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Sample records for nanofiller-modulated polymeric oxygen

  1. Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion

    Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

    2010-12-31

    North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

  2. Oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules for optical dissolved oxygen sensors

    Sun, Zhijuan; Cai, Chenxin; Guo, Fei; Ye, Changhuai; Luo, Yingwu; Ye, Shuming; Luo, Jianchao; Zhu, Fan; Jiang, Chunyue

    2018-04-01

    Immobilization of the oxygen-sensitive probes (OSPs) in the host matrix greatly impacts the performance and long-term usage of the optical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. In this work, fluorescent dyes, as the OSPs, were encapsulated with a crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell by interfacial confined reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer miniemulsion polymerization to fabricate oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules (NCs). The location of fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent properties of the NCs were fully characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fluorescent spectrum. Dye-encapsulated capacity can be precisely tuned from 0 to 1.3 wt% without self-quenching of the fluorescent dye. The crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell is not only extremely high gas permeability, but also prevents the fluorescent dyes from leakage in aqueous as well as in various organic solvents, such as ethanol, acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF). An optical DO sensor based on the oxygen sensitive NCs was fabricated, showing high sensitivity, short response time, full reversibility, and long-term operational stability of online monitoring DO. The sensitivity of the optical DO sensor is 7.02 (the ratio of the response value in fully deoxygenated and saturated oxygenated water) in the range 0.96-14.16 mg l-1 and the response time is about 14.3 s. The sensor’s work curve was fit well using the modified Stern-Volmer equation by two-site model, and its response values are hardly affected by pH ranging from 2 to 12 and keep constant during continuous measurement for 3 months. It is believed that the oxygen sensitive polymeric NCs-based optical DO sensor could be particularly useful in long-term online DO monitoring in both aqueous and organic solvent systems.

  3. electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at vapor phase polymerized poly ...

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    ABSTRACT. We successfully polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxidethiophene) by vapor phase polymerization technique on rotating glassy carbon disk electrode. The catalytic activity of this electrode towards oxygen reduction reaction was investigated and showed remarkable activity. Rotating disk voltammetry was used to ...

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at vapor phase polymerized ...

    We successfully polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxidethiophene) by vapor phase polymerization technique on rotating glassy carbon disk electrode. The catalytic activity of this electrode towards oxygen reduction reaction was investigated and showed remarkable activity. Rotating disk voltammetry was used to study the ...

  5. Plasma-polymerized SiOx deposition on polymer film surfaces for preparation of oxygen gas barrier polymeric films

    Inagaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    SiOx films were deposited on surfaces of three polymeric films, PET, PP, and Nylon; and their oxygen gas barrier properties were evaluated. To mitigate discrepancies between the deposited SiOx and polymer film, surface modification of polymer films was done, and how the surface modification could contribute to was discussed from the viewpoint of apparent activation energy for the permeation process. The SiOx deposition on the polymer film surfaces led to a large decrease in the oxygen permeation rate. Modification of polymer film surfaces by mans of the TMOS or Si-COOH coupling treatment in prior to the SiOx deposition was effective in decreasing the oxygen permeation rate. The cavity model is proposed as an oxygen permeation process through the SiOx-deposited Nylon film. From the proposed model, controlling the interface between the deposited SiOx film and the polymer film is emphasized to be a key factor to prepare SiOx-deposited polymer films with good oxygen gas barrier properties. (author)

  6. electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at vapor phase polymerized poly ...

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    In all fuel cell devices, the reduction of O2 to H2O plays a critical role. The sluggish nature of the oxygen reduction reaction requires an expensive electrocatalyst like platinum. The high .... equations. The Levich equation is expressed as equation 1: ... solution is not a two electron reaction via the formation of H2O2. Similar ...

  7. Oxygen transport as a structure probe for heterogeneous polymeric systems

    Hu, Yushan

    Although permeability of small molecules is often measured as an important performance property, deeper analysis of the transport characteristics provides insight into polymer structure, especially if used in combination with other characterization techniques. Transport of small gas molecules senses the permeable amorphous structure and probes the nature of free volume. This work focuses on oxygen transport, supplemented with other methods of physical analysis, as a probe for: (1) the nature of free volume and crystalline morphology in the crystallized glassy state, (2) the nature of free volume and hierarchical structure in liquid crystalline polymers, and (3) the role of dispersed polyamide phase geometry on oxygen barrier properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/polyamide blends. In the first part, the improvement in oxygen-barrier properties of glassy polyesters by crystallization was examined. Examples included poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), and a copolymer based on PET in which 55 mol% terephthalate was replaced with 4,4'-bibenzoate. Explanation of the unexpectedly high solubility of crystallized PEN required a two-phase transport model consisting of an impermeable crystalline phase of constant density and a permeable amorphous phase of variable density. The resulting relationship between oxygen solubility and amorphous phase density was consistent with free volume concepts of gas sorption. In the second part, oxygen barrier properties of liquid crystalline (LC) polyesters based on poly(diethylene glycol 4,4'-bibenzoate) (PDEGBB) were studied. This study extended the 2-phase transport model for oxygen transport of non-LC crystalline polymers to a smectic LCP. It was possible to systematically vary the solid state structure of (PDEGBB) from LC glass to crystallized LC glass. The results were consistent with a liquid crystalline state intermediate between the permeable amorphous glass and the impermeable 3-dimensional crystal. In this interpretation

  8. [A toxicologic hygiene evaluation of electrolytic oxygen obtained from the water in a system with a solid polymeric electrolyte].

    Bardov, V G; Koziarin, I P; Suk, V G; Maslenko, A A; Shmuter, G M

    1990-01-01

    The authors evaluated the problems of hygienic aspects of oxygen obtained by the method of electrolytic decomposition of water with a different content of chemical substances in the system with a hard polymere electrolyte. On the basis of sanitary-chemical qualities and toxicological properties electrolysis gaseous oxygen may be recommended for use in creating an artificial gaseous atmosphere in hermetically sealed compartments in mixture with gaseous nitrogen (ratio 1:4).

  9. Polymerization of Phenylacetylene-Based Monodendrons with Alkoxy Peripheral Groups and Oxygen/Nitrogen Permeation Behavior of Their Membranes

    Takashi Kaneko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodendron monomers with alkoxy peripheral groups were synthesized, and the focal point of monodendrons, terminal acetylene, was polymerized with rhodium catalyst to yield corresponding polydendrons with a high molecular weight. The polydendrons were soluble in common organic solvents and readily formed membranes. Oxygen permselectivity was improved in the polydendrons with a space-persistent dendritic crowd. It was found that the well-defined dendritic and rod-like structure of the polydendrons was useful for permselective membrane.

  10. Separation and determination of reduced vitamin C in polymerized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers of the human placenta.

    Chen, Gang; Mo, Ling; Li, Shen; Zhou, Wentao; Wang, Hong; Liu, Jiaxin; Yang, Chengmin

    2015-06-01

    The molybdenum blue method was used to determine the content of reduced vitamin C (Vc) in a solution of polymerized hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) of the human placenta. The conditions of absorption wavelength, HCl addition, and reaction time, were investigated. The results of validation experiments showed that under the optimized conditions, a standard curve was confirmed with good linearity of 0.9985, for the Vc amount ranging from 0-200 μg. The values for relative standard deviation (RSD) of the precision and repeatability were both below 5%. Vc recovery was in the range of 97-102%. The conclusion could be made that a reduction in Vc content could be tested effectively by the molybdenum blue method.

  11. The quaternary state of polymerized human hemoglobin regulates oxygenation of breast cancer solid tumors: A theoretical and experimental study

    Ju, Julia A.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Yalamanoglu, Ayla; Buehler, Paul W.; Gilkes, Daniele M.; Palmer, Andre F.

    2018-01-01

    A major constraint in the treatment of cancer is inadequate oxygenation of the tumor mass, which can reduce chemotherapeutic efficacy. We hypothesize that polymerized human hemoglobin (PolyhHb) can be transfused into the systemic circulation to increase solid tumor oxygenation, and improve chemotherapeutic outcomes. By locking PolyhHb in the relaxed (R) quaternary state, oxygen (O2) offloading at low O2 tensions (20 mm Hg) is facilitated with tense (T) state PolyhHb. Therefore, R-state PolyhHb may deliver significantly more O2 to hypoxic tissues. Biophysical parameters of T and R-state PolyhHb were used to populate a modified Krogh tissue cylinder model to assess O2 transport in a tumor. In general, we found that increasing the volume of transfused PolyhHb decreased the apparent viscosity of blood in the arteriole. In addition, we found that PolyhHb transfusion decreased the wall shear stress at large arteriole diameters (>20 μm), but increased wall shear stress for small arteriole diameters (state PolyhHb may be more effective than T-state PolyhHb for O2 delivery at similar transfusion volumes. Reduction in the apparent viscosity resulting from PolyhHb transfusion may result in significant changes in flow distributions throughout the tumor microcirculatory network. The difference in wall shear stress implies that PolyhHb may have a more significant effect in capillary beds through mechano-transduction. Periodic top-load transfusions of PolyhHb into mice bearing breast tumors confirmed the oxygenation potential of both PolyhHbs via reduced hypoxic volume, vascular density, tumor growth, and increased expression of hypoxia inducible genes. Tissue section analysis demonstrated primary PolyhHb clearance occurred in the liver and spleen indicating a minimal risk for renal damage. PMID:29414985

  12. Early resuscitation with polymerized bovine hemoglobin reverses acidosis, but not peripheral tissue oxygenation, in a severe hamster shock model.

    Wettstein, Reto; Tsai, Amy G; Harder, Yves; Erni, Dominique; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2006-11-01

    Awake hamsters equipped with the dorsal window chamber preparation were subjected to hemorrhage of 50% of the estimated blood volume. Initial resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) with polymerized bovine hemoglobin (PBH) or 10% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) occurred in concert with an equivolumetric bleeding to simulate the early, prehospital setting (exchange transfusion). Resuscitation (25% of estimated blood volume) without bleeding was performed with PBH, HES, or autologous red blood cells (HES-RBCs). Peripheral microcirculation, tissue oxygenation, and systemic hemodynamic and blood gas parameters were assessed. After exchange transfusion, base deficit was -8.6 +/- 3.7 mmol/L (PBH) and -5.1 +/- 5.3 mmol/L (HES) (not significant). Functional capillary density was 17% +/- 6% of baseline (PBH) and 31% +/- 11% (HES) (P < 0.05) and arteriolar diameter 73% +/- 3% of baseline (PBH) and 90% + 5% (HES) (P < 0.01). At the end, hemoglobin levels were 3.7 +/- 0.3 g/dL with HES, 8.2 +/- 0.6 g/dL with PBH, and 10.4 +/- 0.8 g/dL with HES-RBCs (P < 0.01 HES vs. PBH and HES-RBCs, P < 0.05 PBH vs. HES-RBCs). Base excess was restored to baseline with PBH and HES-RBCs, but not with HES (P < 0.05). Functional capillary density was 46% +/- 5% of baseline (PBH), 62% + 20% (HES-RBCs), and 36% +/- 19% (HES) (P < 0.01 HES-RBCs vs. HES). Peripheral oxygen delivery and consumption was highest with HES-RBCs, followed by PBH (P < 0.05 HES-RBCs vs. PBH, P < 0.01 HES-RBCs and PBH vs. HES). In conclusion, the PBH led to a correction of base deficit comparable to blood transfusion. However, oxygenation of the peripheral tissue was inferior with PBH. This was attributed to its negative impact on the peripheral microcirculation caused by arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  13. Influence of polymeric microspheres on the myocardial oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Lee, S; Braune, S; Knaut, M; Lendlein, A; Franke, R P; Jung, F

    2011-07-01

    Injection of labeled microspheres is an established method in animal models to analyze the capillary organ blood flow at different time points. However, the microspheres can lead to stenoses of the capillary lumen, which might affect tissue oxygen supply. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of repeated injections of microspheres into the left coronary artery on the tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) in the downstream supplied myocardium of Göttingen minipigs. Tests (n=6 pigs each) were performed with two differently sized microspheres (ø=10 ± 0.1 μm (M10) or ø=15 ± 0.15 μm (M15)) from polystyrene. The pO(2) was measured in the midmyocardium of the left and right ventricle for 6 min continuously after each of five injections (1 × 10(6) microspheres each). There was a time laps of 12 min between each injection. In addition, the influence of the carrier solution was analyzed solely in the identical time frame. pO(2) decreased significantly in the myocardial area supplied by the ramus interventricularis paraconalis after injection of M15 microspheres. In contrast, the application of the M10 microspheres did not change the myocardial pO(2). This finding suggests to use microspheres with diameters not exceeding 10 μm for the coronary blood flow assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2008-09-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyledisiloxane (HMDSO)/O2 mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions ( \\chi _{O_2 } =0 , 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at \\chi _{O_2 } =0 exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease (~one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O2 mixtures exhibit two separated 'green-blue' and 'yellow-green' PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm-1) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices.

  15. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2009-01-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO)/O 2 mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions (χ0 2 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease (∼one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O 2 mixtures exhibit two separated green-blue and yellow-green PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm -1 ) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices. (authors)

  16. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O{sub 2} induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    Naddaf, M; Saloum, S [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), PO Box 6091 Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)], E-mail: scientific6@aec.org.sy

    2008-09-07

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyledisiloxane (HMDSO)/O{sub 2} mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions ({chi}{sub O{sub 2}}=0, 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at ({chi}{sub O{sub 2}}=0 exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease ({approx}one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O{sub 2} mixtures exhibit two separated 'green-blue' and 'yellow-green' PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm{sup -1}) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices.

  17. Visible photoluminescence from plasma-polymerized-organosilicone thin films deposited from HMDSO/O2 induced remote plasma: effect of oxygen fraction

    Naddaf, M; Saloum, S

    2008-01-01

    Visible photoluminescence (PL) from thin films deposited on silicon wafers by remote plasma polymerization of the hexamethyledisiloxane (HMDSO)/O 2 mixture in a radio-frequency hollow cathode discharge reactor has been investigated as a function of different oxygen fractions (χ O 2 =0, 0.38, 0.61, 0.76 and 0.9). At room temperature, the film deposited at (χ O 2 =0 exhibits a strong, broad PL band peak centred at around 537.6 nm. A blue shift and a considerable decrease (∼one order) in the intensity of the PL peak are observed after the addition of oxygen. Furthermore, in contrast to the film deposited from pure HMDSO, the low temperature (15 K) PL spectra of the film deposited from different HMDSO/O 2 mixtures exhibit two separated 'green-blue' and 'yellow-green' PL peaks. The PL behaviour of the deposited films is correlated with their structural and morphological properties, investigated by using Fourier transform infrared, atomic force microscope and contact angle techniques. In addition, it is found from spectrophotometry measurements that the deposited films have relatively low absorption coefficients (in the range 100-500 cm -1 ) in the spectral range of their PL emission, attractive for possible integrated optics devices

  18. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation

    Salafranca, Jesús, E-mail: fjsl@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Clemente, Isabel, E-mail: isabelclemente1984@gmail.com [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Isella, Francesca, E-mail: Francesca.Isella@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy); Nerín, Cristina, E-mail: cnerin@unizar.es [Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), EINA, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Zaragoza, María de Luna 3 (Torres Quevedo Bldg.), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bosetti, Osvaldo, E-mail: Osvaldo.Bosetti@goglio.it [Goglio S.p.A. Packaging Division, Via dell' Industria 7, 21020 Daverio (Italy)

    2015-06-09

    Highlights: • 13 different food-use multilayers unirradiated and gamma-irradiated were studied. • 60–80 compounds/sample were identified by SPME–GC–MS even after 8-month storage. • Volatile profile of air- and N{sub 2}-filled bags greatly differed after irradiation. • Principal component analysis classified the samples into 4 groups. • Migration from irradiated materials to vapor phase was much lower than EU limits. - Abstract: The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60–80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  19. The use of pyro-polymeric catalysts and a new cylindrical cell design in oxygen-aluminum generators

    Kiseleva, E. A.; Zhuk, A. Z.; Kleymenov, B. V.; Oudaltsov, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The increase in energy consumption, the economic crisis, the development of certain areas of engineering and energy, as well as the related deterioration of the environmental situation, require the development of new electrochemical current sources with high specific characteristics. In the field of creating air-hydrogen fuel cells, the problems of safety and mobile storage of hydrogen have not been completely solved, stagnation in the development of lithium-ion, lithium-air and lithium-sulfur batteries has been outlined. All this requires searching for new technological solutions, ways to increase the energy and resource characteristics of electrochemical current sources (ECS), reducing their cost [1-2]. The use of metals (aluminum, zinc, magnesium) as an energy carrier is due to their high energy intensity (in combination with the lack of transport, storage and on-board storage problems) of the relatively low cost of metals, their availability, storage safety and the absence of harmful emissions when used. As in the chemical and electrochemical use of metals, safe products (oxides, hydroxides) are formed, which are reduced to metals within the framework of traditional production technologies. Thus, a closed cycle of energy use is organized. The task of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of reducing the cost and increasing the specific power of ECS using oxygen depolarization. The goal is achieved by using non-platinum catalysts and optimizing the design of the current source.

  20. Elektroaktive polymerer

    West, K.

    Traditionelt tænker vi på polymerer (plastik) som elektrisk isolerende materialer - det som er udenpå ledningerne. I dag kender vi imidlertid også polymerer med intrinsisk elektrisk ledningsevne, og plast er på vej ind i anvendelser, der tidligereudelukkende var baseret på metaller og uorganiske...... halvledere. Hertil kommer, at en del af de ledende polymerer kan stimuleres til at skifte mellem en ledende og en halvledende tilstand, hvorved de ændret både form og farve. I foredraget gives der enrække eksempler på anvendelse af polymerer som elektriske komponenter - rækkende fra polymer elektronik over...

  1. Chelating polymeric membranes

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  2. "Click" i polymerer 2

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    "Click"-reaktioner til fremstilling af ledende polymerer med funktionelle håndtag og bipolymermaterialer......"Click"-reaktioner til fremstilling af ledende polymerer med funktionelle håndtag og bipolymermaterialer...

  3. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  4. Influence of a partially oxidized calcium cathode on the performance of polymeric light emitting diodes

    Andersson, G.G.; Jong, de M.P.; Janssen, F.J.J.; Sturm, J.M.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Voigt, de M.J.A.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the presence of oxygen during the deposition of the calcium cathode on the structure and on the performance of polymeric light emitting diodes (pLEDs). The oxygen background pressure during deposition of the calcium cathode of polymeric LEDs was varied. Subsequently,

  5. Polymerization of polyethers initiated by irradiation with high power pulsed electron beams

    Gerber, V.D.; Tolkachev, V.S.; Chmukh, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    Air oxygen effect on thin-layer polymerization of polyethers, initiated by irradiation with powerful pulse electron beams is studied using the method of IR-spectrophotometry. The analysis of experimental data has shown that in polyether surface layer polymerization is suppressed by oxygen, concentration of which in the layer remains stable at the expense of diffusion from air during two consequent irradiation pulses

  6. Polymerization Using Phosphazene Bases

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2015-09-01

    In the recent rise of metal-free polymerization techniques, organic phosphazene superbases have shown their remarkable strength as promoter/catalyst for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. Generally, the complexation of phosphazene base with the counterion (proton or lithium cation) significantly improves the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain end resulting in highly enhanced polymerization rates, as compared with conventional metalbased initiating systems. In this chapter, the general features of phosphazenepromoted/catalyzed polymerizations and the applications in macromolecular engineering (synthesis of functionalized polymers, block copolymers, and macromolecular architectures) are discussed with challenges and perspectives being pointed out.

  7. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  8. Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions

    Bates, F.S.; Maurer, W.W.; Lipic, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    High molecular weight block copolymers can be viewed as macromolecular surfactants when blended with thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers. This Letter describes the formation of polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions in nurtures containing a model diblock copolymer and two homopolymers. Alt...

  9. Polymerization Using Phosphazene Bases

    Zhao, Junpeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Schlaad, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    . In this chapter, the general features of phosphazenepromoted/catalyzed polymerizations and the applications in macromolecular engineering (synthesis of functionalized polymers, block copolymers, and macromolecular architectures) are discussed with challenges

  10. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  11. Chelating polymeric membranes

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  12. Radiation induced emulsion polymerization

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    High energy radiation is particularly favored for the initiation of emulsion polymerization. The yield of free radicals, for example, from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase, is high; G(radical) values of 5-7. In addition, the rather special kinetics associated with emulsion polymerization lead, in general, to very large kinetic chain lengths, even with 'non-ideal' monomers such as vinyl acetate. Together, high polymerization rates at low doses become possible. There are some important advantages of radiation polymerization compared with chemical initiators, such as potassium persulfate. Perhaps the most important among them is the temperature independence of the initiation step. This makes low temperature polymerization very accessible. With monomers such as vinyl acetate, where chain termination to monomer is predominant, low temperatures lead to often highly desirable higher molecular weights. With styrene, the classical ideally behaved monomer, there are the advantages such as, for example, the feasibility of using cationic monomers. These and some attendant disadvantages are discussed in detail, including pilot plant studies

  13. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  14. Inflation of a Polymeric Menbrane

    Kristensen, Susanne B.; Larsen, Johannes R.; Hassager, Ole

    1998-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane.......We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane....

  15. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  16. Polymerization by radiation. Application

    Romero, M.; Fernandez Miranda, J.

    1997-01-01

    Achieved results of the research work done in the field of radiation polymerization are summarized. Developing new chromatographic matrices, the radiation grafting of Glycidyl methacrylate on the surface of Low Density Polyethylene beads was studied. The dependence of both, the grafted degree and width of the grafted layer, with the radiation dose applied, is presented

  17. RAFT polymerization mediated bioconjugation strategies

    Bulmuş, Volga

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the use of RAFT polymerization in the synthesis of polymer bioconjugates. It covers two main bioconjugation strategies using the RAFT process: (i) post-polymerization bioconjugations using pre-synthesized reactive polymers, and (ii) bioconjugations via in situ polymerization using biomolecule-modified monomers or chain transfer agents. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Radiation polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    Kadoi, H.; Lugao, A.B.; Oikawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) monomer was obtained by means of the pyrolysis of chlorodifluoromethane (R-22). The experiments were carried out in quartz tube with temperature between 700 0 and 800 0 C. The principal reaction of the pyrolysis is considered to be: 2CHClF2 ----> C 2 F 4 +2HCl. However, by-products such as HF, C 3 F 6 , C 2 HClF 4 , C 4 F 8 etc are also produced in the pyrolysis process. The conversions of R-22 varied from 30 to 50%, depending upon the temperature, pressure and flow rate of R-22 in the furnace. Finally the TFE monomer of purity higher than 99.98% was obtained by fractional distillation in low temperatures ranging from -10 0 to -30 0 C. The bulk polymerization of this monomer induced by γ-rays from 3000Ci cobalt-60 source was studied at various temperatures (room temperature, 0 0 , -23 0 and -78 0 C). The monomers were introduced into stainless steel vessels of 15 and 60 ml volume under vacuum. The control of polymerization reaction was rather hard at temperatures higher than -23 0 C due to the difficulty of removing the heat of reaction. However, the polymerization at -78 0 C was very easy to control. The white polymer particles were obtained in agglomerated state. The IR spectra of the polymers were consistent with those of commercial products. The melting points of samples were between 326 0 and 331 0 C. (Author) [pt

  19. Oxygen toxicity

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  20. Plasma etching of electrospun polymeric nanofibres

    Verdonck, Patrick [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: verdonck@imec.be; Braga Caliope, Priscila [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moral Hernandez, Emilio del [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Ana Neilde R. da [LSI-PSI-EPUSP, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto trav 3, 158, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); FATEC-SP, Pca Fernando Prestes, 30 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2006-10-25

    Electrospun polymeric nanofibres have several applications because of their high surface area to volume and high length to diameter ratios. This paper investigates the influence of plasma etching on these fibres and the etching mechanisms. For the characterization, SEM analysis was performed to determine the forms and shapes of the fibres and SEM photos were analysed by the technique of mathematical morphology, in order to determine the area on the sample occupied by the fibres and the frequency distribution of the nanofibre diameters. The results showed that the oxygen plasma etches the nanofibres much faster when ion bombardment is present. The form of the fibres is not altered by the etching, indicating the possibility of transport of oxygen atoms over the fibre surface. The most frequent diameter, somewhat surprisingly, is not significantly dependent on the etching process, and remains of the order of 80 nm, indicating that fibres with smaller diameters are etched at high rates.

  1. Radiation chemistry of polymeric system

    Machi, Sueo; Ishigaki, Isao

    1978-01-01

    Among wide application of radiation in the field of polymer chemistry, practices of polymerization, graft polymerization, bridging, etc. are introduced hereinafter. As for the radiation sources of radiation polymerization, in addition to the 60 Co-γ ray with long permeation distance which has been usually applied, electron beam accelerators with high energy, large current and high reliability have come to be produced, and the liquid phase polymerization by electron beam has attracted attention industrially. Concerning polymerizing reactions, explanations were given to electron beam polymerization under high dose rate, the polymerization in supercooling state or under high pressure, and emulsifying polymerization. As for radiation bridging, radiation is applied for the bridging of hydrogel, acceleration of bridging and improvement of radiation resistance. It is also utilized for reforming membranes by graft polymerization, and synthesis of polymers for medical use. Application of fixed enzymes in the medical field has been investigated by fixing various enzymes by low temperature γ-ray polymerization with glassy monomers such as HEMA. (Kobatake, H.)

  2. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  3. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  4. Synthesis of magnetic polymeric microspheres

    Gervald, A Yu; Gritskova, Inessa A; Prokopov, Nikolai I [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-13

    The key types of magnetic polymeric microspheres are considered. Methods of synthesis of different types of magnetic nanoparticles and of preparation of stable magnetic fluids on their basis are outlined. The overview of the methods for the manufacture of magnetic polymeric microspheres is presented. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the characteristics of magnetic polymeric microspheres such as the diameter and the particle size distribution and the content of magnetic material is discussed by particular examples. The application fields of magnetic polymeric microspheres are briefly surveyed.

  5. Synthesis of magnetic polymeric microspheres

    Gervald, A Yu; Gritskova, Inessa A; Prokopov, Nikolai I

    2010-01-01

    The key types of magnetic polymeric microspheres are considered. Methods of synthesis of different types of magnetic nanoparticles and of preparation of stable magnetic fluids on their basis are outlined. The overview of the methods for the manufacture of magnetic polymeric microspheres is presented. The effect of the synthesis conditions on the characteristics of magnetic polymeric microspheres such as the diameter and the particle size distribution and the content of magnetic material is discussed by particular examples. The application fields of magnetic polymeric microspheres are briefly surveyed.

  6. Mechanocatalytic polymerization and cross-linking in a polymeric matrix

    Jakobs, R.T.M.; Ma, Shuang; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    A latent olefin metathesis catalyst, bearing two polymeric NHC ligands, was embedded in a semicrystalline polymer matrix containing cyclic olefins. The catalyst was activated by straining the solid material under compression, resulting in polymerization and cross-linking reactions of the monomers in

  7. Oxygen Therapy

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  8. Conductive cotton prepared by polyaniline in situ polymerization using laccase.

    Zhang, Ya; Dong, Aixue; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Zhang, Ying

    2014-09-01

    The high-redox-potential catalyst laccase, isolated from Aspergillus, was first used as a biocatalyst in the oxidative polymerization of water-soluble conductive polyaniline, and then conductive cotton was prepared by in situ polymerization under the same conditions. The polymerization of aniline was performed in a water dispersion of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) micellar solution with atmospheric oxygen serving as the oxidizing agent. This method is ecologically clean and permits a greater degree of control over the kinetics of the reaction. The conditions for polyaniline synthesis were optimized. Characterizations of the conducting polyaniline and cotton were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, the fabric induction electrostatic tester, and the far-field EMC shielding effectiveness test fixture.

  9. Oxygen Therapy

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  10. Polymerization of impregnated monomer in wood by microwave irradiation

    Kawase, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing of a wood-plastic combination (WPC) by irradiation of microwave (2,450 and 915 +- 50 MHz) or gamma-ray was carried out. After the impregnation of dry woods (Hinoki: Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Buna: Acer mono Maxim., and Kaede: Fagus crenata Blume) with the mixture of the vinyl monomers and chemical reagents, the monomer in wood was polymerized by irradiation. In case of polymerization with microwave (2,450 MHz) the effect of oxygen was not recognized, but in the case of gamma-ray the rate of polymerization remarkably decreased in the presence of oxygen. The polymerization of various monomers was carried out also in the air, and the conversions of styrene, methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and n-butyl-methacrylate were 51.8 -- 89.1%, but that of vinyl acetate was lower (4.3 -- 8.2%). The conversion of monomers with irradiation of 915 MHz microwave was very low (2.6 -- 33.5%). The conversion of monomers increased when toluylene diisocyanate was added in the monomers. The percentage of extraction with hot benzene of WPC (chip) decreased by the addition of toluylene diisocyanate. It was concluded from C.H.N. analyses that the reaction took place among the wood, toluylene diisocyanate and methyl methacrylate. (auth.)

  11. Collaborative Research: Polymeric Multiferroics

    Ren, Shenqiang [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). College of Engineering

    2017-04-20

    The goal of this project is to investigate room temperature magnetism and magnetoelectric coupling of polymeric multiferroics. A new family of molecular charge-transfer crystals has been emerged as a fascinating opportunity for the development of all-organic electrics and spintronics due to its weak hyperfine interaction and low spin-orbit coupling; nevertheless, direct observations of room temperature magnetic spin ordering have yet to be accomplished in organic charge-transfer solids. Furthermore, room temperature magnetoelectric coupling effect hitherto known multiferroics, is anticipated in organic donor-acceptor complexes because of magnetic field effects on charge-transfer dipoles, yet this is also unexplored. The PI seeks to fundamental understanding of the control of organic crystals to demonstrate and explore room temperature multiferroicity. The experimental results have been verified through the theoretical modeling.

  12. Polymerization with freezing

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, F k ∼k -γ , when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, γ = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced

  13. Polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

    Mahmud, Abdullah; Xiong, Xiao-Bing; Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2007-11-01

    Polymeric micelles are nano-delivery systems formed through self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in an aqueous environment. The nanoscopic dimension, stealth properties induced by the hydrophilic polymeric brush on the micellar surface, capacity for stabilized encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs offered by the hydrophobic and rigid micellar core, and finally a possibility for the chemical manipulation of the core/shell structure have made polymeric micelles one of the most promising carriers for drug targeting. To date, three generations of polymeric micellar delivery systems, i.e. polymeric micelles for passive, active and multifunctional drug targeting, have arisen from research efforts, with each subsequent generation displaying greater specificity for the diseased tissue and/or targeting efficiency. The present manuscript aims to review the research efforts made for the development of each generation and provide an assessment on the overall success of polymeric micellar delivery system in drug targeting. The emphasis is placed on the design and development of ligand modified, stimuli responsive and multifunctional polymeric micelles for drug targeting.

  14. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  15. De fysica van polymere materialen

    Struik, L.C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Rede, uitgesproken ter gelegenheid van de aanvaarding van het ambt van buitengewoon hoogleraar in de fysica van polymere materialen aan de Universitelt Twente op donderdag 22 januarì 1987 door Dr.lr. L.C.E. Struik.

  16. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    Zhao, Junpeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Gnanou, Yves

    2014-01-01

    .e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  17. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Hefeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands

  18. Pulsed-laser polymerization in compartmentalized liquids. 1. Polymerization in vesicles

    Jung, M.; Casteren, van I.A.; Monteiro, M.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Polymerization in vesicles is a novel type of polymerization in heterogeneous media, leading to parachute-like vesicle-polymer hybrid morphologies. To explore the kinetics of vesicle polymerizations and to learn more about the actual locus of polymerization we applied the pulsed-laser polymerization

  19. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine, E-mail: griselda.barrera@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Basso, Nara R.S. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Quijada, Raul [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  20. Polyolefin nanocomposites in situ polymerization

    Galland, Griselda Barrera; Fim, Fabiana de C.; Milani, Marceo A.; Silva, Silene P. da; Forest, Tadeu; Radaelli, Gislaine; Basso, Nara R.S.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Polyethylene and polypropylene nanocomposites using grapheme nanosheets and treated chrysotile have been synthesized by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalysts. The fillers have been submitted to acid, thermal and/ou ultrasound treatments before to introduce them into the polymerization reactor. A complete characterization of the fillers has been done. The nanocomposites have been characterized by SEM, TEM, DRX and AFM. The thermal, mechanic -dynamic, mechanical and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are discussed. (author)

  1. Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials

    2012-01-01

    Electroactivity in Polymeric Materials provides an in-depth view of the theory of electroactivity and explores exactly how and why various electroactive phenomena occur. The book explains the theory behind electroactive bending (including ion-polymer-metal-composites –IPMCs), dielectric elastomers, electroactive contraction, and electroactive contraction-expansion cycles.  The book also balances theory with applications – how electroactivity can be used – drawing inspiration from the manmade mechanical world and the natural world around us.  This book captures: A complete introduction to electroactive materials including examples and recent developments The theory and applications of numerous topics like electroactive bending of dielectric elastomers and electroactive contraction and expansion New topics, such as biomimetic applications and energy harvesting This is a must-read within the electroactive community, particularly for professionals and graduate students who are interested in the ...

  2. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Surface modification of polypropylene membrane by polyethylene glycol graft polymerization

    Abednejad, Atiye Sadat, E-mail: atiyeabednejad@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 63894-14179, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaee, Azadeh [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-1561, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    Polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membranes have been used in a wide range of applications, including blood oxygenator. The hydrophobic feature of the polypropylene surface causes membrane fouling. To minimize fouling, a modification consisting of three steps: surface activation in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma, membrane immersion in polyethylene glycol (PEG) and plasma graft polymerization was performed. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Oxygen transfer of modified membranes was also tested. The stability of grafted PEG was measured in water and in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Blood compatibility of modified surfaces was evaluated by the platelet adhesion method. Water contact angel reduction from 110° to 72° demonstrates the enhanced hydrophilicity, and XPS results verify the presence of oxygenated functional groups due to the peak existence in 286 eV as a result of PEG grafting. The results clearly indicate that plasma graft-polymerization of PEG is an effective way for antifouling improvement of polypropylene membranes. Also, the results show that oxygen transfer changes in PEG grafted membranes are not significant. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma graft polymerization of PEG on polypropylene membrane was carried out. • Changes in surface properties were investigated by FTIR, XPS, SEM, and AFM. • Surface wettability enhanced as a result of poly ethylene glycol grafting. • PEG grafting degree increase causes reduction of fouling and adhesion.

  4. Polymeric media for tritium fixation

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis and leach testing of several polymeric media for tritium fixation are presented. Tritiated bakelite, poly(acrylonitrile) and polystyrene successfully fixed tritium. Tritium leach rates at the tracer level appear to be negligible. Advantages and disadvantages of the processes are discussed, and further bench-scale investigations underway are reported. Rough cost estimates are presented for the different media and are compared with alternate approaches such as deep-well injection and long-term tank storage. Polymeric media costs are high compared to deep-well storage and are of the same order of magnitude per liter of water as for isotopic enrichment. With this limitation, polymeric media can be economically feasible only for highly concentrated tritiated wastes. It is recommended that the bakelite and polystyrene processes be examined on a larger scale to permit more accurate cost analysis and process design. (auth)

  5. Olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization

    Ivin, K J

    1997-01-01

    This book is a follow-up to Ivins Olefin Metathesis, (Academic Press, 1983). Bringing the standard text in the field up to date, this Second Edition is a result of rapid growth in the field, sparked by the discovery of numerous well-defined metal carbene complexes that can act as very efficient initiators of all types of olefin metathesis reaction, including ring-closing metathesis of acyclic dienes, enynes, and dienynes; ring-opening metathesis polymerizationof cycloalkenes, acyclic diene metathesis polymerization; and polymerization of alkynes, as well as simple olefin metathesis. Olefin Metathesis and Metathesis Polymerization provides a broad, up-to-date account of the subject from its beginnings in 1957 to the latest applications in organic synthesis. The book follows the same format as the original, making it useful toteachers and to researchers, and will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of organic chemistry, polymer chemistry, organometallic chemistry, catalysis, materials scien...

  6. Radiolysis of organic triphenylmethane, anthraquinone, xanthene, oxazine, thiazine and azo dyes in polymeric films

    Khabarov, V.N.; Kozlov, L.L.; Molin, A.A.; Mekhanic, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of air oxygen and temperature (77 - 323 K) on decolorization radiation-chemical processes of triphenylmethane, anthraquinone, xanthene, oxazine, thiazine and azo dyes in different polymeric matrices is investigated. Radiation decolorization rate for the majority of dyes increases at the irradiation in O 2 presence, which is, presumably, connected with the dye oxidation by the singlet oxygen. The organic dyes manifest the most radiation resistance in polyethyleneterephthalate and polystyrene films

  7. Oxidative polymerization of lignins by laccase in water-acetone mixture.

    Fiţigău, Ionița Firuța; Peter, Francisc; Boeriu, Carmen Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic oxidative polymerization of five technical lignins with different molecular properties, i.e. Soda Grass/Wheat straw Lignin, Organosolv Hardwood Lignin, Soda Wheat straw Lignin, Alkali pretreated Wheat straw Lignin, and Kraft Softwood was studied. All lignins were previously fractionated by acetone/water 50:50 (v/v) and the laccase-catalyzed polymerization of the low molecular weight fractions (Mw Reactivity of lignin substrates in laccase-catalyzed reactions was determined by monitoring the oxygen consumption. The oxidation reactions in 50% acetone in water mixture proceed with high rate for all tested lignins. Polymerization products were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography, FT-IR, and (31)P-NMR and evidence of important lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Lignin polymers with higher molecular weight (Mw up to 17500 g/mol) were obtained. The obtained polymers have potential for applications in bioplastics, adhesives and as polymeric dispersants.

  8. On-demand photoinitiated polymerization

    Boydston, Andrew J; Grubbs, Robert H; Daeffler, Chris; Momcilovic, Nebojsa

    2013-12-10

    Compositions and methods for adjustable lenses are provided. In some embodiments, the lenses contain a lens matrix material, a masking compound, and a prepolymer. The lens matrix material provides structure to the lens. The masking compound is capable of blocking polymerization or crosslinking of the prepolymer, until photoisomerization of the compound is triggered, and the compound is converted from a first isomer to a second isomer having a different absorption profile. The prepolymer is a composition that can undergo a polymerization or crosslinking reaction upon photoinitiation to alter one or more of the properties of the lenses.

  9. Pentafluorosulfanyl Substituents in Polymerization Catalysis.

    Kenyon, Philip; Mecking, Stefan

    2017-10-04

    Highly electron-withdrawing pentafluorosulfanyl groups were probed as substituents in an organometallic catalyst. In Ni(II) salicylaldiminato complexes as an example case, these highly electron-withdrawing substituents allow for polymerization of ethylene to higher molecular weights with reduced branching due to significant reductions in β-hydrogen elimination. Combined with the excellent functional group tolerance of neutral Ni(II) complexes, this suppression of β-hydrogen elimination allows for the direct polymerization of ethylene in water to nanocrystal dispersions of disentangled, ultrahigh-molecular-weight linear polyethylene.

  10. Radiation Induced Polymerization of Pyrrole

    Sarada Idris; Ratnam, C.T.; Ahmad Ashrif Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the polymerization of pyrrole by gamma irradiation. The pyrrole films were exposed to gamma ray from cobalt 60 source at doses ranging from 0 to 150 kGy. The films were subjected to structural and morphological analyses by using FTIR, SEM and AFM techniques. Similar studies were also made on pristine pyrrole film which serve as control. Results revealed that pyrrole has been successfully polymerized through irradiation induced reactions. The SEM images depicted the formation of cauliflower shape upon gamma irradiation. The structural changes of pyrrole also evidenced by FTIR spectra. Surface topography and roughness of pyrrole before and after gamma irradiation found to show significant differences. (author)

  11. Functionalization and Polymerization on the CNT Surfaces

    Albuerne, Julio

    2013-07-01

    In this review we focus on the current status of using carbon nanotube (CNT) as a filler for polymer nanocomposites. Starting with the historical background of CNT, its distinct properties and the surface functionalization of the nanotube, the three different surface polymerization techniques, namely grafting "from", "to" and "through/in between" were discussed. Wider focus has been given on "grafting from" surface initiated polymerizations, including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) Polymerization, nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), ring opening polymerization (ROP) and other miscellaneous polymerization methods. The grafting "to" and "through / in between" also discussed and compared with grafting from polymerization. The merits and shortcomings of all three grafting methods were discussed and the bottleneck issue in grafting from method has been highlighted. Furthermore the current and potential future industrial applications were deliberated. Finally the toxicity issue of CNTs in the final product has been reviewed with the limited available literature knowledge. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

  12. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization

  13. Oxygen safety

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  14. Oxygen therapy - infants

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  15. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  16. Novel solid state polymeric batteries

    Patrick, A.; Glasse, M.; Latham, R.; Linford, R.

    1986-01-01

    AC conductivity measurements have been performed on a number of polymeric electrolytes containing Mg, Ca, Sr and Zn perchlorates and Mg and Ca thiocyanates. The electrolytes were characterized using DSC. Results are reported of preliminary tests of cells incorporating anodes of the above metals. 11 refs.

  17. Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization

    Guyot, A.; Tauer, K.; Asua, J.M.; Es, van J.J.G.S.; Gauthier, C.; Hellgren, A.C.; Sherrington, D.C.; Montoya-Goni, A.; Sjöberg, M.; Sindt, O.; Vidal, F.F.M.; Unzue, M.; Schoonbrood, H.A.S.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work carried out during 3 years in a Network of the program "Human Capital and Mobility" of the European Union CHRX 93-0159 entitled "Reactive surfactants in heterophase polymerization for high performance polymers". A series of about 25 original papers will be published in

  18. Biodegradable polymeric prodrugs of naltrexone

    Bennet, D.B.; Li, X.; Adams, N.W.; Kim, S.W.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Hoes, C.J.T.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The development of a biodegradable polymeric drug delivery system for the narcotic antagonist naltrexone may improve patient compliance in the treatment of opiate addiction. Random copolymers consisting of the ¿-amino acids N5-(3-hydroxypropyl--glutamine and -leucine were synthesized with equimolar

  19. Preparations of spherical polymeric particles from Tanzanian ...

    Spherical Polymeric Particles (SPP) have been prepared from Tanzanian Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) by suspension polymerization technique involving either step-growth or chain- growth polymerization mechanisms. The sizes of the SPP, which ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mm were strongly influenced by the amounts of ...

  20. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  1. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals.

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH 3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH 2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  2. STUDY ON OIL WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH POLYMERIC REAGENTS

    RODICA BUCUROIU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Used the polymeric reagents in oil wastewater treatment is an effective method of eliminate hydrocarbons. The present study aims to finding reagents that lead to lowering of extractible (EXT, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD of industrial wastewater from washing cars in loading ramps petroleum products. For this purpose five reagents were tested, namely: polyamines, cationic polyacrylamides, polydiallydimethyl ammonium chloride (PolyDADMAC, melamine formaldehyde polymer resin and polydicyandiamide polymer resin. Obtaining removal degrees over 80 % justifies using this method in the industrial practice.

  3. Dissolved oxygen removal in a column packed with catalyst

    Lee, Han Soo; Chung, Hong Suk; Cho, Young Hyun; Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Eun Kee

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved oxygen removed by H 2 -O 2 reaction in column packed with various catalysts was examined. The catalysts employed were the prepared polymeric catalyst, platinum on activated carbon, and Lewatit OC-1045 which is available commercially. The column experiments with the prepared polymeric catalyst showed the dissolved oxygen reduced to 35 ppb which is below the limit in feel water of power plants. This implies the likely application of the prepared catalyst for practical use. The activated carbon required the pre-treatment for the removed of dissolved oxygen, since the surface of activated carbon contains much oxygen adsorbed initially. The Lewatit catalyst exposed the best performance, however, the aged one showed the gradual loss of catalytic activity due to degradation of resin catalyst. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  4. Click polymerization for the synthesis of reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Wang, Hongquan; Dai, Yu

    2018-05-01

    Click polymerization is a powerful polymerization technique for the construction of new macromolecules with well-defined structures and multifaceted functionalities. Here, we synthesize reduction-responsive polymeric prodrug PEG- b-(PSS- g-MTX)- b-PEG containing disulfide bonds and pendant methotrexate (MTX) via two-step click polymerization followed by conjugating MTX to pendant hydroxyl. MTX content in polymeric prodrug is 13.5%. Polymeric prodrug is able to form polymeric micelles by self-assembly in aqueous solution. Polymeric micelles are spherical nanoparticles with tens of nanometers in size. Of note, polymeric micelles are reduction-responsive due to disulfide bonds in the backbone of PEG- b-(PSS- g-MTX)- b-PEG and could release pendant drugs in the presence of the reducing agents such as dl-dithiothreitol (DTT).

  5. SCATTERING FROM RAMIFIED POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

    M.Benhamou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, of great interest to us is a quantitative study of the scattering properties from ramified polymeric systems of arbitrary topology. We consider three types of systems, namely ramified polymers in solution, ramified polymer blends, or ternary mixtures made of two ramified polymers of different chemical nature immersed in a good solvent. To achieve the goal of the study, use is made of the Random Phase Approximation. First we determine the exact expression of the form factor of an ideal ramified polymer of any topology, from which we extract the exact expression of its gyration radius. Using the classical Zimm's formulae and the exact form factor, we determine all scattering properties of these three types of ramified polymeric systems. The main conclusion is that ramification of the chains induces drastic changes of the scattering properties.

  6. RADIOCHEMICAL YIELDS OF GRAFT POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS OF CELLULOSE

    Arthur, Jr, J C; Blouin, F A

    1963-12-15

    The preparation of radioinduced graft polymers of cotton cellulose, while retaining the fibrous nature and high molecular weight of the cellulose, depended primarily on the radiochemical yields of cellulose reactions and of graft polymerization reactions. Yields of the initial major molecular changes in cellulosic polymer indicated that, in the case of scission of the molecule and carboxyl group formation, chain reactions were not initiated by radiation; however, in the case of carbonyl group formation chain reactions were initiated but quickly terminated. Generally, experimental procedures, used in graft polymerization reactions, were: simultaneous irradiation reactions, that is, application of monomers or solutions of monomers to cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then irradiation; and post-irradiation reactions, that is, irradiation of cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then after removal from the field of radiation, contacting the irradiated cellulose with monomer. Some of the most important factors influencing the radiochemical yields of graft polymerization reactions, of styrene and acrylonitrile onto cellulose were: concentration of monomer in treating solution; solvent; ratio of monomer solution to cellulose; prior chemical modification of cellulose; and absence of oxygen, particularly in post-irradiation reactions. Experimental data are presented, and the direct and indirect effects of Co/sup 60/ gamma radiation on these reactions are discussed. (auth)

  7. Polymeric nanoparticles for optical sensing.

    Canfarotta, Francesco; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology is a powerful tool for use in diagnostic applications. For these purposes a variety of functional nanoparticles containing fluorescent labels, gold and quantum dots at their cores have been produced, with the aim of enhanced sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. This work will review progress in the application of polymeric nanoparticles in optical diagnostics, both for in vitro and in vivo detection, together with a discussion of their biodistribution and biocompatibility. © 2013.

  8. Polymeric Coatings for Combating Biocorrosion

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Shaojun; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Li; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, Simo O.

    2018-03-01

    Biocorrosion has been considered as big trouble in many industries and marine environments due to causing great economic loss. The main disadvantages of present approaches to prevent corrosion include being limited by environmental factors, being expensive, inapplicable to field, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that polymer coatings with anti-corrosion and anti-microbial properties have been widely accepted as a novel and effective approach to preventbiocorrosion. The main purpose of this review is to summarize up the progressive status of polymer coatings used for combating microbially-induced corrosion. Polymers used to synthesize protective coatings are generally divided into three categories: i) traditional polymers incorporated with biocides, ii) antibacterial polymers containing quaternary ammonium compounds, and iii) conductive polymers. The strategies to synthesize polymer coatings resort mainly to grafting anti-bacterial polymers from the metal substrate surface using novel surface-functionalization approaches, such as free radical polymerization, chemically oxidative polymerization and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, as opposed to the traditional approaches of dip coating or spin coating.

  9. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  10. MISSE PEACE Polymers Atomic Oxygen Erosion Results

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rucker, Rochelle N.; Roberts, Lily M.; Berger, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one different polymer samples, collectively called the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers, have been exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The objective of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to determine the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a wide variety of polymeric materials after long term exposure to the space environment. The polymers range from those commonly used for spacecraft applications, such as Teflon (DuPont) FEP, to more recently developed polymers, such as high temperature polyimide PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants). Additional polymers were included to explore erosion yield dependence upon chemical composition. The MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), tray 1, on the exterior of the ISS Quest Airlock and was exposed to atomic oxygen along with solar and charged particle radiation. MISSE 2 was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005, during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. Details on the specific polymers flown, flight sample fabrication, pre-flight and post-flight characterization techniques, and atomic oxygen fluence calculations are discussed along with a summary of the atomic oxygen erosion yield results. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment is unique because it has the widest variety of polymers flown in LEO for a long duration and provides extremely valuable erosion yield data for spacecraft design purposes.

  11. Microfluidic production of polymeric functional microparticles

    Jiang, Kunqiang

    This dissertation focuses on applying droplet-based microfluidics to fabricate new classes of polymeric microparticles with customized properties for various applications. The integration of microfluidic techniques with microparticle engineering allows for unprecedented control over particle size, shape, and functional properties. Specifically, three types of microparticles are discussed here: (1) Magnetic and fluorescent chitosan hydrogel microparticles and their in-situ assembly into higher-order microstructures; (2) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microbeads with phosphorescent properties for oxygen sensing; (3) Macroporous microparticles as biological immunosensors. First, we describe a microfluidic approach to generate monodisperse chitosan hydrogel microparticles that can be further connected in-situ into higher-order microstructures. Microparticles of the biopolymer chitosan are created continuously by contacting an aqueous solution of chitosan at a microfluidic T-junction with a stream of hexadecane containing a nonionic detergent, followed by downstream crosslinking of the generated droplets by a ternary flow of glutaraldehyde. Functional properties of the microparticles can be easily varied by introducing payloads such as magnetic nanoparticles and/or fluorescent dyes into the chitosan solution. We then use these prepared microparticles as "building blocks" and assemble them into high ordered microstructures, i.e. microchains with controlled geometry and flexibility. Next, we describe a new approach to produce monodisperse microbeads of PDMS using microfluidics. Using a flow-focusing configuration, a PDMS precursor solution is dispersed into microdroplets within an aqueous continuous phase. These droplets are collected and thermally cured off-chip into soft, solid microbeads. In addition, our technique allows for direct integration of payloads, such as an oxygen-sensitive porphyrin dye, into the PDMS microbeads. We then show that the resulting dye

  12. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    Gao, Tieyu

    2012-05-02

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  13. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Biosensors

    Gao, Tieyu; Hsiao, Vincent; Zheng, Yue Bing; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of an interferometrically created nanoporous polymeric gratings as a platform for biosensing applications. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings was fabricated by combining holographic interference patterning and APTES-functionalization of pre-polymer syrup. The successful detection of multiple biomolecules indicates that the biofunctionalized nanoporous polymeric gratings can act as biosensing platforms which are label-free, inexpensive, and applicable as high-throughput assays. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  14. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  15. Polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs.

    Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Many polymeric materials have already been used in the field of artificial organs. However, the materials used in artificial organs are not necessarily created with the best material selectivity and materials design; therefore, the development of synthesized polymeric membrane materials for artificial organs based on well-defined designs is required. The approaches to the development of biocompatible polymeric materials fall into three categories: (1) control of physicochemical characteristics on material surfaces, (2) modification of material surfaces using biomolecules, and (3) construction of biomimetic membrane surfaces. This review will describe current issues regarding polymeric membrane materials for use in artificial organs.

  16. High Vacuum Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are the most suitable for the preparation of polymer samples with well-defined complex macromolecular architectures. Though HVTs require glassblowing skill for designing and making polymerization reactor, it is the best way to avoid any termination of living polymers during the number of steps for the synthesis of polymers with complex structure. In this chapter, we describe the different polymerization reactors and HVTs for the purification of monomers, solvents, and other reagents for anionic polymerization as well as few model reactions for the synthesis of polymers with simple to complex structure.

  17. Effect of oxyfluorinated multi-walled carbon nanotube additives on positive temperature coefficient/negative temperature coefficient behavior in high-density polyethylene polymeric switches

    Bai, Byong Chol; Kang, Seok Chang; Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Se Hyun; Lee, Young-Seak

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The electrical properties of MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches and their effect on oxyfluorination. Highlights: → Oxyfluorinated MWCNTs were used to reduce the PTC/NTC phenomenon in MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. → Electron mobility is difficult in MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups (C-O, C=O) increases by oxyfluorination. → A mechanism of improved electrical properties of oxyfluorinated MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches was suggested. -- Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were embedded into high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to improve the electrical properties of HDPE polymeric switches. The MWCNT surfaces were modified by oxyfluorination to improve their positive temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behaviors in HDPE polymeric switches. HDPE polymeric switches exhibit poor electron mobility between MWCNT particles when the number of oxygen functional groups is increased by oxyfluorination. Thus, the PTC intensity of HDPE polymeric switches was increased by the destruction of the electrical conductivity network. The oxyfluorination of MWCNTs also leads to weak NTC behavior in the MWCNT-filled HDPE polymeric switches. This result is attributed to the reduction of the mutual attraction between the MWCNT particles at the melting temperature of HDPE, which results from a decrease in the surface free energy of the C-F bond in MWCNT particles.

  18. Twin screw extruders as polymerization reactors for a free radical homo polymerization

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    The bulk polymerization of n-butylmethacrylate was investigated in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder. It appeared that the gel effect, occurring with bulk polymerizations, affected the polymerization progress very strongly. Due to this effect the conversion of the reaction is independent of the

  19. Schlenk Techniques for Anionic Polymerization

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2015-09-01

    Anionic polymerization-high vacuum techniques (HVTs) are doubtlessly the most prominent and reliable experimental tools to prepare polymer samples with well-defined and, in many cases, complex macromolecular architectures. Due to the high demands for time and skilled technical personnel, HVTs are currently used in only a few research laboratories worldwide. Instead, most researchers in this filed are attracted to more facile Schlenk techniques. The basic principle of this technique followed in all laboratories is substantially the same, i.e. the use of alternate vacuum and inert gas atmosphere in glass apparatus for the purification/charging of monomer, solvents, additives, and for the manipulation of air-sensitive compounds such as alkyl metal initiators, organometallic or organic catalysts. However, it is executed quite differently in each research group in terms of the structure of Schlenk apparatus (manifolds, connections, purification/storage flasks, reactors, etc.), the use of small supplementary devices (soft tubing, cannulas, stopcocks, etc.) and experimental procedures. The operational methods are partly purpose-oriented while also featured by a high flexibility, which makes it impossible to describe in detail each specific one. In this chapter we will briefly exemplify the application of Schlenk techniques for anionic polymerization by describing the performance of a few experiments from our own work.

  20. Dually Fluorescent Sensing of pH and Dissolved Oxygen Using a Membrane Made from Polymerizable Sensing Monomers

    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R.; Youngbull, A. Cody; Li, Yongzhong; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a thermal polymerization approach and polymerizable pH and oxygen sensing monomers with green and red emission spectra, respectively, new pH, oxygen, and their dual sensing membranes were prepared using poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(acrylamide) as a matrix. The sensors were grafted on acrylate-modified quartz glass and characterized under different pH values, oxygen concentrations, ion strengths, temperatures and cell culture media. The pH and oxygen sensors were excited usi...

  1. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Szymczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Pawelec, Iwona; Lisiecki, Slawomir; Jotko, Marek; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Mosnácek, Jaroslav; Roslaniec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt%) of graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for ...

  2. Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury ...

    Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury: preparation and characterization. Bo Yin, Jian-Jun Ji, Ming Yang. Abstract. Purpose: To improve the effectiveness and reduce the systemic side effects of methylprednisolone in traumatic spinal injuries, its polymeric implants were prepared using chitosan and sodium ...

  3. Polymerization of Polar Monomers from a Theoretical Perspective

    Alghamdi, Miasser

    2016-10-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate catalytic mechanism of polymer formation containing polar groups, from the synthesis of the monomer to the synthesis of the macromolecule. In the spirit of a sustainable and green chemistry, we initially focused attention on the coupling of CO2 as economically convenient and recyclable C1 source with C2H4 to form acrylate and/or butirro-lactone, two important polar monomers. In this process formation of a mettallolactone via oxidative coupling of CO2 and C2H4 is an important intermediate. Given this background, we explored in detail (chapter-3) several Ni based catalysts for CO2 coupling with C2H4 to form acrylate. In this thesis we report on the competitive reaction mechanisms (inner vs outer sphere) for the oxidative coupling of CO2 and ethylene for a set of 11 Ni-based complexes containing bisphosphine ligands. In another effort, considering incorporation of a C=C bond into a metal-oxygen-Functional-Group moiety is a challenging step in several polymerization reactions, we explored the details of this reaction (chapter4) using two different catalysts that are capable to perform this reaction in the synthesis of heterocycles. Specifically, the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-Bis-diphenylphosphino-propane), and the [Pd]/BPh3 intramolecular alkoxyfunctionalizations. Rest of the thesis we worked on understanding the details of the polymerization of polar monomers using organocatalysts based on N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC) or N-heterocyclic olefins (NHO). In particular (chapter-5) we studied the polymerization of N-methyl N-carboxy- anhydrides, towards cyclic poly(N-substituted glycine)s, promoted by NHC catalysts. In good agreement with the experimental findings, we demonstrated that NHC promoted ring opening polymerization of N-Me N-Carboxyanhydrides may proceed via two different catalytic pathways. In a similar effort we studied polymerization of

  4. Nanoparticles from a controlled polymerization process

    Tirumala, V.R.; Caneba, G.T.; Dar, Y.; Wang, H.-H.; Mancini, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Free-radical retrograde precipitation polymerization process in the past has shown excellent control characteristics over reaction rate, molecular weight, and in the entrapment of live radicals for the generation of block copolymers. The same principle has now been extended to study the reaction confinement to a nanoscale region. Nanosized polymer particles have been reported to form from block copolymers, conventional precipitation polymerization methods, or through emulsion polymerization approaches. In this work, we present a new method of generating nanosized polymer particles by polymerizing the monomer in an environment that precipitates the polymer above the lower critical solution temperature. The nanoparticles have been characterized by both tapping-mode atomic force microscopy observations and in situ synchrotron time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The results from both the techniques showed the formation of nanoparticles in the size range of 15-30 nm, directly from the polymerization process.

  5. Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites

    Weitsman, Y Jack

    2012-01-01

    Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites, written by the late Dr. Y. Jack Weitsman, addresses the wide range of parameters that affect the interaction of fluids with polymers and polymeric composites. The book aims at broadening the scope of available data, mostly limited up to this time to weight-gain recordings of fluid ingress into polymers and composites, to the practical circumstances of fluctuating exposure. Various forms of experimental data are given, in conjunction with theoretical models derived from basic scientific principles, and correlated with severity of exposure conditions and interpreted by means of rationally based theoretical models. The practical implications of the effects of fluids are discussed. The issue of fluid effects on polymers and polymeric composites is of concern to engineers and scientists active in aerospace and naval structures, as an increasing portion of these structures are made of polymeric composites and employ polymeric adhesives as a joining device. While...

  6. Experimental conditions affecting the kinetics of aqueous HCN polymerization as revealed by UV-vis spectroscopy.

    Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R; Moreno, Miguel; de la Fuente, José L; Briones, Carlos; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta

    2018-02-15

    HCN polymerization is one of the most important and fascinating reactions in prebiotic chemistry, and interest in HCN polymers in the field of materials science is growing. However, little is known about the kinetics of the HCN polymerization process. In the present study, a first approach to the kinetics of two sets of aqueous HCN polymerizations, from NH 4 CN and NaCN, at middle temperatures between 4 and 38°C, has been carried out. For each series, the presence of air and salts in the reaction medium has been systematically explored. A previous kinetic analysis was conducted during the conversion of the insoluble black HCN polymers obtained as gel fractions in these precipitation polymerizations for a reaction of one month, where a limit conversion was achieved at the highest polymerization temperature. The kinetic description of the gravimetric data for this complex system shows a clear change in the linear dependence with the polymerization temperature for the reaction from NH 4 CN, besides a relevant catalytic effect of ammonium, in comparison with those data obtained from the NaCN series. These results also demonstrated the notable influence of air, oxygen, and the saline medium in HCN polymer formation. Similar conclusions were reached when the sol fractions were monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy, and a Hill type correlation was used to describe the polymerization profiles obtained. This technique was chosen because it provides an easy, prompt and fast method to follow the evolution of the liquid or continuous phase of the process under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  8. Polymerization of lanthanide acrylonitrile complexes.

    el-Mossalamy, El-Sayed H; Khalil, Ahmed A

    2002-01-01

    The molecular complexes of some lanthanides scandium (Sc3+), yttrium (Y3+), lanthanum (La3+), gadolinium (Gd3+), cerium (Ce3+) and ytterbium (Yb3) have been studies in dimethyl formamide (DMF) spectrophtometrically equilibrium constants (K), molar extintion coefficient (epsilon), energy of transition (E) and free energy (delta G*) were calculated. The polymerization of acrylonitrile has been studied and investigated in the presence of Sc3+, Y3+, La3+, Gd3+, Ce3+, and Yb3+ ions. The IR spectra of the formed AN-M (III) Br3 polymer complexes show the absence of the C identical to N band and the presence of two new bands corresponding to NH2 and OH groups. Magnetic moment values and the thermal stabilities of homopolymer and the polymer complexes were studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis and the activation energies for degradation were calculated.

  9. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  10. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  11. Self-assembly of tissue spheroids on polymeric membranes.

    Messina, Antonietta; Morelli, Sabrina; Forgacs, Gabor; Barbieri, Giuseppe; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2017-07-01

    In this study, multicellular tissue spheroids were fabricated on polymeric membranes in order to accelerate the fusion process and tissue formation. To this purpose, tissue spheroids composed of three different cell types, myoblasts, fibroblasts and neural cells, were formed and cultured on agarose and membranes of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chitosan (CHT). Membranes prepared by a phase-inversion technique display different physicochemical, mechanical and transport properties, which can affect the fusion process. The membranes accelerated the fusion process of a pair of spheroids with respect to the inert substrate. In this process, a critical role is played by the membrane properties, especially by their mechanical characteristics and oxygen and carbon dioxide mass transfer. The rate of fusion was quantified and found to be similar for fibroblast, myoblast and neural tissue spheroids on membranes, which completed the fusion within 3 days. These spheroids underwent faster fusion and maturation on PCL membrane than on agarose, the rate of fusion being proportional to the value of oxygen and carbon dioxide permeances and elastic characteristics. Consequently, tissue spheroids on the membranes expressed high biological activity in terms of oxygen uptake, making them more suitable as building blocks in the fabrication of tissues and organs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Plasma-grafting polymerization on carbon fibers and its effect on their composite properties

    Zhang, Huanxia; Li, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Interfacial adhesion between matrix and fibers plays a crucial role in controlling the performance of composites. Carbon fibers have the major constraint of chemical interness and hence have limited adhesion with the matrix. Surface treatment of fibers is the best solution to this problem. In this work, carbon fibers were activated by plasma and grafting polymerization. The grafting ratio of polymerization was obtained by acid-base titration. The chemical and physical changes induced by the treatments on carbon fiber surface was examined using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) technique. The interfacial adhesion of CF/EP (carbon fiber/epoxy) composites were analyzed by a single fiber composite (SFC) for filament fragmentation test. Experimental results show that the grafting rate was not only the function of the plasma-treat time but also the concentration of the grafting polymerization. The oxygen-containing groups (such as Csbnd O, Cdbnd O, and Osbnd Cdbnd O) and the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the plasma-grafting carbon fiber increased more significantly than the carbon fiber without plasma treatment grafted with MAH. This demonstrates that the surfaces of the carbon fiber samples are more active, hydrophilic, and rough after plasma-grafting treatments using a DBD operating in ambient argon mixture with oxygen. With DBD (dielectric barrier discharges) operating in ambient argon mixture with oxygen, the more active, hydrophilic, and rough surface was obtained by the plasma-grafting treatments.

  13. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  14. AZIDE-ALKYNE CLICK POLYMERIZATION: AN UPDATE

    Hong-kun Li; Jing-zhi Sun; An-jun Qin; Ben Zhong Tang

    2012-01-01

    The great achievements of click chemistry have encouraged polymer scientists to use this reaction in their field.This review assembles an update of the advances of using azide-alkyne click polymerization to prepare functional polytriazoles (PTAs) with linear and hyperbranched structures.The Cu(Ⅰ)-mediated click polymerization furnishes 1,4-regioregular PTAs,whereas,the metal-free click polymerization of propiolates and azides produces PTAs with 1,4-regioisomer contents up to 90%.The PTAs display advanced functions,such as aggregation-induced emission,thermal stability,biocompatibility and optical nonlinearity.

  15. Transparent Metal-Salt-Filled Polymeric Radiation Shields

    Edwards, David; Lennhoff, John; Harris, George

    2003-01-01

    "COR-RA" (colorless atomic oxygen resistant -- radiation shield) is the name of a transparent polymeric material filled with x-ray-absorbing salts of lead, bismuth, cesium, and thorium. COR-RA is suitable for use in shielding personnel against bremsstrahlung radiation from electron-beam welding and industrial and medical x-ray equipment. In comparison with lead-foil and leaded-glass shields that give equivalent protection against x-rays (see table), COR-RA shields are mechanically more durable. COR-RA absorbs not only x-rays but also neutrons and rays without adverse effects on optical or mechanical performance. The formulation of COR-RA with the most favorable mechanical-durability and optical properties contains 22 weight percent of bismuth to absorb x-rays, plus 45 atomic percent hydrogen for shielding against neutrons.

  16. Polymerization of allyl alcohol by radiation to obtain microencapsulated structure

    Usanmaz, A.; Saricilar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Allyl alcohol was polymerized by radiation under various conditions. The limiting conversions were about 30 % in bulk, 35 % when containing 0.03 mole fraction AlCl 3 and 50 % when water was contained at 27 % (v/v). Irradiation was done with Co-60 gamma rays at room temperature and under vacuum. The presence of oxygen did not cause any change in the reaction rate. Molecular weights were determined by viscosity and cryoscopic methods. K and α values were found to be 3.57 x 10 -4 and 0.62 for solutions in methanol at 25degC. The polymers up to about 10 % conversion were viscous liquids having microcapsular structures: at high conversions, they became hard and glassy. The microencapsulated structures were also retained in solutions in methanol, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol. The samples were insoluble in water, benzene, and toluence. (author)

  17. Synthesis and polymerization of vinyl triazolium ionic liquids

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Adzima, Brian

    2018-05-15

    Herein, we describe polymerized ionic liquids, demonstrate the synthesis of polymerized ionic liquids, and demonstrate the polymerization of triazolium monomers. One embodiment shows the polymeriazation of the triazolium monomers with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions. In another embodiment we show the feasibility of copolymerizing with commodity monomers such as styrene using free radical polymerization techniques.

  18. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  19. Better flocculants by radiation induced polymerization

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.

    1978-01-01

    The use of radiation induced polymerization should theoritically allow to prepare better flocculants. The testings of several products prepared by such a process shows that better properties are indeed obtained: better efficiencies, lower amounts needed, better overall properties [fr

  20. Compression Behavior of High Performance Polymeric Fibers

    Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding has proven to be effective in improving the compressive strength of rigid-rod polymeric fibers without resulting in a decrease in tensile strength while covalent crosslinking results in brittle fibers...

  1. Silicon dioxide obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method

    Oliveira, C.T.; Granado, S.R.; Lopes, S.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Polymeric Precursor Method is able for obtaining several oxide material types with high surface area even obtained in particle form. Several MO 2 oxide types such as titanium, silicon and zirconium ones can be obtained by this methodology. In this work, the synthesis of silicon oxide was monitored by thermal analysis, XRD and surface area analysis in order to demonstrate the influence of the several synthesis and calcining parameters. Surface area values as higher as 370m2/g and increasing in the micropore volume nm were obtained when the material was synthesized by using ethylene glycol as polymerizing agent. XRD analysis showed that the material is amorphous when calcinated at 600°C in despite of the time of calcining, but the material morphology is strongly influenced by the polymeric resin composition. Using Glycerol as polymerizing agent, the pore size increase and the surface area goes down with the increasing in decomposition time, when compared to ethylene glycol. (author)

  2. Thermal polymerization of Moringa oleifera oil

    Melo, Tania M.S.; Novack, Katia M.; Leandro, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly clear both for society and the scientific community, that is necessary to find alternatives to reduce the use of polymeric materials because of their damage to the environment. One way to minimize the environmental problems related to the use of polymers is try to make them quickly degradable. In this study it was obtained a material with polymeric appearance derived from heating of the vegetable oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera. The resulting product is an interesting alternative to obtain polymeric materials that may have biodegradable characteristics, coming from a renewable source and low cost. Moringa oil can be used since it has a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, and its main constituent oleic acid. All samples were characterized by FTIR, NMR and GPC. It was obtained a polymeric material, malleable, high viscosity, with some elasticity, low crystallinity and no unpleasant odor. (author)

  3. Deformation and flow of polymeric materials

    Münstedt, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the properties of single polymer molecules and polymeric materials and the methods how to characterize them. Molar masses, molar mass distributions and branching structure are discussed in detail. These properties are decisive for a deeper understanding of structure/properties relationships of polymeric materials. This book therefore describes and discusses them in detail. The mechanical behavior as a function of time and temperature is a key subject of the book. The authors present it on the basis of many original results they have obtained in their long research careers. They present the temperature dependence of mechanical properties of various polymeric materials in a wide temperature range: from cryogenic temperatures to the melt. Besides an extensive data collection on the transitions of various different polymeric materials, they also carefully present the physical explanations of the observed phenomena. Glass transition and melting temperatures are discussed, particularly, with the...

  4. Polymerization of sodium methacrylate induced by irradiation

    Galvan S, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work has two objectives, first: it is pretended to localize the lines of carbon links in its IR spectra, and second: following the polymerization of sodium methacrylate according to that it is irradiated with gamma rays. (Author)

  5. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  6. Bioadhesive polymeric platforms for transmucosal drug delivery ...

    Bioadhesive polymeric platforms for transmucosal drug delivery systems – a review. ... administration of certain classes of drugs, especially peptides and proteins. ... characteristics of desired bioadhesive polymers, this article then proceeds to ...

  7. Transformation kinetics of mixed polymeric substrates under ...

    bglucosidase and a-mannosidase were abundantly secreted in the growth medium. This research is the first report on mixed polymeric substrate biodegradation under sewer condition by A. niger, and could be considered as an open window on ...

  8. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Hearon, II, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-01-10

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  9. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions

    Coari, Kristin M.; Martin, Rebecca C.; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B.

    2017-09-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  10. Polymeric Nanogels Obtained by Radiation Technique

    Ulanski, P.; Kadłubowski, A. K.; Olejnik,; Rokita, B.; Wach, R.; Rosiak, J. M. [Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Soft nanomaterials - polymeric nanogels and microgels - have made a fast and brilliant career, from an unwanted by-product of polymerization processes to an important and fashionable topic of interdisciplinary research in the fields of polymer chemistry and physics, materials science, pharmacy and medicine. Together with their larger analogues - macroscopic gels, most known in the form of water-swellable hydrogels - they have a broad field of actual and potential applications ranging from filler materials in coating industry to modern biomaterials.

  11. Nucleotide Selectivity in Abiotic RNA Polymerization Reactions.

    Coari, Kristin M; Martin, Rebecca C; Jain, Kopal; McGown, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    In order to establish an RNA world on early Earth, the nucleotides must form polymers through chemical rather than biochemical reactions. The polymerization products must be long enough to perform catalytic functions, including self-replication, and to preserve genetic information. These functions depend not only on the length of the polymers, but also on their sequences. To date, studies of abiotic RNA polymerization generally have focused on routes to polymerization of a single nucleotide and lengths of the homopolymer products. Less work has been done the selectivity of the reaction toward incorporation of some nucleotides over others in nucleotide mixtures. Such information is an essential step toward understanding the chemical evolution of RNA. To address this question, in the present work RNA polymerization reactions were performed in the presence of montmorillonite clay catalyst. The nucleotides included the monophosphates of adenosine, cytosine, guanosine, uridine and inosine. Experiments included reactions of mixtures of an imidazole-activated nucleotide (ImpX) with one or more unactivated nucleotides (XMP), of two or more ImpX, and of XMP that were activated in situ in the polymerization reaction itself. The reaction products were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the lengths and nucleotide compositions of the polymerization products. The results show that the extent of polymerization, the degree of heteropolymerization vs. homopolymerization, and the composition of the polymeric products all vary among the different nucleotides and depend upon which nucleotides and how many different nucleotides are present in the mixture.

  12. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  13. Post polymerization cure shape memory polymers

    Wilson, Thomas S; Hearon, Michael Keith; Bearinger, Jane P

    2014-11-11

    This invention relates to chemical polymer compositions, methods of synthesis, and fabrication methods for devices regarding polymers capable of displaying shape memory behavior (SMPs) and which can first be polymerized to a linear or branched polymeric structure, having thermoplastic properties, subsequently processed into a device through processes typical of polymer melts, solutions, and dispersions and then crossed linked to a shape memory thermoset polymer retaining the processed shape.

  14. Polymeric Nanogels Obtained by Radiation Technique

    Ulanski, P.; Kadłubowski, A.K.; Olejnik; Rokita, B.; Wach, R.; Rosiak, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Soft nanomaterials - polymeric nanogels and microgels - have made a fast and brilliant career, from an unwanted by-product of polymerization processes to an important and fashionable topic of interdisciplinary research in the fields of polymer chemistry and physics, materials science, pharmacy and medicine. Together with their larger analogues - macroscopic gels, most known in the form of water-swellable hydrogels - they have a broad field of actual and potential applications ranging from filler materials in coating industry to modern biomaterials

  15. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have become significantly critical components of modern materials design and technological developments. Recent advances in synthesis and fabrication of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles with built-in stimuli-responsive components (Part A) and surface modifications of functional nanoparticles that facilitate responsiveness (Part B) are outlined here. The synthesis and construction of stimuli-responsive spherical, core-shell, concentric, hollow, Janus, gibbous/inverse gibbous, and cocklebur morphologies are discussed in Part A, with the focus on shape, color, or size changes resulting from external stimuli. Although inorganic/metallic nanoparticles exhibit many useful properties, including thermal or electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, or magnetic properties, their assemblies and formation of higher order constructs are often enhanced by surface modifications. Section B focuses on selected surface reactions that lead to responsiveness achieved by decorating nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive polymers. Although grafting-to and grafting-from dominate these synthetic efforts, there are opportunities for developing novel synthetic approaches facilitating controllable recognition, signaling, or sequential responses. Many nanotechnologies utilize a combination of organic and inorganic phases to produce ceramic or metallic nanoparticles. One can envision the development of new properties by combining inorganic (metals, metal oxides) and organic (polymer) phases into one nanoparticle designated as "ceramers" (inorganics) and "metamers" (metallic). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nonperturbative Renormalization Group Approach to Polymerized Membranes

    Essafi, Karim; Kownacki, Jean-Philippe; Mouhanna, Dominique

    2014-03-01

    Membranes or membrane-like materials play an important role in many fields ranging from biology to physics. These systems form a very rich domain in statistical physics. The interplay between geometry and thermal fluctuations lead to exciting phases such flat, tubular and disordered flat phases. Roughly speaking, membranes can be divided into two group: fluid membranes in which the molecules are free to diffuse and thus no shear modulus. On the other hand, in polymerized membranes the connectivity is fixed which leads to elastic forces. This difference between fluid and polymerized membranes leads to a difference in their critical behaviour. For instance, fluid membranes are always crumpled, whereas polymerized membranes exhibit a phase transition between a crumpled phase and a flat phase. In this talk, I will focus only on polymerized phantom, i.e. non-self-avoiding, membranes. The critical behaviour of both isotropic and anisotropic polymerized membranes are studied using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach (NPRG). This allows for the investigation of the phase transitions and the low temperature flat phase in any internal dimension D and embedding d. Interestingly, graphene behaves just as a polymerized membrane in its flat phase.

  17. The tempered polymerization of human neuroserpin.

    Rosina Noto

    Full Text Available Neuroserpin, a member of the serpin protein superfamily, is an inhibitor of proteolytic activity that is involved in pathologies such as ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB. The latter belongs to a class of conformational diseases, known as serpinopathies, which are related to the aberrant polymerization of serpin mutants. Neuroserpin is known to polymerize, even in its wild type form, under thermal stress. Here, we study the mechanism of neuroserpin polymerization over a wide range of temperatures by different techniques. Our experiments show how the onset of polymerization is dependent on the formation of an intermediate monomeric conformer, which then associates with a native monomer to yield a dimeric species. After the formation of small polymers, the aggregation proceeds via monomer addition as well as polymer-polymer association. No further secondary mechanism takes place up to very high temperatures, thus resulting in the formation of neuroserpin linear polymeric chains. Most interesting, the overall aggregation is tuned by the co-occurrence of monomer inactivation (i.e. the formation of latent neuroserpin and by a mechanism of fragmentation. The polymerization kinetics exhibit a unique modulation of the average mass and size of polymers, which might suggest synchronization among the different processes involved. Thus, fragmentation would control and temper the aggregation process, instead of enhancing it, as typically observed (e.g. for amyloid fibrillation.

  18. Characterization behavior of some polymeric composite ion exchangers

    El-Zahhar, A.A; Ahdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric composite resins were prepared by template polymerization process in aqueous solution. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were performed to evaluate the physico chemical properties of the different polymeric composite resins. The TGA and DTA clarify high thermal stability of prepared polymeric composite resins. XRD of prepared polymeric composite shows that there is crystalline structure of some resins while other are amorphous one

  19. Plasma-grafting polymerization on carbon fibers and its effect on their composite properties

    Zhang, Huanxia, E-mail: zhanghuanxia818@163.com [College of Materials and Textile Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, Zhejiang (China); Li, Wei [College of Textile Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple method to improve surface properties is applied to carbon fibers. • The maleic anhydride was grafted onto the carbon fiber with the FTIR spectra. • The plasma treatment time and polymerization condition affected on the grafting rate. • The carbon fibers exhibited excellent surface hydrophilicity and IFSS properties. - Abstract: Interfacial adhesion between matrix and fibers plays a crucial role in controlling the performance of composites. Carbon fibers have the major constraint of chemical interness and hence have limited adhesion with the matrix. Surface treatment of fibers is the best solution to this problem. In this work, carbon fibers were activated by plasma and grafting polymerization. The grafting ratio of polymerization was obtained by acid–base titration. The chemical and physical changes induced by the treatments on carbon fiber surface was examined using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR–ATR) technique. The interfacial adhesion of CF/EP (carbon fiber/epoxy) composites were analyzed by a single fiber composite (SFC) for filament fragmentation test. Experimental results show that the grafting rate was not only the function of the plasma-treat time but also the concentration of the grafting polymerization. The oxygen-containing groups (such as C−O, C=O, and O−C=O) and the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the plasma-grafting carbon fiber increased more significantly than the carbon fiber without plasma treatment grafted with MAH. This demonstrates that the surfaces of the carbon fiber samples are more active, hydrophilic, and rough after plasma-grafting treatments using a DBD operating in ambient argon mixture with oxygen. With DBD (dielectric barrier discharges) operating in ambient argon mixture with oxygen, the more active, hydrophilic, and rough surface was obtained by the

  20. Plasma-grafting polymerization on carbon fibers and its effect on their composite properties

    Zhang, Huanxia; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple method to improve surface properties is applied to carbon fibers. • The maleic anhydride was grafted onto the carbon fiber with the FTIR spectra. • The plasma treatment time and polymerization condition affected on the grafting rate. • The carbon fibers exhibited excellent surface hydrophilicity and IFSS properties. - Abstract: Interfacial adhesion between matrix and fibers plays a crucial role in controlling the performance of composites. Carbon fibers have the major constraint of chemical interness and hence have limited adhesion with the matrix. Surface treatment of fibers is the best solution to this problem. In this work, carbon fibers were activated by plasma and grafting polymerization. The grafting ratio of polymerization was obtained by acid–base titration. The chemical and physical changes induced by the treatments on carbon fiber surface was examined using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR–ATR) technique. The interfacial adhesion of CF/EP (carbon fiber/epoxy) composites were analyzed by a single fiber composite (SFC) for filament fragmentation test. Experimental results show that the grafting rate was not only the function of the plasma-treat time but also the concentration of the grafting polymerization. The oxygen-containing groups (such as C−O, C=O, and O−C=O) and the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the plasma-grafting carbon fiber increased more significantly than the carbon fiber without plasma treatment grafted with MAH. This demonstrates that the surfaces of the carbon fiber samples are more active, hydrophilic, and rough after plasma-grafting treatments using a DBD operating in ambient argon mixture with oxygen. With DBD (dielectric barrier discharges) operating in ambient argon mixture with oxygen, the more active, hydrophilic, and rough surface was obtained by the

  1. Genotoxic evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles

    Tamara Iglesias Alonso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An important strategy for optimizing the therapeutic efficacy of many conventional drugs is the development of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs, as it may expand their activities, reduce their toxicity, increase their bioactivity and improve biodistribution. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of 8 different poly (anhydride NPs designed for the oral administration of therapeutic compounds by using the comet assay in combination with the enzyme formamidopypiridine DNA-glycosylase (FPG. Furthermore, the mitogen capacity of the NPs was evaluated by the proliferation assay. All NPs were tested at four concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL in Caco-2 cells after 3 hours of treatment while selected NPs were also tested after 24 h. The comet assay was performed immediately after the treatment and cell proliferation was assessed by counting the treated cells after their incubation at 37 °C for 48h. Cells treated with 1 µM of the photosensitizer Ro 19-8022 plus 5 min of light, as well as cells treated with 100 µM H2O2 were included as positive controls in all the experiments. All NPs studied did not result in any increase in the frequency of strand breaks or alkali-labile sites in Caco-2 cells but they induced a slight concentration-dependent increase in net FPG sensitive sites (oxidized and/or alkylated bases. Furthermore, treated cells did not show changes in levels of proliferation in comparison with the negative control.

  2. Survey and research on precision polymerization polymeric materials; Seimitsu jugo kobunshi zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Survey and research on the precision control of primary structure of polymeric materials and the precision evaluation technology have been conducted to develop advanced polymeric materials. It is proposed that the three basic processes of polymer synthesis, i.e., addition, condensation, and biomimesis, in forming the precision polymerization skeleton are to be covered through a centralized joint research effort with participation of industry, academia, and the government institute and under the leadership of researchers from academic institutions as the team leaders. For the study of technology trends, international conferences held in UK, Germany, and Hawaii are introduced, and domestic meetings, i.e., Annual Polymer Congress and Polymer Conference, are summarized. In addition, Precision Polymerization Forum and International Workshop on Precision Polymerization were held. The basic studies include a quantum-chemical elucidation of the elementary process in polymerization reaction, time-resolved analysis of polymerization process and polymer properties, synthesis of polymers with controlled microstructures by coordination polymerization using metal complexes, synthesis of polymer with controlled microstructures by precision polycondensation, molecular recognition in catalyst-reaction site, and synthesis of imprinting polymers. 246 refs., 117 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Chitin nanofiber elucidates the elicitor activity of polymeric chitin in plants

    Mayumi eEgusa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitin, an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer, is a component of fungal cell walls and a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern that elicits plant defense responses. As polymeric chitin is difficult to handle due to its insolubility in water, many studies on chitin-induced immune responses have used water-soluble low-molecular weight chitin instead. Thus, it is unclear if polymeric chitin can induce resistance. Here, we examined the elicitor activity of chitin nanofiber (CNF of submicron thickness prepared from polymeric chitin. CNF showed a high dispersing ability in water and induced both reactive oxygen species (ROS production and chitin-induced defense-related gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. The Arabidopsis chitin elicitor receptor kinase 1 (Atcerk1 mutant, which is impaired in chitin perception, also failed to respond to CNF. CNF exposure triggered ROS generation in suspension-cultured cells from Oryza sativa. Furthermore, pre-treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with CNF effectively reduced pathogen infection by both the fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. These results demonstrate that CNF has elicitor activity and will help define the role of polymeric chitin in plant immune responses.

  4. Novel polymeric potassium complex: Its synthesis, structural characterization, photoluminescence and electrochemical properties

    Ceyhan, Goekhan [Chemistry Department, K.Maras Suetcue Imam University, 46100 K.Maras (Turkey); Tuemer, Mehmet, E-mail: mtumer@ksu.edu.tr [Chemistry Department, K.Maras Suetcue Imam University, 46100 K.Maras (Turkey); Koese, Muhammet; McKee, Vickie [Chemistry Department, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, we obtained a novel poly(vanillinato potassium) complex (PVP) as a single crystal and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods. A single crystal of the PVP was obtained from the acetone solution. X-ray structural data show that crystals contain polymeric K{sup +} complex of vanillin. Each potassium ion in the polymeric structure is identical and seven-coordinate, bonded to two methoxy, two phenoxy and three aldehyde oxygen atoms from four vaniline molecules. Two aldehyde oxygen atoms are bridging between potassium ions. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2{sub 1}/c, with lattice parameters a=9.6215(10) A, b=17.4139(19) A, c=9.6119(10) A, {beta}=100.457(2) Degree-Sign and Z=4. Thermal properties of the PVP were investigated by TGA, DTA and DSC methods. The electrochemical properties of the complex were studied in different solvents and at various scan rates. The luminescence properties of the complex in different solvents and at different pH values have been investigated. The results show that the complex exhibits more efficient luminescence property in CH{sub 3}CN and n-butanol. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel polymeric potassium complex was prepared and fully characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray crystal structure of complex was reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrochemical properties of compound were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal and DSC measurements of complex were examined.

  5. The inhibition mechanisms of quinones and phenols present in wood for the vinyl polymerization

    Nobashi, Kenzo; Yokota, Tokuo

    1977-01-01

    The inhibitory effects and mechanisms of the quinones and phenols present in wood for the vinyl polymerization initiated with γ-rays and other initiation systems were investigated. The results obtained are summarized as follows; (1) Although phenolic compounds like isotaxiresinol inhibit the γ-ray initiated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) under the presence of air, they have no inhibitory effects in vacuo. On the other hand, o-benzoquinone and mansonones show strong inhibitory or retarding effects in vacuo. These facts indicate that oxygen may be important for the phenols to inhibit the vinyl polymerization. (2) It is shown qualitatively that there is a relationship between the strength of inhibitory action of quinones and their normal redox potentials. (3) PMMA produced under the presence of o-benzoquinone is found to include the fraction having extremely large chain length based on gel permeation chromatogram. (4) Based on the reaction products of orthoquinones and azobisisobutyronitrile, which was assumed as a model of polymer radicals, the inhibition reaction with polymer chain radical is concluded to take place upon the oxygen atoms of the quinones. (auth.)

  6. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.; Marra, F.

    2015-12-01

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  7. Polymerization of N-(fluoro phenyl) maleimides

    Barrales-Rienda, J.M.; Ramos, J.G.; Chaves, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Poly(N-aryl maleimide)s of characteristic structures have been synthesized and some of their physical properties studied. The polymerization of N-(fluoro phenyl) maleimides by free-radical initiation in bulk or in solution and by anionic catalyst have been studied to compare the characteristics of polymerization by γ-ray irradiation with that by free-radical initiation. The polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, intrinsic viscosity, spectroscopy (IR and NMR), programmed thermogravimetric analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Spectra of polymers prepared by radiation and anionic polymerization were nearly identical with those of polymers prepared by free-radical polymerization initiated by azobisisobutyronitrile in bulk or in solution and by the self-initiated thermal polymerization. A variety of reaction conditions were tried, but all attempts to change the molecular structure of the polymers were unsuccessful. Rates of thermal degradation for poly[N-(fluoro phenyl) maleimide]s have been analyzed by using a multiple-heating-rate procedure. Overall activation energy, order of reaction, and frequency factor have been evaluated. 6 figures, 8 tables

  8. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  9. Oxygen transport membrane

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  10. Study by dispersed light photometry of the polymerization of methacrylates by gamma radiation

    Isaurralde, Haidee; Molinari, M.A.

    1976-04-01

    Determinations of molecular weights of methyl methacrylate irradiated in presence and in absence of oxygen were made at different exposure times exponential function of the time of irradiation. The molecular weight of polymethyl metacrilate obtained by irradiating the monomer in presence of nitrogen or oxygen was determined, and the value 4,4 x 10 6 was obtained in both cases, for total polymerization. Different experiments were made to determine the yield of polimerization, by precipitation and recuperation of the precipitate, and with dilatometer, and we saw that in presence of nitrogen the yield is much larger than in presence of oxygen, being in the first case 100% at 4 hs. 45 min., and in the second 4% for the same exposure time. (author) [es

  11. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  12. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  13. Polymeric molecular sieve membranes via in situ cross-linking of non-porous polymer membrane templates.

    Qiao, Zhen-An; Chai, Song-Hai; Nelson, Kimberly; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Mahurin, Shannon M; Zhu, Xiang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-04-16

    High-performance polymeric membranes for gas separation are attractive for molecular-level separations in industrial-scale chemical, energy and environmental processes. Molecular sieving materials are widely regarded as the next-generation membranes to simultaneously achieve high permeability and selectivity. However, most polymeric molecular sieve membranes are based on a few solution-processable polymers such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity. Here we report an in situ cross-linking strategy for the preparation of polymeric molecular sieve membranes with hierarchical and tailorable porosity. These membranes demonstrate exceptional performance as molecular sieves with high gas permeabilities and selectivities for smaller gas molecules, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, over larger molecules such as nitrogen. Hence, these membranes have potential for large-scale gas separations of commercial and environmental relevance. Moreover, this strategy could provide a possible alternative to 'classical' methods for the preparation of porous membranes and, in some cases, the only viable synthetic route towards certain membranes.

  14. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  15. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  16. Electrospun polymeric nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    Mahya Rahmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS have been designed for drug delivery through the skin. These systems use the permeability property of stratum corneum, the outermost surface layer of the skin. Applying polymeric micro and nanofibers in drug delivery has recently attracted great attention and the electrospinning technique is the preferred method for polymeric micro-nanofibers fabrication with a great potential for drug delivery. More studies in the field of nanofibers containing drug are divided two categories: first, preparation and characterization of nanofibers containing drug and second, investigation of their therapeutic applications. Drugs used in electrospun nanofibers can be categorized into three main groups, including antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents and vitamins with therapeutic applications. In this paper, we review the application of electrospun polymeric scaffolds in TDDS and also introduce several pharmaceutical and therapeutic agents which have been used in polymer nanofibrous patches.

  17. Biomimetic polymeric membranes for water treatment

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto

    This project is about the interplay of the three major components of aquaporin based biomimetic polymeric membranes (ABPMs): Aquaporins (AQPs), amphiphilic block copolymers, serving as a vesicular matrix for the hydrophobic AQP exterior (proteopolymersomes) and a polymeric membrane as embedment....... The interplay of proteopolymersomes and polymeric mesh support (in this case polyethersulfone, PES) was examined via integration of proteopolymersomes in an active layer (AL) formed by interfacial polymerisation between a linker molecule in aqueous phase and another in organic phase on top of the PES....... The resulting thin-film composite (TFC) membrane was analyzed via cross-flow forward osmosis (FO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as in the non-supported form over FTIR and a specialized microfluidic visualization approach. Where no clear dierences...

  18. Cross-linking of polymeric materials

    Bloom, L.I.; Du Plessis, T.A.; Meij, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing a cured polymeric artifact from a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, the material of the artifact having reduced thermoplasticity relative to the starting material and exhibiting an enhanced degree of cross-linking relative to the starting material. The method includes subjecting a polymeric thermoplastic starting material, which is capable of being cross-linked by irradiation, to sufficient irradiation partially to cross-linked the starting material to produce a thermoplastic partially cross-linked intermediate material. The thermoplasticity of the intermediate material is then reduced by heating it to raise its melting point. The invention also provides a method of making a partially cross-linked feedstocks and a master batch for use in making such artifacts

  19. Laser microstructuring for fabricating superhydrophobic polymeric surfaces

    Cardoso, M. R.; Tribuzi, V.; Balogh, D. T.; Misoguti, L.; Mendonça, C. R.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we show the fabrication of hydrophobic polymeric surfaces through laser microstructuring. By using 70-ps pulses from a Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, we were able to produce grooves with different width and separation, resulting in square-shaped pillar patterns. We investigate the dependence of the morphology on the surface static contact angle for water, showing that it is in agreement with the Cassie-Baxter model. We demonstrate the fabrication of a superhydrophobic polymeric surface, presenting a water contact angle of 157°. The surface structuring method presented here seems to be an interesting option to control the wetting properties of polymeric surfaces.

  20. Influence of kaolin addition on the dynamics of oxygen mass transport in polyvinyl alcohol dispersion coatings

    Nyflött, Åsa; Axrup, Lars; Gunilla, Carlsson; Järnström, Lars; Lestelius, Magnus; Moons, Ellen; Wahlström, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The permeability of dispersion barriers produced from polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and kaolin clay blends coated onto polymeric supports has been studied by employing two different measurement methods: the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the ambient oxygen ingress rate (AOIR). Coatings with different thicknesses and kaolin contents were studied. Structural information of the dispersion-barrier coatings was obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning ele...

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respo...

  2. Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane

    Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric materialis described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney......-Rivlin model show a monotone increasingpressure during inflation of a spherical membrane. These materials develop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere-Pearson condition. Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model show a pressure maximum when...... inflated. Membranesdescribed by these models develop a local thinning of the membrane which may lead to bursting in finite time....

  3. Polymeric materials obtained by electron beam irradiation

    Dragusin, M.; Moraru, R.; Martin, D.; Radoiu, M.; Marghitu, S.; Oproiu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Research activities in the field of electron beam irradiation of monomer aqueous solution to produce polymeric materials used for waste waters treatment, agriculture and medicine are presented. The technologies and special features of these polymeric materials are also described. The influence of the chemical composition of the solution to ba irradiated, absorbed dose level and absorbed dose rate level are discussed. Two kinds of polyelectrolytes, PA and PV types and three kinds of hydrogels, pAAm, pAAmNa and pNaAc types, the production of which was first developed with IETI-10000 Co-60 source and then adapted to the linacs built in Accelerator Laboratory, are described. (author)

  4. Mechanism and kinetics of addition polymerizations

    Kucera, M

    1991-01-01

    This volume presents an up-to-date survey of knowledge concerning addition type polymerizations. It contains nine chapters, each of which covers a particular basic term. Whenever necessary, the phenomena are discussed from the viewpoint of both stationary and non-stationary state of radical, ionic (i.e. anionic and cationic) and coordination polymerization. Special attention has been paid to the propagation process. It provides not only a general overview but also information on important special cases (theoretical conditions of propagation, influence of external factors, controlled propagatio

  5. Polymeric matrix materials for infrared metamaterials

    Dirk, Shawn M; Rasberry, Roger D; Rahimian, Kamyar

    2014-04-22

    A polymeric matrix material exhibits low loss at optical frequencies and facilitates the fabrication of all-dielectric metamaterials. The low-loss polymeric matrix material can be synthesized by providing an unsaturated polymer, comprising double or triple bonds; partially hydrogenating the unsaturated polymer; depositing a film of the partially hydrogenated polymer and a crosslinker on a substrate; and photopatterning the film by exposing the film to ultraviolet light through a patterning mask, thereby cross-linking at least some of the remaining unsaturated groups of the partially hydrogenated polymer in the exposed portions.

  6. Oxygen configurations in silica

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Characterization of γ-radiation induced polymerization in ethyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate monomers solutions

    Baccaro, Stefania; Casieri, Cinzia; Cemmi, Alessia; Chiarini, Marco; D'Aiuto, Virginia; Tortora, Mariagrazia

    2017-12-01

    The present work is focused on the γ-radiation induced polymerization of ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and methyl acrylate (MA) monomers mixture to obtain a co-polymer with specific features. The effect of the irradiation parameters (radiation absorbed dose, dose rate) and of the environmental atmosphere on the features of the final products was investigated. Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance high-resolution analyses of hydrogen and carbon nuclei (1H and 13C NMR) were applied to follow the γ-induced modifications by monitoring the co-polymerization process and allowed the irradiation parameters optimization. Diffusion-Ordered NMR (DOSY-NMR) data were used to evaluate the co-polymers polydispersity and polymerization degree. Since the last parameter is strongly influenced by the γ radiation and environmental conditions, a comparison among samples prepared and irradiated in air and under nitrogen atmosphere was carried out. In presence of oxygen, higher radiation was required to obtain a full solid co-polymer since a partial amount of energy released to the samples was involved in competitive processes, i.e. oxygen-containing free radicals formation and primary radicals recombination. Irrespectively to the environmental atmosphere, more homogeneous samples in term of polymerization degree dispersion was achieved at lower dose rates. At radiation absorbed doses higher than those needed for the formation of the co-polymer, while in case of samples irradiated in air heavy depolymerization was verified, a sensible increase of the samples stability was attained if the irradiation was performed under nitrogen atmosphere.

  8. Immobilization of biocatalysts for enzymatic polymerizations : Possibilities, advantages, applications

    Miletic, Nemanja; Nastasovic, Aleksandra; Loos, Katja; Miletić, Nemanja; Nastasović, Aleksandra

    Biotechnology also holds tremendous opportunities for realizing functional polymeric materials. Biocatalytic pathways to polymeric materials are an emerging research area with not only enormous scientific and technological promise, but also a tremendous impact on environmental issues. Many of the

  9. Polymerization Initiated at the Sidewalls of Carbon Nanotubes

    Tour, James M.; Hudson, Jared L.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been developed for growing polymer chains via anionic, cationic, or radical polymerization from the side walls of functionalized carbon nanotubes, which will facilitate greater dispersion in polymer matrices, and will greatly enhance reinforcement ability in polymeric material.

  10. Interfacial Polymerization of Polyaniline Nanofibers Grafted to Au Surfaces

    Sawall, D

    2004-01-01

    .... The in-situ polymerization technique of these PANI nanofibers in the presence of sulfonated polystyrene allowed for the growth of PANI 2-D nanostructures embedded in the polymerized sulfonated host...

  11. Vibrating polymeric microsieves: Antifouling strategies for microfiltration

    Girones nogue, Miriam; Akbarsyah, Imam J.; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Constant flux performance in time is achieved with polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric microsieves when filtering protein solutions, skimmed milk and white beer in combination with backpulsing. Such microsieves are fabricated by phase separation micromolding (PSμM) and possess pores around 2 μm. The

  12. Inflation and Failure of Polymeric Membranes

    Hassager, Ole; Neergaard, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    We consider the inflation of an axisymmetric polymeric membrane.Some membranes composed of viscoelastic materialsdescribed by a Mooney-Rivlin model show a monotone increasingpressure during inflation. These materialsdevelop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere...... is found to stabilize the inflated polymer membrane....

  13. Gamma Radiation-Induced Template Polymerization Technique

    Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation induced copolymerization of acrylamide sodiumacrylate (AM-AANa) in the presence and absence of the polymer additive was studied at low monomer concentration(1.4M/l). The results showed that the exponents of the dose rate for the polymerization rate was found to be 1.3 and 1.4 in the absence and in the presence of the polymer additive respectively. The molecular weight of the formed polymer increased by addition of the polymer to the system. In the presence of the polymer the comonomers polymerize on the added polymer. In the absence of the added polymer the comonomers polymerize according to the copolymerization process at the initial stage of the copolymerization. While at high conversion the residual comonomers polymerize on the formed macromolecular chains of the produced polymer. These studies showed that the copolymerization in the presence of added polymer is completely template copolymerization while in the absence of the polymer the copolymerization process is only template process with a high conversion

  14. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  15. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...

  16. Polymeric additive performance in closed whitewater systems

    T. H. Wegner

    1984-01-01

    “With more stringent requirements on discharge water quality and with escalating water treatment costs, water recycling within the paper mill is of growing importance. A serious problem resulting from more white-water recycling is reduced drainage and fiber or fines retention because of diminished polymeric additive performance. To provide better insight for overcoming...

  17. Latent tracks in polymeric etched track detectors

    Yamauchi, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Track registration properties in polymeric track detectors, including Poly(allyl diglycol carbonate), Bispenol A polycarbonate, Poly(ethylen terephtarate), and Polyimide, have been investigated by means of Fourie transform Infararede FT-IR spectrometry. Chemical criterion on the track formation threshold has been proposes, in stead of the conventional physical track registration models. (author)

  18. Bioactive Polymeric Materials for Tissue Repair

    Diane R. Bienek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polymeric materials based on calcium phosphates have tremendous appeal for hard tissue repair because of their well-documented biocompatibility. Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP-based ones additionally protect against unwanted demineralization and actively support regeneration of hard tissue minerals. Our group has been investigating the structure/composition/property relationships of ACP polymeric composites for the last two decades. Here, we present ACP’s dispersion in a polymer matrix and the fine-tuning of the resin affects the physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties of ACP polymeric composites. These studies illustrate how the filler/resin interface and monomer/polymer molecular structure affect the material’s critical properties, such as ion release and mechanical strength. We also present evidence of the remineralization efficacy of ACP composites when exposed to accelerated acidic challenges representative of oral environment conditions. The utility of ACP has recently been extended to include airbrushing as a platform technology for fabrication of nanofiber scaffolds. These studies, focused on assessing the feasibility of incorporating ACP into various polymer fibers, also included the release kinetics of bioactive calcium and phosphate ions from nanofibers and evaluate the biorelevance of the polymeric ACP fiber networks. We also discuss the potential for future integration of the existing ACP scaffolds into therapeutic delivery systems used in the precision medicine field.

  19. Hyaluronan polymeric micelles for topical drug delivery

    Šmejkalová, D.; Muthný, T.; Nešporová, K.; Hermannová, M.; Achbergerová, E.; Huerta-Angelesa, G.; Marek Svoboda, M.; Čepa, M.; Machalová, V.; Luptáková, Dominika; Velebný, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JAN 20 (2017), s. 86-96 ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Skin penetration * Polymeric micelle * Hyaluronan Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.811, year: 2016

  20. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  1. Pressure-induced polymerization of phenoxyethyl acrylate

    Kaminski, K; Wrzalik, R; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Roland, C M [Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Code 6120, Washington, DC 20375-5342 (United States)

    2008-06-18

    Polymerization of phenoxyethyl acrylate was induced without catalyst or initiators by the application of hydrostatic pressure at elevated temperature. Broadband dielectric and infrared spectroscopy were employed to follow the course of the reaction, which reached a degree of conversion of 60%. The structure of the obtained polymer was determined from density functional theory calculations.

  2. Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei by radiation polymerization

    Zhou Ruimin; Ma Zueteh; Kaetus, Isao; Kumakura, Minoro

    1993-01-01

    Immobilization of Trichoderma reesei was carried out by radiation polymerization. It was found that the activity of fixed cells increased with increasing surface area of the carrier and was affected by the concentration of monomer tetraethylenglycol dimethacrylate and the shape of the substrate composition and structure of cotton textile fabrics. (author)

  3. Polymerization of different lignins by laccase

    Mattinen, M.L.; Suortti, T.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Argyropoulos, D.S.; Evtuguin, D.; Suurnäkki, A.; Jong, de E.; Tamminen, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the oxidative polymerization of different lignins, i.e. Flax Soda lignin, Spruce EMAL, and Eucalyptus Dioxane lignin by Trametes hirsuta laccase was compared. Initially the structures of the different lignins were compared by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of

  4. Interaction of acetamiprid with extracellular polymeric substances ...

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important components of activated sludge and it plays an important role in removing pollutants. The interaction between EPS and organic pollutants is still little known. In the present study, the interaction of soluble/bound EPS with acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was ...

  5. Radiation sterilization of polymeric implant materials

    Bruck, S.D.; Mueller, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    High-energy irradiation sterilization of medical devices and implants composed of polymeric biomaterials that are in contact with tissue and/or blood, may adversely affect their long-term mechanical and/or biological performance (tissue and/or blood compatibility). Since many polymeric implants may contain trace quantities of catalysts and/or other additives, the effect of high-energy radiation on these additives, and possible synergistic effects with the polymer chains under the influence of high-energy radiation, must be considered. It is essential to indicate whether polymeric implants are used in short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) applications. Relatively small changes in their physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties may be tolerable in the short term, whereas similar changes may lead to catastrophic failures in long-term applications. Therefore, polymeric implants which are to be sterilized by high-energy irradiation should be carefully evaluated for long-term property changes which may be induced by the radiation

  6. Ion induced polymerization in benzene frozen films

    Calcagno, G [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Strazzulla, G [Catania Univ. (Italy). Osservatorio Astrofisico; Fichera, M; Foti, G [Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1983-07-01

    The cross section of the polymerization process induced by energetic protons colliding with frozen benzene layers has been measured. The results have been described by a simple theory and they show that the process is a volume one occurring along the ion track and interesting all of the crossed layers.

  7. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    Mesquita, Andrea Cercan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  8. Microfluidic production of polymeric micro- and nanoparticles

    Serra, C.; Kahn, I.U.; Cortese, B.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Hessel, V.; Ono, T.; Anton, N.; Vandamme, Th.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric micro- and nanoparticles have attracted a wide attention of researchers in various areas such as drug delivery, sensing, imaging, cosmetics, diagnostics, and biotechnology. However, processes with conventional equipment do not always allow a precise control of their morphology, size, size

  9. Characteristic emission in glutaraldehyde polymerized hemoglobin

    Ma Li; Wang Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobin with different modifications has been investigated using spectroscopic techniques. A new emission at around 371 nm has been observed under excitation of 305 nm from glutaraldehyde polymerized human hemoglobin. Intensity and peak position of the emission are dependent on both oxidation state and ligand environment and the emission has been identified from the hemoglobin oligomer.

  10. Carboxyl-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres Prepared by One-Stage Photoinitiated RAFT Dispersion Polymerization

    Jianbo Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a photoinitiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT dispersion copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA and methyl methacrylic (MAA for the preparation of highly monodisperse carboxyl-functionalized polymeric microspheres. High rates of polymerization were observed, with more than 90% particle yields being achieved within 3 h of UV irradiation. Effects of reaction parameters (e.g., MAA concentration, RAFT agent concentration, photoinitiator concentration, and solvent composition were studied in detail, and highly monodisperse polymeric microspheres were obtained in most cases. Finally, silver (Ag composite microspheres were prepared by in situ reduction of AgNO3 using the carboxyl-functionalized polymeric microspheres as the template. The obtained Ag composite microspheres were able to catalyze the reduction of methylene blue (MB with NaBH4 as a reductant.

  11. SYNTHESIS OF BLOCK COPOLYMER BY INTEGRATED LIVING ANIONIC POLYMERIZATION-ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION (ATRP)

    Bing Liu; Feng Liu; Ning Luo; Sheng-kang Ying; Qing Liu

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-trichloroacetoxy terminated polystyrene oligomer (PS-CH2CH2OCOCCl3) and poly-(styrene-b-butadiene)oligomer [P(S-b-B)-CH2CH2OCOCCl3)] were synthesized by living anionic polymeri-zation using n-butyllithium as initiator.Then the PS-CH2CH2OCOCCl3 (PS-Cl3) or P(S-b-B)-CH2CH2O-COCCl3 (PSB-Cl3) was used as the macroinitiator in the polymerization of (meth)acrylates in the presence of CuX/bpy. AB diblock and ABC triblock copolymers were prepared by the integrated living anionic polymerization (LAP)-atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The structures of the PSB-Cl3 and the P(S-b-MMA) were identified by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectrum, respectively. A new way to design block copolymers (the combination of LAP and ATRP) was developed.

  12. TRANSITION METAL CATALYSIS IN CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION: ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION. (R826735)

    Novel and diversified macromolecular structures, which include polymers with designed topologies (top), compostions (middle), and functionalities (bottom), can be prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization processes. These polymers can be synthesized from a large variety of...

  13. Experimental study of living free radical polymerization using trifunctional initiator and polymerization mediated by nitroxide

    Galhardo, Eduardo; Lona, Liliane M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Controlled free radical polymerization or living free radical polymerization has received increasing attention as a technique for the production of polymers with microstructure highly controlled. In particular, narrow molecular weight distributions are obtained with polydispersity very close to one. In this research it was investigate the controlled polymerization mediated by nitroxide, using a cyclic trifunctional peroxide. As long as we know, there are only publications in literature dealing with NMRP using mono- and bi-functional initiators. It was believed that the trifunctional peroxide can increase the rate of polymerization, since more free radicals are generated, if compared with initiators with lower functionality. Furthermore, the fact of the initiator be cyclic means that branches are not generated in the chains, which theoretically prevents an increase in polydispersity of the polymer. The effect of the dissociation constant of the trifunctional initiator in the velocity of the reaction was analyzed. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 870.3650 - Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. 870.3650 Section 870...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3650 Pacemaker polymeric mesh bag. (a) Identification. A pacemaker polymeric mesh bag is an implanted device used to hold a...

  15. FtsZ Polymerization Assays : Simple Protocols and Considerations

    Król, Ewa; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively

  16. THE EFFECTS OF N-2-HYDROXYETHYL-N-METHYL-P-TOLUIDINE ON METHYL METHACRYLATE RADICAL POLYMERIZATION AND ACRYLONITRILE PHOTOINDUCED POLYMERIZATION

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Zhanghua; FENG Xinde

    1992-01-01

    The effects of N-2-hydroxyethyl-N-methyl-p-toluidine (HMT) on MMA polymerization using organic peroxide as an initiator and on AN photoinduced polymerization have been investigated respectively. The kinetics of polymerization and the overall activation energy of polymerization were determined. Based on kinetics study and the end group analysis of the polymer obtained by UV spectrum method, the initiation mechanism is proposed.

  17. A theory for fracture of polymeric gels

    Mao, Yunwei; Anand, Lallit

    2018-06-01

    A polymeric gel is a cross-linked polymer network swollen with a solvent. If the concentration of the solvent or the deformation is increased to substantial levels, especially in the presence of flaws, then the gel may rupture. Although various theoretical aspects of coupling of fluid permeation with large deformation of polymeric gels are reasonably well-understood and modeled in the literature, the understanding and modeling of the effects of fluid diffusion on the damage and fracture of polymeric gels is still in its infancy. In this paper we formulate a thermodynamically-consistent theory for fracture of polymeric gels - a theory which accounts for the coupled effects of fluid diffusion, large deformations, damage, and also the gradient effects of damage. The particular constitutive equations for fracture of a gel proposed in our paper, contain two essential new ingredients: (i) Our constitutive equation for the change in free energy of a polymer network accounts for not only changes in the entropy, but also changes in the internal energy due the stretching of the Kuhn segments of the polymer chains in the network. (ii) The damage and failure of the polymer network is taken to occur by chain-scission, a process which is driven by the changes in the internal energy of the stretched polymer chains in the network, and not directly by changes in the configurational entropy of the polymer chains. The theory developed in this paper is numerically implemented in an open-source finite element code MOOSE, by writing our own application. Using this simulation capability we report on our study of the fracture of a polymeric gel, and some interesting phenomena which show the importance of the diffusion of the fluid on fracture response of the gel are highlighted.

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes

    1998-01-01

    The first NATO Advanced Study Institute on Olefin Metathesis and Polymerization Catalysts was held on September 10-22, 1989 in Akcay, Turkey. Based on the fundamental research of RRSchrock, RGrubbs and K.B.Wagener in the field of ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) and alkyne polymerization, these areas gained growing interest within the last years. Therefore the second NATO-ASI held on metathesis reactions was on Ring Opening Metathesis Po­ lymerization of Olefins and Polymerization of Alkynes on September 3-16, 1995 in Akcay, Turkey. The course joined inorganic, organic and polymer chemists to exchange their knowledge in this field. This volume contains the main and short lectures held in Akcay. To include ADMET reactions better into the title of this volume we changed it into: Metathesis Polymerization of Olefins and Alkyne Polymerization. This volume is addressed to research scientists, but also to those who start to work in the area of olefin metathesis and al...

  19. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  20. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  1. Antibiotic polymeric nanoparticles for biofilm-associated infection therapy.

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are highly attractive as drug delivery vehicles due to their high structural integrity, stability during storage, ease of preparation and functionalization, and controlled release capability. Similarly, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, which retain the benefits of polymeric nanoparticles plus the enhanced biocompatibility and prolonged circulation time owed to the lipids, have recently emerged as a superior alternative to polymeric nanoparticles. Drug nanoparticle complex prepared by electrostatic interaction of oppositely charged drug and polyelectrolytes represents another type of polymeric nanoparticle. This chapter details the preparation, characterization, and antibiofilm efficacy testing of antibiotic-loaded polymeric and hybrid nanoparticles and antibiotic nanoparticle complex.

  2. Studies on Rate Enhancement of Polymerization in NMRP

    HUANG Jian-ying; XU Miao-qing; YAN Ming-fa; CHEN Yi-hong; CHU Jia-yan; ZHUANG Jia-ming; DAI Li-zong; ZOU You-si

    2005-01-01

    In NMRP, the polymerization of MMA, the polymerization of St and the copolymerization of MMA with St were distinctly accelerated by the addition of a small amount of MN. The polymerization proceeds in a living fashion as indicated by the increase in molecular weight with the increase of time and conversion and a relatively low polydispersity. It has been found that the addition of MN results in a nearly one hundred times higher rate of the polymerization of MMA, a nearly twenty times higher rate of the polymerization of St and a nearly fifteen times higher rate of the copolymerization of St and MMA.

  3. Oxygen Compatibility of Brass-Filled PTFE Compared to Commonly Used Fluorinated Polymers for Oxygen Systems

    Herald, Stephen D.; Frisby, Paul M.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    Safe and reliable seal materials for high-pressure oxygen systems sometimes appear to be extinct species when sought out by oxygen systems designers. Materials that seal well are easy to find, but these materials are typically incompatible with oxygen, especially in cryogenic liquid form. This incompatibility can result in seals that leak, or much worse, seals that easily ignite and burn during use. Materials that are compatible with oxygen are easy to find, such as the long list of compatible metals, but these metallic materials are limiting as seal materials. A material that seals well and is oxygen compatible has been the big game in the designer's safari. Scientists at the Materials Combustion Research Facility (MCRF), part of NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), are constantly searching for better materials and processes to improve the safety of oxygen systems. One focus of this effort is improving the characteristics of polymers used in the presence of an oxygen enriched environment. Very few systems can be built which contain no polymeric materials; therefore, materials which have good impact resistance, low heat of combustion, high auto-ignition temperature and that maintain good mechanical properties are essential. The scientists and engineers at the Materials Combustion Research Facility, in cooperation with seal suppliers, are currently testing a new formulation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with Brass filler. This Brass-filled PTFE is showing great promise as a seal and seat material for high pressure oxygen systems. Early research has demonstrated very encouraging results, which could rank this material as one of the best fluorinated polymers ever tested. This paper will compare the data obtained for Brass-filled PTFE with other fluorinated polymers, such as TFE-Teflon (PTFE) , Kel-F 81, Viton A, Viton A-500, Fluorel , and Algoflon . A similar metal filled fluorinated polymer, Salox-M , was tested in comparison to Brass-filled PTFE to

  4. Complex Macromolecular Architectures by Living Cationic Polymerization

    Alghamdi, Reem D.

    2015-05-01

    Poly (vinyl ether)-based graft polymers have been synthesized by the combination of living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers with other living or controlled/ living polymerization techniques (anionic and ATRP). The process involves the synthesis of well-defined homopolymers (PnBVE) and co/terpolymers [PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE (ABC type) and PSiDEGVE-b-PnBVE-b-PSiDEGVE (CAC type)] by sequential living cationic polymerization of n-butyl vinyl ether (nBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethylene glycol vinyl ether (SiDEGVE), using mono-functional {[n-butoxyethyl acetate (nBEA)], [1-(2-chloroethoxy) ethyl acetate (CEEA)], [1-(2-(2-(t-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethoxy) ethoxy) ethyl acetate (SiDEGEA)]} or di-functional [1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol di(1-ethyl acetate) (cHMDEA), (VEMOA)] initiators. The living cationic polymerizations of those monomers were conducted in hexane at -20 0C using Et3Al2Cl3 (catalyst) in the presence of 1 M AcOEt base.[1] The PCEVE segments of the synthesized block terpolymers were then used to react with living macroanions (PS-DPE-Li; poly styrene diphenyl ethylene lithium) to afford graft polymers. The quantitative desilylation of PSiDEGVE segments by n-Bu4N+F- in THF at 0 °C led to graft co- and terpolymers in which the polyalcohol is the outer block. These co-/terpolymers were subsequently subjected to “grafting-from” reactions by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene to afford more complex macromolecular architectures. The base assisted living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers were also used to synthesize well-defined α-hydroxyl polyvinylether (PnBVE-OH). The resulting polymers were then modified into an ATRP macro-initiator for the synthesis of well-defined block copolymers (PnBVE-b-PS). Bifunctional PnBVE with terminal malonate groups was also synthesized and used as a precursor for more complex architectures such as H-shaped block copolymer by “grafting-from” or

  5. Ratiometric glucose sensing based on fluorescent oxygen films and glucose oxidase

    Fengyu Su; Liqiang Zhang; Xiangxing Kong; Fred Lee; Yanqing Tian; Deirdre R. Meldrum

    2017-01-01

    A new two-layer sensor film was constructed for sensing glucose based on glucose oxidase and oxygen sensing material. The first layer of film containing the oxygen sensor and intra-reference material was polymerized, then the second layer of glucose oxidase and glutaraldehyde was formed on the oxygen sensor layer. The two-layer sensor film has a resolution up to 0.05 mM and a detection range from 0 to 5 mM to glucose. The effects of pH and temperature on the sensing performance were systemati...

  6. Hyperbranched polymers from polymerization in solid state

    Tomaz, Vivian A.; Silva, Rafael; Muniz, Edvani C.; Rubira, Adley F.

    2009-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of polymers are directly related to the chemical characteristics of the monomeric units and also with the geometric arrangement of polymer chains. Thus, polymers were synthesized from two well-known chelators EDTA and EDA. We evaluated the conditions for the polymerization of the precursors in the solid state. The polymerization was carried out varying the proportions of reagents, aiming the polymers with different degrees of chain branching and the materials were characterized by FTIR. The materials obtained from the best condition for synthesis were purified by size-exclusion chromatography of and were subjected to characterization by FTIR and NMR of 1 H and 13 C. The content of end groups in these samples was determined by back titration. (author)

  7. Light-harvesting organic photoinitiators of polymerization.

    Lalevée, Jacques; Tehfe, Mohamad-Ali; Dumur, Frédéric; Gigmes, Didier; Graff, Bernadette; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-02-12

    Two new photoinitiators with unprecedented light absorption properties are proposed on the basis of a suitable truxene skeleton where several UV photoinitiators PI units such as benzophenone and thioxanthone are introduced at the periphery and whose molecular orbitals MO can be coupled with those of the PI units: a red-shifted absorption and a strong increase of the molecular extinction coefficients (by a ≈ 20-1000 fold factor) are found. These compounds are highly efficient light-harvesting photoinitiators. The scope and practicality of these photoinitiators of polymerization can be dramatically expanded, that is, both radical and cationic polymerization processes are accessible upon very soft irradiation conditions (halogen lamp, LED…︁) thanks to the unique light absorption properties of the new proposed structures. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Studies on radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Omichi, Hideki

    1978-09-01

    Radiation-induced graft polymerization is used extensively to improve physical properties of polymers, but few processes are now commercialized. The reason for this is partly inadequate basic research on the reaction and partly the difficulty in developing the grafting process with large radiation source. Firstly, new techniques are proposed of studying kinetics of the graft polymerization in heterogeneous system. Based on the grafting yield, the molecular weight of graft chains, and the amount of radicals given by ESR and activation analysis, kinetic parameters are obtained and the reaction mechanism of grafting process is discussed. Secondly, the development of grafting process of poly (vinyl chloride)-butadiene is described. By study of the reaction, process design, construction and operation of the pilot plant, and economic analysis of the process, this process with 60 Co gamma ray sources is shown to be industrially promising. (author)

  9. Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    Suwa, Takeshi

    1979-10-01

    The radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) has been studied at initial pressure 2 - 25 kg/cm 2 and temperature 30 0 - 110 0 C for dose rate 0.57 x 10 4 - 3.0 x 10 4 rad/hr. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a hydrophobic polymer, forms as a stable latex in the absence of an emulsifier. Stability of the latex is governed by the dose rate/TFE pressure ratio; it increases with sufficient TFE monomer. PTFE particles produced in this polymerization system are stable due to the carboxyl end groups and adsorption of OH - and HF on the particles. PTFE latex of molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 is obtained by addition of a radical scavenger such as hydroquinone. The molecular weight of PTFE can be measured from the heat of crystallization conveniently with high reliability, which was found in the course of study on the melting and crystallization behavior. (author)

  10. Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane

    Hassager, Ole; Kristensen, Susanne Brogaard; Larsen, Johannes Ruben

    1999-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric material is described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney......-Rivlin model show a monotone increasing pressure during inflation of a spherical membrane. These materials develop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere-Pearson condition. Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model show a pressure maximum when...... inflated. Membranes described by these models develop a local thinning of the membrane which may lead to bursting in finite time. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Radiation polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene in freon-22

    Schnautz, N.G.; Thompson, J.C.

    1979-02-01

    The radiation-induced solution-polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene in Freon-22 has been investigated over a temperature range of - 62 degrees celcius to 0 degrees celcius. The rate of polymerization for the in-source process was found to be directly propertional to monomer concentration and an activation energy of only 7,66 kj/mole was calculated. The number-average molecular mass of the product PTFE ranged from 2X10 4 to 6X10 4 and was relatively independent of the usual reaction parameters. The rate of postpolymerization was also found to be directly proportional to monomer concentration. The postpolyerization process did not result in any enchancement of the initial PTFE molecular mass [af

  12. Self-folding micropatterned polymeric containers.

    Azam, Anum; Laflin, Kate E; Jamal, Mustapha; Fernandes, Rohan; Gracias, David H

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate self-folding of precisely patterned, optically transparent, all-polymeric containers and describe their utility in mammalian cell and microorganism encapsulation and culture. The polyhedral containers, with SU-8 faces and biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) hinges, spontaneously assembled on heating. Self-folding was driven by a minimization of surface area of the liquefying PCL hinges within lithographically patterned two-dimensional (2D) templates. The strategy allowed for the fabrication of containers with variable polyhedral shapes, sizes and precisely defined porosities in all three dimensions. We provide proof-of-concept for the use of these polymeric containers as encapsulants for beads, chemicals, mammalian cells and bacteria. We also compare accelerated hinge degradation rates in alkaline solutions of varying pH. These optically transparent containers resemble three-dimensional (3D) micro-Petri dishes and can be utilized to sustain, monitor and deliver living biological components.

  13. Polymeric membrane studied using slow positron beam

    Hung, W.-S.; Lo, C.-H.; Cheng, M.-L.; Chen Hongmin; Liu Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Nanda, D.; Tung, K.-L.; Huang, S.-H.; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, J.-Y.; Sun Yiming; Yu Changcheng; Zhang Renwu; Jean, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    A radioisotope slow positron beam has been built at the Chung Yuan Christian University in Taiwan for the research and development in membrane science and technology. Doppler broadening energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime have been measured as a function of positron energy up to 30 keV in a polyamide membrane prepared by the interfacial polymerization between triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on modified porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) asymmetric membrane. The multilayer structures and free-volume depth profile for this asymmetric membrane system are obtained. Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with a slow beam could provide new information about size selectivity of transporting molecules and guidance for molecular designs in polymeric membranes

  14. Radiation-induced polymerization of hydrogen cyanide

    Mozhaev, P.S.; Kichigina, G.A.; Kiryukhin, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    The chain reaction of HCN polymerization in a γ-radiation field does not occur at 77 K. When irradiated HCN is warmed up to ambient temperature, a polymer is formed. The heat of polymerization of HCN is 44.0±6.0 kJ/mol and the polymer yield reaches 2.5% for a dose of 725 kGy. Amorphous polymer products (with yields increasing up to 33.5%) and needle crystals (presumably HCN tetramer) are formed upon storage of irradiated HCN at room temperature. The polymer is stable below 700 K, has a conductivity of 3x10 -5 Ω -1 cm -f1 , and displays an EPR spectrum typical of polyconjugated systems. A radical mechanism of the formation of conjugated chain -C=N-C=N- is suggested. The tetramer is produced by a combination of aminocyanocarbene biradicals

  15. RAFT polymerization and some of its applications.

    Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Thang, San H

    2013-08-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) is one of the most robust and versatile methods for controlling radical polymerization. With appropriate selection of the RAFT agent for the monomers and reaction conditions, it is applicable to the majority of monomers subject to radical polymerization. The process can be used in the synthesis of well-defined homo-, gradient, diblock, triblock, and star polymers and more complex architectures, which include microgels and polymer brushes. In this Focus Review we describe how the development of RAFT and RAFT application has been facilitated by the adoption of continuous flow techniques using tubular reactors and through the use of high-throughput methodology. Applications described include the use of RAFT in the preparation of polymers for optoelectronics, block copolymer therapeutics, and star polymer rheology control agents. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well......This chapter is intended to provide an overview of three nontraditional shaping technologies for the forming of polymeric micro-tubes, which are hot embossing, blow molding, and cross rolling, as well as realization of a process chain and the integration of a modular machine-based manufacturing...... as strategy for integration of the technologies and equipment into a common platform. Finally, potential applications of the technologies and facilities developed are highlighted....

  17. Polyisoprene Nanoparticles Prepared by Polymerization in Microemulsion

    Y. Apolinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch polymerization of isoprene was carried out at 25∘C in a normal microemulsion stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate and initiated with the redox couple tert-butyl hydroperoxide/tetraethylene-pentamine. Characterization by transmission electronic microscopy showed that polyisoprene nanoparticles with number-average diameter close to 20 nm were obtained. The low molecular weights obtained, as determined by gel permeation chromatography, were probably due to chain scission as inferred from the oxidative ambient at which polymerization was carried out. Microstructure calculated from infrared spectroscopy data indicates that the obtained polyisoprene contains around 80% total 1,4 units, which is in accordance with its glass transition temperature (-60.8∘C determined by differential scanning calorimetry.

  18. Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymeric Nano materials

    Wu, L.; Sun, L.

    2011-01-01

    With significant attention focused on nano science and nano technology in recent years, nano materials have been used in a wide variety of applications such as automotive, environmental, energy, catalysis, biomedical, drug delivery, and polymeric industries. Among those fields, the application of nano materials with pharmaceutical science is an emerging and rapidly growing field and has drawn increasing attention recently. Research and development in this field is mainly focused on several aspects such as the discoveries of novel functional nano materials, exploration on nanoparticles with controlled and targeted drug delivery characteristics, and investigation of bio functionalized and diagnostic nano materials. In this special issue, we have invited a few papers related to recent advances in pharmaceutical application of polymeric nano materials

  19. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  20. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  1. Mechanistic investigations of novel photoinitiators for radical polymerization

    Griesser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide variety of photoinitiators (PIs) available for radical polymerizations. A common example are two-component (Type II) systems such as benzophenone and tertiary amines. However these systems also suffer from problems due to bimolecularity. These include the possible back electron transfer (BET) leading to deactivation, as well as the solvent cage effect, occurring in highly viscous media. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the reaction mechanism of several photoinitiating systems, which show superior performance. Moreover, they exhibit additional benefits such as circumvention of oxygen inhibition by decarboxylation. Thereby this work helps to understand the molecular basis of the performance of different PI systems. In vestigated PIs included benzaldoxime esters, covalently linked benzophenone and N-phenylglycine as well as derivatives of both systems. Furthermore a PI based on benzophenone extended by ethynyl moeities is discussed. The main tool in this investigation was photo-CIDNP (chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization), an NMR based technique for studying radical reactions. A complementary view was obtained with TR-EPR (time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance), which provides direct information about the active radical species. The results were further compared with quantum mechanical calculations (DFT) of the magnetic properties of the radicals. The theoretical approach was further applied to other paramagnetic species such as donor-acceptor systems. (author) [de

  2. Direct-Dispense Polymeric Waveguides Platform for Optical Chemical Sensors

    Mohamad Hajj-Hassan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an automated robotic technique called direct-dispense to fabricate a polymeric platform that supports optical sensor arrays. Direct-dispense, which is a type of the emerging direct-write microfabrication techniques, uses fugitive organic inks in combination with cross-linkable polymers to create microfluidic channels and other microstructures. Specifically, we describe an application of direct-dispensing to develop optical biochemical sensors by fabricating planar ridge waveguides that support sol-gelderived xerogel-based thin films. The xerogel-based sensor materials act as host media to house luminophore biochemical recognition elements. As a prototype implementation, we demonstrate gaseous oxygen (O2 responsive optical sensors that operate on the basis of monitoring luminescence intensity signals. The optical sensor employs a Light Emitting Diode (LED excitation source and a standard silicon photodiode as the detector. The sensor operates over the full scale (0%-100% of O2 concentrations with a response time of less than 1 second. This work has implications for the development of miniaturized multisensor platforms that can be cost-effectively and reliably mass-produced.

  3. Selective in vitro anticancer effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles loaded in hyaluronan polymeric micelles.

    Smejkalová, Daniela; Nešporová, Kristina; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Syrovátka, Jakub; Jirák, Daniel; Gálisová, Andrea; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-11-10

    Due to its native origin, excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, hyaluronan (HA) represents an attractive polymer for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coating. Herein, we report HA polymeric micelles encapsulating oleic acid coated SPIONs, having a hydrodynamic size of about 100 nm and SPION loading capacity of 1-2 wt %. The HA-SPION polymeric micelles were found to be selectively cytotoxic toward a number of human cancer cell lines, mainly those of colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29). The selective inhibition of cell growth was even observed when the SPION loaded HA polymeric micelles were incubated with a mixture of control and cancer cells. The selective in vitro inhibition could not be connected with an enhanced CD44 uptake or radical oxygen species formation and was rather connected with a different way of SPION intracellular release. While aggregated iron particles were visualized in control cells, nonaggregated solubilized iron oxide particles were detected in cancer cells. In vivo SPION accumulation in intramuscular tumor following an intravenous micelle administration was confirmed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histological analysis. Having a suitable hydrodynamic size, high magnetic relaxivity, and being cancer specific and able to accumulate in vivo in tumors, SPION-loaded HA micelles represent a promising platform for theranostic applications.

  4. Bio-inspired polymeric patterns with enhanced wear durability for microsystem applications

    Singh, R. Arvind; Siyuan, L.; Satyanarayana, N.; Kustandi, T.S.; Sinha, Sujeet K.

    2011-01-01

    At micro/nano-scale, friction force dominates at the interface between bodies moving in relative motion and severely affects their smooth operation. This effect limits the performance of microsystem devices such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In addition, friction force also leads to material removal or wear and thereby reduces the durability i.e. the useful operating life of the devices. In this work, we fabricated bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications. Inspired by the surface features on lotus leaves namely, the protuberances and wax, SU-8 polymeric films spin-coated on silicon wafers were topographically and chemically modified. For topographical modification, micro-scale patterns were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and for chemical modification, the micro-patterns were coated with perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Tribological investigation of the bio-inspired patterns revealed that the friction coefficients reduced significantly and the wear durability increased by several orders. In order to enhance the wear durability much further, the micro-patterns were exposed to argon/oxygen plasma and were subsequently coated with the perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Bio-inspired patterns with enhanced wear durability, such as the ones investigated in the current work, have potential tribological applications in MEMS/Bio-MEMS actuator-based devices. Highlights: →Bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications in microsystems. →Novel surface modification for the patterns to enhance tribological properties. →Patterns show low friction properties and extremely high wear durability.

  5. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF PHOTOINDUCED POLYMERIZATION BY α,α-DIMETHOXY-α-PHENYL ACETOPHENONE

    WANG Xiuzhi; LI Miaozhen; CHANG Zhiying; WANG Erjian

    1993-01-01

    α,α- dimethoxy- α-phenyl acetophenone (DMPA) is an efficient and thermally stable photoinitiator.Here its spectral characteristics in the transient state were shown. The transient species were identified as a benzoyl radical and a dimethoxyl benzyl radical that played a primary initiation role in polymerization. The kinetics and mechanism of the bulk polymerization of MMA were investigated. The exponent of DMPA concentration and κp/κt1/2 value were found to be 0.5 and 0.066 mol-1/2l1/2 s-1/2 , respectively. The existence of oxygen led to obtain the polymer with higher molecular weight, which can be attributed to the occurrence of the subsequent polymerization induced by active polymer end group. In the photocrosslinking reaction, the dependence of DMPA content on initial rate has been found. A principal reason is that the sample contained higher percentage of DMPA has higher light-absorbed efficiency. In solid film, higher concentration of DMPA is permitted to be used because there is little excited state self-quenching effect in the rigid medium.

  6. EDOT polymerization at photolithographically patterned functionalized graphene

    Kovaříček, Petr; Drogowska, Karolina; Melníková Komínková, Zuzana; Blechta, Václav; Bastl, Zdeněk; Gromadzki, Daniel; Fridrichová, Michaela; Kalbáč, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, MAR 2017 (2017), s. 33-39 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Grant - others:AVČR PPPLZ(CZ) L200401551 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : polymerization * electrochemical doping * graphene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  7. Emulsion polymerization with high energy radiation

    Stannett, V.T.; Stahel, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy radiation, particularly that of cobalt-60 or caesium-137 gamma-rays, provides in principle an ideal initiator for emulsion polymerization. The high free radical yields from the radiolysis of the aqueous phase combined with the high kinetic chain lengths associated with emulsion polymerization lead to a highly effective utilization of the radiation. There are other important advantages compared with the use of chemical initiators such as potassium persulfate. These are outlined in the chapter, together with some attendant disadvantages. Radiation-induced initiation is temperature independent, and low temperature polymerizations can be conducted with ease. Monomers that mainly terminate their growing chains by chain transfer to monomer give higher molecular weights at lower temperatures. Industrially, vinyl acetate is an important example of such a monomer, and it has been studied using radiation initiation. Both laboratory and pilot plant studies have been carried out and reported. The results are summarized in this chapter. Styrene is the classical example of a material that under a number of conditions closely obeys the so-called ideal Smith-Ewart kinetics. It has been found that under similar conditions but substituting radiation for potassium persulfate as the initiator, ideal kinetics were closely followed. Most of the conventional and some non-standard vinyl and diene monomers have been studied to some extent with radiation-initiated polymerizations in emulsion. To conserve space however, this chapter presents and discusses the results obtained only with styrene and vinyl acetate, both in laboratory and pilot plant investigations. Other monomers and special situations are referenced either directly or to the other available reviews. (orig.)

  8. Personal Cooling Fabric Based on Polymeric Thermoelectrics

    2016-07-28

    There are also concerns about environmental impact given their toxic heavy metal content. Despite these limitations and the lack of improvement in...polymeric TE materials were studied, they offered the additional advantages (over metallic materials) of low density, no toxic heavy metals (bismuth, lead...First, fluorene was reacted with two equivalents of bromoethane under basic conditions to afford 9,9’-diethyl fluorine , which was bromomethylated

  9. High-voltage polymeric insulated cables

    Ross, A

    1987-01-01

    Reviews developments in high-voltage (here defined as 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV) polymeric insulated cables in the UK over the period 1979-1986, with particular reference to the experience of the Eastern Electricity Board. Outlines the background to the adoption of XPLE-insulated solid cable, and the design, testing, terminations, jointing and costs of 25 kV, 66 kV and 132 kV cables.

  10. Adaptive polymeric system for Hebbian type learning

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We present the experimental realization of an adaptive polymeric system displaying a ?learning behaviour?. The system consists on a statistically organized networks of memristive elements (memory-resitors) based on polyaniline. In a such network the path followed by the current increments its conductivity, a property which makes the system able to mimic Hebbian type learning and have application in hardware neural networks. After discussing the working principle of ...

  11. Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates

    Feng Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA, and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH32(CNC-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent.

  12. Comparison of potentials for polymeric liquids

    Jung, Hae Young

    2002-01-01

    Many theories for polymeric liquids are based on the concepts of cell, hole, free volume of lattice etc. In this theories, van der Waals potential, Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential and their modified potentials are commonly used. In this work, Mie(p,6)potential was applied to the Continuous Lattice Fluid Theory (which extends the discrete lattices of Lattice Fluid Theory to classically continuous lattices) and Dee-Walsch's Cell Theory (which modifies Flory's Equation of State Theory). Both of them are known to be successful theories for polymeric liquids. Thus, PVT values changing with p (the exponent in the repulsion potential) were calculated and compared with experimental values. And, calculated values of Lattice Fluid theory, Flory's Equation of State Theory and Cho-Sanchez Theory using perturbation method were also compared. Through the calculated results, van der Waals potential, Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential and Mie(p,6) potential for polymeric liquids were compared with each other

  13. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  14. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  15. BenzoDODA grafted polymeric resin—Plutonium selective solid sorbent

    Ruhela, R., E-mail: riteshr@barc.gov.in [Materials Processing Division, Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Panja, S., E-mail: surajit@barc.gov.in [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Nuclear Fuels Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, A.K. [Materials Processing Division, Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Nuclear Fuels Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • BenzoDODA grafted polymeric resin was synthesized and evaluated for sorption of Pu(IV). • Fast sorption kinetics for ‘Pu(IV)’. • Ease of back extraction of ‘Pu’ form loaded resin. • Ease of recyclability and fair stability in HNO{sub 3} medium. - Abstract: A new ligand grafted polymeric resin (BenzoDODA SDVB) was synthesized by covalently attaching plutonium selective ligand (BenzoDODA) on to styrene divinyl benzene (SDVB) polymer matrix. BenzoDODA SDVB resin was evaluated for separation and recovery of plutonium(IV) from nitric acid medium. Sorption of Pu(IV) was found to decrease with the increase in nitric acid concentration, with very small sorption above 7.0 M HNO{sub 3}. Sorption kinetics was fast enough to achieve the equilibrium within 60 min of contact where the kinetic data fitted well to pseudo-second-order model. Sorption isotherm data fitted well to Langmuir model suggesting chemical interaction between the BenzoDODA moiety and plutonium(IV) ions. Sorption studies with some of representative radionuclides of high level waste showed that BenzoDODA SDVB is selective and therefore could be a promising solid sorbent for separation and recovery of plutonium. Further, the theoretical calculations done on BenzoDODA SDVB resin suggested Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}·BenzoDODA (1:1) sorbed complex conformed to generally observed square antiprism geometry of the plutonium complexes, with contributions from oxygen atoms of four nitrate ions as well as from four oxygen atoms present in BenzoDODA (two phenolic ether oxygen atoms and two carbonyl oxygen atoms of amidic moiety).

  16. Neutral Polymeric Micelles for RNA Delivery

    Lundy, Brittany B.; Convertine, Anthony; Miteva, Martina; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) drugs have significant therapeutic potential but delivery systems with appropriate efficacy and toxicity profiles are still needed. Here, we describe a neutral, ampholytic polymeric delivery system based on conjugatable diblock polymer micelles. The diblock copolymer contains a hydrophilic poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-co-N-(2-(pyridin-2- yldisulfanyl)ethyl)methacrylamide) (poly[HPMA-co-PDSMA]) segment to promote aqueous stability and facilitate thiol-disulfide exchange reactions, and a second ampholytic block composed of propyl acrylic acid (PAA), dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and butyl methacrylate (BMA). The poly[(HPMA-co-PDSMA)-b-(PAA-co-DMAEMA-co-BMA)] was synthesized using Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization with an overall molecular weight of 22,000 g/mol and a PDI of 1.88. Dynamic light scattering and fluorescence measurements indicated that the diblock copolymers self-assemble under aqueous conditions to form polymeric micelles with a hydrodynamic radius and critical micelle concentration of 25 nm and 25 μg/mL respectively. Red blood cell hemolysis experiments show that the neutral hydrophilic micelles have potent membrane destabilizing activity at endosomal pH values. Thiolated siRNA targeting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was directly conjugated to the polymeric micelles via thiol exchange reactions with the pyridal disulfide groups present in the micelle corona. Maximum silencing activity in HeLa cells was observed at a 1:10 molar ratio of siRNA to polymer following a 48 h incubation period. Under these conditions 90 % mRNA knockdown and 65 % and protein knockdown of at 48 h was achieved with negligible toxicity. In contrast the polymeric micelles lacking a pH-responsive endosomalytic segment demonstrated negligible mRNA and protein knockdown under these conditions. The potent mRNA knockdown and excellent biocompatibility of the neutral siRNA conjugates

  17. Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Obtained by Radiation Polymerization

    Craciun, G.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Nemtanu, M.; Brasoveanu, M.; Ighigeanu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Poly electrolytes are water-soluble polymers carrying ionic charge along the polymer chain. Depending upon the charge, these polymers are anionic or cationic. The inherent solid - liquid separating efficiency makes these poly electrolytes a unique class of polymers which find extensive application in potable water, industrial raw and process water, municipal sewage treatment, mineral processing and metallurgy, oil drilling and recovery, etc. Also, due to their ability to produce advanced induced coagulation, a considerable amount of bacteria and viruses are precipitated together with the suspended solids. Especially the acrylamide polymers are very efficacious for water treatment but acrylamide is a toxic monomer and therefore their use are governed by international standards that provide the residual acrylamide monomer content (RAMC) in them be less than 0.05%. Under these circumstances our attention was focused on the following research steps that are presented in this paper: 1) Preparation of a special class of poly electrolytes, named Pn, with very low RAMC values, based on electron beam (EB), microwave (MW) and EB + MW induced co-polymerization of aqueous solutions containing appropriate mixtures of acrylamide (AMD) and acrylic acid (AA) monomers (AMD - AA co-polymers). The Pn were obtained by radiation technology with very small RAMC (under 0.01%) as well as in a wide range of molecular weights and charge densities. Very low AMD monomer content of Pn is due to the major advantages of radiation induced polymerization in aqueous solution containing monomers. Due to water presence in the EB irradiated system, irradiated water radicals facilitate the polymerization process and increase rate and level of monomers conversion in co-polymers. Also, once again, by the presence of water, which absorbs MW energy very strongly, the MW polymerization reaction rate is much enhanced resulting in a reaction time about 50-100 times lowers than by conventional heating. Also

  18. A new lithography of functional plasma polymerized thin films

    Kim, Sung-O

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of the resist for the vacuum lithography was carried out by plasma polymerization. The resist manufactured by plasma polymerization is a monomer produced by MMA (Methyl methacrylate). The functional groups of MMA appeared in the PPMMA (Plasma Polymerized Methyl methacrylate) as well, and this was confirmed through an analysis using FT-IR. The polymerization rate increased as a function of the plasma power and decreased as a function of the system pressure. The sensitivity and contrast of the plasma polymerized thin films were 15 μC/cm2 and 4.3 respectively. The size of the pattern manufactured by Vacuum Lithography using the plasma polymerized thin films was 100 nm

  19. Measurement and Analysis of in vitro Actin Polymerization

    Doolittle, Lynda K.; Rosen, Michael K.; Padrick, Shae B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The polymerization of actin underlies force generation in numerous cellular processes. While actin polymerization can occur spontaneously, cells maintain control over this important process by preventing actin filament nucleation and then allowing stimulated polymerization and elongation by several regulated factors. Actin polymerization, regulated nucleation and controlled elongation activities can be reconstituted in vitro, and used to probe the signaling cascades cells use to control when and where actin polymerization occurs. Introducing a pyrene fluorophore allows detection of filament formation by an increase in pyrene fluorescence. This method has been used for many years and continues to be broadly used, owing to its simplicity and flexibility. Here we describe how to perform and analyze these in vitro actin polymerization assays, with an emphasis on extracting useful descriptive parameters from kinetic data. PMID:23868594

  20. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  1. Optic nerve oxygenation

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  2. Pathology of oxygen

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  3. Using oxygen at home

    ... at Home Tell your local fire department, electric company, and telephone company that you use oxygen in your home. They ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Pathology of oxygen

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    .... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...

  5. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  6. Ekstrakorporal oxygenering ved legionellapneumoni

    Uslu, Bülent; Steensen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration with hypo......We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration...

  7. Intraportal islet oxygenation.

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-05-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  8. Polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites by in situ polymerization

    Milani, Marceo A.; Galland, Giselda B.; Quijada, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis of nanocomposites of polypropylene/graphite by in situ polymerization using metallocene catalyst and graphene nanosheets. Initially was analyzed which of the metallocene catalysts rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 or rac-Me 2 Si(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 produces polypropylene with mechanical properties more relevant. Then it were performed the in situ polymerization reactions to obtain the nanocomposites. The polymeric materials were characterized by XRD, DSC, GPC and DMTA. (author)

  9. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  10. Investigations in the field of solid state polymerization Pt. 38

    Hardy, Gy.; Cser, F.; Nyitrai, K.; Fedorova, N.

    1980-01-01

    The stuctural and radiation chemical data of vinyl monomers with long chain paraffinic or cholesteric side groups are critically reviewed. Based on their structural and polymerization kinetical characteristics the monomers may be classified into three groups. Oblique layers are favourable for homogeneous topotactic polymerization. This is characterized by a low activation energy and a radiochemical efficiency very similar to that measured in liquid state polymerization. The tilted layers are not favourable for homogeneous topotactic polymerization. Allyl monomers yield polymers with higher molecular weights in the layer structure than in liquid states. (author)

  11. Nanoporous Polymeric Grating-Based Optical Biosensors (Preprint)

    Hsiao, Vincent K; Waldeisen, John R; Lloyd, Pamela F; Bunning, Timothy J; Huang, Tony J

    2007-01-01

    .... The fabrication process of the nanoporous polymeric grating involves holographic interference patterning and a functionalized pre-polymer syrup that facilitates the immobilization of biomolecules...

  12. Biocompatible Polymeric Materials Intended for Drug Delivery and Therapeutic Applications

    Hvilsted, Søren; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Bednarek, Melania

    2007-01-01

    of polymer blocks by “click chemistry”. An all polymerization strategy would imply preparing polymers by living/controlled techniques in such a manner that one block after polymerization can be converted to a macroinitiator enabling the second block to polymerize. The coupling strategy invariably inserts...... a linking unit, 1,4-triazol, resulting from the catalyzed, irreversible 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between an alkyne and an azide. Thus, this strategy necessitates the proper end functionalization of the polymeric building blocks. Fortunately the 1,4-triazol unit is FDA approved already existing...

  13. STUDIES ON VINYL POLYMERIZATION WITH INITIATION SYSTEM CONTAINING AMINE DERIVATIVES

    QIU Kunyuan; ZHANG Jingyi; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Two main types of amine-containing initiation systems were studied in this work. In the case of MMA polymerization initiated by BPO-amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) redox systems, it was found that the polymerization rate and colour stability of the polymer for different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≈DHET>DMA. Accordingly, BPO-DMT and BPO-DHET are effective initiators. In the case of MEMA polymerization by amine (DMT, DHET, DMA) alone, it was found that the polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion for these different amine systems were in the following order: DMT≥DHET>DMA. The polymerization rate and the percentage of conversion also increased with the increase of DMT concentration. From the kinetic investigation the rate equation of Rp=K [DMT]1/2 [MEMA]3/2 was obtained, and the overall activation energy of polymerization was calculated to be 34.3 KJ/mol (8.2 Kcal/mol). Moreover, the polymerization of MEMA in the presence of DMT was strongly inhibited by hydroquinone, indicating the polymerization being free radical in nature. From these results, the mechanism of MEMA polymerization initiated by amine was proposed.

  14. Online observation of emulsion polymerization by fluorescence technique

    Rudschuck, S; Fuhrmann, J

    1999-01-01

    An online observation of local polarity via fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the formation and growth of polymer particles during an emulsifier-free heterogeneous polymerization. The reaction mixture consisted of styrene dispersed in water and the polymerization was initiated by a macro-initiator (hydrolyzed propene-maleic acid copolymer with t-butyl perester groups). Pyrenyl probes were attached to the backbone of the initiator to analyze the heterogeneous reaction. The experimental results allow a clear distinction of different time regions during the heterogeneous polymerization. Information about the heating period, the latex formation, the particle growth and the final stage of the polymerization process (gel point) were obtained. (11 refs).

  15. Resveratrol immobilization and release in polymeric hydrogels

    Momesso, Roberta Grazzielli Ramos Alves Passarelli

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic produced by a wide variety of plants in response to injury and found predominantly in grape skins. This active ingredient has been shown to possess benefits for the health, such as the antioxidant capacity which is related to the prevention of several types of cancer and skin aging. However, the oral bioavailability of resveratrol is poor and makes its topical application interesting. The purpose of this study was to immobilize resveratrol in polymeric hydrogels to obtain a release device for topical use. The polymeric matrices composed of poli(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) and agar or PVP and glycerol irradiated at 20 kGy dose were physical-chemically characterized by gel fraction and swelling tests and its preliminary biocompatibility by in vitro test of cytotoxicity using the technique of neutral red uptake. Due to low solubility of resveratrol in water, the addition of 2% ethanol to the matrices was verified. All matrices showed a high crosslinking degree, capacity of swelling and the preliminary cytotoxicity test showed nontoxicity effect. The devices were obtained by resveratrol immobilization in polymeric matrices, carried out in a one-or-two-steps process, that is, before or after irradiation, respectively. The one step resveratrol devices were characterized by gel fraction, swelling tests and preliminary biocompatibility, and their properties were maintained even after the resveratrol incorporation. The devices containing 0,05% of resveratrol obtained by one-step process and 0,1% of resveratrol obtained by two-steps process were submitted to the release test during 24 h. Resveratrol quantification was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results obtained in the kinetics of release showed that only the devices obtained by two-step process release the resveratrol, which demonstrate antioxidant capacity after the release. (author)

  16. Polymeric media for tritium fixation. Supplement I

    Franz, J.A.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for the fixation of tritium as TH or THO in two different polymeric media are described. The complete procedure for THO fixation in a polyureylene-polyurethane polumer, including polymer molding procedures and leach tests is presented. The catalytic tritiation of polystyrene under very mild conditions using a rhodium catalyst is also described. Thermal stabilities and cost estimates for the polymers examined under this program are discussed. Organic polymers were found to have attractive features for the fixation and storage of concentrated tritium wastes due to the convenience of fixation procedures and favorable properties of the resulting media

  17. Proteins and Peptides in Biomimetic Polymeric Membranes

    Perez, Alfredo Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent advances and the main advantages of block copolymers for functional membrane protein reconstitution in biomimetic polymeric membranes. A rational approach to the reconstitution of membrane proteins in a functional form can be addressed by a more holistic view by using...... other kind of nonbiological amphiphilic molecules. An interesting possibility could be the use of self-assembled proteins in a lipid-free membrane mimicking the capside of some viruses. The membrane proteins that have been more actively used in combination with block copolymer membranes are gramicidin...

  18. Polymeric biomaterials structure and function, v.1

    Dumitriu, Severian

    2013-01-01

    Biomaterials have had a major impact on the practice of contemporary medicine and patient care. Growing into a major interdisciplinary effort involving chemists, biologists, engineers, and physicians, biomaterials development has enabled the creation of high-quality devices, implants, and drug carriers with greater biocompatibility and biofunctionality. The fast-paced research and increasing interest in finding new and improved biocompatible or biodegradable polymers has provided a wealth of new information, transforming this edition of Polymeric Biomaterials into a two-volume set. This volume

  19. Preparation of super absorbent by irradiation polymerization

    Hua Fengjun; Tan Chunhong; Qian Mengping

    1995-01-01

    A kind of absorbent is prepared by gamma-rays irradiated by reversed-phase suspension polymerization. Drying particles have 1400 (g/g) absorbency in de-ionic water. Effects of reactive conditions, e.g.: dose-rate, dose, monomer concentration, degree of monomer neutralization and crosslinking agents on absorbency in de-ionic water are discussed. The cause of absorbing de-ionic water by polymer is related to its network structure and ionic equilibrium in particle. Accordingly, a suit reactive condition is chosen for preparation of hydro gel spheres

  20. Immobilization of cellulase by radiation polymerization

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1983-01-01

    Immobilization of cellulase by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The enzymatic activity of immobilized cellulase pellets varied with the monomer, enzyme concentration, and the thickness of immobilized cellulase pellets. The optimum monomer concentration in the immobilization of cellulase was 30-50% at the pellet thickness of 1.0 mm, in which the enzymatic activity was 50%. The enzymatic activity of immobilized cellulase pellets was examined using various substrates such as cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, and paper pretreated by radiation. It was found that irradiated paper can be hydrolyzed by immobilized cellulase pellets. (author)

  1. Planar elongation of soft polymeric networks

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Hassager, Ole; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    . To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation. Particle tracking and video recording were used to detect to what extent the imposed strain rate and the sample perimeter remained constant. It was observed that, by using...... difference deviated more from the classical prediction due to the dynamic structures in the material. A modified Lodge model using characteristic parameters from linear viscoelastic measurements gave very good stress predictions at all Deborah numbers used in the quasi-linear regime....

  2. Polymeric Cantilever Arrays for Biosensing Applications

    Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.; Johansson, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    We report the fabrication of arrays of polymeric cantilevers for biochemistry applications. The cantilevers are fabricated in the polymer SU-8. The use of a polymer as the component material for the cantilevers provides the sensors with very high sensitivity due to convenient mechanical material...... properties. The fabrication process is based on spin coating of the photosensitive polymer and near-ultraviolet exposure. The method allows obtaining well-controlled and uniform mechanical properties of the cantilevers. The elastic constant of the cantilevers was measured, and their dynamic response...

  3. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture load information at very high speed from the impact tests.

  4. Polymeric materials for solar thermal applications

    Köhl, Michael; Papillon, Philippe; Wallner, Gernot M; Saile, Sandrin

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications.Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, dis

  5. Modelling degradation of bioresorbable polymeric medical devices

    Pan, J

    2015-01-01

    The use of bioresorbable polymers in stents, fixation devices and tissue engineering is revolutionising medicine. Both industry and academic researchers are interested in using computer modelling to replace some experiments which are costly and time consuming. This book provides readers with a comprehensive review of modelling polymers and polymeric medical devices as an alternative to practical experiments. Chapters in part one provide readers with an overview of the fundamentals of biodegradation. Part two looks at a wide range of degradation theories for bioresorbable polymers and devices.

  6. Properties of immobilized papain by radiation polymerization

    Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1984-01-01

    Papain was immobilized by the radiation polymerization of various monomers at low temperatures and the effects of the polymer matrix on the enzyme activity and thermal stability of the immobilized enzymes were studied. The activity of the immobilized enzymes prepared from monofunctional (acrylate and methacrylate) monomers was higher than that from bifunctional (bismethacrylate) monomers and that from polyoxyethylene dimethacrylate monomers increased with an increase in the number of oxyethylene units. The thermal stability of the immobilized enzymes prepared from hydrophilic monomers was higher than that from hydrophobic monomers and increased markedly with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  7. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of amphiphilic monomers with different polymerization characteristics onto hydrophobic polysilane

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Iwasaki, Isao; Kunai, Yuichiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Sato, Nobuhiro, E-mail: sato-n@rri.kyoto-u.ac.j [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Matsuyama, Tomochika [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashironishi 2-1010, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    The structures of poly(methyl-n-propylsilane) (PMPrS) amphiphilically modified through {gamma}-ray-induced graft polymerization were investigated with {sup 1}H NMR measurement. By the use of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or diethyl fumarate (DEF) as monomers for the graft polymerization, grafting yield rose with increasing total absorption dose and monomer concentrations, but decreased with increasing dose rate. This result means that grafting yield of modified PMPrS can be controlled by changing irradiation conditions. However, the number of PMMA or PDEF graft chains per PMPrS chain was estimated to be less than 1.0 by analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra, and this value was lower than that we had expected. To improve graft density, maleic anhydride (MAH), which is known as a non-homopolymerizable monomer in radical polymerization, was used as a monomer for grafting. As a result, high density grafting (one MAH unit for 4.2 silicon atoms) was attained. It demonstrates that the structure of {gamma}-ray-modified polysilane strongly depends on the polymerization characteristics of grafted monomers.

  8. A surface science model for the Phillips ethylene polymerization catalyst : thermal activation and polymerization activity

    Kimmenade, van E.M.E.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Tamminga, Y.; Thuene, P.C.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    A series of CrOx/SiO2/Si(100) model catalysts were tested for ethylene polymerization activity, varying chromium loading, and calcination temperature. Chromium coverage of the model catalyst, quantified by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, decreases with increasing calcination temperature as

  9. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  10. Numerical simulation of anisotropic polymeric foams

    Volnei Tita

    Full Text Available This paper shows in detail the modelling of anisotropic polymeric foam under compression and tension loadings, including discussions on isotropic material models and the entire procedure to calibrate the parameters involved. First, specimens of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC foam were investigated through experimental analyses in order to understand the mechanical behavior of this anisotropic material. Then, isotropic material models available in the commercial software AbaqusTM were investigated in order to verify their ability to model anisotropic foams and how the parameters involved can influence the results. Due to anisotropy, it is possible to obtain different values for the same parameter in the calibration process. The obtained set of parameters are used to calibrate the model according to the application of the structure. The models investigated showed minor and major limitations to simulate the mechanical behavior of anisotropic PVC foams under compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Results show that the calibration process and the choice of the material model applied to the polymeric foam can provide good quantitative results and save project time. Results also indicate what kind and order of error one will get if certain choices are made throughout the modelling process. Finally, even though the developed calibration procedure is applied to specific PVC foam, it still outlines a very broad drill to analyze other anisotropic cellular materials.

  11. Functionalized nanoparticle interactions with polymeric membranes.

    Ladner, D A; Steele, M; Weir, A; Hristovski, K; Westerhoff, P

    2012-04-15

    A series of experiments was performed to measure the retention of a class of functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) on porous (microfiltration and ultrafiltration) membranes. The findings impact engineered water and wastewater treatment using membrane technology, characterization and analytical schemes for NP detection, and the use of NPs in waste treatment scenarios. The NPs studied were composed of silver, titanium dioxide, and gold; had organic coatings to yield either positive or negative surface charge; and were between 2 and 10nm in diameter. NP solutions were applied to polymeric membranes composed of different materials and pore sizes (ranging from ≈ 2 nm [3 kDa molecular weight cutoff] to 0.2 μm). Greater than 99% rejection was observed of positively charged NPs by negatively charged membranes even though pore diameters were up to 20 times the NP diameter; thus, sorption caused rejection. Negatively charged NPs were less well rejected, but behavior was dependent not only on surface functionality but on NP core material (Ag, TiO(2), or Au). NP rejection depended more upon NP properties than membrane properties; all of the negatively charged polymeric membranes behaved similarly. The NP-membrane interaction behavior fell into four categories, which are defined and described here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradable polymeric materials for osteosynthesis: Tutorial

    D Eglin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the state of the art and recent developments and advances in the use of degradable polymers devices for osteosynthesis. The current generation of biodegradable polymeric implants for bone repair utilising designs copied from metal implants, originates from the concept that devices should be supportive and as “inert” substitute to bone tissue. Today degradable polymeric devices for osteosynthesis are successful in low or mild load bearing applications. However, the lack of carefully controlled randomized prospective trials that document their efficacy in treating a particular fracture pattern is still an issue. Then, the choice between degradable and non-degradable devices must be carefully weighed and depends on many factors such as the patient age and condition, the type of fracture, the risk of infection, etc. The improvement of the biodegradable devices mechanical properties and their degradation behaviour will have to be achieved to broaden their use. The next generation of biodegradable implants will probably see the implementation of the recent gained knowledge in cell-material interactions and cells therapy, with a better control of the spatial and temporal interfaces between the material and the surrounding bone tissue.

  13. Chemical polymerization of aniline in phenylphosphinic acid

    NICOLETA PLESU

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical polymerization of aniline was performed in phenylphosphinic acid (APP medium using ammonium peroxidisulfate as the oxidizing agent, at 0 ºC and 25 ºC. The yield of polyaniline (PANI was about 60–69 %. The polymerization process required an induction time 8–10 times greater than in other acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric. The average density of the obtained polymer was 1.395 g cm-3 for PANI-salt and 1.203 g cm-3 for PANI-base. The acid capacity of PANI depends on the synthesis parameters and the maximum value was 15.02 meq/g polymer. The inherent viscosity of PANI was 0.662 dl/g at aniline/oxidant molar ratios >2 and 0 ºC. The oxidation state was a function of the synthesis parameters and lay between 0.553–0.625, as determined from UV-VIS and titration with TiCl3 data. The PANI samples were characterized by measurements of their density, inherent viscosity, conductivity, acid capacity, FTIR and UV-VIS spectrum, and thermogravimetric data.

  14. Novel distributed strain sensing in polymeric materials

    Abot, Jandro L; Song, Yi; Medikonda, Sandeep; Rooy, Nathan; Schulz, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the state of strain throughout an entire structure is essential to determine its state of stress, detect potential residual stresses after fabrication, and also to help to establish its integrity. Several sensing technologies are presently available to determine the strain in the surface or inside a structure. Large sensor dimensions, complex signal conditioning equipment, and difficulty in achieving a widely distributed system have however hindered their development into robust structural health monitoring techniques. Recently, carbon nanotube forests were spun into a microscale thread that is electrically conductive, tough, and easily tailorable. The thread was integrated into polymeric materials and used for the first time as a piezoresistive sensor to monitor strain and also to detect damage in the material. It is revealed that the created self-sensing polymeric materials are sensitive to normal strains above 0.07% and that the sensor thread exhibits a perfectly linear delta resistance–strain response above 0.3%. The longitudinal gauge factors were determined to be in the 2–5 range. This low cost and simple built-in sensor thread may provide a new integrated and distributed sensor technology that enables robust real-time health monitoring of structures

  15. Metallophilic interactions in polymeric group 11 thiols

    Kolari, Kalle; Sahamies, Joona; Kalenius, Elina; Novikov, Alexander S.; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu.; Haukka, Matti

    2016-10-01

    Three polymeric group 11 transition metal polymers featuring metallophilic interactions were obtained directly via self-assembly of metal ions and 4-pyridinethiol ligands. In the cationic [Cu2(S-pyH)4]n2+ with [ZnCl4]n2- counterion (1) and in the neutral [Ag(S-py) (S-pyH)]n (2) 4-pyridinethiol (S-pyH) and its deprotonated form (S-py) are coordinated through the sulfur atom. Both ligands are acting as bridging ligands linking the metal centers together. In the solid state, the gold(I) polymer [Au(S-pyH)2]Cl (3) consists of the repeating cationic [Au(S-pyH)2]+ units held together by aurophilic interactions. Compound 1 is a zig-zag chain, whereas the metal chains in the structures of 2 and 3 are linear. The protonation level of the thiol ligand had an impact on the crystallization of polymers. Both nature of the metal center and reaction conditions affected the polymerization. QTAIM analysis confirmed direct metal-metal contacts only in polymers 1 and 3. In polymer 2, no theoretical evidence of argentophilic contacts was obtained even though the AgṡṡṡAg distance was found to be less than sum of the Bondi's van der Waals radius of silver.

  16. A pulse radiolysis study of emulsion polymerization

    McAskill, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The emulsion polymerisation of slightly water soluble monomers such as styrene occurs initially in micelles of surfactant swollen with monomer and later in larger particles consisting of polymer swollen with monomer and stabilized with an outer layer of surfactant. There is considerable controversy on whether the reaction sites of polymerization are inside or on the surface of the particle or micelle. The relative amounts of micelle and particles present at various stages of the polymerization are also nuclear. In the present study the OH radical formed by pulse radiolysis has been used as a probe to investigate the site of solubilization of styrene in various surfactant micelles. Two products can be distinguished by UV spectrometry, a benzyl type radical formed by OH addition to the side chain of styrene and a cyclohexadienyl type radical formed by addition to the ring. Wide differences in the relative amounts of each product were observed suggesting that in some surfactants the styrene ring is buried inside the micelle whilst in other systems the styrene appears to be so solubilized at the interface leaving both the ring and the side chain open to attack by the OH radical. (author)

  17. Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene by radiation. IV. Effects of additives on Polymer molecular weight

    Watanabe, T.; Suwa, T.; Okamoto, J.; Machi, S.

    1979-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene)(PTFE) of high molecular weight, 4.5 x 10 7 , was incidentally obtained at earlier study of an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene by radiation. In order to clarify this phenomenon, the effects of additives, in particular radical scavengers, on the molecular weight of PTFE and its polymerization behavior were studied. It was found that the molecular weight of PTFE is increased by the addition of hydroquinone, benzoquinone, α-pinene, dl-limonene, and ethylenediamine but is decreased by oxygen and triethylamine. A PTFE latex with molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 was obtained in the presence of hydroquinone. It is concluded that additives such as hydroquinone and benzaquinone, which rapidly scavenge the primary radicals (OH, H, and e/sub aq/ - ) in the aqueous phase but not the growing polymer radicals in PTFE particles, are most effective in increasing the molecular weight

  18. Vinylimidazole-Based Asymmetric Ion Pair Comonomers: Synthesis, Polymerization Studies and Formation of Ionically Crosslinked PMMA

    Jana, S.; Vasantha, V.A.; Stubbs, L.P.; Parthiban, A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2013-01-01

    Vinylimidazole-based asymmetric ion pair comonomers (IPCs) which are free from nonpolymerizable counter ions have been synthesized, characterized and polymerized by free radical polymerization (FRP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer

  19. Colloidal templating : a route towards controlled synthesis of functional polymeric nanoparticles

    Ali, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Template-directed synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles offers better control over particle morphology, shape, structure, composition and properties compare to the conventional emulsion polymerization routes. For the production of anisotropic polymer-clay composite latex particles and polymeric

  20. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  1. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  3. Photocontrol in Complex Polymeric Materials: Fact or Illusion?

    Jerca, Valentin Victor; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2018-06-04

    Photoswitches: Exciting recent progress realized in the field of light-controlled polymeric materials is highlighted. It is discussed how the rational choice of azobenzene molecules and their incorporation into complex materials by making use of physical interactions can lead to genuine photocontrollable polymeric systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  5. Continuous fabrication of polymeric vesicles and nanotubes with fluidic channe

    Peng, F.; Deng, N.-N.; Tu, Y.; van Hest, J.C.M.; Wilson, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluidic channels were employed to induce the self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polystyrene into polymeric vesicles and nanotubes. The laminar flow in the device enables controlled diffusion of two miscible liquids at the phase boundary, leading to the formation of homogeneous polymeric

  6. Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses

    Chirdon, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…

  7. Synthesis of Terpyridine-Terminated Polymers by Anionic Polymerization

    Guerrero-Sanchez, C.A.; Lohmeijer, B.G.G.; Meier, M.A.R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of terpyridine-functionalized polystyrene was achieved by reacting 4‘-chloro-2,2‘:6‘,2‘ ‘-terpyridine (terminating agent) with "living" polymeric carbanions synthesized by anionic polymerization. The obtained polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear

  8. Macromolecular Architectures Designed by Living Radical Polymerization with Organic Catalysts

    Miho Tanishima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living radical polymerization with organic catalysts. Polymerizations of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and selected functional methacrylates were performed with a monofunctional initiator, a difunctional initiator, a trifunctional initiator, and a surface-immobilized initiator.

  9. 21 CFR 872.6070 - Ultraviolet activator for polymerization.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultraviolet activator for polymerization. 872.6070 Section 872.6070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ultraviolet radiation intended to polymerize (set) resinous dental pit and fissure sealants or restorative...

  10. Polymerization of methyl methacrylate by diphenylamido bis (methylcyclopentadienyl) ytterbium complex

    WANG, Yao-Rong(王耀荣); SHEN, Qi(沈琪); MA, Jia-Le(马家乐); ZHAO, Qun(赵群)

    2000-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was effectively polymerized by diphenylamido bis(methyicyclopentadienyl) ytterbium complex (MeCp)2YbNPh2(THF). Tne reaction can be carried out over a range of polymerization temperature from - 40℃ to 40℃ and gives the polyMMA with high molecular weights.The initiation mechanism was demonstrated by diphenylamidoterminated methyl methacrylate oligomer.

  11. Redox Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in the Fluorous Triphasic System

    Shi Zhen CHEN; Yun Peng BAI; Zhao Long LI

    2006-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was polymerized by using of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and N, N-dimethylaniline (DMA) as an redox initiator in fluorous triphasic system at room temperature.The polymerization was occurred in both initiator layer and monomer layer in a U-tube. It was found that PMMA obtained from the initiator layer with relatively narrow polydispersity.(PDI =1.38)

  12. Variables and advantages of the polymerization process in plasma

    Rojas, Andres F; Ortiz, Jairo A; Restrepo, Elizabeth; Devia Alfonso

    1998-01-01

    They are given to know the parameters that affect the polymerization process in plasma like they are: the kinetics, the electric joining, the variables related to the substrata and the interaction plasma/surface. Some advantages of the polymerization process are also presented with regard to the conventional processes

  13. Propene bulk polymerization kinetics: Role of prepolymerization and hydrogen

    Pater, J.T.M.; Weickert, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    An experimental setup for the polymerization of liquid propylene was used to carry out main polymerizations with and without a prepolymerization step. Two types of prepolymerization are introduced: at a constant temperature and at rapidly increasing reactor temperatures. With the present catalyst

  14. prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization, reverse atom

    Synthesis and characterization of poly(2-ethylhexyl acrylate) prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization, reverse atom transfer radical polymerization and ... Zydex Industries, 25-A Gandhi Oil Mill Compound, Gorwa, Vadodara 390 016, India; Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, ...

  15. Radiation-induced polymerization and radiation effect on polymers

    Seguchi, Tadao

    1977-12-01

    The processes of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers and also radiation effects on polymers have been studied by instrumental analyses of electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy. In radiation-induced polymerization, graft-copolymerization and absorbed state polymerization were taken up. For graft-copolymerization, monomers such as methylmethacrylate and butadiene were made to react with irradiated polyethylene, and behaviors of the initiating radicals and propagating radicals were followed under the reaction by ESR. For absorbed state polymerization, acrylonitrile/zeolite and methylmethacrylate/zeolite were chosen. Absorbed monomers were irradiated at 77 0 K and polymerized at room temperature. Active species and the concentrations were measured by ESR and the yields of polymer were observed by NMR. In radiation effect on polymers, polyvinylfluoride, polyvinylidenfluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene were taken up. Active species trapped in the polymer matrixes were identified and decay and reactivity of the species were also studied. On the basis of information from the electron microscopy and x-ray analysis, radiation effects on these polymers are described. In polytetrafluoroethylene produced by radiation polymerization, the relation between morphology and polymerization conditions and also the process of crystallization during polymerization were studied. (auth.)

  16. Preparation of polymer microspheres by radiation-induced polymerization

    Naka, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cross-liking monomer, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate gives microspheres from organic solution by radiation-induced polymerization. /One of the remarkable result is that the number of the microspheres is not changing during the polymerization. Ethyl methacrylate, maleic anhydride, styrene and acrylamide are used as comonomers. These comonomers give the microspheres in the range of 0 to 0.4 as mol fractions. (author)

  17. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  18. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-07-01

    Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as -COOH, C-OH, and -CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization treated WTR increased 11.03% and 13.36%, and the flexural strength increased 9.65% and 7.31%, respectively. A decrease in the compressive strength also occurred but was inconspicuous. A tight interface bonding for ethanol LTP polymerization treated WTR with cement matrix was observed via an SEM image.

  19. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  20. Initiation of MMA polymerization by iniferters based on dithiocarbamates

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve modified dithiocarbamates and a thiuramdisulfide used for the initiation of methyl methacrylate (MMA polymerization were synthesized in this study. The polymerization of MMA was followed by determine the yield and molar mass of the obtained PMMA as a function of polymerization time. Four of the synthesized dithiocarbamates S-benzyl-N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamate, S-allyl-N,N-dibenzyldithiocarbamate S-benzyl-N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate and S-benzoyl-N,N-diisobutyldithiocarbamate, as well as N,N,N',N'-tetrabenzylthiuramdisulfide acted as iniferters. They were active as the initiators of the photo and/or thermally initiated radical polymerization of MMA in bulk and inert solvents (benzene and toluene. S Benzyl - N,N - dibenzyldithiocarbamate can be successfully used for the initiation of MMA polymerization in a polar solvent such as dimethylacetamide.

  1. Fluoropolymer materials and architectures prepared by controlled radical polymerizations

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This review initially summarizes the mechanisms, merits and limitations of the three controlled radical polymerizations: nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) or metal catalyzed living radical polymerization, and reversible addition–fragmentation chain...... transfer (RAFT) polymerization. This is followed by two parts, one dealing with homo- and copolymerizations of fluorinated methacrylates and acrylates, and a second where fluorinated styrenes, alone or in combination with other monomers, are the main issues. In these parts, initiators (including...... properties and functionalities that can be obtained from these novel fluorinated materials and architectures are especially emphasized. Thus, various amphiphilic, biocompatible or low energy materials, fluorinated nanoparticles and nanoporous films/membranes as well as materials for submicron and nanolevel...

  2. Modelling the Load Torques of Electric Drive for Polymerization Process

    Andrzej Popenda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of mathematical modelling the load torques on shaft of driving motor designed for applications in polymerization reactors are presented in the paper. The real load of polymerization drive is determined as a function of angular velocity. Mentioned function results from friction in roll-formed slide bearing as well as from friction of ethylene molecules with mixer arms in polymerization reactor chamber. Application of mathematical formulas concerning the centrifugal ventilator is proposed to describe the mixer in reactor chamber. The analytical formulas describing the real loads of polymerization drive are applied in mathematical modelling the power unit of polymerization reactor with specially designed induction motor. The numerical analysis of transient states was made on the basis of formulated mathematical model. Examples of transient responses and trajectories resulting from analysis are presented in the paper.

  3. Studies on the polymerization of acrolein oxime, 6

    Masuda, Seizo; Tamai, Harumi; Ota, Tadatoshi; Torii, Munetomo; Tanaka, Masami.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization and copolymerization of acrolein oxime are investigated in different solvents and at a wide range of temperature for obtaining information on the reaction mechanism. Acrolein oxime is polymerized ionically, irrespective of dryness of the sample. Arrhenius plots for the polymerization rate, which do not yield a linear relation, can be adequately approximated by two straight lines. An anionic mechanism is operative above the room temperature, while a cationic mechanism predominates below -23 0 C. The reaction in the intermediate temperature range proceeds by a competitive mechanism, and the rate of the anionic and cationic polymerizations becomes equal at the temperature near -5 0 C. The reaction rate is proportional to the square root of dose rate at room temperature and -23 0 C. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the polymerization of acrolein oxime by γ-irradiation proceeds by free-ionic mechanisms. (author)

  4. Fabrication and manipulation of polymeric magnetic particles with magnetorheological fluid

    Rodríguez-López, Jaime; Shum, Ho Cheung; Elvira, Luis; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco; Weitz, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric magnetic microparticles have been created using a microfluidic device via ultraviolet (UV) polymerization of double emulsions, resulting in cores of magnetorheological (MR) fluids surrounded by polymeric shells. We demonstrate that the resultant particles can be manipulated magnetically to achieve triggered rupture of the capsules. This illustrates the great potential of our capsules for triggered release of active ingredients encapsulated in the polymeric magnetic microparticles. - Highlights: ► Polymeric microparticles encapsulating MR fluids have been fabricated. ► A double-emulsion-templated approach using microfluidic techniques has been used. ► The monodisperse microparticles obtained are easily manipulated under magnetic field. ► These microparticles have great potential for encapsulation-and-release applications.

  5. Dynamic bioactive stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces

    Pearson, Heather Marie

    This dissertation focuses on the design, synthesis, and development of antimicrobial and anticoagulant surfaces of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) polymers. Aliphatic polymeric surfaces of PE and PP polymers functionalized using click chemistry reactions by the attachment of --COOH groups via microwave plasma reactions followed by functionalization with alkyne moieties. Azide containing ampicillin (AMP) was synthesized and subsequently clicked into the alkyne prepared PE and PP surfaces. Compared to non-functionalized PP and PE surfaces, the AMP clicked surfaces exhibited substantially enhanced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. To expand the biocompatibility of polymeric surface anticoagulant attributes, PE and PTFE surfaces were functionalized with pH-responsive poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) polyelectrolyte tethers terminated with NH2 and COOH groups. The goal of these studies was to develop switchable stimuli-responsive polymeric surfaces that interact with biological environments and display simultaneous antimicrobial and anticoagulant properties. Antimicrobial AMP was covalently attached to --COOH terminal ends of protected PAA, while anticoagulant heparin (HEP) was attached to terminal --NH2 groups of P2VP. When pH 5.5, they collapse while the PAA segments extend. Such surfaces, when exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, inhibit bacterial growth due to the presence of AMP, as well as are effective anticoagulants due to the presence of covalently attached HEP. Comparison of these "dynamic" pH responsive surfaces with "static" surfaces terminated with AMP entities show significant enhancement of longevity and surface activity against microbial film formation. The last portion of this dissertation focuses on the covalent attachment of living T1 and Φ11 bacteriophages (phages) on PE and PTFE surface. This was accomplished by carbodiimide coupling between --COOH

  6. Cascade synthesis of chiral block copolymers combining lipase catalyzed ring opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization

    Peeters, J.W.; Palmans, A.R.A.; Veld, M.A.J.; Scheijen, F.J.E.; Heise, A.; Meijer, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    The enantioselective polymerization of methyl-substituted -caprolactones using Novozym 435 as the catalyst was investigated. All substituted monomers could be polymerized except 6-methyl--caprolactone (6-MeCL), which failed to propagate after ring opening. Interestingly, an odd-even effect in the

  7. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  8. Home Oxygen Therapy

    ... cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let your fire department know that you have oxygen in your ... any symptoms of illness. Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Insurance Certain insurance policies may pay for all your ...

  9. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  10. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  11. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  12. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  13. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  14. PECVD de composes de silicium sur polymeres: Etude de la premiere phase du depot

    Dennler, Gilles

    Since their first introduction in the early 90's, transparent barriers against oxygen and/or water vapor permeation through polymers, such as SiO 2, are the object of increasing interest in the food and pharmaceutical packaging industries, and more recently for the encapsulation of organic-based displays. It is now well known that these thin layers possess barrier properties only if they are thicker than a certain critical thickness, dc. For example, dc is around 12 nm in the case of SiO2 on KaptonRTM PI; below this value, the measured "Oxygen Transmission Rate" (OTR, in standard cm3/m2/day/bar) is roughly the same as that of the uncoated polymer. Until now, no detailed research has been carried out to explain this observation, but a hypothesis was proposed in the literature, based on island-like growth structure of the coating for d ≤ dc. According to this hypothesis, the surface energy of the polymeric substrates is so low that the Volmer-Weber (island-coalescence) growth mode occurs. We have aimed to verify this explanation, that is, to study the initial phase of silicon-compound (SiO2 and SiN) growth on four different polymeric substrates, namely polyimide (KaptonRTM PI), polycarbonate (LexanRTM PC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethyleneterephthalate (MylarRTM PET). Three different deposition methods were used, namely reactive evaporation of SiO, radio-frequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (RF PECVD), and Distributed Electron Cyclotron Resonance (DECR) PECVD. In this latter case, the substrates were placed in three different positions: (i) in the active glow zone, (ii) downstream, and (iii) downstream, but shielded from photon emission (e.g. VUV) from the plasma. Angle-Resolved X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS), Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the latter performed after Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) by oxygen plasma, revealed that growth indeed occurs in a Volmer-Weber mode in the

  15. Polymeric molecular sieve membranes for gas separation

    Dai, Sheng; Qiao, Zhenan; Chai, Songhai

    2017-08-15

    A porous polymer membrane useful in gas separation, the porous polymer membrane comprising a polymeric structure having crosslinked aromatic groups and a hierarchical porosity in which micropores having a pore size less than 2 nm are present at least in an outer layer of the porous polymer membrane, and macropores having a pore size of over 50 nm are present at least in an inner layer of the porous polymer membrane. Also described are methods for producing the porous polymer membrane in which a non-porous polymer membrane containing aromatic rings is subjected to a Friedel-Crafts crosslinking reaction in which a crosslinking molecule crosslinks the aromatic rings in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst and organic solvent under sufficiently elevated temperature, as well as methods for using the porous polymer membranes for gas or liquid separation, filtration, or purification.

  16. Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers.

    Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2008-10-07

    A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.

  17. Designing Polymeric Microfluidic Platforms for Biomedical Applications

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    Micro- and Nanotechnology have the potential to offer a smart solution for diagnostics and academia research with rapid, low cost, robust analysis systems to facilitate biological analyses. New, high throughput microfluidic platforms have the potential to surpass in performance the conventional...... analyses systems in use today. The overall goal of this PhD project is to address two different areas using microfluidics : i) Chromosome analysis by metaphase FISH such a platform, if successful, can immediately substitute the routine, labor-intensive, glass slide-based FISH analyses in Clinical...... Cytogenetics laboratories. During the course of this project, initially the suitability of the polymeric chip substrate was tested and a microfluidic device was developed for performing interphase FISH analysis. With this device, the key factors involved in chromosome spreading crucial to FISH analysis were...

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Microrods via Mesophase Polymerization.

    Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Scrivano, Luca; Candamano, Sebastiano; Ruffo, Mariarosa; Vattimo, Anna Francesca; Spanedda, Maria Vittoria; Puoci, Francesco

    2017-12-28

    The aim of the present research work was the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with a rod-like geometry via "mesophase polymerization". The ternary lyotropic system consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), water, and decanol was chosen to prepare a hexagonal mesophase to direct the morphology of the synthesized imprinted polymers using theophylline, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a drug model template, a functional monomer, and a crosslinker, respectively. The obtained molecularly imprinted microrods (MIMs) were assessed by performing binding experiments and in vitro release studies, and the obtained results highlighted good selective recognition abilities and sustained release properties. In conclusion, the adopted synthetic strategy involving a lyotropic mesophase system allows for the preparation of effective MIPs characterized by a rod-like morphology.

  19. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  20. Watching Mobility Engendered by Actin Polymerization

    Jee, Ah-Young; Granick, Steve; Tlusty, Tsvi

    We have been investigating hydrodynamic flows engendered in molecular systems by active motion. In fact, active directed motion is ubiquitous as a transport mechanism within cells and other systems, sometimes by the action of molecular motors as they move along cytoskeletal filaments, sometimes by the polymerization and depolymerization of filament themselves. To probe this situation, we have employed fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in the STED mode (stimulation emission-depletion), this super-resolution approach allowing us to investigate molecular mobility as averaged over a spectrum of space scales: from areas of the optical diffraction limit or larger, to regions as small as 30 40 nm. This comparison of FCS-STED measurements when the projected area investigated varies by a factor of >10, reveals remarkable scale dependence of the mobility that we infer.

  1. Final Technical Report: Collaborative Research. Polymeric Muliferroics

    Ren, Shenqiang [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2015-06-05

    The goal of this project is to investigate room temperature magnetism and magnetoelectric coupling of polymeric multiferroics. A new family of organic charge-transfer complexes has been emerged as a fascinating opportunity for the development of all-organic electrics and spintronics due to its weak hyperfine interaction and low spin-orbit coupling; nevertheless, direct observations of room temperature magnetic spin ordering have yet to be accomplished in organic charge-transfer complexes. Furthermore, room temperature magnetoelectric coupling effect hitherto known multiferroics, is anticipated in organic donor-acceptor complexes because of magnetic field effects on charge-transfer dipoles, yet this is also unexplored. The PIs seek to fundamental understanding of the synthetic control of organic complexes to demonstrate and explore room temperature multiferroicity.

  2. Fluorescent polymeric nanocomposite films generated by surface-mediated photoinitiation of polymerization

    Avens, Heather J.; Chang, Erin L.; May, Allison M.; Berron, Brad J.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into polymer films represents a valuable strategy for achieving a variety of desirable physical, optical, mechanical, and electrical attributes. Here, we describe and characterize the creation of highly fluorescent polymer films by entrapment of fluorescent NPs into polymer matrices through surface-mediated eosin photoinitiation reactions. Performing surface-mediated polymerizations with NPs combines the benefits of a covalently anchored film with the unique material properties afforded by NPs. The effects of monomer type, crosslinker content, NP size, and NP surface chemistry were investigated to determine their impact on the relative amount of NPs entrapped in the surface-bound films. The density of entrapped NPs was increased up to 6-fold by decreasing the NP diameter. Increasing the crosslinking agent concentration enabled a greater than 2-fold increase in the amount of NPs entrapped. Additionally, the monomer chemistry played a significant role as poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-based monomer formulations entrapped a 10-fold higher density of carboxy-functionalized NPs than did acrylamide/bisacrylamide formulations, though the latter formulations ultimately immobilized more fluorophores by generating thicker films. In the context of a polymerization-based microarray biodetection platform, these findings enabled tailoring of the monomer and NP selection to yield a 200-fold improvement in sensitivity from 31 (±1) to 0.16 (±0.01) biotinylated target molecules per square micron. Similarly, in polymerization-based cell staining applications, appropriate monomer and NP selection enabled facile visualization of microscale, sub-cellular features. Careful consideration of monomer and NP selection is critical to achieve the desired properties in applications that employ surface-mediated polymerization to entrap NPs.

  3. Studies on atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylates and styrenes with controlled polymeric block structures

    Ibrahim, Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was applied to homo and block copolymerization of vinyl monomers methacrylates, acrylates, and styrene with iron (FeCl2.4H2O) as the transition metal in most cases. As complexing ligand either a commercially available ligand (triphenyl phosphine) (PPh3) or synthetic aliphatic amines were used. As initiators, methyl 2-bromopropionate, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate, α,α-dichloroacetophenone, and poly(ethylene oxide) macroinitiator were employed. Block ...

  4. Influence of air humidity on polymeric microresonators

    Schmid, S; Kühne, S; Hierold, C

    2009-01-01

    The influence of air humidity on polymeric microresonators is investigated by means of three different resonator types. SU-8 microbeams, SU-8 microstrings and a silicon micromirror with SU-8 hinges are exposed to relative humidities between 3% and 60%. The shifts of the resonant frequencies as a function of the relative humidity (RH) are explained based on mechanical models which are extended with water absorption models in polymer materials. The dominant effect causing the resonant frequency change is evaluated for each structure type. The eigenfrequency of the microstrings and the micromirror in the out-of-plane mode, which both mainly are defined by the pre-stress of the polymeric structures, are found to be highly sensitive to changes of air humidity. The humidity-induced (hygrometric) volume expansion reversibly reduces the pre-stress which results in relative frequency changes of up to 0.78%/%RH for the microstrings. A maximum coefficient of humidity-induced volume expansion for SU-8 of α hyg = 52.3 ppm/%RH is evaluated by fitting the data with the analytical model. It was found that microstrings that were stored at 150 °C over 150 h are more moisture sensitive compared to structures that were stored at room temperature. For the SU-8 microbeams and the micromirror in the tilt mode, the eigenfrequency is mainly defined by the modulus of the polymer material. The measured relative resonant frequency changes were below 1% for the given RH range. For low RH values, antiplasticization is observed (the modulus increases) followed by a plasticization for increasing RH values

  5. Formation of polymeric toroidal-spiral particles.

    Sharma, Vishal; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Shen, Hao; Nitsche, Ludwig C; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-10

    Compared to spherical matrices, particles with well-defined internal structure provide large surface to volume ratio and predictable release kinetics for the encapsulated payloads. We describe self-assembly of polymeric particles, whereby competitive kinetics of viscous sedimentation, diffusion, and cross-linking yield a controllable toroidal-spiral (T-S) structure. Precursor polymeric droplets are splashed through the surface of a less dense, miscible solution, after which viscous forces entrain the surrounding bulk solution into the sedimenting polymer drop to form T-S channels. The intricate structure forms because low interfacial tension between the two miscible solutions is dominated by viscous forces. The biocompatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA), is used to demonstrate the solidification of the T-S shapes at various configurational stages by UV-triggered cross-linking. The dimensions of the channels are controlled by Weber number during impact on the surface, and Reynolds number and viscosity ratio during subsequent sedimentation. We anticipate applications of the T-S particle in drug delivery, wherein diffusion through these T-S channels and the polymer matrix would offer parallel release pathways for molecules of different sizes. Polyphosphate, as a model macromolecule, is entrained in T-S particles during their formation. The in vitro release kinetics of polyphosphate from the T-S particles with various channel length and width is reported. In addition, self-assembly of T-S particles occurs in a single step under benign conditions for delicate macromolecules, and appears conducive to scaleup.

  6. UV-Vis/FT-NIR in situ monitoring of visible-light induced polymerization of PEGDA hydrogels initiated by eosin/triethanolamine/O2.

    Kaastrup, Kaja; Aguirre-Soto, Alan; Wang, Chen; Bowman, Christopher N; Stansbury, Jeffery; Sikes, Hadley D

    In conjunction with a tertiary amine coinitiator, eosin, a photoreducible dye, has been shown to successfully circumvent oxygen inhibition in radical photopolymerization reactions. However, the role of O 2 in the initiation and polymerization processes remains inconclusive. Here, we employ a UV-Vis/FT-NIR analytical tool for real-time, simultaneous monitoring of chromophore and monomer reactive group concentrations to investigate the eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA-based hydrogels under ambient conditions. First, we address the challenges associated with spectroscopic monitoring of the polymerization of hydrogels using UV-Vis and FT-NIR, proposing metrics for quantifying the extent of signal loss from reflection and scattering, and showing their relation to microgelation and network formation. Second, having established a method for extracting kinetic information by eliminating the effects of changing refractive index and scattering, the coupled UV-Vis/FT-NIR system is applied to the study of eosin-activated photopolymerization of PEGDA in the presence of O 2 . Analysis of the inhibition time, rate of polymerization, and rate of eosin consumption under ambient and purged conditions indicates that regeneration of eosin in the presence of oxygen and consumption of oxygen occur via a nonchain process. This suggests that the uniquely high O 2 resilience is due to alternative processes such as energy transfer from photo-activated eosin to oxygen. Uncovering the intricacies of the role of O 2 in eosin-mediated initiation aids the design of O 2 resistant free radical polymerization systems relevant to photonics, optoelectronics, biomaterials, and biosensing.

  7. Ratiometric glucose sensing based on fluorescent oxygen films and glucose oxidase

    Fengyu Su

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new two-layer sensor film was constructed for sensing glucose based on glucose oxidase and oxygen sensing material. The first layer of film containing the oxygen sensor and intra-reference material was polymerized, then the second layer of glucose oxidase and glutaraldehyde was formed on the oxygen sensor layer. The two-layer sensor film has a resolution up to 0.05 mM and a detection range from 0 to 5 mM to glucose. The effects of pH and temperature on the sensing performance were systematically investigated. The selective detection of glucose among other monosaccharides, such as fructose, mannose and galactose indicated that the sensing film has excellent selectivity. The prepared sensor was successfully applied for glucose sample detection of glucose concentration in artificial tears. Keywords: Glucose sensor, Glucose oxidase, Fluorescence, Oxygen film, Diabetes

  8. Timescale and mechanisms of the oxygen effect in irradiated bacteria

    Michael, D.; Harrop, H.A.; Held, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Studies with S. marcescans and E. coli show that the concept of O 2 acting as a radiosensitizer by fixing damage in competition with its repair by intracellular free SH is applicable to the oxygen effect phenomena, whether they are observed as functions of concentration or of time. The gas explosion technique was used for this study in which cells are irradiated with a 5-nanosecond pulse of electrons and are exposed to a rapid transition from a hypoxic to a well-oxygenated environment at a preset time prior to or after irradiation. From a review of other studies it is shown that: sulfhydryl compounds in polymeric systems have the ability to repair free radical damage by H atom donation and that oxygen could block this repair; in dry bacterial spores, similar competition occurs between reactions of radiation-induced damage with the simplest sulfhydryl, H 2 S, and with O 2 ; there is a correlation between GSH levels in mammalian cells and the oxygen K-value; similarly, it has been found that radiosensitization by the electron-affinic compound misonidazole, is also dependent on the intracellular level of GSH. 20 references, 2 figures, 1 tables

  9. Polymeric micelles as a drug carrier for tumor targeting

    Neha M Dand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric micelle can be targeted to tumor site by passive and active mechanism. Some inherent properties of polymeric micelle such as size in nanorange, stability in plasma, longevity in vivo, and pathological characteristics of tumor make polymeric micelles to be targeted at the tumor site by passive mechanism called enhanced permeability and retention effect. Polymeric micelle formed from the amphiphilic block copolymer is suitable for encapsulation of poorly water soluble, hydrophobic anticancer drugs. Other characteristics of polymeric micelles such as separated functionality at the outer shell are useful for targeting the anticancer drug to tumor by active mechanisms. Polymeric micelles can be conjugated with many ligands such as antibodies fragments, epidermal growth factors, α2 -glycoprotein, transferrine, and folate to target micelles to cancer cells. Application of heat and ultrasound are the alternative methods to enhance drug accumulation in tumoral cells. Targeting using micelles can also be done to tumor angiogenesis which is the potentially promising target for anticancer drugs. This review summarizes about recently available information regarding targeting the anticancer drug to the tumor site using polymeric micelles.

  10. Dually Fluorescent Sensing of pH and Dissolved Oxygen Using a Membrane Made from Polymerizable Sensing Monomers.

    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R; Youngbull, A Cody; Li, Yongzhong; Jen, Alex K-Y; Johnson, Roger H; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-06-03

    Using a thermal polymerization approach and polymerizable pH and oxygen sensing monomers with green and red emission spectra, respectively, new pH, oxygen, and their dual sensing membranes were prepared using poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-poly(acrylamide) as a matrix. The sensors were grafted on acrylate-modified quartz glass and characterized under different pH values, oxygen concentrations, ion strengths, temperatures and cell culture media. The pH and oxygen sensors were excited using the same excitation wavelength and exhibited well-separated emission spectra. The pH-sensing films showed good response over the pH range 5.5 to 8.5, corresponding to pK(a) values in the biologically-relevant range between 6.9 and 7.1. The oxygen-sensing films exhibited linear Stern-Volmer quenching responses to dissolved oxygen. As the sensing membranes were prepared using thermally initiated polymerization of sensing moiety-containing monomers, no leaching of the sensors from the membranes to buffers or medium was observed. This advantageous characteristic accounts in part for the sensors' biocompatibility without apparent toxicity to HeLa cells after 40 hours incubation. The dual-sensing membrane was used to measure pH and dissolved oxygen simultaneously. The measured results correlated with the set-point values.

  11. Intrinsic Embedded Sensors for Polymeric Mechatronics: Flexure and Force Sensing

    Leif P. Jentoft

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm, three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  12. Intrinsic embedded sensors for polymeric mechatronics: flexure and force sensing.

    Jentoft, Leif P; Dollar, Aaron M; Wagner, Christopher R; Howe, Robert D

    2014-02-25

    While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm), three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  13. Optical Properties of the Self-Assembling Polymeric Colloidal Systems

    Alexandra Mocanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, optical materials have gained much interest due to the high number of possible applications involving path or intensity control and filtering of light. The continuous emerging technology in the field of electrooptical devices or medical applications allowed the development of new innovative cost effective processes to obtain optical materials suited for future applications such as hybrid/polymeric solar cells, lasers, polymeric optical fibers, and chemo- and biosensing devices. Considering the above, the aim of this review is to present recent studies in the field of photonic crystals involving the use of polymeric materials.

  14. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    Paula, Everton L. de; Pereirea, Fabiano V.; Mano, Valdir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  15. Atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene under pulsed microwave irradiation

    Cheng Zhenping; Zhu Xiulin; Zhou Nianchen; Zhu Jian; Zhang Zhengbiao

    2005-01-01

    A homogeneous solution atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (RATRP) of styrene (St) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) were successfully carried out under pulsed microwave irradiation (PMI), using 1-bromo-1-phenylethane (1-PEBr)/CuCl/N,N,N',N'',N''-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as an initiating system at 85 deg. C and 2,2'-azo-bis-isobutyrontrile (AIBN)/CuCl 2 /PMDETA as an initiating system at 95 deg. C, respectively. The polymerization rates under PMI were greatly increased in comparison with those under identical conventional heating (CH)

  16. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.......05 of the emulsifier concentration, but independent of the initiator concentration. The limiting viscosity number of the polymers produced was independent of the initiator concentration and number of polymer particles. It is suggested that the mechanism of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization is similar...

  17. Synthesis of Amphiphilic Copolymwers by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie

    2007-01-01

    Fluorerede polymerer besidder en række enestående egenskaber såsom god biokom-patibilitet og lav overfladeenergi såvel som god kemisk og termisk stabilitet. Målsæt-ningen for denne afhandling var at fremstille fluorerede polymerer og copolymerer, der potentielt kunne finde anvendelse som...... egenskaber der genfindes i homopolymerer af den dominerende monomer i copolymeren. Som indikation af de nye materialers mulige vekselvirkning med omgivelserne udførtes omfattende studier af kontaktvinkler. Film fremstillet af de fluorerede copolymerer og polymerer udviste øget hydrofobicitet (vandafvisning...

  18. Polymeric drugs: Advances in the development of pharmacologically active polymers

    Li, Jing; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yi; Oupický, David

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers play a critical role in pharmaceutical discovery and development. Current research and applications of pharmaceutical polymers are mainly focused on their functions as excipients and inert carriers of other pharmacologically active agents. This review article surveys recent advances in alternative pharmaceutical use of polymers as pharmacologically active agents known as polymeric drugs. Emphasis is placed on the benefits of polymeric drugs that are associated with their macromolecular character and their ability to explore biologically relevant multivalency processes. We discuss the main therapeutic uses of polymeric drugs as sequestrants, antimicrobials, antivirals, and anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26410809

  19. A model of frontal polymerization using complex initiation

    P. M. Goldfeder

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal polymerization is a process in which a spatially localized reaction zone propagates into a monomer, converting it into a polymer. In the simplest case of free-radical polymerization, a mixture of monomer and initiator is placed in a test tube. A reaction is then initiated at one end of the tube. Over time, a self-sustained thermal wave, in which chemical conversion occurs, is produced. This phenomenon is possible because of the highly exothermic nature of the polymerization reactions.

  20. Origin of photosynthetic oxygen

    Gerster, Richard; Dupuy, Jacques; Guerin de Montgareuil, Pierre

    From the comparison of isotopic exchange kinetics between C 18 O 2 and the water of algae suspensions or aerial leaves subjected to alternating darkness and light, it becomes possible to calculate the isotopic abundance of the CO 2 involved in the photochemical process; this value has been compared to those of the intracellular water and of the evolved O 2 . Kinetics of the appearance of 18 O in the oxygen produced by algae suspended in enriched water are also presented [fr

  1. Studies on surface graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto PTFE film by remote argon plasma initiation

    Wang Chen; Chen Jierong

    2007-01-01

    The graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) was carried out onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films that had been pretreated with remote argon plasma and subsequently exposed to oxygen to create peroxides. Peroxides are known to be the species responsible for initiating the graft polymerization when PTFE reacts with AAc. We chose different parameters of remote plasma treatment to get the optimum condition for introducing maximum peroxides (2.87 x 10 -11 mol/cm 2 ) on the surface. The influence of grafted reaction conditions on the grafting degree was investigated. The maximum grafting degree was 25.2 μg/cm 2 . The surface microstructures and compositions of the AAc grafted PTFE film were characterized with the water contact angle meter, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Contact angle measurements revealed that the water contact angle decreased from 108 o to 41 o and the surface free energy increased from 22.1 x 10 -5 to 62.1 x 10 -5 N cm -1 by the grafting of the AAc chains. The hydrophilicity of the PTFE film surface was greatly enhanced. The time-dependent activity of the grafted surface was better than that of the plasma treated film

  2. Processing and characterization of yttrium-stabilized zirconia thin films on polyimide from aqueous polymeric precursors

    Gorman, B.P.; Anderson, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    Low-temperature deposition of dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films on polyimide (PI) substrates is illustrated using an aqueous polymeric precursor spin-coating technique. The polymeric precursor uses low-cost materials, is water-soluble and the viscosity and cation concentrations can be easily adjusted in order to vary the film thickness from 0.02 to 0.3 μm. Due to the use of water as the solvent in the YSZ precursor and the hydrophobic nature of the PI surface, surface modification processes were utilized in order to improve the wetting characteristics. Surface modification of PI substrates using wet chemical and oxygen plasma techniques led to a decrease in the precursor contact angle, and ultimately allowed for uniform film formation on both bulk and thin film PI substrates. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV/Vis absorption illustrate that near full-density nanocrystalline thin films of YSZ can be produced at temperatures as low as 350 deg. C. Thermogravimetric analyses illustrate that the PI substrate does not undergo any weight loss up to these temperatures

  3. Nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of plasma nanotextured superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic polymeric surfaces

    Skarmoutsou, A; Charitidis, C A; Gnanappa, A K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen plasma-induced surface modification of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), under plasma conditions favouring (maximizing) roughness formation, has been shown to create textured surfaces of roughness size and morphology dependent on the plasma-treatment time and subsequent morphology stabilization procedure. Superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surfaces can thus be obtained, with potential applications in antireflective self-cleaning surfaces, microfluidics, wetting–dewetting control, anti-icing etc, necessitating determination of their mechanical properties. In this study, nanoindentation is used to determine the reduced modulus and hardness of the surface, while nanoscratch tests are performed to measure the coefficient of friction. The data are combined to assess the wear behaviour of such surfaces as a first guide for their practical applications. Short-time plasma treatment slightly changes mechanical, tribological and wear properties compared to untreated PMMA. However, a significant decrease in the reduced modulus and hardness and an increase in the coefficient of friction are observed after long plasma-treatment times. The C 4 F 8 plasma deposited thin hydrophobic layer on the polymeric surfaces (untreated and treated) reveals good adhesion, while its mechanical properties are greatly influenced by the substrate; it is also found that it effectively protects the polymeric surfaces, reducing plastic deformation. (paper)

  4. Oxygen injection facility

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  5. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Synthesis of praseodymium allyl iodide complex and its use in piperilene polymerization

    Gajlyunas, G.A.; Biktimirov, R.Kh.; Khajrullina, R.M.; Marina, N.G.; Manakov, Yu.B.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis, structure and catalytic properties of tetrahydrofuran praseodymium allyl iodine complex (1) are described and studied. Complex 1 is formed during interaction of allyl iodine with metal praseodymium (the molar ratio is 2:1) in THF at room temperature with 97% yield. It represents the solid powder-like substance of the light-brown colour with a pale green shade, being sensitive to moisture and oxygen and decomposing at temperature >120 deg. On the basis of the IR-spectroscopy data the supposition about the dimeric (or n-dimensional) complex structure is made. The complex prepared in combination with tributyl aluminium during piperylene polymerization gives a high-stereoregular and high-molecular polypiperylene

  7. The Effect of Plasma Surface Treatment on a Porous Green Ceramic Film with Polymeric Binder Materials

    Yun Jeong Woo

    2013-01-01

    To reduce time and energy during thermal binder removal in the ceramic process, plasma surface treatment was applied before the lamination process. The adhesion strength in the lamination films was enhanced by oxidative plasma treatment of the porous green ceramic film with polymeric binding materials. The oxygen plasma characteristics were investigated through experimental parameters and weight loss analysis. The experimental results revealed the need for parameter analysis, including gas material, process time, flow rate, and discharge power, and supported a mechanism consisting of competing ablation and deposition processes. The weight loss analysis was conducted for cyclic plasma treatment rather than continuous plasma treatment for the purpose of improving the film's permeability by suppressing deposition of the ablated species. The cyclic plasma treatment improved the permeability compared to the continuous plasma treatment.

  8. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  9. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  10. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  11. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  12. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  13. Reversible and Irreversible Binding of Nanoparticles to Polymeric Surfaces

    Wolfgang H. Binder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible binding of CdSe-nanoparticles and nanorods to polymeric surfaces via a strong, multiple hydrogen bond (= Hamilton-receptor/barbituric acid is described. Based on ROMP-copolymers, the supramolecular interaction on a thin polymer film is controlled by living polymerization methods, attaching the Hamilton-receptor in various architectures, and concentrations. Strong binding is observed with CdSe-nanoparticles and CdSe-nanorods, whose surfaces are equipped with matching barbituric acid-moieties. Addition of polar solvents, able to break the hydrogen bonds leads to the detachment of the nanoparticles from the polymeric film. Irreversible binding is observed if an azide/alkine-“click”-reaction is conducted after supramolecular recognition of the nanoparticles on the polymeric surface. Thus reversible or irreversible attachment of the nanosized objects can be achieved.

  14. Novel polymer coatings based on plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate

    Wu, Zhenning; Jiang, Juan; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    plasma system[4]. The system named SoftPlasma™ is equipped with unique three-phase pulsed AC voltage. Low energy plasma polymerization has almost no thermal load for sensitive polymer materials[5]. Plasma polymerized coatings are highly cross-linked, pin-hole free and provide hydrophilic or hydrophobic...... properties[4-6]. We have exploited these possibilities and prepared plasma polymerized 2-methoxyethyl acrylate (PPMEA) coatings on various polymer substrates. The PPMEA coatings were optimized using various plasma polymerization conditions and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy......, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy, Atomic force spectroscopy and Water contact-angle measurements. The microstructures ofPPMEA coatings with different thicknesses were also studied. For practical applications in mind, the coating stability was tested in different media (air, water, acetone, phosphate...

  15. Porous polymeric membranes with thermal and solvent resistance

    Pulido, Bruno; Waldron, Christopher; Zolotukhin, M.G.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Polymeric membranes are highly advantageous over their ceramic counterparts in terms of the simplicity of the manufacturing process, cost and scalability. Their main disadvantages are low stability at temperatures above 200 °C, and in organic

  16. Novel Polymeric Prodrugs of Valproic Acid as Anti- Epilepsy Drugs ...

    Epilepsy Drugs: Synthesis, Characterization and In-vitro ... The release of VPA from polymeric prodrugs was studied using cellophane ... pharmacokinetics and accessibility in market [8]. ..... between the drug and polymer chain can affect.

  17. Structural Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Carbopol Polymeric Composites ...

    Erah

    Methods: The ciprofloxacin and Carbopol were mixed in water in a drug:polymer ratio of 1:5 ... and the Carbopol polymeric composites of the drug were obtained using a powder diffractometer. .... 2950 cm-1 represented alkenes and aromatic.

  18. Identification of a premature termination of DNA polymerization in ...

    2013-04-25

    Apr 25, 2013 ... strands to the 5′ end of the template strands, forming double- stranded DNA with ... duplex stem is important for high processive polymerization. HIV-1 reverse ... KF has been used as a model to study DNA polymerase.

  19. Electrochemical roles of extracellular polymeric substances in biofilms

    Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Most microbial cells in nature are surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are fundamental components and determine the physiochemical properties of a biofilm. This review highlights the EPS properties of conductivity and redox ability from an electrochemical perspective, em...

  20. Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Chen, E-mail: wclai@mail.tku.edu.t [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, 151 Ying-chuan Road, Tamsui, Taipei 25137, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-25

    We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the styrene in the presence of chemical cross-linkers, divinyl benzene (DVB), with different amounts of DBS using thermal-initiated polymerization. The resulting materials were transparent, homogeneous polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites with both physical and chemical cross-links. The porous polymeric materials were obtained by solvent extraction of the DBS nanofibrils from the PS. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements show that the amounts of DBS and DVB influenced the specific surface area after the removal of the DBS fibrils.

  1. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Coto, Borja; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  2. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    Zuzuarregui, Ana, E-mail: a.zuzuarregui@nanogune.eu; Gregorczyk, Keith E. [CIC Nanogune Consolider, de Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier [IK4-Tekniker, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600 Eibar (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge [Torresol Energy (SENER Group), Avda. de Zugazarte 61, 48930 Las Arenas (Spain); Knez, Mato [CIC Nanogune Consolider, de Tolosa Hiribidea 76, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-08-10

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  3. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Rodríguez, Jorge; Knez, Mato

    2015-01-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur

  4. In-situ polymerization PLOT columns I: divinylbenzene

    Shen, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method for preparation of porous-layer open-tubular (PLOT) columns is described. The method involves a simple and reproducible, straight-forward in-situ polymerization of monomer directly on the metal tube.

  5. Novel polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials prepared using organogels

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Chen

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method for preparing polymeric nanocomposites and porous materials using self-assembled templates formed by 1,3:2,4-dibenzylidene sorbitol (DBS) organogels. DBS is capable of self-assembling into a 3D nanofibrillar network at relatively low concentrations in some organic solvents to produce organogels. In this study, we induced the formation of such physical cross-linked networks in styrene. Subsequently, we polymerized the styrene in the presence of chemical cross-linkers, divinyl benzene (DVB), with different amounts of DBS using thermal-initiated polymerization. The resulting materials were transparent, homogeneous polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites with both physical and chemical cross-links. The porous polymeric materials were obtained by solvent extraction of the DBS nanofibrils from the PS. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements show that the amounts of DBS and DVB influenced the specific surface area after the removal of the DBS fibrils.

  6. Synthesis of chiral polyaniline films via chemical vapor phase polymerization

    Chen, J.; Winther-Jensen, B.; Pornputtkul, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Electrically and optically active polyaniline films doped with (1)-(-)-10- camphorsulfonic acid were successfully deposited on nonconductive substrates via chemical vapor phase polymerization. The above polyaniline/ R- camphorsulfonate films were characterized by electrochemical and physical...

  7. Radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices for breast brachytherapy

    Batista Nogueira, Luciana; Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcisio

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was investigated for future applications in brachytherapy. The main goal was to determine the radiological viability of ceramic and polymeric devices in vitro by performing simple radiological diagnostic methods such as conventional X-ray analysis and mammography due to its easy access to the population. The radiological response of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom was determined using conventional X-ray, mammography and CT analysis. - Highlights: ► Radiological visibility of ceramic and polymeric devices implanted in breast phantom. ► The barium incorporation in the seed improves the radiological contrast. ► Radiological monitoring shows the position, orientation and degradation of devices. ► Simple radiological methods such as X-ray and mammography were used for radiological monitoring.

  8. Direct Synthesis of Telechelic Polyethylene by Selective Insertion Polymerization

    Jian, Zhongbao; Falivene, Laura; Boffa, Giusi; Sá nchez, Sheila Ortega; Caporaso, Lucia; Grassi, Alfonso; Mecking, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A single-step route to telechelic polyethylene (PE) is enabled by selective insertion polymerization. PdII-catalyzed copolymerization of ethylene and 2-vinylfuran (VF) generates α,ω-di-furan telechelic polyethylene. Orthogonally reactive exclusively

  9. Use of polymeric dyes in lignin biodegradation assays

    Gold, M.H.; Alic, M.; Glenn, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical use of various 14 C-radiolabeled and unlabeled substrates to screen for ligninolytic activity. The disadvantages of these assays are presented. The authors describe the development of assays utilizing polymeric dyes

  10. Mechanism of spontaneous hole formation in thin polymeric films

    Yu, Kaijia; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Román Marín, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    We show computationally that (molten) thin polymeric film containing nonequilibrium configurations originating from a solvent evaporation may develop holes spontaneously in the molten state, and that they appear delayed. Polymers above the glass transition temperature are liquids where the flow...

  11. Use of computed tomography in nondestructive testing of polymeric materials

    Persson, S.; Oestman, E.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomography has been used to detect imperfections and to measure cross-link density gradients in polymeric products, such as airplane tires, rubber shock absorbers, and filament-wound high-pressure tanks

  12. CoCl2 reinforced polymeric nanocomposites of conjugated polymer ...

    Administrator

    biological and gas sensors, anti-corrosion protection coat- ings and microwave absorption.1–7 These polymeric mate- ... composite by the wet chemical method for direct current ... other hand, 4 g ammonium persulphate as an oxidant was.

  13. Synthesis of polyurea from 1,6-hexanediamine with CO2 through a two-step polymerization

    Shan Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation and transformation of CO2 is one of the important issues in the field of green and sustainable chemistry. Herein, CO2 as a carbon-oxygen resource was converted to CO2-polyurea with 1,6-hexanediamine through a two-step polymerization. The reaction parameters such as temperature, pressure and reaction time were examined; and several kinds of catalysts were screened in the absence and presence of NMP solvent. The formed oligomer and the final polyurea were characterized by FT-IR, VT-DRIFTS, NMR, XRD, AFM and their thermal properties were examined by TGA and DSC. It was confirmed that the final polyurea has a high thermal stability; the melting temperature is 269 °C and the decomposition temperature is above 300 °C. It is a brittle polymer with a tensile strength of 18.35 MPa at break length of 1.64%. The polyurea has a stronger solvent resistance due to the ordered hydrogen bond in structure. The average molecular weight should be enhanced in the post-polymerization as the appearance, hydrogen bond intensity, crystallinity, melting point and the thermal stability changed largely compared to the oligomer. The present work provides a new kind of polyurea, it is expected to have a wide application in the field of polymer materials. Keywords: CO2, Polyurea, Two-step polymerization, Catalysis

  14. Surface science of single-site heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts

    Kim, Seong H.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the surface science of the heterogeneous olefin polymerization catalysts. The specific focus is on how to prepare and characterize stereochemically specific heterogeneous model catalysts for the Ziegler–Natta polymerization. Under clean, ultra-high vacuum conditions, low-energy electron irradiation during the chemical vapor deposition of model Ziegler–Natta catalysts can be used to create a “single-site” catalyst film with a surface structure that produces only isotactic ...

  15. Autocatalytic polymerization generates persistent random walk of crawling cells.

    Sambeth, R; Baumgaertner, A

    2001-05-28

    The autocatalytic polymerization kinetics of the cytoskeletal actin network provides the basic mechanism for a persistent random walk of a crawling cell. It is shown that network remodeling by branching processes near the cell membrane is essential for the bimodal spatial stability of the network which induces a spontaneous breaking of isotropic cell motion. Details of the phenomena are analyzed using a simple polymerization model studied by analytical and simulation methods.

  16. In situ electron-beam polymerization stabilized quantum dot micelles.

    Travert-Branger, Nathalie; Dubois, Fabien; Renault, Jean-Philippe; Pin, Serge; Mahler, Benoit; Gravel, Edmond; Dubertret, Benoit; Doris, Eric

    2011-04-19

    A polymerizable amphiphile polymer containing PEG was synthesized and used to encapsulate quantum dots in micelles. The quantum dot micelles were then polymerized using a "clean" electron beam process that did not require any post-irradiation purification. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the polymerized micelles provided an organic coating that preserved the quantum dot fluorescence better than nonpolymerized micelles, even under harsh conditions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. INITIATION EFFICIENCY f OF METHYL METHACRYLATE BULK RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    沈家骢; 田元; 王国斌; 杨梅林

    1990-01-01

    The values of the initiation efficiency f at various conversions in the bulk polymerization of MMA initiated by AIBME have first been determined according to a strict unsteady-state formula and based on the data of radical concentration and the termination rate constant determined using ESR method. A model of diffusion control initiation is proposed. The theory is well in agreement with the experiments during the whole process of polymerization.

  18. Interactions of ceramic, metallic and polymeric filters with gaseous contaminants

    Haider, A.M.; Ma, Ce; Shadman, Farhang

    1993-01-01

    Outgassing characteristics of ceramic, metallic, and polymeric fitters for H 2 O, O 2 , CO 2 , and CH 4 were explored using APIMS in this study. The outgassing data has been normalized with respect to the parameters that varied from one filter to the other. Hydrocarbon outgassing is also explored both at room temperature from freshly installed filters as well as at elevated temperatures. Polymeric filters appeared to be more transparent but did show hydrocarbon outgassing when heated to 50 C

  19. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    Nablo, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes are presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas (e.g. photographic papers, release papers, magnetic media) using this high speed transfer technology

  20. Transfer coating by electron initiated polymerization

    Nablo, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    The high speed and depth of cure possible with electron initiated monomer/oligomer coating systems provide many new opportunities for approaches to product finishing. Moreover, the use of transfer or cast coating using films or metallic surfaces offers the ability to precisely control the surface topology of liquid film surfaces during polymerization. Transfer coating such as with textiles has been a commercial process for many years and the synergistic addition of EB technology permits the manufacture of unusual new products. One of these, the casting paper used in the manufacture of vinyl and urethane fabrics, is the first EB application to use a drum surface for pattern replication in the coating. In this case the coated paper is cured against, and then released from, an engraved drum surface. Recent developments in the use of plastic films for transfer have been applied to the manufacture of transfer metallized and coated paper and paperboard products for packaging. Details of these and related processes will be presented as well as a discussion of the typical product areas using this high speed transfer technology. (author)

  1. Gyrospun antimicrobial nanoparticle loaded fibrous polymeric filters

    Eranka Illangakoon, U.; Mahalingam, S.; Wang, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Cheong, Y.-K. [School of Engineering and Technology, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Canales, E. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Ren, G.G. [School of Engineering and Technology, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Cloutman-Green, E. [Department of Microbiology, Virology, and Infection Prevention Control, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London WCIN 3JH (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, M., E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Ciric, L. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    A one step approach to prepare hybrid nanoparticle embedded polymer fibres using pressurised gyration is presented. Two types of novel antimicrobial nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) polymer were used in this work. X-ray diffraction analysis of the nanoparticles revealed Ag, Cu and W are the main elements present in them. The concentration of the polymer solution and the nanoparticle concentration had a significant influence on the fibre diameter, pore size and morphology. Fibres with a diameter in the range of 6–20 μm were spun using 20 wt% polymer solutions containing 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 wt% nanoparticles under 0.3 MPa working pressure and a rotational speed of 36,000 rpm. Continuous, bead-free fibre morphologies were obtained for each case. The pore size in the fibres varied between 36 and 300 nm. Successful incorporation of the nanoparticles in polymer fibres was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The fibres were also gyrospun on to metallic discs to prepare filters which were tested for their antibacterial activity on a suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nanoparticle loaded fibres showed higher antibacterial efficacy than pure poly(methylmethacrylate) fibres. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles containing Ag, Cu and W were studied for antimicrobial activity. • Hybrid nanoparticle-polymeric fibres were prepared using pressurised gyration. • Fibre characteristics were tailored using material and forming process variables. • Nanoparticle loaded fibre mats show higher antibacterial efficacy.

  2. Pressure-induced polymerization in substituted acetylenes

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David (LANL)

    2012-04-10

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression combined with temperature provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates under extreme P-T conditions. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C=CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-SiC=CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is higher under static compression (TBA: 12 GPa and ETMS: 17.6 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). At elevated temperatures, reactivity was observed to occur at pressures comparable to shock conditions. The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation.

  3. Thailand. Radiation-Polymerization in Thailand

    Nilubol, M.L. Anong; Greethong, Somkiart [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1968-10-15

    Wood-plastic composites produced by means of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers impregnated into the wood have been the subject of study in many laboratories throughout the world. In general the processes are similar, and the differences that occur are due to variations in technique applied to the particular species of wood available in each country. In Thailand, treatment to improve the quality of wood is being carried out by scientists at the Forest Products Research Division of the Royal Forest Department, Ministry of Agriculture, with the aim of obtaining products which can stand up to weathering and termite attack. On the basis of their experience, certain types of wood suitable for impregnation have been selected for our study. The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace began studying the impregnation-irradiation of certain types of Thai wood in the hope that it might result in better utilization of poor quality wood. The use of irradiated-impregnated wood in Thailand is not necessary at present, since many different varieties of hard wood are available. The production of plywood does not even meet the demand of the local market, thus the introduction of this new technique is not an attractive proposal for the time being.

  4. Polymeric Biodegradable Stent Insertion in the Esophagus

    Kai Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal stent insertion has been used as a well-accepted and effective alternative to manage and improve the quality of life for patients diagnosed with esophageal diseases and disorders. Current stents are either permanent or temporary and are fabricated from either metal or plastic. The partially covered self-expanding metal stent (SEMS has a firm anchoring effect and prevent stent migration, however, the hyperplastic tissue reaction cause stent restenosis and make it difficult to remove. A fully covered SEMS and self-expanding plastic stent (SEPS reduced reactive hyperplasia but has a high migration rate. The main advantage that polymeric biodegradable stents (BDSs have over metal or plastic stents is that removal is not require and reduce the need for repeated stent insertion. But the slightly lower radial force of BDS may be its main shortcoming and a post-implant problem. Thus, strengthening support of BDS is a content of the research in the future. BDSs are often temporarily effective in esophageal stricture to relieve dysphagia. In the future, it can be expect that biodegradable drug-eluting stents (DES will be available to treat benign esophageal stricture, perforations or leaks with additional use as palliative modalities for treating malignant esophageal stricture, as the bridge to surgery or to maintain luminal patency during neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

  5. Bioactive Polymeric Nanoparticles for Periodontal Therapy.

    Osorio, Raquel; Alfonso-Rodríguez, Camilo Andrés; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Alaminos, Miguel; Toledano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    to design calcium and zinc-loaded bioactive and cytocompatible nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontal disease. PolymP-nActive nanoparticles were zinc or calcium loaded. Biomimetic calcium phosphate precipitation on polymeric particles was assessed after 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid, by scanning electron microscopy attached to an energy dispersive analysis system. Amorphous mineral deposition was probed by X-ray diffraction. Cell viability analysis was performed using oral mucosa fibroblasts by: 1) quantifying the liberated deoxyribonucleic acid from dead cells, 2) detecting the amount of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme released by cells with damaged membranes, and 3) by examining the cytoplasmic esterase function and cell membranes integrity with a fluorescence-based method using the Live/Dead commercial kit. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Precipitation of calcium and phosphate on the nanoparticles surfaces was observed in calcium-loaded nanoparticles. Non-loaded nanoparticles were found to be non-toxic in all the assays, calcium and zinc-loaded particles presented a dose dependent but very low cytotoxic effect. The ability of calcium-loaded nanoparticles to promote precipitation of calcium phosphate deposits, together with their observed non-toxicity may offer new strategies for periodontal disease treatment.

  6. Polymeric and Ceramic Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications

    Aura-Ileana Moreno-Vega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials in the nanometer size range may possess unique and beneficial properties, which are very useful for different medical applications including stomatology, pharmacy, and implantology tissue engineering. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, known as nanomedicine, concerns the use of precisely engineered materials at this length scale to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties, such as small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high reactivity, which are different from bulk materials of the same composition. Polymeric and ceramic nanoparticles have been extensively studied as particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, because they show promise as drug delivery systems as a result of their controlled- and sustained-release properties, subcellular size, and biocompatibility with tissue and cells. These properties can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Nanotechnology is showing promising developments in many areas and may benefit our health and welfare. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible disasters if not limited by ethical guidelines.

  7. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Xiaowei, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Sheng, Huang [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Xiaoyang, Guo, E-mail: guoxiaoyangswpi@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); School of Oil and Natural Gas Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Wenhui, Duan, E-mail: wenhui.duan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800 (Australia)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  8. Crumb waste tire rubber surface modification by plasma polymerization of ethanol and its application on oil-well cement

    Xiaowei, Cheng; Sheng, Huang; Xiaoyang, Guo; Wenhui, Duan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was modified by plasma polymerization of ethanol. • Hydrophilic groups were introduced onto WTR surface and improved its hydrophilia. • The functionalized crumb WTR was applied in oil-well cement. • The mechanical properties of modified oil-well cement were intensively enhanced. - Abstract: Crumb waste tire rubber (WTR) was pretreated by oxygen low temperature plasma (LTP) and modified by LTP polymerization process of ethanol monomer to improve the adhesion property with oil-well cement matrix and the mechanical properties of cement. The surface properties of modified crumb WTR and the mechanical properties and structures of modified oil-well cement were investigated by means of contact angle measurement, dispersion test, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), mechanics performance tests, permeability test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was demonstrated that LTP treatment changed both the surface composition and roughness. The contact angle of pretreated crumb WTR dramatically fell from 122° to 34°, and sample with ethanol LPT polymer film decreased even further to 11°. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis results demonstrated that hydrophilic groups, such as –COOH, C–OH, and –CHO, were introduced on the WTR surface. The oxygen atomic percent increased from 8.11% to 14.50% and 24.83%. The mechanical properties, porosity and permeability of raw cement were compared to samples modified by untreated crumb WTR, pretreated crumb WTR and ethanol LTP polymerization treated crumb WTR. It was found that after 28 days, the compressive strength of the samples with the untreated crumb WTR decreased to 80% with respect to raw cement. The tensile strength and flexural strength also had a slight reduction compared with the raw cement. On the contrary, after 28 days, the tensile strength of cement modified by LTP polymerization

  9. Recent progress of atomic layer deposition on polymeric materials

    Guo, Hong Chen; Ye, Enyi [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Li, Zibiao, E-mail: lizb@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Han, Ming-Yong [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Loh, Xian Jun, E-mail: lohxj@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Singapore Eye Research Institute, 20 College Road, Singapore 169856 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    As a very promising surface coating technology, atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to modify the surfaces of polymeric materials for improving their functions and expanding their application areas. Polymeric materials vary in surface functional groups (number and type), surface morphology and internal structure, and thus ALD deposition conditions that typically work on a normal solid surface, usually do not work on a polymeric material surface. To date, a large variety of research has been carried out to investigate ALD deposition on various polymeric materials. This paper aims to provide an in-depth review of ALD deposition on polymeric materials and its applications. Through this review, we will provide a better understanding of surface chemistry and reaction mechanism for controlled surface modification of polymeric materials by ALD. The integrated knowledge can aid in devising an improved way in the reaction between reactant precursors and polymer functional groups/polymer backbones, which will in turn open new opportunities in processing ALD materials for better inorganic/organic film integration and potential applications. - Highlights: • ALD deposition on different natural and synthetic polymer materials • Reaction mechanism based on the surface functional groups of polymers • Application of ALD-modified polymers in different fields.

  10. A qualitative chemometric study of resin composite polymerization

    Regina Ferraz Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An experiment was carried out to assess the effect produced by different polymerization techniques on resin composite color after it has been immersed in coffee. Methods: Samples were manufactured using TPH Spectrum composite. It was polymerized for 10 or 40 seconds, with the light tip at one or zero millimeters from the resin surface, and afterwards the samples were immersed in coffee for 24 hours or 7 days. Ten different evaluators classified the samples according to their degree of staining. Results: The samples that were polymerized for 10 seconds were more susceptible to staining than the ones polymerized by 40 seconds. Samples immersed in coffee for 7 days were more susceptible to staining than the ones immersed for 24 hours. Conclusion: The variables polymerization time and immersion time were determinant in the staining susceptibility of the studied composite by coffee. However, there was no significant difference, irrespective of whether the resin was polymerized 10 or zero millimeters away from the resin surface.

  11. A comparison of three dimensional change in maxillary complete dentures between conventional heat polymerizing and microwave polymerizing techniques

    Shinsuke Sadamori

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure and compare two different polymerizing processes, heat polymerizing (HP and microwave polymerizing (MP, on the three dimensional changes in the fitting surface and artificial teeth of maxillary complete dentures. A threedimensional coordinate measurement system was used to record distortion of the specimens. The distortion of the fitting surface was measured from the reference plane on the fitting side from which a coordinate system was set, and the movement of the artificial teeth and the distortion of the polished surface was measured from the reference plane of the artificial tooth side, from which a coordinate system was set. It was clearly showed that various distortions of denture specimens after polymerization process can be measured with this three-coordinate measuring machine. The study showed that the overall distortion of the fitting surface in HP specimens was shown to be larger than in MP ones.

  12. Oxygen-Methane Thruster

    Pickens, Tim

    2012-01-01

    An oxygen-methane thruster was conceived with integrated igniter/injector capable of nominal operation on either gaseous or liquid propellants. The thruster was designed to develop 100 lbf (approximately 445 N) thrust at vacuum conditions and use oxygen and methane as propellants. This continued development included refining the design of the thruster to minimize part count and manufacturing difficulties/cost, refining the modeling tools and capabilities that support system design and analysis, demonstrating the performance of the igniter and full thruster assembly with both gaseous and liquid propellants, and acquiring data from this testing in order to verify the design and operational parameters of the thruster. Thruster testing was conducted with gaseous propellants used for the igniter and thruster. The thruster was demonstrated to work with all types of propellant conditions, and provided the desired performance. Both the thruster and igniter were tested, as well as gaseous propellants, and found to provide the desired performance using the various propellant conditions. The engine also served as an injector testbed for MSFC-designed refractory combustion chambers made of rhenium.

  13. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  14. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  15. Microencapsulated Comb-Like Polymeric Solid-Solid Phase Change Materials via In-Situ Polymerization

    Wei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the thermal stability and permeability resistance, a comb-like polymer with crystallizable side chains was fabricated as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs inside the cores of microcapsules and nanocapsules prepared via in-situ polymerization. In this study, the effects on the surface morphology and microstructure of micro/nanocapsules caused by microencapsulating different types of core materials (i.e., n-hexadecane, ethyl hexadecanoate, hexadecyl acrylate and poly(hexadecyl acrylate were systematically studied via field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The confined crystallization behavior of comb-like polymer PCMs cores was investigated via differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Comparing with low molecular organic PCMs cores, the thermal stability of PCMs microencapsulated comb-like polymer enhanced significantly, and the permeability resistance improved obviously as well. Based on these resultant analysis, the microencapsulated comb-like polymeric PCMs with excellent thermal stability and permeability resistance showed promising foreground in the field of organic solution spun, melt processing and organic coating.

  16. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  17. Wetting, Solubility and Chemical Characteristics of Plasma-Polymerized 1-Isopropyl-4-Methyl-1,4-Cyclohexadiene Thin Films

    Jakaria Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the wetting, solubility and chemical composition of plasma polymer thin films provide an insight into the feasibility of implementing these polymeric materials in organic electronics, particularly where wet solution processing is involved. In this study, thin films were prepared from 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene (γ-Terpinene using radio frequency (RF plasma polymerization. FTIR showed the polymers to be structurally dissimilar to the original monomer and highly cross-linked, where the loss of original functional groups and the degree of cross-linking increased with deposition power. The polymer surfaces were hydrocarbon-rich, with oxygen present in the form of O–H and C=O functional groups. The oxygen content decreased with deposition power, with films becoming more hydrophobic and, thus, less wettable. The advancing and receding contact angles were investigated, and the water advancing contact angle was found to increase from 63.14° to 73.53° for thin films prepared with an RF power of 10 W to 75 W. The wetting envelopes for the surfaces were constructed to enable the prediction of the surfaces’ wettability for other solvents. The effect of roughness on the wetting behaviour of the films was insignificant. The polymers were determined to resist solubilization in solvents commonly used in the deposition of organic semiconducting layers, including chloroform and chlorobenzene, with higher stability observed in films fabricated at higher RF power.

  18. Production and installation of equipments for radiation-induced graft polymerization in liquid phase and dipping techniques

    Seko, Noriaki; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Hasegawa, Shin; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous adsorbent which is synthesized by radiation induced graft polymerization on the trunk polymers such as polymer nonwoven fabrics and woven cloths exhibits an excellent selective adsorption against heavy metal ions and toxic gases at extremely low concentrations. Two equipments were installed to synthesize the metal-ion and gas adsorbents by means of the radiation-induced graft polymerization in the liquid phase and the dipping, respectively. In the reation chamber of the liquid phase reactor, the oxygen decreased to 100 ppm. The inside temperature was elevated at 80C. These characteristics satisfied the specification. The fabric transport can regulate the rate in the range from 1 to 10 m/min. The reactor for the dip grafting could reduce the inside oxygen to 100ppm and inside temperature could reach to 80C, also. The transport system is stable during the dip grafting reaction. The grafting of glycidyl methacrylate was carried out as a characteristic test. The degree of grafting was controlled in the range of 40-70%. The both equipments can graft the trunk polymer, 2000mm in maximum width and 1m in maximum diameter. This size is enough for confirmation practical scale synthesis. (author)

  19. Detection of anion-linked polymerization of the tetrameric hemoglobin from Scapharca inaequivalvis by 35Cl NMR spectroscopy

    Chiancone, E.; Univ. 'La Sapienza', Rome; Drakenberg, T.; Forsen, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ion binding to the hemoglobin components of Scaphara inaequivalvis has been measured directly in quadrupole relaxation experiments of 23 Na and 35 Cl. The dimeric and tetrameric hemoglobins interact weakly with sodium ions, but differ in their interaction with chloride ions. The dimeric hemoglobin binds chloride ions with low affinity, whereas the tetrameric protein has high affinity chloride binding sites. Binding of chloride ions to these high affinity sites brings about an oxygen-linked polymerization which manifests itself in an unusual dependence of the 35 Cl excess linewidth on the concentration of the anion. Polymerization is more pronounced in the deoxygenated than in the oxygenated derivative: in the former, it has been observed previously in sedimentation velocity experiments. The sensitivity of the 35 Cl excess linewidth on polymer formation indicates that the residence time of the transiently bound chloride on the tetrameric hemoglobin is not shorter than the correlation time of the molecule (2 X 10 -8 s -1 ). 17 refs.; 2 figs

  20. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  1. Peptide block copolymers by N-carboxyanhydride ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization: The effect of amide macroinitiators

    Habraken, G.J.M.; Koning, C.E.; Heise, A.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of polypeptide-containing block copolymers combining N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was investigated. An amide initiator comprising an amine function for the NCA polymerization and an activated bromide for ATRP was

  2. Cyanex based uranyl sensitive polymeric membrane electrodes.

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Zidan, W I; Akl, Z F

    2014-01-01

    Novel uranyl selective polymeric membrane electrodes were prepared using three different low-cost and commercially available Cyanex extractants namely, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid [L1], bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid [L2] and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid [L3]. Optimization and performance characteristics of the developed Cyanex based polymer membrane electrodes were determined. The influence of membrane composition (e.g., amount and type of ionic sites, as well as type of plasticizer) on potentiometric responses of the prepared membrane electrodes was studied. Optimized Cyanex-based membrane electrodes exhibited Nernstian responses for UO₂(2+) ion over wide concentration ranges with fast response times. The optimized membrane electrodes based on L1, L2 and L3 exhibited Nernstian responses towards uranyl ion with slopes of 29.4, 28.0 and 29.3 mV decade(-1), respectively. The optimized membrane electrodes based on L1-L3 showed detection limits of 8.3 × 10(-5), 3.0 × 10(-5) and 3.3 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), respectively. The selectivity studies showed that the optimized membrane electrodes exhibited high selectivity towards UO₂(2+) ion over large number of other cations. Membrane electrodes based on L3 exhibited superior potentiometric response characteristics compared to those based on L1 and L2 (e.g., widest linear range and lowest detection limit). The analytical utility of uranyl membrane electrodes formulated with Cyanex extractant L3 was demonstrated by the analysis of uranyl ion in different real samples for nuclear safeguards verification purposes. The results obtained using direct potentiometry and flow-injection methods were compared with those measured using the standard UV-visible and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopic methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cargo Release from Polymeric Vesicles under Shear

    Yingying Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the release of cargo from polymeric nano-carriers under shear. Vesicles formed by two star block polymers— A 12 B 6 C 2 ( A B C and A 12 B 6 A 2 ( A B A —and one linear block copolymer— A 14 B 6 ( A B , are investigated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations. A - and C -blocks are solvophobic and B -block is solvophilic. The three polymers form vesicles of different structures. The vesicles are subjected to shear both in bulk and between solvophobic walls. In bulk shear, the mechanisms of cargo release are similar for all vesicles, with cargo travelling through vesicle membrane with no preferential release location. When sheared between walls, high cargo release rate is only observed with A B C vesicle after it touches the wall. For A B C vesicle, the critical condition for high cargo release rate is the formation of wall-polymersome interface after which the effect of shear rate in promoting cargo release is secondary. High release rate is achieved by the formation of solvophilic pathway allowing cargo to travel from the vesicle cavity to the vesicle exterior. The results in this paper show that well controlled target cargo release using polymersomes can be achieved with polymers of suitable design and can potentially be very useful for engineering applications. As an example, polymersomes can be used as carriers for surface active friction reducing additives which are only released at rubbing surfaces where the additives are needed most.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic polymeric nanocapsules

    Grillo, Renato; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes, E-mail: renato.grillo@ymail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Gallo, Juan; Grando Stroppa, Daniel; Carbo-Argibay, Enrique; Banõbre-Lopez, Manuel [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga (Portugal); Lima, Renata de [Universidade de Sorocaba (UNISO), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: A wide variety of applications have been considered for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), such as magnetic resonance imaging, cancer therapy and remediation of contaminants [1].Polymeric nanostructures (PNS) have also received great interest as suitable encapsulating agents and carriers due to their ability to influence the delivery profile. Hybrid nanosystems have been explored as a synergic approach that combines the modified active release induced by the polymer encapsulation and the intrinsic properties from the inorganic nanoparticles [2]. In this context, poly-ε-caprolactone nanocapsules containing different concentration of ∼8 nm superparamagnetic oleic acid coated magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@OA) nanoparticles were developed. Successful incorporation of the magnetic nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX). Results showed that they accumulate preferentially in the outer organic membrane of the PNS. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed a significant increase in particle size from ca. 400 to 800 nm. Magnetic measurements as a function of the applied magnetic field and temperature were performed in both vibrant sample (VSM) and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers (SQUID). Hysteresis loops showed a superparamagnetic behavior with increasing saturation magnetization as magnetite concentration was progressively incorporated into the PNS. Zero-field cooled and field-cooled (ZFC-FC) magnetic curves showed a shift of the blocking temperature to higher temperatures as the content of magnetite increases in the capsules. These results are promising and contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between magnetic nanoparticles and PNS. References: [1] L. Zhang, W. Dong, H. Sun. Nanoscale 5, 7664-7684 (2013) [2] K.T. Nguyen and Y.L. Zhao. Acc. Chem. Res. 48, 3016-3025 (2015

  5. pH dependent polymeric micelle adsorption

    McLean, S C; Gee, M L [The University of Melbourne, VIC (Australia). School of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Full text: Poly(2-vinylpyridine)-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-PEO) shows potential as a possible drug delivery system for anti-tumour drugs since it forms pH dependent polymeric micelles. Hence to better understand the adsorption behaviour of this polymer we have studied the interaction forces between layers of P2VP-PEO adsorbed onto silica as a function of solution pH using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). When P2VP-PEO is initially adsorbed above the pKa of the P2VP block, P2VP-PEO adsorbs from solution as micelles that exist as either partially collapsed- or a hemi-micelles at the silica surface. Below the pKa of P2VP, the P2VP-PEO adsorbs as unimers, forming a compact layer with little looping and tailing into solution. When initial adsorption of P2VP-PEO is in the form of unimers, any driving force to self-assembly of the now charge neutral polymer is kinetically hindered. Hence, after initial adsorption at pH 3.6, a subsequent increase in pH to 6.6 results in a slow surface restructuring towards self-assembly and equilibrium. When the pH is increased from pH 6.6 to 9.7 there is a continuation of the evolution of the system to its equilibrium position during which the adsorbed P2VP-PEO unimers continue to 'unravel' from the surface, extending away from it, towards eventual complete surface self-assembly.

  6. A fractal nature for polymerized laminin.

    Camila Hochman-Mendez

    Full Text Available Polylaminin (polyLM is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system.

  7. A fractal nature for polymerized laminin.

    Hochman-Mendez, Camila; Cantini, Marco; Moratal, David; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Polylaminin (polyLM) is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM) was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system.

  8. Self-Propagating Frontal Polymerization in Water at Ambient Pressure

    Olten, Nesrin; Kraigsley, Alison; Ronney, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in polymer chemistry have led to the development of monomers and initiation agents that enable propagating free-radical polymerization fronts to exist. These fronts are driven by the exothermicity of the polymerization reaction and the transport of heat from the polymerized product to the reactant monomer/solvent/initiator solution. The thermal energy transported to the reactant solution causes the initiator to decompose, yielding free radicals, which start the free radical polymerization process as discussed in recent reviews. The use of polymerization processes based on propagating fronts has numerous applications. Perhaps the most important of these is that it enables rapid curing of polymers without external heating since the polymerization process itself provides the high temperatures necessary to initiate and sustain polymerization. This process also enables more uniform curing of arbitrarily thick samples since it does not rely on heat transfer from an external source, which will necessarily cause the temperature history of the sample to vary with distance from the surface according to a diffusion-like process. Frontal polymerization also enables filling and sealing of structures having cavities of arbitrary shape without having to externally heat the structure. Water at atmospheric pressure is most convenient solvent to employ and the most important for practical applications (because of the cost and environmental issues associated with DMSO and other solvents). Nevertheless, to our knowledge, steady, self-propagating polymerization fronts have not been reported in water at atmospheric pressure. Currently, polymerization fronts require a high boiling point solvent (either water at high pressures or an alternative solvent such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (boiling point 189 C at atmospheric pressure.) Early work on frontal polymerization, employed pressures up to 5000 atm in order to avoid boiling of the monomer/solvent/initiator solution. High

  9. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    Yarmonenko, S P; Ehpshtejn, I M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Tsentr

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation.

  10. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation

  11. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Polymeric Sensitive Coatings

    Pedro J. Rivero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer technology is one of the fastest growing fields of contemporary research due to the possibility of using a wide variety of synthetic chemical routes for obtaining a polymeric network with a well-defined structure, resulting in materials with outstanding macroscopic properties. Surface engineering techniques based on the implementation of polymeric structures can be used as an interesting tool for the design of materials with functional properties. In this sense, the use of fabrication techniques for the design of nanostructured polymeric coatings is showing an important growth due to the intrinsic advantages of controlling the structure at a nanoscale level because physical, chemical, or optical properties can be considerably improved in comparison with the bulk materials. In addition, the presence of these sensitive polymeric coatings on optical fiber is a hot topic in the scientific community for its implementation in different market niches because a wide variety of parameters can be perfectly measured with a high selectivity, sensitivity, and fast response time. In this work, the two main roles that a polymeric sensitive matrix can play on an optical fiber for sensing applications are evaluated. In a first section, the polymers are used as a solid support for the immobilization of specific sensitive element, whereas in the second section the polymeric matrix is used as the chemical transducer itself. Additionally, potential applications of the optical fiber sensors in fields as diverse as biology, chemistry, engineering, environmental, industry or medicine will be presented in concordance with these two main roles of the polymeric sensitive matrices.

  12. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... of instrument automation and online data treatment, and provides welldefined mass transport conditions enabling kinetic measurements. A modified electrochemical / spectroscopic interface is presented allowing the exclusive investigation of the Pt/C catalyst layer. Three types of potential dependent adsorption...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  14. High fluorescence emission silver nano particles coated with poly (styrene-g-soybean oil) graft copolymers: Antibacterial activity and polymerization kinetics.

    Hazer, Baki; Kalaycı, Özlem A

    2017-05-01

    Autoxidation of poly unsaturated fatty acids makes negative effect on foods. In this work, this negative effect was turned to a great advantage using autoxidized soybean oil as a macroperoxide nanocomposite initiator containing silver nano particles in free radical polymerization of vinyl monomers. The synthesis of soybean oil macro peroxide was carried out by exposing soybean oil to air oxygen with the presence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at room temperature. Autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide containing silver nanoparticles (Agsbox) successfully initiated the free radical polymerization of styrene in order to obtain Polystyrene (PS)-g-soybean oil graft copolymer containing Ag NPs. Both autoxidized soybean oil and PS-g-sbox with Ag NPs showed a surface plasmon resonance and high fluorescence emission. Overall rate constant (K) of styrene polymerization initiated by autoxidized soybean oil macroperoxide with Ag NPs was found to be K=1.95.10 -4 Lmol -1 s -1 at 95°C. Antibacterial efficiency was observed in the PS-g-soybean oil graft copolymer film samples containing Ag NPs. 1 H NMR and GPC techniques were used for the structural analysis of the fractionated polymeric oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  16. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  17. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  18. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu 2 Zr 2 O 7+y , fluorite-type (Pu 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 2-x and AmO 2-x have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  19. Removal of DLC film on polymeric materials by low temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Fumiyuki; Kasai, Yoshiyuki; Sahara, Junki; Asai, Tomohiko; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Takatsu, Mikio; Koguchi, Haruhisa

    2017-10-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film has various excellent functions. For example, high hardness, abrasion resistance, biocompatibility, etc. Because of these functionalities, DLC has been applied in various fields. Removal method of DLC has also been developed for purpose of microfabrication, recycling the substrate and so on. Oxygen plasma etching and shot-blast are most common method to remove DLC. However, the residual carbon, high cost, and damage onto the substrate are problems to be solved for further application. In order to solve these problems, removal method using low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been developed in this work. The removal effect of this method has been demonstrated for DLC on the SUS304 substrate. The principle of this method is considered that oxygen radical generated by plasma oxidize carbon constituting the DLC film and then the film is removed. In this study, in order to widen application range of this method and to understand the mechanism of film removal, plasma irradiation experiment has been attempted on DLC on the substrate with low heat resistance. The DLC was removed successfully without any significant thermal damage on the surface of polymeric material.

  20. Structure and catalytic properties of metal β-diketonate complexes with oxygen-containing compounds

    Nizel'skij, Yu.N.; Ishchenko, S.S.; Lipatova, T.Eh.

    1985-01-01

    The results of researches published in recent 15-20 years of complexes of metal β-diketonates (including Cr 3+ , VO 2+ , MoOΛ2 2+ , Co 3+ , Mn 3+ , Ni 2+ , Fe 3+ ) with oxygen-containing compounds (alcohols, glycols, phenols, hydroperoxides, aldehydes, esters, etc.) playing an important role in catalytic processes of oxidation, addition, polymerization and copolymerization are reviewed. Data on the nature of chemical bond of oxygen-containing reacting agents with metal β-diketonates, on structure of metal β-diketonate complexes with oxygen-containing reacting agents and thermodynamics of complexing as well as on activation of reacting agents in complexes and catalytic properties of metal β-diketonates are discussed. Stored materials make it possible to exercise directed control of metal β-diketonate activity

  1. Characterization of atomic oxygen in a Hollow Cathode Radio-Frequency Plasma and study its efficiency

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2011-01-01

    The atomic oxygen (AO) generated in the remote oxygen plasma of the HCD-L300 source, has been fully diagnosed by various conventional techniques. The density of AO was found to vary from (1-10)x10 1 9 m - 3 depending on the operating conditions and parameters. The interaction of the oxygen plasma with silver and gold thin films is investigated by gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The effect of AO on surface wetting and energy of polymeric materials is also investigated by using contact angle measurements and analysis technique. From applied point of view, production of super hydrophobic Teflon surface and the significant enhancement in the surface free energy of polyimide and polyamide are considered the most important obtained results in the present work. (author)

  2. Smart polymeric materials in forms of fiber and film

    Sugo, Takanobu

    1998-01-01

    Chemical grafting: graft polymerization is a powerful technology to append novel functionality to base fibers, clothes, felts, films and others, while maintaining their original properties. As shown in Figure 1, while a gardener may use a pair of shears to cut the branch, to cut the molecular branch of a polymeric material, one can utilize the radiation energy. Effective utilization of the radiation energy can proceed to a novel reaction that is impossible for other conventional methods and develop a new material bearing outstanding functions. This technology is named radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP). In this article, the present research and development of novel functional polymeric materials by radiation-induced graft polymerization is described. The felt of intertwined fibers has been widely used as a filter to remove particles from air but not toxic gaseous compounds. However, by RIGP, one can transform the felt into a high functional filter that will absorb the toxic gaseous compounds while removing particles simultaneously. As a result, the RIGP technology, which is impossible by conventional technology, has enabled the development of a novel functional material that produce highly pure air. Commercialization of this filter for applications in a semiconductor manufacturing facility and as an air purifier is under process. Moreover, this filter can also be used to produce highly purified water by removing toxic heavy metals. Commercially available polyethylene films are also been transform into conductive separators by RIGP to increase the lifetime of a battery by more than five-fold. (J.P.N)

  3. Applications of polymeric micelles with tumor targeted in chemotherapy

    Ding Hui; Wang Xiaojun; Zhang Song; Liu Xinli

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles (PMs) have gained more progress as a carrier system with the quick development of biological and nanoparticle techniques. In particular, PMs with smart targeting can deliver anti-cancer drugs directly into tumor cells at a sustained rate. PMs with core–shell structure (with diameters of 10 ∼ 100 nm) have been prepared by a variety of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers via a self-assembly process. The preparation of polymeric micelles with stimuli-responsive block copolymers or modification of target molecules on polymeric micelles’ surface are able to significantly improve the efficiency of drug delivery. Polymeric micelles, which have been considered as a novel promising drug carrier for cancer therapeutics, are rapidly evolving and being introduced in an attempt to overcome several limitations of traditional chemotherapeutics, including water solubility, tumor-specific accumulation, anti-tumor efficacy, and non-specific toxicity. This review describes the preparation of polymeric micelles and the targeted modification which greatly enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. Thermodynamic Presynthetic Considerations for Ring-Opening Polymerization.

    Olsén, Peter; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-03-14

    The need for polymers for high-end applications, coupled with the desire to mimic nature's macromolecular machinery fuels the development of innovative synthetic strategies every year. The recently acquired macromolecular-synthetic tools increase the precision and enable the synthesis of polymers with high control and low dispersity. However, regardless of the specificity, the polymerization behavior is highly dependent on the monomeric structure. This is particularly true for the ring-opening polymerization of lactones, in which the ring size and degree of substitution highly influence the polymer formation properties. In other words, there are two important factors to contemplate when considering the particular polymerization behavior of a specific monomer: catalytic specificity and thermodynamic equilibrium behavior. This perspective focuses on the latter and undertakes a holistic approach among the different lactones with regard to the equilibrium thermodynamic polymerization behavior and its relation to polymer synthesis. This is summarized in a monomeric overview diagram that acts as a presynthetic directional cursor for synthesizing highly specific macromolecules; the means by which monomer equilibrium conversion relates to starting temperature, concentration, ring size, degree of substitution, and its implications for polymerization behavior are discussed. These discussions emphasize the importance of considering not only the catalytic system but also the monomer size and structure relations to thermodynamic equilibrium behavior. The thermodynamic equilibrium behavior relation with a monomer structure offers an additional layer of complexity to our molecular toolbox and, if it is harnessed accordingly, enables a powerful route to both monomer formation and intentional macromolecular design.

  5. Direct surface PEGylation of nanodiamond via RAFT polymerization

    Shi, Yingge; Liu, Meiying; Wang, Ke; Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing; Tao, Lei; Fu, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we describe an efficient, practical and novel method to modify ND via direct immobilization of chain transfer agent for RAFT polymerization. - Highlights: • Surface PEGylation of ND via RAFT polymerization. • ND with high water dispersibility and excellent biocompatibility. • Controlled living polymerization. - Abstract: Nanodiamond (ND) is a novel class of carbon nanomaterials, which has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications because of its small size, high surface area and excellent biocompatibility. However, the biomedical applications of unmodified ND are still largely restricted because of their poor dispersibility in both aqueous and organic medium. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the surface modification of ND via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. For preparation of the PEGylated ND (pPEGMA-ND), chain transfer agent (CTA) was immobilized onto ND through reaction between the hydroxyl group of ND and the carboxyl group of CTA, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The successful preparation of pPEGMA-ND was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis in detail. Results demonstrated that pPEGMA-ND exhibited enhanced water dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility, making it promising for biomedical applications.

  6. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  7. Direct surface PEGylation of nanodiamond via RAFT polymerization

    Shi, Yingge [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Meiying [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Ke [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Tao, Lei [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Lihua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we describe an efficient, practical and novel method to modify ND via direct immobilization of chain transfer agent for RAFT polymerization. - Highlights: • Surface PEGylation of ND via RAFT polymerization. • ND with high water dispersibility and excellent biocompatibility. • Controlled living polymerization. - Abstract: Nanodiamond (ND) is a novel class of carbon nanomaterials, which has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications because of its small size, high surface area and excellent biocompatibility. However, the biomedical applications of unmodified ND are still largely restricted because of their poor dispersibility in both aqueous and organic medium. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the surface modification of ND via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. For preparation of the PEGylated ND (pPEGMA-ND), chain transfer agent (CTA) was immobilized onto ND through reaction between the hydroxyl group of ND and the carboxyl group of CTA, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The successful preparation of pPEGMA-ND was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis in detail. Results demonstrated that pPEGMA-ND exhibited enhanced water dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility, making it promising for biomedical applications.

  8. Study on irradiated polymerization of acrylonitrile by NMR

    Zhao Xin; Lin Hao

    1999-01-01

    Sup 13 C CP/MAS spectra and nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) at room temperature have been measured for acrylonitrile (AN) in homophase irradiated polymerization. With the increase of radiation dose the chemical shift of cracking peaks and NOE are variation. This implies that the polymerized mechanism of AN were changed with the variation of irradiated doses and dose rate. There is the stronger affinity electron group (-CN) in acrylonitrile monomer. It may be polymerized by various ways and mechanism and be gained the polymer of difference structures and molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Starmicarbon and Starker obtained higher molecular weight of polyacrylonitrile by peroxysulfate-pyrosulfite in oxidation-reduction system. The superhigh molecular weight of PAN was synthesized chemically according to the method of Wu et. al. by suspension polymerization. In this paper we discussed that the relative concentrations of steric dyads and triads in the chain structure in PAN and the irradiation polymerized mechanism of acrylonitrile monomer in room temperature by different dose and dose rate

  9. Characterization of polymeric microneedle arrays for transdermal drug delivery.

    Yusuf K Demir

    Full Text Available Microfabrication of dissolvable, swellable, and biodegradable polymeric microneedle arrays (MNs were extensively investigated based in a nano sensitive fabrication style known as micromilling that is then combined with conventional micromolding technique. The aim of this study was to describe the polymer selection, and optimize formulation compounding parameters for various polymeric MNs. Inverse replication of micromilled master MNs reproduced with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, where solid out of plane polymeric MNs were subsequently assembled, and physicochemically characterized. Dissolvable, swellable, and biodegradable MNs were constructed to depth of less than 1 mm with an aspect ratio of 3.6, and 1/2 mm of both inter needle tip and base spacing. Micromolding step also enabled to replicate the MNs very precisely and accurate. Polymeric microneedles (MN precision was ranging from ± 0.18 to ± 1.82% for microneedle height, ± 0.45 to ± 1.42% for base diameter, and ± 0.22 to ± 0.95% for interbase spacing. Although dissolvable sodium alginate MN showed less physical robustness than biodegradable polylactic-co-glycolic acid MN, their thermogravimetric analysis is of promise for constructing these polymeric types of matrix devices.

  10. Factors affecting toxicity and efficacy of polymeric nanomedicines

    Igarashi, Eiki

    2008-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine. The purpose of this article is to review common characteristics of polymeric nanomedicines with respect to passive targeting. We consider several biodegradable polymeric nanomedicines that are between 1 and 100 nm in size, and discuss the impact of this technology on efficacy, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and targeting. The degree of toxicity of polymeric nanomedicines is strongly influenced by the biological conditions of the local environment, which influence the rate of degradation or release of polymeric nanomedicines. The dissemination of polymeric nanomedicines in vivo depends on the capillary network, which can provide differential access to normal and tumor cells. The accumulation of nanomedicines in the microlymphatics depends upon retention time in the blood and extracellular compartments, as well as the type of capillary endothelium surrounding specific tissues. Finally, the toxicity or efficacy of intact nanomedicines is also dependent upon tissue type, i.e., non-endocrine or endocrine tissue, spleen, or lymphatics, as well as tumor type

  11. Tubulin polymerization-stimulating activity of Ganoderma triterpenoids.

    Kohno, Toshitaka; Hai-Bang, Tran; Zhu, Qinchang; Amen, Yhiya; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Tubulin polymerization is an important target for anticancer therapies. Even though the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids against various cancer targets had been well documented, studies on their tubulin polymerization-stimulating activity are scarce. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma triterpenoids on tubulin polymerization. A total of twenty-four compounds were investigated using an in vitro tubulin polymerization assay. Results showed that most of the studied triterpenoids exhibited microtuble-stabilizing activity to different degrees. Among the investigated compounds, ganoderic acid T-Q, ganoderiol F, ganoderic acid S, ganodermanontriol and ganoderic acid TR were found to have the highest activities. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis was performed. Extensive investigation of the SAR suggests the favorable structural features for the tubulin polymerization-stimulating activity of lanostane triterpenes. These findings would be helpful for further studies on the potential mechanisms of the anticancer activity of Ganoderma triterpenoids and give some indications on the design of tubulin-targeting anticancer agents.

  12. Radiation initiated polymerization of trioxane and stabilization of polyoxymethylene

    Rao, M.H.; Ramanan, G.; Kunjappu, J.T.; Rao, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma ray induced polymerization of trioxane from an indigenous source (M/s. Nuchem Plastics, Faridabad) has been investigated by both in-source and post polymerization techniques. Impurity levels in the trioxane samples are determined and compared with those in an imported material. Critical evaluation of the results of its purification by different methods, viz. treatment with molecular sieves, crystallization from solvents and their variations, has been carried out prior to optimising the conditions of polymerization. A novel but simple purification procedure employing benzene as the solvent which is found to form a ternary azeotrope with trioxane and water has been developed. The effect of these purification methods on the polymerization efficiency and their dependence on the molecular weight of the polymer formed are also discussed. Experimental details of polymerizing trioxane in 10 kg scale are also described. To improve upon the thermal stabilty of the polyoxymethylene thus formed, protection of the free hydroxyl end groups (end-capping) has been achieved by an acetylation procedure using acetic anhydride in presence of catalytic amounts of sodium acetate. (author). 11 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  14. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.

    1979-06-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...

  16. Oxidative coupling and polymerization of pyrroles

    Hansen, Gregers Hendrik; Henriksen, Rikke Morck; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Lund, Torben; Hammerich, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of 2,4-dimethyl-3-ethylpyrrole in acetonitrile has been studied using cyclic voltammetry, constant current coulometry, preparative electrolyses and ab initio calculations. The product analysis after the preparative electrolyses was carried out by HPLC combined with UV-vis and electrospray ionization MS detection. The aim of the work was to address some of the unresolved problems in the oxidative oligomerization and polymerization of alkylpyrroles. The title compound was chosen as a model for studies of pyrroles that are more basic than the solvent-supporting electrolyte system and for that reason are forced to serve as the base accepting the protons released during the coupling steps. The voltammograms obtained by cyclic voltammetry at a substrate concentration of 2 mM and voltage scan rates between 0.02 and 2 V s -1 showed a characteristic trace-crossing phenomenon that could be demonstrated by digital simulation to be related to that fact that the deprotonations of the initially formed dimer dication are slow with second order rate constants in the range 10 3 -10 4 M -1 s -1 . The relative stability of the different tautomers of the protonated pyrrole monomer and the corresponding 2,2'-dimer was determined by ab initio calculations at the RHF 6-31G(d) level. The studies also included investigations of the effects resulting from addition of a non-nucleophilic base, 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine, to the voltammetry solutions. The major product observed after preparative electrolyses was a trimer the structure of which is proposed to include a central 2H-pyrrole unit. Since 2H-pyrroles are stronger bases than the corresponding 1H-pyrroles, the trimer is effectively protected against further oxidation by protonation. Two other trimers were observed as minor or trace products as well as a 1H,2H-dimer and several tetramers, also in trace amounts. In addition to the dimer, the trimers and the tetramers, a number of other minor products could be

  17. Curing mechanism of flexible aqueous polymeric coatings.

    Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Kolter, Karl; Bodmeier, Roland; Dashevskiy, Andriy

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain curing phenomena for pellets coated with a flexible polymeric coating based on poly(vinyl acetate) (Kollicoat® SR 30D) with regard to the effect of starter cores, thickness of drug layer, adhesion of coating to drug-layered-cores as well as coating properties. In addition, appropriate approaches to eliminate the curing effect were identified. Sugar or MCC cores were layered with the model drugs carbamazepine, theophylline, propranolol HCl, tramadol HCl and metoprolol HCl using HPMC (5 or 25% w/w, based on drug) as a binder. Drug-layered pellets were coated with Kollicoat® SR 30D in a fluidized bed coater using TEC (10% w/w) as plasticizer and talc (35-100% w/w) as anti-tacking agent. Drug release, pellet properties (morphology, water uptake-weight loss and osmolality) and adhesion of the coating to the drug layer were investigated as a function of curing at 60°C or 60°C/75% RH for 24h. The film formation of the aqueous dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30D was complete, and therefore, a strong curing effect (decrease in drug release) at elevated temperature and humidity (60°C/75% RH) could not be explained by the well-known hydroplasticization and the further gradual coalescence of the colloidal polymer particles. According to the provided mechanistic explanation, the observed curing effect was associated with (1) high flexibility of coating, (2) adhesion between coating and drug layer, (3) water retaining properties of the drug layer, and (4) osmotically active cores. Unwanted curing effects could be minimized/eliminated by the addition of talc or/and pore-forming water soluble polymers in the coating, increasing binder amount or applying an intermediate coating, by increasing the thickness of drug layer or using non-osmotic cores. A new insight into curing phenomena mainly associated with the adhesion between drug layer and coating was provided. Appropriate approaches to avoid unwanted curing effect were identified

  18. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10......−6 bar for an inlet flow rate higher than 2 L h−1 between 600 and 800 °C. The polarisation resistance measured between 10−6 and 10−4 bar was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure, nearly temperature independent and inversely proportional to the inlet gas flow rate, which shows...

  19. Stability of V2O5 Supported on Titania in the Presence of Water, Bulk Oxygen Vacancies, and Adsorbed Oxygen Atoms

    Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Neilson, Hunter L.; Buratto, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    ). In the case of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes and methanol, the reaction produces water, oxygen vacancies, and hydrogen atoms bound to the surface. For this article we use density functional theory to examine how the presence of these species on the surface affects a V2O5 cluster, which we assume......A catalyst consisting of vanadium oxide submonolayers supported on rutile titanium dioxide is used for a variety of reactions. One important question is the difference between the activity of monomeric clusters (having one vanadium atom) and polymeric clusters (having more than one vanadium atom...

  20. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. Platinum porphyrins as ionophores in polymeric membrane electrodes

    Lvova, Larisa; Verrelli, Giorgio; Nardis, Sara

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of Pt(II)- and Pt(IV)-porphyrins as novel ionophores for anion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes is performed. Polymeric membranes of different compositions, prepared by varying plasticizers, cationic and anionic additives and Pt porphyrins, have been examined...... within the electrode membranes, while those based on Pt(IV)TPPCl2 operate via a mixed mode carrier mechanism, evidencing also a partial reduction of the starting ionophore to Pt(II)TPP. Spectrophotometric measurements of thin polymeric films indicate that no spontaneous formation of hydroxide ion bridged...... porphyrin dimers occurs in the membrane plasticized both with high or low dielectric constant plasticizer, due to a low oxophilicity of central Pt. The computational study of various anion–Pt(IV)TPPCl2 complex formation by means of semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) methods revealed a good...

  2. Measurement of in vitro microtubule polymerization by turbidity and fluorescence.

    Mirigian, Matthew; Mukherjee, Kamalika; Bane, Susan L; Sackett, Dan L

    2013-01-01

    Tubulin polymerization may be conveniently monitored by the increase in turbidity (optical density, or OD) or by the increase in fluorescence intensity of diamidino-phenylindole. The resulting data can be a quantitative measure of microtubule (MT) assembly, but some care is needed in interpretation, especially of OD data. Buffer formulations used for the assembly reaction significantly influence the polymerization, both by altering the critical concentration for polymerization and by altering the exact polymer produced-for example, by increasing the production of sheet polymers in addition to MT. Both the turbidity and the fluorescence methods are useful for demonstrating the effect of MT-stabilizing or -destabilizing additives. 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Tichenor, Mark S [San Diego, CA; Artau, Alexander [Humacao, PR

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  4. Various aspects of ultrasound assisted emulsion polymerization process.

    Korkut, Ibrahim; Bayramoglu, Mahmut

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic (US) power, pulse ratio, probe area and recipe composition were investigated on two process responses namely, monomer (methyl methacrylate, MMA) conversion and electrical energy consumption per mass of product polymer (PMMA). Pulsed mode US is more suitable than continuous mode US for emulsion polymerization. The probe (tip) area has little effect on the yield of polymerization when comparing 19 and 13 mm probes, 13 mm probe performing slightly better for high conversion levels. Meanwhile, large probe area is beneficial for high conversion efficiency of electric energy to US energy as well as for high radical generation yield per energy consumed. The conversion increased slightly and electrical energy consumption decreased substantially by using a recipe with high SDS and monomer concentrations. Conclusions presented in this paper may be useful for scale-up of US assisted emulsion polymerization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    , metabolized and net energy); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality; second, the proportion of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation, and finally, type of starch (types A, B, and C......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and levels of polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms; first, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (digestible...

  6. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  7. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    Thomas, Renee M.; Widger, Peter C. B.; Ahmed, Syud M.; Jeske, Ryan C.; Hirahata, Wataru; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  8. Living atom transfer radical polymerization of 4-acetoxystyrene

    Gao, Bo; Chen, Xianyi; Ivan, Bela

    1997-01-01

    Living atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 4-acetoxystyrene (1), a protected 4-vinylphenol, leading to poly(4-acetoxystyrene) with well-defined molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution was carried out in bulk with a,a'-dibromoxylene(2)/CuBr/2,2-bipyridine(bpy) as initi......Living atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 4-acetoxystyrene (1), a protected 4-vinylphenol, leading to poly(4-acetoxystyrene) with well-defined molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution was carried out in bulk with a,a'-dibromoxylene(2)/CuBr/2,2-bipyridine......(bpy) as initiating system. A linear (M) over bar(n), versus monomer conversion plot was found in good accordance with the theoretical line, indicating 100% initiating efficiency. The polymerization is first order in respect to monomer up to about 70% monomer conversion. Deviations from linearity at higher conversion...

  9. Polymeric peptide pigments with sequence-encoded properties

    Lampel, Ayala; McPhee, Scott A.; Park, Hang-Ah; Scott, Gary G.; Humagain, Sunita; Hekstra, Doeke R.; Yoo, Barney; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Li, Tai-De; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Greenbaum, Steven G.; Tuttle, Tell; Hu, Chunhua; Bettinger, Christopher J.; Ulijn, Rein V.

    2017-06-08

    Melanins are a family of heterogeneous polymeric pigments that provide ultraviolet (UV) light protection, structural support, coloration, and free radical scavenging. Formed by oxidative oligomerization of catecholic small molecules, the physical properties of melanins are influenced by covalent and noncovalent disorder. We report the use of tyrosine-containing tripeptides as tunable precursors for polymeric pigments. In these structures, phenols are presented in a (supra-)molecular context dictated by the positions of the amino acids in the peptide sequence. Oxidative polymerization can be tuned in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in peptide sequence–encoded properties such as UV absorbance, morphology, coloration, and electrochemical properties over a considerable range. Short peptides have low barriers to application and can be easily scaled, suggesting near-term applications in cosmetics and biomedicine.

  10. Gamma radiation-polymerized methacrylates used as heavy metals adsorbents

    Barrera D, C.; Roa M, G.; Balderas H, P.; Bilyeu, B.; Urena N, F.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from aqueous solution is a priority research area since the actual methods are costly and a major drawback is the large amounts of sludge generated when applying traditional techniques. Adsorption is a physiochemical wastewater treatment process, which is gaining prominence as a means of producing high quality effluents, which are low in metal ion concentrations. The development of inexpensive adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater is an important area in environmental sciences. In this work we describe some of the physical and chemical phenomena that take place in the polymerization of methacrylates when gamma radiation is used. We explain how polymeric material characterization equipment are used for obtaining information regarding the material properties. Then we explain how the new polymeric material obtained can be use for the wastewater treatment. Finally, a comparison in the heavy metal removal from aqueous solution with other sorbent materials is presented. (Author)

  11. Preparation of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and analysis of their wettability

    Zhuang, Jian; Huang, Manling; Zhang, Yajun; Wu, Daming; Kuang, Tairong; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoxu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we presented three simple, facile and low-cost manufacturing methods—template method, nanoparticle filling method and extrusion stamping forming method—to fabricate the polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. The stainless steel wire mesh as the template and glass beads was investigated in this study for the first time and low-cost hollow glass beads were rarely used as particles for fabricating the superhydrophobic surface. The water contact angle measurement of polymeric surfaces was used to investigate the effect of mesh count, glass beads and PTFE on fabricating polymeric superhydrophobic surface. It was found that the mesh count significantly affected the hydrophobicity of polymer surface in template method. The addition of glass beads improved the hydrophobicity by nanoparticle filling method. The addition of PTFE was of importance to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface by extrusion stamping forming method. The surface microstructure was also observed by scanning electron microscope.

  12. Simulation of styrene polymerization reactors: kinetic and thermodynamic modeling

    A. S. Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the free radical polymerization of styrene is developed to predict the steady-state and dynamic behavior of a continuous process. Special emphasis is given for the kinetic and thermodynamic models, where the most sensitive parameters were estimated using data from an industrial plant. The thermodynamic model is based on a cubic equation of state and a mixing rule applied to the low-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium of polymeric solutions, suitable for modeling the auto-refrigerated polymerization reactors, which use the vaporization rate to remove the reaction heat from the exothermic reactions. The simulation results show the high predictive capability of the proposed model when compared with plant data for conversion, average molecular weights, polydispersity, melt flow index, and thermal properties for different polymer grades.

  13. Horseradish peroxidase embedded in polyacrylamide nanoparticles enables optical detection of reactive oxygen species

    Poulsen, A.K.; Scharff-Poulsen, Anne Marie; Olsen, L.F.

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized new nanometer-sized polyacrylamide particles containing horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent dyes. Proteins and dyes are encapsulated by radical polymerization in inverse microemulsion. The activity of the encapsulated enzyme has been examined and it mainta......We have synthesized and characterized new nanometer-sized polyacrylamide particles containing horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent dyes. Proteins and dyes are encapsulated by radical polymerization in inverse microemulsion. The activity of the encapsulated enzyme has been examined...... for quantification of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species in microenvironments, and we propose that the particles may find use as nanosensors for use in, e.g., living cells. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  14. Oxygen therapy for cluster headache

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads Cj; Lund, Nunu Lt

    2017-01-01

    -controlled, crossover inpatient study, and 102 CH attacks were treated with 100% oxygen delivered by demand valve oxygen (DVO), O2ptimask or simple mask (15 liters/min) or placebo delivered by DVO for 15 minutes. Primary endpoint: Two-point decrease of pain on a five-point rating scale within 15 minutes. Results Only...

  15. Mars oxygen production system design

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  16. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  17. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen

    Gilbert, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  18. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  19. On the Go with Oxygen

    ... for both the patient and the oxygen supply company. There are two types of concentrators: Stationary concentrators plug into an electrical ... stationary unit. If your oxygen needs change, the type of system can ... supply company should explain and demonstrate whatever system you choose. ...

  20. Optical investigations of various polymeric materials used in dental technology

    Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin Ionel; Ionita, Ciprian; Goguta, Luciana; Marcauteanu, Corina; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2011-10-01

    Dental prosthetic restorations have to satisfy high stress as well as aesthetic requirements. In order to avoid deficiencies of dental prostheses, several alternative systems and procedures were imagined, directly related to the material used and also to the manufacturing technology. Increasing the biomechanical comportment of polymeric materials implies fiber reinforcing. The different fibers reinforcing products made very difficult the evaluation of their performances and biomechanical properties analysis. There are several known methods which are used to assess the quality of dental prostheses, but most are invasive. These lead to the destruction of the samples and often no conclusion could be drawn in the investigated areas of interest. Using a time domain en-face OCT system, we have recently demonstrated real time thorough evaluation of quality of various dental treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of various polymeric materials used in dental technology and to validate the en face OCT imagistic evaluation of polymeric dental prostheses by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microcomputer tomography (μCT). SEM investigations evidenced the nonlinear aspect of the interface between the polymeric material and the fiber reinforcement and materials defects in some samples. The results obtained by microCT revealed also some defects inside the polymeric materials and at the interfaces with the fiber reinforcement. The advantages of the OCT method consist in non-invasiveness and high resolution. In addition, en face OCT investigations permit visualization of the more complex stratified structure at the interface between the polymeric material and the fiber reinforcement.

  1. Immobilization of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis onto polymeric membrane surfaces: effect of surface characteristics.

    Güleç, Hacı Ali

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of surface characteristics of plain and plasma modified cellulose acetate (CA) membranes on the immobilization yield of β-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces lactis (KLG) and its galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) yield, respectively. Low pressure plasma treatments involving oxygen plasma activation, plasma polymerization (PlsP) of ethylenediamine (EDA) and PlsP of 2-mercaptoethanol were used to modify plain CA membrane surfaces. KLG enzyme was immobilized onto plain and oxygen plasma treated membrane surfaces by simple adsorption. Oxygen plasma activation increased the hydrophylicity of CA membrane surfaces and it improved the immobilization yield of the enzyme by 42%. KLG enzyme was also immobilized onto CA membrane surfaces through amino groups created by PlsP of EDA via covalent binding. Plasma action at 60W plasma power and 15 min. exposure time improved the amount of membrane bounded enzyme by 3.5-fold. The enrichment of the amount of amino groups via polyethyleneimine (PEI) addition enhanced this increase from 3.5-fold to 4.5-fold. Although high enzyme loading was achived (65-83%), both of the methods dramatically decreased the enzyme activity (11-12%) and GOS yield due to probably negative effects of active amino groups. KLG enzyme was more effectively immobilized onto thiolated CA membrane surface created by PlsP of 2-mercaptoethanol with high immobilization yield (70%) and especially high enzyme activity (46%). Immobilized enzymes on the CA membranes treated by PlsP were successively reutilized for 5-8 cycles at 25°C and enzymatic derivatives retained approximately 75-80% of their initial activites at the end of the reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals

  3. Gas barrier properties of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films coated on polyethylene terephthalate by plasma polymerization in argon/n-hexane gas mixture

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Kylián, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Petr, Martin; Choukourov, Andrei; Hanuš, Jan; Biederman, Hynek

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films were deposited by RF plasma polymerization in argon/n-hexane gas mixture on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foils. It was found that such deposited films may significantly improve the barrier properties of PET. It was demonstrated that the principal parameter that influences barrier properties of such deposited films towards oxygen and water vapor is the density of the coatings. Moreover, it was shown that for achieving good barrier properties it is advantageous to deposit coatings with very low thickness. According to the presented results, optimal thickness of the coating should not be higher than several tens of nm. - Highlights: • a-C:H films were prepared by plasma polymerization in Ar/n-hexane atmosphere. • Barrier properties of coatings are dependent on their density and thickness. • Highest barrier properties were observed for films with thickness 15 nm.

  4. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to polymeric and biological systems

    Jean, Y.C.; Chen, Hongmin; Liu, Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a novel radio-analytical technique which uses the positron (anti-electron) and is capable of probing the atomic and molecular scale (0.2-2 nm) free-volume and hole properties in polymeric and biological materials. Recently, we developed positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of energy spectroscopies coupled with a variable mono-energetic positron beam to measure the free-volume depth profile from the surface, interfaces, and to the bulk. This paper presents applications of PAS to determine multi-layer structures, glass transition temperatures in nano-scale polymeric films and to detect cancer in the human skin. (author)

  5. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  6. Instrumentation for Measurement of Gas Permeability of Polymeric Membranes

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Burns, Karen S.

    1993-01-01

    A mass spectrometric 'Dynamic Delta' method for the measurement of gas permeability of polymeric membranes has been developed. The method is universally applicable for measurement of the permeability of any gas through polymeric membrane materials. The usual large sample size of more than 100 square centimeters required for other methods is not necessary for this new method which requires a size less than one square centimeter. The new method should fulfill requirements and find applicability for industrial materials such as food packaging, contact lenses and other commercial materials where gas permeability or permselectivity properties are important.

  7. Studies on the polymerization of acrolein oxime, 13

    Ota, Tadatoshi; Mori, Yoshikazu; Tamai, Harumi; Masuda, Seizo; Tanaka, Masami.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of acrolein oxime was carried out at temperatures ranging from room temperature to -78 0 C, and the resulting low molecular products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetaldoxime, propionaldoxime, propenylhydroxylamines, dioximes etc. were obtained. Initial processes of the polymerization are discussed on the basis of these reaction products. The present work offers further corroborating evidence for the already-described postulation that an anionic mechanism is operative above room temperature, and a cationic mechanism is predominant below -23 0 C. (author)

  8. Polymeric Gas-Separation Membranes for Petroleum Refining

    Yousef Alqaheem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric gas-separation membranes were commercialized 30 years ago. The interest on these systems is increasing because of the simplicity of concept and low-energy consumption. In the refinery, gas separation is needed in many processes such as natural gas treatment, carbon dioxide capture, hydrogen purification, and hydrocarbons separations. In these processes, the membranes have proven to be a potential candidate to replace the current conventional methods of amine scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption, and cryogenic distillation. In this paper, applications of polymeric membranes in the refinery are discussed by reviewing current materials and commercialized units. Economical evaluation of these membranes in comparison to traditional processes is also indicated.

  9. Spin-crossover behavior of polymeric iron(III) complexes

    Maeda, Yonezo; Miyamoto, Makoto; Takashima, Yoshimasa; Oshio, Hiroaki

    1989-01-01

    Polymeric spin-crossover iron(III) complexes possessing poly(4-vinylpyridine), poly(N-vinylimidazole) or poly(octylmethacrylate-co-4-vinylpyridine) as ligand are prepared. In this experience enriched 57 Fe was used to get strong Moessbauer absorption. The enriched behavior of the complexes were examined by magnetic susceptibilities measurement, and Moessbauer and esr spectroscopies. Some of them show spin-state behavior over a wide range of temperature. Some of them show rapid spin-state interexchange compared to the Moessbauer time scale and others not. Spin-crossover behavior of polymeric complexes is characterized of wide spin-state transition temperature range

  10. Stress Analysis in Polymeric Coating Layer Deposited on Rigid Substrate

    Lee, Sang Soon Lee [Korea University of Technology and Education, School of Mechatronics Engineering, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    This paper presents an analysis of thermal stress induced along the interface between a polymeric coating layer and a steel substrate as a result of uniform temperature change. The epoxy layer is assumed to be a linear viscoelastic material and to be theromorheologically simple. The viscoelastic boundary element method is employed to investigate the behavior of interface stresses. The numerical results exhibit relaxation of interface stresses and large stress gradients, which are observed in the vicinity of the free surface. Since the exceedingly large stresses cannot be borne by the polymeric coating layer, local cracking or delamination can occur at the interface corner.

  11. Immobilization of yeast cells by radiation-induced polymerization

    Fujimura, T.; Kaetsu, I.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization method was applied to the immobilization of yeast cells. The effects of irradiation, cooling and monomer, which are neccessary for polymerization, were recovered completely by subsequent aerobical incubation of yeast cells. The ethanol productive in immobilized yeast cells increased with the increase of aerobical incubation period. The growth of yeast cells in immobilized yeast cells was indicated. The maximum ethanol productivity in immobilized yeast cell system was around three times as much as that in free yeast cell system. (orig.)

  12. In situ polymerization of monomers for polyphenylquinoxaline/graphite

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Methods currently used to prepare fiber reinforced, high temperature resistant polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ) composites employ extremely viscous, low solids content solutions of high molecular weight PPQ polymers. An improved approach, described in this report, consists of impregnating the fiber with a solution of the appropriate monomers instead of a solution of previously synthesized high molecular weight polymer. Polymerization of the monomers occurs in situ on the fiber during the solvent removal and curing stages. The in situ polymerization approach greatly simplifies the fabrication of PPQ graphite fiber composites. The use of low viscosity monomeric type solutions facilitates fiber wetting, permits a high solids content, and eliminates the need for prior polymer synthesis.

  13. Production of radiation crosslinked polymeric compositions using diacetylenes

    Patel, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Crosslinked polymeric compositions, useful as electrical insulators, heat shrinkable packaging, and lightweight foam plastics, are described. The crosslinked polymeric compositions are produced by admixing a diacetylene monomer, oligomer, polymer or mixture thereof, wherein the monomer has the formula, RNHCO-O-CH 2 -C==C-C==C-CH- 2 -O-OCNHR' in which R and R' are the same or different and are alkyl containing 1 to 20 carbon atoms, with a thermoplastic crosslinkable polymer and then subjecting the resulting mixture to actinic radiation

  14. Surfing pathogens and the lessons learned for actin polymerization.

    Frischknecht, F; Way, M

    2001-01-01

    A number of unrelated bacterial species as well as vaccinia virus (ab)use the process of actin polymerization to facilitate and enhance their infection cycle. Studies into the mechanism by which these pathogens hijack and control the actin cytoskeleton have provided many interesting insights into the regulation of actin polymerization in migrating cells. This review focuses on what we have learnt from the actin-based motilities of Listeria, Shigella and vaccinia and discusses what we would still like to learn from our nasty friends, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Rickettsia

  15. EB curing of oxidative-polymerized linseed oil

    Ju Xuecheng; Ha Hongfei

    2000-01-01

    The properties of EB curing coating films, which were determined by the structure of oxidative-polymerized linseed oil, were as following: good gloss, low hardness, better flexibility and impact resistance, low glass transition temperature and bad adhesion on tinplate. Oxidative-polymerized linseed oil could be used with other compositions not only as oligomer, but also as functional monomer to improve the properties of coating films of composite systems. Both absorbed dose sand Cobaltous naphthenate had little influence on the properties of these coating films

  16. Influence of micro-oxygenation treatment before oak aging on phenolic compounds composition, astringency, and color of red wine.

    Llaudy, María del Carmen; Canals, Roser; González-Manzano, Susana; Canals, Joan Miquel; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Zamora, Fernando

    2006-06-14

    Micro-oxygenation is usually applied to red wines as a cheaper alternative to oak aging. It has been suggested, however, that micro-oxygenation can also be used to complement oak aging in order to improve the quality of very astringent and herbaceous red wines. In this paper we study how applying the micro-oxygenation technique before oak aging affects the composition and quality of astringent red wines. When this technique is applied prior to oak aging, the wines have a slightly less intense red color and significantly higher levels of combined and free anthocyanins and ethyl-bridged anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. On the other hand, no differences in other newly formed pigments are found. Applying micro-oxygenation before oak aging does not affect the total proanthocyanidin concentration, but it produces wines with a slightly (though significantly) higher mean degree of proanthocyanidin polymerization and a drastically lower astringency. These wines also present a clearer impact of wood aromas.

  17. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances)

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen Generating System (NAOGS), SAM-TR-80-12, Brooks AFB TX 78235, 1980. 11. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and...sieve oxygen generation sys- tem. Data from Horch et al (15). cabin altitude. The minimum and maximum oxygen concen- tration lines depict the...an AV-8A Aircraft; Naval Air Test Center Report No. SY-136R-81, 1981. 15. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB Jr, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and

  18. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization.

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Mark F; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-09

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S), and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular weight lignin polymers and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di-, and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p-electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages (β-β or β-5) react poorly and tend to "cap" the polymer. In general, β-5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  19. Considerations for Electroactive Polymeric Materials and Actuators

    Rasmussen, Lenore; Erickson, Carl J.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Ascione, George; Gentile, Charles A.; Tilson, Carl; Bernasek, Stephen L.; Abelev, Esta

    2010-01-01

    Ras Labs produces electroactive polymer (EAP) based materials and actuators that bend, swell, ripple and now contract (new development) with low electric input. This is an important attribute because of the ability of contraction to produce life-like motion. The mechanism of contraction is not well understood. Radionuclide-labeled experiments were conducted to follow the movement of electrolytes and water in these EAPs when activated. Extreme temperature experiments were performed on the contractile EAPs with very favorable results. One of the biggest challenges in developing these actuators, however, is the electrode-EAP interface because of the pronounced movement of the EAP. Plasma treatments of metallic electrodes were investigated in order to improve the attachment of the embedded electrodes to the EAP material. Surface analysis, adhesive testing, and mechanical testing were conducted to test metal surfaces and metal-polymer interfaces. The nitrogen plasma treatment of titanium produced a strong metal-polymer interface; however, oxygen plasma treatment of both stainless steel and titanium produced even stronger metal-polymer interfaces. Plasma treatment of the electrodes allows for the embedded electrodes and the EAP material of the actuator to work and move as a unit, with no detachment, by significantly improving the metal-polymer interface.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization Synthesis and Characterization of Polyaniline Films Doped with and without Iodine

    Choon-Sang Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although polymerized aniline (polyaniline, PANI with and without iodine (I2 doping has already been extensively studied, little work has been done on the synthesis of PANI films using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP deposition. Therefore, this study characterized pure and I2-doped PANI films synthesized using an advanced APP polymerization system. The I2 doping was conducted ex-situ and using an I2 chamber method following the APP deposition. The pure and I2-doped PANI films were structurally analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, atomic force microscope (AFM, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS studies. When increasing the I2 doping time, the plane and cross-sectional SEM images showed a decrease in the width and thickness of the PANI nanofibers, while the AFM results showed an increase in the roughness and grain size of the PANI films. Moreover, the FT-IR, XPS, and ToF-SIMS results showed an increase in the content of oxygen-containing functional groups and C=C double bonds, yet decrease in the C–N and C–H bonds when increasing the I2 doping time due to the reduction of hydrogen in the PANI films via the I2. To check the suitability of the conductive layer for polymer display applications, the resistance variations of the PANI films grown on the interdigitated electrode substrates were also examined according to the I2 doping time.

  1. In situ crosslinking of surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization of polynorbornene for improved stability.

    Fursule, Ishan A; Abtahi, Ashkan; Watkins, Charles B; Graham, Kenneth R; Berron, Brad J

    2018-01-15

    In situ crosslinking is expected to increase the solvent stability of coatings formed by surface-initiated ring opening metathesis polymerization (SI ROMP). Solvent-associated degradation limits the utility of SI ROMP coatings. SI ROMP coatings have a unique capacity for post-functionalization through reaction of the unsaturated site on the polymer backbone. Any post-reaction scheme which requires a liquid solvent has the potential to degrade the coating and lower the thickness of the resulting film. We designed a macromolecular crosslinking group based on PEG dinorbornene. The PEG length is tailored to the expected mean chain to chain distance during surface-initiated polymerization. This crosslinking macromer is randomly copolymerized with norbornene through SI ROMP on a gold coated substrate. The solvent stability of polynorbornene coatings with and without PEG dinorbornene is quantitatively determined, and the mechanism of degradation is further supported through XPS and AFM analyses. The addition of the 0.25mol% PEG dinorbornene significantly increases the solvent stability of the SI ROMP coatings. The crosslinker presence in the more stable films is supported with observable PEG absorbances by FTIR and an increase in contact angle hysteresis when compared to non-crosslinked coatings. The oxidation of the SI ROMP coatings is supported by the observation of carbonyl oxygen in the polynorbornene coatings. The rapid loss of the non-crosslinked SI ROMP coating corresponds to nanoscale pitting across the surface and micron-scale regions of widespread film loss. The crosslinked coatings have uniform nanoscale pitting, but the crosslinked films show no evidence of micron-scale film damage. In all, the incorporation of minimal crosslinking content is a simple strategy for improving the solvent stability of SI ROMP coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    2008-04-01

    28. Alagoz, T., R. Buller, B. Anderson, K. Terrell , R...and oxygenation Ann . New Acad. Sci. 838 29–45 Chapman J D, Stobbe C C, Arnfield M R, Santus R, Lee J and McPhee M S 1991 Oxygen dependency of tumor

  3. High temperature initiator-free RAFT polymerization of methyl methacrylate in a microwave reactor

    Paulus, R.M.; Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    The reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated under microwave irradiation. At first, a comparison was made between microwave and thermal heating for the RAFT polymerization of MMA with azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as

  4. Comparison of techniques for the determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions

    J. C. Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions is not an easy task due to the heterogeneity of the reaction medium and the tendency of particles to agglomerate rapidly when stirring is stopped. Usually, bulk polymerization in ampoules is employed to study the kinetics of suspension polymerization reactions. In this work, a comparison of different techniques for the determination of conversion during suspension polymerization reactions is presented. Results showed a good agreement between the conversion obtained by gravimetry during styrene suspension polymerization and on-line conversion monitoring data using fiber-optic based Raman Spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the polymerization rate of styrene bulk polymerization carried out in ampoules was higher than the real reaction rate of styrene suspension polymerization due to slightly higher reaction temperatures. Simulation results using the experimental temperature data in a mathematical model confirmed these results.

  5. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization for modification of polymer track membranes

    Shtanko, N.I.; Kabanov, V.Ya.; Apel, P.Yu.; Yoshida, M.

    1999-01-01

    Track membranes (TM) made of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) films have a number of peculiarities as compared with other ones. They have high mechanical strength at a low thickness, narrow pore size distribution, low content of extractables. However, TM have some disadvantages such as low chemical resistance in alkaline media (PET TM), the low water flow rate due to the hydrophobic nature of their surface. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization makes it possible to improve the basic characteristics of TM. In this communication our results on the modification of PET and PP TM are presented. The modified membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization from the liquid phase. Three methods of grafting were used: (a) the direct method in argon atmosphere; (b) the pre-irradiation of TM in air followed by grafting in argon atmosphere; (c) pre-irradiation in vacuum followed by grafting in vacuum without contacting oxygen. The aim of the work was to investigate some properties of TM modified by grafted poly(methylvinyl pyridine) (PMVP) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM). It was shown that the modification of TM with hydrophilic polymer results in the growth of the water flow rate. In the past few years many works have been devoted to the synthesis of new polymers - the so-called 'intelligent' materials - such as PNIPAAM. However, it is very difficult to make thin membranes of this polymer. Recently, it has been proposed to manufacture composite membranes by grafting stimulus-responsive polymers onto TM. Following this principle, we prepared thermosensitive membranes by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) onto PET TM. PET TM with the pore size of about 1 μm and pore density of 10 6 cm -2 were first inserted into a solution of NIPAAM containing inhibitor of homopolymerization (CuCl 2 ) and then exposed to the γ-rays from a 60 Co source. The transport properties of the

  6. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization for modification of polymer track membranes

    Shtanko, N. I.; Kabanov, V. Ya.; Apel, P. Yu.; Yoshida, M.

    1999-05-01

    Track membranes (TM) made of poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) and polypropylene (PP) films have a number of peculiarities as compared with other ones. They have high mechanical strength at a low thickness, narrow pore size distribution, low content of extractables. However, TM have some disadvantages such as low chemical resistance in alkaline media (PET TM), the low water flow rate due to the hydrophobic nature of their surface. The use of radiation-induced graft polymerization makes it possible to improve the basic characteristics of TM. In this communication our results on the modification of PET and PP TM are presented. The modified membranes were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization from the liquid phase. Three methods of grafting were used: (a) the direct method in argon atmosphere; (b) the pre-irradiation of TM in air followed by grafting in argon atmosphere; (c) pre-irradiation in vacuum followed by grafting in vacuum without contacting oxygen. The aim of the work was to investigate some properties of TM modified by grafted poly(methylvinyl pyridine) (PMVP) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM). It was shown that the modification of TM with hydrophilic polymer results in the growth of the water flow rate. In the past few years many works have been devoted to the synthesis of new polymers - the so-called "intelligent" materials - such as PNIPAAM. However, it is very difficult to make thin membranes of this polymer. Recently, it has been proposed to manufacture composite membranes by grafting stimulus-responsive polymers onto TM. Following this principle, we prepared thermosensitive membranes by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) onto PET TM. PET TM with the pore size of about 1 μm and pore density of 10 6 cm -2 were first inserted into a solution of NIPAAM containing inhibitor of homopolymerization (CuCl 2) and then exposed to the γ-rays from a 60Co source. The transport properties of the grafted

  7. Radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming systems. VII. Polymerization in supercooled state under high pressure

    Kaetsu, I.; Yoshii, F.; Watanabe, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate under high pressure was studied. The glass transition temperature of these monomers was heightened by increased pressure. The temperature dependence of polymerizability showed a characteristic relation, similar to those in supercooled-phase polymerization under normal pressure, that had a maximum at T/sub ν/ which shifted to higher levels of temperature as well as to T/sub g/ under high pressure. Polymerizability in the supercooled state also increased under increased pressure

  8. Oxygen dependency of porfiromycin cytotoxicity

    Marshall, R.S.; Rauth, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors determined the oxygen dependency of toxicity for the bioreductive alkylating agents mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (PM) to investigate whether the toxicities of these agents increase in the range of oxygen tensions over which cells become increasingly radioresistant. In the present work the oxygen dependency of PM in CHO cells was determined by assaying survival as a function of time of exposure to 1.0 μg/ml PM under various known levels of oxygen. While PM demonstrated preferential hypoxic cell toxicity, aerobic cell survival was reduced ten-fold after five hours of exposure. Conversely, PM toxicity after a five hour hypoxic exposure to <0.001% oxygen appeared to be greater than that observed for similar MMC exposures, suggesting that PM may be more selective than MMC in killing hypoxic rather than aerobic cells. The authors are currently investigating this preferential toxicity in two human cell lines, one of which is resistant to these agents. At present, these observations suggest that PM may be more effective than MMC at destroying tumour cells in regions of intermediate and low oxygen tensions which may survive radiotherapy, though the range of oxygen tensions which mediate toxicity is similar for both agents

  9. Heterofunctional Glycopolypeptides by Combination of Thiol-Ene Chemistry and NCA Polymerization.

    Krannig, Kai-Steffen; Schlaad, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Glycopolypeptides are prepared either by the polymerization of glycosylated amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) or by the post-polymerization functionalization of polypeptides with suitable functional groups. Here we present a method for the in-situ functionalization and (co-) polymerization of allylglycine N-carboxyanhydride in a facile one-pot procedure, combining radical thiol-ene photochemistry and nucleophilic ring-opening polymerization techniques, to yield well-defined heterofunctional glycopolypeptides.

  10. Tribology of polymeric nanocomposites friction and wear of bulk materials and coatings

    Friedrich, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites provides a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and provides rare, focused coverage of their tribological behavior and potential use in tribological applications. Providing engineers and designers with the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, property information and evaluation methodology needed to select the right polymeric nanocomposites for the job, this unique book also includes valuable real-world examples of polymeric nanocomposites in a

  11. Characterization of polymeric films subjected to lithium ion beam irradiation

    Groenewold, Gary S., E-mail: gary.groenewold@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, 2351 North Boulevard, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States); Cannon, W. Roger; Lessing, Paul A. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2351 North Boulevard, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States); Avci, Recep; Deliorman, Muhammedin; Wolfenden, Mark [Image and Chemical Analysis Laboratory, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Akers, Doug W.; Jewell, J. Keith; Zuck, Larry D. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2351 North Boulevard, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paraffinic polymers were subjected to Li ion irradiation. ► Small oligomers detected in irradiated PEG by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. ► Radiolytic scission observed in X-ray photoelectron and electrospray ionization mass spectra. ► Radiation modified paraffinics characterized by changes in non-ionic surfactant additives. ► Results suggest that extent of radiolysis, and radiolytic pathways can be inferred. -- Abstract: Two different polymeric materials that are candidate materials for use as binders for mixed uranium–plutonium oxide nuclear fuel pellets were subjected to Li ion beam irradiation, in order to simulate intense alpha irradiation. The materials (a polyethylene glycol 8000 and a microcrystalline wax) were then analyzed using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) approaches and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Samples of the irradiated PEG materials were dissolved in H{sub 2}O and then analyzed using electrospray ionization-MS, which showed the formation of a series of small oligomers in addition to intact large PEG oligomers. The small oligomers were likely formed by radiation-induced homolytic scissions of the C–O and C–C bonds, which furnish radical intermediates that react by radical recombination with H{sup ·} and OH{sup ·}. Surface analysis using SIMS revealed a heterogeneous surface that contained not only PEG-derived polymers, but also hydrocarbon-based entities that are likely surface contaminants. XPS of the irradiated PEG samples indicated the emergence of different carbon species, with peak shifts suggesting the presence of sp{sup 2} carbon atoms. Analysis of the paraffinic film using XPS showed the emergence of oxygen on the surface of the sample, and also a broadening and shifting of the C1s peak, demonstrating a change in the chemistry on the surface. The paraffinic film did not dissolve in either H{sub 2}O or a H{sub 2}O–methanol solution, and

  12. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy......, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns....

  13. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ, YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , and the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2+4 (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible

  14. Oxygen permeation modelling of perovskites

    van Hassel, Bart A.; van Hassel, B.A.; Kawada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi; Dokiya, Masayuki; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A point defect model was used to describe the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the perovskites La0.75Sr0.25CrO3, La0.9Sr0.1FeO3, La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. Form the oxygen vacancy concentration predicte by the point defect model, the ionic conductivity

  15. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    Ma D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC, a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate was used to adjust pH value and the basicity of the pickle liquor, the PAFC was subsequently prepared after the polymerization process. The optimal synthesizing parameters for the preparation of PAFC obtained were as follows: the concentration of hydrochloric acid of 24 wt%, ratio of hydrochloric acid to bauxite tailings of 6:1, temperature of 90ºC, leaching time of 2.5 hours, ration of pickle liquor to calcium aluminate of 12:1, polymerization temperature of 90ºC and polymerization time of about 3 hours. The basicity of PAFC was higher than 68%, the sum concentration of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 was beyond 12.5%. The results of flocculation tests indicate that the PAFC has a better performance of removing the turbidity of wastewater compared to PAC, and PAFC prepared by bauxite tailings is a kind of high quality flocculants.

  16. Patterning of gold substrates by surface-initiated polymerization

    Dyer, D.J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-4409 (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The design and synthesis of durable and functional organic coatings is an important topic in contemporary polymer science. The well-defined patterning of inorganic substrates is highlighted with an emphasis on planar gold. New advances in contact printing and surface initiated polymerization promise unprecedented control of the polymer architecture in the micrometer and nanometer range. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Epithelial-microbial crosstalk in polymeric Ig receptor deficient mice

    Reikvam, D.H.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Islam, R.; Erofeev, A.; Grcic, V.; Sandvik, A.; Gaustad, P.; Meza-Zepeda, L.A.; Jahnsen, F.L.; Smidt, H.; Johansen, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Innate and adaptive mucosal defense mechanisms ensure a homeostatic relationship with the large and complex mutualistic gut microbiota. Dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM are transported across the intestinal epithelium via the epithelial polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and provide a significant portion of

  18. Green-function description of dense polymeric systems

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A self-consistent Green-function description of concentrated polymer solutions and dense polymeric melts is presented. The method, which applies to both uniform and nonuniform systems, is used in this work to calculate the static structure factor of a homogeneous fluid of Gaussian model chains.

  19. Free volume and relaxation dynamics of polymeric systems

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution use of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) for the study of free volume and relaxation dynamics of some polymeric systems (1,4-polybutadiene, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, polyisobutylene, trans-1,4-polychloropropene, atactic polypropylene and 1,2-polybutadiene) is discussed

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of methyl methacrylate ...

    Unknown

    Kinetics and mechanism of polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by stibonium ylide. A K SRIVASTAVA and AJEY KUMAR CHAURASIA. Department of Chemistry, H B Technological Institute, Kanpur 208 002, India e-mail: akspolym@rediffmail.com. MS received 6 September 2002; revised 25 July 2003. Abstract.