the processes that are used in their manufacturing, and the trade-offs in using different transduction mechanisms for their implementation. This work is intended to offer a brief introduction to all such details with references to the most influential contributions in the field for those interested in a deeper understanding of the material.

  16. Real-time Measurement of Mechanical Fluctuations in Carbon Nanotube Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Tavernarakis, Alexandros; Osmond, Johann; Verlot, Pierre; Bachtold, Adrian

    Carbon nanotube resonators have been recently shown to hold an exceptional sensing potential, relying on their extremely low mass. As a consequence, they are also expected to transduce the fundamental thermal force into very large motion fluctuations. Recently, an increasing number of theoretical proposals have suggested that this property may strongly affect the vibrational behaviour of carbon nanotube resonators, which has so far remained unobserved. Here we report the first, real-time detection of the thermally-induced vibrations in carbon nanotube resonators with masses in the 10 ag range. We show that coupling singly-clamped carbon nanotubes to a focused electron beam enables the full access to their mechanical trajectories. Our detailed analysis demonstrates that our devices behave as linear harmonic oscillators undergoing thermally-driven Brownian motion. Our result establish the viability of carbon nanotube resonator technology at room temperature and paves the way towards the observing novel thermodynamics regimes in nanomechanics. ICFO, Institut de Ciències Fotòniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.

  17. Defect-related internal dissipation in mechanical resonators and the study of coupled mechanical systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Czaplewski, David A.; Sullivan, John Patrick; Modine, Normand Arthur; Wendt, Joel Robert; Aslam, Dean (Michigan State University, Lansing, MI); Sepulveda-Alancastro, Nelson (University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR)

    2007-01-01

    Understanding internal dissipation in resonant mechanical systems at the micro- and nanoscale is of great technological and fundamental interest. Resonant mechanical systems are central to many sensor technologies, and microscale resonators form the basis of a variety of scanning probe microscopies. Furthermore, coupled resonant mechanical systems are of great utility for the study of complex dynamics in systems ranging from biology to electronics to photonics. In this work, we report the detailed experimental study of internal dissipation in micro- and nanomechanical oscillators fabricated from amorphous and crystalline diamond materials, atomistic modeling of dissipation in amorphous, defect-free, and defect-containing crystalline silicon, and experimental work on the properties of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled mechanical oscillator arrays. We have identified that internal dissipation in most micro- and nanoscale oscillators is limited by defect relaxation processes, with large differences in the nature of the defects as the local order of the material ranges from amorphous to crystalline. Atomistic simulations also showed a dominant role of defect relaxation processes in controlling internal dissipation. Our studies of one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled oscillator arrays revealed that it is possible to create mechanical systems that should be ideal for the study of non-linear dynamics and localization.

  18. NANOMECHANICAL MAPPING OF CARBON BLACK REINFORCED NATURAL RUBBER BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshio Nishi; Hideyuki Nukaga; So Fujinami; Ken Nakajima

    2007-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has the advantage of obtaining mechanical properties as well as topographic information at the same time. By analyzing force-distance curves measured over two-dimensional area using Hertzian contact mechanics, Young's modulus mapping was obtained with nanometer-scale resolution. Furthermore, the sample deformation by the force exerted was also estimated from the force-distance curve analyses. We could thus reconstruct a real topographic image by incorporating apparent topographic image with deformation image. We applied this method to carbon black reinforced natural rubber to obtain Young's modulus distribution image together with reconstructed real topographic image.Then we were able to recognize three regions; rubber matrix, carbon black (or bound rubber) and intermediate regions.Though the existence of these regions had been investigated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, this paper would be the first to report on the quantitative evaluation of the interfacial region in real space.

  19. Observation of resonant lattice modes by inelastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1965-01-01

    Observation by inelastic neutron scattering of resonant lattice modes due to small concentration of W atoms in Cr host crystal; frequencies and lifetimes of phonons with frequencies near that of resonant mode are considerably affected by presence of defects....

  20. THz parallel-plate waveguides with resonant cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichel, Kimberly S.; Astley, Victoria; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof;

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the terahertz resonance due to a cavity inside aparallel-plate waveguide, and discuss its use for refractive index sensing. Insidethe waveguide, we observe a broadband field enhancement associated with thisnarrowband resonance. © 2015 OSA....

  1. Dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in coupled ring resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamic nonlinear thermal optical effects in a photonic system of two coupled ring resonators. A bus waveguide is used to couple light in and out of one of the coupled resonators. Based on the coupling from the bus to the resonator, the coupling between the resonators and the intrinsic loss of each individual resonator, the system transmission spectrum can be classified by three different categories: coupled-resonator-induced absorption, coupled-resonator-induced transparency and over coupled resonance splitting. Dynamic thermal optical effects due to linear absorption have been analyzed for each category as a function of the input power. The heat power in each resonator determines the thermal dynamics in this coupled resonator system. Multiple “shark fins” and power competition between resonators can be foreseen. Also, the nonlinear absorption induced thermal effects have been discussed.

  2. Analysis of irradiation induced defects on carbon nanostructures and their influences on nanomechanical and morphological properties using molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregler, Sharon Kay

    Mechanisms such as nanomechanics, changes in chemical structure, and van der Waals interactions are difficult to observe on the atomic scale by experimental methods. It is important to understand the fundamentals of these processes on a small scale to reach conclusions of results that are observed on a larger scale. Computational methods may be readily applied to investigate these mechanisms on models a few nanometers in dimension and the results can give insights to processes that occur during real time experiments. The classical molecular dynamics simulations here utilize the reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) or adaptive intermolecular REBO (AIREBO) potentials, to model short range behavior, coupled with the Lennard Jones potential (and torsion for AIREBO), to model long range interactions of carbon nanostructures and hydrocarbons. The bond order term in the REBO/AIREBO potential allows for the realistic treatment of these materials as it correctly describes carbon (and silicon and germanium) hybridizations, and allows for bond breaking and reformation unlike basic molecular mechanics. This is a key feature for simulating irradiation and pullout mechanics on graphite and carbon nanotube and their composites. The irradiation simulations on graphite, with the same conditions as the experimental irradiation of highly pyrolythic graphite, provide insight to the types of defects that were observed on a larger scale by Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STM) images. Experimental characterization from collaborators mapped out the surface of irradiated graphite while computational theory further described the defects and observed the evolution of the defects during the irradiation procedure. Multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were irradiated with different particles to compare the effect that incident species have on the nanotubes' surfaces as well as the crosslink distribution of the radial cross sections. Irradiation is a common technique to modify the interfacial

  3. Optical Microspherical Resonators for Biomedical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo C. Righini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical resonators play an ubiquitous role in modern optics. A particular class of optical resonators is constituted by spherical dielectric structures, where optical rays are total internal reflected. Due to minimal reflection losses and to potentially very low material absorption, these guided modes, known as whispering gallery modes, can confer the resonator an exceptionally high quality factor Q, leading to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. These attractive characteristics make these miniaturized optical resonators especially suited as laser cavities and resonant filters, but also as very sensitive sensors. First, a brief analysis is presented of the characteristics of microspherical resonators, of their fabrication methods, and of the light coupling techniques. Then, we attempt to overview some of the recent advances in the development of microspherical biosensors, underlining a number of important applications in the biomedical field.

  4. Mapping of single-base differences between two DNA strands in a single molecule using holliday junction nanomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Brème

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a novel single-molecule DNA sequence comparison assay that is purely based on DNA mechanics. METHODS: A molecular construct that contained the two homologous but non-identical DNA sequences that were to be compared was prepared such that a four-way (Holliday junction could be formed by the formation of heteroduplexes through the inter-recombination of the strands. Magnetic tweezers were used to manipulate the force and the winding applied to this construct for inducing both the formation and the migration of a Holliday junction. The end-to-end distance of the construct was measured as a function of the winding and was used to monitor the behavior of the Holliday junction in different regions of the intra-molecular recombination. MAIN RESULTS: In the appropriate buffer, the magnet rotation induces the migration of the Holliday junction in the regions where there is no sequence difference between the recombining sequences. In contrast, even a single-base difference between the recombining sequences leads to a long-lasting blockage of the migration in the same buffer; this effect was obtained when the junction was positioned near this locus (the site of the single-base difference and forced toward the formation of heteroduplexes that comprise the locus. The migration blockages were detected through the identification of the formation of plectonemes. The detection of the presence of sequence differences and their respective mappings were obtained from the series of blockages that were detected. SIGNIFICANCE: This work presents a novel single-molecule sequence comparison assay that is based on the use of a Holliday junction as an ultra-sensitive nanomechanism; the mismatches act as blocking grains of sand in the Holliday "DNA gearbox". This approach will potentially have future applications in biotechnology.

  5. Effect of pulse frequency on microstructural, nanomechanical, and wear properties of electrodeposited Ni–TiN composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Fafeng; Tian, Jiyu; Ma, Chunyang, E-mail: chunyangandma@163.com; Guo, Xue [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318 (China); Potts, Matt [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2014-12-21

    The current paper reports successful syntheses of Ni–TiN composite coatings by pulse electrodeposition. The effect of pulse frequency on the microstructures, nanomechanical, and wear properties of the coatings was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, X–ray diffraction, nanoindenter, scanning electron microscopy, and wear test instrument. The results showed that the Ni–TiN composite coating prepared at the pulse frequency of 100 Hz showed the presence of a less number of TiN particles and some degrees of aggregation in micro-regions. By contrast, in the Ni–TiN coating deposited at the pulse frequency of 500 Hz, the TiN particles were large in number and dispersed homogeneously, thereby, offering the coating a uniform and fine structure. The average grain diameters of Ni and TiN in the coating prepared at 100 Hz were 154.7 and 44.8 nm, respectively, whereas those for the coating prepared at 500 Hz were 67.3 and 25.9 nm, respectively. The maximum TiN content in the Ni-TiN coating deposited at 800 Hz was approximately 10.5 wt. %. The maximum microhardness and the Young's modulus values for the Ni–TiN composite coatings deposited at 800 Hz were 35.7 GPa and 167.4 GPa, respectively. Furthermore, the Ni–TiN composite coating prepared at 100 Hz had more severe damages, whereas the morphologies of worn surface of the coatings deposited at 500 Hz and 800 Hz were smooth and only a few small pits appeared on the surface.

  6. Effects of fluoride release from orthodontic bonding materials on nanomechanical properties of the enamel around orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamid Raji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of a fluoride-releasing composite resin bonding material on reducing enamel demineralization underneath and around orthodontic brackets and compare that with a conventional adhesive system. Materials and Methods: Buccal surfaces of 10 intact extracted premolar teeth were divided into two parts with nail varnish and stainless steel brackets were randomly bonded by two resin composite systems: (Transbond XT and (Transbond XT plus Color Change (3M, Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA on two sides of the teeth and then samples were placed in a demineralization solution. It is claimed that the second system has the ability of fluoride release. Elastic modulus and hardness of enamel were measured with nanoindentation test in 6 depths in 1-36 μm from the enamel surface and in 7 regions: Control (intact enamel surface, underneath the brackets and also 50 and 100 μm from the brackets edge. These nanomechanical features were evaluated in different regions and depths using analysis of variance and paired t-test (P < 0.05. Results: Considerable difference can be seen in different depths and regions in terms of hardness and elastic modulus. The region under the bracket with fluoridated adhesive shows similar results with intact enamel, whereas these parameters in fluoride less side show a significant reduction (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Results show that use of resin composite bonding system with the ability of fluoride release for bracket bonding, may reduce demineralization of enamel around brackets during orthodontic treatment.

  7. Demonstration of sharp multiple Fano resonances in optical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrated multiple Fano resonances in optical metamaterials. By combination of two different sized asymmetric-double-bar (ADB) structures, triple Fano resonance was observed in the near-infrared region. In addition to Fano resonance due to anti-phase modes in isolated ADB structures, an anti-phase mode due to coupling among different sized ADBs was observed. Dependence of characteristics of resonances on size difference was also investigated. At specific conditions of size difference, quality factors of three Fano resonances were improved compared with ADB metamaterials consisting of one kind of ADBs. The results will help to realize applications using metamaterial resonators with multiple functionalities and high performance.

  8. Quantitative Subsurface Atomic Structure Fingerprint for 2D Materials and Heterostructures by First-Principles-Calibrated Contact-Resonance Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qing; Lange, Björn; Parlak, Zehra; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J; Blum, Volker; Zauscher, Stefan

    2016-07-26

    Interfaces and subsurface layers are critical for the performance of devices made of 2D materials and heterostructures. Facile, nondestructive, and quantitative ways to characterize the structure of atomically thin, layered materials are thus essential to ensure control of the resultant properties. Here, we show that contact-resonance atomic force microscopy-which is exquisitely sensitive to stiffness changes that arise from even a single atomic layer of a van der Waals-adhered material-is a powerful experimental tool to address this challenge. A combined density functional theory and continuum modeling approach is introduced that yields sub-surface-sensitive, nanomechanical fingerprints associated with specific, well-defined structure models of individual surface domains. Where such models are known, this information can be correlated with experimentally obtained contact-resonance frequency maps to reveal the (sub)surface structure of different domains on the sample.

  9. Mass detection using capacitive resonant silicon resonator employing LC resonant circuit technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Ono, Takahito; Esashi, Masayoshi

    2007-08-01

    Capacitive resonant mass sensing using a single-crystalline silicon resonator with an electrical LC oscillator was demonstrated in ambient atmosphere. Using capacitive detection method, the detectable minimum mass of 1 x 10(-14) g was obtained in the self-oscillation of cantilever with a thickness of 250 nm. The noise amplitude of the sensor output corresponds to a vibration amplitude of 0.05 nm(Hz)(0.5) in the frequency domain compared with the actuation signal, which is equivalent to the detectable minimum capacitance variation of 2.4 x 10(-21) F. Using the capacitive detection method, mass/stress induced resonance frequency shift due to the adsorption of ethanol and moist vapor in a pure N(2) gas as a carrier is successfully demonstrated. These results show the high potential of capacitive silicon resonator for high mass/stress-sensitive sensor.

  10. Nanomechanical and electrical properties of Nb thin films deposited on Pb substrates by pulsed laser deposition as a new concept photocathode for superconductor cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontad, F. [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Lorusso, A., E-mail: antonella.lorusso@le.infn.it [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Panareo, M.; Monteduro, A.G.; Maruccio, G. [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Broitman, E. [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, 581-83 Linköping (Sweden); Perrone, A. [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2015-12-21

    We report a design of photocathode, which combines the good photoemissive properties of lead (Pb) and the advantages of superconducting performance of niobium (Nb) when installed into a superconducting radio-frequency gun. The new configuration is obtained by a coating of Nb thin film grown on a disk of Pb via pulsed laser deposition. The central emitting area of Pb is masked by a shield to avoid the Nb deposition. The nanomechanical properties of the Nb film, obtained through nanoindentation measurements, reveal a hardness of 2.8±0.3 GPa, while the study of the electrical resistivity of the film shows the appearance of the superconducting transitions at 9.3 K and 7.3 K for Nb and Pb, respectively, very close to the bulk material values. Additionally, morphological, structural and contamination studies of Nb thin film expose a very low droplet density on the substrate surface, a small polycrystalline orientation of the films and a low contamination level. These results, together with the acceptable Pb quantum efficiency of 2×10{sup −5} found at 266 nm, demonstrate the potentiality of the new concept photocathode. - Highlights: • Fabrication of hybrid Nb/Pb photocathodes for superconductive photoinjectors. • Nb thin films deposition by pulsed laser ablation on Pb substrates. • Characterization of nanomechanical properties of Nb thin films. • Characterization of electrical properties of Nb thin films.

  11. Analysis of nanomechanical properties of Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes under the influence of lytic factors in an in vitro model using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria; Skrzypiec, Krzysztof; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława

    2015-11-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an experimental technique which recently has been used in biology, microbiology, and medicine to investigate the topography of surfaces and in the evaluation of mechanical properties of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the complement system and specific anti-Borrelia antibodies in in vitro conditions on the modification of nanomechanical features of B. burgdorferi B31 cells. In order to assess the influence of the complement system and anti-Borrelia antibodies on B. burgdorferi s.s. B31 spirochetes, the bacteria were incubated together with plasma of identified status. The samples were applied on the surface of mica disks. Young's modulus and adhesive forces were analyzed with a NanoScope V, MultiMode 8 AFM microscope (Bruker) by the PeakForce QNM technique in air using NanoScope Analysis 1.40 software (Bruker). The average value of flexibility of spirochetes' surface expressed by Young's modulus was 10185.32 MPa, whereas the adhesion force was 3.68 nN. AFM is a modern tool with a broad spectrum of observational and measurement abilities. Young's modulus and the adhesion force can be treated as parameters in the evaluation of intensity and changes which take place in pathogenic microorganisms under the influence of various lytic factors. The visualization of the changes in association with nanomechanical features provides a realistic portrayal of the lytic abilities of the elements of the innate and adaptive human immune system.

  12. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  13. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... usually given through an IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ...

  14. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  15. Nanomechanical characterization of nanostructured bainitic steel: Peak Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation with AFM

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The full understanding of the deformation mechanisms in nanostructured bainite requires the local characterization of its mechanical properties, which are expected to change from one phase, bainitic ferrite, to another, austenite. This study becomes a challenging process due to the bainitic nanostructured nature and high Young’s modulus. In this work, we have carried out such study by means of the combination of AFM-based techniques, such as nanoindentation and Peak Force Quantitative Nanomec...

  16. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  17. Resonance frequency and mass identification of zeptogram-scale nanosensor based on the nonlocal beam theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Fang; Tang, Guo-Jin; Shen, Zhi-Bin; Lee, Kang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Free vibration and mass detection of carbon nanotube-based sensors are studied in this paper. Since the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes possess a size effect, the nonlocal beam model is used to characterize flexural vibration of nanosensors carrying a concentrated nanoparticle, where the size effect is reflected by a nonlocal parameter. For nanocantilever or bridged sensor, frequency equations are derived when a nanoparticle is carried at the free end or the middle, respectively. Exact resonance frequencies are numerically determined for clamped-free, simply-supported, and clamped-clamped resonators. Alternative approximations of fundamental frequency are given in closed form within the relative error less than 0.4%, 0.6%, and 1.4% for cantilever, simply-supported, and bridged sensors, respectively. Mass identification formulae are derived in terms of the frequency shift. Identified masses via the present approach coincide with those using the molecular mechanics approach and reach as low as 10(-24)kg. The obtained results indicate that the nonlocal effect decreases the resonance frequency except for the fundamental frequency of nanocantilever sensor. These results are helpful to the design of micro/nanomechanical zeptogram-scale biosensor.

  18. Adult presentation with vascular ring due to double aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Henryk; Uebing, Anselm; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2006-11-01

    This is a case report on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose vascular ring due to double aortic arch in an adult presenting with an abnormal chest X-ray. The experience in this case and the literature review identify the benefits of using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to clarify complex aortic arch anatomy.

  19. Effect of In implantation and annealing on the lattice disorder and nano-mechanical properties of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filintoglou, K. [School of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kavouras, P. [Department of Applied Sciences, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, 57400 Sindos (Greece); Katsikini, M., E-mail: katsiki@auth.gr [School of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Arvanitidis, J. [School of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Applied Sciences, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, 57400 Sindos (Greece); Christofilos, D. [Physics Division, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ves, S. [School of Physics, Section of Solid State Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wendler, E.; Wesch, W. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena, Max Wien Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The effect of 700 keV In implantation and subsequent annealing on GaN was studied by Rutherford Backscattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nanο-indentation as a function of the ion fluence (F) ranging from 5 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. Symmetry allowed and disorder activated Raman scattering peaks were analyzed using the spatial correlation model, allowing their assignment to phonon branches of crystalline GaN or defects and the estimation of the corresponding phonon coherence length (L). The L values decrease abruptly at a critical fluence of approximately 2 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. After a slight increase in the nano-hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (E{sub r}) values at low implantation fluences, they exhibit a steep reduction. These variations are accompanied by changes in the shape of the load–displacement curves, which are indicative of elasto-plastic behavior up to a critical F, whereas they approach the ideal plastic behavior at higher fluences. Annealing at 1000 °C of the sample implanted with 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} results in efficient recovery of its structural and nano-mechanical properties. However, annealing of specimens implanted at higher fluences causes partial recovery that starts mainly from the transition region between the heavily damaged and the underlying undamaged GaN. The highly correlated behavior of L, H and E{sub r} on the implantation fluence implies a common origin of the studied effects. - Highlights: ► In implanted GaN is studied by Raman spectroscopy, RBS and nano-indentation. ► Phonon coherence length decreases in accordance to hardness and elastic modulus. ► Elastoplastic behavior is observed at low and plastic at high fluences. ► Annealing is more effective at fluences that do not cause complete amorphization. ► At high fluences annealing results in redistribution of atomic species.

  20. A MEMS diamond hemispherical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, J. J.; Bancu, M. G.; Cook, E. H.; Chaparala, M. V.; Teynor, W. A.; Weinberg, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we report the fabrication of hemispherical polycrystalline diamond resonators fabricated on a novel high-temperature glass substrate. The hemispherical resonator gyroscope is one of the most accurate and rugged of the mechanical gyroscopes, and can be operated in either rate or whole-angle mode due to its high degree of symmetry. A fabrication sequence for creating extremely symmetric 3D MEMS hemispheres is presented. Mode shapes and frequencies obtained with a laser vibrometer are shown, as well as curves of Q versus pressure, and the dependence of frequency on anchor size. Fundamental mode frequency matching to gyroscope operation in whole-angle mode.

  1. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-27

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies.

  2. Plasma Braking Due to External Magnetic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, Kejo; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The RFP EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a comprehensive active feedback system (128 active saddle coils in the full-coverage array) and active control of both resonant and non-resonant MHD modes has been demonstrated. The feedback algorithms, based on modern control methodology such as reference mode tracking (both amplitude and phase), are a useful tool to improve the ``state of the art'' of the MHD mode control. But this tool can be used also to improve the understanding and the characterization of other phenomena such as the ELM mitigation with a resonant magnetic perturbation or the plasma viscosity. The present work studies plasma and mode braking due to static RMPs. Results show that a static RMP produces a global braking of the flow profile. The study of the effect of RMPs characterized by different helicities will also give information on the plasma viscosity profile. Experimental results are finally compared to theoretical models.

  3. Surface variations affecting human dental enamel studied using nanomechanical and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Michelle Emma

    The enamel surface is the interface between the tooth and its ever changing oral environment. Cavity (caries) formation and extrinsic tooth staining are due, respectively, to degradation of the enamel structure under low pH conditions and interactions between salivary pellicle and dietary elements. Both of these occur at the enamel surface and are caused by the local environment changing the chemistry of the surface. The results can be detrimental to the enamel's mechanical integrity and aesthetics. Incipient carious lesions are the precursor to caries and form due to demineralisation of enamel. These carious lesions are a reversible structure where ions (e.g. Ca2+, F -) can diffuse in (remineralisation) to preserve the tooth's structural integrity. This investigation used controlled in vitro demineralisation and remineralisation to study artificial carious lesion formation and repair. The carious lesions were cross-sectioned and characterised using nanoindentation, electron probe micro-analysis and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mechanical and chemical maps showed the carious lesion had a significantly reduced hardness and elastic modulus, and the calcium and phosphate content was lower than in sound enamel. Fluoride based remineralisation treatments gave a new phase (possibly fluorohydroxyapatite) within the lesion with mechanical properties higher than sound enamel. The acquired salivary pellicle is a protein-rich film formed by the physisorption of organic molecules in saliva onto the enamel surface. Its functions include lubrication during mastication and chemical protection. However, pellicle proteins react with dietary elements such as polyphenols (tannins in tea) causing a brown stain. This study has used in vitro dynamic nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to examine normal and stained pellicles formed in vivo. The effects of polyphenols on the pellicle's mechanical properties and morphology have been studied. It was found that the

  4. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, James P., E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu; Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert, E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu; Wöll, Christof, E-mail: james.best@empa.ch, E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu, E-mail: christof.woell@kit.edu [Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Röse, Silvana [Preparative Macromolecular Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry (ICTP), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstrasse 18, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute for Biological Interfaces (IBG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Oberst, Vanessa [Institute of Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Walheim, Stefan [Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-09-07

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E{sub ITO} ≈ 96.7 GPa, E{sub HKUST−1} ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  5. Insight into the nanomechanical properties under indentation of β-Si3N4 nano-thin layers in the basal plane using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefeng; Guo, Xin; La, Peiqing; Wei, Yupeng; Nan, Xueli; He, Ling

    2014-09-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to clarify the nanomechanical responses of β-Si3N4 nano-thin layers in the basal plane for indenters of various radii, different indentation velocities and at different temperatures. It was found that the maximum loading stress and indenter displacement both increase with increasing radius of the indenter. A large number of N(6h)-Si bond-breaking defects and one N(2c)-Si bond-breaking defects are responsible for the initiation of fracturing. With increasing loading velocity, the maximum loading stresses show almost no change; however, a high loading velocity can shorten the displacement of the indenter and contributes to the formation of new N(2c)-Si bond-breaking defects. Thermal fluctuations can decrease the mechanical properties of the thin layer. The maximum loading stresses and indenter displacements are sensitive to both the radius of the indenter and the loading temperature.

  6. Nanomechanical and in situ TEM characterization of boron carbide thin films on helium implanted substrates: Delamination, real-time cracking and substrate buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framil Carpeño, David, E-mail: david.framil-carpeno@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Ohmura, Takahito; Zhang, Ling [Strength Design Group, Structural Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Leveneur, Jérôme [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Seal, Christopher [International Centre for Advanced Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kennedy, John [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, 30 Gracefield Road, Gracefield, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Hyland, Margaret [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2015-07-15

    Boron carbide coatings deposited on helium-implanted and unimplanted Inconel 600 were characterized using a combination of nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy. Real-time coating, cracking and formation of slip bands were recorded using in situ TEM-nanoindentation, allowing site specific events to be correlated with specific features in their load–displacement curves. Cross-sections through the residual indent impression showed a correlation between pop-outs in the load–displacement curves and coating delamination, which was confirmed with cyclic indentation experiments. Inconel exhibits (-11-1) and (1-1-1) twin variants in its deformed region beneath the indenter, organized in bands with a ladder-like arrangement. The nanomechanical properties of the metal–ceramic coating combinations exhibit a marked substrate effect as a consequence of helium implantation.

  7. Nano-Mechanical Studies on Polyglactin Sutures Subjected to In Vitro Hydrolytic and Enzymatic Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Wanasekara, Nandula; Chalivendra, Vijaya; Calvert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the effects of in vitro hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation on mechanical properties of polyglactin 910 monofilament sutures was performed by conducting nanoindentation studies using an atomic force microscope (AFM). For hydrolytic degradation, the sutures were incubated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at three different pH conditions, 5, 7.4, and 10. For enzymatic degradation, esterase was employed at pH condition of 7.4. The property of the sutures changed with time at different conditions were investigated by nanoindentation, tensile test experiments, image analysis using both of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and AFM, and also Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of degradation on gradation of Young's modulus values across the cross section of the sutures were studied by doing progressive nanoindentation from center to surface. FTIR studies revealed the formation of new hydroxyl bonds due to both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradations. Nanoindentation results indicated that the degradation does not cause a gradient of Young's modulus of the polyglactin 910 monofilament sutures across the cross section from center to surface at different degradation times for both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradations. However, in general, the Young's modulus of all samples was decreased over 4 weeks of degradation. The microscopic evaluation of the samples also showed both qualitative changes in surface morphology and quantitative changes in surface roughness on the surface of degraded sutures. This study provided a deep understanding of the polyglactin sutures subjected to in vitro hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation, and also opened a new avenue to study the biomaterials at nano-scale.

  8. Proximity to Intrinsic Depolarizing Resonances with a Partial Siberian Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D. A.; Alexeeva, L. V.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Chu, C. M.; Caussyn, D. D.; Courant, E. D.; Gladycheva, S. E.; Hu, S.; Krisch, A. D.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Varzar, S. M.; Wong, V. K.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Russell, A. D.; Ohmori, C.; Sato, H.

    1996-05-01

    Partial Siberian snakes are effective in overcoming imperfection depolarizing resonances, but they may also change the crossing energy for intrinsic depolarizing resonances. We experimentally investigated the effect of a partial Siberian snake near intrinsic depolarizing resonances with stored 140 MeV and 160 MeV polarized proton beams. Using various partial Siberian snake strengths up to 30%, depolarization was observed; this may be due to a change in the spin precession frequency which moves the energy of nearby intrinsic depolarizing resonances.

  9. Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oguzhan; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2011-05-01

    Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.

  10. Tuning of optical resonances of a microsphere with liquid crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Serpengüzel, Ali; Yılmaz, Huzeyfe; Tamer, Mehmet Selman; Gürlü, Oğuzhan

    2011-01-01

    Optical resonances are observed in the elastic light scattering form high refractive index glass microspheres placed on a single mode optical fiber coupler and in a liquid crystal. Placing the liquid crystal on the optical fiber coupler increases the non-resonant scattering, whereas placing the liquid crystal away from the optical coupler increases the resonant scattering. Optical resonances blue and red shift due to the placement and removal of the liquid crystal.

  11. Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Nöckel, J U; Noeckel, Jens U.

    1998-01-01

    Optical resonators are essential components of lasers and other wavelength-sensitive optical devices. A resonator is characterized by a set of modes, each with a resonant frequency omega and resonance width Delta omega=1/tau, where tau is the lifetime of a photon in the mode. In a cylindrical or spherical dielectric resonator, extremely long-lived resonances are due to `whispering gallery' modes in which light circulates around the perimeter trapped by total internal reflection. These resonators emit light isotropically. Recently, a new category of asymmetric resonant cavities (ARCs) has been proposed in which substantial shape deformation leads to partially chaotic ray dynamics. This has been predicted to give rise to a universal, frequency-independent broadening of the whispering-gallery resonances, and highly anisotropic emission. Here we present solutions of the wave equation for ARCs which confirm many aspects of the earlier ray-optics model, but also reveal interesting frequency-dependent effects charac...

  12. Noise suppression for micromechanical resonator via intrinsic dynamic feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou IAN; Zhi-rui GONG; Chang-pu SUN

    2008-01-01

    We study a dynamic mechanism to passively suppress the thermal noise of a micromechanical resonator through an intrinsic self-feedback that is genuinely non-Markovian.We use two coupled resonators,one as the target resonator and the other as an ancillary resonator,to illustrate the mechanism and its noise reduction effect.The intrinsic feedback is realized through the dynamics of coupling between the two resonators:the motions of the target resonator and the ancillary resonator mutually influence each other in a cyclic fashion.Specifically,the states that the target resonator has attained earlier will affect the state it attains later due to the presence of the ancillary resonator.We show that the feedback mechanism will bring forth the effect of noise suppression in the spectrum of displacement,but not in the spectrum of momentum.

  13. MicroCantilever (MC) based nanomechanical sensor for detection of molecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    hybridization and the conventional mode for cocaine detection, the lowest detectable concentration was determined by binding activity between the ligand and receptor molecules. In order to overcome this limitation for cocaine detection, a novel competition sensing mode that relies on rate of aptamers unbinding from the cantilever due to either diffusion or reaction with cocaine as target ligands in solution was investigated. The rate of unbinding is found to be dependent on the concentration of cocaine molecules. A model based on diffusion-reaction equation was developed to explain the experimental observation. Experimental results indicate that the competition mode reduces the lowest detectable threshold to 200 nM which is comparable to that achieved analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry.

  14. Nanomechanics of phospholipid bilayer failure under strip biaxial stretching using molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Horstemeyer, M. F.; Gwaltney, Steven R.; Stone, Tonya; LaPlaca, Michelle; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha; Prabhu, R.

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents a nanoscale in silico investigation of strain rate dependency of membrane (phospholipid bilayer) failure when placed under strip biaxial tension with two planar areas. The nanoscale simulations were conducted in the context of a multiscale modelling framework in which the macroscale damage (pore volume fraction) progression is delineated into pore nucleation (number density of pores), pore growth (size of pores), and pore coalescence (inverse of nearest neighbor distance) mechanisms. As such, the number density, area fraction, and nearest neighbor distances were quantified in association with the stress-strain behavior. Deformations of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayer were performed using molecular dynamics to simulate mechanoporation of a neuronal cell membrane due to injury, which in turn can result in long-term detrimental effects that could ultimately lead to cell death. Structures with 72 and 144 phospholipids were subjected to strip biaxial tensile deformations at multiple strain rates. Formation of a water bridge through the phospholipid bilayer was the metric to indicate structural failure. Both the larger and smaller bilayers had similar behavior regarding pore nucleation and the strain rate effect on pore growth post water penetration. The applied strain rates, planar area, and cross-sectional area had no effect on the von Mises strains at which pores greater than 0.1 nm2 were detected (0.509  ±  7.8%) or the von Mises strain at failure (ɛ failure  =  0.68  ±  4.8%). Additionally, changes in bilayer planar and cross-sectional areas did not affect the stress response. However, as the strain rate increased from 2.0  ×  108 s-1 to 1.0  ×  109 s-1, the yield stress increased from 26.5 MPa to 66.7 MPa and the yield strain increased from 0.056 to 0.226.

  15. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi Duman; Reşat Duman; Mehmet Balcı

    2013-01-01

    Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  16. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  17. Resonance and Neck Length for a Spherical Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Corning

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the neck length of a spherical resonator and its period of fundamental resonance was investigated. This was done by measuring the frequency of fundamental resonance of the resonator at 6 different neck lengths. It was found that its resonance resembled Helmholtz resonance but was not that of ideal Helmholtz resonance.

  18. Resonant and rolling droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Dorbolo, S; Vandewalle, N; Gilet, T

    2008-01-01

    When an oil droplet is placed on a quiescent oil bath, it eventually collapses into the bath due to gravity. The resulting coalescence may be eliminated when the bath is vertically vibrated. The droplet bounces periodically on the bath, and the air layer between the droplet and the bath is replenished at each bounce. This sustained bouncing motion is achieved when the forcing acceleration is higher than a threshold value. When the droplet has a sufficiently low viscosity, it significantly deforms : spherical harmonic \\boldmath{$Y_{\\ell}^m$} modes are excited, resulting in resonant effects on the threshold acceleration curve. Indeed, a lower acceleration is needed when $\\ell$ modes with $m=0$ are excited. Modes $m \

  19. Planar Resonators for Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Blaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation into a combination of electric and magnetic planar resonators in order to design the building element of a volumetric metamaterial showing simultaneously negative electric and magnetic polarizabilities under irradiation by an electromagnetic wave. Two combinations of particular planar resonators are taken into consideration. These planar resonators are an electric dipole, a split ring resonator and a double H-shaped resonator. The response of the single resonant particle composed of a resonator with an electric response and a resonator with a magnetic response is strongly anisotropic. Proper spatial arrangement of these particles can make the response isotropic. This is obtained by proper placement of six planar resonators on the surface of a cube that now represents a metamaterial unit cell. The cells are distributed in space with 3D periodicity.

  20. Integral resonator gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  1. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  2. Resonant enhancement of Raman scattering in metamaterials with hybrid electromagnetic and plasmonic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D.; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-06-01

    A tri-layer metamaterial perfect absorber of light, consisting of (Al/ZnS/Al) films with the top aluminum layer patterned as an array of circular disk nanoantennas, is investigated for resonantly enhancing Raman scattering from C60 fullerene molecules deposited on the metamaterial. The metamaterial is designed to have resonant bands due to plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances at the Raman pump frequency (725 nm) as well as Stokes emission bands. The Raman scattering from C60 on the metamaterial with resonantly matched bands is measured to be enhanced by an order of magnitude more than C60 on metamaterials with off-resonant absorption bands peaking at 1090 nm. The Raman pump is significantly enhanced due to the resonance with a propagating surface plasmon band, while the highly impedance-matched electromagnetic resonance is expected to couple out the Raman emission efficiently. The nature and hybridization of the plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances to form compound resonances are investigated by numerical simulations.

  3. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Examples of planar superconducting resonators Superconducting resonators are usually one of two types either planar, or three dimensional most often...also been employed. The term lumped element is used because the resonator comprises separated inductor and capacitor. In superconducting resonators the...implementation often is a miniature version in which the capacitor and inductor are combined in the same structure. Fig. 5 shows an example for CPW

  4. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  5. Ti、TiN、TiO2改性层的纳米力学性能测试与分析%Nanomechanical Properties Test and Analysis of Ti, TiN and TiO2 Modified Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张星; 王鹤峰; 袁国政; 树学峰

    2012-01-01

    采用等离子表面合金化技术,分别在316L不锈钢表面制备出渗Ti改性层、渗TiN改性层和TiO2改性层薄膜.使用连续刚度法,从截面方向和表面方向对改性层进行纳米压痕实验,研究改性层的纳米力学性能.实验测得材料在压痕过程中的载荷—位移曲线以及硬度和模量随压入深度的连续变化值.结果表明,改性层纳米力学特性表现为各向异性;TiN改性层的力学性能表现良好.TiO2改性层由渗Ti改性层经氧化制成,二者的弹性模量和硬度在截面方向上变化规律相似,在表面方向上数值相近.%Modified layers were prepared by infiltrating Ti, TiN and TiO2 on the surface of 316L stainless steel, respectively, based on plasma surface alloying technique. Using continuous stiffness measurement (CSM), nanoindentation experiment for the substrate and modified layers, from cross-section normal direction and surface normal direction, respectively, to investigate the nanomechanical properties of modified layer. Load-displacement curve of the material in indentation process, and the continuous variation of hardness and modulus along with the indentation depth were obtained, respectively. Results show that mechanical properties of modified layer present anisotropy; the TiN modified layer presents good mechanical performance; The modulus-displacement and hardness-displacement curves of TiO2 modified layer and Ti modified layer show similar variation in experiment of loading from cross-section normal direction, and show familiar values in experiment of loading from surface normal direction, respectively, due to the TiO2 modified layer was generated by the oxidation of Ti modified layer.

  6. Controlling Parametric Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2012-01-01

    Parametric resonance is a resonant phenomenon which takes place in systems characterized by periodic variations of some parameters. While seen as a threatening condition, whose onset can drive a system into instability, this chapter advocates that parametric resonance may become an advantage if t...

  7. Spin coupling and resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The resonating block localize wave function (RBLW) method is introduced, a resonating modification of the block localized wave functions introduced by Mo et al. [Mo, Y.; Peyerimhoff, S. D. J. Chem. Phys. 1998, 109, 1687].This approach allows the evaluation of resonance energies following Pauling’s r

  8. Optimized Design of the Shielded-Loop Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    The shielded-loop resonator is known to have low capacitive sample loss due to perfect balancing. We present a new analysis of the unbalanced driven shielded-loop resonator that calculates the resonance frequencies and also determines some design considerations. The analysis enables us to optimiz...... the use of this resonator. Theory and design considerations are shown to agree with observations in measurements on two coils, with various sizes and frequencies......The shielded-loop resonator is known to have low capacitive sample loss due to perfect balancing. We present a new analysis of the unbalanced driven shielded-loop resonator that calculates the resonance frequencies and also determines some design considerations. The analysis enables us to optimize...

  9. Onycholysis due to trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Female patient, 35 years old who came to the private office due to discoloration of her left thumbnail and little pain since 1 month ago. Clinical examination shows nail disease on her left thumbnail with onycholysis and dyschromia, dermatoscopy showed white-yellowish discoloration (Fig. 1A, B. The rest of the clinical examination was normal. Patient use to using acrylic nails since 2 years ago and denied some trauma at the nail. The diagnosis of onycholysis due to trauma was done and recommended her not to use acrylic nail, maintain the nail short and avoid wetness.

  10. Subwavelength resonant nanostructured films for sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Daniel L.; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-05-29

    We present a novel subwavelength nanostructure architecture that may be utilized for optical standoff sensing applications. The subwavelength structures are fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering to create metallic nanostructured films encased within a transparent media. The structures are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant LC circuits, which display a resonance frequency that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any perturbation of the nanostructured films due to chemical or environmental effects can alter the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which can shift the resonant frequency and provide an indication of the external stimulus. This shift in resonance can be interrogated remotely either actively using either laser illumination or passively using hyperspectral or multispectral sensing. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also provide polarization-sensitive interrogation. Due to the nanometer-scale of the structures, they can be tailored to be optically responsive in the visible or near infrared spectrum with a highly reflective resonant peak that is dependent solely on structural dimensions and material characteristics. We present experimental measurements of the optical response of these structures as a function of wavelength, polarization, and incident angle demonstrating the resonant effect in the near infrared region. Numerical modeling data showing the effect of different fabrication parameters such as structure parameters are also discussed.

  11. Nanomechanics of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Andras; Zettl, Alex

    2008-05-13

    Some of the most important potential applications of carbon nanotubes are related to their mechanical properties. Stiff sp2 bonds result in a Young's modulus close to that of diamond, while the relatively weak van der Waals interaction between the graphitic shells acts as a form of lubrication. Previous characterization of the mechanical properties of nanotubes includes a rich variety of experiments involving mechanical deformation of nanotubes using scanning probe microscopes. These results have led to promising prototypes of nanoelectromechanical devices such as high-performance nanomotors, switches and oscillators based on carbon nanotubes.

  12. Modeling of quantum nanomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are approaching the nanoscale, which ultimately implies that the mechanical motion needs to be treated quantum mechanically. In recent years our group has developed theoretical methods to analyze the shuttle transition in the quantum regime (Novotny, 2004...

  13. Deformation effects in Giant Monopole Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Kvasil, J; Repko, A; Bozik, D; Kleinig, W; Reinhard, P -G

    2014-01-01

    The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (GMR) in Samarium isotopes (from spherical $^{144}$Sm to deformed $^{148-154}$Sm) is investigated within the Skyrme random-phase-approximation (RPA) for a variety of Skyrme forces. The exact RPA and its separable version (SRPA) are used for spherical and deformed nuclei, respectively. The quadrupole deformation is shown to yield two effects: the GMR broadens and attains a two-peak structure due to the coupling with the quadrupole giant resonance.

  14. Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention on metamaterials has been paid due to their exciting physical behaviors and potential applications. While most of such artificial material structures developed so far are based on metallic resonant structures, Mie resonances of dielectric particles open a simpler and more versatile route for construction of isotropic metamaterials with higher operating frequencies. Here, we review the recent progresses of Mie resonance-based metamaterials by providing a description of the underlying mechanisms to realize negative permeability, negative permittivity and double negative media. We address some potential novel applications.

  15. Micro string resonators as temperature sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Schmid, S.; Boisen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The resonance frequency of strings is highly sensitive to temperature. In this work we have investigated the applicability of micro string resonators as temperature sensors. The resonance frequency of strings is a function of the tensile stress which is coupled to temperature by the thermal...... was done with silicon rich silicon nitride (SiNx), nickel (Ni) and aluminum (Al) micro strings. Aluminum strings show a relative sensitivity of up to 15±1 %/°C, which is more than 100 times higher than values reported by other groups for similar devices. Sub-millisecond time constants can be achieved due...

  16. Kepler-16b: a resonant survivor

    CERN Document Server

    Popova, E A

    2012-01-01

    The planet Kepler-16b is known to follow a circumbinary orbit around a double system of two main-sequence stars. We construct stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane, which show that Kepler-16b is in a hazardous vicinity to the chaos domain - just between the instability "teeth" in the space of orbital parameters. Kepler-16b survives, because it is close to the half-integer 11/2 orbital resonance with the central binary. The neighbouring resonance cells are vacant, because they are "purged" by Kepler-16b, due to overlap of first-order resonances with the planet.

  17. Composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Hou, H.Q.; Chow, W.W.; Geib, K.M.; Hammons, B.E.

    1998-05-01

    The use of two coupled laser cavities has been employed in edge emitting semiconductor lasers for mode suppression and frequency stabilization. The incorporation of coupled resonators within a vertical cavity laser opens up new possibilities due to the unique ability to tailor the interaction between the cavities. Composite resonators can be utilized to control spectral and temporal properties within the laser; previous studies of coupled cavity vertical cavity lasers have employed photopumped structures. The authors report the first composite resonator vertical cavity laser diode consisting of two optical cavities and three monolithic distributed Bragg reflectors. Cavity coupling effects and two techniques for external modulation of the laser are described.

  18. CROSSING A COUPLING SPIN RESONANCE WITH AN RF DIPOLE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI,M.; ROSER,T.

    2001-06-18

    In accelerators, due to quadrupole roll errors and solenoid fields, the polarized proton acceleration often encounters coupling spin resonances. In the Brookhaven AGS, the coupling effect comes from the solenoid partial snake which is used to overcome imperfection resonances. The coupling spin resonance strength is proportional to the amount of coupling as well as the strength of the corresponding intrinsic spin resonance. The coupling resonance can cause substantial beam polarization loss if its corresponding intrinsic spin resonance is very strong. A new method of using an horizontal rf dipole to induce a full spin flip crossing both the intrinsic and its coupling spin resonances is studied in the Brookhaven's AGS. Numerical simulations show that a full spin flip can be induced after crossing the two resonances by using a horizontal rf dipole to induce a large vertical coherent oscillation.

  19. Thermally actuated resonant silicon crystal nanobalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjam, Arash

    As the potential emerging technology for next generation integrated resonant sensors and frequency references as well as electronic filters, micro-electro-mechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention over the past decade. As a result, a wide variety of high frequency micro/nanoscale electromechanical resonators have recently been presented. MEMS resonators, as low-cost highly integrated and ultra-sensitive mass sensors, can potentially provide new opportunities and unprecedented capabilities in the area of mass sensing. Such devices can provide orders of magnitude higher mass sensitivity and resolution compared to Film Bulk Acoustic resonators (FBAR) or the conventional quartz and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators due to their much smaller sizes and can be batch-fabricated and utilized in highly integrated large arrays at a very low cost. In this research, comprehensive experimental studies on the performance and durability of thermally actuated micromechanical resonant sensors with frequencies up to tens of MHz have been performed. The suitability and robustness of the devices have been demonstrated for mass sensing applications related to air-borne particles and organic gases. In addition, due to the internal thermo-electro-mechanical interactions, the active resonators can turn some of the consumed electronic power back into the mechanical structure and compensate for the mechanical losses. Therefore, such resonators can provide self-sustained-oscillation without the need for any electronic circuitry. This unique property has been deployed to demonstrate a prototype self-sustained sensor for air-borne particle monitoring. I have managed to overcome one of the obstacles for MEMS resonators, which is their relatively poor temperature stability. This is a major drawback when compared with the conventional quartz crystals. A significant decrease of the large negative TCF for the resonators has been attained by doping the devices with a high

  20. Technical Due Diligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Varano, Mattia

    2011-01-01

    Technical Due Diligence (TDD) as an evaluation of the performance of constructed facilities has become an important new field of practice for consultants. Before the financial crisis started in autumn 2008 it represented the fastest growing activity in some consulting companies. TDD is mostly car...