WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanomaterials including fullerenes

  1. Fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    Fullerenes or"buckyballs,"a new carbon-based family of materials, have fascinated the scientific community for the past few years. These materials are likely to find applications ranging from lubricants to batteries to biological magic bullets, which will be of great importance in the science and technology of the next century. This carefully edited volume, the first to include Frans Spaepen as co-editor, summarizes our present understanding in a series of didacticarticles, which take the reader from the fundamentals to the present cutting-edge research. A general overview is followed by chapters devoted to synthesis and characterization of fullerenes and their derivatives, the novel structural properties of buckyballs, tubes, and buckyonions, a theoretical and experimental view of electrons and phonons, and finally to the fascinating superconducting properties of these materials.Key Features* Presents systematic overview of entire field* Discusses synthesis, characterization, structure, and superconducting p...

  2. Low-toxic and safe nanomaterials by surface-chemical design, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    YanEqual Contribution, Liang; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-02-01

    The toxicity grade for a bulk material can be approximately determined by three factors (chemical composition, dose, and exposure route). However, for a nanomaterial it depends on more than ten factors. Interestingly, some nano-factors (like huge surface adsorbability, small size, etc.) that endow nanomaterials with new biomedical functions are also potential causes leading to toxicity or damage to the living organism. Is it possible to create safe nanomaterials if such a number of complicated factors need to be regulated? We herein try to find answers to this important question. We first discuss chemical processes that are applicable for nanosurface modifications, in order to improve biocompatibility, regulate ADME, and reduce the toxicity of carbon nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, metallofullerenes, and graphenes). Then the biological/toxicological effects of surface-modified and unmodified carbon nanomaterials are comparatively discussed from two aspects: the lowered toxic responses or the enhanced biomedical functions. We summarize the eight biggest challenges in creating low-toxicity and safer nanomaterials and some significant topics of future research needs: to find out safer nanofactors; to establish controllable surface modifications and simpler chemistries for low-toxic nanomaterials; to explore the nanotoxicity mechanisms; to justify the validity of current toxicological theories in nanotoxicology; to create standardized nanomaterials for toxicity tests; to build theoretical models for cellular and molecular interactions of nanoparticles; and to establish systematical knowledge frameworks for nanotoxicology.

  3. Continuous production of fullerenes and other carbon nanomaterials on a semi-industrial scale using plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberger, T.M.; Gonzalez-Aguilar, J.; Fulcheri, L.; Fabry, F.; Grivei, E.; Probst, N.; Flamant, G.; Charlier, J.-C.

    2002-01-01

    A new production method is presented allowing the production of bulk quantities of fullerenes and other carbon nanomaterials using a 3-phase thermal plasma (260 kW). The main characteristics of this method lie in the independent control of the carbon throughput by injection of a solid carbon feedstock, and the immediate extraction of the synthesised product from the reactor, allowing production on a continuous basis. The currently investigated plasma facility is of an intermediate scale between lab-size and an industrial pilot plant, ready for further up scaling to an industrial size. The influence of a large number of different carbon precursors, plasma gases and operating conditions on the fullerene yield has been studied. At this state, quantities of up to 1 kg of carbon can be processed per hour with further scope for increase, leading to production rates for this type of materials not achievable with any other technology at present

  4. Fate and biological effects of silver, titanium dioxide, and C60 (fullerene) nanomaterials during simulated wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifei; Westerhoff, Paul; Hristovski, Kiril D.

    2012-01-01

    As engineered nanomaterials (NMs) become used in industry and commerce their loading to sewage will increase. In this research, sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with hydraulic (HRT) and sludge (SRT) retention times representative of full-scale biological WWTPs for several weeks. Under environmentally relevant NM loadings and biomass concentrations, NMs had negligible effects on ability of the wastewater bacteria to biodegrade organic material, as measured by chemical oxygen demand (COD). Carboxy-terminated polymer coated silver nanoparticles (fn-Ag) were removed less effectively (88% removal) than hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols; >90% removal), nano TiO 2 (>95% removal) or aqueous fullerenes (nC 60 ; >95% removal). Experiments conducted over 4 months with daily loadings of nC 60 showed that nC 60 removal from solution depends on the biomass concentration. Under conditions representative of most suspended growth biological WWTPs (e.g., activated sludge), most of the NMs will accumulate in biosolids rather than in liquid effluent discharged to surface waters. Significant fractions of fn-Ag were associated with colloidal material which suggests that efficient particle separation processes (sedimentation or filtration) could further improve removal of NM from effluent.

  5. PREFACE: Fullerene Nano Materials (Symposium of IUMRS-ICA2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Fujita, Daisuke; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Kizuka, Tokushi; Matsuishi, Kiyoto; Ochiai, Yuichi; Tachibana, Masaru; Ogata, Hironori; Mashino, Tadahiko; Kumashiro, Ryotaro; Oikawa, Hidetoshi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium N 'Fullerene Nano Materials' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Over twenty years have passed since the discovery of C60 in 1985. The discovery of superconductivity of C60 in 1991 suggested infinite possibilities for fullerenes. On the other hand, a new field of nanocarbon has been developed recently, based on novel functions of the low-dimensional fullerene nanomaterials that include fullerene nanowhiskers, fullerene nanotubes, fullerene nanosheets, chemically modified fullerenes, endohedral fullerenes, thin films of fullerenes and so forth. Electrical, electrochemical, optical, thermal, mechanical and various other properties of fullerene nanomaterials have been investigated and their novel and anomalous nature has been reported. Biological properties of fullerene nanomaterials also have been investigated both in medical applications and toxicity aspects. The recent research developments of fullerene nanomaterials cover a variety of categories owing to their functional diversity. This symposium aimed to review the progress in the state-of-the-art technology based on fullerenes and to offer the forum for active interdisciplinary discussions. 24 oral papers containing 8 invited papers and 22 poster papers were presented at the two-day symposium. Topics on the social acceptance of nanomaterials including fullerene were presented on the first day of the symposium. Biological impacts of nanomaterials and the importance of standardization of nanomaterials characterization were also shown. On the second day, the synthesis, properties, functions and applications of various fullerene nanomaterials were shown in both the oral and poster presentations. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions

  6. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C60 and fullerol C60(OH)18–22 on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Márcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra; Artigas Flores, Juliana; Pinheiro, Maurício V. Brant; Monserrat, José María; Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L.

    2012-01-01

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C 60 ), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C 60 (OH) 18–22 ), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO·) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO· in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p 1 O 2 generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p 1 O 2 formation.

  7. Mutagenicity of carbon nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Håkan; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; White, Paul A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials such carbon nanotubes, graphene and fullerenes are some the most promising nanomaterials. Although carbon nanomaterials have been reported to possess genotoxic potential, it is imperitive to analyse the data on the genotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials in vivo and in vitro...

  8. Probabilistic environmental risk assessment of five nanomaterials (nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, nano-ZnO, CNT, and fullerenes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Claudia; Notter, Dominic; Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Som, Claudia; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The environmental risks of five engineered nanomaterials (nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, nano-ZnO, CNT, and fullerenes) were quantified in water, soils, and sediments using probabilistic Species Sensitivity Distributions (pSSDs) and probabilistic predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). For water and soil, enough ecotoxicological endpoints were found for a full risk characterization (between 17 and 73 data points per nanomaterial for water and between 4 and 20 for soil) whereas for sediments, the data availability was not sufficient. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were obtained from the pSSD and used to calculate risk characterization ratios (PEC/PNEC). For most materials and environmental compartments, exposure and effect concentrations were separated by several orders of magnitude. Nano-ZnO in freshwaters and nano-TiO2 in soils were the combinations where the risk characterization ratio was closest to one, meaning that these are compartment/ENM combinations to be studied in more depth with the highest priority. The probabilistic risk quantification allows us to consider the large variability of observed effects in different ecotoxicological studies and the uncertainty in modeled exposure concentrations. The risk characterization results presented in this work allows for a more focused investigation of environmental risks of nanomaterials by consideration of material/compartment combinations where the highest probability for effects with predicted environmental concentrations is likely.

  9. Reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyukova, I.; Gusev, A.; Tkachev, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the current review, we assembled the experimental evidences of an association between carbon nanomaterials including carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets, graphene, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in vitro and in vivo studies. It is shown that carbon nanomaterials reveal toxic effect on reproductive system and offspring development of the animals of various system groups to a certain degree depending on carbon crystal structure. Although this paper provides initial information about the potential male and female reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, further studies, using characterized nanoparticles, relevant routes of administration, and doses closely reflecting all the expected levels of exposure are needed.

  10. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  11. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensing has been demonstrated to represent an efficient way to quantify nitric oxide (NO) in challenging physiological environments. A sensing interface based on nanomaterials opens up new opportunities and broader prospects for electrochemical NO sensors. This review (with 141 refs.) gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials. It is subdivided into sections on (i) carbon derived nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphenes, fullerenes), (ii) metal nanoparticles (including gold, platinum and other metallic nanoparticles); (iii) semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials (including the oxides of titanium, aluminum, iron, and ruthenium); and finally (iv) nanocomposites (such as those formed from carbon nanomaterials with nanoparticles of gold, platinum, NiO or TiO 2 ). The various strategies are discussed, and the advances of using nanomaterials and the trends in NO sensor technology are outlooked in the final section. (author)

  12. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  13. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei; Amassian, Aram; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene

  14. Fullerene-Related Nanocarbons and Their Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Junfeng; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Hu, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    . From the vast amount of research that has been conducted over the last two decades, it is now apparent that these nanomaterials, notably, carbon nanotubes, carbon-based nanoparticles, graphene, fullerene and fullerene derivatives promise very distinct applications and will add great value to industries...

  15. Composite Coatings with Ceramic Matrix Including Nanomaterials as Solid Lubricants for Oil-Less Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical basis of manufacturing and chosen applications of composite coatings with ceramic matrix containing nanomaterials as a solid lubricant (AHC+NL. From a theoretical point of view, in order to reduce the friction coefficient of sliding contacts, two materials are required, i.e. one with a high hardness and the other with low shear strength. In case of composite coatings AHC+NL the matrix is a very hard and wear resistant anodic oxide coating (AHC whereas the solid lubricant used is the nanomaterial (NL featuring a low shear strength such as glassy carbon nanotubes (GC. Friction coefficient of cast iron GJL-350 sliding against the coating itself is much higher (0.18-0.22 than when it slides against a composite coating (0.08-0.14. It is possible to reduce the friction due to the presence of carbon nanotubes, or metal nanowires.

  16. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu Chun Ke [Laboratory of Single-Molecule Biophysics and Polymer Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Qiao Rui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2007-09-19

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  17. Carbon nanomaterials in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Chun Ke; Qiao Rui

    2007-01-01

    This paper intends to reflect, from the biophysical viewpoint, our current understanding on interfacing nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and fullerenes, with biological systems. Strategies for improving the solubility, and therefore, the bioavailability of nanomaterials in aqueous solutions are summarized. In particular, the underlining mechanisms of attaching biomacromolecules (DNA, RNA, proteins) and lysophospholipids onto carbon nanotubes and gallic acids onto fullerenes are analyzed. The diffusion and the cellular delivery of RNA-coated carbon nanotubes are characterized using fluorescence microscopy. The translocation of fullerenes across cell membranes is simulated using molecular dynamics to offer new insight into the complex issue of nanotoxicity. To assess the fate of nanomaterials in the environment, the biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by the aquatic organism Daphnia magna is discussed. The aim of this paper is to illuminate the need for adopting multidisciplinary approaches in the field study of nanomaterials in biological systems and in the environment. (topical review)

  18. Fullerenes and disk-fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deza, M; Dutour Sikirić, M; Shtogrin, M I

    2013-01-01

    A geometric fullerene, or simply a fullerene, is the surface of a simple closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron with only 5- and 6-gonal faces. Fullerenes are geometric models for chemical fullerenes, which form an important class of organic molecules. These molecules have been studied intensively in chemistry, physics, crystallography, and so on, and their study has led to the appearance of a vast literature on fullerenes in mathematical chemistry and combinatorial and applied geometry. In particular, several generalizations of the notion of a fullerene have been given, aiming at various applications. Here a new generalization of this notion is proposed: an n-disk-fullerene. It is obtained from the surface of a closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron which has one n-gonal face and all other faces 5- and 6-gonal, by removing the n-gonal face. Only 5- and 6-disk-fullerenes correspond to geometric fullerenes. The notion of a geometric fullerene is therefore generalized from spheres to compact simply connected two-dimensional manifolds with boundary. A two-dimensional surface is said to be unshrinkable if it does not contain belts, that is, simple cycles consisting of 6-gons each of which has two neighbours adjacent at a pair of opposite edges. Shrinkability of fullerenes and n-disk-fullerenes is investigated. Bibliography: 87 titles

  19. Fullerenes and disk-fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, M.; Dutour Sikirić, M.; Shtogrin, M. I.

    2013-08-01

    A geometric fullerene, or simply a fullerene, is the surface of a simple closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron with only 5- and 6-gonal faces. Fullerenes are geometric models for chemical fullerenes, which form an important class of organic molecules. These molecules have been studied intensively in chemistry, physics, crystallography, and so on, and their study has led to the appearance of a vast literature on fullerenes in mathematical chemistry and combinatorial and applied geometry. In particular, several generalizations of the notion of a fullerene have been given, aiming at various applications. Here a new generalization of this notion is proposed: an n-disk-fullerene. It is obtained from the surface of a closed convex 3-dimensional polyhedron which has one n-gonal face and all other faces 5- and 6-gonal, by removing the n-gonal face. Only 5- and 6-disk-fullerenes correspond to geometric fullerenes. The notion of a geometric fullerene is therefore generalized from spheres to compact simply connected two-dimensional manifolds with boundary. A two-dimensional surface is said to be unshrinkable if it does not contain belts, that is, simple cycles consisting of 6-gons each of which has two neighbours adjacent at a pair of opposite edges. Shrinkability of fullerenes and n-disk-fullerenes is investigated. Bibliography: 87 titles.

  20. Effects of carbon nanomaterials fullerene C{sub 60} and fullerol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22} on gills of fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socoowski Britto, Roberta; Longaray Garcia, Marcia; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Artigas Flores, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Pinheiro, Mauricio V. Brant [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Monserrat, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil); Ribas Ferreira, Josencler L., E-mail: josenclerf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8 s/n, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pos Graduacao em Fisiologia Animal Comparada - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    In consequence of their growing use and demand, the inevitable environmental presence of nanomaterials (NMs) has raised concerns about their potential deleterious effects to aquatic environments. The carbon NM fullerene (C{sub 60}), which forms colloidal aggregates in water, and its water-soluble derivative fullerol (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 18-22}), which possesses antioxidant properties, are known to be photo-excited by ultraviolet (UV) or visible light. To investigate their potential hazards to aquatic organisms upon exposure to UV sunlight, this study analyzed (a) the in vitro behavior of fullerene and fullerol against peroxyl radicals (ROO{center_dot}) under UV-A radiation and (b) the effects of these photo-excited NMs on oxidative stress parameters in functional gills extracted from the fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae). The variables measured were the total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The obtained results revealed the following: (1) both NMs behaved in vitro as antioxidants against ROO{center_dot} in the dark and as pro-oxidants in presence of UV-A, the latter effect being reversed by the addition of sodium azide, which is a singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) quencher; (2) fullerene induced toxicity with or without UV-A incidence, with a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation (with greater damage under illumination), a decrease in GCL activity, and the depletion of GSH stocks (under illumination), all of which were attributed to {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation; and (3) fullerol also decreased GCL activity and GSH formation (p < 0.05) but without lipid damage. The overall results show that fullerene can be toxic with or without light incidence, whereas UV radiation seems to play a key role in the environmental toxicity of carbon NMs through {sup 1}O{sub 2} formation.

  1. Photo and radiation chemistry of polymeric systems and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaylov, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    New approaches of analytical ESR-spectroscopy to studying of free-radical and electron-transport processes at radiation-chemical and photochemical modification both fictionalization of polymeric systems and nanomaterials were surveyed. Measuring techniques using of ESR-spectroscopy of paramagnetic centers were fulfilled. The radiation-chemical processes of modification, microencapsulation and kinetic stabilization of thermodynamically incompatible systems and interfaces for nanomaterials including fullerenes, nanotubes, nanofibres, etc. and composites on the basis of synthetic and natural polymers including plant fibers, fluoropolymers, polyolefins, etc. were developed

  2. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  3. An analytical method for determination of fullerenes and functionalized fullerenes in soils with high performance liquid chromatography and UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carboni, Andrea; Emke, Erik; Parsons, John R.; Kalbitz, Karsten; Voogt, Pim de

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A total of eight fullerenes can be analyzed in a single run with HPLC-UV. •The method allows the analysis of fullerenes in soil at relatively low concentrations. •The method developed is robust, highly reproducible and relatively efficient. •The method can be applied to the study of the environmental fate and toxicology of fullerenes. -- Abstract: Fullerenes are carbon-based nanomaterials expected to play a major role in emerging nanotechnology and produced at an increasing rate for industrial and household applications. In the last decade a number of novel compounds (i.e. fullerene derivatives) is being introduced into the market and specific analytical methods are needed for analytical purposes as well as environmental and safety issues. In the present work eight fullerenes (C60 and C70) and functionalized fullerenes (C60 and C70 exohedral-derivatives) were selected and a novel liquid chromatographic method was developed for their analysis with UV absorption as a method of detection. The resulting HPLC-UV method is the first one suitable for the analysis of all eight compounds. This method was applied for the analysis of fullerenes added to clayish, sandy and loess top-soils at concentrations of 20, 10 and 5 μg kg −1 and extracted with a combination of sonication and shaking extraction. The analytical method limits of detection (LoD) and limits of quantification (LoQ) were in the range of 6–10 μg L −1 and 15–24 μg L −1 respectively for the analytical solutions. The extraction from soil was highly reproducible with recoveries ranging from 47 ± 5 to 71 ± 4% whereas LoD and LoQ for all soils tested were of 3 μg kg −1 and 10 μg kg −1 respectively. No significant difference in the extraction performance was observed depending of the different soil matrices and between the different concentrations. The developed method can be applied for the study of the fate and toxicity of fullerenes in complex matrices

  4. Applications of radiotracer techniques for the toxicology studies of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yuhui; Zhang Zhiyong; Zhang Yuan; He Xiao; Zhang Haifeng; Chai Zhifang

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanosciences and nanotechnology, a wide variety of manufactured nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. While nanomaterials possess more novel and unique physicochemical properties than bulk materials, they also have an unpredictable impact on human health. In the toxicology studies of nanomaterials, it is essential to know the basic behaviors in vivo, that is absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of these newly designed materials. Radiotracer techniques are especially well suited to such studies and has got the chance to demonstrate its enchantment. In this presentation, studies on radiotracer techniques used in nanotoxicology will be reviewed and new progresses at Institute of High Energy Physics, including the label methods and behaviors of labeled nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and nanometer metal oxide in animals and in aquatic environments will be reported. (authors)

  5. Program Fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Peter, Schwerdtfeger,; Avery, James Emil

    2013-01-01

    Fullerene (Version 4.4), is a general purpose open-source program that can generate any fullerene isomer, perform topological and graph theoretical analysis, as well as calculate a number of physical and chemical properties. The program creates symmetric planar drawings of the fullerene graph, an......-Fowler, and Brinkmann-Fowler vertex insertions. The program is written in standard Fortran and C++, and can easily be installed on a Linux or UNIX environment....

  6. Biological interactions of carbon-based nanomaterials: From coronation to degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Mukherjee, Sourav P; Gallud, Audrey; Burkert, Seth C; Bistarelli, Silvia; Bellucci, Stefano; Bottini, Massimo; Star, Alexander; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, fullerenes and nanodiamonds are potential candidates for various applications in medicine such as drug delivery and imaging. However, the successful translation of nanomaterials for biomedical applications is predicated on a detailed understanding of the biological interactions of these materials. Indeed, the potential impact of the so-called bio-corona of proteins, lipids, and other biomolecules on the fate of nanomaterials in the body should not be ignored. Enzymatic degradation of carbon-based nanomaterials by immune-competent cells serves as a special case of bio-corona interactions with important implications for the medical use of such nanomaterials. In the present review, we highlight emerging biomedical applications of carbon-based nanomaterials. We also discuss recent studies on nanomaterial 'coronation' and how this impacts on biodistribution and targeting along with studies on the enzymatic degradation of carbon-based nanomaterials, and the role of surface modification of nanomaterials for these biological interactions. Advances in technology have produced many carbon-based nanomaterials. These are increasingly being investigated for the use in diagnostics and therapeutics. Nonetheless, there remains a knowledge gap in terms of the understanding of the biological interactions of these materials. In this paper, the authors provided a comprehensive review on the recent biomedical applications and the interactions of various carbon-based nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part I: TYPES OF CNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. The synthesis techniques are used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional CNs (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls.

  8. Nanomaterials as stationary phases and supports in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeram, Sandya R; Rodriguez, Elliott; Doddavenkatanna, Suresh; Li, Zhao; Pekarek, Allegra; Peev, Darin; Goerl, Kathryn; Trovato, Gianfranco; Hofmann, Tino; Hage, David S

    2017-10-01

    The development of various nanomaterials over the last few decades has led to many applications for these materials in liquid chromatography (LC). This review will look at the types of nanomaterials that have been incorporated into LC systems and the applications that have been explored for such systems. A number of carbon-based nanomaterials and inorganic nanomaterials have been considered for use in LC, ranging from carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and nanodiamonds to metal nanoparticles and nanostructures based on silica, alumina, zirconia and titanium dioxide. Many ways have been described for incorporating these nanomaterials into LC systems. These methods have included covalent immobilization, adsorption, entrapment, and the synthesis or direct development of nanomaterials as part of a chromatographic support. Nanomaterials have been used in many types of LC. These applications have included the reversed-phase, normal-phase, ion-exchange, and affinity modes of LC, as well as related methods such as chiral separations, ion-pair chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Both small and large analytes (e.g., dyes, drugs, amino acids, peptides and proteins) have been used to evaluate possible applications for these nanomaterial-based methods. The use of nanomaterials in columns, capillaries and planar chromatography has been considered as part of these efforts. Potential advantages of nanomaterials in these applications have included their good chemical and physical stabilities, the variety of interactions many nanomaterials can have with analytes, and their unique retention properties in some separation formats. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fullerenic structures and such structures tethered to carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anish; Howard, Jack B.; Vander Sande, John B.

    2010-01-05

    The fullerenic structures include fullerenes having molecular weights less than that of C.sub.60 with the exception of C.sub.36 and fullerenes having molecular weights greater than C.sub.60. Examples include fullerenes C.sub.50, C.sub.58, C.sub.130, and C.sub.176. Fullerenic structure chemically bonded to a carbon surface is also disclosed along with a method for tethering fullerenes to a carbon material. The method includes adding functionalized fullerene to a liquid suspension containing carbon material, drying the suspension to produce a powder, and heat treating the powder.

  10. Sensors As Tools for Quantitation, Nanotoxicity and Nanomonitoring Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of fullerenes in 1985 has ushered in an explosive growth in the applications of engineered nanomaterials and consumer products. Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are being incorporated into a range of commercial products such as consumer electronic...

  11. Advances in nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Zishan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a review of the latest research findings and key applications in the field of nanomaterials. The book contains twelve chapters on different aspects of nanomaterials. It begins with key fundamental concepts to aid readers new to the discipline of nanomaterials, and then moves to the different types of nanomaterials studied. The book includes chapters based on the applications of nanomaterials for nano-biotechnology and solar energy. Overall, the book comprises chapters on a variety of topics on nanomaterials from expert authors across the globe. This book will appeal to researchers and professional alike, and may also be used as a reference for courses in nanomaterials.

  12. Fullerenes as a new type of ligands for transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    Fullerenes are considered as ligands in transition metal π-complexes. The following aspects are discussed: metals able to form π-complexes with fullerenes (Zr, V, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru, etc.); haptic numbers; homo- and hetero ligand complexes; ligand compatibility with fullerenes for different metals, including fullerenes with a disturbed structure of conjugation [ru

  13. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei

    2017-04-06

    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene substrates and annealing the deposited mixed films. Methods can further include one or more of exposing the annealed mixed film to UV light, and washing the annealed mixed film with a solvent. Fullerene compounds can include one or more of PCBM, PCBNB, and PCBA.

  14. Fullerene-biomolecule conjugates and their biomedicinal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinlin; Ebrahimi, Ali; Li, Jie; Cui, Quanjun

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are among the strongest antioxidants and are characterized as "radical sponges." The research on biomedicinal applications of fullerenes has achieved significant progress since the landmark publication by Friedman et al in 1993. Fullerene-biomolecule conjugates have become an important area of research during the past 2 decades. By a thorough literature search, we attempt to update the information about the synthesis of different types of fullerene-biomolecule conjugates, including fullerene-containing amino acids and peptides, oligonucleotides, sugars, and esters. Moreover, we also discuss in this review recently reported data on the biological and pharmaceutical utilities of these compounds and some other fullerene derivatives of biomedical importance. While within the fullerene-biomolecule conjugates, in which fullerene may act as both an antioxidant and a carrier, specific targeting biomolecules conjugated to fullerene will undoubtedly strengthen the delivery of functional fullerenes to sites of clinical interest.

  15. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mostofizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nanomaterials.

  16. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  17. Roles of Direct and Indirect Light-Induced Transformations of Carbon Nanomaterials in Exposures in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene-based nanomaterials have a variety of useful characteristics such as extraordinary electron and heat conducting abilities, optical absorption and mechanical properties, and potential applications in tra...

  18. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  19. Fullerenes Revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    gas sensors and other energy nanomaterials. ... synthesized in 1990 by Kramster et al, by an electric arc resistive heating of ... There are 120 symmetrical operations, like rotation around an axis and reflection in .... Figure 6. Generation of C60.

  20. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  1. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U. Niemann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS2/MoS2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc. and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.

  2. Purifying Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  3. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  4. Physical properties of organic fullerene cocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovez, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The basic facts and fundamental properties of binary fullerene cocrystals are reviewed, focusing especially on solvates and salts of Buckminsterfullerene (C60), and hydrates of hydrophilic C60 derivatives. The examined properties include the lattice structure and the presence of orientational disorder and/or rotational dynamics (of both fullerenes and cocrystallizing moieties), thermodynamic properties such as decomposition enthalpies, and charge transport properties. Both thermodynamic properties and molecular orientational disorder shed light on the extent of intermolecular interactions in these binary solid-state systems. Comparison is carried out also with pristine fullerite and with the solid phases of functionalized C60. Interesting experimental findings on binary fullerene cocrystals include the simultaneous occurrence of rotations of both constituent molecular species, crystal morphologies reminiscent of quasi-crystalline behaviour, the observation of proton conduction in hydrate solids of hydrophilic fullerene derivatives, and the production of super-hard carbon materials by application of high pressures on solvated fullerene crystals.

  5. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for speciation, quantitation and nano-eco-toxicology of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R; Hitchcock, A P

    2016-02-01

    There is a critical need for methods that provide simultaneous detection, identification, quantitation and visualization of nanomaterials at their interface with biological and environmental systems. The approach should allow speciation as well as elemental analysis. Using the intrinsic X-ray absorption properties, soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) allows characterization and imaging of a broad range of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides and organic materials, and at the same time is able to provide detailed mapping of biological components. Thus, STXM offers considerable potential for application to research on nanomaterials in biology and the environment. The potential and limitations of STXM in this context are discussed using a range of examples, focusing on the interaction of nanomaterials with microbial cells, biofilms and extracellular polymers. The studies outlined include speciation and mapping of metal-containing nanomaterials (Ti, Ni, Cu) and carbon-based nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerene). The benefits of X-ray fluorescence detection in soft X-ray STXM are illustrated with a study of low levels of Ni in a natural river biofilm. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Carbon nanomaterials for advanced energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liming; Chang, Dong Wook; Baek, Jong-Beom; Lu, Wen

    2012-04-23

    It is estimated that the world will need to double its energy supply by 2050. Nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in materials science and engineering to meet this challenge by creating new materials, particularly carbon nanomaterials, for efficient energy conversion and storage. Comparing to conventional energy materials, carbon nanomaterials possess unique size-/surface-dependent (e.g., morphological, electrical, optical, and mechanical) properties useful for enhancing the energy-conversion and storage performances. During the past 25 years or so, therefore, considerable efforts have been made to utilize the unique properties of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, as energy materials, and tremendous progress has been achieved in developing high-performance energy conversion (e.g., solar cells and fuel cells) and storage (e.g., supercapacitors and batteries) devices. This article reviews progress in the research and development of carbon nanomaterials during the past twenty years or so for advanced energy conversion and storage, along with some discussions on challenges and perspectives in this exciting field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Fullerene nanoparticles in soil: Analysis, occurrence and fate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carboni, A.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon-based nanomaterials that can occur in the environment due to both natural events and human production. Recently, the increasing use in novel nanotechnologies raised concern for the possible adverse effects on humans and the environment. However, the assessment is complicated by

  8. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  9. Organic nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology have given rise to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with controlled morphology and well-defined properties, which enable a broad range of useful applications. This book explores some of the most important of these organic nanomaterials, describing how they are synthesized and characterized. Moreover, the book explains how researchers have incorporated organic nanomaterials into devices for real-world applications.Featuring contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists, Organic Nanomaterials is divided into five parts:Part One introduces the fundamentals of nanomaterials and self-assembled nanostructuresPart Two examines carbon nanostructures—from fullerenes to carbon nanotubes to graphene—reporting on properties, theoretical studies, and applicationsPart Three investigates key aspects of some inorganic materials, self-assembled monolayers,...

  10. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  11. Advanced nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Elby; Ventura, João; Pedro Araújo, João; Campos Gil, João

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterials provide a remarkably novel outlook to the design and fabrication of materials. The know-how of designing, modelling and fabrication of nanomaterials demands sophisticated experimental and analytical techniques. The major impact of nanomaterials will be in the fields of electronics, energy and medicine. Nanoelectronics hold the promise of improving the quality of life of electronic devices through superior performance, weight reduction and lower power consumption. New energy production systems based on hydrogen, solar and nuclear sources have also benefited immensely from nanomaterials. In modern medicine, nanomaterials research will have great impact on public health care due to better diagnostic methods and design of novel drugs.

  12. Towards Safer Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    As nanomaterials become more widespread in everything from industrial processes to consumer products, concerns about human and environmental safety are being taken increasingly more seriously. In our research we are working with minimizing the impact and risks of engineered nanomaterials by looking...... or the exposure and optimally both. Examples include the 5 SAFER principles (Morose, 2010) or screenings of early warning signs (Hansen et al., 2013). Taking the full life cycle of nanomaterials into account, the principles of Green chemistry and Green engineering could also prove useful to reduce...... the environmental impact of nanomaterials (Eckelman et al., 2008). Our research interests include the feasibility of “safer-­‐by-­‐design” approaches, the production of greener nanomaterials and operationalization, adaption and creation of frameworks to facilitate safety engineering. Research and insight...

  13. Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An Industrial Perspective on Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zhmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.

  14. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrello, Bruna [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Clinical Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Brazil); Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza de [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez [University of São Paulo (USP), Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Group, Physics Institute of São Carlos (IFSC) (Brazil); Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil); Ximenes, Valdecir Farias, E-mail: vfximenes@fc.unesp.br [São Paulo State University (UNESP), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were −10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and −5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  16. Bioengineered nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Many varieties of new, complex diseases are constantly being discovered, which leaves scientists with little choice but to embrace innovative methods for controlling the invasion of life-threatening problems. The use of nanotechnology has given scientists an opportunity to create nanomaterials that could help medical professionals in diagnosing and treating problems quickly and effectively. Bioengineered Nanomaterials presents in-depth information on bioengineered nanomaterials currently being developed in leading research laboratories around the world. In particular, the book focuses on nanom

  17. The topology of fullerenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Wirz, Lukas; Avery, James Emil

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes are carbon molecules that form polyhedral cages. Their bond structures are exactly the planar cubic graphs that have only pentagon and hexagon faces. Strikingly, a number of chemical properties of a fullerene can be derived from its graph structure. A rich mathematics of cubic planar g....... In this paper, we present a general overview of recent topological and graph theoretical developments in fullerene research over the past two decades, describing both solved and open problems....

  18. Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bréchignac, Catherine; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a fast developing field of research and applications lie in many separate domains, such as in hi-tech (optics, electronics, biology, aeronautics), but also in consumer industries (automotive, concrete, surface treatments (including paints), cosmetics, etc.).

  19. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  20. Recent Development of Nanomaterial-Doped Conductive Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyraf, Mohammad; Anwar, Mahmood; Sheng, Law Ming; Danquah, Michael K.

    2017-12-01

    Conductive polymers (CPs) have received significant research attention in material engineering for applications in microelectronics, micro-scale sensors, electromagnetic shielding, and micro actuators. Numerous research efforts have been focused on enhancing the conductivity of CPs by doping. Various conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon-based nanoparticles, and structures, such as silver nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets, have been converted into polypyrrole and polypyrrole compounds as the precursors to developing hybrids, conjugates, or crystal nodes within the matrix to enhance the various structural properties, particularly the electrical conductivity. This article reviews nanomaterial doping of conductive polymers alongside technological advancements in the development and application of nanomaterial-doped polymeric systems. Emphasis is given to conductive nanomaterials such as nano-silver particles and carbon-based nanoparticles, graphene nano-sheets, fullerene, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) as dopants for polypyrrole-based CPs. The nature of induced electrical properties including electromagnetic absorption, electrical capacitance, and conductivities of polypyrrole systems is also discussed. The prospects and challenges associated with the development and application of CPs are also presented.

  1. Fullerene and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Orlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene derivatives superfamily attracts a serious attention as antiviral and anticancer agents and drug delivery carriers as well. A large number of such fullerene С60 derivatives obtained to date. However, there is an obvious deficit of information about causes and mechanisms of immediately and long-term consequences of their effects in vivo which is a true obstacle on the way leading to their practical medical using. First, this concerns their impact on the proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis regulation. Fullerene nanoparticle functionalization type, their sizes and surface nanopathology are of great importance for further promoting of either cytoprotective or cytotoxic effects. One of the main effects of fullerenes on living systems is the reactive oxygen species (ROS formation induction. This lecture provides a modern concept analysis regarding fullerenes effects on ROS formation and modulation of proliferation and apoptosis in normal and tumor cells.

  2. Modeling adsorption of brominated, chlorinated and mixed bromo/chloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins on C60 fullerene using Nano-QSPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Urbaszek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many technological implementations in the field of nanotechnology have involved carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes such as the buckminsterfullerene, C60. The unprecedented properties of such organic nanomaterials (in particular their large surface area gained extensive attention for their potential use as organic pollutant sorbents. Sorption interactions can be very hazardous and useful at the same time. This work investigates the influence of halogenation by bromine and/or chlorine in dibenzo-p-dioxins on their sorption ability on the C60 fullerene surface. Halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PXDDs, where X = Br or Cl are ever-present in the environment and accidently produced in many technological processes in only approximately known quantities. If all combinatorial Br and/or Cl dioxin substitution possibilities are present in the environment, the experimental characterization and investigation of sorbent effectiveness is more than difficult. In this work, we have developed a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR model (R2 = 0.998, predicting the adsorption energy [kcal/mol] for 1,701 PXDDs adsorbed on C60 (PXDD@C60. Based on the QSPR model reported herein, we concluded that the lowest energy PXDD@C60 complexes are those that the World Health Organization (WHO considers to be less dangerous with respect to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR toxicity mechanism. Therefore, the effectiveness of fullerenes as sorbent agents may be underestimated as sorption could be less effective for toxic congeners than previously believed.

  3. Effect of fullerene C(60 on ATPase activity and superprecipitation of skeletal muscle actomyosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Andreichenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new biocompatible nanomaterials, which can exhibit the specific biological effects, is an important complex problem that requires the use of last accomplishments of biotechnology. The effect of pristine water-soluble fullerene C60 on ATPase activity and superprecipitation reaction of rabbit skeletal muscle natural actomyosin has been revealed, namely an increase of actomyosin superprecipitation and Мg2+, Са2+– and K+-ATPase activity by fullerene was investigated. We conclude that this finding offers a real possibility for the regulation of contraction-relaxation of skeletal muscle with fullerene C60.

  4. Safe use of nanomaterials

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  5. Nanomaterial Registry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — By leveraging and developing a set of Minimal Information About Nanomaterials (MIAN), ontology and standards through a community effort, it has developed a data...

  6. Photodiodes based on fullerene semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Cheylan, S.; Fonrodona, M.; Stella, M.; Andreu, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2007-01-01

    Fullerene thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation on glass substrates at room temperature. A comprehensive optical characterization was performed, including low-level optical absorption measured by photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum reveals a direct bandgap of 2.3 eV and absorption bands at 2.8 and 3.6 eV, which are related to the creation of charge-transfer excitons. Various photodiodes on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates were also fabricated, using different metallic contacts in order to compare their respective electrical characteristics. The influence of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) buffer layer between the indium-tin-oxide electrode and the fullerene semiconductor is also demonstrated. These results are discussed in terms of the workfunction for each electrode. Finally, the behaviour of the external quantum efficiency is analyzed for the whole wavelength spectrum

  7. Fullerene and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Orlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene derivatives superfamily attracts a serious attention as antiviral and anticancer agents and drug delivery carriers as well. A large number of such fullerene С60 derivatives obtained to date. However, there is an obvious deficit of information about causes and mechanisms of immediately and long-term consequences of their effects in vivo which is a true obstacle on the way leading to practical medical use of them. First, this concerns their impact on the proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis regulation. Fullerene nanoparticle functionalization type, their sizes and surface nanopathology are of great importance to further promoting of either cytoprotective or cytotoxic effects. This lecture provides modern concept analysis regarding fullerenes effects on apoptosis pathway in normal and tumor cells.

  8. Electronic properties of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmany, H [ed.; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Fink, J [ed.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Festkoerperphysik; Mehring, M [ed.; Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Teilinstitut 2; Roth, S [ed.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1993-01-01

    Since 1991, research in the field of organic carbon materials has developed at a rapid pace due to the advent of the fullerenes and related materials. These forms of carbon are considered as a missing link between the previously discussed electroactive polymers and the oxidic superconductors. It was therefore challenging to select this topic for an international winter school in Kirchberg. Although still in its infancy, research on the physics and chemistry of fullerenes and related compounds has already led to a wealth of results, which was reflected in the wide range of topics covered and the numerous discussions which emerged at the meeting. For C[sub 60] itself, preparation methods and crystal growth techniques continue to evolve, while the understanding of the electronic and structural properties of its solid state continues to pose challenges to experimental and theoretical physicists. The ever-expanding range of higher fullerens and related materials, such as nanotubes and onions, poses a daunting but exciting task for researchers. For synthetic chemists, fullerenes represent the basis of a whole new range of synthetic compounds. The prospect of a periodic table of endohedral fullerene complexes has been discussed, and exohedrally complexed metal-fullerenes have already attracted the attention of physicists. The first endohedral materials are now available. (orig.)

  9. Electronic properties of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmany, H.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1991, research in the field of organic carbon materials has developed at a rapid pace due to the advent of the fullerenes and related materials. These forms of carbon are considered as a missing link between the previously discussed electroactive polymers and the oxidic superconductors. It was therefore challenging to select this topic for an international winter school in Kirchberg. Although still in its infancy, research on the physics and chemistry of fullerenes and related compounds has already led to a wealth of results, which was reflected in the wide range of topics covered and the numerous discussions which emerged at the meeting. For C 60 itself, preparation methods and crystal growth techniques continue to evolve, while the understanding of the electronic and structural properties of its solid state continues to pose challenges to experimental and theoretical physicists. The ever-expanding range of higher fullerens and related materials, such as nanotubes and onions, poses a daunting but exciting task for researchers. For synthetic chemists, fullerenes represent the basis of a whole new range of synthetic compounds. The prospect of a periodic table of endohedral fullerene complexes has been discussed, and exohedrally complexed metal-fullerenes have already attracted the attention of physicists. The first endohedral materials are now available. (orig.)

  10. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy for Studying the Generation and Scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species by Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Zhao, Baozhong; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P.

    2013-09-01

    One fundamental mechanism widely described for nanotoxicity involves oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Indeed, the ability of nanoscale materials to facilitate the transfer of electrons, and thereby promote oxidative damage or in some instances provide antioxidant protection, may be a fundamental property of these materials. Any assessment of a nanoscale material's safety must therefore consider the potential for toxicity arising from oxidative damage. Therefore, rapid and predictive methods are needed to assess oxidative damage elicited by nanoscale materials. The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) to study free radical related bioactivity of nanomaterials has several advantages for free radical determination and identification. Specifically it can directly assess antioxidant quenching or prooxidant generation of relevant free radicals and reactive oxygen species. In this chapter, we have reported some nonclassical behaviors of the electron spin relaxation properties of unpaired electrons in different fullerenes and the investigation of anti/prooxidant activity by various types of nanomaterials using ESR. In addition, we have reviewed the mechanisms of free radical formation photosensitized by different nanomaterials. This chapter also included the use of spin labels, spin traps and ESR oximetry to systematically examine the enzymatic mimetic activities of nanomaterials.

  11. Carbon nanomaterials for non-volatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ethan C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Carbon can create various low-dimensional nanostructures with remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. These features make carbon nanomaterials especially interesting for next-generation memory and storage devices, such as resistive random access memory, phase-change memory, spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory and ferroelectric random access memory. Non-volatile memories greatly benefit from the use of carbon nanomaterials in terms of bit density and energy efficiency. In this Review, we discuss sp2-hybridized carbon-based low-dimensional nanostructures, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the context of non-volatile memory devices and architectures. Applications of carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, resistive-switching media, and scalable, high-performance memory selectors are investigated. Finally, we compare the different memory technologies in terms of writing energy and time, and highlight major challenges in the manufacturing, integration and understanding of the physical mechanisms and material properties.

  12. Polyethene with pendant fullerene moieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, XC; Sieval, AB; Hummelen, JC; Hessen, B; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2005-01-01

    Polyethene with fullerene moieties pendant on short-chain branches was prepared by the catalytic copolymerisation of ethene and a fullerene-containing vinylic comonomer, yielding polyethene copolymers containing up to 25 wt% of C-60.

  13. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-11-23

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing.

  14. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarianni, Marco; Liu, Jinzhang; Vernon, Kristy; Motta, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage - the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  15. Synthesis and applications of carbon nanomaterials for energy generation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Notarianni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing an energy crisis due to exponential population growth and limited availability of fossil fuels. Over the last 20 years, carbon, one of the most abundant materials found on earth, and its allotrope forms such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as sources of energy generation and storage because of their extraordinary properties and ease of production. Various approaches for the synthesis and incorporation of carbon nanomaterials in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors have been reviewed and discussed in this work, highlighting their benefits as compared to other materials commonly used in these devices. The use of fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene in organic photovoltaics and supercapacitors is described in detail, explaining how their remarkable properties can enhance the efficiency of solar cells and energy storage in supercapacitors. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene have all been included in solar cells with interesting results, although a number of problems are still to be overcome in order to achieve high efficiency and stability. However, the flexibility and the low cost of these materials provide the opportunity for many applications such as wearable and disposable electronics or mobile charging. The application of carbon nanotubes and graphene to supercapacitors is also discussed and reviewed in this work. Carbon nanotubes, in combination with graphene, can create a more porous film with extraordinary capacitive performance, paving the way to many practical applications from mobile phones to electric cars. In conclusion, we show that carbon nanomaterials, developed by inexpensive synthesis and process methods such as printing and roll-to-roll techniques, are ideal for the development of flexible devices for energy generation and storage – the key to the portable electronics of the future.

  16. Making and exploiting fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco (eds.) [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains nine chapters which are presenting critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemistry research. The chapter ''Solubilization of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene'' by Alain Penicaud describes the various ingenious approaches to solve the solubility issue and describes in particular how graphite, and modern nanocarbons, can be made soluble by reductive dissolution. A large part of the present volume concerns the merging of nanocarbons with nanotechnology and their impact on technical development in many areas. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene find, for instance, various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. The chapter ''Incorporation of Balls, Tubes and Bowls in Nanotechnology'' by James Mack describes the recent development of the area of fullerene fragments, and corannulene in particular, and their direct applications to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, while, in the chapter ''Exploiting Nanocarbons in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells'' by Ladislav Kavan, the exploitation of nanocarbons in the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability and costs is thoroughly reviewed. The functionalization of CNSs has the invaluable advantage of combining their unique properties with those of other classes of materials. Supramolecular chemistry represents an elegant alternative approach for the construction of functional systems by means of noncovalent bonding interactions. In the chapter ''Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes'' by Gildas Gavrel et al., the incredibly varied world of supramolecular, non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes and their applications is examined and reviewed, and the synthetic strategies devised for fabricating mechanically-linked molecular architectures are described in the chapter ''Fullerene

  17. Making and exploiting fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains nine chapters which are presenting critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemistry research. The chapter ''Solubilization of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene'' by Alain Penicaud describes the various ingenious approaches to solve the solubility issue and describes in particular how graphite, and modern nanocarbons, can be made soluble by reductive dissolution. A large part of the present volume concerns the merging of nanocarbons with nanotechnology and their impact on technical development in many areas. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene find, for instance, various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. The chapter ''Incorporation of Balls, Tubes and Bowls in Nanotechnology'' by James Mack describes the recent development of the area of fullerene fragments, and corannulene in particular, and their direct applications to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, while, in the chapter ''Exploiting Nanocarbons in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells'' by Ladislav Kavan, the exploitation of nanocarbons in the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability and costs is thoroughly reviewed. The functionalization of CNSs has the invaluable advantage of combining their unique properties with those of other classes of materials. Supramolecular chemistry represents an elegant alternative approach for the construction of functional systems by means of noncovalent bonding interactions. In the chapter ''Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes'' by Gildas Gavrel et al., the incredibly varied world of supramolecular, non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes and their applications is examined and reviewed, and the synthetic strategies devised for fabricating mechanically-linked molecular architectures are described in the chapter ''Fullerene-Stoppered Bistable Rotaxanes'' by Aurelio Mateo-Alonso, which presents an

  18. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  19. Fascinating serendipity some adventures in fullerene chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.; Rauch, H.

    2001-01-01

    The lecture is divided to four chapters. Chapter one gives a short overview on the notion of serendipity and the serendipitous discovery of the fullerenes, the third allotropic form of carbon and will try to highlight why this discovery can be considered a revolution in chemistry. The second and third chapters present some results of the author's research group. Neutron irradiation of C 60 in a nuclear reactor has also made possible the serendipitous discovery of a new procedure for synthesis of endohedral C 60 compounds exemplified by the synthesis of many endohedral radio-fullerenes of * X at C 60 type. The fourth chapter of the lecture deals with 'Capture-captive chemistry' as a new typology for molecular containers including fullerenes. (author)

  20. Nano-materials for solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Boiteux, G.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-materials present an important development potential in the field of photovoltaic conversion in opening new outlooks in the reduction of the solar energy cost. The organic or hybrid solar cells principle is based on the electron-hole pairs dissociation, generated under solar radiation on a conjugated polymer, by chemical species acting as electrons acceptors. The two ways based on fullerenes dispersion or on TiO 2 particles in a semi-conductor polymer (MEH-PPV, PVK) are discussed. The acceptors concentration is high in order to allow the conduction of the electrons on a percolation way, the polymer providing the holes conduction. A new preparation method of the mixtures MEH-PPV/fullerenes based on the use of specific solvents has allowed to produce fullerenes having nano-metric sizes ranges. It has then been possible to decrease the fullerenes concentration allowing the dissociation and the transport of photoinduced charges. The way based on the in-situ generation of TiO 2 from an organometallic precursor has allowed to obtain dispersions of nano-metric inorganic particles. The optimization of the photovoltaic properties of these nano-composites requires a particular adjustment of their composition and size ranges leading to a better control of the synthesis processes. (O.M.)

  1. Applications of nanomaterials in sensors and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuantranont, Adisorn (ed.) [National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Pathumthani (Thailand). Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory

    2013-11-01

    Recent progress in the synthesis of nanomaterials and our fundamental understanding of their properties has led to significant advances in nanomaterial-based gas, chemical and biological sensors. Leading experts around the world highlight the latest findings on a wide range of nanomaterials including nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, molecularly imprinted nanostructures or plastibodies, nanometals, DNA-based structures, smart nanomaterials, nanoprobes, magnetic nanomaterials, organic molecules like phthalocyanines and porphyrins, and the most amazing novel nanomaterial, called graphene. Various sensing techniques such as nanoscaled electrochemical detection, functional nanomaterial-amplified optical assays, colorimetry, fluorescence and electrochemiluminescence, as well as biomedical diagnosis applications, e.g. for cancer and bone disease, are thoroughly reviewed and explained in detail. This volume will provide an invaluable source of information for scientists working in the field of nanomaterial-based technology as well as for advanced students in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, electrochemistry, material science, micro- and nanotechnology.

  2. LCA of Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in products has led to an increase in number of nanoproducts introduced to the consumer market. However, along with new and improved products, there is a concern about the potential life cycle environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment is able to include a wide range...... of environmental impacts but, due to data limitations, it is commonly applied with focus on the cradle-to-gate part of the nanoproducts life cycle, neglecting use and disposal of the products. These studies conclude that nanomaterials are more energy demanding and have an inferior environmental profile than...

  3. Transmutation of fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, R James; Saunders, Martin

    2005-03-09

    Fullerenes were pyrolyzed by subliming them into a stream of flowing argon gas and then passing them through an oven heated to approximately 1000 degrees C. C(76), C(78), and C(84) all readily lost carbons to form smaller fullerenes. In the case of C(78), some isomerization was seen. Pyrolysis of (3)He@C(76) showed that all or most of the (3)He was lost during the decomposition. C(60) passes through the apparatus with no decomposition and no loss of helium.

  4. Carbon Nanomaterials for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Casais-Molina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, breast cancer is considered as a health problem worldwide. Furthermore, current treatments neither are capable of stopping its propagation and/or recurrence nor are specific for cancer cells. Therefore, side effects on healthy tissues and cells are common. An increase in the efficiency of treatments, along with a reduction in their toxicity, is desirable to improve the life quality of patients affected by breast cancer. Nanotechnology offers new alternatives for the design and synthesis of nanomaterials that can be used in the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer and has now become a very promising tool for its use against this disease. Among the wide variety of nanomaterials, the scientific community is particularly interested in carbon nanomaterials (fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene due to their physical properties, versatile chemical functionalization, and biocompatibility. Recent scientific evidence shows the potential uses of carbon nanomaterials as therapeutic agents, systems for selective and controlled drug release, and contrast agents for diagnosing and locating tumors. This generates new possibilities for the development of innovative systems to treat breast cancer and can be used to detect this disease at much earlier stages. Thus, applications of carbon nanomaterials in breast cancer treatment are discussed in this article.

  5. Fullerene C[sub 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koruga, D; Hameroff, S; Sundareshan, M [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Withers, J; Loutfy, R [MER Corp., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This book, one of the first to be published in the exciting field of fullerenes, includes a short history of scientific discovery, as well as one possible answer to the question: for what purposes can C[sub 60] be utilized. The book opens with a review of the life of Buckminster Fuller. Modern history of fivefold symmetry and the icosahedron began between 1984 and 1985, when Shechtman and his research team opened a new branch in crystallography (fivefold symmetry) and when the Kroto/Smalley research team discovered the C[sub 60] molecule (truncated icosahedron). Production of solid C[sub 60] by the Huffman/Kraeschner research team in 1990 provided a new stimulus for research by producing C[sub 60] in macroscopic amounts for use by the scientific and technological community. This achievement led to developments such as Koruga's August 1992 creation of the dimer C[sub 116] using scanning tunneling engineering and Loutfy's hydrogenation of C[sub 60] and construction of the first Ni/C[sub 60] rechargeable batteries in December 1992. New inventions based on C[sub 60] will continue to be forthcoming, particularly in the areas of superconductivity, quantum devices, and molecular electronic devices. Discovery of the C[sub 60] molecule (Kroto/Smalley), production of solid C[sub 60] (Huffman/Kraeschmer) and technological inventions such as C[sub 116] (Koruga) have been chance discoveries. A short history of these discoveries is detailed in the book along with the results of the authors' Fullerene research efforts, including atomic resolution images of Fullerene C[sub 60], Ni/C[sub 60] batteries, nanotechnology of C[sub 60], comparison of C[sub 60] with biological systems, and others. As Fullerene C[sub 60] will require control engineering, an overview of control systems, in particular, general and optimal control of the Schroedinger equation, is contained. Some experimental and theoretical work of other researchers are also presented. 140 figs., 4 tabs., 342 refs.

  6. Simple method for determining fullerene negative ion formation★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfli, Zineb; Msezane, Alfred Z.

    2018-04-01

    A robust potential wherein is embedded the crucial core-polarization interaction is used in the Regge-pole methodology to calculate low-energy electron elastic scattering total cross section for the C60 fullerene in the electron impact energy range 0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10.0 eV. The energy position of the characteristic dramatically sharp resonance appearing at the second Ramsauer-Townsend minimum of the total cross section representing stable C60 - fullerene negative ion formation agrees excellently with the measured electron affinity of C60 [Huang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 224315 (2014)]. The benchmarked potential and the Regge-pole methodology are then used to calculate electron elastic scattering total cross sections for selected fullerenes, from C54 through C240. The total cross sections are found to be characterized generally by Ramsauer-Townsend minima, shape resonances and dramatically sharp resonances representing long-lived states of fullerene negative ion formation. For the total cross sections of C70, C76, C78, and C84 the agreement between the energy positions of the very sharp resonances and the measured electron affinities is outstanding. Additionally, we compare our extracted energy positions of the resultant fullerene anions from our calculated total cross sections of the C86, C90 and C92 fullerenes with the estimated electron affinities ≥3.0 eV by the experiment [Boltalina et al., Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 7, 1009 (1993)]. Resonance energy positions of other fullerenes, including C180 and C240 are also obtained. Most of the total cross sections presented in this paper are the first and only; our novel approach is general and should be applicable to other fullerenes as well and complex heavy atoms, such as the lanthanide atoms. We conclude with a remark on the catalytic properties of the fullerenes through their negative ions.

  7. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  8. In-Silico Study Of Water Soluble C60-Fullerene Derivatives And Different Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Teimouri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene C60 is a unique carbon molecule that adopts a sphere shape. It has been proved that fullerene and some of its derivatives several disease targets. Fullerene itself is insoluble in water. So fullerene application is hindered in medical field. In this study a literature search was performed and all derivatives were collected. The fullerene binding protein previously reported in literature were also retrieved from protein databank. The docking study were performed with fullerene derivatives and its binding proteins. The selected proteins include Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel estrogenic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody. The binding affinity and binding free energy were computed for these proteins and fullerene derivatives complexes. The binding affinity and binding free energy calculation of the co-crystal ligands were also carried out. The results show the good fitting of fullerene derivatives in the active site of different proteins. The binding affinities and binding free energies of fullerene derivatives are better. The present study gives a detail information about the binding mode of C60 derivatives. The finding will be helpful in fullerene-based drug discovery and facilitate the efforts of fighting many diseases.

  9. Carbon Nanomaterials in Biological Studies and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Nagappa L; Jelinek, Raz

    2017-09-01

    The "carbon nano-world" has made over the past few decades huge contributions in diverse scientific disciplines and technological advances. While dramatic advances have been widely publicized in using carbon nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene in materials sciences, nano-electronics, and photonics, their contributions to biology and biomedicine have been noteworthy as well. This Review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and carbon quantum dots [encompassing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (C-dots)] in biologically oriented materials and applications. Examples of these remarkable nanomaterials in bio-sensing, cell- and tissue-imaging, regenerative medicine, and other applications are presented and discussed, emphasizing the significance of their unique properties and their future potential. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Point and Line to Plane: The Ontography of Carbon Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Loeve , Sacha

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The carbons known today as fullerenes, nanotubes, and graphene were all observed or theo-rized well before becoming emblematic nanomaterials. However, by the 1990s, their mode of existence was shifted from bench or brand objects to technoscientific objects. After focusing on the separate life-stories of these carbons, this chapter recounts how, by eventually interweaving their trajectories and mutually referring to each other, these objects have reborn as a family of l...

  11. Toxicity of polyhydroxylated fullerene to mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li-Yun [State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gao, Jia-Ling [Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Gao, Tian; Dong, Ping; Ma, Long; Jiang, Feng-Lei [State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: yiliuchem@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology & Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (MOE), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Fullerenol-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated at mitochondrial level. • Fullerenol disturbed mitochondrial inner membrane in polar protein regions. • Fullerenol affected the inner membrane and respiration chain of mitochondria. - Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered as a crucial mechanism of nanomaterial toxicity. Herein, we investigated the effects of polyhydroxylated fullerene (C{sub 60}(OH){sub 44}, fullerenol), a model carbon-based nanomaterial with high water solubility, on isolated mitochondria. Our study demonstrated that fullerenol enhanced the permeabilization of mitochondrial inner membrane to H{sup +} and K{sup +} and induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The fullerenol-induced swelling was dose-dependent and could be effectively inhibited by MPT inhibitors such as cyclosporin A (CsA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ruthenium red (RR) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After treating the mitochondria with fullerenol, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was found collapsed in a concentration-independent manner. The fluorescence anisotropy of hematoporphyrin (HP) changed significantly with the addition of fullerenol, while that of 1,6-diphenyl-hexatriene (DPH) changed slightly. Moreover, a decrease of respiration state 3 and increase of respiration state 4 were observed when mitochondria were energized with complex II substrate succinate. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provided direct evidence that fullerenol damaged the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The investigations can provide comprehensive information to elucidate the possible toxic mechanism of fullerenols at subcellular level.

  12. Geochemie fullerenů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Otakar; Jehlička, J.; Vítek, P.; Juha, Libor; Hamplová, Věra; Pokorná, Zdeňka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2010), s. 762-769 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0772; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : geochemistry * fullerene s * geological materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.620, year: 2010

  13. EDITORIAL: Whither nanomaterials? Whither nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, Thomas E.; Pinkerton, Fred; Stetson, Ned

    2009-10-01

    As the journal Nanotechnology enters its third decade it is interesting to look back on the field and to think about where it may be headed in the future. The growth of the journal over the past twenty years mirrors that of the field, with exponentially rising numbers of citations and a widening diversity of topics that we identify as nanotechnology. In the early 1990s, Nanotechnology was focused primarily on nanoscale electronics and on scanning probe tools for fabricating and characterizing nanostructures. The synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials was already an active area in chemical research; however, it did not yet intersect strongly with the activities of the physics community, which was interested primarily in new phenomena that emerged on the nanoscale and on the devices that derived from them. In the 1990s there were several key advances that began to bridge this gap. Techniques were developed for making nanocrystals of compound semiconductors, oxides, and metals with very fine control over shape and superstructure. Carbon nanotubes were discovered and their unique electronic properties were demonstrated. Research on the self-assembly of organic molecules on surfaces led to the development of soft lithography and layer-by- layer assembly of materials. The potential to use DNA and then proteins as building blocks of precise assemblies of nanoparticles was explored. These bottom-up structures could not be made by top-down techniques, and their unique properties as components of sensors, electronic devices, biological imaging agents, and drug delivery vehicles began to change the definition of the field. Ten years ago, Inelke Malsch published a study on the scientific trends and organizational dynamics of nanotechology in Europe (1999 Nanotechnology 10 1-7). Scientists from a variety of disciplines were asked which areas of research they would include in the definition of nanotechnology. Although the article concluded with forward-looking thoughts in the

  14. Fullerenes and endohedrals as “big atoms”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya., E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► Response of multi-electron atoms to radiation is determined by correlation effects. ► The response of fullerenes and endohedrals is characterized by strong resonances. ► Most important are confinement and Giant endohedral resonances. ► Fullerene is described as a zero-thickness polarizable shell. ► Electron exchange can play a very important role in inner shell ionization. - Abstract: We present the main features of the electronic structure of the heavy atoms that is best of all seen in photoionization. We acknowledge how important was and still is investigation of the interaction between atoms and low- and high frequency lasers with big intensity. We discuss the fullerenes and endohedrals as big atoms concentrating upon their most prominent features revealed in photoionization. Namely, we discuss reflection of photoelectron wave by the static potential that mimics the fullerenes electron shell and modification of the incoming photon beam under the action of the polarizable fullerenes shell. Both effects are clearly reflected in the photoionization cross-section. We discuss the possible features of interaction between laser field of both low and high frequency and high intensity upon fullerenes and endohedrals. We envisage prominent effects of multi-electron ionization and photon emission, including high-energy photons. We emphasize the important role that can be played by electron exchange in these processes.

  15. Fullerenes and endohedrals as “big atoms”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Response of multi-electron atoms to radiation is determined by correlation effects. ► The response of fullerenes and endohedrals is characterized by strong resonances. ► Most important are confinement and Giant endohedral resonances. ► Fullerene is described as a zero-thickness polarizable shell. ► Electron exchange can play a very important role in inner shell ionization. - Abstract: We present the main features of the electronic structure of the heavy atoms that is best of all seen in photoionization. We acknowledge how important was and still is investigation of the interaction between atoms and low- and high frequency lasers with big intensity. We discuss the fullerenes and endohedrals as big atoms concentrating upon their most prominent features revealed in photoionization. Namely, we discuss reflection of photoelectron wave by the static potential that mimics the fullerenes electron shell and modification of the incoming photon beam under the action of the polarizable fullerenes shell. Both effects are clearly reflected in the photoionization cross-section. We discuss the possible features of interaction between laser field of both low and high frequency and high intensity upon fullerenes and endohedrals. We envisage prominent effects of multi-electron ionization and photon emission, including high-energy photons. We emphasize the important role that can be played by electron exchange in these processes

  16. Plasma nanofabrication and nanomaterials safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z J; Levchenko, I; Kumar, S; Yajadda, M M A; Yick, S; Seo, D H; Martin, P J; Ostrikov, K; Peel, S; Kuncic, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fast advances in nanotechnology have raised increasing concerns related to the safety of nanomaterials when exposed to humans, animals and the environment. However, despite several years of research, the nanomaterials safety field is still in its infancy owing to the complexities of structural and surface properties of these nanomaterials and organism-specific responses to them. Recently, plasma-based technology has been demonstrated as a versatile and effective way for nanofabrication, yet its health and environment-benign nature has not been widely recognized. Here we address the environmental and occupational health and safety effects of various zero- and one-dimensional nanomaterials and elaborate the advantages of using plasmas as a safe nanofabrication tool. These advantages include but are not limited to the production of substrate-bound nanomaterials, the isolation of humans from harmful nanomaterials, and the effective reforming of toxic and flammable gases. It is concluded that plasma nanofabrication can minimize the hazards in the workplace and represents a safe way for future nanofabrication technologies.

  17. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... and titanium-, cerium-, and silicondioxides were studied in the project. Based on current uses, it is concluded that current applications of nano-iron and nanoclay can not cause unexpected “nano-associated” health or environmental problems. Although no specific risk associated with current uses of any of the 7...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  18. Generation, Characterization and Applications of Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengzhong

    A contact-arc sputtering configuration has been adopted and optimized in order to generate fullerene-containing soot. Several stages of design improvements have made our equipment more effective in terms of yield and production rate. Upon modification of Wudl's Soxhlet separation procedure, we have been able to significantly speed up C_ {60} separation and higher fullerene enrichment. At least ten more separable HPLC peaks after C_ {84} have been observed for the first time. Preliminary laser desorption time of flight mass spectra suggest that our enriched higher fullerene sample possibly contains, C_{86}, C_{88}, C_ {90}, C_{92} , C_{94} and C _{96} in addition to the previously isolated smaller fullerenes C_ {60}, C_{70} , C_{76}, C _{78}(D_2), C_{78}(C_ {rm 2v}) and C_{84 }. Among these, C_{86 }, C_{88}, C_{92} show up for the first time in separable amounts and the controversial species --C_{94} appears present too. HPLC has been successfully used for high fullerene separation, pure C_{76}, C_{84} samples so far having been obtained. Fullerene decomposition (especially of higher fullerenes) in the column has been clearly identified. We defined HPLC peaks indicate that the oxidation process may follow certain "well defined" routes. A yellow epoxide band containing various oxides of C_{60 } has been extracted and characterized using mass spectrometry. Characterizations of pure C _{60} and C_{70 } include HPLC, mass spectrometry, vibrational IR and Raman spectroscopy, STM, TEM etc. Our Raman measurements completed the full assignment of C_{60 } fundamental modes and supplied more structural information on C_{70}. STM imaging supplied clear pictures of both C_ {60} and C_{70} molecular topologies. Especially for C _{70}, both the long and the short axes of the molecule have been clearly resolved. TEM observations involving imaging, diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy of crystalline C_{60} and C_{70} were performed. The room temperature lattice

  19. Nanomaterials in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers engineered nanomaterials, deliberately engineered and manufactured to have certain properties and have at least one primary dimension of less than 100 nm. Materials produced with the aid of nanotechnologies are used in many areas of everyday life. Researches with nanomaterials have shown that the physiochemical characteristic of particles can influence their effects in biological systems. The field of nanotechnology has created risk for environment and human health. The toxicity of nanoparticles may be affected by different physicochemical properties, including size, shape, chemistry, surface properties, agglomeration, solubility, and charge, as well as effects from attached functional groups and crystalline structure. The greater surface-area-to-mass ratio of nanoparticles makes them generally more reactive than their macro-sized counterparts. Exposure to nanomaterials can occur at different life-cycle stages of the materials and/or products. The knowledge gaps limiting the understanding of the human and environment hazard and risk of nanotechnology should be explained by the scientific investigations for help to protect human and environmental health and to ensure the benefits of the nanotechnology products without excessive risk of this new technology. In this review are presented the proposal measurement methods for NMs characteristic.

  20. “NaKnowBase”: A Nanomaterials Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaKnowBase is a relational database populated with data from peer-reviewed ORD nanomaterials research publications. The database focuses on papers describing the actions of nanomaterials in environmental or biological media including their interactions, transformations and poten...

  1. “NaKnowBase”: A Nanomaterials Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaKnowBase is an internal relational database populated with data from peer-reviewed ORD nanomaterials research publications. The database focuses on papers describing the actions of nanomaterials in environmental or biological media including their interactions, transformations...

  2. THERMOOXIDATIVE STABILITY OF JET FUEL WITH FULLERENES AS AN ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Іванов

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Heating of fuels in presence of oxygen reduces their thermal-oxidative stability, leads to a solid phase in the form of sludge and tar, which, sedimented at the details of the fuel system, change its characteristics and cause contamination of fuel filters and injectors, spool control sticking, reduce efficiency of heat exchangers. Nanomaterials, performance of which is considerably superior to the natural materials, are the basis for the movement of humanity's progress. Therefore, with a develpoment of technologies it has become necessary to carry out a research of modified additives – fullerens, to improve an oxidative stability of fuels. We have carried out an investigation of thermal-oxidative stability of fuel RT as a function of additive C60 concentration. The results has shown that even 0,043 g/l fullerene addition as an antioxidant, reduces the amount of sediment in the fuel almost by half. Usage of fullerenes for improvement of petroleum products performance properties is a promising area of research.

  3. Cytotoxic effects of commonly used nanomaterials and microplastics on cerebral and epithelial human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Gabriella F; Pérez-Pomeda, Ignacio; Sanchís, Josep; Rossini, Cesare; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2017-11-01

    Plastic wastes are among the major inputs of detritus into aquatic ecosystems. Also, during recent years the increasing use of new materials such as nanomaterials (NMs) in industrial and household applications has contributed to the complexity of waste mixtures in aquatic systems. The current effects and the synergism and antagonisms of mixtures of microplastics (MPLs), NMs and organic compounds on the environment and in human health have, to date, not been well understood but instead they are a cause for general concern. The aim of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the cytotoxicity of NMs and microplastics/nanoplastics (MPLs/NPLs), at cell level in terms of oxidative stress (evaluating Reactive Oxygen Species effect) and cell viability. Firstly, the individual cytotoxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNPs and AuNPs), of metal oxide NPs (ZrO 2 NPs, CeO 2 NPs, TiO 2 NPs, and Al 2 O 3 NPs), carbon nanomaterials (C 60 fullerene, graphene), and MPLs of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) has been evaluated in vitro. Two different cellular lines T98G and HeLa, cerebral and epithelial human cells, respectively, were employed. The cells were exposed during 24-48h to different levels of contaminants, from 10ng/mL to 10µg/mL, under the same conditions. Secondly, the synergistic and antagonistic relationships between fullerenes and other organic contaminants, including an organophosphate insecticide (malathion), a surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) and a plasticiser (diethyl phthalate) were assessed. The obtained results confirm that oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms of cytotoxicity at cell level, as has been observed for both cell lines and contributes to the current knowledge of the effects of NMs and MPLs-NPLs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and radiation resistance of fullerenes and fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilin, V. A., E-mail: shilin@pnpi.spb.ru; Lebedev, V. T.; Sedov, V. P.; Szhogina, A. A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The parameters of an electric-arc facility for the synthesis of fullerenes and endohedral metallofullerenes are optimized. The resistance of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} fullerenes and C{sub 60}(OH){sub 30} and C{sub 70}(OH){sub 30} fullerenols against neutron irradiation is studied. It is established that the radiation resistance of the fullerenes is higher than that of the fullerenols, but the radiation resistance of the Gd@C{sub 2n} endometallofullerenes is lower than that of the corresponding Gd@C{sub 2n}(OH){sub 38} fullerenols. The radiation resistance of mixtures of Me@C{sub 2n}(OH){sub 38} (Me = Gd, Tb, Sc, Fe, and Pr) endometallofullerenes with C{sub 60}(OH){sub 30} is determined. The factors affecting the radiation resistance of the fullerenes and fullerenols are discussed.

  5. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  6. Standardization of nanomaterials characterization by scanning probe microscopy for societal acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Onishi, Keiko; Xu, Mingsheng

    2009-01-01

    Novel nanomaterials are expected to play key roles for the promotion of innovations in the various industrial products. In order to make such novel nanomaterials to be socially acceptable and widely used, it is very important and necessary to establish the reliable nano-characterization methodology for the industrial nanomaterials under the authorized international scheme for standardization. Among the nano-characterization methods, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the most versatile both in the measurement functions and the operational environments. Whereas there are various nanomaterials of industrial application, fullerene nanomaterials (FNM) have attracted much attention due to their unique physical properties. Here we show the importance of the quantitative analysis and standardization of SPM using FNM as a typical example.

  7. Standardization of nanomaterials characterization by scanning probe microscopy for societal acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Daisuke [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA) and Advanced Nano Characterization Center (ANCC), National Institute for Materials Science - NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Onishi, Keiko [Advanced Nano Characterization Center (ANCC), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Xu, Mingsheng [International Center for Young Scientists-Interdisciplinary Materials Research (ICYS-IMAT), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: fujita.daisuke@nims.go.jp

    2009-04-01

    Novel nanomaterials are expected to play key roles for the promotion of innovations in the various industrial products. In order to make such novel nanomaterials to be socially acceptable and widely used, it is very important and necessary to establish the reliable nano-characterization methodology for the industrial nanomaterials under the authorized international scheme for standardization. Among the nano-characterization methods, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the most versatile both in the measurement functions and the operational environments. Whereas there are various nanomaterials of industrial application, fullerene nanomaterials (FNM) have attracted much attention due to their unique physical properties. Here we show the importance of the quantitative analysis and standardization of SPM using FNM as a typical example.

  8. Glycofullerenes: Sweet fullerenes vanquish viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Fullerene-based dendritic structures coated with 120 sugars can be made in high yields in a relatively short sequence of reactions. The mannosylated compound is shown to inhibit Ebola infection in cells more efficiently than monofullerene-based glycoclusters.

  9. Handbook of nanomaterials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Dan; Schricker, Scott R; Sigmund, Wolfgang; Zauscher, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials attract tremendous attention in recent researches. Although extensive research has been done in this field it still lacks a comprehensive reference work that presents data on properties of different Nanomaterials. This Handbook of Nanomaterials Properties will be the first single reference work that brings together the various properties with wide breadth and scope.

  10. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials.

  11. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on an immobilised fullerene-urease bio-conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling; Rezayi, Majid

    2013-12-06

    A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease) bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10-3 M to 8.28 × 10-5 M. The biosensor's sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor's response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  12. Regional Knowledge Production in Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Patuelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials are seen as a key technology for the twenty-first century, and much is expected of them in terms of innovation and economic growth. They could open the way to many radically new applications, which would form the basis of innovative products. As nanomaterials are still in their infa......Nanomaterials are seen as a key technology for the twenty-first century, and much is expected of them in terms of innovation and economic growth. They could open the way to many radically new applications, which would form the basis of innovative products. As nanomaterials are still...... in their infancy, universities, public research institutes and private businesses seem to play a vital role in the innovation process. Existing literature points to the importance of knowledge spillovers between these actors and suggests that the opportunities for these depend on proximity, with increasing...... on nanomaterial patenting. Based on European Patent Office data at the German district level (NUTS-3), we estimate two negative binomial models in a knowledge production function framework and include a spatial filtering approach to adjust for spatial autocorrelation. Our results indicate...

  13. Price tag in nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, D. A.; Vordos, N.; Nolan, J. W.; Mitropoulos, A. C.; Vansant, E. F.; Cool, P.; Braet, J.

    2017-05-01

    With the evolution of the field of nanomaterials in the past number of years, it has become apparent that it will be key to future technological developments. However, while there are unlimited research undertakings on nanomaterials, limited research results on nanomaterial costs exist; all in spite of the generous funding that nanotechnology projects have received. There has recently been an exponential increase in the number of studies concerning health-related nanomaterials, considering the various medical applications of nanomaterials that drive medical innovation. This work aims to analyze the effect of the cost factor on acceptability of health-related nanomaterials independently or in relation to material toxicity. It appears that, from the materials studied, those used for cancer treatment applications are more expensive than the ones for drug delivery. The ability to evaluate cost implications improves the ability to undertake research mapping and develop opinions on nanomaterials that can drive innovation.

  14. Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael

    2018-04-03

    A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.

  15. Carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption

    CERN Document Server

    Terranova, Maria Letizia

    2012-01-01

    Research in adsorption of gases by carbon nanomaterials has experienced considerable growth in recent years, with increasing interest for practical applications. Many research groups are now producing or using such materials for gas adsorption, storage, purification, and sensing. This book provides a selected overview of some of the most interesting scientific results regarding the outstanding properties of carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption and of interest both for basic research and technological applications. Topics receiving special attention in this book include storage of H, purific

  16. Fullerene C60 and graphene photosensibiles for photodynamic virus inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, I.; Hvorostovsky, A.; Kiselev, V.; Zarubaev, V.; Kiselev, O.; Piotrovsky, L.; Anfimov, P.; Krisko, T.; Muraviova, T.; Rylkov, V.; Starodubzev, A.; Sirotkin, A.; Grishkanich, A.; Kudashev, I.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Afanasyev, M.; Lukyanov, N.; Redka, D.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    A solid-phase photosensitizer based on aggregated C60 fullerene and graphene oxide for photodynamic inactivation of pathogens in biological fluids was studied. The most promising technologies of inactivation include the photodynamic effect, which consists in the inactivation of infectious agents by active oxygen forms (including singlet oxygen), formed when light is activated by the photosensitizer introduced into the plasma. Research shows features of solid-phase systems based on graphene and fullerene C60 oxide, which is a combination of an effective inactivating pathogens (for example, influenza viruses) reactive oxygen species formed upon irradiation of the photosensitizer in aqueous and biological fluids, a high photostability fullerene coatings and the possibility of full recovery photosensitizer from the biological environment after the photodynamic action.

  17. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  18. Techniques for Investigating Molecular Toxicology of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Chenchen; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Lei, Zhendong; Wu, Minghong

    2016-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been a rapidly developing field in the past few decades, resulting in the more and more exposure of nanomaterials to human. The increased applications of nanomaterials for industrial, commercial and life purposes, such as fillers, catalysts, semiconductors, paints, cosmetic additives and drug carriers, have caused both obvious and potential impacts on human health and environment. Nanotoxicology is used to study the safety of nanomaterials and has grown at the historic moment. Molecular toxicology is a new subdiscipline to study the interactions and impacts of materials at the molecular level. To better understand the relationship between the molecular toxicology and nanomaterials, this review summarizes the typical techniques and methods in molecular toxicology which are applied when investigating the toxicology of nanomaterials and include six categories: namely; genetic mutation detection, gene expression analysis, DNA damage detection, chromosomal aberration analysis, proteomics, and metabolomics. Each category involves several experimental techniques and methods.

  19. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  20. Polymer solar cells with novel fullerene-based acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, I.; Martin, N.; Giacalone, F.; Segura, J.L.; Chirvase, D.; Parisi, J.; Dyakonov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Alternative acceptor materials are possible candidates to improve the optical absorption and/or the open circuit voltage of polymer-fullerene solar cells. We studied a novel fullerene-type acceptor, DPM-12, for application in polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices. Though DPM-12 has the identical redox potentials as methanofullerene PCBM, surprisingly high open circuit voltages in the range V OC =0.95 V were measured for OC 1 C 10 -PPV:DPM-12-based samples. The potential for photovoltaic application was studied by means of photovoltaic characterization of solar cells including current-voltage measurements and external quantum yield spectroscopy. Further studies were carried out by profiling the solar cell parameters vs. temperature and white light intensity

  1. Nanomaterials and Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar BASU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials and nanosensors are two most important iconic words of the modern science & Technology. Though nano technology is relatively a new area of research & development it will soon be included in the most modern electronic circuitry used for advanced computing systems. Since it will provide the potential link between the nanotechnology and the macroscopic world the development is primarily directed towards exploitation of nanotechnology to computer chip miniaturization and vast storage capacity. However, for implementation in the consumer products the present high cost of production must be overcome. There are different ways to make nanosensors e.g. top-down lithography, bottom-up assembly, and self molecular assembly. Consequently, nanomaterials & nanosensors have to be made compatible with the consumer technologies. The progress in detecting and sensing different chemical species with increased accuracy may transform the human society from uncertainty and inaccuracy to more precise and definite world of information. For example, extremely low concentrations of air pollutants or toxic materials in air & water around us can be accurately and economically detected in no time to save the human beings from the serious illnesses. Also, the medical sensors will help in diagnoses of the diseases, their treatment and in predicting the future profile of the individual so that the health insurance companies may exploit the opportunity to grant or to deny the health coverage. Other social issues like privacy invasion and security may be best monitored by the widespread use of the surveillance devices using nanosensors.

  2. Stereodivergent-at-metal synthesis of [60]fullerene hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco-Martinez, Juan; Vidal, Sara; Fernandez, Israel; Filippone, Salvatore [Departamento de Quimica Organica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Martin, Nazario [Departamento de Quimica Organica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); IMDEA-Nanociencia, C/Faraday, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-13

    Chiral fullerene-metal hybrids with complete control over the four stereogenic centers, including the absolute configuration of the metal atom, have been synthesized for the first time. The stereochemistry of the four chiral centers formed during [60]fullerene functionalization is the result of both the chiral catalysts employed and the diastereoselective addition of the metal complexes used (iridium, rhodium, or ruthenium). DFT calculations underpin the observed configurational stability at the metal center, which does not undergo an epimerization process. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Fullerenes doped with metal halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.P.; Heinebrodt, M.; Naeher, U.; Goehlich, H.; Lange, T.; Schaber, H.

    1993-01-01

    The cage-like structure of fullerenes is a challenge to every experimental to put something inside - to dope the fullerenes. In fact, the research team that first identified C 60 as a football-like molecule quickly succeeded in trapping metal atoms inside and in shrinking the cage around this atom by photofragmentation. In this paper we report the results of ''shrink-wrapping'' the fullerenes around metal halide molecules. Of special interest is the critical size (the minimum number of carbon atoms) that can still enclose the dopant. A rough model for the space available inside a carbon cage gives good agreement with the measured shrinking limits. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs

  4. Superconductivity in doped fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    While there is not complete agreement on the microscopic mechanism of superconductivity in alkali-metal-doped C 60 , further research may well lead to the production of analogous materials that lose resistance at even higher temperatures. Carbon 60 is a fascinating and arrestingly beautiful molecule. With 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal faces symmetrically arrayed in a soccer-ball-like structure that belongs to the icosahedral point group, I h , its high symmetry alone invites special attention. The publication in September 1990 of a simple technique for manufacturing and concentrating macroscopic amounts of this new form of carbon announced to the scientific community that enabling technology had arrived. Macroscopic amounts of C 60 (and the higher fullerenes, such as C 70 and C 84 ) can now be made with an apparatus as simple as an arc furnace powered with an arc welding supply. Accordingly, chemists, physicists and materials scientists have joined forces in an explosion of effort to explore the properties of this unusual molecular building block. 23 refs., 6 figs

  5. Superconductivity in doped fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbard, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    While there is not complete agreement on the microscopic mechanism of superconductivity in alkali-metal-doped C sup 0, further research may well lead to the production of analogous materials that lose resistance at even higher temperatures. Carbon 60 is a fascinating and arrestingly beautiful molecule. With 12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal faces symmetrically arrayed in a soccer-ball-like structure that belongs to the icosahedral point group, I sub h, its high symmetry alone invites special attention. The publication in september 1990 of a simple technique for manufacturing and concentrating macroscopic amounts of this new form of carbon announced to the scientific community that enabling technology had arrived. Macroscopic amounts of C sub 6 sub 0 (and the higher fullerenes, such as C sub 7 sub 0 and C sub 8 sub 4) can now be made with an apparatus as simple as an arc furnace powered with an arc welding supply. Accordingly, chemists, physicists and materials scientists have joined forces in an explosion of effort to explore the properties of this unusual molecular building block. (author). 23 refs., 6 figs

  6. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Green processes for nanotechnology from inorganic to bioinspired nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Basiuk, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the state-of-the-art survey of green techniques in preparation of different classes of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on the use of renewable sources. Key topics covered include fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques as well as their properties and applications, the use of renewable sources to obtain nanomaterials of different classes, from simple metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to complex bioinspired nanomaterials, economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth, and more. This is an ideal book for students, lecturers, researchers and engineers dealing with versatile (mainly chemical, biological, and medical) aspects of nanotechnology, including fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques and their properties and applications. This book also: Maximizes reader insights into the design and fabrication of bioinspired nanomaterials and the design of complex bio-nanohybrids Covers many different applications for nanomaterials, bioinspired nanom...

  8. Broadband electroluminescence in fullerene crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.T.; Anders, J.; Byrne, H.J.; Maser, W.K.; Kaiser, M.; Mittelbach, A.; Roth, S.

    1993-01-01

    The observation of electroluminescence from crystalline fullerenes is described. A broad band emission spectrum, extending from 400nm to 1100nm is observed. The spectrum has a primary maximum at 920nm and a weaker feature centered on 420nm. The spectral characteristics are independent of the applied field and the longer wavelength region is identical to that measured in the high excitation density photoluminescence spectrum. In addition, the electroluminescence intensity increases with the cube of the injection current, strengthening the association to the nonlinear phenomena observed in the highly excited state of fullerenes. (orig.)

  9. Theranostic applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer: Focus on imaging and cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A; Zhu, Kaicheng; Hong, Hao

    2015-07-28

    Carbon based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention over the past decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer imaging and drug delivery/therapy. The carbon nanomaterials will be categorized into fullerenes, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodiamonds, nanodots and graphene derivatives based on their morphologies. The chemical conjugation/functionalization strategies of each category will be introduced before focusing on their applications in cancer imaging (fluorescence/bioluminescence, magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), photoacoustic, Raman imaging, etc.) and cargo (chemo/gene/therapy) delivery. The advantages and limitations of each category and the potential clinical utilization of these carbon nanomaterials will be discussed. Multifunctional carbon nanoplatforms have the potential to serve as optimal candidates for image-guided delivery vectors for cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic nanomaterials undamentals, synthesis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David J

    2017-01-01

    Timely and comprehensive, this book presents recent advances in magnetic nanomaterials research, covering the latest developments, including the design and preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, their physical and chemical properties as well as their applications in different fields, including biomedicine, magnetic energy storage, wave–absorbing and water remediation. By allowing researchers to get to the forefront developments related to magnetic nanomaterials in various disciplines, this is invaluable reading for the nano, magnetic, energy, medical, and environmental communities.

  11. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  12. Generating Electricity from Water through Carbon Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Chen, Peining; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-01-09

    Over the past ten years, electricity generation from water in carbon-based materials has aroused increasing interest. Water-induced mechanical-to-electrical conversion has been discovered in carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and graphene, through the interaction with flowing water as well as moisture. In this Concept article, we focus on the basic principles of electric energy harvesting from flowing water through carbon nanomaterials, and summarize the material modification and structural design of these nanogenerators. The current challenges and potential applications of power conversion with carbon nanomaterials are finally highlighted. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  14. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    technology revolution. Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world.The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks.The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However

  15. Fullerene genesis by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamaly, E.G.; Chadderton, L.T.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Lindfield, NSW

    1995-01-01

    Clearly detectable quantities of molecular fullerene (C 60 ), the most recently discovered allotrope of carbon, have been observed in graphite following irradiation with heavy projectile ions at energies of about 1 GeV using high pressure chromatography. Similar experiments using lower ion energies gave no corresponding signal, indicating an absence of fullerene. This clear difference suggests that there exists an energy threshold for fullerene genesis. Beginning with a microscopic description of deposition and transfer of energy from the ion to the target, a theoretical model is developed for interpretation of these and similar experiments. An important consequence is a description of the formation of large carbon clusters in the hot dense 'primeval soup' of single carbon atoms by means of random 'sticky' collisions. The ion energy threshold is seen as arising, physically, from a balance in the competition between the rate of primary energy deposition and the rate of system cooling. Rate equations for the basic clustering process allow calculations of the time-dependent number densities for the different carbon clusters produced. An important consequence of the theory is that it is established that the region for the specific phase transition from graphite to fullerene lies in the same pressure regime on the phase diagram as does the corresponding transition for graphite to diamond. (author)

  16. Nanomaterial-Enabled Wearable Sensors for Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan; Swetha, Puchakayala; Zhu, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review. Integration of multiple sensors for multimodal sensing and integration with other components into wearable systems are summarized. Representative applications of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors for healthcare, including continuous health monitoring, daily and sports activity tracking, and multifunctional electronic skin are highlighted. Finally, challenges, opportunities, and future perspectives in the field of nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the use of nanomaterials to prevent corrosion. The first section deals with the fundamentals of corrosion prevention using nanomaterials. Part two includes a series of case studies and applications of nanomaterials for corrosion control.$bCorrosion is an expensive and potentially dangerous problem in many industries. The potential application of different nanostructured materials in corrosion protection, prevention and control is a subject of increasing interest. Corrosion protection and control using nanomaterials explores the potential use of nanotechnology in corrosion control. The book is divided into two parts. Part one looks at the fundamentals of corrosion behaviour and the manufacture of nanocrystalline materials. Chapters discuss the impact of nanotechnology in reducing corrosion cost, and investigate the influence of various factors including thermodynamics, kinetics and grain size on the corrosion behaviour of nanocrystalline materials. There are also chapters on electrodeposition ...

  18. Bioremediation of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frank Fanqing; Keasling, Jay D; Tang, Yinjie J

    2013-05-14

    The present invention provides a method comprising the use of microorganisms for nanotoxicity study and bioremediation. In some embodiment, the microorganisms are bacterial organisms such as Gram negative bacteria, which are used as model organisms to study the nanotoxicity of the fullerene compounds: E. coli W3110, a human related enterobacterium and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, an environmentally important bacterium with versatile metabolism.

  19. Mechanism of plasma-arc formation of fullerenes from coal and related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, L S.K.; Wilson, M A; Quezada, R A [CSIRO Petroleum, North Ryde (Australia); and others

    1996-12-31

    When an arc is struck across graphite or coal electrodes in a helium atmosphere several products are formed including soot containing fullerenes. The mechanism by which fullerenes and nanotubes are formed is not understood. At arc temperatures exceeding 3000{degrees}C, highly ordered fullerenes might be expected to be less stable than graphite, and hence fullerene production is believed to proceed in cooler regions at the edge of the arc. There is irrefutable evidence that [C{sub 60}]-fullerene grows in a plasma from atomic carbon vapour or equivalent. When {sup 13}C-labelled carbon powder is packed into the anode, the fullerenes as produced contain a statistical distribution of {sup 13}C atoms. This implies that graphite has split into small units, predominantly C{sub 1} or C{sub 2} in the plasma and these units are involved in fullerene formation. When coal or other organic materials are used in the anode, weaker bonds are present, which may break preferentially. As a result, larger fragments, other than C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} units can exist in the plasma. This paper demonstrates the existence of such larger fragments when various coals are used and this implies that fullerenes can be formed from larger units than C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}. The distribution of polycyclic hydrocarbons formed depends very much on the structure of the coal used for the arcing experiments. The distribution of the natural abundance of {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios in the fullerene products further supports this evidence.

  20. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    . Interfaces gave them their functions, and shaping them into ever-smaller functional components made them indispensably omnipresent as transistors—produced in billions per person and per year—and they are no doubt the rulers of today's technical world. The semiconductor and transistor serve as an inspiring example of functionalizing materials. The developments of microelectronics profited very much from scalability, that is, the properties and functions do not change significantly with size. Therefore, every step toward smaller dimensions was a technical and commercial challenge with risks well under control. The transition to the nanoscale, however, is discontinuous. Examples of this transition are the local probe methods that exploit the mechanically controlled proximity to the object under consideration and that have become indispensable as microscopes and as measuring and modifying tools, the size of molecular components that are much smaller than the smallest possibly achievable transistor, the properties and functions of materials below a critical size as mentioned above, the continuum properties versus discrete ones, and novel concepts inspired by living nature. Those novel concepts include growing circuits first and building the active components at the nodes afterwards and measuring weak by weak, small by small, and many by many. It is these discontinuous steps that make the nanoscale different, not just smaller. They pose exciting challenges, open great opportunities and nearly unlimited possibilities, but they also carry serious technical, commercial, environmental, and health risks. The nanoscale is also a great opportunity for materials science in general. Materials science is interdisciplinary per se. A materials scientist should have a reasonable understanding of physics, chemistry, engineering, and more recently, also biology. Certainly one can always team up with representatives from other disciplines and forge collaborations. However, an effective team

  1. Characterizing the Polymer:Fullerene Intermolecular Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean

    2016-02-02

    Polymer:fullerene solar cells depend heavily on the electronic coupling of the polymer and fullerene molecular species from which they are composed. The intermolecular interaction between the polymer and fullerene tends to be strong in efficient photovoltaic systems, as evidenced by efficient charge transfer processes and by large changes in the energetics of the polymer and fullerene when they are molecularly mixed. Despite the clear presence of these strong intermolecular interactions between the polymer and fullerene, there is not a consensus on the nature of these interactions. In this work, we use a combination of Raman spectroscopy, charge transfer state absorption, and density functional theory calculations to show that the intermolecular interactions do not appear to be caused by ground state charge transfer between the polymer and fullerene. We conclude that these intermolecular interactions are primarily van der Waals in nature. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  2. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  3. Techniques for physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping-Chang; Lin, Stephen; Wang, Paul C.; Sridhar, Rajagopalan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have opened up a new era of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and traumatic injuries. Nanomaterials, including those with potential for clinical applications, possess novel physicochemical properties that have an impact on their physiological interactions, from the molecular level to the systemic level. There is a lack of standardized methodologies or regulatory protocols for detection or characterization of nanomaterials. This review summarizes the techniques that are commonly used to study the size, shape, surface properties, composition, purity and stability of nanomaterials, along with their advantages and disadvantages. At present there are no FDA guidelines that have been developed specifically for nanomaterial based formulations for diagnostic or therapeutic use. There is an urgent need for standardized protocols and procedures for the characterization of nanoparticles, especially those that are intended for use as theranostics. PMID:24252561

  4. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  5. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy on fullerenes and fullerene compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armbruster, J.

    1996-03-01

    A few years ago, a new form of pure carbon, the fullerenes, has been discovered, which shows many fascinating properties. Within this work the spatial and electronic structure of some selected fullerene compounds have been investigated by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy in transmission. Phase pure samples of alkali intercalated fullerides A x C 60 (A=Na, K, Cs) have been prepared using vacuum distillation. Measruements of K 3 C 60 show a dispersion of the charge carrier plasmon close to zero. This can be explained by calculations, which take into account both band structure and local-field (inhomogeneity) effects. The importance of the molecular structure can also be seen from the A 4 C 60 compounds, where the non-metallic properties are explained by a splitting of the t 1u and t 1g derived bands that is caused by electron-correlation and Jahn-Teller effects. First measurements of the electronic structure of Na x C 60 (x>6) are presented and reveal a complete transfer from the sodium atoms but an incomplete transfer onto the C 60 molecules. This behaviour can be explained by taking into account additional electronic states that are situated between the sodium atoms in the octahedral sites and are predicted by calculations using local density approximation. The crystal structure of the higher fullerenes C 76 and C 84 is found to be face-centered cubic

  6. National Survey of Workplaces Handling and Manufacturing Nanomaterials, Exposure to and Health Effects of Nanomaterials, and Evaluation of Nanomaterial Safety Data Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A national survey on workplace environment nanomaterial handling and manufacturing was conducted in 2014. Workplaces relevant to nanomaterials were in the order of TiO2 (91), SiO2 (88), carbon black (84), Ag (35), Al2O3 (35), ZnO (34), Pb (33), and CeO2 (31). The survey results indicated that the number of workplaces handling or manufacturing nanomaterials was 340 (0.27% of total 126,846) workplaces. The number of nanomaterials used and products was 546 (1.60 per company) and 583 (1.71 per company), respectively. For most workplaces, the results on exposure to hazardous particulate materials, including nanomaterials, were below current OELs, yet a few workplaces were above the action level. As regards the health status of workers, 9 workers were diagnosed with a suspected respiratory occupational disease, where 7 were recommended for regular follow-up health monitoring. 125 safety data sheets (SDSs) were collected from the nanomaterial-relevant workplaces and evaluated for their completeness and reliability. Only 4 CNT SDSs (3.2%) included the term nanomaterial, while most nanomaterial SDSs were not regularly updated and lacked hazard information. When taken together, the current analysis provides valuable national-level information on the exposure and health status of workers that can guide the next policy steps for nanomaterial management in the workplace. PMID:27556041

  7. Characterization of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montone, Amelia; Aurora, Annalisa; Di Girolamo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main techniques used for the characterization of nanomaterials. The knowledge of some basic characteristics, inherent morphology, microstructure, the distribution phase and chemical composition, it is essential to evaluate the functional properties of nanomaterials and make predictions about their behavior in operation. For the characterization of nanomaterials can be used in both imaging techniques both analytic techniques. Among the first found wide application optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Among the latter some types of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For each type of material to characterize the choice of the most appropriate technique it is based on the type of details that you want to obtain, and on their scale. In this paper are discussed in detail some examples and the main methods used for the characterization of nanomaterials. [it

  8. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...

  9. Growth and Potential Damage of Human Bone-Derived Cells on Fresh and Aged Fullerene C60 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vacik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS. We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Growth and potential damage of human bone-derived cells on fresh and aged fullerene c60 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopova, Ivana; Bacakova, Lucie; Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri

    2013-04-26

    Fullerenes are nanoparticles composed of carbon atoms arranged in a spherical hollow cage-like structure. Numerous studies have evaluated the therapeutic potential of fullerene derivates against oxidative stress-associated conditions, including the prevention or treatment of arthritis. On the other hand, fullerenes are not only able to quench, but also to generate harmful reactive oxygen species. The reactivity of fullerenes may change in time due to the oxidation and polymerization of fullerenes in an air atmosphere. In this study, we therefore tested the dependence between the age of fullerene films (from one week to one year) and the proliferation, viability and metabolic activity of human osteosarcoma cells (lines MG-63 and U-2 OS). We also monitored potential membrane and DNA damage and morphological changes of the cells. After seven days of cultivation, we did not observe any cytotoxic morphological changes, such as enlarged cells or cytosolic vacuole formation. Furthermore, there was no increased level of DNA damage. The increasing age of the fullerene films did not cause enhancement of cytotoxicity. On the contrary, it resulted in an improvement in the properties of these materials, which are more suitable for cell cultivation. Therefore, fullerene films could be considered as a promising material with potential use as a bioactive coating of cell carriers for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Vibrational Spectra of Tetrahedral Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng; Li; Tang

    1999-01-01

    From the topological structures of the following classes of tetrahedral fullerenes-(1) Cn(h, h; -i, i), Cn(h, 0; -i, 2i), Cn(2h + i, -h + i; i, i), Cn(h - i, h + 2i; -i, 2i), and Cn(h, i; 0, i) for Td symmetry; (2) Cn(h, k; k, h), Cn(h, k; -h - k, k), and Cn(h, k; -h, h + k) for Th symmetry; (3) Cn(h, k; i, j) for T symmetry-we have obtained theoretically the formulas for the numbers of their IR and Raman active modes for all of the tetrahedral fullerenes through the decomposition of their nuclear motions into irreducible representations by means of group theory. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Biological and ecological responses to carbon-based nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.

    This dissertation examines the biological and ecological responses to carbon nanoparticles, a major class of nanomaterials which have been mass produced and extensively studied for their rich physical properties and commercial values. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review on the structures, properties, applications, and implications of carbon nanomaterials, especially related to the perspectives of biological and ecosystems. Given that there are many types of carbon nanomaterials available, this chapter is focused on three major types of carbon-based nanomaterials only, namely, fullerenes, single walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. On the whole organism level, specifically, Chapter II presents a first study on the fate of fullerenes and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in rice plants, which was facilitated by the self assembly of these nanomaterials with NOM. The aspects of fullerene uptake, translocation, biodistribution, and generational transfer in the plants were examined and quantified using bright field and electron microscopy, FT-Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy. The uptake and transport of fullerene in the plant vascular system were attributed to water transpiration, convection, capillary force, and the fullerene concentration gradient from the roots to the leaves of the plants. On the cellular level, Chapter III documents the differential uptake of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 vs. amphiphilic C70-NOM complex in Allium cepa plant cells and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. This study was conducted using a plant cell viability assay, and complemented by bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. In particular, C60(OH)20 and C70-NOM showed contrasting uptake in both the plant and mammalian cells, due to their significant differences in physicochemistry and the presence of an extra hydrophobic plant cell wall in the plant cells. Consequently, C60(OH)20 was found to induce toxicity in Allium cepa cells but not in HT-29 cells, while C70

  13. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Julio R; Villalta-Cerdas, Adrián; Echegoyen, Luis

    2012-01-01

    With the constant growing complexity of electronic devices, the top-down approach used with silicon based technology is facing both technological and physical challenges. Carbon based nanomaterials are good candidates to be used in the construction of electronic circuitry using a bottom-up approach, because they have semiconductor properties and dimensions within the required physical limit to establish electrical connections. The unique electronic properties of fullerenes for example, have allowed the construction of molecular rectifiers and transistors that can operate with more than two logical states. Carbon nanotubes have shown their potential to be used in the construction of molecular wires and FET transistors that can operate in the THz frequency range. On the other hand, graphene is not only the most promising material for replacing ITO in the construction of transparent electrodes but it has also shown quantum Hall effect and conductance properties that depend on the edges or chemical doping. The purpose of this review is to present recent developments on the utilization carbon nanomaterials in molecular electronics.

  14. Co-Exposure with Fullerene May Strengthen Health Effects of Organic Industrial Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehto, M.; Karilainen, T.; Rog, T.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C-60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene...... which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C-60 and organic chemicals represent different...... co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C-60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C-60 that is more...

  15. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Tuinman, A.A.; Huang, J.

    1996-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C 60 excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs + is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C 60 in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C 60 anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements

  16. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C{sub 60} excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs{sup +} is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C{sub 60} in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C{sub 60} anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements.

  17. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  18. Potentiometric Urea Biosensor Based on an Immobilised Fullerene-Urease Bio-Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Saeedfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate (PnBA membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10−3 M to 8.28 × 10−5 M. The biosensor’s sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor’s response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  19. The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostraat ML

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Michele L Ostraat, Karmann C Mills, Kimberly A Guzan, Damaris MurryRTI International, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and lacking standardization. The Nanomaterial Registry has been developed to address such challenges as the need for standard methods, data formatting, and controlled vocabularies for data sharing. The Registry is an authoritative, web-based tool whose purpose is to simplify the community's level of effort in assessing nanomaterial data from environmental and biological interaction studies. Because the registry is meant to be an authoritative resource, all data-driven content is systematically archived and reviewed by subject-matter experts. To support and advance nanomaterial research, a set of minimal information about nanomaterials (MIAN has been developed and is foundational to the Registry data model. The MIAN has been used to create evaluation and similarity criteria for nanomaterials that are curated into the Registry. The Registry is a publicly available resource that is being built through collaborations with many stakeholder groups in the nanotechnology community, including industry, regulatory, government, and academia. Features of the Registry website (https://www.nanomaterialregistry.org/ currently include search, browse, side-by-side comparison of nanomaterials, compliance ratings based on the quality and quantity of data, and the ability to search for similar nanomaterials within the Registry. This paper is a modification and extension of a proceedings paper for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.Keywords: nanoinformatics

  20. Towards a fullerene-based quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Simon C; Ardavan, Arzhang; Briggs, G Andrew D; Britz, David A; Gunlycke, Daniel; Jefferson, John; Jones, Mark A G; Leigh, David F; Lovett, Brendon W; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Lyon, S A; Morton, John J L; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Sambrook, Mark R; Tyryshkin, Alexei M

    2006-01-01

    Molecular structures appear to be natural candidates for a quantum technology: individual atoms can support quantum superpositions for long periods, and such atoms can in principle be embedded in a permanent molecular scaffolding to form an array. This would be true nanotechnology, with dimensions of order of a nanometre. However, the challenges of realizing such a vision are immense. One must identify a suitable elementary unit and demonstrate its merits for qubit storage and manipulation, including input/output. These units must then be formed into large arrays corresponding to an functional quantum architecture, including a mechanism for gate operations. Here we report our efforts, both experimental and theoretical, to create such a technology based on endohedral fullerenes or 'buckyballs'. We describe our successes with respect to these criteria, along with the obstacles we are currently facing and the questions that remain to be addressed

  1. A plasma arc reactor for fullerene research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. T.; Dyer, P. L.; Dykes, J. W.; Klavins, P.; Anderson, P. E.; Liu, J. Z.; Shelton, R. N.

    1994-12-01

    A modified Krätschmer-Huffman reactor for the mass production of fullerenes is presented. Fullerene mass production is fundamental for the synthesis of higher and endohedral fullerenes. The reactor employs mechanisms for continuous graphite-rod feeding and in situ slag removal. Soot collects into a Soxhlet extraction thimble which serves as a fore-line vacuum pump filter, thereby easing fullerene separation from soot. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) for yield determination is reported. This TGA method is faster and uses smaller samples than Soxhlet extraction methods which rely on aromatic solvents. Production of 10 g of soot per hour is readily achieved utilizing this reactor. Fullerene yields of 20% are attained routinely.

  2. The first stable lower fullerene: C36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskoti, C.; Zettl, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new pure carbon material, presumably composed of thirty six carbon atom molecules, has been synthesized and isolated in milligram quantities. It appears as though these molecules have a closed cage structure making them the smallest member of a new class of molecules known as fullerenes, most notably of which is the soccer ball shaped C 60 . However, unlike other known fullerenes, any closed, fullerene-like C 36 cage will necessarily contain fused pentagon rings. Therefore, this molecule apparently violates the isolated pentagon rule, a criterion which requires isolated pentagons for stability in fullerene molecules. Striking parallels between this problem and the synthesis of other fused five member fused ring systems will be discussed. Also, it will be shown that certain biological structures known as clathrin behave in a manner which gives excellent predictions about fullerenes and nanotubes. These predictions help to explain the presence of abundant quantities of C 36 in arced graphite soot. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  3. Inflammogenic effect of well-characterized fullerenes in inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used fullerenes, whose dispersion at the nano-level was stabilized by grinding in nitrogen gas in an agitation mill, to conduct an intratracheal instillation study and an inhalation exposure study. Fullerenes were individually dispersed in distilled water including 0.1% Tween 80, and the diameter of the fullerenes was 33 nm. These suspensions were directly injected as a solution in the intratracheal instillation study. The reference material was nickel oxide in distilled water. Wistar male rats intratracheally received a dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, or 1 mg of fullerenes and were sacrificed after 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. In the inhalation study, Wistar rats were exposed to fullerene agglomerates (diameter: 96 ± 5 nm; 0.12 ± 0.03 mg/m3; 6 hours/days for 5 days/week for 4 weeks and were sacrificed at 3 days, 1 month, and 3 months after the end of exposure. The inflammatory responses and gene expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs were examined in rat lungs in both studies. Results In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg fullerene groups did not show a significant increase of the total cell and neutrophil count in BALF or in the expression of CINC-1,-2αβ and-3 in the lung, while the high-dose, 1 mg group only showed a transient significant increase of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1,-2αβ and -3. In the inhalation study, there were no increases of total cell and neutrophil count in BALF, CINC-1,-2αβ and-3 in the fullerene group. Conclusion These data in intratracheal instillation and inhalation studies suggested that well-dispersed fullerenes do not have strong potential of neutrophil inflammation.

  4. Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preparation and characterization of flower-like gold nanomaterials and iron oxide/gold composite nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zusing; Lin, Z H; Tang, C-Y; Chang, H-T

    2007-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized flower-like gold nanomaterials and Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials through the use of wet chemical methods in aqueous solution. In the presence of 0.5 mM citrate, 0.313 mM poly(ethylene glycol), and 109.72 mM sodium acetate (NaOAc), we prepared Au nanoflowers (NFs) having diameters ranging from 300 to 400 nm in aqueous solution after the reduction of Au ions at room temperature for 10 min. In the presence of spherical Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials, we applied a similar synthetic method to prepare Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials, including nanowires (NWs) that have a length of 1.58 μm and a width of 28.3 nm. We conducted energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, and x-ray powder diffraction measurements to characterize the as-prepared flower-like Au nanomaterials and Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials. From time-evolution TEM measurements, we suggested that Au atoms that were bound to the Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials grew to form Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials. The as-prepared Au NFs absorbed light strongly in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR) region (500-1200 nm). The Fe 3 O 4 /Au composite nanomaterials had electronic conductivities greater than 100 nA at an applied voltage of 20 mV, which induced a temperature increase of 20.5 ± 0.5 deg. C under an alternating magnetic field (62 μT)

  6. Automatic production of fullerenes by a JxB arc jet discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieno, Tetsu

    1995-01-01

    Effective production of many kinds of fullerenes including higher fullerenes and endohedral metallo-fullerenes are necessary to advance fullerene science and technology. Currently, the DC arc discharge method is the most effective method to produce fullerenes. However, carbon atoms evaporated from the anode tend to deposit on the cathode, which grow towards the anode, and obstruct the control of the arc discharge. Furthermore, deposited carbon should be removed to maintain continuous fullerene production. Here, to reduce the deposition of carbon on the cathode, a new discharge method is introduced and the experiment performed. When steady magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the DC current of the arc, ions and electrons are accelerated by JxB force as a plasma jet in the vertical direction. This plasma flow also accelerates helium convection due to the viscosity effect. Therefore, the carbon atoms and carbon neutrals are both blown up by the arc jet before arriving at the cathode. The arc flame in the experiment is actually observed to extend upwards, which dearly indicates the effect of the JxB force

  7. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian

    2018-01-30

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  8. Intelligent Environmental Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Jian; Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of environmental problems, especially water and air pollution, the utility of single-function environmental nanomaterials used in conventional and unconventional environmental treatment technologies are gradually reaching their limits. Intelligent nanomaterials with environmentally-responsive functionalities have shown potential to improve the performance of existing and new environmental technologies. By rational design of their structures and functionalities, intelligent nanomaterials can perform different tasks in response to varying application scenarios for the purpose of achieving the best performance. This review offers a critical analysis of the design concepts and latest progresses on the intelligent environmental nanomaterials in filtration membranes with responsive gates, materials with switchable wettability for selective and on-demand oil/water separation, environmental materials with self-healing capability, and emerging nanofibrous air filters for PM2.5 removal. We hope that this review will inspire further research efforts to develop intelligent environmental nanomaterials for the enhancement of the overall quality of environmental or human health.

  9. DF-1, A Nontoxic Carbon Fullerene Based Antioxidant, is Effective as a Biomedical Countermeasure Against Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Corey A.; Casey, Rachael; Conyers, Jodie; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    A long-term goal of radiation research is the mitigation of inherent risks of radiation exposure. Thus the study and development of safe agents, whether biomedical or dietary, that act as effective radioprotectors is an important step in accomplishing this long-term goal. Some of the most effective agents to date have been aminothiols and their derivatives. Unfortunately, most of these agents have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hypotension, weakness, and fatigability. For example, nausea and emesis occur in most patients treated with WR-2721 (Amifostine), requiring the use of effective antiemetics, with hypotension being the dose-limiting side effect in patients treated. Clearly, the need for a radioprotector that is both effective and safe still exists. Development of biocompatible nano-materials for radioprotection is a promising emerging technology that could be exploited to address the need to minimize biological effects when exposure is unavoidable. Testing free radical scavenging nanoparticles for potential use in radioprotection is exciting and highly relevant. Initial investigations presented here demonstrate the ability of a particular functionalized carbon fullerene nanoparticle, (DF-1), to act as an effective radioprotector. DF-1 was first identified as the most promising candidate in a screen of several functionalized carbon fullerenes based on lack of toxicity and antioxidant therapeutic potential against oxidative injuries (i.e. organ reperfusion and ionizing radiation). Subsequently, DF-1 has been shown to reduce chromosome aberration yield and cell death, as well as overall ROS levels in human lymphocytes and fibroblasts after exposure to gamma radiation and energetic protons while demonstrating no associated toxicity. The dose-reducing factor of DF-1 at LD50 is nearly 2.0 for gamma radiation. In addition, DF-1 treatment also significantly prevented cell cycle arrest after exposure. Finally, DF-1 markedly attenuated COX2 upregulation in cell

  10. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Oomen, Agnes G; Cassee, Flemming R

    2016-05-15

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Currently, efforts are made to increase the knowledge on the characteristics of nanomaterials that can be used to categorise them into hazard groups according to these characteristics. Grouping helps to gather information on nanomaterials in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. Here, we discuss different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation. Since the relation between single intrinsic particle characteristics and the severity of pulmonary inflammation is unknown, grouping of nanomaterials by their intrinsic characteristics alone is not sufficient to predict their risk after inhalation. The biokinetics of nanomaterials should be taken into account as that affects the dose present at a target site over time. The parameters determining the kinetic behaviour are not the same as the hazard-determining parameters. Furthermore, characteristics of nanomaterials change in the life-cycle, resulting in human exposure to different forms and doses of these nanomaterials. As information on the biokinetics and in situ characteristics of nanomaterials is essential but often lacking, efforts should be made to include these in testing strategies. Grouping nanomaterials will probably be of the most value to risk assessors when information on intrinsic characteristics, life-cycle, biokinetics and effects are all combined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron-fullerene mixture plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Fekete, E.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In many laboratories new materials useful for nanotechnology and medical applications are searched and studied. In the ECR labo- ratory one of our future goals is to produce endohedral fullerene molecules (e.g Fe C 60 ) in large quantity. If this comes true, it will be possible to make building blocks for nanoparts, an ultra-contrast medium of MRI, and a magnetic nano-particle for treatment of cancer. For this experiment some modifications were carried out on the ATOMKI-ECRIS [1]. The waveguide of the 14.5 GHz microwave generator was divided in order to couple very low powers (1 watt or less) into the plasma. The C 60 component of the plasma was produced by using a simple oven. Among known methods (oven, sputtering, electron bombardment, compounds containing Fe), we have chosen the evaporation of ferrocene [Fe(C 5 H 5 ) 2 ] powder to introduce Fe atoms into the plasma. The ferrocene chamber was connected to one of the two gas feeding lines and the evaporation rate was controlled by needle valve. The extraction voltage had to be kept as low as 600V, because of the low mass-energy product of our bending magnet. First we developed independently the rough working conditions for single-charged dense iron and fullerene plasmas. Then a clean fullerene plasma was made. The temperature of the oven was about 450 deg C. The bending magnet was set to the C 60 peak (M=720) and about 50-100 nA intensity of single-charged fullerene peak was obtained. Then the magnet was set to the position of the searched Fe C 60 or FeC 60 peak (M=776) and the ferrocene valve was opened. A very difficult and long tuning followed. Finally we found a new large peak with higher mass than C 60 . In Figure 1 the centre of the new big peak on the right side is located at M=776 which corresponds to FeC 60 and/or Fe C 60 molecules. The peak is wide and shows some structure. We think it may contain impurities attached to the C 58 , C 59 , C 60 and FeC 60 molecules. We

  12. Nanomaterials in the Environment: Perspectives on in Vivo Terrestrial Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique C. P. Mendonça

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, engineered nanomaterials (NMs brought a revolutionary development in many sectors of human life including electronics, paints, textiles, food, agriculture, and health care. However, the exponential growth in the number of NMs applications resulted in uncertainties regarding their environmental impacts. Currently, the common approach for assessing the toxicity of NMs such as, carbon—(fullerenes, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, mineral—(gold and silver nanoparticles, cerium and zinc oxide, silicon and titanium dioxide, and organic-based NMs (dendrimers includes standard guidelines applied to all chemical compounds. Nevertheless, NMs differ from traditional materials as their physicochemical and surface properties influence the toxic rather than their composition alone. Considering such NMs specificities, adaptations in some methods are necessary to ensure that environmental and human health risks are accurately investigated. In this context, the focus of this mini-review is to summarize the current knowledge in nanotoxicology regarding relevant organisms and experimental assays for assessing the terrestrial toxicity of NMs.

  13. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  14. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials/Allotropes: A Glimpse of Their Synthesis, Properties and Some Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Zulkarnain; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2018-01-01

    Carbon in its single entity and various forms has been used in technology and human life for many centuries. Since prehistoric times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal and carbon black have been used as writing and drawing materials. In the past two and a half decades or so, conjugated carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, activated carbon and graphite have been used as energy materials due to their exclusive properties. Due to their outstanding chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures have recently found application in many diverse areas; including drug delivery, electronics, composite materials, sensors, field emission devices, energy storage and conversion, etc. Following the global energy outlook, it is forecasted that the world energy demand will double by 2050. This calls for a new and efficient means to double the energy supply in order to meet the challenges that forge ahead. Carbon nanomaterials are believed to be appropriate and promising (when used as energy materials) to cushion the threat. Consequently, the amazing properties of these materials and greatest potentials towards greener and environment friendly synthesis methods and industrial scale production of carbon nanostructured materials is undoubtedly necessary and can therefore be glimpsed as the focal point of many researchers in science and technology in the 21st century. This is based on the incredible future that lies ahead with these smart carbon-based materials. This review is determined to give a synopsis of new advances towards their synthesis, properties, and some applications as reported in the existing literatures. PMID:29438327

  15. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials/Allotropes: A Glimpse of Their Synthesis, Properties and Some Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salisu Nasir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon in its single entity and various forms has been used in technology and human life for many centuries. Since prehistoric times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal and carbon black have been used as writing and drawing materials. In the past two and a half decades or so, conjugated carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, activated carbon and graphite have been used as energy materials due to their exclusive properties. Due to their outstanding chemical, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties, carbon nanostructures have recently found application in many diverse areas; including drug delivery, electronics, composite materials, sensors, field emission devices, energy storage and conversion, etc. Following the global energy outlook, it is forecasted that the world energy demand will double by 2050. This calls for a new and efficient means to double the energy supply in order to meet the challenges that forge ahead. Carbon nanomaterials are believed to be appropriate and promising (when used as energy materials to cushion the threat. Consequently, the amazing properties of these materials and greatest potentials towards greener and environment friendly synthesis methods and industrial scale production of carbon nanostructured materials is undoubtedly necessary and can therefore be glimpsed as the focal point of many researchers in science and technology in the 21st century. This is based on the incredible future that lies ahead with these smart carbon-based materials. This review is determined to give a synopsis of new advances towards their synthesis, properties, and some applications as reported in the existing literatures.

  16. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  17. Antibacterial properties and toxicity from metallic nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbela GV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gina V Vimbela,1,* Sang M Ngo,2,* Carolyn Fraze,3 Lei Yang,4,5 David A Stout5–7 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, 3Brigham Young University Idaho, Rexburg, ID, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, 5International Research Center for Translational Orthopaedics (IRCTO, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The era of antibiotic resistance is a cause of increasing concern as bacteria continue to develop adaptive countermeasures against current antibiotics at an alarming rate. In recent years, studies have reported nanoparticles as a promising alternative to antibacterial reagents because of their exhibited antibacterial activity in several biomedical applications, including drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, and imaging. Moreover, nanomaterial research has led to reports of a possible relationship between the morphological characteristics of a nanomaterial and the magnitude of its delivered toxicity. However, conventional synthesis of nanoparticles requires harsh chemicals and costly energy consumption. Additionally, the exact relationship between toxicity and morphology of nanomaterials has not been well established. Here, we review the recent advancements in synthesis techniques for silver, gold, copper, titanium, zinc oxide, and magnesium oxide nanomaterials and composites, with a focus on the toxicity exhibited by nanomaterials of multidimensions. This article highlights the benefits of selecting each material or metal-based composite for certain applications while also addressing possible setbacks and the toxic effects of the nanomaterials on the environment. Keywords

  18. Characterization of nanomaterials with transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-08-01

    The field of nanotechnology is about research and development on materials whose at least one dimension is in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. In recent years, the research activity for developing nano-materials has grown exponentially owing to the fact that they offer better solutions to the challenges faced by various fields such as energy, food, and environment. In this paper, the importance of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based techniques is demonstrated for investigating the properties of nano-materials. Specifically the nano-materials that are investigated in this report include gold nano-particles (Au-NPs), silver atom-clusters (Ag-ACs), tantalum single-atoms (Ta-SAs), carbon materials functionalized with iron cobalt (Fe-Co) NPs and titania (TiO2) NPs, and platinum loaded Ceria (Pt-CeO2) Nano composite. TEM techniques that are employed to investigate nano-materials include aberration corrected bright-field TEM (BF-TEM), high-angle dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and BF-TEM electron tomography (ET). With the help presented of results in this report, it is proved herein that as many TEM techniques as available in a given instrument are essential for a comprehensive nano-scale analysis of nanomaterials.

  19. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  20. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M., E-mail: hedwig.braakhuis@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Oomen, Agnes G. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Cassee, Flemming R. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.163, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-05-15

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Currently, efforts are made to increase the knowledge on the characteristics of nanomaterials that can be used to categorise them into hazard groups according to these characteristics. Grouping helps to gather information on nanomaterials in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. Here, we discuss different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation. Since the relation between single intrinsic particle characteristics and the severity of pulmonary inflammation is unknown, grouping of nanomaterials by their intrinsic characteristics alone is not sufficient to predict their risk after inhalation. The biokinetics of nanomaterials should be taken into account as that affects the dose present at a target site over time. The parameters determining the kinetic behaviour are not the same as the hazard-determining parameters. Furthermore, characteristics of nanomaterials change in the life-cycle, resulting in human exposure to different forms and doses of these nanomaterials. As information on the biokinetics and in situ characteristics of nanomaterials is essential but often lacking, efforts should be made to include these in testing strategies. Grouping nanomaterials will probably be of the most value to risk assessors when information on intrinsic characteristics, life-cycle, biokinetics and effects are all combined. - Highlights: • Grouping of nanomaterials helps to gather information in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. • Different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation are

  1. Grouping nanomaterials to predict their potential to induce pulmonary inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braakhuis, Hedwig M.; Oomen, Agnes G.; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly expanding manufacturing, production and use of nanomaterials have raised concerns for both worker and consumer safety. Various studies have been published in which induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanomaterials has been described. Nanomaterials can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate. Currently, efforts are made to increase the knowledge on the characteristics of nanomaterials that can be used to categorise them into hazard groups according to these characteristics. Grouping helps to gather information on nanomaterials in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. Here, we discuss different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation. Since the relation between single intrinsic particle characteristics and the severity of pulmonary inflammation is unknown, grouping of nanomaterials by their intrinsic characteristics alone is not sufficient to predict their risk after inhalation. The biokinetics of nanomaterials should be taken into account as that affects the dose present at a target site over time. The parameters determining the kinetic behaviour are not the same as the hazard-determining parameters. Furthermore, characteristics of nanomaterials change in the life-cycle, resulting in human exposure to different forms and doses of these nanomaterials. As information on the biokinetics and in situ characteristics of nanomaterials is essential but often lacking, efforts should be made to include these in testing strategies. Grouping nanomaterials will probably be of the most value to risk assessors when information on intrinsic characteristics, life-cycle, biokinetics and effects are all combined. - Highlights: • Grouping of nanomaterials helps to gather information in an efficient way with the aim to aid risk assessment. • Different ways of grouping nanomaterials for their risk assessment after inhalation are

  2. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Corazzari, Ingrid; Viola, Franca; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  3. Predictive tests to evaluate oxidative potential of engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiazza, Mara; Carella, Emanuele; Corazzari, Ingrid; Fenoglio, Ivana; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Viola, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress constitutes one of the principal injury mechanisms through which particulate toxicants (asbestos, crystalline silica, hard metals) and engineered nanomaterials can induce adverse health effects. ROS may be generated indirectly by activated cells and/or directly at the surface of the material. The occurrence of these processes depends upon the type of material. Many authors have recently demonstrated that metal oxides and carbon-based nanoparticles may influence (increasing or decreasing) the generation of oxygen radicals in a cell environment. Metal oxide, such as iron oxides, crystalline silica, and titanium dioxide are able to generate free radicals via different mechanisms causing an imbalance within oxidant species. The increase of ROS species may lead to inflammatory responses and in some cases to the development of cancer. On the other hand carbon-based nanomaterials, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black as well as cerium dioxide are able to scavenge the free radicals generated acting as antioxidant. The high numbers of new-engineered nanomaterials, which are introduced in the market, are exponentially increasing. Therefore the definition of toxicological strategies is urgently needed. The development of acellular screening tests will make possible the reduction of the number of in vitro and in vivo tests to be performed. An integrated protocol that may be used to predict the oxidant/antioxidant potential of engineered nanoparticles will be here presented.

  4. Boron Fullerenes: A First-Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Szwacki Nevill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA family of unusually stable boron cages was identified and examined using first-principles local-density functional method. The structure of the fullerenes is similar to that of the B12icosahedron and consists of six crossing double-rings. The energetically most stable fullerene is made up of 180 boron atoms. A connection between the fullerene family and its precursors, boron sheets, is made. We show that the most stable boron sheets are not necessarily precursors of very stable boron cages. Our finding is a step forward in the understanding of the structure of the recently produced boron nanotubes.

  5. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C 20 and C 60 fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H 2 molecule at peak around 4440 cm −1 . However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  6. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  7. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M. Laird; Stroeve, Pieter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There

  8. Factors Governing Intercalation of Fullerenes and Other Small Molecules Between the Side Chains of Semiconducting Polymers Used in Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Nichole Cates; Cho, Eunkyung; Gysel, Roman; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Miller, Chad E.; Sweetnam, Sean; Sellinger, Alan; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Bré das, Jean-Luc; Toney, Michael F.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    bimolecular crystals did not form in the other studied polymer:nonfullerene blends, including those with both conjugated and non-conjugated small molecules. DSC and molecular simulations demonstrate that strong polymer-fullerene interactions can exist

  9. Anode sheath transition in an anodic arc for synthesis of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchinsky, V. A.; Raitses, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The arc discharge with ablating anode or so-called anodic arc is widely used for synthesis of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and fullerens, metal nanoparticles etc. We present the model of this arc, which confirms the existence of the two different modes of the arc operation with two different anode sheath regimes, namely, with negative anode sheath and with positive anode sheath. It was previously suggested that these regimes are associated with two different anode ablating modes—low ablation mode with constant ablation rate and the enhanced ablation mode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322). The transition of the arc operation from low ablation mode to high ablation mode is determined by the current density at the anode. The model can be used to self-consistently determine the distribution of the electric field, electron density and electron temperature in the near-anode region of the arc discharge. Simulations of the carbon arc predict that for low arc ablating modes, the current is driven mainly by the electron diffusion to the anode. For positive anode sheath, the anode voltage is close to the ionization potential of anode material, while for negative anode sheath, the anode voltage is an order of magnitude smaller. It is also shown that the near-anode plasma, is far from the ionization equilibrium.

  10. Anode sheath transition in an anodic arc for synthesis of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Raitses, Y

    2016-01-01

    The arc discharge with ablating anode or so-called anodic arc is widely used for synthesis of nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and fullerens, metal nanoparticles etc. We present the model of this arc, which confirms the existence of the two different modes of the arc operation with two different anode sheath regimes, namely, with negative anode sheath and with positive anode sheath. It was previously suggested that these regimes are associated with two different anode ablating modes—low ablation mode with constant ablation rate and the enhanced ablation mode (Fetterman et al 2008 Carbon 46 1322). The transition of the arc operation from low ablation mode to high ablation mode is determined by the current density at the anode. The model can be used to self-consistently determine the distribution of the electric field, electron density and electron temperature in the near-anode region of the arc discharge. Simulations of the carbon arc predict that for low arc ablating modes, the current is driven mainly by the electron diffusion to the anode. For positive anode sheath, the anode voltage is close to the ionization potential of anode material, while for negative anode sheath, the anode voltage is an order of magnitude smaller. It is also shown that the near-anode plasma, is far from the ionization equilibrium. (paper)

  11. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, P A; Geraci, C L; Hodson, L L; Zumwalde, R D; Kuempel, E D; Murashov, V; Martinez, K F; Heidel, D S

    2013-01-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  12. Overview of Risk Management for Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P. A.; Geraci, C. L.; Hodson, L. L.; Zumwalde, R. D.; Kuempel, E. D.; Murashov, V.; Martinez, K. F.; Heidel, D. S.

    2013-04-01

    Occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is considered a new and challenging occurrence. Preliminary information from laboratory studies indicates that workers exposed to some kinds of ENMs could be at risk of adverse health effects. To protect the nanomaterial workforce, a precautionary risk management approach is warranted and given the newness of ENMs and emergence of nanotechnology, a naturalistic view of risk management is useful. Employers have the primary responsibility for providing a safe and healthy workplace. This is achieved by identifying and managing risks which include recognition of hazards, assessing exposures, characterizing actual risk, and implementing measures to control those risks. Following traditional risk management models for nanomaterials is challenging because of uncertainties about the nature of hazards, issues in exposure assessment, questions about appropriate control methods, and lack of occupational exposure limits (OELs) or nano-specific regulations. In the absence of OELs specific for nanomaterials, a precautionary approach has been recommended in many countries. The precautionary approach entails minimizing exposures by using engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE). Generally, risk management utilizes the hierarchy of controls. Ideally, risk management for nanomaterials should be part of an enterprise-wide risk management program or system and this should include both risk control and a medical surveillance program that assesses the frequency of adverse effects among groups of workers exposed to nanomaterials. In some cases, the medical surveillance could include medical screening of individual workers to detect early signs of work-related illnesses. All medical surveillance should be used to assess the effectiveness of risk management; however, medical surveillance should be considered as a second line of defense to ensure that implemented risk management practices are effective.

  13. Th(IV Adsorption onto Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated Fullerene and Carboxylated Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangsuo Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Th(IV onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OHn and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH2n has been investigated. C60(OHn, C60(C(COOH2n and oMWCNTs have been chosen as model phases because of their representative in carbon nano-materials family. Adsorption experiments were performed by batch procedure as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Th(IV was rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process could be described by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Th(IV adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent on ionic strength. Adsorption isotherms were correlated better with the Langmuir model than with the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Th(IV adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. Compared with the adsorption of Th(IV on the same oMWCNTs free of C60(OHn or C60(C(COOH2n, the study of a ternary system showed the inhibition effect of C60(OHn at high concentration on the adsorption of Th(IV in a pH range from neutral to slightly alkaline; whereas the promotion effect of C60(C(COOH2n, even at its low concentration, on Th(IV adsorption was observed in acid medium.

  14. Th(IV) Adsorption onto Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated Fullerene and Carboxylated Fullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Peng; Li, Zhan; Qi, Wei; Lu, Yan; Wu, Wangsuo

    2013-09-17

    The adsorption of Th(IV) onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C 60 (OH) n ) and carboxylated fullerene (C 60 (C(COOH)₂) n ) has been investigated. C 60 (OH) n , C 60 (C(COOH)₂) n and oMWCNTs have been chosen as model phases because of their representative in carbon nano-materials family. Adsorption experiments were performed by batch procedure as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Th(IV) was rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process could be described by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Th(IV) adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent on ionic strength. Adsorption isotherms were correlated better with the Langmuir model than with the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Th(IV) adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. Compared with the adsorption of Th(IV) on the same oMWCNTs free of C 60 (OH) n or C 60 (C(COOH)₂) n , the study of a ternary system showed the inhibition effect of C 60 (OH) n at high concentration on the adsorption of Th(IV) in a pH range from neutral to slightly alkaline; whereas the promotion effect of C 60 (C(COOH)₂) n , even at its low concentration, on Th(IV) adsorption was observed in acid medium.

  15. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  16. Synthesis of nanoparticles and nanomaterials biological approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaeva, Zhypargul

    2017-01-01

    This book covers biological synthesis approaches for nanomaterials and nanoparticles, including introductory material on their structure, phase compositions and morphology, nanomaterials chemical, physical, and biological properties. The chapters of this book describe in sequence the synthesis of various nanoparticles by microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, algae, and actynomycetes; plant and plant extract-based synthesis; and green synthesis methods. Each chapter provides basic knowledge on the synthesis of nanomaterials, defines fundamental terms, and aims to build a solid foundation of knowledge, followed by explanations, examples, visual photographs, schemes, tables and illustrations. Each chapter also contains control questions, problem drills, as well as case studies that clarify theory and the explanations given in the text. This book is ideal for researchers and advanced graduate students in materials engineering, biotechnology, and nanotechnology fields. As a reference book this work is also appropriate ...

  17. Recent progresses in application of fullerenes in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Marko

    2011-08-01

    Cosmetic industry is a fast growing industry with the continuous development of new active ingredients for skin care products. Fullerene C(60) and its derivates have been subject of intensive research in the last few years. Fullerenes display a wide range of different biological activities. Strong antioxidant capacities and effective quenching radical oxygen species (ROS) made fullerenes suitable active compounds in the formulation of skin care products. Published evidence on biological activities of fullerenes relevant for their application in cosmetics use and examples of published patents are presented. Recent trends in the use of fullerenes in topical formulations and patents are reviewed. Future investigations covering application of fullerenes in skin care are discussed.

  18. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  19. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuktarov, Airat R; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  20. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuktarov, Airat R.; Dzhemilev, Usein M.

    2010-09-01

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  1. Diazo compounds in the chemistry of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuktarov, Airat R; Dzhemilev, Usein M [Institute of Petrochemistry and Catalysis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-14

    Experimental and theoretical data on the reactions of different diazo compounds (diazomethane, its derivatives, cyclic diazo compounds and diazocarbonyl compounds) with fullerenes are summarized. The structures and stereochemistry of cycloadducts formed in these reactions are considered.

  2. Characterizing the Polymer:Fullerene Intermolecular Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Sweetnam, Sean; Vandewal, Koen; Cho, Eunkyung; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Salleo, Alberto; Bredas, Jean-Luc; McGehee, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    the polymer and fullerene, there is not a consensus on the nature of these interactions. In this work, we use a combination of Raman spectroscopy, charge transfer state absorption, and density functional theory calculations to show that the intermolecular

  3. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Elroby, Shaaban Ali Kamel; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous

  4. Photophysical properties of fullerenes prepared in an atmosphere of pyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenis, S.; Cooke, S.; Chen, X.; Labes, M.M. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Samples of C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] containing a variety of nitrogen-doped species were prepared by arc vaporization of graphite in the presence of pyrrole. Cage-doped fractions were isolated by column chromatography and characterized by mass spectroscopy, optical absorption, and fluorescence measurements. Mass spectra were consistent with the substitution of an even number of carbon atoms of the C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] cages by nitrogen atoms. Carbonaceous clusters including fragmented fullerenes containing hydrogen atoms were also formed. UV-visible spectral analysis indicated that there is an influence of the molecular weight on the fundamental [pi]-[pi]* electronic transition. Fluorescence spectra showed a broad band containing vibrational fine structure that is attributed to photoseparated charges in the fragmented fullerenes and a shoulder on the low-energy side that is related to intrinsic excitation in the nitrogen-doped species. Fluorescence results imply a bandgap of 2.36 eV for the N doped fullerenes and the existence of intermediate excitonic transitions below the optical bandgap. Although it has not yet been possible to isolate a pure cage-doped material, the photophysical studies add credence to their existence and the importance of further attempts at their isolation. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Adsorption of amino acids by fullerenes and fullerene nanowhiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Hideo; Hirata, Chika; Fujii, Kazuko; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of some amino acids and an oligopeptide by fullerene (C60) and fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs). C60 and FNWs hardly adsorbed amino acids. Most of the amino acids used have a hydrophobic side chain. Ala and Val, with an alkyl chain, were not adsorbed by the C60 or FNWs. Trp, Phe and Pro, with a cyclic structure, were not adsorbed by them either. The aromatic group of C60 did not interact with the side chain. The carboxyl or amino group, with the frame structure of an amino acid, has a positive or negative charge in solution. It is likely that the C60 and FNWs would not prefer the charged carboxyl or amino group. Tri-Ala was adsorbed slightly by the C60 and FNWs. The carboxyl or amino group is not close to the center of the methyl group of Tri-Ala. One of the methyl groups in Tri-Ala would interact with the aromatic structure of the C60 and FNWs. We compared our results with the theoretical interaction of 20 bio-amino acids with C60. The theoretical simulations showed the bonding distance between C60 and an amino acid and the dissociation energy. The dissociation energy was shown to increase in the order, Val changed a little by C60. In our study Try and Tyr were hardly adsorbed by C60 and FNWs. These amino acids did not show a different adsorption behavior compared with other amino acids. The adsorptive behavior of mono-amino acids might be different from that of polypeptides.

  6. Adsorption of amino acids by fullerenes and fullerene nanowhiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Hideo; Hirata, Chika; Fujii, Kazuko; Miyazawa, Kun’ichi

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of some amino acids and an oligopeptide by fullerene (C 60 ) and fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs). C 60 and FNWs hardly adsorbed amino acids. Most of the amino acids used have a hydrophobic side chain. Ala and Val, with an alkyl chain, were not adsorbed by the C 60 or FNWs. Trp, Phe and Pro, with a cyclic structure, were not adsorbed by them either. The aromatic group of C 60 did not interact with the side chain. The carboxyl or amino group, with the frame structure of an amino acid, has a positive or negative charge in solution. It is likely that the C 60 and FNWs would not prefer the charged carboxyl or amino group. Tri-Ala was adsorbed slightly by the C 60 and FNWs. The carboxyl or amino group is not close to the center of the methyl group of Tri-Ala. One of the methyl groups in Tri-Ala would interact with the aromatic structure of the C 60 and FNWs. We compared our results with the theoretical interaction of 20 bio-amino acids with C 60 . The theoretical simulations showed the bonding distance between C 60 and an amino acid and the dissociation energy. The dissociation energy was shown to increase in the order, Val < Phe < Pro < Asp < Ala < Trp < Tyr < Arg < Leu. However, the simulation was not consistent with our experimental results. The adsorption of albumin (a protein) by C 60 showed the effect on the side chains of Try and Trp. The structure of albumin was changed a little by C 60 . In our study Try and Tyr were hardly adsorbed by C 60 and FNWs. These amino acids did not show a different adsorption behavior compared with other amino acids. The adsorptive behavior of mono-amino acids might be different from that of polypeptides. (paper)

  7. Ability of Fullerene to Accumulate Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenchikov Mikhail A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, using a modification of the LJ-potential and the continuum approach, we define С60-H2 (He potentials, as well as interaction energy of two fullerene particles. The proposed approach allows to calculate interactions between carbon structures of any character (wavy graphenes, nanotubes, etc.. The obtained results allowed to localize global sorption zones both inside the particle and on the outer surface of the fullerene.

  8. Enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Herrera, Melchor; Campos, Myriam; Torres, Luis Alfonso; Rojas, Aarón, E-mail: arojas@cinvestav.mx

    2015-12-20

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes were measured by thermogravimetry. • Results of enthalpies of sublimation are comparable with data reported in literature. • Not previously reported enthalpy of sublimation of C{sub 78} is supplied in this work. • Enthalpies of sublimation show a strong dependence with the number of carbon atoms in the cluster. • Enthalpies of sublimation are congruent with dispersion forces ruling cohesion of solid fullerene. - Abstract: The enthalpies of sublimation of fullerenes, as measured in the interval of 810–1170 K by thermogravimetry and applying the Langmuir equation, are reported. The detailed experimental procedure and its application to fullerenes C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}, C{sub 76}, C{sub 78} and C{sub 84} are supplied. The accuracy and uncertainty associated with the experimental results of the enthalpy of sublimation of these fullerenes show that the reliability of the measurements is comparable to that of other indirect high-temperature methods. The results also indicate that the enthalpy of sublimation increases proportionally to the number of carbon atoms in the cluster but there is also a strong correlation between the enthalpy of sublimation and the polarizability of each fullerene.

  9. Energy Device Applications of Synthesized 1D Polymer Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long-Biao; Xu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    1D polymer nanomaterials as emerging materials, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanopillars, have attracted extensive attention in academia and industry. The distinctive, various, and tunable structures in the nanoscale of 1D polymer nanomaterials present nanointerfaces, high surface-to-volume ratio, and large surface area, which can improve the performance of energy devices. In this review, representative fabrication techniques of 1D polymer nanomaterials are summarized, including electrospinning, template-assisted, template-free, and inductively coupled plasma methods. The recent advancements of 1D polymer nanomaterials in energy device applications are demonstrated. Lastly, existing challenges and prospects of 1D polymer nanomaterials for energy device applications are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cellulosic Nanomaterials in Food and Nutraceutical Applications: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Avik; Wen, Yangbing; Huq, Tanzina; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-01-10

    Cellulosic nanomaterials (CNMs) are organic, green nanomaterials that are obtained from renewable sources and possess exceptional mechanical strength and biocompatibility. The associated unique physical and chemical properties have made these nanomaterials an intriguing prospect for various applications including the food and nutraceutical industry. From the immobilization of various bioactive agents and enzymes, emulsion stabilization, direct food additives, to the development of intelligent packaging systems or pathogen or pH detectors, the potential food related applications for CNMs are endless. Over the past decade, there have been several reviews published covering different aspects of cellulosic nanomaterials, such as processing-structure-property relationship, physical and chemical properties, rheology, extraction, nanocomposites, etc. In this critical review, we have discussed and provided a summary of the recent developments in the utilization of cellulosic nanomaterials in applications related to food and nutraceuticals.

  11. Nanomaterials for membrane fouling control: accomplishments and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Mi, Baoxia

    2013-11-01

    We report a review of recent research efforts on incorporating nanomaterials-including metal/metal oxide nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, and polymeric nanomaterials-into/onto membranes to improve membrane antifouling properties in biomedical or potentially medical-related applications. In general, nanomaterials can be incorporated into/onto a membrane by blending them into membrane fabricating materials or by attaching them to membrane surfaces via physical or chemical approaches. Overall, the fascinating, multifaceted properties (eg, high hydrophilicity, superparamagnetic properties, antibacterial properties, amenable functionality, strong hydration capability) of nanomaterials provide numerous novel strategies and unprecedented opportunities to fully mitigate membrane fouling. However, there are still challenges in achieving a broader adoption of nanomaterials in the membrane processes used for biomedical applications. Most of these challenges arise from the concerns over their long-term antifouling performance, hemocompatibility, and toxicity toward humans. Therefore, rigorous investigation is still needed before the adoption of some of these nanomaterials in biomedical applications, especially for those nanomaterials proposed to be used in the human body or in contact with living tissue/body fluids for a long period of time. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to predict that the service lifetime of membrane-based biomedical devices and implants will be prolonged significantly with the adoption of appropriate fouling control strategies. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials on Plants Growth: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  13. Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in fullerene- oligothiophene-fullerene triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, Paul A. van; Knol, Joop; Langeveld-Voss, Bea M.W.; Meskers, Stefan C.J.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, René A.J.

    2000-01-01

    A series of fullerene-oligothiophene-fullerene (C60-nT-C60) triads with n = 3, 6, or 9 thiophene units has been synthesized, and their photophysical properties have been studied using photoinduced absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in solution and in the solid state as thin films. The results

  14. Characterization of nanomaterials with transmission electron microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-01-01

    -Co) NPs and titania (TiO2) NPs, and platinum loaded Ceria (Pt-CeO2) Nano composite. TEM techniques that are employed to investigate nano-materials include aberration corrected bright-field TEM (BF-TEM), high-angle dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF

  15. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Recent advances in fullerene superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Margadonna, S

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting transition temperatures in bulk chemically intercalated fulleride salts reach 33 K at ambient pressure and in hole-doped C sub 6 sub 0 derivatives in field-effect-transistor (FET) configurations, they reach 117 K. These advances pose important challenges for our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in these highly correlated organic metals. Here we review the structures and properties of intercalated fullerides, paying particular attention to the correlation between superconductivity and interfullerene separation, orientational order/disorder, valence state, orbital degeneracy, low-symmetry distortions, and metal-C sub 6 sub 0 interactions. The metal-insulator transition at large interfullerene separations is discussed in detail. An overview is also given of the exploding field of gate-induced superconductivity of fullerenes in FET electronic devices.

  17. Nanomaterials in glucose sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burugapalli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    The smartness of nano-materials is attributed to their nanoscale and subsequently unique physicochemical properties and their use in glucose sensing has been aimed at improving performance, reducing cost and miniaturizing the sensor and its associated instrumentation. So far, portable (handheld) glucose analysers were introduced for hospital wards, emergency rooms and physicians' offices; single-use strip systems achieved nanolitre sampling for painless and accurate home glucose monitoring; advanced continuous monitoring devices having 2 to 7 days operating life are in clinical and home use; and continued research efforts are being made to develop and introduce increasingly advanced glucose monitoring systems for health as well as food, biotechnology, cell and tissue culture industries. Nanomaterials have touched every aspect of biosensor design and this chapter reviews their role in the development of advanced technologies for glucose sensing, and especially for diabetes. Research shows that overall, nanomat...

  18. Interaction of polyhydroxy fullerenes with ferrihydrite: adsorption and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhu, Runliang; Xu, Tianyuan; Laipan, Mingwang; Zhu, Yanping; Zhou, Qing; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping

    2018-02-01

    The rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with thousands types of nanomaterials being produced, will lead to various environmental impacts. Thus, understanding the behaviors and fate of these nanomaterials is essential. This study focused on the interaction between polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF) and ferrihydrite (Fh), a widespread iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanomineral and geosorbent. Our results showed that PHF were effectively adsorbed by Fh. The adsorption isotherm fitted the D-R model well, with an adsorption capacity of 67.1mg/g. The adsorption mean free energy of 10.72kJ/mol suggested that PHF were chemisorbed on Fh. An increase in the solution pH and a decrease of the Fh surface zeta potential were observed after the adsorption of PHF on Fh; moreover, increasing initial solution pH led to a reduction of adsorption. The Fourier transform infrared spectra detected a red shift of C-O stretching from 1075 to 1062cm -1 and a decrease of Fe-O bending, implying the interaction between PHF oxygenic functional groups and Fh surface hydroxyls. On the other hand, PHF affected the aggregation and reactivity of Fh by changing its surface physicochemical properties. Aggregation of PHF and Fh with individual particle sizes increasing from 2nm to larger than 5nm was measured by atomic force microscopy. The uniform distribution of C and Fe suggested that the aggregates of Fh were possibly bridged by PHF. Our results indicated that the interaction between PHF and Fh could evidently influence the migration of PHF, as well as the aggregation and reactivity of Fh. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The review of patents in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The inventions in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials produce a profound effect in construction, housing and communal services and adjacent economic fields. The invention «The method to produce body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate (RU 2561616» refers to the technologies for production of body of carbon nanotubes on the surface of base plate. The flow of actuation gas is formed in the reaction chamber. The flow contains carrying gas, gas hydrocarbon and predecessor of catalyst for synthesis of carbon nanotubes. In some cases, when implementing invention, the flow of inert gas is directed to the surface of the base plate. This gas flow shades the zone of synthesis of carbon nanotubes from air when its pressure exceeds the pressure of actuation gas flow. The method provides the body of oriented carbon nanotubes on the base plates with big surface: up to several square metres. The invention «Composition of mixture for asphaltic concrete (RU 2561435» refers to the construction production in highway industry and can be applied in manufacture of asphaltic concrete including nanotechnologies. The specialists may be also interested in the following nanotechnological inventions: the method to modify carbon nanomaterials (RU 2548083; nanofiber polymer material (RU 2543377; the method to produce nanosuspensions for manufacture of polymer nanocomposite (RU 2500695; the method to strengthen metal products to obtain nanostructured surface layers (RU 2527511; the method to form heat-resistant nanocomposite coating on the surface of the products made of heat-resistant nickel alloys (RU 2549813; the method to apply nanodiamond material by means of combined electromechanical treatment (RU 2530432; the method to produce soot with content of fullerens and nanotubes made of gas carbon raw material (RU 2531291; the method to produce powders of zinc oxide with surface modification for usage in construction sealing materials (RU

  20. Smart nanomaterials for biomedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonmo; Tripathi, Anuj; Singh, Deepti

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology has become important in various disciplines of technology and science. It has proven to be a potential candidate for various applications ranging from biosensors to the delivery of genes and therapeutic agents to tissue engineering. Scaffolds for every application can be tailor made to have the appropriate physicochemical properties that will influence the in vivo system in the desired way. For highly sensitive and precise detection of specific signals or pathogenic markers, or for sensing the levels of particular analytes, fabricating target-specific nanomaterials can be very useful. Multi-functional nano-devices can be fabricated using different approaches to achieve multi-directional patterning in a scaffold with the ability to alter topographical cues at scale of less than or equal to 100 nm. Smart nanomaterials are made to understand the surrounding environment and act accordingly by either protecting the drug in hostile conditions or releasing the "payload" at the intended intracellular target site. All of this is achieved by exploiting polymers for their functional groups or incorporating conducting materials into a natural biopolymer to obtain a "smart material" that can be used for detection of circulating tumor cells, detection of differences in the body analytes, or repair of damaged tissue by acting as a cell culture scaffold. Nanotechnology has changed the nature of diagnosis and treatment in the biomedical field, and this review aims to bring together the most recent advances in smart nanomaterials.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Application of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In the present report, we give a brief description of the present state, development, and application of nanotechnologies (NT) and nanomaterials (NM) in some key industries, such as chemical industry and power industry (nanocatalysts, and nanocatalysis, hydrogen storage and fuel cells, artificial photosynthesis and Gratzel's cell, energy efficiency, energy storage); fabrication of consolidated nanostructures (ceramic nano-materials, nanostructured coatings, production of low-combustibility plastics, nanostructured hard materials, nanostructures with colossal magnetoresistance); fabrication of ultra-high strength carbon fibres; nano-technologies for environmental protection (adsorption of heavy metals by self-ordered self-organized nano-structure ensembles, photocatalyric purification of liquids, fabrication of mesoporous materials, application of nanoporous polymers for water purification, nanoparticles and environment); medical applications; military applications and fight against terrorism; household applications; energetic and some other [1-7].; In 2010, the European Union and the governments of the USA and Japan each invested over $ 2 billion in nanoscience, which is ample evidence to substantiate the claim that the 21 st century will be the century of nanotechnologies. Some of the optimistic forecasts predict that in 2014 the total revenues from NT will exceed those brought by the information technologies and telecommunications combined. At present, more than 800 companies are involved in R&TD in this field (including giants such as Intel, IBM, Samsung, and Mitsubishi) while more than ten Nobel prizes were awarded for research in nanoscience

  3. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  4. Key physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in view of their toxicity: an exploratory systematic investigation for the example of carbon-based nanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salieri, Beatrice; Pasteris, Andrea; Netkueakul, Woranan; Hischier, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Currently, a noncomprehensive understanding of the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial (CBNs), which may affect toxic effects, is still observable. In this study, an exploratory systematic investigation into the key physicochemical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and C_6_0-fullerene on their ecotoxicity has been undertaken. We undertook an extensive survey of the literature pertaining to the ecotoxicity of organism representative of the trophic level of algae, crustaceans, and fish. Based on this, a set of data reporting both the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial and the observed toxic effect has been established. The relationship between physicochemical properties and observed toxic effect was investigated based on various statistical approaches. Specifically, analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of categorical properties (use of a dispersant or treatments in the test medium, type of carbon-based nanomaterial, i.e., SWCNT, MWCNT, C_6_0-fullerene, functionalization), while multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of quantitative properties (i.e., diameter length of nanotubes, secondary size) on the toxicity values. The here described investigations revealed significant relationships among the physicochemical properties and observed toxic effects. The research was mainly affected by the low availability of data and also by the low variability of the studies collected. Overall, our results demonstrate that the here proposed and applied approach could have a major role in identifying the physicochemical properties of relevance for the toxicity of nanomaterial. However, the future success of the approach would require that the ENMs and the experimental conditions used in the toxicity studies are fully characterized.

  5. Key physicochemical properties of nanomaterials in view of their toxicity: an exploratory systematic investigation for the example of carbon-based nanomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salieri, Beatrice, E-mail: Beatrice.salieri@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab (Switzerland); Pasteris, Andrea [University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences (Italy); Netkueakul, Woranan; Hischier, Roland [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    Currently, a noncomprehensive understanding of the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial (CBNs), which may affect toxic effects, is still observable. In this study, an exploratory systematic investigation into the key physicochemical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), and C{sub 60}-fullerene on their ecotoxicity has been undertaken. We undertook an extensive survey of the literature pertaining to the ecotoxicity of organism representative of the trophic level of algae, crustaceans, and fish. Based on this, a set of data reporting both the physicochemical properties of carbon-based nanomaterial and the observed toxic effect has been established. The relationship between physicochemical properties and observed toxic effect was investigated based on various statistical approaches. Specifically, analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA was used to assess the effect of categorical properties (use of a dispersant or treatments in the test medium, type of carbon-based nanomaterial, i.e., SWCNT, MWCNT, C{sub 60}-fullerene, functionalization), while multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effect of quantitative properties (i.e., diameter length of nanotubes, secondary size) on the toxicity values. The here described investigations revealed significant relationships among the physicochemical properties and observed toxic effects. The research was mainly affected by the low availability of data and also by the low variability of the studies collected. Overall, our results demonstrate that the here proposed and applied approach could have a major role in identifying the physicochemical properties of relevance for the toxicity of nanomaterial. However, the future success of the approach would require that the ENMs and the experimental conditions used in the toxicity studies are fully characterized.

  6. Co-exposure with fullerene may strengthen health effects of organic industrial chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maili Lehto

    Full Text Available In vitro toxicological studies together with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations show that occupational co-exposure with C60 fullerene may strengthen the health effects of organic industrial chemicals. The chemicals studied are acetophenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, m-cresol, and toluene which can be used with fullerene as reagents or solvents in industrial processes. Potential co-exposure scenarios include a fullerene dust and organic chemical vapor, or a fullerene solution aerosolized in workplace air. Unfiltered and filtered mixtures of C60 and organic chemicals represent different co-exposure scenarios in in vitro studies where acute cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of C60 and organic chemicals are tested together and alone by using human THP-1-derived macrophages. Statistically significant co-effects are observed for an unfiltered mixture of benzaldehyde and C60 that is more cytotoxic than benzaldehyde alone, and for a filtered mixture of m-cresol and C60 that is slightly less cytotoxic than m-cresol. Hydrophobicity of chemicals correlates with co-effects when secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α is considered. Complementary atomistic molecular dynamics simulations reveal that C60 co-aggregates with all chemicals in aqueous environment. Stable aggregates have a fullerene-rich core and a chemical-rich surface layer, and while essentially all C60 molecules aggregate together, a portion of organic molecules remains in water.

  7. Non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A.; Li, Haiyan; Earmme, Taeshik; Ren, Guoqiang

    2017-11-07

    Non-fullerene electron acceptors for highly efficient organic photovoltaic devices are described. The non-fullerene electron acceptors have an extended, rigid, .pi.-conjugated electron-deficient framework that can facilitate exciton and charge derealization. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can physically mix with a donor polymer and facilitate improved electron transport. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can be incorporated into organic electronic devices, such as photovoltaic cells.

  8. Impact of humic/fulvic acid on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using nanomaterials: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wang-Wang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Bin-Bin

    2014-01-15

    Nowadays nanomaterials have been widely used to remove heavy metals from water/wastewater due to their large surface area and high reactivity. Humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) exist ubiquitously in aquatic environments and have a variety of functional groups which allow them to complex with metal ions and interact with nanomaterials. These interactions can not only alter the environmental behavior of nanomaterials, but also influence the removal and transportation of heavy metals by nanomaterials. Thus, the interactions and the underlying mechanisms involved warrant specific investigations. This review outlined the effects of HA/FA on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by various nanomaterials, mainly including carbon-based nanomaterials, iron-based nanomaterials and photocatalytic nanomaterials. Moreover, mechanisms involved in the interactions were discussed and potential environmental implications of HA/FA to nanomaterials and heavy metals were evaluated. © 2013.

  9. Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The CFN at Brookhaven National Laboratory focuses on understanding the chemical and physical response of nanomaterials to make functional materials such as sensors,...

  10. Fullerene hydride - A potential hydrogen storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Xing Wang; Jun Ping Zhang; An Guang Yu; Yun Xu Yang; Wu Wei Wang; Rui long Sheng; Jia Zhao

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen, as a clean, convenient, versatile fuel source, is considered to be an ideal energy carrier in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage must be solved in using of hydrogen energy. To date, much effort has been put into storage of hydrogen including physical storage via compression or liquefaction, chemical storage in hydrogen carriers, metal hydrides and gas-on-solid adsorption. But no one satisfies all of the efficiency, size, weight, cost and safety requirements for transportation or utility use. C 60 H 36 , firstly synthesized by the method of the Birch reduction, was loaded with 4.8 wt% hydrogen indicating [60]fullerene might be as a potential hydrogen storage material. If a 100% conversion of C 60 H 36 is achieved, 18 moles of H 2 gas would be liberated from each mole of fullerene hydride. Pure C 60 H 36 is very stable below 500 C under nitrogen atmosphere and it releases hydrogen accompanying by other hydrocarbons under high temperature. But C 60 H 36 can be decomposed to generate H 2 under effective catalyst. We have reported that hydrogen can be produced catalytically from C 60 H 36 by Vasks's compound (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) under mild conditions. (RhCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ) having similar structure to (IrCl(CO)(PPh 3 ) 2 ), was also examined for thermal dehydrogenation of C 60 H 36 ; but it showed low catalytic activity. To search better catalyst, palladium carbon (Pd/C) and platinum carbon (Pt/C) catalysts, which were known for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds, were tried and good results were obtained. A very big peak of hydrogen appeared at δ=5.2 ppm in 1 H NMR spectrum based on Evans'work (fig 1) at 100 C over a Pd/C catalyst for 16 hours. It is shown that hydrogen can be produced from C 60 H 36 using a catalytic amount of Pd/C. Comparing with Pd/C, Pt/C catalyst showed lower activity. The high cost and limited availability of Vaska's compounds, Pd and Pt make it advantageous to develop less expensive catalysts for our process based on

  11. Biomedical nanomaterials from design to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical Nanomaterials brings together the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare in a single source. Each chapter covers important and new information in the biomedical applications of nanomaterials.

  12. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  13. Comparative assessment of nanomaterial definitions and safety evaluation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Bramante, Christina M; Butala, John H; Clancy, Shaun F; Lafranconi, Mark; West, Jay; Gordon, Steve C

    2015-10-01

    Nanomaterials continue to bring promising advances to science and technology. In concert have come calls for increased regulatory oversight to ensure their appropriate identification and evaluation, which has led to extensive discussions about nanomaterial definitions. Numerous nanomaterial definitions have been proposed by government, industry, and standards organizations. We conducted a comprehensive comparative assessment of existing nanomaterial definitions put forward by governments to highlight their similarities and differences. We found that the size limits used in different definitions were inconsistent, as were considerations of other elements, including agglomerates and aggregates, distributional thresholds, novel properties, and solubility. Other important differences included consideration of number size distributions versus weight distributions and natural versus intentionally-manufactured materials. Overall, the definitions we compared were not in alignment, which may lead to inconsistent identification and evaluation of nanomaterials and could have adverse impacts on commerce and public perceptions of nanotechnology. We recommend a set of considerations that future discussions of nanomaterial definitions should consider for describing materials and assessing their potential for health and environmental impacts using risk-based approaches within existing assessment frameworks. Our intent is to initiate a dialogue aimed at achieving greater clarity in identifying those nanomaterials that may require additional evaluation, not to propose a formal definition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. INFRARED STUDY OF FULLERENE PLANETARY NEBULAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Manchado, A.; Villaver, E.; García-Lario, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Shaw, R. A.; Cataldo, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) where fullerenes have been detected in their Spitzer Space Telescope spectra. This large sample of objects offers a unique opportunity to test conditions of fullerene formation and survival under different metallicity environments because we are analyzing five sources in our own Galaxy, four in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and seven in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Among the 16 PNe studied, we present the first detection of C 60 (and possibly also C 70 ) fullerenes in the PN M 1–60 as well as of the unusual ∼6.6, 9.8, and 20 μm features (attributed to possible planar C 24 ) in the PN K 3–54. Although selection effects in the original samples of PNe observed with Spitzer may play a potentially significant role in the statistics, we find that the detection rate of fullerenes in C-rich PNe increases with decreasing metallicity (∼5% in the Galaxy, ∼20% in the LMC, and ∼44% in the SMC) and we interpret this as a possible consequence of the limited dust processing occurring in Magellanic Cloud (MC) PNe. CLOUDY photoionization modeling matches the observed IR fluxes with central stars that display a rather narrow range in effective temperature (∼30,000-45,000 K), suggesting a common evolutionary status of the objects and similar fullerene formation conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest that fullerene PNe likely evolve from low-mass progenitors and are usually of low excitation. We do not find a metallicity dependence on the estimated fullerene abundances. The observed C 60 intensity ratios in the Galactic sources confirm our previous finding in the MCs that the fullerene emission is not excited by the UV radiation from the central star. CLOUDY models also show that line- and wind-blanketed model atmospheres can explain many of the observed [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios using photoionization, suggesting that possibly the UV radiation from the central star, and not shocks, is triggering the decomposition

  15. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their application to environmental remediation. While research has devoted to develop nanotechnology for environm...

  16. Naming polyhedra by general face-spirals - theory and applications to fullerenes and other polyhedral molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Lukas; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Avery, James Emil

    2018-01-01

    We present a general face-spiral algorithm for cubic polyhedral graphs (including fullerenes and fulleroids), and extend it to the full class of all polyhedral graphs by way of the leapfrog transform. This yields compact canonical representations of polyhedra with a simple and intuitive geometrical...... polyhedral molecules, and an especially compact form for the special class of fullerenes. A unique numbering of vertices is obtained as a byproduct of the spiral algorithm. This is required to denote modifications of the parent cage in IUPAC naming schemes. Similarly, the symmetry group of the molecule can...... be found together with the canonical general spiral at negligible cost. The algorithm is fully compatible with the classical spiral algorithm developed by Manolopoulos for fullerenes, i. e., classical spirals are accepted as input, and spiralable graphs lead to identical output. We prove that the algorithm...

  17. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  18. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nanomaterials for Craniofacial and Dental Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Zhou, T; Lin, S; Shi, S; Lin, Y

    2017-07-01

    Tissue engineering shows great potential as a future treatment for the craniofacial and dental defects caused by trauma, tumor, and other diseases. Due to the biomimetic features and excellent physiochemical properties, nanomaterials are of vital importance in promoting cell growth and stimulating tissue regeneration in tissue engineering. For craniofacial and dental tissue engineering, the frequently used nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanotubes, and nanosheets. Nanofibers are attractive for cell invasion and proliferation because of their resemblance to extracellular matrix and the presence of large pores, and they have been used as scaffolds in bone, cartilage, and tooth regeneration. Nanotubes and nanoparticles improve the mechanical and chemical properties of scaffold, increase cell attachment and migration, and facilitate tissue regeneration. In addition, nanofibers and nanoparticles are also used as a delivery system to carry the bioactive agent in bone and tooth regeneration, have better control of the release speed of agent upon degradation of the matrix, and promote tissue regeneration. Although applications of nanomaterials in tissue engineering remain in their infancy with numerous challenges to face, the current results indicate that nanomaterials have massive potential in craniofacial and dental tissue engineering.

  20. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  1. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial

  2. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Heidel, Donna [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States); Sayes, Christie [Baylor University (United States); Hodson, Laura, E-mail: lhodson@cdc.gov; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Brenner, Sara [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly) (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  3. Silicon nanomaterials platform for bioimaging, biosensing, and cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fei; Su, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Yiling; Fan, Chunhai; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-02-18

    Silicon nanomaterials are an important class of nanomaterials with great potential for technologies including energy, catalysis, and biotechnology, because of their many unique properties, including biocompatibility, abundance, and unique electronic, optical, and mechanical properties, among others. Silicon nanomaterials are known to have little or no toxicity due to favorable biocompatibility of silicon, which is an important precondition for biological and biomedical applications. In addition, huge surface-to-volume ratios of silicon nanomaterials are responsible for their unique optical, mechanical, or electronic properties, which offer exciting opportunities for design of high-performance silicon-based functional nanoprobes, nanosensors, and nanoagents for biological analysis and detection and disease treatment. Moreover, silicon is the second most abundant element (after oxygen) on earth, providing plentiful and inexpensive resources for large-scale and low-cost preparation of silicon nanomaterials for practical applications. Because of these attractive traits, and in parallel with a growing interest in their design and synthesis, silicon nanomaterials are extensively investigated for wide-ranging applications, including energy, catalysis, optoelectronics, and biology. Among them, bioapplications of silicon nanomaterials are of particular interest. In the past decade, scientists have made an extensive effort to construct a silicon nanomaterials platform for various biological and biomedical applications, such as biosensors, bioimaging, and cancer treatment, as new and powerful tools for disease diagnosis and therapy. Nonetheless, there are few review articles covering these important and promising achievements to promote the awareness of development of silicon nanobiotechnology. In this Account, we summarize recent representative works to highlight the recent developments of silicon functional nanomaterials for a new, powerful platform for biological and

  4. Graphene macro-assembly-fullerene composite for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Merrill, Matthew; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Worsley, Marcus A.; Biener, Monika M.; Hernandez, Maira Raquel Ceron

    2018-01-16

    Disclosed here is a method for producing a graphene macro-assembly (GMA)-fullerene composite, comprising providing a GMA comprising a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and incorporating at least 20 wt. % of at least one fullerene compound into the GMA based on the initial weight of the GMA to obtain a GMA-fullerene composite. Also described are a GMA-fullerene composite produced, an electrode comprising the GMA-fullerene composite, and a supercapacitor comprising the electrode and optionally an organic or ionic liquid electrolyte in contact with the electrode.

  5. C{sub 60} fullerene decoration of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, V. A., E-mail: victordemin88@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation); Blank, V. D.; Karaeva, A. R.; Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Mordkovich, V. Z. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Parkhomenko, Yu. N. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Perezhogin, I. A.; Popov, M. Yu. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Skryleva, E. A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Urvanov, S. A. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials (Russian Federation); Chernozatonskii, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new fully carbon nanocomposite material is synthesized by the immersion of carbon nanotubes in a fullerene solution in carbon disulfide. The presence of a dense layer of fullerene molecules on the outer nanotube surface is demonstrated by TEM and XPS. Fullerenes are redistributed on the nanotube surface during a long-term action of an electron beam, which points to the existence of a molecular bond between a nanotube and fullerenes. Theoretical calculations show that the formation of a fullerene shell begins with the attachment of one C{sub 60} molecule to a defect on the nanotube surface.

  6. Nanomaterials for Electronics and Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes(CNTs), graphene, and inorganic nanowires(INWs) have shown interesting electronic, mechanical, optical, thermal, and other properties and therefore have been pursued for a variety of applications by the nanotechnology community ranging from electronics to nanocomposites. While the first two are carbon-based materials, the INWs in the literature include silicon, germanium, III-V, II-VI, a variety of oxides, nitrides, antimonides and others. In this talk, first an overview of growth of these three classes of materials by CVD and PECVD will be presented along with results from characterization. Then applications in development of chemical sensors, biosensors, energy storage devices and novel memory architectures will be discussed.

  7. Granular biodurable nanomaterials: No convincing evidence for systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Horn, Marcus; Gebel, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterials are usually defined by primary particle diameters ranging from 1 to 100 nm. The scope of this review is an evaluation of experimental animal studies dealing with the systemic levels and putative systemic effects induced by nanoparticles which can be characterized as being granular biodurable particles without known specific toxicity (GBP). Relevant examples of such materials comprise nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and carbon black. The question was raised whether GBP nanomaterials systemically accumulate and may possess a relevant systemic toxicity. With few exceptions, the 56 publications reviewed were not performed using established standard protocols, for example, OECD guidelines but used non-standard study designs. The studies including kinetic investigations indicated that GBP nanomaterials were absorbed and systemically distributed to rather low portions only. There was no valid indication that GPB nanomaterials possess novel toxicological hazard properties. In addition, no convincing evidence for a relevant specific systemic toxicity of GBP nanomaterials could be identified. The minority of the papers reviewed (15/56) investigated both nanosized and microsized GBP materials in parallel. A relevant different translocation of GBP nanomaterials in contrast to GBP micromaterials was not observed in these studies. There was no evidence that GPB nanomaterials possess toxicological properties other than their micromaterial counterparts.

  8. Selenium and tellurium nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Elena; Presentato, Alessandro; Zonaro, Emanuele; Lampis, Silvia; Vallini, Giovanni; Turner, Raymond J.

    2018-04-01

    Over the last 40 years, the rapid and exponential growth of nanotechnology led to the development of various synthesis methodologies to generate nanomaterials different in size, shape and composition to be applied in various fields. In particular, nanostructures composed of Selenium (Se) or Tellurium (Te) have attracted increasing interest, due to their intermediate nature between metallic and non-metallic elements, being defined as metalloids. Indeed, this key shared feature of Se and Te allows us the use of their compounds in a variety of applications fields, such as for manufacturing photocells, photographic exposure meters, piezoelectric devices, and thermoelectric materials, to name a few. Considering also that the chemical-physical properties of elements result to be much more emphasized when they are assembled at the nanoscale range, huge efforts have been made to develop highly effective synthesis methods to generate Se- or Te-nanomaterials. In this context, the present book chapter will explore the most used chemical and/or physical methods exploited to generate different morphologies of metalloid-nanostructures, focusing also the attention on the major advantages, drawbacks as well as the safety related to these synthetic procedures.

  9. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  10. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  11. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zope, Rajendra R., E-mail: rzope@utep.edu; Baruah, Tunna [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79958 (United States); Computational Science Program, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79958 (United States); Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79958 (United States); Jackson, Koblar [Physics Department and Science of Advanced Materials Ph.D. Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C{sub 60}@C{sub 240} and C{sub 60}@C{sub 180} onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C{sub 60} fullerene, the encapsulation of the C{sub 60} in C{sub 240} and C{sub 180} fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C{sub 60} in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability.

  12. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zope, Rajendra R.; Baruah, Tunna; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C 60 @C 240 and C 60 @C 180 onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C 60 fullerene, the encapsulation of the C 60 in C 240 and C 180 fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C 60 in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability

  13. Site specific atomic polarizabilities in endohedral fullerenes and carbon onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Rajendra R.; Bhusal, Shusil; Basurto, Luis; Baruah, Tunna; Jackson, Koblar

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the polarizability of trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes by partitioning the total polarizability into site specific components. This analysis indicates that the polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is essentially due to the outer fullerene cage and has insignificant contribution from the encapsulated unit. Thus, the outer fullerene cages effectively shield the encapsulated clusters and behave like Faraday cages. The polarizability of endohedral fullerenes is slightly smaller than the polarizability of the corresponding bare carbon fullerenes. The application of the site specific polarizabilities to C60@C240 and C60@C180 onions shows that, compared to the polarizability of isolated C60 fullerene, the encapsulation of the C60 in C240 and C180 fullerenes reduces its polarizability by 75% and 83%, respectively. The differences in the polarizability of C60 in the two onions is a result of differences in the bonding (intershell electron transfer), fullerene shell relaxations, and intershell separations. The site specific analysis further shows that the outer atoms in a fullerene shell contribute most to the fullerene polarizability.

  14. All-Fullerene-Based Cells for Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Jochen; Lebedeva, Maria A; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Stimming, Ulrich; Chamberlain, Thomas W

    2018-01-10

    Redox flow batteries have the potential to revolutionize our use of intermittent sustainable energy sources such as solar and wind power by storing the energy in liquid electrolytes. Our concept study utilizes a novel electrolyte system, exploiting derivatized fullerenes as both anolyte and catholyte species in a series of battery cells, including a symmetric, single species system which alleviates the common problem of membrane crossover. The prototype multielectron system, utilizing molecular based charge carriers, made from inexpensive, abundant, and sustainable materials, principally, C and Fe, demonstrates remarkable current and energy densities and promising long-term cycling stability.

  15. Laser controlled magnetism in hydrogenated fullerene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, Tatiana L.; Shelankov, Andrei L.; Kvyatkovskii, Oleg E.; Zakharova, Irina B.; Buga, Sergei G.; Volkov, Aleksandr P.

    2011-01-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior in fullerene photopolymerized films treated with monatomic hydrogen is reported. The hydrogen treatment controllably varies the paramagnetic spin concentration and laser induced polymerization transforms the paramagnetic phase to a ferromagnetic-like one. Excess laser irradiation destroys magnetic ordering, presumably due to structural changes, which was continuously monitored by Raman spectroscopy. We suggest an interpretation of the data based on first-principles density-functional spin-unrestricted calculations which show that the excess spin from mono-atomic hydrogen is delocalized within the host fullerene and the laser-induced polymerization promotes spin exchange interaction and spin alignment in the polymerized phase.

  16. Nanomaterials application in electrochemical detection of heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragay, Gemma; Merkoçi, Arben

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review the recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. ► Different types of nanomaterials including metal nanoparticles, different carbon nanomaterials or nanochannels have been applied on the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in various sensing formats/configurations. ► The great properties of nanomaterials allow the new devices to show advantages in terms of sensing performance (i.e. increase the sensitivity, decrease the detection limits and improve the stability). ► Between the various electrochemical techniques, voltammetric and potentiometric based ones are particularly taking interesting advantages by the incorporation of new nanomaterials due to the improved electrocatalytic properties beside the increase of the sensor's transducing area. - Abstract: Recent trends in the application of nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of heavy metals are shown. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanochannels, graphene, etc. have been explored either as modifiers of electrodes or as new electrode materials with interest to be applied in electrochemical stripping analysis, ion-selective detection, field-effect transistors or other indirect heavy metals (bio)detection alternatives. The developed devices have shown increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits between other improvements of analytical performance data. The phenomena behind nanomaterials responses are also discussed and some typical responses data of the developed systems either in standard solutions or in real samples are given. The developed nanomaterials based electrochemical systems are giving new inputs to the existing devices or leading to the development of novel heavy metal detection tools with interest for applications in field such as diagnostics, environmental and safety and security controls or other industries.

  17. Plasma processing of nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaran, R Mohan

    2014-01-01

    CRC Press author R. Mohan Sankaran is the winner of the 2011 Peter Mark Memorial Award "… for the development of a tandem plasma synthesis method to grow carbon nanotubes with unprecedented control over the nanotube properties and chirality." -2011 AVS Awards Committee"Readers who want to learn about how nanomaterials are processed, using the most recent methods, will benefit greatly from this book. It contains very recent technical details on plasma processing and synthesis methods used by current researchers developing new nano-based materials, with all the major plasma-based processing techniques used today being thoroughly discussed."-John J. Shea, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, May/June 2013, Vol. 29, No. 3.

  18. Environmental effects of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Brinch, Anna

    This report presents ecotoxicological data and Predicted No-Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for nine selected nanomaterials which are considered to be environmentally relevant due to high usage or how they are used. These data will together with data from other reports/projects be used in an overall...... assessment of the environmental risk of nanomaterials in Denmark. The nine investigated nanomaterials are: Titanium Dioxide, Zinc Oxide, Silver, Carbon Nanotubes, Copper Oxide, Nano Zero Valent Iron, Cerium Dioxide, Quantum Dots and Carbon Black. To support the assessment of the data found in the peer...

  19. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  20. Environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials: Review of modeling and analytical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, TianYin; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO 2 , ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO 2 ) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target. -- Highlights: •Modeled environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed. •Measured environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed. •Possible validation of modeled data by measurements is critically evaluated. •Different approaches in modeling and measurement methods complicate validation. -- Modeled and measured environmental concentrations of engineered nanomaterials are reviewed and critically discussed

  1. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  2. Electronic stopping in ion-fullerene collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlathölter, T.A.; Hadjar, O.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.

    The electronic friction experienced by a multiply charged ion interacting with the valence electrons of a single fullerene is an important aspect of the collision dynamics. It manifests itself in a considerable loss of projectile kinetic energy transferred to the target, resulting in excitation. The

  3. Polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, RAJ; Hummelen, JC; Saricifti, NS

    Nanostructured phase-separated blends, or bulk heterojunctions, of conjugated Polymers and fullerene derivatives form a very attractive approach to large-area, solid-state organic solar cells.The key feature of these cells is that they combine easy, processing from solution on a variety of

  4. Fullerenes and nanostructured plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Hummelen, Jan C.; Kuzmany, H; Fink, J; Mehring, M; Roth, S

    1998-01-01

    We report on the present on the present status of the plastic solar cell and on the design of fullerene derivatives and pi-conjugated donor molecules that can function as acceptor-donor pairs and (supra-) molecular building blocks in organized, nanostructured interpenetrating networks, forming a

  5. Study of the Si fullerene cage isomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, Z.G.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Menon, M.; Fowler, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the structural and electronic properties of the Si38 fullerene isomers, which are constructed by making all possible permutations among their pentagons and hexagons. These structures were firstly fully optimized with a tight binding molecular dynamics method and

  6. Thiamakrocykly pro komplexaci fullerenů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holý, Petr; Buchta, Michal; Rybáček, Jiří; Závada, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 9 (2009), s. 186-187 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /61./. 07.09.2009-11.09.2009, Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : makrocycles * alkylation * fullerene s Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Spectroscopy on Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakonov, V.; Riedel, I.; Godovsky, D.; Parisi, J.; Ceuster, J. De; Goovaerts, E.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the electrical transport properties of ITO/conjugated polymer-fullerene/Al photovoltaic cells and the role of defect states with current-voltage studies, admittance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance technique. In the temperature range 293-40K, the characteristic step in the

  8. Fullerenes and fulleranes in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Three decades of search have recently led to convincing discoveries of cosmic fullerenes. The presence of C_6_0 and C"+ _6_0 in both circumstellar and interstellar environments suggests that these molecules and their derivatives can be efficiently formed in circumstellar envelopes and survive in harsh conditions. Detailed analysis of the infrared bands from fullerenes and their connections with the local properties can provide valuable information on the physical conditions and chemical processes that occurred in the late stages of stellar evolution. The identification of C"+ _6_0 as the carrier of four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) suggests that fullerene- related compounds are abundant in interstellar space and are essential for resolving the DIB mystery. Experiments have revealed a high hydrogenation rate when C_6_0 is exposed to atomic hydrogen, motivating the attempt to search for cosmic fulleranes. In this paper, we present a short review of current knowledge of cosmic fullerenes and fulleranes and briefly discuss the implications on circumstellar chemistry. (paper)

  9. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  10. Fullerenes, PAHs, Amino Acids and High Energy Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iglesias-Groth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present theoretical, observational and laboratory work on the spectral properties of fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes. Fullerenes in its various forms (individual, endohedral, hydrogenated, etc. can contribute to the UV bump in the extinction curves measured in many lines of sight of the Galaxy. They can also produce a large number of absorption features in the optical and near infrared which could be associated with diffuse interstellar bands. We summarise recent laboratory work on the spectral characterisation of fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes (for a range of temperatures. The recent detection of mid-IR bands of fullerenes in various astrophysical environments (planetary nebulae, reflection nebulae provide additional evidence for a link between fullerene families and diffuse interstellar bands. We describe recent observational work on near IR bands of C60+ in a protoplanetary nebula which support fullerene formation during the post-AGB phase. We also report on the survival of fullerenes to irradiation by high energy particles and gamma photons and laboratory work to explore the chemical  reactions that take place when fullerenes are exposed to this radiations in the presence of water, ammonia and other molecules as a potential path to form amino acids.

  11. Nanomaterials in consumer's goods: the problems of risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials are currently used in wide variety of cosmetic products, while their use in food industry, packaging materials, household chemicals etc. still includes a limited number of items and does not show a significant upward trend. However, the problem of priority nanomaterials associated risks is relevant due to their high production volumes and an constantly growing burden on the environment and population. In accordance with the frequency of use in mass-produced consumer goods, leading priority nanomaterials are silver nanoparticles (NPs) and (by a wide margin) NPs of gold, platinum, and titanium dioxide. Frequency of nanosized silica introduction into food products as a food additive, at the moment, seems to be underestimated, since the use of this nanomaterial is not declared by manufacturers of products and objective control of its content is difficult. Analysis of literature data on toxicological properties of nanomaterials shows that currently accumulated amount of information is sufficient to establish the safe doses of nanosized silver, gold and titanium dioxide. Data have been provided in a series of studies concerning the effect of oral intake of nanosized silica on the condition of laboratory animals, including on the performance of the immune system. The article examines the existing approaches to the assessment of population exposure to priority nanomaterials, characteristics of existing problems and risk management.

  12. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  13. Optical Properties of Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    owner

    K. George Thomas. Photosciences & Photonics Group. National Institute for Interdisciplinary. Science and Technology (NIIST), CSIR,. Trivandrum- 695 019, INDIA. (kgt@vsnl.com). Optical Properties of Hybrid. Nanomaterials ...

  14. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  15. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.

  16. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  17. Nanomaterials for In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan Ronain; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2017-02-08

    In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design. Indeed, for several imaging modalities, nanomaterials are now not simply ancillary contrast entities, but are instead the original and sole source of image signal that make possible the modality's existence. We address the physicochemical makeup/design of nanomaterials through the lens of the physical properties that produce contrast signal for the cognate imaging modality-we stratify nanomaterials on the basis of their (i) magnetic, (ii) optical, (iii) acoustic, and/or (iv) nuclear properties. We evaluate them for their ability to provide relevant information under preclinical and clinical circumstances, their in vivo safety profiles (which are being incorporated into their chemical design), their modularity in being fused to create multimodal nanomaterials (spanning multiple different physical imaging modalities and therapeutic/theranostic capabilities), their key properties, and critically their likelihood to be clinically translated.

  18. Memory operation mechanism of fullerene-containing polymer memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Anri, E-mail: anakajima@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Daiki [Research Institute for Nanodevice and Bio Systems, Hiroshima University, 1-4-2 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2015-03-09

    The memory operation mechanism in fullerene-containing nanocomposite gate insulators was investigated while varying the kind of fullerene in a polymer gate insulator. It was cleared what kind of traps and which positions in the nanocomposite the injected electrons or holes are stored in. The reason for the difference in the easiness of programming was clarified taking the role of the charging energy of an injected electron into account. The dependence of the carrier dynamics on the kind of fullerene molecule was investigated. A nonuniform distribution of injected carriers occurred after application of a large magnitude programming voltage due to the width distribution of the polystyrene barrier between adjacent fullerene molecules. Through the investigations, we demonstrated a nanocomposite gate with fullerene molecules having excellent retention characteristics and a programming capability. This will lead to the realization of practical organic memories with fullerene-containing polymer nanocomposites.

  19. [International trend of guidance for nanomaterial risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, several kinds of opinions or recommendations on the nanomaterial safety assessment have been published from international or national bodies. Among the reports, the first practical guidance of risk assessment from the regulatory body was published from the European Food Safety Authorities in May 2011, which included the determination of exposure scenario and toxicity testing strategy. In October 2011, European Commission (EC) adopted the definition of "nanomaterial" for regulation. And more recently, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety of EC released guidance for assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics in June 2012. A series of activities in EU marks an important step towards realistic safety assessment of nanomaterials. On the other hand, the US FDA announced a draft guidance for industry in June 2011, and then published draft guidance documents for both "Cosmetic Products" and "Food Ingredients and Food Contact Substances" in April 2012. These draft documents do not restrictedly define the physical properties of nanomaterials, but when manufacturing changes alter the dimensions, properties, or effects of an FDA-regulated product, the products are treated as new products. Such international movements indicate that most of nanomaterials with any new properties would be assessed or regulated as new products by most of national authorities in near future, although the approaches are still case by case basis. We will introduce such current international activities and consideration points for regulatory risk assessment.

  20. Potential Application of Nanomaterials to treat and detect the contaminated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    An ecosystem is very immense to maintain global environmental balance but an imbalance of water alters the function of ecosystems that affects all life on our planet Earth. The destruction of agricultural land, lakes, ponds, rivers, and oceans locally and globally creates environmental imbalances so that catastrophically damage to be appeared widely. The water cycle continually circulates evaporated water into the atmosphere and returns it as precipitation in balance form. If variety of toxins, heavy metals, oils and agricultural chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, all get absorbed into soil and groundwater. Then an imbalance appeared for example runoff carries these pollutants into lakes, rivers and oceanic water, as a result, all forms of water evaporated as part of the water cycle and return to the earth as acid rain, which causes worldwide environmental imbalances by killing our ecosystems. Deforestation, urbanization, and industrialization create environmental imbalances in many ways. Soil erosion in the form of dust from wind causes human infectious diseases, including anthrax and tuberculosis. An environmental imbalance occurs due to greenhouse gases, which accumulate in the atmosphere and trap excessive amounts of heat causes global warming, that is purportedly responsible for environmental disasters such as, rising sea levels, floods and the melting of polar ice caps. Our problem is "all talk, no action" and "jack of all trades, master of none". Our efforts in this hot topic are to make balance of water rather than imbalance of water by using positive potential of naomaterials utility and applications to eliminate toxicants/pollutants/adulterants/carcinogens from all forms of imbalance water to save our local and global ecosystems as a balance and healthy wealthy. Several natural, engineered, and non-engineered nanomaterials have strong antimicrobial properties (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, AgNPs, CNTs, fullerene, graphene), used as antimicrobial agents as

  1. Improved spectrophotometric analysis of fullerenes C60 and C70 in high-solubility organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törpe, Alexander; Belton, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Fullerenes are among a number of recently discovered carbon allotropes that exhibit unique and versatile properties. The analysis of these materials is of great importance and interest. We present previously unreported spectroscopic data for C60 and C70 fullerenes in high-solubility solvents, including error bounds, so as to allow reliable colorimetric analysis of these materials. The Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is found to be valid at all wavelengths. The measured data were highly reproducible, and yielded high-precision molar absorbance coefficients for C60 and C70 in o-xylene and o-dichlorobenzene, which both exhibit a high solubility for these fullerenes, and offer the prospect of improved extraction efficiency. A photometric method for a C60/C70 mixture analysis was validated with standard mixtures, and subsequently improved for real samples by correcting for light scattering, using a power-law fit. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of C60/C70 mixtures extracted from fullerene soot.

  2. Optoelectronic Properties of Van Der Waals Hybrid Structures: Fullerenes on Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Julián David; Orellana, Pedro Alejandro; Pacheco, Mónica

    2017-03-20

    The search for new optical materials capable of absorbing light in the frequency range from visible to near infrared is of great importance for applications in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of hybrid structures composed of fullerenes adsorbed on graphene and on graphene nanoribbons. The calculations are performed in the framework of the density functional theory including the van der Waals dispersive interactions. We found that the adsorption of the C 60 fullerenes on a graphene layer does not modify its low energy states, but it has strong consequences for its optical spectrum, introducing new absorption peaks in the visible energy region. The optical absorption of fullerenes and graphene nanoribbon composites shows a strong dependence on photon polarization and geometrical characteristics of the hybrid systems, covering a broad range of energies. We show that an external electric field across the nanoribbon edges can be used to tune different optical transitions coming from nanoribbon-fullerene hybridized states, which yields a very rich electro-absorption spectrum for longitudinally polarized photons. We have carried out a qualitative analysis on the potential of these hybrids as possible donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic cells.

  3. Optoelectronic Properties of Van Der Waals Hybrid Structures: Fullerenes on Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián David Correa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for new optical materials capable of absorbing light in the frequency range from visible to near infrared is of great importance for applications in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of hybrid structures composed of fullerenes adsorbed on graphene and on graphene nanoribbons. The calculations are performed in the framework of the density functional theory including the van der Waals dispersive interactions. We found that the adsorption of the C 60 fullerenes on a graphene layer does not modify its low energy states, but it has strong consequences for its optical spectrum, introducing new absorption peaks in the visible energy region. The optical absorption of fullerenes and graphene nanoribbon composites shows a strong dependence on photon polarization and geometrical characteristics of the hybrid systems, covering a broad range of energies. We show that an external electric field across the nanoribbon edges can be used to tune different optical transitions coming from nanoribbon–fullerene hybridized states, which yields a very rich electro-absorption spectrum for longitudinally polarized photons. We have carried out a qualitative analysis on the potential of these hybrids as possible donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic cells.

  4. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  5. The role of fullerene shell upon stuffed atom polarization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the polarization of the fullerene shell considerably alters the polarization potential of an atom, stuffed inside a fullerene. This essentially affects the electron elastic scattering phases as well as corresponding cross-sections. We illustrate the general trend by concrete examples of electron scattering by endohedrals of Neon and Argon. To obtain the presented results, we have suggested a simplified approach that permits to incorporate the effect of fullerenes pol...

  6. Engineering of Multifunctional Nanomaterials for Cancer Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Shreya

    Development of novel imaging probes for cancer diagnosis is critical for early disease detection and management. The past two decades have witnessed a surge in the development and evolution of radiolabeled nanoparticles as a new frontier in personalized cancer nanomedicine. The dynamic synergism of positron emission tomography (PET) and nanotechnology combines the sensitivity and quantitative nature of PET with the multifunctionality and tunability of nanomaterials, which can help overcome certain key challenges in the field. Silica, "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States, has emerged as one of the leading nanomaterials employed for molecular imaging and therapy of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However in vivo biodistribution and active targeting of silica-based nanomaterials has remained a relatively under explored area, based mainly on semi-quantitative techniques such as fluorescence imaging. In this dissertation, I explore the concept of radiolabeled silica nanoparticles for vasculature-targeted imaging of different tumor types. Both chelator-based and chelator-free radiolabeling techniques were employed for accurate and quantitative analysis of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled silica nanomaterials. (Chapters 2 and 3) The large surface area, ease of tunability and facile silica chemistry were employed to create multifunctional silica-based materials to simultaneously seek-and-treat cancers, by incorporating multiple components into a single nanoplatform. Photodynamic agent, porphyrin was loaded into the central cavity of hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and the shell was decorated with photothermal nanoparticles, CuS, yielding a multimodal theranostic nanoplatform which could synergistically annihilate the tumor without relapse. (Chapter 4). A major hurdle in the successful clinical translation of nanomaterials is their rapid sequestration by the organs of the

  7. Supramolecular solubilization of fullerenes and radio-fullerenes in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we are dealing with the supramolecular complexation of fullerenes C 60 , C 70 , some functionalized fullerenes and of the dumbbell structured C 120 dimer, with two host molecules, namely γ-cyclo-dextrin (GCD), and sulfocalix[8]arene in order to make them soluble in water. Previous investigations by others have shown that the reactions of some mentioned fullerenes and cyclo-dextrins and calixarenes are very slow and tedious in liquid phase as a result of solvatation effects. That we have decided to pursue the supramolecular complexation as solid-solid reactions by using mechanochemical activation in a ball mill. A mechanochemical treatment was used to enhance chemical reactivity in solid-solid reactions in which GCD give a complex with the C 60 as 2:1 host-guest complex. The calix[8]arene complex with C 60 molecule has been prepared. The sulfonated form of the host is well soluble in water. Endohedral radio-fullerenes of the XandC60 type (where * X is a rare gas, e.g. Ar, Xe, Kr, radionuclide) were prepared by nuclear recoil after neutron irradiation, a method developed by the author The endohedrally labelled fullerenes were then mechanochemically complexed into a labelled supramolecular complex with cyclo-dextrin and calixarene hosts. (author)

  8. Szeged Matrix Property Indices as Descriptors to Characterize Fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäntschi Lorentz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenes are class of allotropes of carbon organized as closed cages or tubes of carbon atoms. The fullerenes with small number of atoms were not frequently investigated. This paper presents a detailed treatment of total strain energy as function of structural feature extracted from isomers of C40 fullerene using Szeged Matrix Property Indices (SMPI. The paper has a two-fold structure. First, the total strain energy of C40 fullerene isomers (40 structures was linked with SMPI descriptors under two scenarios, one which incorporate just the SMPI descriptors and the other one which contains also five calculated properties (dipole moment, scf-binding-energy, scf-core-energy, scf-electronic-energy, and heat of formation. Second, the performing models identified on C40 fullerene family or the descriptors of these models were used to predict the total strain energy on C42 fullerene isomers. The obtained results show that the inclusion of properties in the pool of descriptors led to the reduction of accurate linear models. One property, namely scf-binding-energy proved a significant contribution to total strain energy of C40 fullerene isomers. However, the top-three most performing models contain just SMPI descriptors. A model with four descriptors proved most accurate model and show fair abilities in prediction of the same property on C42 fullerene isomers when the approach considered the descriptors identified on C40 as the predicting descriptors for C42 fullerene isomers.

  9. Fullerene solubility-current density relationship in polymer solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, Joachim A.; Gobsch, Gerhard; Hoppe, Harald; Troshin, Pavel A.; Razumov, V.F.

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade polymer solar cells have undergone a steady increase in overall device efficiency. To date, essential efficiency improvements of polymer-fullerene solar cells require the development of new materials. Whilst most research efforts aim at an improved or spectrally extended absorption of the donor polymer, not so much attention has been paid to the fullerene properties themselves. We have investigated a number of structurally related fullerenes, in order to study the relationship between chemical structure and resulting polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction photovoltaic properties. Our study reveals a clear connection between the fullerene solubility as material property on one hand and the solar cells short circuit photocurrent on the other hand. The tendency of the less soluble fullerene derivates to aggregate was accounted for smaller current densities in the respective solar cells. Once a minimum solubility of approx. 25 mg/ml in chlorobenzene was overcome by the fullerene derivative, the short circuit current density reached a plateau, of about 8-10 mA/cm 2 . Thus the solubility of the fullerene derivative directly influences the blend morphology and displays an important parameter for efficient polymer-fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cell operation. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Barbary, A. A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-10

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C{sub 20} and C{sub 60} fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H{sub 2} molecule at peak around 4440 cm{sup −1}. However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  11. Oscillations of spherical fullerenes interacting with graphene sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the oscillations of spherical fullerenes in the vicinity of a fully constrained graphene sheet are investigated. Using the continuous approximation and Lennard-Jones potential, the van der Waals (vdW) potential energy and interaction forces are obtained. The equation of motion is derived and directly solved based on the actual force distribution between the fullerene molecules and the graphene sheet. Numerical results are obtained and shown that the oscillation is sensitive to the size of the fullerene as well as the distance between the center of the fullerene and the graphene sheet.

  12. Biomedical Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can exhibit a wide variety of nanostructures, possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties hence has been investigated for a wide variety of applications. One of the most important features of ZnO nanomaterials is low toxicity and biodegradability. Zn2+ is an indispensable trace element for adults (~10 mg of Zn2+ per day is recommended) and it is involved in various aspects of metabolism. Chemically, the surface of ZnO is rich in -OH groups, which can be readily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. In this review article, we summarized the current status of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, such as biomedical imaging (which includes fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, as well as dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide array of molecules of interest. Research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will continue to flourish over the next decade, and much research effort will be needed to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation. PMID:24206130

  13. Electron transport in doped fullerene molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    The effect of doping on the electron transport of molecular junctions is analyzed in this paper. The doped fullerene molecules are stringed to two semi-infinite gold electrodes and analyzed at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions of these device configurations. The contemplation is done using nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF)-density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate its density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, molecular orbitals, electron density, charge transfer, current, and conductance. We conclude from the elucidated results that Au-C16Li4-Au and Au-C16Ne4-Au devices behave as an ordinary p-n junction diode and a Zener diode, respectively. Moreover, these doped fullerene molecules do not lose their metallic nature when sandwiched between the pair of gold electrodes.

  14. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Benjamin R.; McBranch, Duncan W.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Love, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  15. Fullerenes, nanotubes, onions and related carbon structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, C N.R.; Seshadri, Ram; Govindaraj, A; Sen, Rahul [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, CSIR Centre of Excellence in Chemistry and Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    1995-12-01

    Fullerenes, containing five- and six-membered carbon rings, of which C{sub 6}0 and C{sub 7}0 are the prominent members, exhibit phase transitions associated with orientational ordering. When C{sub 6}0 is suitably doped with electrons, it shows novel superconducting and magnetic properties. We review these and other properties of fullerenes in bulk or in film form along with the preparative and structural aspects. Carbon nanotubes and onions (hyperfullerenes) are the other forms of carbon whose material properties have aroused considerable interest. Besides discussing these new forms of carbon, we briefly introduce other possible forms, such as those involving five-, six- and seven-membered rings and hybrids between diamond and graphite

  16. Lateral translation of covalently bound fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M J; Beton, P H; Keeling, D L; Fawcett, R H J; Moriarty, P; Butcher, M J; Birkett, P R; Walton, D R M; Taylor, R; Kroto, H W

    2006-01-01

    Lateral manipulation of fullerenes on clean silicon surfaces may be induced by either an attractive or repulsive interaction between adsorbed molecules and the tip of a scanning probe microscope, and can result in a complex response arising from molecular rolling. The model for rolling is supported by new results which show that manipulation is suppressed for adsorbed functionalized fullerenes due to the presence of phenyl sidegroups. The influence of varying the dwell time of the tip during manipulation is also reported. By reducing this time to a value which is less than the response time of the feedback control loop it is possible to induce manipulation in a quasi-constant height mode which is accompanied by large increases/decreases in current

  17. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  18. Factors Governing Intercalation of Fullerenes and Other Small Molecules Between the Side Chains of Semiconducting Polymers Used in Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Miller, Nichole Cates

    2012-08-22

    While recent reports have established signifi cant miscibility in polymer:fullerene blends used in organic solar cells, little is actually known about why polymers and fullerenes mix and how their mixing can be controlled. Here, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and molecular simulations are used to study mixing in a variety of polymer:molecule blends by systematically varying the polymer and smallmolecule properties. It is found that a variety of polymer:fullerene blends mix by forming bimolecular crystals provided there is suffi cient space between the polymer side chains to accommodate a fullerene. Polymer:tetrafl uoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) bimolecular crystals were also observed, although bimolecular crystals did not form in the other studied polymer:nonfullerene blends, including those with both conjugated and non-conjugated small molecules. DSC and molecular simulations demonstrate that strong polymer-fullerene interactions can exist, and the calculations point to van der Waals interactions as a signifi cant driving force for molecular mixing. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fullerene nanostructure design with cluster ion impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Naramoto, H.; Narumi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 483, - (2009), s. 479-483 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200480702; GA AV ČR IAA400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : fullerene films, clusters C60+ * cluster ion implantation * patterning Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2009

  20. Health hazards associated with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattan, Gurulingappa; Kaul, Gautam

    2014-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a major scientific and economic growth area and presents a variety of hazards for human health and environment. It is widely believed that engineered nanomaterials will be increasingly used in biomedical applications (as therapeutics and as diagnostic tools). However, before these novel materials can be safely applied in a clinical setting, their toxicity needs to be carefully assessed. Nanoscale materials often behave different from the materials with a larger structure, even when the basic material is same. Many mammals get exposed to these nanomaterials, which can reach almost every cell of the mammalian body, causing the cells to respond against nanoparticles (NPs) resulting in cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. The important key to understand the toxicity of nanomaterials is that their minute size, smaller than cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate the basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. There is a wealth of evidence for the noxious and harmful effects of engineered NPs as well as other nanomaterials. The rapid commercialization of nanotechnology field requires thoughtful, attentive environmental, animal and human health safety research and should be an open discussion for broader societal impacts and urgent toxicological oversight action. While 'nanotoxicity' is a relatively new concept to science, this comprehensive review focuses on the nanomaterials exposure through the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract and their mechanism of toxicity and effect on various organs of the body. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Understanding the biological and environmental implications of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sijie

    The last two decades have witnessed the discovery, development, and large-scale manufacturing of novel nanomaterials. While nanomaterials bring in exciting and extraordinary properties in all areas of materials, electronics, mechanics, and medicine, they also could generate potential adverse effects in biological systems and in the environment. The currently limited application of nanomaterials in biological and ecological systems results from the insufficient and often controversial data on describing the complex behaviors of nanomaterials in living systems. The purpose of this dissertation intends to fill such a knowledge void with methodologies from the disciplines of biophysics, biology, and materials science and engineering. Chapter 1 of this dissertation provides a comprehensive review on the structures and properties of carbon nanomaterials (CBNMs), metal oxides, and quantum dots (QDs). This chapter also details the state-of-the-art on the biological applications, ecological applications, and toxicity of nanomaterials. With Chapter 1 serving as a background, Chapters 2-5 present my PhD research, an inquiry on the fate of nanomaterials in biological and ecological systems, on the whole organism and cellular levels. Specifically, CBNMs are introduced to rice plant seedlings and the uptake, translocation and generational transfer of fullerene C70 in the plant compartments are imaged and characterized. The interactions between CBNMs and rice plants on the whole organism level are initiated by the binding between CBNMs and natural organic matter (NOM), driven by the transpiration of water from the roots to the leaves of the plants and mediated by both the physiochemical properties of the CBNMs and plant physiology. In Chapter 3, semiconducting nanocrystals quantum dots (QDs) are introduced to green algae Chlamydomonas to probe the interactions of nanomaterials with ecological systems on the cellular level. The adsorption of QDs onto the algal cell wall is

  2. Redox potentials and binding enhancement of fullerene and fullerene-cyclodextrin systems in water and dimethylsulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Gál, Miroslav; Kocábová, Jana; Sokolová, Romana; Filippone, S.; Yang, J.; Guan, Z.; Rassat, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2010), s. 153-162 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA ČR GA203/08/1157; GA ČR GP203/09/P502; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk ME09114; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electrochemistry * fullerene s * fullerene -cyclodextrin systems Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.893, year: 2010

  3. A functional assay-based strategy for nanomaterial risk forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie, E-mail: christine.hendren@duke.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Agricultural Science Center, Lexington, KY 40546 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: wiesner@duke.edu [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall PO Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The study of nanomaterial impacts on environment, health and safety (nanoEHS) has been largely predicated on the assumption that exposure and hazard can be predicted from physical–chemical properties of nanomaterials. This approach is rooted in the view that nanoöbjects essentially resemble chemicals with additional particle-based attributes that must be included among their intrinsic physical–chemical descriptors. With the exception of the trivial case of nanomaterials made from toxic or highly reactive materials, this approach has yielded few actionable guidelines for predicting nanomaterial risk. This article addresses inherent problems in structuring a nanoEHS research strategy based on the goal of predicting outcomes directly from nanomaterial properties, and proposes a framework for organizing data and designing integrated experiments based on functional assays (FAs). FAs are intermediary, semi-empirical measures of processes or functions within a specified system that bridge the gap between nanomaterial properties and potential outcomes in complex systems. The three components of a functional assay are standardized protocols for parameter determination and reporting, a theoretical context for parameter application and reference systems. We propose the identification and adoption of reference systems where FAs may be applied to provide parameter estimates for environmental fate and effects models, as well as benchmarks for comparing the results of FAs and experiments conducted in more complex and varied systems. Surface affinity and dissolution rate are identified as two critical FAs for characterizing nanomaterial behavior in a variety of important systems. The use of these FAs to predict bioaccumulation and toxicity for initial and aged nanomaterials is illustrated for the case of silver nanoparticles and Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • Approaches to predict risk directly from nanomaterial (NM) properties are problematic. • We propose

  4. A functional assay-based strategy for nanomaterial risk forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Lowry, Gregory V.; Unrine, Jason M.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The study of nanomaterial impacts on environment, health and safety (nanoEHS) has been largely predicated on the assumption that exposure and hazard can be predicted from physical–chemical properties of nanomaterials. This approach is rooted in the view that nanoöbjects essentially resemble chemicals with additional particle-based attributes that must be included among their intrinsic physical–chemical descriptors. With the exception of the trivial case of nanomaterials made from toxic or highly reactive materials, this approach has yielded few actionable guidelines for predicting nanomaterial risk. This article addresses inherent problems in structuring a nanoEHS research strategy based on the goal of predicting outcomes directly from nanomaterial properties, and proposes a framework for organizing data and designing integrated experiments based on functional assays (FAs). FAs are intermediary, semi-empirical measures of processes or functions within a specified system that bridge the gap between nanomaterial properties and potential outcomes in complex systems. The three components of a functional assay are standardized protocols for parameter determination and reporting, a theoretical context for parameter application and reference systems. We propose the identification and adoption of reference systems where FAs may be applied to provide parameter estimates for environmental fate and effects models, as well as benchmarks for comparing the results of FAs and experiments conducted in more complex and varied systems. Surface affinity and dissolution rate are identified as two critical FAs for characterizing nanomaterial behavior in a variety of important systems. The use of these FAs to predict bioaccumulation and toxicity for initial and aged nanomaterials is illustrated for the case of silver nanoparticles and Caenorhabditis elegans. - Highlights: • Approaches to predict risk directly from nanomaterial (NM) properties are problematic. • We propose

  5. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  6. Engineered Nanomaterials Elicit Cellular Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials are being developed continuously and incorporated into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on toxicity endpoints without further investigating potential mechanisms or pathway...

  7. Nanomaterials: Opportunities and Challenges for Aerospace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obieta, Isabel; Marcos, J

    2005-01-01

    Nanomaterials are regarded world-wide as key materials of the 21st Century. Also, in aerospace a high potential for nanomaterials applications is postulated and technological breakthroughs are expected in this area...

  8. How Do Enzymes 'Meet' Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Piao; Lai, Cui; Tang, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are fundamental biological catalysts responsible for biological regulation and metabolism. The opportunity for enzymes to 'meet' nanoparticles and nanomaterials is rapidly increasing due to growing demands for applications in nanomaterial design, environmental monitoring, biochemical engineering, and biomedicine. Therefore, understanding the nature of nanomaterial-enzyme interactions is becoming important. Since 2014, enzymes have been used to modify, degrade, or make nanoparticles/nanomaterials, while numerous nanoparticles/nanomaterials have been used as materials for enzymatic immobilization and biosensors and as enzyme mimicry. Among the various nanoparticles and nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials have received extensive attention due to their fascinating properties. This review provides an overview about how enzymes meet nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulating the electrical behaviors of 2D inorganic nanomaterials for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Wu, Junchi; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2015-02-11

    Recent years have witnessed great developments in inorganic 2D nanomaterials for their unique dimensional confinement and diverse electronic energy bands. Precisely regulating their intrinsic electrical behaviors would bring superior electrical conductivity, rendering 2D nanomaterials ideal candidates for active materials in electrochemical applications when combined with the excellent reaction activity from the inorganic lattice. This Concept focuses on highly conducting inorganic 2D nanomaterials, including intrinsic metallic 2D nanomaterials and artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials. The intrinsic metallicity of 2D nanomaterials is derived from their closely packed atomic structures that ensure maximum overlapping of electron orbitals, while artificial highly conductive 2D nanomaterials could be achieved by designed methodologies of surface modification, intralayer ion doping, and lattice strain, in which atomic-scale structural modulation plays a vital role in realizing conducting behaviors. Benefiting from fast electron transfer, high reaction activity, as well as large surface areas arising from the 2D inorganic lattice, highly conducting 2D nanomaterials open up prospects for enhancing performance in electrochemical catalysis and electrochemical capacitors. Conductive 2D inorganic nanomaterials promise higher efficiency for electrochemical applications of energy conversion and storage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High pressure structural phase transitions of TiO2 nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Quan-Jun; Liu Bing-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the high pressure study on the TiO 2 nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention due to the typical crystal structure and the fascinating properties of TiO 2 with nanoscale sizes. In this paper, we briefly review the recent progress in the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials. We discuss the size effects and morphology effects on the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials with different particle sizes, morphologies, and microstructures. Several typical pressure-induced structural phase transitions in TiO 2 nanomaterials are presented, including size-dependent phase transition selectivity in nanoparticles, morphology-tuned phase transition in nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials, and pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) and polyamorphism in ultrafine nanoparticles and TiO 2 -B nanoribbons. Various TiO 2 nanostructural materials with high pressure structures are prepared successfully by high pressure treatment of the corresponding crystal nanomaterials, such as amorphous TiO 2 nanoribbons, α -PbO 2 -type TiO 2 nanowires, nanosheets, and nanoporous materials. These studies suggest that the high pressure phase transitions of TiO 2 nanomaterials depend on the nanosize, morphology, interface energy, and microstructure. The diversity of high pressure behaviors of TiO 2 nanomaterials provides a new insight into the properties of nanomaterials, and paves a way for preparing new nanomaterials with novel high pressure structures and properties for various applications. (topical review)

  11. Nanomaterials for practical functional uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lines, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    are commonly found with these materials. Some key attributes include: ·Grain size on the order of 10 -9 m (1-100 nm). ·Extremely large specific surface area. ·Manifest fascinating and useful properties. ·Structural and non-structural applications. ·Stronger, more ductile materials. ·Chemically very active materials. Production of nanomaterials. There are various widely known methods to produce nanomaterials other than by direct atom manipulation. In plasma arcing, the very high temperatures associated with the formation of an arc or plasma is used to effectively separate the atomic species of feedstock, which quickly recombine outside the plasma to form nanosized particles, which may have novel compositions. In the case of chemical vapour deposition, feed gases are reacted in a chamber and the resulting species attracted to a substrate. Once again the reaction products can be controlled and not only in terms of composition but also in terms of how they are deposited. The substrate effectively provides a template from where the deposited coating can grow in a very well controlled manner. Electro-deposition involves a similar process; however the controlled coating is deposited from solution by the application of an electric field. Sol-gel synthesis uses chemical means to produce intimately mixed compounds that are hydrolysed into gels. The gels can be deposited on any surface and shape at well controlled thicknesses and on subsequent heating, decompose to leave a thin layer of the desired coating. This technique is well suited to coating large surface areas with very well defined nanometre scale compounds. In high intensity ball milling, as the name suggested, high impact collisions are used to reduce macrocrystalline materials down into nano-crystalline structures without chemical change. A relatively new technique termed Mechanochemical Processing (MCP) technology, being developed by Advanced Nanotechnologies based in Perth, is a novel, solid-state pr ocess for

  12. Progress in electronics and photonics with nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Yogendra Kumar; Murugan, Arul; Kotakoski, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Nanomaterials have been at the center of attraction for almost five decades as their contributions to different disciplines such as electronics, photonics and medicine are enormous. Various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed and are currently utilized in innumerable applications. Neverthe......Nanomaterials have been at the center of attraction for almost five decades as their contributions to different disciplines such as electronics, photonics and medicine are enormous. Various kinds of nanomaterials have been developed and are currently utilized in innumerable applications...

  13. In vivo biology and toxicology of fullerenes and their derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Roursgaard, Martin; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2008-01-01

    Fullerenes represent a group of nanoparticles discovered in 1985. They are spherical molecules consisting entirely of carbon atoms (C(x)) to which side chains can be added, furnishing compounds with widely different properties. Fullerenes interact with biological systems, for example, by enzyme i...

  14. Nuclear reactions and radionuclides in the study of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Sueki, K.; Sato, W.; Akiyama, K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiochemical techniques have been applied in various ways to the study of fullerenes and metallofullerenes for the past several years, and they have provided invaluable information pertaining to the stability, structures, and formation of the novel carbon material. This paper reviews those experimental results that have fully shown the usefullness and uniqueness of radionuclides demonstrated in the field of fullerene science. (author)

  15. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  16. LCA of metal nanomaterial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Diaz, Elsa Gabriela Alvarado; Olsen, Stig Irving

    The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial product has reached a new stage, where consumers in their daily life are frequently encountered with products containing this new material class. Metal and metal-oxide nanomaterials are among the most commonly used ENMs in products. Potential......(OH)2 applied as additives in polypropylene (PP), and the production of PP with conventional additives that provide similar properties as the ENMs. Different scenarios of nanoproducts consisting of metal ENMs and PP were compared with current use of additives in PP products through a detailed cradle...

  17. Exploring release and recovery of nanomaterials from commercial polymeric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquets-Fité, Martí; Puntes, Víctor; Fernandez, Elisabet; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro; Zanasca, R; Citterio, C; Mercante, L

    2013-01-01

    Much concern has been raised about the risks associated with the broad use of polymers containing nanomaterials. Much is known about degradation and aging of polymers and nanomaterials independently, but very few studies have been done in order to understand degradation of polymeric nanocomposites containing nanomaterials and the fate of these nanomaterials, which may occur in suffering many processes such as migration, release and physicochemical modifications. Throughout the UE funded FP7 project NANOPOLYTOX, studies on the migration, release and alteration of mechanical properties of commercial nanocomposites due to ageing and weathering have been performed along with studies on the feasibility of recovery and recycling of the nanomaterials. The project includes the use as model nanocomposites of Polyamide-6 (PA), Polypropylene (PP) and Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA) as polymeric matrix filled with a 3% in mass of a set of selected broadly used nanomaterials; from inorganic metal oxides nanoparticles (SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and Nanoclays. These model nanocomposites were then treated under accelerated ageing conditions in climatic chamber. To determine the degree of degradation of the whole nanocomposite and possible processes of migration, release and modification of the nanofillers, nanocomposites were characterized by different techniques. Additionally, recovery of the nanomaterials fro m the polymeric matrix was addressed, being successfully achieved for PA and PP based nanocomposites. In the case of PA, dissolution of the polymeric matrix using formic acid and further centrifugation steps was the chosen approach, while for PP based nanocomposites calcination was performed.

  18. Nanoencapsulation of Fullerenes in Organic Structures with Nonpolar Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, C. N.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of supramolecular structures, assemblies, and arrays held together by weak intermolecular interactions and non-covalent binding mimicking natural processes has been used in applications being anticipated in nanotechnology, biotechnology and the emerging field of nanomedicine. Encapsulation of C 60 fullerene by cyclic molecules like cyclodextrins and calixarenes has potential for a number of applications. Similarly, biomolecules like lysozyme also have been shown to encapsulate C 60 fullerene. This poster article reports the recent trends and the results obtained in the nanoencapsulation of fullerenes by biomolecules containing nonpolar cavities. Lysozyme was chosen as the model biomolecule and it was observed that there is no covalent bond formed between the bimolecule and the C 60 fullerene. This was confirmed from fluorescence energy transfer studies. UV-Vis studies further supported this observation that it is possible to selectively remove the C 60 fullerene from the nonpolar cavity. This behavior has potential in biomedical applications

  19. A multi-endpoint, high-throughput study of nanomaterial toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Kyu; Qu, Xiaolei; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Wang, Tianxiao; Riepe, Celeste; Liu, Zheng; Li, Qilin; Zhong, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The booming nanotech industry has raised public concerns about the environmental health and safety impact of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). High-throughput assays are needed to obtain toxicity data for the rapidly increasing number of ENMs. Here we present a suite of high-throughput methods to study nanotoxicity in intact animals using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. At the population level, our system measures food consumption of thousands of animals to evaluate population fitness. At the organism level, our automated system analyzes hundreds of individual animals for body length, locomotion speed, and lifespan. To demonstrate the utility of our system, we applied this technology to test the toxicity of 20 nanomaterials under four concentrations. Only fullerene nanoparticles (nC60), fullerol, TiO2, and CeO2 showed little or no toxicity. Various degrees of toxicity were detected from different forms of carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black, Ag, and fumed SiO2 nanoparticles. Aminofullerene and UV irradiated nC60 also showed small but significant toxicity. We further investigated the effects of nanomaterial size, shape, surface chemistry, and exposure conditions on toxicity. Our data are publicly available at the open-access nanotoxicity database www.QuantWorm.org/nano. PMID:25611253

  20. Interactions of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the immune system of the skin and the possible implications related to cutaneous nanotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Castro Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the interaction of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes with the constituents of the skin, especially the skin immune unit, is relevant to the determina-tion of toxicological endpoints. A systematic review was done focused on such aspects. Considerable part of the found references concentrated in cytotoxicity and skin per-meation. On a smaller scale, there are articles on immunomodulation and activation of immune cells and other elements. Few of the found studies deal specifically with cutaneous immune response, limiting the related knowledge. The findings suggest that nanomaterials studied may be involved in skin problems such irritant contact dermatitis, anaphylactoid reactions, urticaria, angioedema, and raised the need for performing additional studies to confirm the findings. The standardization of the description and testing of nanomaterials characteristics used in experiments can facilitate comparison of results.

  1. Competitive photometric enzyme immunoassay for fullerene C60 and its derivatives using a fullerene conjugated to horseradish peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Olga D.; Smirnova, Natalya I.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.; Sveshnikov, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a highly sensitive single-step microplate enzyme immunoassay of the ELISA type for fullerene C 60 and its derivatives. Monoclonal anti-fullerene antibodies and a conjugate between fullerene and horseradish peroxidase were used as specific reagents. A direct competitive ELISA was carried out that was based on antibodies immobilized in the well of a microtiter plate, a peroxidase-labeled antigen, and detection via the dye formed from 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. Both pristine fullerene C 60 and its water-soluble forms can be determined. The detection limits are 1.5 ng∙mL −1 for fullerene C 60 , and between 0.1 and 1.3 ng∙mL −1 for its derivatives. This ELISA format allows for almost two-fold reduction of the time needed for the assay in comparison to indirect scheme with labeled antibodies. (author)

  2. Nanomaterials: Regulation and Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Grieger, Khara Deanne; Baun, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , the Water Framework Directive, pharmaceuticals regulation, and the Novel Foods Regulation. Current regulation of nanomaterials entail three overall challenges: 1) limitations in regard to terminology and definitions of key terms such as a “substance,” “novel food,” etc.; 2) safety assessment requirements...

  3. Computational design of safer nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burello, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are expected to find applications in numerous consumer products, posing the challenge to guarantee their safety and environmental sustainability before they can be transferred from research labs to end-consumer products. One emerging solution, called safe design, relies on the

  4. Magnetic characterization techniques for nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Sixth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

  5. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  6. Chemical Design of Functional Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Kresten

    This thesis deals with a very specific class of functional nanomaterials known as mesoporous zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate minerals characterized by featuring pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. Mesoporous zeolites are zeol...

  7. Risk of dust explosions of combustible nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Ritsu

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have several valuable properties and are widely used for various practical applications. However, safety matters are suspected such as the influence on health and environment, and fire and explosion hazards. To minimize the risk of nanomaterials, appropriate understanding of these hazards is indispensable. Nanoparticles of combustible materials have potential hazard of dust explosion accidents. However, the explosion risk of nanomaterials has not yet been understood adequately because of the lack of data for nanomaterials. In this presentation, the risk of dust explosions of nanomaterials is discussed.

  8. Comprehensive probabilistic modelling of environmental emissions of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian Yin; Gottschalk, Fadri; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Nowack, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Concerns about the environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are growing, however, currently very little is known about their concentrations in the environment. Here, we calculate the concentrations of five ENM (nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag, CNT and fullerenes) in environmental and technical compartments using probabilistic material-flow modelling. We apply the newest data on ENM production volumes, their allocation to and subsequent release from different product categories, and their flows into and within those compartments. Further, we compare newly predicted ENM concentrations to estimates from 2009 and to corresponding measured concentrations of their conventional materials, e.g. TiO2, Zn and Ag. We show that the production volume and the compounds' inertness are crucial factors determining final concentrations. ENM production estimates are generally higher than a few years ago. In most cases, the environmental concentrations of corresponding conventional materials are between one and seven orders of magnitude higher than those for ENM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stable Au-C bonds to the substrate for fullerene-based nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chutora, Taras; López, Roso Redondo Jesús R.; De La Torre Cerdeño, Bruno; Švec, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel; Vázquez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), s. 1073-1079 ISSN 2190-4286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Au-C bonds * density functional theory (DFT) * fullerenes * scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) * sputtering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.127, year: 2016

  10. Comparison of occupational exposure assessment tools and concepts for nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials have been growing in different fields. This leads to a consequent increased potential of exposure to nanomaterials in the working environment. However to determine the potential exposure risk is a challenging task for risk...... for Nanomaterials”; “NanoSafer vs. 1.1 – A web-based precautionary risk assessment tool for manufactured nanomaterials using first order modeling” Based on the literature information we have analyzed these tools and discussed elements regarding: the domain of application and whether it accounts for the nanospecific...... factor or nano-relevance; the work exposure scenario, for which types of processes they may be used; are the tools using the source-transmission-receptor approach; the input data requirements; whether the tools included qualitative or semi-quantitative or quantitative evaluations of the exposure; whether...

  11. Introduction to nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanomaterials an introduction for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Vollath, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Meeting the demand for a readily understandable introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology, this textbook specifically addresses the needs of students - and engineers - who need to get the gist of nanoscale phenomena in materials without having to delve too deeply into the physical and chemical details. The book begins with an overview of the consequences of small particle size, such as the growing importance of surface effects, and covers successful, field-tested synthesis techniques of nanomaterials. The largest part of the book is devoted to the particular magnetic, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of materials at the nanoscale, leading on to emerging and already commercialized applications, such as nanofluids in magnetic resonance imaging, high-performance nanocomposites and carbon nanotube-based electronics. Based on the author's experience in teaching nanomaterials courses and adapted, in style and level, for students with only limited background knowledge, the textbook includes fur...

  12. Why the Immune System Should Be Concerned by Nanomaterials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. Pallardy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Particles possess huge specific surface area and therefore nanomaterials exhibit unique characteristics, such as special physical properties and chemical hyper-reactivity, which make them particularly attractive but also raise numerous questions concerning their safety. Interactions of nanomaterials with the immune system can potentially lead to immunosuppression, hypersensitivity (allergy, immunogenicity and autoimmunity, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inherent physical and chemical NP characteristics may influence their immunotoxicity, i.e., the adverse effects that can result from exposure. This review will focus on the possible interaction of nanomaterials including protein aggregates with the innate immune system with specific emphasis on antigen-presenting cells, i.e., dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytes.

  13. Considerations on the EU definition of a nanomaterial: science to support policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Eric A J; de Jong, Wim H; Geertsma, Robert E; Groenewold, Monique; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Koers-Jacquemijns, Marjorie; van de Meent, Dik; Popma, Jan R; Rietveld, Anton G; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Cassee, Flemming R; Oomen, Agnes G

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of applications and products containing or using nanomaterials have become available. This has raised concerns that some of these materials may introduce new risks for humans or the environment. A clear definition to discriminate nanomaterials from other materials is prerequisite to include provisions for nanomaterials in legislation. In October 2011 the European Commission published the 'Recommendation on the definition of a nanomaterial', primarily intended to provide unambiguous criteria to identify materials for which special regulatory provisions might apply, but also to promote consistency on the interpretation of the term 'nanomaterial'. In this paper, the current status of various regulatory frameworks of the European Union with regard to nanomaterials is described, and major issues relevant for regulation of nanomaterials are discussed. This will contribute to better understanding the implications of the choices policy makers have to make in further regulation of nanomaterials. Potential issues that need to be addressed and areas of research in which science can contribute are indicated. These issues include awareness on situations in which nano-related risks may occur for materials that fall outside the definition, guidance and further development of measurement techniques, and dealing with changes during the life cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fullerenes vs fulleroids. Understanding their relative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.M. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-11-30

    Both force-field (MMPI) and AMI (restricted and unrestricted HF) calculations are herein used to investigate the underlying reasons for the fullerene-fulleroid structural dichotomies observed in carbene, silylene, nitrene, and oxygen adducts of C[sub 60]. Via the investigation of a series of model systems, it is demonstrated that curvature actually favors the open, fulleroid structure; this effect of curvature on the norcaradiene-cycloheptatriene equilibrium is general. Strategies for the creation of 6,6-bridged fulleroids are suggested. 29 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Production of anti-fullerene C{sub 60} polyclonal antibodies and study of their interaction with a conjugated form of fullerene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, O. D., E-mail: odhendrick@gmail.com; Fedyunina, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Martianov, A. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zherdev, A. V.; Dzantiev, B. B. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to produce anti-fullerene C{sub 60} antibodies for the development of detection systems for fullerene C{sub 60} derivatives. To produce anti-fullerene C{sub 60} antibodies, conjugates of the fullerene C{sub 60} carboxylic derivative with thyroglobulin, soybean trypsin inhibitor, and bovine serum albumin were synthesized by carbodiimide activation and characterized. Immunization of rabbits by the conjugates led to the production of polyclonal anti-fullerene antibodies. The specificity of the immune response to fullerene was investigated. Indirect competitive immunoenzyme assay was developed for the determination of conjugated fullerene with detection limits of 0.04 ng/mL (calculated for coupled C{sub 60}) and 0.4 ng/mL (accordingly to total fullerene-protein concentration).

  16. Potential Applications and Antifungal Activities of Engineered Nanomaterials against Gray Mold Disease Agent Botrytis cinerea on Rose Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have great potential for use in the fields of biomedicine, building materials, and environmental protection because of their antibacterial properties. However, there are few reports regarding the antifungal activities of NPs on plants. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal roles of NPs against Botrytis cinerea, which is a notorious worldwide fungal pathogen. Three common carbon nanomaterials, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and reduced graphene oxide, and three commercial metal oxidant NPs, copper oxide (CuO NPs, ferric oxide (Fe2O3 NPs, and titanium oxides (TiO2 NPs, were independently added to water-agar plates at 50 and 200-mg/L concentrations. Detached rose petals were inoculated with spores of B. cinerea and co-cultured with each of the six nanomaterials. The sizes of the lesions on infected rose petals were measured at 72 h after inoculation, and the growth of fungi on the rose petals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The six NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea, but different concentrations had different effects: 50 mg/L of fullerene and CuO NPs showed the strongest antifungal properties among the treatments, while 200 mg/L of CuO and Fe2O3 showed no significant antifungal activities. Thus, NPs may have antifungal activities that prevent B. cinerea infections in plants, and they could be used as antifungal agents during the growth and post-harvesting of roses and other flowers.

  17. Percolation transition in carbon composite on the basis of fullerenes and exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, V. I.; Popov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of a carbon composite on the basis of C60 fullerenes and exfoliated graphite is investigated in the range of relative contents of components from 0 to 100%. The samples are obtained by the thermal treatment of the initial dispersed mixtures in vacuum in the diffusion-adsorption process and their further cold pressing. The resistivity of the samples gradually increases with an increase in the fraction of fullerenes, and a sharp transition from the conductive state to the dielectric one is observed after achieving certain concentrations of C60. The interpretation of the results within the percolation theory makes it possible to evaluate the percolation threshold (expressed as a relative content of graphite) as equal to 4.45 wt % and the critical conductivity index as equal to 1.85 (which is typical for three-dimensional twocomponent disordered media including those having pores).

  18. Synthesis and Application of Graphene Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei

    Graphene, a two-dimensional sp2-bonded carbon material, has recently attracted major attention due to its excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Depending on different applications, graphene and its derived hybrid nanomaterials can be synthesized by either bottom-up chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for electronics, or various top-down chemical reaction methods for energy generation and storage devices. My thesis begins with the investigation of CVD synthesis of graphene thin films in Chapter 1, including the direct growth of bilayer graphene on insulating substrates and synthesis of "rebar graphene": a hybrid structure with graphene and carbon or boron nitride nanotubes. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of nanoribbon-shaped materials and their applications, including splitting of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube carpets for supercapacitors, synthesis of dispersable ferromagnetic graphene nanoribbon stacks with enhanced electrical percolation properties in magnetic field, graphene nanoribbon/SnO 2 nanocomposite for lithium ion batteries, and enhanced electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reactions from WS2 nanoribbons. Next, Chapter 3 discusses graphene coated iron oxide nanomaterials and their use in energy storage applications. Finally, Chapter 4 introduces the development, characterization, and fabrication of laser induced graphene and its application as supercapacitors.

  19. Fullerenes: prospects of using in medicine, biology and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Schur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of our own research and academic literature data on the properties of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes are analysed and summarized. Chemical stability of the structure and low toxicity of fullerenes determine their usage in medical chemistry, pharmacology and cosmetology. Due to its mechanical strength the nanotubes have become the basis of clean construction and barrier materials. It is shown that a matrix based on fullerit C60 can be obtained. It allows to store up to 7.7 wt. % hydrogen with formation of hydrofullerit C60H60. The usage of fullerenes for accumulation and storage of hydrogen enhances the prospects of clean hydrogen energy development.

  20. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  1. Topological edge properties of C60+12n fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mottaghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A molecular graph M is a simple graph in which atoms and chemical bonds are the vertices and edges of M, respectively. The molecular graph M is called a fullerene graph, if M is the molecular graph of a fullerene molecule. It is well-known that such molecules exist for even integers n ≥ 24 or n = 20. The aim of this paper is to investigate the topological properties of a class of fullerene molecules containing 60 + 12n carbon atoms.

  2. Continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popadic, A.; Praprotnik, M.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present continuum simulations of water flow past fullerene molecules. The governing Navier-Stokes equations are complemented with the Navier slip boundary condition with a slip length that is extracted from related molecular dynamics simulations. We find that several quantities of interest...... as computed by the present model are in good agreement with results from atomistic and atomistic-continuum simulations at a fraction of the cost. We simulate the flow past a single fullerene and an array of fullerenes and demonstrate that such nanoscale flows can be computed efficiently by continuum flow...

  3. Rational engineering of physicochemical properties of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with nanotoxicological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navya, P N; Daima, Hemant Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Innovative engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of rapidly emerging fields of nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Meticulous synthesis, unique physicochemical properties, manifestation of chemical or biological moieties on the surface of materials make engineered nanostructures suitable for a variety of biomedical applications. Besides, tailored nanomaterials exhibit entirely novel therapeutic applications with better functionality, sensitivity, efficiency and specificity due to their customized unique physicochemical and surface properties. Additionally, such designer made nanomaterials has potential to generate series of interactions with various biological entities including DNA, proteins, membranes, cells and organelles at nano-bio interface. These nano-bio interactions are driven by colloidal forces and predominantly depend on the dynamic physicochemical and surface properties of nanomaterials. Nevertheless, recent development and atomic scale tailoring of various physical, chemical and surface properties of nanomaterials is promising to dictate their interaction in anticipated manner with biological entities for biomedical applications. As a result, rationally designed nanomaterials are in extensive demand for bio-molecular detection and diagnostics, therapeutics, drug and gene delivery, fluorescent labelling, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing and other pharmaceuticals applications. However, toxicity and risk associated with engineered nanomaterials is rather unclear or not well understood; which is gaining considerable attention and the field of nanotoxicology is evolving promptly. Therefore, this review explores current knowledge of articulate engineering of nanomaterials for biomedical applications with special attention on potential toxicological perspectives.

  4. Chemical Reaction and Flow Modeling in Fullerene and Nanotube Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Farhat, Samir; Greendyke, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    addresses modeling of the arc process for fullerene and carbon nanotube production using O-D, 1-D and 2-D fluid flow models. The third part addresses simulations of the pulsed laser ablation process using time-dependent techniques in 2-D, and a steady state 2-D simulation of a continuous laser ablation process. The fourth part addresses steady state modeling in O-D and 2-D of the HiPco process. In each of the simulations, there is a variety of simplifications that are made that enable one to concentrate on one aspect or another of the process. There are simplifications that can be made to the chemical reaction models , e.g. reduction in number of species by lumping some of them together in a representative species. Other simulations are carried out by eliminating the chemistry altogether in order to concentrate on the fluid dynamics. When solving problems with a large number of species in more than one spatial dimension, it is almost imperative that the problem be decoupled by solving for the fluid dynamics to find the fluid motion and temperature history of "particles" of fluid moving through a reactor. Then one can solve the chemical rate equations with complex chemistry following the temperature and pressure history. One difficulty is that often mixing with an ambient gas is involved. Therefore, one needs to take dilution and mixing into account. This changes the ratio of carbon species to background gas. Commercially available codes may have no provision for including dilution as part of the input. One must the write special solvers for including dilution in decoupled problems. The article addresses both ful1erene production and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) production. There are at least two schemes or concepts of SWNT growth. This article will only address growth in the gas phase by carbon and catalyst cluster growth and SW T formation by the addition of carbon. There are other models that conceive of SWNT growth as a phase separation process from clusters me

  5. Electron scattering on metal clusters and fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'yov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of physical phenomena manifesting themselves in electron scattering on atomic clusters. The main emphasis is made on electron scattering on fullerenes and metal clusters, however some results are applicable to other types of clusters as well. This work is addressed to theoretical aspects of electron-cluster scattering, however some experimental results are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the electron diffraction plays important role in the formation of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering cross sections. It is elucidated the essential role of the multipole surface and volume plasmon excitations in the formation of electron energy loss spectra on clusters (differential and total, above and below ionization potential) as well as the total inelastic scattering cross sections. Particular attention is paid to the elucidation of the role of the polarization interaction in low energy electron-cluster collisions. This problem is considered for electron attachment to metallic clusters and the plasmon enhanced photon emission. Finally, mechanisms of electron excitation widths formation and relaxation of electron excitations in metal clusters and fullerenes are discussed. (authors)

  6. Terahertz Dynamics in Carbon Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2012-02-01

    This NSF Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) project supports a unique interdisciplinary and international partnership investigating terahertz (THz) dynamics in nanostructures. The 0.1 to 10 THz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum is where electrical transport and optical transitions merge, offering exciting opportunities to study a variety of novel physical phenomena in condensed matter. By combining THz technology and nanotechnology, we can advance our understanding of THz physics while improving and developing THz devices. Specifically, this PIRE research explores THz dynamics of electrons in carbon nanomaterials, namely, nanotubes and graphene --- low-dimensional, sp^2-bonded carbon systems with unique finite-frequency properties. Japan and the U.S. are global leaders in both THz research and carbon research, and stimulating cooperation is critical to further advance THz science and to commercialize products developed in the lab. However, obstacles exist for international collaboration --- primarily linguistic and cultural barriers --- and this PIRE project aims to address these barriers through the integration of our research and education programs. Our strong educational portfolio endeavours to cultivate interest in nanotechnology amongst young U.S. undergraduate students and encourage them to pursue graduate study and academic research in the physical sciences, especially those from underrepresented groups. Our award-winning International Research Experience for Undergraduates Program, NanoJapan, provides structured research internships in Japanese university laboratories with Japanese mentors --- recognized as a model international education program for science and engineering students. The project builds the skill sets of nanoscience researchers and students by cultivating international and inter-cultural awareness, research expertise, and specific academic interests in nanotechnology. U.S. project partners include Rice

  7. Final Report: ''Energetics of Nanomaterials''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra; Ross, Nancy; Woodfield, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, solids with very small particle size, form the basis of new technologies that are revolutionizing fields such as energy, lighting, electronics, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. These nanoparticles are different from conventional bulk materials in many ways we do not yet fully understand. This project focused on their structure and thermodynamics and emphasized the role of water in nanoparticle surfaces. Using a unique and synergistic combination of high-tech techniques-namely oxide melt solution calorimetry, cryogenic heat capacity measurements, and inelastic neutron scattering-this work has identified differences in structure, thermodynamic stability, and water behavior on nanoparticles as a function of composition and particle size. The systematics obtained increase the fundamental understanding needed to synthesize, retain, and apply these technologically important nanomaterials and to predict and tailor new materials for enhanced functionality, eventually leading to a more sustainable way of life. Highlights are reported on the following topics: surface energies, thermochemistry of nanoparticles, and changes in stability at the nanoscale; heat capacity models and the gapped phonon spectrum; control of pore structure, acid sites, and thermal stability in synthetic γ-aluminas; the lattice contribution is the same for bulk and nanomaterials; and inelastic neutron scattering studies of water on nanoparticle surfaces.

  8. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  9. Carbon nanomaterials alter plant physiology and soil bacterial community composition in a rice-soil-bacterial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Ma, Chuanxin; Zhang, Zetian; Song, Youhong; Cao, Weidong; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Guopeng; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity effects of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), namely fullerene (C 60 ), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), on a mini-ecosystem of rice grown in a loamy potted soil. We measured plant physiological and biochemical parameters and examined bacterial community composition in the CNMs-treated plant-soil system. After 30 days of exposure, all the three CNMs negatively affected the shoot height and root length of rice, significantly decreased root cortical cells diameter and resulted in shrinkage and deformation of cells, regardless of exposure doses (50 or 500 mg/kg). Additionally, at the high exposure dose of CNM, the concentrations of four phytohormones, including auxin, indoleacetic acid, brassinosteroid and gibberellin acid 4 in rice roots significantly increased as compared to the control. At the high exposure dose of MWCNTs and C 60 , activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in roots increased significantly. High-throughput sequencing showed that three typical CNMs had little effect on shifting the predominant soil bacterial species, but the presence of CNMs significantly altered the composition of the bacterial community. Our results indicate that different CNMs indeed resulted in environmental toxicity to rice and soil bacterial community in the rhizosphere and suggest that CNMs themselves and their incorporated products should be reasonably used to control their release/discharge into the environment to prevent their toxic effects on living organisms and the potential risks to food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

  11. Analytical and molecular dynamics studies on the impact loading of single-layered graphene sheet by fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Hashemi, Shahrokh; Sepahi-Boroujeni, Amin; Sepahi-Boroujeni, Saeid

    2018-04-01

    Normal impact performance of a system including a fullerene molecule and a single-layered graphene sheet is studied in the present paper. Firstly, through a mathematical approach, a new contact law is derived to describe the overall non-bonding interaction forces of the "hollow indenter-target" system. Preliminary verifications show that the derived contact law gives a reliable picture of force field of the system which is in good agreements with the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Afterwards, equation of the transversal motion of graphene sheet is utilized on the basis of both the nonlocal theory of elasticity and the assumptions of classical plate theory. Then, to derive dynamic behavior of the system, a set including the proposed contact law and the equations of motion of both graphene sheet and fullerene molecule is solved numerically. In order to evaluate outcomes of this method, the problem is modeled by MD simulation. Despite intrinsic differences between analytical and MD methods as well as various errors arise due to transient nature of the problem, acceptable agreements are established between analytical and MD outcomes. As a result, the proposed analytical method can be reliably used to address similar impact problems. Furthermore, it is found that a single-layered graphene sheet is capable of trapping fullerenes approaching with low velocities. Otherwise, in case of rebound, the sheet effectively absorbs predominant portion of fullerene energy.

  12. NaKnowBaseTM: The EPA Nanomaterials Research ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to predict the environmental and health implications of engineered nanomaterials is an important research priority due to the exponential rate at which nanotechnology is being incorporated into consumer, industrial and biomedical applications. To address this need and develop predictive capability, we have created the NaKnowbaseTM, which provides a platform for the curation and dissemination of EPA nanomaterials data to support functional assay development, hazard risk models and informatic analyses. To date, we have combined relevant physicochemical parameters from other organizations (e.g., OECD, NIST), with those requested for nanomaterial data submitted to EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Physiochemical characterization data were collated from >400 unique nanomaterials including metals, metal oxides, carbon-based and hybrid materials evaluated or synthesized by EPA researchers. We constructed parameter requirements and table structures for encoding research metadata, including experimental factors and measured response variables. As a proof of concept, we illustrate how SQL-based queries facilitate a range of interrogations including, for example, relationships between nanoparticle characteristics and environmental or toxicological endpoints. The views expressed in this poster are those of the authors and may not reflect U.S. EPA policy. The purpose of this submission for clearance is an abstract for submission to a scientific

  13. The Influence of Solvent Additive on Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin

    2017-11-27

    Small-molecule-based non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) are emerging as a new field in organic photovoltaics, due to their structural versatility, the tunability of their energy levels, and their ease of synthesis. High-efficiency polymer donors have been tested with these non-fullerene acceptors in order to further boost the efficiency of organic solar cells. Most of the polymer:fullerene systems are optimized with solvent additives for high efficiency, while little attention has been paid to NFA-based solar cells so far. In this report, the effect of the most common additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), on PTB7-Th:PC71BM solar cells is investigated and it is compared with non-fullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]-s-indaceno-[1,2-b:5,6b′]di-thiophene (ITIC) devices. It is interesting that the high boiling solvent additive does have a negative impact on the power conversion efficiency when PTB7-Th is blended with ITIC acceptor. The solar cell devices are studied in terms of their optical, photophysical, and morphological properties and find out that PTB7-Th:ITIC devices with DIO results in coarser domains, reduced absorption strength, and slightly lower mobility, while DIO improves the absorption strength of the PTB7-Th:PC71BM blend film and increase the aggregation of PC71BM in the blend, resulting in higher fill factor and Jsc.

  14. The Influence of Solvent Additive on Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerene and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin; Gasparini, Nicola; Baran, Derya

    2017-01-01

    Small-molecule-based non-fullerene acceptors (NFAs) are emerging as a new field in organic photovoltaics, due to their structural versatility, the tunability of their energy levels, and their ease of synthesis. High-efficiency polymer donors have been tested with these non-fullerene acceptors in order to further boost the efficiency of organic solar cells. Most of the polymer:fullerene systems are optimized with solvent additives for high efficiency, while little attention has been paid to NFA-based solar cells so far. In this report, the effect of the most common additive, 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), on PTB7-Th:PC71BM solar cells is investigated and it is compared with non-fullerene acceptor 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2′,3′-d′]-s-indaceno-[1,2-b:5,6b′]di-thiophene (ITIC) devices. It is interesting that the high boiling solvent additive does have a negative impact on the power conversion efficiency when PTB7-Th is blended with ITIC acceptor. The solar cell devices are studied in terms of their optical, photophysical, and morphological properties and find out that PTB7-Th:ITIC devices with DIO results in coarser domains, reduced absorption strength, and slightly lower mobility, while DIO improves the absorption strength of the PTB7-Th:PC71BM blend film and increase the aggregation of PC71BM in the blend, resulting in higher fill factor and Jsc.

  15. Thermodynamics of TMPC/PSd/Fullerene Nanocomposites: SANS Study

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Yang-Choo; Chan, Alice; Wong, Him-Cheng; Higgins, Julia S.; Cabral, João T.

    2010-01-01

    ) analysis demonstrate that 1-2 mass % of C60 fullerenes destabilizes a highly interacting mixture of poly(tetramethyl bisphenol A polycarbonate) and deuterated polystyrene (TMPC/PSd). We unequivocally corroborate these findings with time-resolved temperature

  16. Electronic structure of single- and multiple-shell carbon fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Nori, F.

    1994-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multiple-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the π-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: C 240 , C 540 , C 960 , C 1500 , C 2160 , and C 2940 . Our iteration technique reduces the size of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of ∼12 and 20), while the symmetry-based approach reduces it by a factor of 10. We also find formulas for the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies of C 60n 2 fullerenes as a function of n, demonstrating a tendency towards a metallic regime for increasing n. For multiple-shell fullerenes, we analytically obtain the eigenvalues of the intershell interaction

  17. Exohedral and skeletal rearrangements in the molecules of fullerene derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' eva, Daria V; Ioffe, I N; Troyanov, Sergey I; Sidorov, Lev N [Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-31

    The data on the migration of monoatomic addends, perfluoroalkyl and more complex organic groups in the molecules of fullerene derivatives published mainly in the last decade are analyzed. Skeletal rearrangements of the carbon cage occurring during chemical reactions are considered.

  18. Electronic structure of C and Si fullerenes and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.

    1996-01-01

    Fullerenes, i.e., cage-structure clusters are now studied intensively as a building unit for a new class of materials. The electronic structure of C 60 and Si 20 fullerenes and their fullerides obtained in the framework of the density-functional theory is discussed with emphasis on the electronic as well as the geometrical hierarchy in superconducting fullerides. In both C 60 and Si 20 fullerides, the charge transfer from alkali atoms to fullerenes and the hybridization between alkaline-earth states and fullerene states are observed. Also A 3 C 60 and (Ba 3 Si 3 Na rate at Si 20 ) 2 superconductors are found to have high Fermi-level density of states, although the mechanism giving it is different in two materials. Interesting materials to be produced in the future are also discussed. (orig.)

  19. The applications of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinjian; Liu Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, nanotechnology and nanomaterials have gained rapid development in medical application, especially in targeted drug delivery and gene transfer vector domain, and nano-materials are also beginning to applied in nuclear medicine. This paper is to make a view of the application research of several types of nanomaterials in nuclear medicine, and discuss some problems and the main direction of future development. (authors)

  20. Identification of fullerenes in iron-carbon alloys structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUZEEV Iskander Rustemovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Steels of various purposes are used in the construction industry, for example, as the reinforcement material in reinforced concrete structures. In the oil and gas industry, steel structures are used for storage and transportation of explosive toxic media. In this case the catastrophic damages might take place, that points at insufficiently deep knowledge about the processes running in structural materials when load is applied. Recent studies show that many properties of steel are set at the nanoscale level during crystallization from the molten metal and thermal treatment. To detect and identify fullerenes С60 and С70, which are independent nanoscale objects in steel structure, by various methods requires studying of how these objects influence on formation of steel properties. Iron atoms can serve as a catalyst and, interacting with large aromatic structures or fragments of the graphite planes, they form voluminous fullerene-type structures. The inverse phenomenon, i.e. influence of the formed nanoscale objects on structuring of the iron atoms, is also possible, as fullerene size is comparable with the size of the stable nucleus of the iron crystalline phase. The article discusses the issue of mechanisms of fullerenes formation in steels and cast irons. The most complicated issue in the study is the fullerenes identification by spectral methods as the quantity of released molecules is small. In order to increase the sensitivity of the fullerenes IR-spectrometry method, potassium bromide has been proposed to use. Dried and reduced sediment obtained as a result of dissolving iron matrix in steels is mixed with potassium bromide, the mixture becomes bright-orange. This fact points to presence of bromic fullerenes and to presence of fullerenes in the studied specimens. It is shown that the offered specimen preparation algorithm significantly increases sensitivity of the method.

  1. Fullerenes: prospects of using in medicine, biology and ecology

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Schur; Z. Z. Matysina; S. Y. Zaginaichenko; N. P. Botsva; О. V. Elina

    2012-01-01

    Results of our own research and academic literature data on the properties of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes are analysed and summarized. Chemical stability of the structure and low toxicity of fullerenes determine their usage in medical chemistry, pharmacology and cosmetology. Due to its mechanical strength the nanotubes have become the basis of clean construction and barrier materials. It is shown that a matrix based on fullerit C60 can be obtained. It allows to store up to 7.7 wt. % hydro...

  2. Experimental and computational studies of Si-doped fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billas, I.M.L.; Tast, F.; Branz, W.; Malinowski, N.; Heinebrodt, M.; Martin, T.P.; Boero, M.; Massobrio, C.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Silicon in-cage doped fullerenes result from laser-induced photofragmentation of mixed clusters of composition C{sub 60}Si{sub x}. These parent clusters are produced in a low pressure condensation cell, through the mixing of silicon vapor with a vapor containing the preformed C{sub 60} molecules. The geometric and the electronic structures of fullerenes substitutionally doped with one and two silicon atoms are studied by ab-initio calculations within density functional theory. (orig.)

  3. Electronic Structure of Single- and Multiple-shell Carbon Fullerenes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yeong-Lieh; Nori, Franco

    1993-01-01

    We study the electronic states of giant single-shell and the recently discovered nested multi-shell carbon fullerenes within the tight-binding approximation. We use two different approaches, one based on iterations and the other on symmetry, to obtain the $\\pi$-state energy spectra of large fullerene cages: $C_{240}$, $C_{540}$, $C_{960}$, $C_{1500}$, $C_{2160}$ and $C_{2940}$. Our iteration technique reduces the dimensionality of the problem by more than one order of magnitude (factors of $\\...

  4. Optimizing Conditions for Ultrasound Extraction of Fullerenes from Coal Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, P.; Jehlička, J.; Frank, Otakar; Hamplová, Věra; Pokorná, Zdeňka; Juha, Libor; Boháček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2009), s. 109-122 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0772; GA ČR GA205/03/1468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : fullerene C60 * Ultrasound -assisted extraction * Extraction yield * Fullerene decomposition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2009

  5. Effects of fullerene (C60), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and hydroxyl and carboxyl modified single wall carbon nanotubes on riverine microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Waiser, M J; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Tumber, V; Paule, A; Hitchcock, A P; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R

    2016-05-01

    Commercial production of nanoparticles (NP) has created a need for research to support regulation of nanotechnology. In the current study, microbial biofilm communities were developed in rotating annular reactors during continuous exposure to 500 μg L(-1) of each nanomaterial and subjected to multimetric analyses. Scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) was used to detect and estimate the presence of the carbon nanomaterials in the biofilm communities. Microscopy observations indicated that the communities were visibly different in appearance with changes in abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria in particular. Microscale analyses indicated that fullerene (C60) did not significantly (p carbon utilization revealed few significant effects with the exception of the utilization of carboxylic acids. PCA and ANOSIM analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results indicated that the bacterial communities exposed to fullerene were not different from the control, the MWCNT and SWNT-OH differed from the control but not each other, whereas the SWCNT and SWCNT-COOH both differed from all other treatments and were significantly different from the control (p carbon nanomaterials significantly alter aspects of microbial community structure and function supporting the need for further evaluation of their effects in aquatic habitats.

  6. Engineering nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Man; Liu, Yang; Geng, Jinhui; Kou, Xiaohong; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Dayong

    2018-05-30

    Food safety always remains a grand global challenge to human health, especially in developing countries. To solve food safety pertained problems, numerous strategies have been developed to detect biological and chemical contaminants in food. Among these approaches, nanomaterials-based biosensors provide opportunity to realize rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection, overcoming the restrictions and limitations of traditional methods such as complicated sample pretreatment, long detection time, and relying on expensive instruments and well-trained personnel. In this review article, we provide a cross-disciplinary perspective to review the progress of nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of food contaminants. The review article is organized by the category of food contaminants including pathogens/toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and illegal additives. In each category of food contaminant, the biosensing strategies are summarized including optical, colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, and immune- biosensors; the relevant analytes, nanomaterials and biosensors are analyzed comprehensively. Future perspectives and challenges are also discussed briefly. We envision that our review could bridge the gap between the fields of food science and nanotechnology, providing implications for the scientists or engineers in both areas to collaborate and promote the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  8. Oscillation of nested fullerenes (carbon onions) in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamwattana, Ngamta; Hill, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Nested spherical fullerenes, which are sometimes referred to as carbon onions, of I h symmetries which have N(n) carbon atoms in the nth shell given by N(n) = 60n 2 are studied in this paper. The continuum approximation together with the Lennard-Jones potential is utilized to determine the resultant potential energy. High frequency nanoscale oscillators or gigahertz oscillators created from fullerenes and both single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have attracted much attention for a number of proposed applications, such as ultra-fast optical filters and ultra-sensitive nano-antennae that might impact on the development of computing and signalling nano-devices. Further, it is only at the nanoscale where such gigahertz frequencies can be achieved. This paper focuses on the interaction of nested fullerenes and the mechanics of such molecules oscillating in carbon nanotubes. Here we investigate such issues as the acceptance condition for nested fullerenes into carbon nanotubes, the total force and energy of the nested fullerenes, and the velocity and gigahertz frequency of the oscillating molecule. In particular, optimum nanotube radii are determined for which nested fullerenes oscillate at maximum velocity and frequency, which will be of considerable benefit for the design of future nano-oscillating devices

  9. Synthetic Strategies towards Fullerene-Rich Dendrimer Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Nierengarten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sphere-shaped fullerene has attracted considerable interest not least due to the peculiar electronic properties of this carbon allotrope and the fascinating materials emanating from fullerene-derived structures. The rapid development and tremendous advances in organic chemistry allow nowadays the modification of C60 to a great extent by pure chemical means. It is therefore not surprising that the fullerene moiety has also been part of dendrimers. At the initial stage, fullerenes have been examined at the center of the dendritic structure mainly aimed at possible shielding effects as exerted by the dendritic environment and light-harvesting effects due to multiple chromophores located at the periphery of the dendrimer. In recent years, also many research efforts have been devoted towards fullerene-rich nanohybrids containing multiple C60 units in the branches and/or as surface functional groups. In this review, synthetic efforts towards the construction of dendritic fullerene-rich nanostructures have been compiled and will be summarized herein.

  10. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible organic solar cells: comparison of fullerene and fullerene-free systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Kuan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Lin, Yuze

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of low-bandgap polymer donor PTB7-TH and nonfullerene small molecule acceptor IEIC were fabricated via a roll-coating process under ambient atmosphere. Both an indium tin oxide (ITO)-free substrate and a flexible ITO substrate were employed...... in these inverted OSCs. OSCs with flexible ITO and ITO-free substrates exhibited power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 2.26% and 1.79%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference devices based on fullerene acceptors under the same conditions. This is the first example for all roll......-coating fabrication procedures for flexible OSCs based on non-fullerene acceptors with the PCE exceeding 2%. The fullerene-free OSCs exhibited better dark storage stability than the fullerene-based control devices....

  11. Efficient Regular Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Pristine [70]Fullerene as Electron-Selective Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collavini, Silvia; Kosta, Ivet; Völker, Sebastian F; Cabanero, German; Grande, Hans J; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Delgado, Juan Luis

    2016-06-08

    [70]Fullerene is presented as an efficient alternative electron-selective contact (ESC) for regular-architecture perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A smart and simple, well-described solution processing protocol for the preparation of [70]- and [60]fullerene-based solar cells, namely the fullerene saturation approach (FSA), allowed us to obtain similar power conversion efficiencies for both fullerene materials (i.e., 10.4 and 11.4 % for [70]- and [60]fullerene-based devices, respectively). Importantly, despite the low electron mobility and significant visible-light absorption of [70]fullerene, the presented protocol allows the employment of [70]fullerene as an efficient ESC. The [70]fullerene film thickness and its solubility in the perovskite processing solutions are crucial parameters, which can be controlled by the use of this simple solution processing protocol. The damage to the [70]fullerene film through dissolution during the perovskite deposition is avoided through the saturation of the perovskite processing solution with [70]fullerene. Additionally, this fullerene-saturation strategy improves the performance of the perovskite film significantly and enhances the power conversion efficiency of solar cells based on different ESCs (i.e., [60]fullerene, [70]fullerene, and TiO2 ). Therefore, this universal solution processing protocol widens the opportunities for the further development of PSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Status seminar on the application potential of fullerenes. Status seminar and panel discussion; Statusseminar Anwendungspotential der Fullerene. Vortraege und Podiumsdiskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffschulz, H [comp.

    1997-12-31

    The application potential of fullerenes extends to the following areas: Owing to their similarity to active carbon the use of fullerenes as well as of the soot arising during their production in catalytic applications appears an interesting possibility. Structural modifications will permit influencing the catalytic properties of the employed substances. Addition of functional groups has led to a wide range of fullerne variants whose chemical properties and application potentials are still being studied. Polymers can be altered in their structure and properties by the integration of fullerenes. The possibility of increasing the photoconductivity of polymers in this way could be applied to photodetectors and solar cells, for example. Exposure to light causes fullerenes to polymerise and drastically reduces their solubility in commercial solvents. This may render them useful as a masking material in microstructuring. Diamond layers from fullerene vapour are very durable and can be manufactured in large sheets at comparatively low cost. In spite of their low density nanotubes are of incredible stiffness and as such an ideal component for composite materials. In monitors nanotubes can function as electron sources and replace the traditional cathode ray tube. A prerequisite for studying the properties of endohedral fullerenes is their availability in macroscopic amounts. In order to assess their potential it will first be necessary to develop suitable production methods. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Folgende Anwendungspotentiale fuer Fullorene sind denkbar: - Die Verwandtschaft der Fullerene und des bei ihrer Erzeugung anfallenden Russes zur Aktivkohle sind fuer katalytische Anwendungen interessant, wobei die Katalyseeigenschaften durch Modifizierungen der Struktur veraendert werden koennen. - Mittlerweile stehen eine Vielzahl verschiedener Fulleren-Modifikationen durch Anbringen von funktionellen Gruppen zur Verfuegung, deren chemische Eigenschaften und Anwendungspotentiale

  13. Specific features of fullerene-bearing thin film growth using ion beam vacuum sputtering of fullerene mixtures with B, Fe, Se, Gd and Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A.P.; Semenova, I.A.; Bulina, N.V.; Lopatin, V.A.; Karmanov, N.S.; Churilov, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to the growth of films containing fullerenes and doping elements is described. It is suggested that a cluster mechanism of the target sputtering by accelerated ions makes possible the deposition of fullerenes on a substrate with a certain probability for dopant atoms being introduced into the cavities of fullerene molecules and a higher probability of the doping element introduction between fullerene molecules. The proposed method has been experimentally implemented by using an Ar ion beam to sputter C 60 /C 70 fullerene mixtures, synthesized in a plasmachemical reactor at a pressure of 10 5 Pa and containing a doping element, i.e. Fe, Na, B, Gd or Se. Micron-thick films containing C 60 and C 70 fullerenes and the corresponding dopant element, i.e. Fe, Na, B, Gd or Se, were grown from dopant-containing fullerene mixtures by ion beam sputtering in a vacuum of ∼10 -2 Pa [ru

  14. Nanophotonics and Optical Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) is to plays a leadership role in integration of nanostructured materials to enable novel capabilities and applications through its function as a Department of Energy/Office of Science Nanoscale Science Research Center (NSRC) national user facility. By coupling open access to unique and world-class capabilities and scientific expertise to an active user community, CINT supports high-impact research that no other single institution could achieve – the whole of CINT including its user community is greater than the sum of its parts.

  15. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  16. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  17. Synthesis and post-processing of nanomaterials using microreaction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chih-Hung; Paul, Brian K.; Remcho, Vincent T.; Atre, Sundar; Hutchison, James E.

    2008-01-01

    A critical barrier to the routine use of nanomaterials is the tedious, expensive means of their synthesis. Microreaction technology takes advantage of the large surface area-to-volume ratios within microchannel structures to accelerate heat and mass transport. This accelerated transport allows for rapid changes in reaction temperatures and concentrations leading to more uniform heating and mixing which can have dramatic impacts on macromolecular yields and nanoparticle size distributions. Benefits of microreaction technology include higher yield and reactant conversion, better energy efficiency and less by-product generation. Microreactors can help minimize the environmental impact of nanoproduction by enabling solvent free mixing, integrated separation techniques and reagent recycling. The possibility of synthesizing nanomaterials in the required volumes at the point-of-use eliminates the need to store and transport potentially hazardous materials and provides the flexibility for tailoring complex functional nanomaterials. Recognizing these benefits for nanosynthesis, continuous flow microreactors have been used by several research groups to synthesize and characterize nanomaterials. An overview of these efforts and issues related to scale up and other post synthesis processes such as separation and deposition are presented in this paper.

  18. Nanotechnology in reproductive medicine: emerging applications of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Charalambous, Charis; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, nanotechnology has been extensively introduced for biomedical applications, including bio-detection, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging, particularly in the field of cancer diagnostics and treatment. However, there is a growing trend towards the expansion of nanobiotechnological tools in a number of non-cancer applications. In this review, we discuss the emerging uses of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology. For the first time, we summarise the available evidence regarding the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection and treatment of malignant and benign reproductive conditions. We also present an overview of potential applications for nanomaterials in reproductive biology, discuss the benefits and concerns associated with their use in a highly delicate system of reproductive tissues and gametes, and address the feasibility of this innovative and potentially controversial approach in the clinical setting and for investigative research into the mechanisms underlying reproductive diseases. This unique review paper focuses on the emerging use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology, highlighting the role of nanomaterials in the detection and treatment of various reproductive conditions, keeping in mind the benefits and potential concerns associated with nanomaterial use in the delicate system of reproductive tissue and gametes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of the Structural, Mechanical, and Electronic Properties of Fullerene Mixtures: A Molecular Simulations Description

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Aziz, Saadullah; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We investigate mixtures of fullerenes and fullerene derivatives, the most commonly used electron accepting materials in organic solar cells, by using a combination of molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods. Our goal is to describe

  20. Changes in Agglomeration of Fullerenes During Ingestion and Excretion in Thamnocephalus Platuyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus was exposed to aqueous suspensions of fullerenes C60 and C70. Aqueous fullerene suspensions were formed by stirring C60 and C70 as received from a commercial vendor in deionized water (term...

  1. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  2. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Chandra Mouli

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection. (paper)

  3. Non-Fullerene Electron Acceptors for Use in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2015-10-27

    The active layer in a solution processed organic photovoltaic device comprises a light absorbing electron donor semiconductor, typically a polymer, and an electron accepting fullerene acceptor. Although there has been huge effort targeted to optimize the absorbing, energetic, and transport properties of the donor material, fullerenes remain as the exclusive electron acceptor in all high performance devices. Very recently, some new non-fullerene acceptors have been demonstrated to outperform fullerenes in comparative devices. This Account describes this progress, discussing molecular design considerations and the structure–property relationships that are emerging. The motivation to replace fullerene acceptors stems from their synthetic inflexibility, leading to constraints in manipulating frontier energy levels, as well as poor absorption in the solar spectrum range, and an inherent tendency to undergo postfabrication crystallization, resulting in device instability. New acceptors have to address these limitations, providing tunable absorption with high extinction coefficients, thus contributing to device photocurrent. The ability to vary and optimize the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy level for a specific donor polymer is also an important requirement, ensuring minimal energy loss on electron transfer and as high an internal voltage as possible. Initially perylene diimide acceptors were evaluated as promising acceptor materials. These electron deficient aromatic molecules can exhibit good electron transport, facilitated by close packed herringbone crystal motifs, and their energy levels can be synthetically tuned. The principal drawback of this class of materials, their tendency to crystallize on too large a length scale for an optimal heterojunction nanostructure, has been shown to be overcome through introduction of conformation twisting through steric effects. This has been primarily achieved by coupling two units together, forming dimers

  4. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  5. Environmental fate and behaviour of nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified.......In the current report, the existing knowledge on the fate of nanomaterials in the environment is reviewed and the major knowledge gaps are identified....

  6. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  7. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  8. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-07

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  9. Antimicrobial and biocompatible properties of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Islam, M; Shehzad, A; Khan, S; Khattak, W A; Ullah, M W; Park, J K

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of drug-resistant characteristics in pathogenic viral, bacterial, and fungal species and the consequent spread of infectious diseases are currently receiving serious attention. Indeed, there is a pressing demand to explore novel materials and develop new strategies that can address these issues of serious concern. Nanomaterials are currently proving to be the most capable therapeutic agents to cope with such hazards. The exceptional physiochemical properties and impressive antimicrobial capabilities of nanoparticles have provoked their utilization in biomedical fields. Nanomaterials of both organic and inorganic nature have shown the capabilities of disrupting microbial cells through different mechanisms. Along with the direct influence on the microbial cell membrane, DNA and proteins, these nanomaterials produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cell components and viruses. Currently, a serious hazard associated with these antimicrobial nanomaterials is their toxicity to human and animal cells. Extensive studies have reported the dose, time, and cell-dependent toxicology of various nanomaterials, and some have shown excellent biocompatible properties. Nevertheless, there is still debate regarding the use of nanomaterials for medical applications. Therefore, in this review, the antimicrobial activities of various nanomaterials with details of their acting mechanisms were compiled. The relative toxic and biocompatible behavior of nanomaterials emphasized in this study provides information pertaining to their practical applicability in medical fields.

  10. Managing the Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Nanomaterials Report Research to date focuses predominantly on aquatic organisms of the oceans or seas; no groundwater or soil exposure scenarios have been...pollution, create medical innovations, or develop new materials based on old concepts (e.g., plastics , thin films, and transistors). As already...Risks of Nanomaterials Report consumption, land use, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification , eutrophication, tropospheric ozone formation

  11. In vitro assessments of nanomaterial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clinton F; Grainger, David W

    2009-06-21

    Nanotechnology has grown from a scientific interest to a major industry with both commodity and specialty nanomaterial exposure to global populations and ecosystems. Sub-micron materials are currently used in a wide variety of consumer products and in clinical trials as drug delivery carriers and imaging agents. Due to the expected growth in this field and the increasing public exposure to nanomaterials, both from intentional administration and inadvertent contact, improved characterization and reliable toxicity screening tools are required for new and existing nanomaterials. This review discusses current methodologies used to assess nanomaterial physicochemical properties and their in vitro effects. Current methods lack the desired sensitivity, reliability, correlation and sophistication to provide more than limited, often equivocal, pieces of the overall nanomaterial performance parameter space, particularly in realistic physiological or environmental models containing cells, proteins and solutes. Therefore, improved physicochemical nanomaterial assays are needed to provide accurate exposure risk assessments and genuine predictions of in vivo behavior and therapeutic value. Simpler model nanomaterial systems in buffer do not accurately duplicate this complexity or predict in vivo behavior. A diverse portfolio of complementary material characterization tools and bioassays are required to validate nanomaterial properties in physiology.

  12. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, Tommi, E-mail: t.p.tervonen@rug.n [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: igor.linkov@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Figueira, Jose Rui, E-mail: figueira@ist.utl.p [Technical University of Lisbon, CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: jeffery.a.steevens@usace.army.mil; Chappell, Mark, E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Merad, Myriam, E-mail: myriam.merad@ineris.f [INERIS BP 2, Societal Management of Risks Unit/Accidental Risks Division (France)

    2009-05-15

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  13. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopic studies for bioeffects of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cai, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiang; Zhong, Zengtao; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-04-01

    There have been increasing interests in studying biological effects of nanomaterials, which are nevertheless faced up with many challenges due to the nanoscale dimensions and unique chemical properties of nanomaterials. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, an advanced imaging technology with high spatial resolution and excellent elemental specificity, provides a new platform for studying interactions between nanomaterials and living systems. In this article, we review the recent progress of X-ray microscopic studies on bioeffects of nanomaterials in several living systems including cells, model organisms, animals and plants. We aim to provide an overview of the state of the art, and the advantages of using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for characterizing in vitro and in vivo behaviors and biodistribution of nanomaterials. We also expect that the use of a combination of new synchrotron techniques should offer unprecedented opportunities for better understanding complex interactions at the nano-biological interface and accounting for unique bioeffects of nanomaterials. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy is a non-destructive imaging technique that enables high resolution spatial mapping of metals with elemental level detection methods. This review summarizes the current use and perspectives of this novel technique in studying the biology and tissue interactions of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulating Exposure Concentrations of Engineered Nanomaterials in Surface Water Systems: Release of WASP8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Bouchard, D.; Zepp, R. G.; Henderson, W. M.; Han, Y.; Hsieh, H. S.; Avant, B. K.; Acrey, B.; Spear, J.

    2017-12-01

    The unique properties of engineered nanomaterials led to their increased production and potential release into the environment. Currently available environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate nanomaterials' environmental behavior. This is due to an incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. The well-known Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was updated to incorporate nanomaterial-specific processes, specifically hetero-aggregation with particulate matter. In parallel with this effort, laboratory studies were used to quantify parameter values parameters necessary for governing processes in surface waters. This presentation will discuss the recent developments in the new architecture for WASP8 and the newly constructed Advanced Toxicant Module. The module includes advanced algorithms for increased numbers of state variables: chemicals, solids, dissolved organic matter, pathogens, temperature, and salinity. This presentation will focus specifically on the incorporation of nanomaterials, with the applications of the fate and transport of hypothetical releases of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) and Graphene Oxide (GO) into the headwaters of a southeastern US coastal plains river. While this presentation focuses on nanomaterials, the advanced toxicant module can also simulate metals and organic contaminants.

  15. The study of dielectric properties of the endohedral fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Shusil

    Dielectric response of the metal nitride fullerenes is studied using the density functional theory at the all-electron level using generalized gradient approximation. The dielectric response is studied by computing the static dipole polarizabilities using the finite field method, i.e. by numerically differentiating the dipole moments with respect to electric field. The endohedral fullerenes studied in this work are Sc3N C68(6140), Sc3N C68(6146), Sc3N C70(7854), Sc3N C70(7960), Sc3N C76(17490), Sc3N C78(22010), Sc3N C80(31923), Sc3N C80(31924), Sc3N C82(39663), Sc3N C90(43), Sc3N C90(44), Sc3N C92(85), Sc3N C94(121), Sc3N C96(186), Sc3N C98(166). Using the Voronoi and Hirschfield approaches as implemented in our NRLMOL code, we determine the atomic contributions to the total polarizability. The site-specific contributions to the polarizability of endohedral fullerenes allowed us to determine the polarizability of two subsystems: the fullerene shell and the encapsulated Sc3N unit. Our results showed that the contributions to the total polarizability from the encapsulated Sc3N units are vanishingly small. Thus, the total polarizability of the endohedral fullerene is almost entirely due to the outer fullerene shell. These fullerenes are excellent molecular models of a Faraday cage.

  16. Preparation and characterization of stable aqueous higher-order fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aich, Nirupam; Flora, Joseph R V; Saleh, Navid B

    2012-01-01

    Stable aqueous suspensions of nC 60 and individual higher fullerenes, i.e. C 70 , C 76 and C 84 , are prepared by a calorimetric modification of a commonly used liquid–liquid extraction technique. The energy requirement for synthesis of higher fullerenes has been guided by molecular-scale interaction energy calculations. Solubilized fullerenes show crystalline behavior by exhibiting lattice fringes in high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The fullerene colloidal suspensions thus prepared are stable with a narrow distribution of cluster radii (42.7 ± 0.8 nm, 46.0 ± 14.0 nm, 60 ± 3.2 nm and 56.3 ± 1.1 nm for nC 60 , nC 70 , nC 76 and nC 84 , respectively) as measured by time-resolved dynamic light scattering. The ζ-potential values for all fullerene samples showed negative surface potentials with similar magnitude ( − 38.6 ± 5.8 mV, − 39.1 ± 4.2 mV, − 38.9 ± 5.8 mV and − 41.7 ± 5.1 mV for nC 60 , nC 70 , nC 76 and nC 84 , respectively), which provide electrostatic stability to the colloidal clusters. This energy-based modified solubilization technique to produce stable aqueous fullerenes will likely aid in future studies focusing on better applicability, determination of colloidal properties, and understanding of environmental fate, transport and toxicity of higher-order fullerenes. (paper)

  17. One-dimensional nanomaterials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Fan, Yuqi; Gu, Jianhang; Wu, Liming; Passerini, Stefano; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    The search for higher energy density, safer, and longer cycling-life energy storage systems is progressing quickly. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have a large length-to-diameter ratio, resulting in their unique electrical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties, and have wide applications as electrode materials in different systems. This article reviews the latest hot topics in applying 1D nanomaterials, covering both their synthesis and their applications. 1D nanomaterials can be grouped into the categories: carbon, silicon, metal oxides, and conducting polymers, and we structure our discussion accordingly. Then, we survey the unique properties and application of 1D nanomaterials in batteries and supercapacitors, and provide comments on the progress and advantages of those systems, paving the way for a better understanding of employing 1D nanomaterials for energy storage.

  18. Environmental assessment of nanomaterial use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølholt, Jesper; Gottschalk, Fadri; Brinch, Anna

    This is the concluding report of the project "Nanomaterials – occurrence and effects in the Danish environment" (abbreviated NanoDEN), which part the Danish Government's initiative "Better Control of Nanomaterials" (“Bedre styr på nanomaterialer”) which is administered by the Danish Environmental...... Protection Agency. The projects in NanoDEN have aimed to investigate and generate new environmentally relevant knowledge on of nanomaterials on the Danish market and to assess the possible associated risks to the environment. The results from the sub-projects are summarized in the current report...... and it is assessed whether and how nanomaterials may pose a risk for the environment in Denmark. The assessment is based on investigations of nine selected nanomaterials, which are expected to be environmentally relevant based on knowledge of consumption quantities or how they are used. These data contribute...

  19. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  20. A decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; Hadi, Mackenzie; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-03-15

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 'Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) that consists of 3 tiers to assign nanomaterials to 4 main groups, to perform sub-grouping within the main groups and to determine and refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways, i.e. intrinsic material and system-dependent properties, biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, cellular and apical toxic effects. Use (including manufacture), release and route of exposure are applied as 'qualifiers' within the DF4nanoGrouping to determine if, e.g. nanomaterials cannot be released from a product matrix, which may justify the waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble nanomaterials, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio nanomaterials, (3) passive nanomaterials, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping aims to group nanomaterials by their specific mode-of-action that results in an apical toxic effect. This is eventually directed by a nanomaterial's intrinsic properties. However, since the exact correlation of intrinsic material properties and apical toxic effect is not yet established, the DF4nanoGrouping uses the 'functionality' of nanomaterials for grouping rather than relying on intrinsic material properties alone. Such functionalities include system-dependent material properties (such as dissolution rate in biologically relevant media), bio-physical interactions, in vitro effects and release and exposure. The DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard and risk assessment tool that applies modern toxicology and contributes to the sustainable development of nanotechnological products. It ensures that no studies are performed that do not provide crucial data and therefore saves animals and resources. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Table of periodic properties of fullerenes based on structural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    The periodic table (PT) of the elements suggests that hydrogen could be the origin of everything else. The construction principle is an evolutionary process that is formally similar to those of Darwin and Oparin. The Kekulé structure count and permanence of the adjacency matrix of fullerenes are related to structural parameters involving the presence of contiguous pentagons p, q and r. Let p be the number of edges common to two pentagons, q the number of vertices common to three pentagons, and r the number of pairs of nonadjacent pentagon edges shared between two other pentagons. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the structural parameters and cluster analysis (CA) of the fullerenes permit classifying them and agree. A PT of the fullerenes is built based on the structural parameters, PCA and CA. The periodic law does not have the rank of the laws of physics. (1) The properties of the fullerenes are not repeated; only, and perhaps, their chemical character. (2) The order relationships are repeated, although with exceptions. The proposed statement is the following: The relationships that any fullerene p has with its neighbor p + 1 are approximately repeated for each period.

  2. Carboxylated Fullerene at the Oil/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongqiang; Chai, Yu; Jiang, Yufeng; Ashby, Paul D; Toor, Anju; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-10-04

    The self-assembly of carboxylated fullerene with poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) with different molecular weights, poly-2-vinylpyridine, and amine-terminated polystyrene, at the interface between toluene and water was investigated. For all values of the pH, the functionalized fullerene interacted with the polymers at the water/toluene interface, forming a nanoparticle network, reducing the interfacial tension. At pH values of 4.84 and 7.8, robust, elastic films were formed at the interface, such that hollow tubules could be formed in situ when an aqueous solution of the functionalized fullerene was jetted into a toluene solution of PS-b-P2VP at a pH of 4.84. With variation of the pH, the mechanical properties of the fullerene/polymer assemblies can be varied by tuning the strength of the interactions between the functionalized fullerenes and the PS-b-P2VP.

  3. Fullerene nanostructures, monolayers and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotier, B.N.

    2000-10-01

    The interaction of submonolayer, monolayer and multilayer coverages of C 60 with the Ag/Si(111)-(√3x√3)R30 deg. (√3Ag/Si) and Si(111)-7x7 surfaces has been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM). It is shown that it is possible to preserve the √3Ag/Si surface, normally corrupted by exposure to air, in ambient conditions when immersed beneath a few layers of C 60 molecules. Upon removal of the fullerene layers in the UHV-STM some corruption is observed which is linked to the morphology of the fullerene film (defined by the nature of the interaction of C 60 with √3Ag/Si). This technique opens up the possibility of performing experiments on the clean √3Ag/Si surface outside of UHV conditions. With the discovery of techniques whereby structures may be formed that are composed of only a few atoms/molecules, there is a need to perform electrical measurements in order to probe the fascinating properties of these 'nano-scale' devices. Using AFM, PES and STM evaporated metals and ion implantation have been investigated as materials for use in forming sub-micron scale contacts to nanostructures. It is found that ion implantation is a more promising approach after studying the response to annealing of treated surfaces. Electrical measurements between open/short circuited contacts and through Ag films clearly demonstrate the validity of the method, further confirmed by a PES study which probes the chemical nature of the near surface region of ion-implanted samples. Attempts have been made to form nanostructure templates between sub-micron scale contacts as a possible precursor to forming nanostructures. The bonding state of C 60 molecules on the Si(111)-7x7 surface has been in dispute for many years. To properly understand the system a comprehensive AFM, PES and STM study has been performed. PES results indicate covalent bond formation, with the number of bonds

  4. Review on the Synthesis and Applications of Fe3O4 Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Fe3O4 nanomaterials have attracted tremendous attention because of their favorable electric and magnetic properties. Fe3O4 nanostructures with various morphologies have been successfully synthesized and have been used in many fields such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, wastewater treatment, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. In this paper, we provide an in-depth discussion of recent development of Fe3O4 nanomaterials, including their effective synthetic methods and potential applications.

  5. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Modeling Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) Fate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform new chemical reviews of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) identified in pre-manufacture notices. However, environmental fate models developed for traditional contaminants are limited in their ability to simulate the environmental behavior of nanomaterials due to incomplete understanding and representation of the processes governing nanomaterial distribution in the environment and by scarce empirical data quantifying the interaction of nanomaterials with environmental surfaces. We have updated the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), version S, to incorporate nanomaterials as an explicitly simulated state variable. WASPS now has the capability to simulate nanomaterial fate and transport in surface waters and sediments using heteroaggregation, the kinetic process governing the attachment of nanomaterials to particles and subsequently ENM distribution in the aqueous and sediment phases. Unlike dissolved chemicals which use equilibrium partition coefficients, heteroaggregation consists of a particle collision rate and an attachment efficiency ( lXhet) that generally acts as a one direction process. To demonstrate, we used a derived a het value from sediment attachment studies to parameterize WASP for simulation of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) transport in Brier Creek, a coastal plain river located in central eastern Georgia, USA and a tr

  7. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials as Active Layer Components in Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Tejas Attreya

    to result in record breaking performance in a carbon nanotube solar cell, and subsequent chapters study the mechanisms behind charge transfer in the polychiral carbon nanotube / fullerene solar cell. Further processing advances, chiral distribution tailoring, and solvent additives are shown to enable more uniform and larger area carbon nanotube solar cells while maintaining record-breaking performance. In order to increase overall photovoltaic performance of a carbon nanotube active layer solar cell, this dissertation also demonstrates a ternary polymer-carbon nanotube-small molecule photovoltaic with high efficiency and stability enabled by the nanomaterial. Finally, the use of the two-dimensional metal dichalcogenide molybdenum disulfide as a photovoltaic material is explored in an ultrathin solar cell with higher efficiency per thickness than leading organic and inorganic thin-film photovoltaics. Overall, this work demonstrates breakthroughs in utilizing low-dimensional nanomaterials as active layer components in photovoltaics and will inform ongoing research in making ultrathin, stable, efficient solar cells.

  8. 2nd international conference on advanced nanomaterials and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, D; Perumal, A

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale science and technology have occupied centre stage globally in modern scientific research and discourses in the early twenty first century. The enabling nature of the technology makes it important in modern electronics, computing, materials, healthcare, energy and the environment. This volume contains selected articles presented (as Invited/Oral/Poster presentations) at the 2nd international conference on advanced materials and nanotechnology (ICANN-2011) held recently at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, during Dec 8-10, 2011. The list of topics covered in this proceedings include: Synthesis and self assembly of nanomaterials Nanoscale characterisation Nanophotonics & Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology Nanocomposites  F   Nanomagnetism Nanomaterials for Enery Computational Nanotechnology Commercialization of Nanotechnology The conference was represented by around 400 participants from several countries including delegates invited from USA, Germany, Japan, UK, Taiwan, Italy, Singapor...

  9. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Ohba, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Racz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Tér 18/c (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  10. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.; Gysel, Roman; Beiley, Zach; Miller, Chad E.; Toney, Michael F.; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; McGehee, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  11. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    KAUST Repository

    Cates, Nichole C.

    2009-12-09

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2012-10-02

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  13. Piezoelectric nanomaterials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Menciassi, Arianna

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscale structures and materials have been explored in many biological applications because of their novel and impressive physical and chemical properties. Such properties allow remarkable opportunities to study and interact with complex biological processes. This book analyses the state of the art of piezoelectric nanomaterials and introduces their applications in the biomedical field. Despite their impressive potentials, piezoelectric materials have not yet received significant attention for bio-applications. This book shows that the exploitation of piezoelectric nanoparticles in nanomedicine is possible and realistic, and their impressive physical properties can be useful for several applications, ranging from sensors and transducers for the detection of biomolecules to “sensible” substrates for tissue engineering or cell stimulation.

  14. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evanescent wave assisted nanomaterial coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samir K; Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Kumbhakar, Dharmadas; Tiwari, Umesh; Bhatnagar, Randhir

    2013-08-01

    In this work we present a novel nanomaterial coating technique using evanescent wave (EW). The gradient force in the EW is used as an optical tweezer for tweezing and self-assembling nanoparticles on the source of EW. As a proof of the concept, we have used a laser coupled etched multimode optical fiber, which generates EW for the EW assisted coating. The section-wise etched multimode optical fiber is horizontally and superficially dipped into a silver/gold nanoparticles solution while the laser is switched on. The fiber is left until the solution recedes due to evaporation leaving the fiber in air. The coating time usually takes 40-50 min at room temperature. The scanning electron microscope image shows uniform and thin coating of self-assembled nanoparticles due to EW around the etched section. A coating thickness optical fiber probes and other plasmonic circuits.

  16. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  17. Porphyrin and fullerene-based artificial photosynthetic materials for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Yukiyasu; Hasobe, Taku; Kimura, Makoto; Hanada, Takeshi; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Iwao; Araki, Yasuyuki; Ito, Osamu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed artificial photosynthetic systems in which porphyrins and fullerenes are self-assembled as building blocks into nanostructured molecular light-harvesting materials and photovoltaic devices. Multistep electron transfer strategy has been combined with our finding that porphyrin and fullerene systems have small reorganization energies, which are suitable for the construction of light energy conversion systems as well as artificial photosynthetic models. Highly efficient photosynthetic electron transfer reactions have been realized at ITO electrodes modified with self-assembled monolayers of porphyrin oligomers as well as porphyrin-fullerene linked systems. Porphyrin-modified gold nanoclusters have been found to have potential as artificial photosynthetic materials. These results provide basic information for the development of nanostructured artificial photosynthetic systems

  18. Simulating fullerene ball bearings of ultra-low friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    We report the direct molecular dynamics simulations for molecular ball bearings composed of fullerene molecules (C 60 and C 20 ) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The comparison of friction levels indicates that fullerene ball bearings have extremely low friction (with minimal frictional forces of 5.283 x 10 -7 and 6.768 x 10 -7 nN/atom for C 60 and C 20 bearings) and energy dissipation (lowest dissipation per cycle of 0.013 and 0.016 meV/atom for C 60 and C 20 bearings). A single fullerene inside the ball bearings exhibits various motion statuses of mixed translation and rotation. The influences of the shaft's distortion on the long-ranged potential energy and normal force are discussed. The phonic dissipation mechanism leads to a non-monotonic function between the friction and the load rate for the molecular bearings

  19. Preparation of Polyaniline-Doped Fullerene Whiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingzhe Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene C60 whiskers (FWs doped with polyaniline emeraldine base (PANI-EB were synthesized by mixing PANI-EB/N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP colloid and FWs suspension based on the nature of the electron acceptor of C60 and electron donor of PANI-EB. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectra characterized the morphology and molecular structure of the FWs doped with PANI-EB. SEM observation showed that the smooth surface of FWs was changed to worm-like surface morphology after being doped with PANI-EB. The UV-Vis spectra suggested that charge-transfer (CT complex of C60 and PANI-EB was formed as PANI-EBδ+-C60δ-. PANI-EB-doped FWs might be useful as a new type of antibacterial and self-cleaning agent as well as multifunctional material to improve the human health and living environment.

  20. Toxicology and cellular effect of manufactured nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanqing

    2014-07-22

    The increasing use of nanotechnology in consumer products and medical applications underlies the importance of understanding its potential toxic effects to people and the environment. Herein are described methods and assays to predict and evaluate the cellular effects of nanomaterial exposure. Exposing cells to nanomaterials at cytotoxic doses induces cell cycle arrest and increases apoptosis/necrosis, activates genes involved in cellular transport, metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Certain nanomaterials induce genes indicative of a strong immune and inflammatory response within skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the described multiwall carbon nanoonions (MWCNOs) can be used as a therapeutic in the treatment of cancer due to its cytotoxicity.

  1. Performance Enhancement of Carbon Nanomaterials for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene are exploited extensively due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and recently investigated for energy storage application (supercapacitor due to additional high specific surface area and chemical inertness properties. The supercapacitor is an energy storage device which, in addition to long cycle life (one million, can give energy density higher than parallel plate capacitor and power density higher than battery. In this paper, carbon nanomaterials and their composites are reviewed for prospective use as electrodes for supercapacitor. Moreover, different physical and chemical treatments on these nanomaterials which can potentially enhance the capacitance are also reviewed.

  2. Biophysical Influence of Airborne Carbon Nanomaterials on Natural Pulmonary Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Russell P.; Wu, Tony; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of nanoparticles (NP), including lightweight airborne carbonaceous nanomaterials (CNM), poses a direct and systemic health threat to those who handle them. Inhaled NP penetrate deep pulmonary structures in which they first interact with the pulmonary surfactant (PS) lining at the alveolar air–water interface. In spite of many research efforts, there is a gap of knowledge between in vitro biophysical study and in vivo inhalation toxicology since all existing biophysical models handl...

  3. Raman Spectrometer for the Characterization of Advanced Materials and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The grant focused on the purchase of a Renishaw InVia Raman microscope to support and enhance the research in...laser. The system includes an accessory for polarization (for 785 nm) and an optical cable that allows external Raman measurements. The manufacturer...UU 18-04-2016 1-Feb-2015 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Raman Spectrometer for the Characterization of Advanced Materials and Nanomaterials The views

  4. Applications and toxicity of graphene family nanomaterials and their composites

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Zorawar

    2016-01-01

    Zorawar Singh Department of Zoology, Khalsa College, Amritsar, Punjab, India Abstract: Graphene has attracted much attention of scientific community due to its enormous potential in different fields, including medical sciences, agriculture, food safety, cancer research, and tissue engineering. The potential for widespread human exposure raises safety concerns about graphene and its derivatives, referred to as graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs). Due to their unique chemical and physical pro...

  5. Comparative Study of the Electrochemical, Biomedical, and Thermal Properties of Natural and Synthetic Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Ferial; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Abdi, Mahnaz M.; Azli, Nur Farhana Waheeda Mohd; Abbasian, Maryam

    2018-04-01

    In this research, natural nanomaterials including cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), nanofiber cellulose (NFC), and synthetic nanoparticles such as carbon nanofiber (CNF) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with different structures, sizes, and surface areas were produced and analyzed. The most significant contribution of this study is to evaluate and compare these nanomaterials based on the effects of their structures and morphologies on their electrochemical, biomedical, and thermal properties. Based on the obtained results, the natural nanomaterials with low dimension and surface area have zero cytotoxicity effects on the living cells at 12.5 and 3.125 μg/ml concentrations of NFC and CNC, respectively. Meanwhile, synthetic nanomaterials with the high surface area around 15.3-21.1 m2/g and significant thermal stability (480 °C-600 °C) enhance the output of electrode by creating a higher surface area and decreasing the current flow resistance.

  6. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b{sup +} cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ning [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Kunugita, Naoki [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, 2-3-6, Minami, Wako 351-0197 (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Song, Yuan [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yokoyama, Mitsuru [Bio-information Research Center, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi [School of Health Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Yasuhiro, E-mail: freude@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. {yields} Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. {yields} CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-{alpha}. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-{kappa}B and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b{sup +} cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  7. Intratracheal administration of fullerene nanoparticles activates splenic CD11b+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ning; Kunugita, Naoki; Ichinose, Takamichi; Song, Yuan; Yokoyama, Mitsuru; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fullerene administration triggered splenic responses. → Splenic responses occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. → CD11b + cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene. - Abstract: Fullerene nanoparticles ('Fullerenes'), which are now widely used materials in daily life, have been demonstrated to induce elevated pulmonary inflammation in several animal models; however, the effects of fullerenes on the immune system are not fully understood. In the present study, mice received fullerenes intratracheally and were sacrificed at days 1, 6 and 42. Mice that received fullerenes exhibited increased proliferation of splenocytes and increased splenic production of IL-2 and TNF-α. Changes in the spleen in response to fullerene treatment occurred at different time-points than in the lung tissue. Furthermore, fullerenes induced CDK2 expression and activated NF-κB and NFAT in splenocytes at 6 days post-administration. Finally, CD11b + cells were demonstrated to function as responder cells to fullerene administration in the splenic inflammatory process. Taken together, in addition to the effects on pulmonary responses, fullerenes also modulate the immune system.

  8. Plasmonic Nanomaterial-Based Optical Biosensing Platforms for Virus Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanomaterials (P-NM are receiving attention due to their excellent properties, which include surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR effects, plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET, and magneto optical (MO effects. To obtain such plasmonic properties, many nanomaterials have been developed, including metal nanoparticles (MNP, bimetallic nanoparticles (bMNP, MNP-decorated carbon nanotubes, (MNP-CNT, and MNP-modified graphene (MNP-GRP. These P-NMs may eventually be applied to optical biosensing systems due to their unique properties. Here, probe biomolecules, such as antibodies (Ab, probe DNA, and probe aptamers, were modified on the surface of plasmonic materials by chemical conjugation and thiol chemistry. The optical property change in the plasmonic nanomaterials was monitored based on the interaction between the probe biomolecules and target virus. After bioconjugation, several optical properties, including fluorescence, plasmonic absorbance, and diffraction angle, were changed to detect the target biomolecules. This review describes several P-NMs as potential candidates of optical sensing platforms and introduces various applications in the optical biosensing field.

  9. Optical transitions and electronic interactions in self-assembled cobalt-fullerene mixture films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Chvostová, Dagmar; Lavrentieva, Inna; Vacík, Jiří; Daskal, Y.; Barchuk, M.; Rafaja, D.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 48 (2017), č. článku 485305. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : fullerene * cobalt * electronic interaction * optical absorption * mixture film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics , supercond.); Biophysics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  10. Evidence of interface exchange magnetism in self-assembled cobalt-fullerene nanocomposites exposed to air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Stupakov, Alexandr; Lavrentieva, Inna; Motylenko, M.; Barchuk, M.; Rafaja, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 125704. ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : fullerene * cobalt clusters * cobalt oxide * nanocomposite * interface exchange magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Electrical and electronic engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2016

  11. Modest vasomotor dysfunction induced by low doses of C60 fullerenes in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with different degree of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loft Steffen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to small size particulate matter in urban air is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular effects, whereas there is little information about the impact on the cardiovascular system by exposure to pure carbonaceous materials in the nano-size range. C60 fullerenes are nano-sized particles that are expected to have a widespread use, including cosmetics and medicines. Methods We investigated the association between intraperitoneal injection of pristine C60 fullerenes and vasomotor dysfunction in the aorta of 11–13 and 40–42 weeks old apolipoprotein E knockout mice (apoE-/- with different degree of atherosclerosis. Results The aged apoE-/-mice had lower endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation elicited by acetylcholine in aorta segments mounted in myographs and the phenylephrine-dependent vasoconstriction response was increased. One hour after an intraperitoneal injection of 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg of C60 fullerenes, the young apoE-/- mice had slightly reduced maximal endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. A similar tendency was observed in the old apoE-/- mice. Hampered endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was also observed as slightly increased EC50 of sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation response in young apoE-/- mice. Conclusion Treatment with C60 fullerenes affected mainly the response to vasorelaxation in young apoE-/- mice, whereas the vasomotor dysfunction in old apoE-/- mice with more advanced atherosclerosis was less affected by acute C60 fullerene treatment. These findings represent an important step in the hazard characterization of C60 fullerenes by showing that intraperitoneal administration is associated with a moderate decrease in the vascular function of mice with atherosclerosis.

  12. Affine Fullerene C60 in a GS-Quasigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Volenec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It will be shown that the affine fullerene C60, which is defined as an affine image of buckminsterfullerene C60, can be obtained only by means of the golden section. The concept of the affine fullerene C60 will be constructed in a general GS-quasigroup using the statements about the relationships between affine regular pentagons and affine regular hexagons. The geometrical interpretation of all discovered relations in a general GS-quasigroup will be given in the GS-quasigroup C(1/2(1+5.

  13. Exciton and Hole-Transfer Dynamics in Polymer: Fullerene Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Loosdrecht P. H. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast hole transfer dynamics from fullerene derivative to polymer in bulk heterojunction blends are studied with visible-pump - IR-probe spectroscopy. The hole transfer process is found to occur in 50/300 fs next to the interface, while a longer 15-ps time is attributed to exciton diffusion towards interface in PC71BM domains. High polaron generation efficiency in P3HT blends indicates excellent intercalation between the polymer and the fullerene even at highest PC71BM concentration thereby yielding a valuable information on the blend morphology.

  14. Properties of Natural Rubber-Based Composites Containing Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Hartomy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the influence of fullerenes in concentrations from 0.5 to 1.5 phr on both the vulcanization characteristics of the compounds and physicomechanical, dynamic, and dielectric properties and thermal aging resistance of nanocomposites on the basis of natural rubber has been investigated. The effect of the filler dispersion in the elastomeric matrix has been also investigated. Neat fullerene and the composites comprising it have been studied and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  15. Multiscale simulation of water flow past a C540 fullerene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Jens Honore; Praprotnik, Matej; Kotsalis, Evangelos M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel, three-dimensional, multiscale algorithm for simulations of water flow past a fullerene. We employ the Schwarz alternating overlapping domain method to couple molecular dynamics (MD) of liquid water around the C540 buckyball with a Lattice–Boltzmann (LB) description for the Nav......We present a novel, three-dimensional, multiscale algorithm for simulations of water flow past a fullerene. We employ the Schwarz alternating overlapping domain method to couple molecular dynamics (MD) of liquid water around the C540 buckyball with a Lattice–Boltzmann (LB) description...

  16. Carboxylated fullerene at the oil/water interface

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R; Chai, Y; Jiang, Y; Ashby, PD; Toor, A; Russell, TP

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 American Chemical Society. The self-assembly of carboxylated fullerene with poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) with different molecular weights, poly-2-vinylpyridine, and amine-terminated polystyrene, at the interface between toluene and water was investigated. For all values of the pH, the functionalized fullerene interacted with the polymers at the water/toluene interface, forming a nanoparticle network, reducing the interfacial tension. At pH values of 4.84 and 7.8, robust,...

  17. Nanomaterials in consumer's goods: the problems of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmoshinski, I V; Khotimchenko, S A

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials are currently used in wide variety of cosmetic products, while their use in food industry, packaging materials, household chemicals etc. still includes a limited number of items and does not show a significant upward trend. However, the problem of priority nanomaterials associated risks is relevant due to their high production volumes and an constantly growing burden on the environment and population. In accordance with the frequency of use in mass-produced consumer goods, leading priority nanomaterials are silver nanoparticles (NPs) and (by a wide margin) NPs of gold, platinum, and titanium dioxide. Frequency of nanosized silica introduction into food products as a food additive, at the moment, seems to be underestimated, since the use of this nanomaterial is not declared by manufacturers of products and objective control of its content is difficult. Analysis of literature data on toxicological properties of nanomaterials shows that currently accumulated amount of information is sufficient to establish the safe doses of nanosized silver, gold and titanium dioxide. Data have been provided in a series of studies concerning the effect of oral intake of nanosized silica on the condition of laboratory animals, including on the performance of the immune system. The article examines the existing approaches to the assessment of population exposure to priority nanomaterials, characteristics of existing problems and risk management. (paper)

  18. The effects of nanomaterials on blood coagulation in hemostasis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simak, Jan; De Paoli, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    The blood coagulation balance in the organism is achieved by the interaction of the blood platelets (PLTs) with the plasma coagulation system (PCS) and the vascular endothelial cells. In healthy organism, these systems prevent thrombosis and, in events of vascular damage, enable blood clotting to stop bleeding. The dysregulation of hemostasis may cause serious thrombotic and/or hemorrhagic pathologies. Numerous engineered nanomaterials are being investigated for biomedical purposes and are unavoidably exposed to the blood. Also, nanomaterials may access vascular system after occupational, environmental, or other types of exposure. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the effects of engineered nanomaterials on hemostasis. This review focuses on investigations of nanomaterial interactions with the blood components involved in blood coagulation: the PCS and PLTs. Particular emphases include the pathophysiology of effects of nanomaterials on the PCS, including the kallikrein-kinin system, and on PLTs. Methods for investigating these interactions are briefly described, and a review of the most important studies on the interactions of nanomaterials with plasma coagulation and platelets is provided. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1448. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1448 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. New m-alkoxy-p-fluorophenyl difluoroquinoxaline based polymers in efficient fullerene solar cells with high fill factor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xu, S.; Feng, L.; Yuan, J.; Cimrová, Věra; Chen, G.; Zhang, Z.-G.; Li, Y.; Peng, H.; Zou, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, November (2017), s. 7-15 ISSN 1566-1199 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-26542S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : quinoxaline * D-A copolymer * fullerene solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.399, year: 2016

  20. Engineered nanomaterials: toward effective safety management in research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Hofmann, Heinrich; Meyer, Thierry

    2016-03-15

    It is still unknown which types of nanomaterials and associated doses represent an actual danger to humans and environment. Meanwhile, there is consensus on applying the precautionary principle to these novel materials until more information is available. To deal with the rapid evolution of research, including the fast turnover of collaborators, a user-friendly and easy-to-apply risk assessment tool offering adequate preventive and protective measures has to be provided. Based on new information concerning the hazards of engineered nanomaterials, we improved a previously developed risk assessment tool by following a simple scheme to gain in efficiency. In the first step, using a logical decision tree, one of the three hazard levels, from H1 to H3, is assigned to the nanomaterial. Using a combination of decision trees and matrices, the second step links the hazard with the emission and exposure potential to assign one of the three nanorisk levels (Nano 3 highest risk; Nano 1 lowest risk) to the activity. These operations are repeated at each process step, leading to the laboratory classification. The third step provides detailed preventive and protective measures for the determined level of nanorisk. We developed an adapted simple and intuitive method for nanomaterial risk management in research laboratories. It allows classifying the nanoactivities into three levels, additionally proposing concrete preventive and protective measures and associated actions. This method is a valuable tool for all the participants in nanomaterial safety. The users experience an essential learning opportunity and increase their safety awareness. Laboratory managers have a reliable tool to obtain an overview of the operations involving nanomaterials in their laboratories; this is essential, as they are responsible for the employee safety, but are sometimes unaware of the works performed. Bringing this risk to a three-band scale (like other types of risks such as biological, radiation

  1. Modification and characterization of (energetic) nanomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Peppel, R.J.E. van de; Abadjieva, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a topic of increased interest, since they have properties which differ from their macroscopic counterparts. Many applications nowadays take advantage of the new functionalities which natural and manufactured nanoparticles possess. Based on these developments, also the research on

  2. Review of ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a letter report from the Executive Committee of the BOSC concerning the review of the ORD Nanomaterial Case Studies Workshop: Developing a Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Research Strategy for Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide.

  3. Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public) are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). However, understanding of the health and sa...

  4. Assessing the Environmental Safety of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology research in the United States is coordinated under the National Nano-technology Initiative with the goal of fostering development and implementation of nanomaterials and products that incorporate them and assuring that they are environmentally safe. The environmen...

  5. Method to synthesize metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    Metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials can be synthesized from metal alkoxide precursors by solution precipitation or solvothermal processing. The synthesis routes are more scalable, less complex and easier to implement than other synthesis routes.

  6. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Characterization of nanomaterials in food by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Tiede, Karen; Löschner, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    (e.g., size and shape).This review presents an overview of electron microscopy (EM)-based methods that have been, or have the potential to be, applied to imaging ENMs in foodstuffs. We provide an overview of approaches to sample preparation, including drying, chemical treatment, fixation......Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly being used in the food industry. In order to assess the efficacy and the risks of these materials, it is essential to have access to methods that not only detect the nanomaterials, but also provide information on the characteristics of the materials...... and cryogenic methods. We then describe standard and non-standard EM-based approaches that are available for imaging prepared samples. Finally, we present a strategy for selecting the most appropriate method for a particular foodstuff....

  8. Comparing the Device Physics and Morphology of Polymer Solar Cells Employing Fullerenes and Non-Fullerene Acceptors

    KAUST Repository

    Bloking, Jason T.

    2014-04-23

    There is a need to find electron acceptors for organic photovoltaics that are not based on fullerene derivatives since fullerenes have a small band gap that limits the open-circuit voltage (VOC), do not absorb strongly and are expensive. Here, a phenylimide-based acceptor molecule, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), that can be used to make solar cells with VOC values up to 1.11 V and power conversion efficiencies up to 3.7% with two thiophene polymers is demonstrated. An internal quantum efficiency of 56%, compared to 75-90% for polymer-fullerene devices, results from less efficient separation of geminate charge pairs. While favorable energetic offsets in the polymer-fullerene devices due to the formation of a disordered mixed phase are thought to improve charge separation, the low miscibility (<5 wt%) of HPI-BT in polymers is hypothesized to prevent the mixed phase and energetic offsets from forming, thus reducing the driving force for charges to separate into the pure donor and acceptor phases where they can be collected. A small molecule electron acceptor, 4,7-bis(4-(N-hexyl-phthalimide)vinyl)benzo[c]1,2,5-thiadiazole (HPI-BT), achieves efficiencies of 3.7% and open-circuit voltage values of 1.11 V in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices with polythiophene donor materials. The lower internal quantum efficiency (56%) in these non-fullerene acceptor devices is attributed to an absence of the favorable energetic offsets resulting from nanoscale mixing of donor and acceptor found in comparable fullerene-based devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Systemic Absorption of Nanomaterials by Oral Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Bredsdorff, Lea; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches.......This report and accompanying database systematically evaluates the reliability and relevance of the existing scientific literature regarding systemic absorption of nanomaterials by oral exposure and makes specific recommendations for future testing approaches....

  10. Rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Renyuan

    2015-08-26

    The ever-increasing human demand for safe and clean water is gradually pushing conventional water treatment technologies to their limits and it is now a popular perception that the solutions to the existing and future water challenges will highly hinge upon the further development of nanomaterial sciences. The concept of rational design emphasizes ‘design-for-purpose’ and it necessitates a scientifically clear problem definition to initiate the nanomaterial design. The field of rational design of nanomaterials for water treatment has experienced a significant growth in the past decade and is poised to make its contribution in creating advanced next-generation water treatment technologies in the years to come. Within the water treatment context, this review offers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of the latest progress of the rational design, synthesis and applications of nanomaterials in adsorption, chemical oxidation and reduction reactions, membrane-based separation, oil/water separation, and synergistic multifunctional all-in-one nanomaterials/nanodevices. Special attention is paid on chemical concepts of the nanomaterial designs throughout the review.

  11. Electrical discharge machining of carbon nanomaterials in air: machining characteristics and the advanced field emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ok, Jong Girl; Kim, Bo Hyun; Chung, Do Kwan; Sung, Woo Yong; Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Se Won; Kim, Wal Jun; Park, Jin Woo; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and precise machining process, electrical discharge machining (EDM), was investigated in depth as a novel method for the engineering of carbon nanomaterials. The machining characteristics of EDM applied to carbon nanomaterials 'in air' were systematically examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The EDM process turned out to 'melt' carbon nanomaterials with the thermal energy generated by electrical discharge, which makes both the materially and geometrically unrestricted machining of nanomaterials possible. Since the EDM process conducted in air requires neither direct contact nor chemical agents, it protects the carbon nanomaterial workpieces against physical damage and unnecessary contamination. From this EDM method, several advanced field emission applications including 'top-down' patterning and the creative lateral comb-type triode device were derived, while our previously reported study on emission uniformity enhancement by the EDM method was also referenced. The EDM method has great potential as a clean, effective and practical way to utilize carbon nanomaterials for various uses

  12. Application of dental nanomaterials: potential toxicity to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Jianfeng; Shao, Longquan; Wei, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are defined as materials with one or more external dimensions with a size of 1-100 nm. Such materials possess typical nanostructure-dependent properties (eg, chemical, biological, optical, mechanical, and magnetic), which may differ greatly from the properties of their bulk counterparts. In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in the production of dental materials, particularly in light polymerization composite resins and bonding systems, coating materials for dental implants, bioceramics, endodontic sealers, and mouthwashes. However, the dental applications of nanomaterials yield not only a significant improvement in clinical treatments but also growing concerns regarding their biosecurity. The brain is well protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates the blood from the cerebral parenchyma. However, in recent years, many studies have found that nanoparticles (NPs), including nanocarriers, can transport through the BBB and locate in the central nervous system (CNS). Because the CNS may be a potential target organ of the nanomaterials, it is essential to determine the neurotoxic effects of NPs. In this review, possible dental nanomaterials and their pathways into the CNS are discussed, as well as related neurotoxicity effects underlying the in vitro and in vivo studies. Finally, we analyze the limitations of the current testing methods on the toxicological effects of nanomaterials. This review contributes to a better understanding of the nano-related risks to the CNS as well as the further development of safety assessment systems.

  13. The role of nanomaterials in future microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielisse, P.J.; Jakubowska, M.; Niculescu, H.

    2003-01-01

    The unique physical properties of the many nanosized atomic structures (buckyballs, fullerenes, and nanotubes) which have been developed over the last decade or so, hold much promise in the development of attractive applications in the micro- and nano- electronic areas. In their simplest form a nanotube can be envisioned as a graphite sheet- a one-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a hexagon array- rolled up into a single wall tube, often capped on one or both sides by a fullerene hemisphere. Not all synthesis processes lead to development of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs). More often than not, structures that consist of several nested tubes, multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), result. This paper will review the current 'product' status of both types of NTs, the impact of various synthesis systems on their size, morphology, structural perfection and ultimate properties and on the more commonly envisioned applications in electronics. (author)

  14. Solvent-free functionalization of fullerene C{sub 60} and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes with aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Calera, Itzel J. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Meza-Laguna, Victor [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Gromovoy, Taras Yu. [O.O. Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Gen. Naumova 17, 03164 Kiev (Ukraine); Chávez-Uribe, Ma. Isabel [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Vladimir A., E-mail: basiuk@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, Elena V., E-mail: elbg1111@gmail.com [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior C. U., 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with aromatic amines. • The amines add onto nanotube defects, likewise they add onto fullerene C{sub 60}. • The addition takes place at elevated temperature and without organic solvents. • Functionalized nanotubes were characterized by a number of instrumental techniques. - Abstract: We employed a direct one-step solvent-free covalent functionalization of solid fullerene C{sub 60} and pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with aromatic amines 1-aminopyrene (AP), 2-aminofluorene (AF) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The reactions were carried out under moderate vacuum, in a wide temperature range of 180–250 °C, during relatively short time of about 2 h. To confirm successful amine attachment, a large number of analytical techniques were used (depending on the nanomaterial functionalized) such as Fourier transform infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, {sup 13}C cross-polarization magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, temperature-programmed desorption with mass spectrometric detection, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The nucleophilic addition of the aromatic amines to C{sub 60} molecule was studied theoretically by using density functional theory (PBE GGA functional with Grimme dispersion correction in conjunction with the DNP basis set). In the case of crystalline C{sub 60}, the solvent-free technique has a limited applicability due to poor diffusion of vaporous aromatic amines into the bulk. Nevertheless, the approach proposed allows for a facile preparation of aromatic amine-functionalized pristine MWCNTs without contamination with other chemical reagents, detergents and solvents, which is especially important for a vast variety of nanotube applications spanning from nanoelectronics to nanomedicine.

  15. Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of fullerene, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene and their derivatives with oxygen-containing functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Li, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical properties (NLO) and optical limiting effect of fullerene (C 60 ), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and their oxygenated derivatives were investigated by open-aperture Z-scan technique with nanosecond pulses at 532 nm. C 60 functionalized by oxygen-containing functional groups exhibits weaker NLO properties than that of pristine C 60 . Graphene oxide (GO) with many oxygen-containing functional groups also shows weaker NLO properties than that of RGO. That can be attributed to the disruption of conjugative structures of C 60 and graphene by oxygen-containing functional groups. However, MWNTs and their oxygenated derivatives exhibit comparable NLO properties due to the small weight ratio of these oxygen-containing groups. To investigate the correlation between structures and NLO response for these carbon nanomaterials with different dimensions, nonlinear scattered signal spectra versus input fluence were also measured. (paper)

  16. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  17. Ultimate performance of polymer: Fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J.D.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer:fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum

  18. Fullerene derivatives as components for 'plastic' photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummelen, J.C.; Knol, J.; Kadish, KM; Ruoff, RS

    1998-01-01

    Derivatives of [60]fullerene, mixed with conducting polymers to yield donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction (beta-junction) materials, are useful in 'plastic' photovoltaic devices. In order to enhance the charge carrier mobilities in the two individual interpenetrating networks, one important goal of

  19. Fullerene Derivatives as Components for ‘Plastic’ Photovoltaic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Joop; Hummelen, Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Derivatives of [60]fullerene, mixed with conducting polymers to yield donor-acceptor bulk-heterojunction (β-junction) materials, are useful in ‘plastic’ photovoltaic devices. In order to enhance the charge carrier mobilities in the two individual interpenetrating networks, one important goal of our

  20. Bipolar polaron pair recombination in polymer/fullerene solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupijai, Alexander J.; Behringer, Konstantin M.; Schaeble, Florian G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the rate-limiting spin-dependent charge-transfer processes in different polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells at 10 K. Observing central spin-locking signals in pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance and an inversion of Rabi oscillations in multifrequency...

  1. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  2. Local magnetism in rare-earth metals encapsulated in fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nadai, C; Mirone, A; Dhesi, SS; Bencok, P; Brookes, NB; Marenne, [No Value; Rudolf, P; Tagmatarchis, N; Shinohara, H; Dennis, TJS; Marenne, I.; Nadaï, C. De

    Local magnetic properties of rare-earth (RE) atoms encapsulated in fullerenes have been characterized using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The orbital and spin contributions of the magnetic moment have been determined through sum rules and theoretical

  3. APPLICATION FULLERENE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT PRODUCTS CONTAINING KLENBUTEROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In modern conditions the majority of developing livestock complexes, various chemical additives, apply to cattle feeding. One of such preparations is clenbuterol. Clenbuterol is β-2-adrenostimulyator belonging to group β-agonist who stimulate growth of muscular weight and regulate a ratio of fatty and muscular tissue at cultivation of agricultural animals and birds. In Russia results of researches in which it is recommended to apply clenbuterol as a growth factor at cattle cultivation are published. Thus the risk of influences of the residual maintenance of a preparation in animal husbandry production on health of consumers wasn't estimated. We conducted researches in the field of studying of properties fullerene and clenbuterol and their opportunities interaction among themselves. For identification clenbuterol in meat raw materials the synthesis of Prato based on a functionalization fullerene by C60 and C70 consisting in its transformation in fullerene on reactions of a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide on multiple communications of C=C of a fulleren kernel was moved. Reaction took place with allocation of a deposit of the dark color which analysis proved that is a product of interaction of substances investigated by us. This experiment gives the chance to identify clenbuterolfullerene.

  4. Raman spectroelectrochemistry of ordered C-60 fullerene layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krause, M.; Deutsch, D.; Dunsch, L.; Janda, Pavel; Kavan, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2005), s. 159-166 ISSN 1536-383X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : fullerenes * thin films * nanostructuring * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2005

  5. Thermodynamics of association of water soluble fullerene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SONANKI KESHRI

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Entropic and enthalpic contributions to the association of solute molecules are calculated ... authors.7,46–70 The association of fullerene in aque- ous media is ..... The main mechanism accounting for the stabiliza- tion of the ...

  6. Photoconducting properties of fullerene derivatized with a biphenil moiety

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corvis, Y.; Trzcinska, K.; Rink, R.; Bílková, Petra; Gorecka, E.; Bilewicz, R.; Rogalska, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2006), s. 1899-1907 ISSN 0137- 5083 Grant - others:Research Training Network(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : fullerene * photoconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2006

  7. Nanomaterials for Cancer Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilong; Sun, Shuyang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shi, Donglu

    2018-04-01

    Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers. This new approach is fundamentally different from all conventional cancer therapies that rely on diagnosis of the anatomic origins where the tumors are found. To treat cancers at molecular level, a recently developed "microRNA replacement therapy" is applied, utilizing nanocarriers, in order to regulate the driver oncogene, which is the core of cancer precision therapeutics. Furthermore, the outcome of the nanomediated oncogenic regulation has to be accurately assessed by the genetically characterized, patient-derived xenograft models. Cancer therapy in this fashion is a quintessential example of precision medicine, presenting many challenges to the materials communities with new issues in structural design, surface functionalization, gene/drug storage and delivery, cell targeting, and medical imaging. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Carbon-rich dust past the asymptotic giant branch: Aliphatics, aromatics, and fullerenes in the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Zijlstra, A. A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Weis, A. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matsuura, M. [Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Volk, K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Peeters, E.; Cami, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Duley, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bernard-Salas, J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Kemper, F. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F Astronomy-Mathematics Building, NTU/AS, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China); Sahai, R., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Infrared spectra of carbon-rich objects that have evolved off the asymptotic giant branch reveal a range of dust properties, including fullerenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and several unidentified features, including the 21 μm emission feature. To test for the presence of fullerenes, we used the position and width of the feature at 18.7-18.9 μm and examined other features at 17.4 and 6-9 μm. This method adds three new fullerene sources to the known sample, but it also calls into question three previous identifications. We confirm that the strong 11 μm features seen in some sources arise primarily from SiC, which may exist as a coating around carbonaceous cores and result from photo-processing. Spectra showing the 21 μm feature usually show the newly defined Class D PAH profile at 7-9 μm. These spectra exhibit unusual PAH profiles at 11-14 μm, with weak contributions at 12.7 μm, which we define as Class D1, or show features shifted to ∼11.4, 12.4, and 13.2 μm, which we define as Class D2. Alkyne hydrocarbons match the 15.8 μm feature associated with 21 μm emission. Sources showing fullerene emission but no PAHs have blue colors in the optical, suggesting a clear line of sight to the central source. Spectra with 21 μm features and Class D2 PAH emission also show photometric evidence for a relatively clear line of sight to the central source. The multiple associations of the 21 μm feature with aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that the carrier is related to this material in some way.

  9. Carbon-rich dust past the asymptotic giant branch: Aliphatics, aromatics, and fullerenes in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, G. C.; Lagadec, E.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Kraemer, K. E.; Weis, A. P.; Matsuura, M.; Volk, K.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J.; Duley, W. W.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Kemper, F.; Sahai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectra of carbon-rich objects that have evolved off the asymptotic giant branch reveal a range of dust properties, including fullerenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons, and several unidentified features, including the 21 μm emission feature. To test for the presence of fullerenes, we used the position and width of the feature at 18.7-18.9 μm and examined other features at 17.4 and 6-9 μm. This method adds three new fullerene sources to the known sample, but it also calls into question three previous identifications. We confirm that the strong 11 μm features seen in some sources arise primarily from SiC, which may exist as a coating around carbonaceous cores and result from photo-processing. Spectra showing the 21 μm feature usually show the newly defined Class D PAH profile at 7-9 μm. These spectra exhibit unusual PAH profiles at 11-14 μm, with weak contributions at 12.7 μm, which we define as Class D1, or show features shifted to ∼11.4, 12.4, and 13.2 μm, which we define as Class D2. Alkyne hydrocarbons match the 15.8 μm feature associated with 21 μm emission. Sources showing fullerene emission but no PAHs have blue colors in the optical, suggesting a clear line of sight to the central source. Spectra with 21 μm features and Class D2 PAH emission also show photometric evidence for a relatively clear line of sight to the central source. The multiple associations of the 21 μm feature with aliphatic hydrocarbons suggest that the carrier is related to this material in some way.

  10. Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Gottschalk, Fadri; Seeger, Stefan; Nowack, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Not much is known so far about the amounts of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that are produced but this information is crucial for environmental exposure assessment. This paper provides worldwide and Europe-wide estimates for the production and use of ten different ENM (TiO 2 , ZnO, FeO x , AlO x , SiO 2 , CeO 2 , Ag, quantum dots, CNT, and fullerenes) based on a survey sent to companies producing and using ENM. The companies were asked about their estimate of the worldwide or regional market and not about their company-specific production, information that they would be less likely to communicate. The study focused on the actual production quantities and not the production capacities. The survey also addressed information on distribution of the produced ENM to different product categories. The results reveal that some ENM are produced in Europe in small amounts (less than 10 t/year for Ag, QDs and fullerenes). The most produced ENM is TiO 2 with up to 10,000 t of worldwide production. CeO 2 , FeO x , AlO x , ZnO, and CNT are produced between 100 and 1000 t/year. The data for SiO 2 cover the whole range from less than 10 to more than 10,000 t/year, which is indicative of problems related to the definition of this material (is pyrogenic silica considered an ENM or not?). For seven ENM we have obtained the first estimates for their distribution to different product categories, information that also forms the base for life-cycle based exposure analysis.

  11. Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Gottschalk, Fadri; Seeger, Stefan; Nowack, Bernd

    2012-09-01

    Not much is known so far about the amounts of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that are produced but this information is crucial for environmental exposure assessment. This paper provides worldwide and Europe-wide estimates for the production and use of ten different ENM (TiO2, ZnO, FeO x , AlO x , SiO2, CeO2, Ag, quantum dots, CNT, and fullerenes) based on a survey sent to companies producing and using ENM. The companies were asked about their estimate of the worldwide or regional market and not about their company-specific production, information that they would be less likely to communicate. The study focused on the actual production quantities and not the production capacities. The survey also addressed information on distribution of the produced ENM to different product categories. The results reveal that some ENM are produced in Europe in small amounts (less than 10 t/year for Ag, QDs and fullerenes). The most produced ENM is TiO2 with up to 10,000 t of worldwide production. CeO2, FeO x , AlO x , ZnO, and CNT are produced between 100 and 1000 t/year. The data for SiO2 cover the whole range from less than 10 to more than 10,000 t/year, which is indicative of problems related to the definition of this material (is pyrogenic silica considered an ENM or not?). For seven ENM we have obtained the first estimates for their distribution to different product categories, information that also forms the base for life-cycle based exposure analysis.

  12. Cellulose nanomaterials as green nanoreinforcements for polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Alain

    2017-12-01

    Unexpected and attractive properties can be observed when decreasing the size of a material down to the nanoscale. Cellulose is no exception to the rule. In addition, the highly reactive surface of cellulose resulting from the high density of hydroxyl groups is exacerbated at this scale. Different forms of cellulose nanomaterials, resulting from a top-down deconstruction strategy (cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibrils) or bottom-up strategy (bacterial cellulose), are potentially useful for a large number of industrial applications. These include the paper and cardboard industry, use as reinforcing filler in polymer nanocomposites, the basis for low-density foams, additives in adhesives and paints, as well as a wide variety of filtration, electronic, food, hygiene, cosmetic and medical products. This paper focuses on the use of cellulose nanomaterials as a filler for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites. Impressive mechanical properties can be obtained for these materials. They obviously depend on the type of nanomaterial used, but the crucial point is the processing technique. The emphasis is on the melt processing of such nanocomposite materials, which has not yet been properly resolved and remains a challenge. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  13. Current applications and future prospects of nanomaterials in tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yu Huang,1 Chao-Qiang Fan,1 Hui Dong,1 Su-Min Wang,1 Xiao-Chao Yang,2 Shi-Ming Yang1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Tumors are one of the most serious human diseases and cause numerous global deaths per year. In spite of many strategies applied in tumor therapy, such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and a combination of these treatments, tumors are still the foremost killer worldwide among human diseases, due to their specific limitations, such as multidrug resistance and side effects. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to develop new strategies for tumor therapy. Recently, the fast development of nanoscience has paved the way for designing new strategies to treat tumors. Nanomaterials have shown great potential in tumor therapy, due to their unique properties, including passive targeting, hyperthermia effects, and tumor-specific inhibition. This review summarizes the recent progress using the innate antitumor properties of metallic and nonmetallic nanomaterials to treat tumors, and related challenges and prospects are discussed. Keywords: tumor, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

  14. Biocompatible Nanomaterials and Nanodevices Promising for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkowska, Izabela; Giannona, Suna; Rojas-Chapana, José A.; Luecke, Klaus; Brüstle, Oliver; Giersig, Michael

    Nanotechnology applied to biology requires a thorough understanding of how molecules, sub-cellular entities, cells, tissues, and organs function and how they are structured. The merging of nanomaterials and life science into hybrids of controlled organization and function is possible, assuming that biology is nanostructured, and therefore man-made nano-materials can structurally mimic nature and complement each other. By taking advantage of their special properties, nanomaterials can stimulate, respond to and interact with target cells and tissues in controlled ways to induce desired physiological responses with a minimum of undesirable effects. To fulfill this goal the fabrication of nano-engineered materials and devices has to consider the design of natural systems. Thus, engineered micro-nano-featured systems can be applied to biology and biomedicine to enable new functionalities and new devices. These include, among others, nanostructured implants providing many advantages over existing, conventional ones, nanodevices for cell manipulation, and nanosensors that would provide reliable information on biological processes and functions.

  15. Intraperitoneal Exposure to Nano/Microparticles of Fullerene (C60) Increases Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Forno, Gonzalo Ogliari; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri; Fritsch, Rachel Seemann; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Britto, Roberta Socoowski; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Bonan, Carla Denise; Monserrat, José María; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2013-01-01

    Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30 mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure. PMID:23865059

  16. [60]Fullerene Displacement from (Dihapto-Buckminster-Fullerene) Pentacarbonyl Tungsten(0): An Experiment for the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Figueroa, Jose E.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics experiments on the ligand-C[subscript 60] exchange reactions on (dihapto-[60]fullerene) pentacarbonyl tungsten(0), ([eta][superscript 2]-C[subscript 60])W(CO)[subscript 5], form an educational activity for the inorganic chemistry laboratory that promotes graphical thinking as well as the understanding of kinetics, mechanisms, and the…

  17. Thermal effect on structure organizations in cobalt-fullerene nanocomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentiev, Vasily; Vacik, Jiri; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Seiji

    2010-04-01

    Effect of deposition temperature (Ts) on structure of Co-C60 nanocomposite (NC) prepared by simultaneous deposition of cobalt and fullerene on sapphire is presented. The NC structure variations with Ts increasing from room temperature (RT) to 400 degrees C have been analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. AFM and SEM show granule-like structure of the Co-C60 film. The mixture film deposited at RT includes the hills on the surface suggesting accumulation of internal stress during phase separation. Raman spectra show 25 cm(-1) downshift of Ag(2) C60 peak suggesting -Co-C60- polymerization in C60-based matrix of the NC film. Analysis of Raman spectra has revealed existence of amorphous carbon (a-C) in the NC matrix that argues C60 decomposition. The Ts increase to 200 degrees C causes the surface hills smoothing. In parallel, downshift of the Ag(2) peak decreases to 16 cm(-1) that implies more pronounced phase separation and lower -Co-C60- polymerization efficiency. Also, amount of a-C content slightly increases. Further Ts increasing to 400 degrees C changes the NC structure dramatically. AFM shows evident enlargement of the granules. According to Raman spectra the high Ts deposition yields pronounced C60 decomposition increasing the a-C content. Features of a-C Raman peak imply nucleation of graphitic islands at the NC interfaces. Abundant decomposition of C60 in the mixture film deposited at 400 degrees C is referred to cobalt catalytic effect.

  18. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-04-01

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  19. Engineering noble metal nanomaterials for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingguo; Zhao, Tingting; Chen, Tiankai; Liu, Yanbiao; Ong, Choon Nam; Xie, Jianping

    2015-05-07

    Besides being valuable assets in our daily lives, noble metals (namely, gold, silver, and platinum) also feature many intriguing physical and chemical properties when their sizes are reduced to the nano- or even subnano-scale; such assets may significantly increase the values of the noble metals as functional materials for tackling important societal issues related to human health and the environment. Among which, designing/engineering of noble metal nanomaterials (NMNs) to address challenging issues in the environment has attracted recent interest in the community. In general, the use of NMNs for environmental applications is highly dependent on the physical and chemical properties of NMNs. Such properties can be readily controlled by tailoring the attributes of NMNs, including their size, shape, composition, and surface. In this feature article, we discuss recent progress in the rational design and engineering of NMNs with particular focus on their applications in the field of environmental sensing and catalysis. The development of functional NMNs for environmental applications is highly interdisciplinary, which requires concerted efforts from the communities of materials science, chemistry, engineering, and environmental science.

  20. Nanomaterials derived from metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Song; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The thermal transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) generates a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal phosphides and metal carbides. These derivatives of MOFs have characteristics such as high surface areas, permanent porosities and controllable functionalities that enable their good performance in sensing, gas storage, catalysis and energy-related applications. Although progress has been made to tune the morphologies of MOF-derived structures at the nanometre scale, it remains crucial to further our knowledge of the relationship between morphology and performance. In this Review, we summarize the synthetic strategies and optimized methods that enable control over the size, morphology, composition and structure of the derived nanomaterials. In addition, we compare the performance of materials prepared by the MOF-templated strategy and other synthetic methods. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of MOF-derived nanostructures to optimize their performance for applications such as sensing, catalysis, and energy storage and conversion.

  1. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusin Tanja I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries nowadays. New trends in this industry, which include reducing food as well as packaging waste, improved preservation of food and prolonged shelf-life together with substitution of petrochemical sources with renewable ones are leading to development of this industrial area in diverse directions. This multidisciplinary challenge is set up both in front of food and material scientists. Nanotechnology is recently answering to these challenges, with different solutions-from improvements in materials properties to active packaging solutions, or both at the same time. Incorporation of nanoparticles into polymer matrix and preparation of hybrid materials is one of the methods of modification of polymer properties. Nano scaled materials with antimicrobial properties can act as active components when added into polymer, thereby leading to prolonged protective function of pristine food packaging material. This paper presents a review in the field of antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging in turn of technology, application and regulatory issues.

  2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopic Characterization of Nanomaterials and Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengchen

    Nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention in recent research due to their wide applications in various fields such as material science, physical science, electrical engineering, and biomedical engineering. Researchers have developed many methods for synthesizing different types of nanostructures and have further applied them in various applications. However, in many cases, a molecular level understanding of nanoparticles and their associated surface chemistry is lacking investigation. Understanding the surface chemistry of nanomaterials is of great significance for obtaining a better understanding of the properties and functions of the nanomaterials. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can provide a familiar means of looking at the molecular structure of molecules bound to surfaces of nanomaterials as well as a method to determine the size of nanoparticles in solution. Here, a combination of NMR spectroscopic techniques including one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies was used to investigate the surface chemistry and physical properties of some common nanomaterials, including for example, thiol-protected gold nanostructures and biomolecule-capped silica nanoparticles. Silk is a natural protein fiber that features unique properties such as excellent mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and non-linear optical properties. These appealing physical properties originate from the silk structure, and therefore, the structural analysis of silk is of great importance for revealing the mystery of these impressive properties and developing novel silk-based biomaterials as well. Here, solid-state NMR spectroscopy was used to elucidate the secondary structure of silk proteins in N. clavipes spider dragline silk and B. mori silkworm silk. It is found that the Gly-Gly-X (X=Leu, Tyr, Gln) motif in spider dragline silk is not in a beta-sheet or alpha-helix structure and is very likely to be present in a disordered structure with evidence for 31-helix

  3. Intercalated vs Nonintercalated Morphologies in Donor-Acceptor Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: PBTTT:Fullerene Charge Generation and Recombination Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Fregoso, Elisa; Hood, Samantha N; Shoaee, Safa; Schroeder, Bob C; McCulloch, Iain; Kassal, Ivan; Neher, Dieter; Durrant, James R

    2017-09-07

    In this Letter, we study the role of the donor:acceptor interface nanostructure upon charge separation and recombination in organic photovoltaic devices and blend films, using mixtures of PBTTT and two different fullerene derivatives (PC 70 BM and ICTA) as models for intercalated and nonintercalated morphologies, respectively. Thermodynamic simulations show that while the completely intercalated system exhibits a large free-energy barrier for charge separation, this barrier is significantly lower in the nonintercalated system and almost vanishes when energetic disorder is included in the model. Despite these differences, both femtosecond-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and time-delayed collection field (TDCF) exhibit extensive first-order losses in both systems, suggesting that geminate pairs are the primary product of photoexcitation. In contrast, the system that comprises a combination of fully intercalated polymer:fullerene areas and fullerene-aggregated domains (1:4 PBTTT:PC 70 BM) is the only one that shows slow, second-order recombination of free charges, resulting in devices with an overall higher short-circuit current and fill factor. This study therefore provides a novel consideration of the role of the interfacial nanostructure and the nature of bound charges and their impact upon charge generation and recombination.

  4. Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehiam Prior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous examples of closed-cage nanostructures, such as nested fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes, formed by the folding of materials with layered structure are known. These compounds include WS2, NiCl2, CdCl2, Cs2O, and recently V2O5. Layered materials, whose chemical bonds are highly ionic in character, possess relatively stiff layers, which cannot be evenly folded. Thus, stress-relief generally results in faceted nanostructures seamed by edge-defects. V2O5, is a metal oxide compound with a layered structure. The study of the seams in nearly perfect inorganic "fullerene-like" hollow V2O5 nanoparticles (NIF-V2O5 synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA, is discussed in the present work. The relation between the formation mechanism and the seams between facets is examined. The formation mechanism of the NIF-V2O5 is discussed in comparison to fullerene-like structures of other layered materials, like IF structures of MoS2, CdCl2, and Cs2O. The criteria for the perfect seaming of such hollow closed structures are highlighted.

  5. Electron accelerators and nanomaterials - a symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Kavita P.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Electron Accelerators and Nanomaterials share a symbiotic relationship. While electron accelerators are fast emerging as popular tools in the field of nanomaterials, use of nanomaterials so developed for sub-systems of accelerators is being explored. Material damage studies, surface modification and lithography in the nanometre scale are some of the areas in which electron accelerators are being extensively used. New methods to characterize the structure of nanoparticles use intense X-ray sources, generated from electron accelerators. Enhancement of field emission properties of carbon nanotubes using electron accelerators is another important area that is being investigated. Research on nanomaterials for use in the field of accelerators is still in the laboratory stage. Yet, new trends and emerging technologies can effectively produce materials which can be of significant use in accelerators. Properties such as enhanced field emission can be put to use in cathodes of electron guns. Superconducting properties some materials may also be useful in accelerators. This paper focusses on the electron accelerators used for synthesis, characterization and property-enhancement of nanomaterials. The details of electron accelerators used for these applications will be highlighted. Some light will be thrown on properties of nano materials which can have potential use in accelerators. (author)

  6. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  7. Conjugation-promoted reaction of open-cage fullerene: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Yan, Jingjing; Khashab, Niveen M

    2012-02-01

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to study the addition mechanism of e-rich moieties such as triethyl phosphite to a carbonyl group on the rim of a fullerene orifice. Three possible reaction channels have been investigated. The obtained results show that the reaction of a carbonyl group on a fullerene orifice with triethyl phosphite most likely proceeds along the classical Abramov reaction; however, the classical product is not stable and is converted into the experimental product. An attack on a fullerene carbonyl carbon will trigger a rearrangement of the phosphate group to the carbonyl oxygen as the conversion transition state is stabilized by fullerene conjugation. This work provides a new insight on the reactivity of open-cage fullerenes, which may prove helpful in designing new switchable fullerene systems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Elemental and Microscopic Analysis of Naturally Occurring C-O-Si Hetero-Fullerene-Like Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullavarad, Nilima V; Hullavarad, Shiva S; Fochesatto, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Carbon exhibits an ability to form a wide range of structures in nature. Under favorable conditions, carbon condenses to form hollow, spheroid fullerenes in an inert atmosphere. Using high resolution FESEM, we have concealed the existence of giant hetero-fullerene like structures in the natural form. Clear, distinct features of connected hexagons and pentagons were observed. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis depth-profile of natural fullerene structures indicates that Russian-doll-like configurations composed of C, 0, and Si rings exist in nature. The analysis is based on an outstanding molecular feature found in the size fraction of aerosols having diameters 150 nm to 1.0 µm. The fullerene like structures, which are ~ 150 nm in diameter, are observed in large numbers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct detailed observation of natural fullerene-like structures. This article reports inadvertent observation of naturally occurring hetero-fullerene-like structures in the Arctic.

  9. Bacterial Cellulose: A Robust Platform for Design of Three Dimensional Carbon-Based Functional Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Liang, Hai-Wei; Chen, Li-Feng; Hu, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-19

    , converting cheap biomass into high value-added 3D carbon nanomaterials and designing diverse functional materials on 3D carbon structure. We first briefly introduce the history, constituent, and microstructure features of BC and discuss its advantages as a raw material for preparing the CNF aerogels. Then, we summarize the methods and strategies for preparing various 3D carbon-based nanomaterials from BC. In addition, the potential applications of the developed CNF aerogel based functional materials are also highlighted in this Account, including stretchable conductors, oxygen reduction reaction catalysts, supercapacitors, lithium-ion battery, and oil cleanup. Finally, we give some prospects on the future challenges in this emerging research area of designing CNF aerogel based functional nanomaterials from BC.

  10. Plasmon-plasmon coupling in nested fullerenes: photoexcitation of interlayer plasmonic cross modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, Mathew A; De, Ruma; Chakraborty, Himadri S; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T

    2011-01-01

    Considering the photoionization of a two-layer fullerene-onion system, C 60 -C 240 , strong plasmonic couplings between the nested fullerenes are demonstrated. The resulting hybridization produces four cross-over plasmons generated from the bonding and antibonding mixing of excited charge clouds of individual fullerenes. This suggests the possibility of designing buckyonions exhibiting plasmon resonances with specified properties and may motivate future research to modify the resonances with encaged atoms, molecules or clusters. (fast track communication)

  11. Organic–Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jonggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs, using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  12. On the Evaporation Kinetics of [60] Fullerene in Aromatic Organic Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Maher S.; Wang, Wenhu; Kollins, Kaitlin N; Altalebi, Hasanain; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of C60 fullerene nanospheres on the evaporation kinetics of a number of aromatic solvents with different levels of molecular association, namely, benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene. The dependence of the evaporation rate on the fullerene concentration is not monotonic but rather exhibits maxima and minima. The results strongly support the notion of molecular structuring within the liquid solvent controlled by the nature of fullerene/solvent interaction and the level of molecular association within the solvent itself.

  13. Centrosymmetric Graphs And A Lower Bound For Graph Energy Of Fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katona Gyula Y.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy of a molecular graph G is defined as the summation of the absolute values of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of a graph G. In this paper, an infinite class of fullerene graphs with 10n vertices, n ≥ 2, is considered. By proving centrosymmetricity of the adjacency matrix of these fullerene graphs, a lower bound for its energy is given. Our method is general and can be extended to other class of fullerene graphs.

  14. Organic-Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Jonggi; Yang, Changduk

    2011-12-01

    A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs), using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  15. On the Evaporation Kinetics of [60] Fullerene in Aromatic Organic Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Maher S.

    2018-04-03

    We investigate the effect of C60 fullerene nanospheres on the evaporation kinetics of a number of aromatic solvents with different levels of molecular association, namely, benzene, toluene, and chlorobenzene. The dependence of the evaporation rate on the fullerene concentration is not monotonic but rather exhibits maxima and minima. The results strongly support the notion of molecular structuring within the liquid solvent controlled by the nature of fullerene/solvent interaction and the level of molecular association within the solvent itself.

  16. Exposure, uptake, distribution and toxicity of nanomaterials in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2010-02-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented explosion in nanotechnology to take advantage of the unique physicochemical properties that emerge at the nanoscale including quantum effects. However, the excitement generated by new applications of nanotechnology in products has not been matched by a parallel appreciation or understanding of their potential toxic effects in humans and the wider ecology. This review draws some parallels to what we already know about the toxicity of particles in the workplace and in association with air pollution, and then discusses what is known about the toxicology of nanomaterials in mammals including humans. The review identifies substantial gaps in knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  17. Fabrication and Design of Optical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark D.

    Over the past several decades, advances in nanometer scale fabrication has sparked interes in applications that take advantage of materials that are structured at these small length scales. Specifically, metallic optical nanomaterials have emerged as a new way to control light at length scales that are smaller than the wavelength of light and have optical properties that are distinctly different from their macroscale counterparts. Although there have been may advances in nanofabrication, the performance and widespread use of optical nanomaterials is still limited by fabrication and design challenges. This dissertation describes advances in the fabrication, characterization, and design of optical nanomaterials. First we demonstrate how a portable and compact photolithography system can be made using a light source composed of UV LEDs. Our solid-state photolithography (SSP) system brings the capabilities of one of the most important yet workhorse tools of micro- and nanotechnology--the mask aligner--to the benchtop. The two main highlights of chapter 2 include: (i) portable, low-cost photolithography and (ii) high quality patterning. We replace the mask aligner with a system composed of UV LEDs and a diffuser that can be built for as little as $30. The design of the SSP system alleviates the need for dedicated power supplies, vacuum lines and cooling systems, which makes it a true benchtop photolithography system. We further show that sub-wavelength features can be fabricated across 4-in wafers and that these patterns are of high quality such that they can be easily transferred into functional materials. Chapter 3 describes a parallel method to create nanometer scale textures over large areas with unprecedented control over wrinkle wavelength. The main points of this chapter include: (i) a new material system for nanowrinkles, (ii) wrinkles with tunable wavelengths, and (iii) a method for measuring the skin thickness. First, we show that RIE treatment of PS with

  18. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed

  19. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill, E-mail: jventon@virginia.edu

    2015-08-05

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed.

  20. In Silico Study of Spacer Arm Length Influence on Drug Vectorization by Fullerene C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Khemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies theoretically the effect of spacer arm lengths on the characteristics of a fullerene C60-based nanovector. The spacer arm is constituted of a carbon chain including a variable number of methylene groups (n = 2–11. To improve the ability of the fullerene carriage, two arms are presented simultaneously through a malonyl bridge. Then the evolution of selected physicochemical parameters is monitored as a function of the spacer arm length and the angle between the two arms. We show here that while the studied characteristics are almost independent of the spacer arm length or vary monotonically with it, the dipole moment and its orientation vary periodically with the parity of the number of carbon atoms. This periodicity is related to both modules and orientations of dipole moments of the spacer arms. In the field of chemical synthesis, these results highlight the importance of theoretical calculations for the optimization of operating conditions. In the field of drug discovery, they show that theoretical calculations of the chemical properties of a drug candidate can help predict its in vivo behaviour, notably its bioavailability and biodistribution, which are known to be tightly dependent of its polarity.