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Sample records for nanocrystalline zns thin

  1. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition method and optical properties

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    Sahraei, Reza, E-mail: r.sahraei@ilam.ac.ir; Darafarin, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films were deposited on quartz, silicon, and glass substrates using chemical bath deposition method in a weak acidic solution containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid disodium salt (Na{sub 2}EDTA) as a complexing agent for zinc ions and thioacetamide (TAA) as a sulfide source at 80 °C. The films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV–vis transmission data showed that the films were transparent in the visible region. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a cubic zinc blend structure. FE-SEM revealed a homogeneous morphology and dense nanostructures. The PL spectra of the ZnS:Ni films showed two characteristic bands, one broad band centered at 430 and another narrow band at 523 nm. Furthermore, concentration quenching effect on the photoluminescence intensity has been observed. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZnS:Ni thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method. • The size of ZnS:Ni nanocrystals was less than 10 nm showing quantum size effect. • SEM images demonstrated a dense and uniform surface that was free of pinholes. • The deposited films were highly transparent (>70%) in the visible region. • The PL spectra of ZnS:Ni thin films showed two emission peaks at 430 and 523 nm.

  2. The Effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone on the Optical Properties of the Ni-Doped ZnS Nanocrystalline Thin Films Synthesized by Chemical Method

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    Tran Minh Thi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the optical properties of polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP and the influence of PVP concentration on the photoluminescence spectra of the PVP (PL coated ZnS : Ni nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by the wet chemical method and spin-coating. PL spectra of samples were clearly showed that the 520 nm luminescence peak position of samples remains unchanged, but their peak intensity changes with PVP concentration. The PVP polymer is emissive with peak maximum at 394 nm with the exciting wavelength of 325 nm. The photoluminescence exciting (PLE spectrum of PVP recorded at 394 nm emission shows peak maximum at 332 nm. This excitation band is attributed to the electronic transitions in PVP molecular orbitals. The absorption edges of the PVP-coated ZnS : Ni0.3% samples that were shifted towards shorter wavelength with increasing of PVP concentration can be explained by the absorption of PVP in range of 350 nm to 400 nm. While the PVP coating does not affect the microstructure of ZnS : Ni nanomaterial, the analyzed results of the PL, PLE, and time-resolved PL spectra and luminescence decay curves of the PVP and PVP-coated ZnS : Ni samples allow to explain the energy transition process from surface PVP molecules to the Ni2+ centers that occurs via hot ZnS.

  3. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

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    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  4. Structural Phase Transformations of ZnS Nanocrystalline Under High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘跃武; 曲胜春; 高春晓; 韩永昊; 骆继锋; 崔启良; 刘景; 邹广田

    2004-01-01

    In-situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction on ZnS nanocrystalline was carried out under high pressure by using a diamond anvil cell. Phase transition of wurtzite of 10nm ZnS to rocksalt occurred at 16.0GPa, which was higher than that of the bulk materials. The structures of ZnS nanocrystalline at different pressures were built by using materials studio and the bulk modulus, and the pressure derivative of ZnS nanocrystalline were derived by fitting the equation of Birch-Murnaghan. The resulting modulus was higher than that of the corresponding bulk material, which indicates that the nanomaterial has higher hardness than its bulk materials.

  5. An investigation on the pressure-induced phase transition of nanocrystalline ZnS

    CERN Document Server

    Pan Yue Wu; Dong Shu Shan; Cui Qi Liang; Zhang Wei; LiuXiZhe; LiuJing; Liu Bing Bing; Gao Chun Xi; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    An in situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction study on nanocrystalline ZnS was carried out under high pressure up to 30.8 GPa by using a diamond anvil cell. The phase transition from the wurtzite to the zinc-blende structure occurred at 11.5 GPa, and another obvious transition to a new phase with rock-salt structure also appeared at 16.0 GPa - which was higher than the value for the bulk material. The bulk modulus and the pressure derivative of nanocrystalline ZnS were derived by fitting the Birch-Murnaghan equation. The resulting modulus was higher than that of the corresponding bulk material, indicating that the nanomaterial has higher hardness than the bulk material.

  6. Phase transition in ZnS thin film phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtab, T.; Khomchenko, V. S.; Andraca-Adame, J. A.; Khachatryan, V. B.; Mazin, M. O.; Rodionov, V. E.; Mukhlio, M. F.

    2005-02-01

    The effect of an original non-vacuum annealing of thin ZnS films according to the annealing conditions and type of substrate on the film's crystalline structure and surface morphology in relation with photoluminescent (PL) properties was investigated. ZnS thin films were deposited by electron-beam evaporation (EBE) on ceramic (BaTiO 3) and glass substrates heated to 150-200 °C. Three types of the targets such as ZnS, ZnS:Cu and ZnS:Cu, Al were used. The film thickness varied from 0.6 to 1 μm. As-deposited films were annealed at the atmospheric pressure in S 2-rich ambient atmosphere at 600-950 °C for 1 h. The ZnS:Cu films were Ga co-doped by annealing in the same atmosphere and temperature with additional Ga vapor. The ZnS films were doped with Cu, Cl using the thermal diffusion method by embedding the samples in ZnS:Cu, Cl powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the measurements of PL parameters were used for investigation. The temperature of the ZnS phase transition from the sphalerite to wurtzite structure depends on the presence, type and ratio of additional impurities. It was revealed that Ga and Cl act not only as co-dopant to improve the luminescent properties, but also as activators of recrystallization processes. The transition of ZnS film's sphalerite lattice to wurtzite leads to the displacement of the blue emission band position towards the short-wavelength range by 10 nm.

  7. Structural and optical properties of ZnS thin film grown by pulsed electrodeposition

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    Hennayaka, H.M.M.N.; Lee, Ho Seong, E-mail: hs.lee@knu.ac.kr

    2013-12-02

    ZnS thin films were grown on indium–tin-oxide coated glass substrates using pulsed electrodeposition and the effect of the deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of the ZnS films was investigated. Polycrystalline cubic ZnS films were obtained at all the deposition temperatures. At temperatures below 70 °C, less dense films were obtained and particle agglomeration was visible. On the other hand, at temperatures above 70 °C, more dense films with well-defined grains were obtained. With increasing deposition temperatures, the optical transmittance and bandgap of the ZnS films decreased. These results are attributed to the increase in the thickness of ZnS films and their particle size. The ZnS films grown at 90 °C exhibited the highly (200) preferred orientation and n-type conductivity with a wide bandgap of 3.75 eV. - Highlights: • This study describes the effect of the deposition temperature on the growth of the ZnS thin films. • ZnS thin films were grown using pulsed electrodeposition. • ZnS thin films exhibited the good crystal quality and chemical composition. • ZnS thin films exhibited n-type conductivity with a wide bandgap of 3.75 eV.

  8. Synthesis of ZnS thin films from aqueous caustic of trisodium citrate and their properties

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    Martyn A. Sozanskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide (ZnS thin films due to their properties are widely used in various electronic optical devices. They are produced by several methods, among which – vacuum sublimation, high frequency sputtering method, quasiclosed volume method, sol-gel method, electrodeposition. These methods have high energy consumption which increases the price of ZnS thin films. Aim: The aim of this work is to establish the optimal parameters of the synthesis of ZnS thin films of the aqueous caustic and the correlation between content of zinc in the synthesized films determined by the method of stripping voltammetry and thickness, structural, morphological and optical parameters. Materials and Methods: The ZnS thin films were obtained from aqueous caustics of zinc-containing salt using chemical deposition. Fresh solution of zinc-containing salt, trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O7 as a complexing agent, thiourea ((NH22CS and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH was used for the synthesis of ZnS films by chemical deposition. The deposition was performed on prepared glass substrates with the area of 5,76 cm2. Results: The phase mixture of the films has been determined. It showed the presence of ZnS compounds in the cubic modification (sphalerite. Stripping voltammetry was used to determine the mass of zinc in the ZnS films on various conditions of synthesis, namely on the concentration of the initial zinc-containing salt, trisodium citrate, thiourea, deposition time and temperature. The surface morphology, optical properties, the thickness of the ZnS resulting films have been studied. Conclusions: The optimal conditions for the synthesis of ZnS films were found based on these data. Three-dimensional surface morphology of ZnS film studies showed its smoothness, uniformity, integrity and confirmed the correctness of determining the optimal synthesis parameters.

  9. Quantized Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films were prepared by asymmetric rectangular pulse electrodeposition in organic solution at 110°C. STM image shows a porous network morphology constructed by interconnected spherical CdTe crystallites with a mean diameter of 4.2 nm. A pronounced size quantization was indicated in the action and absorption spectra. Potentials dependence dual conductive behavior was revealed in the photocurrent-potential (I-V) curves.

  10. Structural study of ZnS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

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    Afifi, H.H. [Minai Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.; Mahmoud, S.A. [Minai Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.; Ashour, A. [Minai Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Phys.

    1995-06-15

    Thin films of ZnS were prepared by spray pyrolysis. The effect of substrate temperature as well as deposition time and annealing in air and in a nitrogen atmosphere on some structural features was investigated by X-ray diffraction. At a substrate temperature of 300 C, ZnS appears almost in amorphous form. With rising substrate temperature, the crystallinity was improved. At 550 C, a well-crystallized cubic phase of ZnS was obtained. The films were preferably oriented with the left angle 111 right angle direction perpendicular to the surface. Annealing in air created ZnO, no evidence for oxides was found when annealing was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere. Therefore, using a spray pyrolysis technique with a substrate temperature of 500 C and annealing in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for about 120 min, one can obtain well-crystallized single-phase cubic ZnS thin films. ((orig.))

  11. Investigation of ZnS thin layers by thermal evaporation method (PVD)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Thin layers of ZnS in two different temperature conditions of 25 or 2000C and also with different thicknesses from 100nm to 600nm were prepared by physical vapor deposition. Absorption and also transmission spectra of the films were obtained to determine absorption coefficient, extinction constant and optical band gap of the films. It was found that by decreasing the substrate temperature or decreasing the film's thickness, optical band gap of ZnS films were increased or decreased, respective...

  12. Structural, thermal, magnetic and optical characterization of undoped nanocrystalline ZnS prepared by solid state reaction

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    Faita, F.L., E-mail: flffisica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Ersching, K. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Catarinense – Campus Camboriú, 88340-000 Camboriú, SC (Brazil); Poffo, C.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Benetti, L.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Trichês, D.M.; Souza, S.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Viegas, A.D.C.; Lima, J.C. de [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline zinc blende and wurtzite ZnS phases produced by mechanical alloying. • Sulfur and/or zinc vacancies in the ZnS as-milled. • Magnetic and semiconductor behavior for the as-milled ZnS-10h. • Irreversible demagnetization and Curie temperature above room temperature. • Structural stability after annealing and aged of the ZnS-10h sample. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline zinc blende and wurtzite ZnS phases with sulfur and/or zinc vacancies were obtained from a mechanically alloyed Zn{sub 50}S{sub 50} powder mixture. Structural, thermal, magnetic, optical and photoacoustic studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, UV–Vis absorption, photoluminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The cubic zinc blende (ZnS{sup ZB}) and hexagonal wurtzite (ZnS{sup WZ}) phases were nucleated in 3 h of milling and remained until 10 h when the milling process was stopped. The coexistence of these two phases was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction measurements attested the structural stability of the sample milled for 10 h and aged for eighteen months and of the sample milled 10 h and annealed at 300 °C and 600 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed the unreacted sulfur in molecular form (rings and/or chains). Magnetic behavior was observed for as-milled sample and Curie temperature was estimated at 430 °C. Moreover, an irreversible behavior of magnetic properties was observed and correlated with changes on the structural vacancies densities. The UV–Vis absorption spectra and McLean analysis showed an optical band gap around 3.4 eV and 3.9 for ZnS{sup ZB} and ZnS{sup WZ} phases, respectively. The sample milled for 10 h showed low blue photoemission intensity centered at 470 nm and thermal diffusivity around 0.02 cm{sup 2}/s.

  13. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

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    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  14. Effect of Ni on the growth and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnS thin films

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    Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, Yung Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Lung-Chuan [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, Yung Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Pan, Guan-Ting; Yang, Thomas C.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wei-Sheng [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei, E-mail: kwcheng@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, No. 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2009-09-15

    Undoped and Ni-doped ZnS thin film photoelectrodes were prepared using the chemical bath deposition process. X-ray diffraction patterns of a hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along the (0 0 8) plane appeared on undoped ZnS films. An increase in the molar ratios of Ni, x, in the starting solution resulted in a decrease in the intensity of the (0 0 8) plane. Images from a scanning electron microscope revealed a drastic change of the surface morphology of the Ni-doped ZnS film due to ion-by-ion deposition. The energy band gaps of Ni-doped ZnS thin films shifted to lower energy levels between 3.34 and 3.01 eV. Moreover, increasing the Ni ratio led to a shift in the flat-band potential of the film towards a more positive value compared to that of ZnS. The Ni-doped ZnS films experienced a conversion from n-type to p-type when the molar ratio of Ni changed from 0.003 to 0.005. The photocurrent densities of Ni-doped ZnS film (x = 0.003) reached 3.74 mA cm{sup -2} at an external potential of 1.5 V versus a Pt electrode and exhibited a threefold enhancement of photocurrent density compared to pure ZnS. A cathodic photocurrent of 0.82 mA cm{sup -2} at an external potential of -1.5 V was obtained for a Ni concentration of x = 0.005.

  15. INFLUENCE OF PH ON THE STRUCTURAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ZnS THIN FILMS

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    A KASSIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZnS thin films have been obtained from aqueous solution by means of cyclic voltammetry method. The electrochemical bath consisted of zinc sulphate, sodium thiosulfate and triethanolamine. The effect of electrolyte pH on the properties of ZnS thin films was investigated within the range from 3 to 9. The cyclic voltammetry was used to analyse the electrochemical bath. The structural and morphological of thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The thin films obtained have cubic structure and single phase as analysed by XRD. As the pH was reduced from 9 to 3, the intensities of the peaks corresponding to ZnS increased. AFM image shows the thin films prepared at pH 3 are homogeneous and well covered on the substrate. These thin films consist of small grains which lead to deposition of smoother films. However, as the pH increases up to 7, the number of grains decreases and larger grain size could be obtained. Therefore, the pH plays a major role in synthesis of ZnS thin film and the pH 3 is the best pH under current conditions.

  16. Optical Characteristics of La-Doped ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-Qing; CHEN Yuan; HUANG Wei-Qing; HUANG Gui-Fang; PENG Ping; PENG Li; WANG Tai-Hang; ZENG Yun

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and La-doped ZnS thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process through the co-precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors zinc sulfate, thiosulfate ammonia and La2O3. Composition of the films is analyzed using an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Absorption spectra and spectral transmittances of the films are measured using a double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (TU-1901). It is found that significant red shifts in absorption spectra and decrease in absorptivity are obtained with increasing lanthanum. Moreover, optical transmittance is increased as La is doped, with a transmittance of more than 80% for wavelength above 360 nm in La-doped ZnS thin films. Compared to pure ZnS, the band gap decreases and flat-band potential positively shifts to quasi-metal for the La-doped ZnS. These results indicate that La-doped ZnS thin films could be valuably adopted as transparent electrodes.%@@ Undoped and La-doped ZnS thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process through the co-precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors zinc sulfate, thiosulfate ammonia and La2O2.Composition of the 61ms is analyzed using an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Absorption spectra and spectral tra.nsmitta.nces of the 61ms are measured using a double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (TU-1901).It is found that significant red shifts in absorption spectra and decrease in absorptivity are obtained with increasing lanthanum.Moreover, optical transmittance is increased as La is doped, with a transmittance of more than 80% for wavelength above 360 nm in La-doped ZnS thin 61ms.Compared to pure ZnS, the band gap decreases and flat-band potential positively shifts to quasi-metal for the La-doped ZnS.These results indicate that La-doped ZnS thin 6hns could be valuably adopted as transparent electrodes.

  17. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

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    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejon, V. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, AP 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida Yucatan (Mexico); Oliva, A.I., E-mail: oliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, AP 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida Yucatan (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 Degree-Sign C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300-800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV-Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  18. Structure and UV photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by thermal oxidation of ZnS films

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    Gao, X.D. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Road, No. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China)]. E-mail: xdgao@mail.sic.ac.cn; Li, X.M. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Road, No. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China); Yu, W.D. [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dingxi Road, No. 1295, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2004-11-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films were fabricated using thermal oxidation of ZnS films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The crystalline structure and morphology of obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Optical properties including the optical absorption coefficient and photoluminescence were investigated. Results show that obtained ZnO film exhibits excellent crystalline structure with the preferential orientation of <1 0 0>, dense morphology with particle size of 20-50 nm, high transmittance over 80% in vis-near-infrared band, and sharp absorption edge near 380 nm. At the excitation of 340 nm photon, the film shows a strong and sharp ultraviolet emission at 390 nm and several weak emissions in blue band, illustrating its high optical quality. The oxygen content in the annealing atmosphere has significant effects on the structure and optical properties of ZnO film.

  19. Investigation of ZnS thin layers by thermal evaporation method (PVD

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    MR Khanlary

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin layers of ZnS in two different temperature conditions of 25 or 2000C and also with different thicknesses from 100nm to 600nm were prepared by physical vapor deposition. Absorption and also transmission spectra of the films were obtained to determine absorption coefficient, extinction constant and optical band gap of the films. It was found that by decreasing the substrate temperature or decreasing the film's thickness, optical band gap of ZnS films were increased or decreased, respectively. These phenomena can be attributed to the quantum size effect.

  20. Size dependent optical characteristics of chemically deposited nanostructured ZnS thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A U Ubale; V S Sangawar; D K Kulkarni

    2007-04-01

    ZnS thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by chemical bath deposition using thiourea and zinc acetate as S2- and Zn2+ source. The effect of film thickness on the optical and structural properties was studied. The optical absorption studies in the wavelength range 250–750 nm show that band gap energy of ZnS increases from 3.68–4.10 eV as thickness varied from 332–76 nm. The structural estimation shows variation in grain size from 6.9–17.8 nm with thickness. The thermoemf measurement indicates that films prepared by this method are of -type.

  1. Properties Study of ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Method

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    A. Djelloul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfide (ZnS is important II-VI semiconductors material for the development of various modern technologies and photovoltaic applications. ZnS thin film was prepared by using chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The starting solution is a mixture of 0.1 M zinc chloride as source of Zn and 0.05 M thiourea as source of S. The glass substrate temperature was varied in the range of 300 °C-400 °C to investigate the influence of substrate temperature on the structure, chemical composition, morphological and optical properties of ZnS films. The DRX analyses indicated that ZnS films have polycrystalline cubic structure with (111 preferential orientation and grain size varied from 25 to 60 nm, increasing with substrate temperature. The optical properties of these films have been studied in the wavelength range 300-2500 nm using UV-VIS spectro-photometer. The ZnS films has a band gap of 3.89 eV-3.96 eV.

  2. Preparation and characteristics of chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films: Effects of different complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Agawane, G.L.; Gang, Myeng Gil [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Moon, Jong-Ha [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong, E-mail: j.y.lee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick ZnS thin films were successfully prepared by chemical bath deposition in a basic medium using less toxic complexing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of different complexing agents such as no complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate and a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and EDTA on the properties of ZnS thin films was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS thin film deposited using two complexing agent showed the outstanding characteristics as compared to those using no and one complexing agent. - Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition technique using aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea solutions in a basic medium (pH {approx} 10) at 80 Degree-Sign C. The effects of different complexing agents, such as a non-complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate, and a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA), on the structural, chemical, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ZnS thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the ZnS thin film deposited without any complexing agent was grown on an amorphous phase. However, the ZnS thin films deposited with one or two complexing agents showed a polycrystalline hexagonal structure. No secondary phase (ZnO) was observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that all ZnS thin films exhibited both Zn-S and Zn-OH bindings. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that ZnS thin films deposited with complexing agents had thicker thicknesses than that deposited without a complexing agent. The electrical resistivity of ZnS thin films was over 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm regardless of complexing agents. The average transmittance of the ZnS thin films deposited without a complexing agent, those with Na{sub 3}-citrate, and those with a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and EDTA was approximately 85%, 65%, and 70%, respectively, while the band gap

  3. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seungyeol; Lee, D. H.; Ryu, S. O.; Chang, Chih-hung

    2010-05-20

    In this article, we reported a spin successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for the first time. ZnS thin films were deposited by spin SILAR using ZnCl2 and Na2S aqueous precursor solutions at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The optical, structural, and morphological characterizations of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV/visible spectroscopy. Smooth (average roughness <3 nm), uniform, and highly transparent ZnS (transmittance of over 90% in the visible band) thin films could be successfully deposited using this technique with shorter cycle time and much less solvent usage.

  4. Biomolecularly capped uniformly sized nanocrystalline materials: glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Claudia L.; Nguyen, Liem; Kho, Richard; Bae, Weon; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Klimov, Victor; Mehra, Rajesh K.

    1999-09-01

    Micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeasts form CdS to detoxify toxic cadmium ions. Frequently, CdS particles formed in yeasts and bacteria were found to be associated with specific biomolecules. It was later determined that these biomolecules were present at the surface of CdS. This coating caused a restriction in the growth of CdS particles and resulted in the formation of nanometre-sized semiconductors (NCs) that exhibited typical quantum confinement properties. Glutathione and related phytochelatin peptides were shown to be the biomolecules that capped CdS nanocrystallites synthesized by yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although early studies showed the existence of specific biochemical pathways for the synthesis of biomolecularly capped CdS NCs, these NCs could be formed in vitro under appropriate conditions. We have recently shown that cysteine and cysteine-containing peptides such as glutathione and phytochelatins can be used in vitro to dictate the formation of discrete sizes of CdS and ZnS nanocrystals. We have evolved protocols for the synthesis of ZnS or CdS nanocrystals within a narrow size distribution range. These procedures involve three steps: (1) formation of metallo-complexes of cysteine or cysteine-containing peptides, (2) introduction of stoichiometric amounts of inorganic sulfide into the metallo-complexes to initiate the formation of nanocrystallites and finally (3) size-selective precipitation of NCs with ethanol in the presence of Na+. The resulting NCs were characterized by optical spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. HRTEM showed that the diameter of the ZnS-glutathione nanocrystals was 3.45+/-0.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction analyses indicated ZnS-glutathione to be hexagonal. Photocatalytic studies suggest that glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals prepared by our procedure are highly efficient in degrading a test model

  5. ZnS nanostructured thin-films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Jariwala, Akshay; Agarwal, Anubha; Patel, Chetna; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2016-04-01

    ZnS thin films were grown on glass substrate using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 and Na2S were used as precursors. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectroscopy and optical absorption measurements were applied to study the structural, surface morphology and optical properties of as-deposited ZnS thin films. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that ZnS thin films consist of crystalline grains with cubic phase. Spherical nano grains of random size and well covered on the glass substrate were observed from FESEM. The average grain size were found to be 77 nm, 100 nm and 124 nm for 20 cycles, 40 cycles and 60 cycles samples respectively. For 60 cycle sample, Raman spectra show two prominent peaks at 554 cm-1 and 1094 cm-1. The optical band gap values were found to be 3.76 eV, 3.72 eV and 3.67 eV for 20 cycle, 40 cycle and 60 cycle samples respectively.

  6. Crystal Growth Kinetics of Nanocrystalline ZnS under Surface Adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The crystal growth mechanism, kinetics, and microstructure development play a fundamental role in tailoring the materials with controllable size and morphology. In this study,by introducing the strong surface adsorption of the concentrated NaOH, two-stage crystal growth kinetics of ZnS nanoparticles was observed. In the first stage, the primary particles grow into a size over a hundred times of the original volume and the growth is controlled by the crystallographically specific oriented attachment. The first stage data were fitted by the "multistep OA kinetic model" built based on the molecular collision and reaction. In the second stage, following the dispersal of nanoparticles, an abrupt transition from asymptotic to parabola growth kinetics occurs, which can be fitted by a standard Ostwald ripening volume diffusion model. The presence of surface adsorption causes the two-stage growth kinetics and permits an almost exclusive OA-based growth to dominate in the first stage.

  7. Effect of substrate temperature on the optical properties of thermally evaporated ZnS thin films

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) thin films were formed onto cleaned glass substrates using the thermal evaporation method in vacuum. The substrate temperature was varied between as- deposited and 150 °C, keeping the film thickness and the rate of evaporation fixed at 200~nm and 0.3~nm \\cdot s-1, respectively. The film thickness was measured in situ by a quartz crystal thickness monitor. The structure of the films was ascertained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The XRD spectra show that the f...

  8. Sample depolarization effects from thin films of ZnS on GaAs as measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellison, G. E., Jr.; McCamy, J. W.

    1992-08-01

    Thin films of ZnS grown on GaAs by laser ablation are examined using spectroscopic two-channel polarization modulation ellipsometry (2-C PME). It is found that variations in the film thickness over the illumination spot result in the quasidepolarization of the incident light, which can be measured directly using 2-C PME. Quantitative fits of the ellipsometry data using a distribution-of-thicknesses model agree with independent reflectivity measurements of the thickness gradient, and allow for the accurate determination of the optical functions of the ZnS film.

  9. Role of precursors on morphology and optical properties of ZnS thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fenollosa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46071 - Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: mhernan@fis.upv.es; Lopez, M.C. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Unversidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Donderis, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46071 - Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, M.; Mari, B. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46071 - Valencia (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficie (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Dptos Fisica Aplicada and Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Unversidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    This study investigates the effect of different growth parameters on the structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films, prepared using spray pyrolysis. The films were prepared using different Zn:S ratios (between 1:1 and 1:6) and in different growth solutions: (A), zinc chloride and thiourea and (B) dehydrated zinc acetate and thiourea, both in distilled water. By varying the Zn:S ratio in the films, the optical properties (absorption and photoluminescence) show that different species are created during film growth. This was deduced from the wide emission band appearing in the green region of the photoluminescence spectra, and from the change in band gap, which varies between 3.2 and 3.5 eV. Films formed from solution (A) with a Zn:S ratio of 1:3 or 1:4 show the best morphology and transmission. ZnS has a wider band gap than other conventional II-VI semiconductors utilized in various electronic and optical devices and can be expected to provide a useful window layer of solar cells which leads to an improvement in overall efficiency by decreasing absorption loss.

  10. Electrical characterization of nanocrystalline zinc selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jeewan; Shikha, Deep; Tripathi, Surya Kant

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, we have studied the effect of photo-illumination on electrical properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe thin films. The ZnSe thin films with different grain sizes (coherently diffracting domains) have been prepared. The semiconducting material with the composition Zn25Se75 has been prepared using melt-quenching technique. Thermal evaporation technique has been used to prepare nanocrystalline ZnSe thin films on highly cleaned glass substrates at different partial pressures of Ar gas. The grain size has been controlled by the partial pressure of inert gas. The grain size has been calculated using X-ray diffraction plots. Mobility activation has been studied from the photocurrent decay curves. The effective density of states ( N eff), frequency factor ( S), and trap depth ( E) have been calculated for all the films having different grain sizes. Three different types of trap levels have been found in these films. There is a linear distribution of traps having different energies below the conduction band. The increase in photoconductivity is explained in terms of built in potential barriers ( ϕ b) at the grain boundaries.

  11. Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films by electrochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kapadnis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride thin films were deposited onto different substrates as copper, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, Indium tin oxide (ITO, Aluminum and zinc at room temperature via electrochemical route. The morphology of the film shows the nanostructures on the deposited surface of the films and their growth in vertical direction. Different nanostructures developed on different substrates. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that the deposited films are nanocrystalline in nature. UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows the wide range of absorption in the visible region. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy confirms the formation of cadmium telluride.

  12. Effects of temperature on the morphology and optical properties of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Várguez, P. E.; Ceh, O.; González-Panzo, I. J.; Tec-Yam, S.; Patiño, R.; Oliva, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films were deposited on Corning glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique at different temperatures. The influence of the bath temperature and deposition time on the morphological and optical properties of the ZnS films are herein investigated. ZnS films were deposited by changing the bath-temperature from 50 °C to 90 °C, and deposition times from 60 to 160 min. Thin and transparent films were obtained with thicknesses from 10 to 90 nm with the increment of the bath temperature, meanwhile the band gap energy Eg values diminishes from 4.15 to 3.4 eV. The quality of the ZnS film surfaces was also influenced by increasing the bath temperature, as showed by the reduced grain size and the increase of roughness, obtained from atomic force microscopy images. ZnS films of good optical quality were obtained at 90 °C with a mean value of Eg = 3.56 ± 0.03 eV.

  13. Magnetic properties of nanocrystalline FeNiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, P.; Sanz, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales ' ' Nicolas Cabrera' ' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Camarero, J.; Sacristan, N. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales ' ' Nicolas Cabrera' ' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Boerma, D.O. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada and Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    FeNiN thin films with a Ni content varying between 5 and 36 at% (as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have been deposited in a Dual Ion Beam Sputtering System at room temperature. The structure and crystalline size were studied by X-ray diffraction while the magnetic properties were investigated by vectorial kerr magnetometry. In general, the deposited films present a nanocrystaline cubic structure and well defined in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The variation of the magnetic properties was attributed to changes in composition and nanocrystalline structure. FeNiN thin films with a Ni content of about 15 at% show the better soft magnetic properties with a minimum in the coercivity of 9 Oe. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. The radiation response of mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Ayelén M.; Alurralde, Martin A.; Giménez, Gustavo; Luca, Vittorio

    2016-12-01

    The next generation of nuclear systems will require materials capable of withstanding hostile chemical, physical and radiation environments over long time-frames. Aside from its chemical and physical stability, crystalline zirconia is one of the most radiation tolerant materials known. Here we report the first ever study of the radiation response of nanocrystalline and mesoporous zirconia and Ce3+-stabilized nanocrystalline zirconia (Ce0.1Zr0.9O2) thin films supported on silicon wafers. Zirconia films prepared using the block copolymer Brij-58 as the template had a thickness of around 60-80 nm. In the absence of a stabilizing trivalent cation they consisted of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia nanocrystals with diameters in the range 8-10 nm. Films stabilized with Ce3+ contained only the tetragonal phase. The thin films were irradiated with iodine ions of energies of 70 MeV and 132 keV at low fluences (1013 - 1014 cm-2) corresponding to doses of 0.002 and 1.73 dpa respectively, and at 180 keV and high fluences (2 × 1016 cm-2) corresponding to 82.4 dpa. The influence of heavy ion irradiation on the nanocrystalline structure was monitored through Rietveld analysis of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) patterns recorded at angles close to the critical angle to ensure minimum contribution to the diffraction pattern from the substrate. Irradiation of the mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films with 70 MeV iodine ions, for which electronic energy loss is dominant, resulted in slight changes in phase composition and virtually no change in crystallographic parameters as determined by Rietveld analysis. Iodine ion bombardment in the nuclear energy loss regime (132-180 keV) at low fluences did not provoke significant changes in phase composition or crystallographic parameters. However, at 180 keV and high fluences the monoclinic phase was totally eliminated from the GIXRD pattern of films prepared at both 350 and 500 °C implying either a monoclinic

  15. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  16. Substrate dependent structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnS thin films grown by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Trilok K.; Kumar, Vinod; Purohit, L. P.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) films are of great importance for applications in various optoelectronic devices. ZnS thin films were grown on glass, indium tin oxide (ITO) and Corning glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at a temperature of 373 K and a comparative study of the structural, optical and electrical properties was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, optical and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The XRD patterns showed that the sputtered thin films exhibited good crystallinity with the (111) peak around 2θ=28.3° indicating preferential orientation of the cubic structure. The maximum strain and most densely packed grains were obtained for the Corning glass substrate. The transmittance spectra of the films were measured in the wavelength range from 200 to 800 nm, showing that the films are about 77% transparent in the visible region. A slight change of 3.50 eV to 3.54 eV was found for the bandgap of the films deposited on different substrates. The ZnS thin films deposited on Corning glass show better crystallinity, morphology and I-V characteristics than that deposited on ordinary glass and ITO substrates.

  17. Growth of ZnS, CdS and multilayer ZnS/CdS thin films by SILAR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Mika P.; Kanniainen, Tapio; Lindroos, Seppo; Leskelä, Markku; Rauhala, Eero

    1997-08-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique was used to deposit cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films on (100)GaAs. CdS thin films were also grown on ITO-covered glass substrates. Multilayer CdS/ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates. The crystallinity of the thin films was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and they all turned out to be polycrystalline. The thin films looked relatively smooth and homogeneous in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) proved nearly 1 : 1 stoichiometry for the multilayer samples. Thickness of the thin films was measured by RBS and chemical analysis.

  18. Surface morphological and photoelectrochemical studies of ZnS thin films developed from single source precursors by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Peiris, T.A. Nirmal; Wijayantha, K.G. Upul [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Khaledi, Hamid [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ming, Huang Nay [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Misran, Misni; Arifin, Zainudin [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films have been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated conducting glass substrates at 375, 425 and 475 °C temperatures from single source adduct precursors [Zn(S{sub 2}CNCy{sub 2}){sub 2}(py)] (1) [where, Cy = cyclohexyl, py = pyridine] and [Zn{S_2CN(CH_2Ph)(Me)}{sub 2}(py)] (2) [where, Ph = Phenyl, Me = Methyl] using aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD). The precursor complexes have been characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray single crystal and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal analysis showed that both precursors (1) and (2) undergo thermal decomposition at 375 °C to produce ZnS residues. The deposited ZnS films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic studies indicated that the surface morphology of ZnS films strongly depends on the nature of the precursor and the deposition temperature, regardless of marginal variation in thermal stability of the precursors. Direct band gap energies of 3.36 and 3.40 eV have been estimated from the ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy for the ZnS films fabricated from precursors (1) and (2), respectively. The current–voltage characteristics recorded under air mass 1.5 illumination confirmed that the deposited ZnS thin films are photoactive under anodic bias conditions. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) results indicate that these synthesised single source precursors are suitable for obtaining ZnS thin films by AACVD method. The ZnS thin film electrode prepared in this study are very promising for solar energy conversion and optoelectronic applications. The PEC properties of ZnS electrodes prepared from (2) are superior to that of the ZnS electrode prepared from precursor (1). - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of zinc dithiocarbamate pyridine adducts. • ZnS photo electrodes have been fabricated using aerosol

  19. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Solution-Processed Co-Doped ZnS Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktas, A.; Mutlu, İ. H.

    2016-11-01

    Co-doped ZnS thin films have been grown on glass substrates using solution-processing and dip-coating techniques, and the impact of the Co doping level (0% to 5%) and film thickness on certain characteristics examined. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all the films possessed hexagonal crystal structure. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis confirmed presence of Zn, Co, and S in the samples. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the film surface was homogeneous and dense with some cracks and spots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed introduction and integration of Co2+ ions into the ZnS thin films. Compared with undoped ZnS, optical studies indicated a reduction in optical bandgap energy ( E g) while the refractive index ( n), extinction coefficient ( k), and dielectric constants ( ɛ 1, ɛ 2) increased with film thickness ( t) and Co doping level (except for 5%). Photoluminescence spectra showed enhanced luminescence intensity as the Co concentration was increased, while the dependence on t showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. The origin of the observed low-temperature (5 K and 100 K) ferromagnetic order may be related to point defects such as zinc vacancies, zinc interstitials, and sulfide vacancies or to the grain-boundary effect.

  20. Effect of sample producing conditions on the thermoluminescence properties of ZnS thin films developed by spray pyrolysis method

    CERN Document Server

    Yazici, A N; Bedir, M

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the effect of thin film production conditions (substrate temperature and ratio of starting material) was studied on the intensity of thermoluminescence (TL) signal and TL emission spectrum of ZnS samples that were grown by spray pyrolysis method. It was observed that the intensity of TL signal increases with increasing the substrate temperature (T sub s) and reaches a maximum point at the substrate temperature of 500 deg. C with a high ratio of ZnCl sub 2 salt solutions. Secondly, it was observed that the energy level of trap present in ZnS samples is not single-level but instead has a distribution of energy levels. The type of the trap distribution is probably an exponential distribution. However, the distribution of energy levels approaches to single energy level with increasing substrate temperature.

  1. Room temperature ferromagnetism and half metallicity in nickel doped ZnS: Experimental and DFT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Malik, Mohammad Azad, E-mail: Azad.malik@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

    2015-06-15

    The nickel doped nanocrystalline ZnS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Also ZnS:Ni nanoparticles were synthesized by CBD/co-precipitation method. Powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) studies demonstrate that both thin films and nanoparticles correspond to sphalerite (cubic) phase of ZnS with slight shift towards higher 2θ values due to incorporation of nickel in the ZnS lattice. The crystallite sizes estimated by Scherrer equation were 4 and 2.6 nm for ZnNiS thin films and nanoparticles, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images reveal that the morphology of thin films is based on quasi-spherical particles with nano scale dimensions. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy confirms that the as-deposited thin films have a stoichiometry consistent with the nickel doped ZnS. Full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-L/APW) method based on spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) was employed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of ZnNiS for the doping concentration. Exchange-correlation functional was studied using generalized gradient approximation (GGA + U) method. Electronic band structures and density of states (DOS) demonstrate 100% spin polarization (half metallicity) with ferromagnetic exchange interactions. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) analysis confirms the theoretical observation of ferromagnetism in nickel doped ZnS. These ZnS based half metallic ferromagnets seem to have virtuous applications in future spintronic devices. - Highlights: • ZnS.Ni thin films and nanoparticles were deposited onto glass substrates by CBD. • p-XRD correspond to sphalerite (cubic) phase of ZnS with slight shift in peaks. • DFT was employed to investigate the properties of ZnS.Ni. • DOS demonstrate 100% spin polarization with ferromagnetic exchange interactions. • SQUID analysis confirms the theoretical observations of nickel doped ZnS.

  2. Experimental evidence of tunable space-charge-layer-induced electrical properties of nanocrystalline ceria thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Ryul; Lee, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Han-Ill

    2013-10-07

    Fully dense nanocrystalline ceria films were successfully deposited on a MgO single crystal by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline thin film was 20 times higher than that of the bulk sample. The activation energy of bulk ceria was 2.3 eV, whereas the activation energy of the nanocrystalline sample was only 1.2 eV. After post-annealing at 1273 K in which the grain size of the nanocrystalline thin film increased to ~400 nm, the electrical conductivity and activation energy of the film were changed similar to those of bulk. These unique electrical properties of the nano-crystalline thin-film can be attributed to the grain size effect, or more specifically, to the space charge layer (SCL) effect. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of the nanocrystalline thin film became similar to that of the bulk in an extremely reducing atmosphere because of the unusual dependence of the SCL effect on the oxygen partial pressure.

  3. ZnS thin film deposited with chemical bath deposition process directed by different stirring speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Dang, X. Y.; Jin, J.; Yu, T.; Li, B. Z.; He, Q.; Li, F. Y.; Sun, Y.

    2010-09-01

    In this combined film thickness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical properties study, we explore the effects of different stirring speeds on the growth and optical properties of ZnS film deposited by CBD method. From the disclosed changes of thickness of ZnS film, we conclude that film thickness is independent of the stirring speeds in the heterogeneous process (deposition time less than 40 min), but increases with the stirring speeds and/or deposition time increasing in the homogeneous process. Grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and the study of optical properties disclosed that the ZnS films grown with different stirring speeds show partially crystallized film and exhibit good transmittance (70-88% in the visible region), but the stirring speeds cannot give much effects on the structure and optical properties in the homogeneous process.

  4. Evidence for a thermal mechanism in excimer laser ablation of thin film ZnS on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, D.; Wagner, F. X.; Key, P. H.

    1999-04-01

    The influence of thermal conduction into the substrate during excimer laser ablation of thin film ZnS on silicon has been investigated. An analytical solution of the heat diffusion equation for a two-layer system has been used to calculate temperature profiles within the film and substrate arising from laser irradiation. The experimentally observed ablation rates are found to correlate with calculated surface temperatures, thereby demonstrating that thermal conduction into the substrate influences the ablation characteristics. Thus we are able to provide a simple predictive model for the ablation rate at any fluence incident on any thin film thickness. We find that for very thin films, optical interference effects reduce the energy coupled into the films and it is necessary to consider these within the model.

  5. Dual roles of ZnS thin layers in significant photocurrent enhancement of ZnO/CdTe nanocable arrays photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xina; Liu, Rong; Wang, Tian; Wang, Baoyuan; Xu, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2013-04-24

    The effect of a ZnS thin layer on the photoelectrochemical property of ZnO/CdTe nanocable arrays-on-indium tin oxide was systematically studied by the successive ion layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) of ZnS. The thickness of CdTe on bare ZnO/CdTe nanocable arrays was optimized to approximately 10 nm to achieve a saturated photocurrent density of 6.5 mA/cm(2). Significant photocurrent enhancement was achieved by gradually increasing the ZnS SILAR cycle number from 0 to 10. A "type I" band alignment with conduction and valence band offsets of 0.58 and 1.52 eV, respectively, was deduced for the CdTe/ZnS interface. The detailed microstructure of the CdTe/ZnS interface and the relationship between the photocurrent and the ZnS thickness indicated that ZnS not only serves as a barrier layer that prevents electron injection from CdTe to the electrolyte but also provides an effective tunneling channel for hole transfers to the electrolyte. A ZnO/CdTe/ZnS nanocable photoanode yielded a saturated photocurrent density of 13.8 mA/cm(2) when the thickness of ZnS was controlled to approximately 2 nm.

  6. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vahid Mohammadi; Mohammad Hossein Sheikhi

    2009-01-01

    ...^ thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized...

  7. Nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by dual ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Pilar, E-mail: pilar.prieto@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Patricia [Departamento de Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Isabel J. [Departamento de Física de Materiales M-4, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Figuera, Juan de la; Marco, José F. [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • We have grown tensile and compressive strained nanocrystalline magnetite thin films by dual ion beam sputtering. • The magnetic and thermoelectric properties can be controlled by the deposition conditions. • The magnetic anisotropy depends on the crystalline grain size. • The thermoelectric properties depend on the type of strain induced in the films. • In plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy develops in magnetite thin films with grain sizes ⩽20 nm. - Abstract: We have explored the influence of an ion-assisted beam in the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering. The microstructure has been investigated by XRD. Tensile and compressive strained thin films have been obtained as a function of the parameters of the ion-assisted beam. The evolution of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy was attributed to crystalline grain size. In some films, magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements reveal the existence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the deposition process related with a small grain size (⩽20 nm). Isotropic magnetic properties have observed in nanocrystalline magnetite thin film having larger grain sizes. The largest power factor of all the films prepared (0.47 μW/K{sup 2} cm), obtained from a Seebeck coefficient of −80 μV/K and an electrical resistivity of 13 mΩ cm, is obtained in a nanocrystalline magnetite thin film with an expanded out-of-plane lattice and with a grain size ≈30 nm.

  8. Deposition and Characterization Of Nanocrystalline Silver Thin Films By Using SILAR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohom, A. B.; Sartale, S. D.

    2011-07-01

    Nanocrystalline silver thin films were deposited on glass substrate by using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reduction (SILAR) method. Silver nitrate and hydrazine hydrate (HyH) were used as precursors. The deposited silver thin films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible-NIR absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Effect of concentration of HyH on properties of SILAR grown silver thin films has been extensively studied.

  9. Novel metal-carbon(60) nanocrystalline magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyi

    1999-11-01

    A novel type of nanocrystalline magnetic thin films consisting of ferromagnetic metals and C60 have been developed and investigated. CO-C 60, Fe-C60 and CoFe-C60 with different concentrations of C60 thin films have been manufactured by thermal vapor codeposition. The microstructures and magnetic properties of the films can be significantly enhanced by varying the concentrations of C60 in the films. The stability of C60 and the compatibility of C60 with the metallic matrices are confirmed by mass spectrometry, Raman, WDS, XRD and TEM. Strong metal- C60 interaction is indicated by higher desorption temperatures of C60 in the meta- C60 films than that in pure C60 and the peak shift in Raman spectra. TEM shows that the grain size of the matrix metal decreases proportionally with increasing C60 concentration. Nanosize uniform columnar grains with nanoscale dispersion of C60 on the grain boundaries are commonly observed in the metal-C60 films. A self- assembly grain growth model based on the size effect of C60 and the metal-C60 interaction is proposed to delineate the microstructural evolution by C60. Calculations based on this model are consistent with experimental observations and give a grain size vs. C60 (carbon) concentration relationship. Grain growth retardation by C60 is observed in a CO-C60 film. Out-plane magnetic remanence and coercivity are enhanced in both the CO-C60 and Fe-C60 films. In the in-plane direction, the coercivity deceases in CO- C60 films but increases slightly in Fe- C60 films with increasing C60 concentrations. In-plane magnetic anisotropy is detected in CO-C60 films but not in Fe-C60 films. Strong temperature-dependent magnetization remanence and saturation are found in both the Co- C60 and Fe-C60 films with high C60 concentrations due to the nanosize grain effects. Temperature effects on the coercivity of CO- C60 and Fe-C60 are different and determined by the intrinsic magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. Coercivity of the CoFe-C60 films

  10. Structure and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline Hafnium Oxide Thin Films (PostPrint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0214 STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOCRYSTALLINE HAFNIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) Neil R. Murphy AFRL...OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOCRYSTALLINE HAFNIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...publication is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2014.08.005 14. ABSTRACT Hafnium oxide (HfO2) films were grown by sputter-deposition by

  11. Schottky Junction Methane Sensors Using Electrochemically Grown Nanocrystalline-Nanoporous ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Basu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline-nanoporous ZnO thin films were prepared by an electrochemical anodization method, and the films were tested as methane sensors. It was found that Pd-Ag catalytic contacts showed better sensing performance compared to other noble metal contacts like Pt and Rh. The methane sensing temperature could be reduced to as low as 100∘C by sensitizing nanocrystalline ZnO thin films with Pd, deposited by chemical method. The sensing mechanism has been discussed briefly.

  12. Investigating the role of hydrogen in ultra-nanocrystalline diamond thin film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, James; Gerbi, J. E.; Auciello, O. A.; Carlisle, J. A.

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen has long been known to be critical for the growth of high-quality microcrystalline diamond thin films as well as homoepitaxial single-crystal diamond. A hydrogen-poor growth process that results in ultra-nanocrystalline diamond thin films has also been developed, and it has been theorized that diamond growth with this gas chemistry can occur in the absence of hydrogen. This study investigates the role of hydrogen in the growth of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond thin films in two different regimes. First, we add hydrogen to the gas phase during growth, and observe that there seems to be a competitive growth process occurring between microcrystalline diamond and ultra-nanocrystalline diamond, rather than a simple increase in the grain size of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond. Second, we remove hydrogen from the plasma by changing the hydrocarbon precursor from methane to acetylene and observe that there does seem to be some sort of lower limit to the amount of hydrogen that can sustain ultra-nanocrystalline diamond growth. We speculate that this is due to the amount of hydrogen needed to stabilize the surface of the growing diamond nanocrystals.

  13. Structure and optical properties of ZnS thin films grown by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sumei; Fu, Xiaoyong; Xia, Guodong; Wang, Jianguo; Shao, Jianda; Fan, Zhengxiu

    2006-10-01

    The glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique was used to deposit ZnS films by electron beam evaporation method. The cross sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image illustrated a highly orientated microstructure composed of slanted column. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that incident flux angle had significant effects on the nodule size and surface roughness. Under identical nominal thickness, the actual thickness of the GLAD films is related to the incident flux angle. The refractive index and in-plane birefringence of the GLAD ZnS films were discussed, and the maximum birefringence Δ n = 0.036 was obtained at incident flux angle of α = 80°. Therefore, the glancing angle deposition technique is a promising way to create a columnar structure with enhanced birefringent property.

  14. Effect of laser light on the sticking coefficient in ZnS thin-film growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, C.; Daneu, V.; Riva-Sanseverino, S.

    1980-12-01

    Some preliminary results are presented concerning an effect of laser light (λ=4880 Å) on the growth of an evaporated ZnS film. We observe an increase in thickness in the region of the film illuminated by laser light. The spatial resolution is high and the observed phenomenon is not thermal in origin. A simple and unique method for investigating the dynamics of the effect during its evolution is described.

  15. Effects of Thickness and Annealing on Optoelectronic Properties of Electrodeposited ZnS Thin Films for Photonic Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echendu, O. K.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    Thin layers of ZnS with thicknesses of 400 nm, 500 nm, and 700 nm have been electrodeposited on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a simple two-electrode setup under similar conditions. Structural characterization of the layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that they were amorphous. The results of optical characterization carried out in the wavelength range of 315 nm to 800 nm using spectrophotometry revealed that the optical properties of the layers are strongly influenced by the film thickness as well as annealing conditions. The values of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant obtained from normal-incidence transmittance spectra were generally lower after annealing, showing also the influence of postdeposition annealing on the deposited ZnS layers. Electrical characterization of the layers, using direct-current current-voltage measurement under dark conditions at room temperature, shows that the resistivity of the as-deposited and annealed layers is in the range of 1.4 × 104 Ω cm to 2.5 × 104 Ω cm and 2.5 × 104 Ω cm to 3.1 × 104 Ω cm, respectively. The results suggest that the optoelectronic properties can be tuned for particular applications by adjusting the thickness of the layers appropriately.

  16. Ultraviolet emission enhancement in ZnO thin films modified by nanocrystalline TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gaige; Lu, Xi; Qian, Liming; Xian, Fenglin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The composition of the films was examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The photoluminescent spectrum shows that the pure ZnO thin film exhibits an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a strong green emission band. Surface analysis indicates that the ZnO thin film contains many oxygen vacancy defects on the surface. After the ZnO thin film is modified by the nanocrystalline TiO2 layer, the UV emission of ZnO is largely enhanced and the green emission is greatly suppressed, which suggests that the surface defects such as oxygen vacancies are passivated by the TiO2 capping layer. As for the UV emission enhancement of the ZnO thin film, the optimized thickness of the TiO2 capping layer is ∼16 nm. When the thickness is larger than 16 nm, the UV emission of the ZnO thin film will decrease because the TiO2 capping layer absorbs most of the excitation energy. The UV emission enhancement in the nanocrystalline TiO2 modified ZnO thin film can be attributed to surface passivation and flat band effect.

  17. Optical characteristics of ZnS {sub x}Se{sub 1-x} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Hassan, Khedr M.M. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, School of Engineering, UCSI, Lot 18113, Off Jalan Cerdas, Taman Connaught, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: khedr@ucsi.edu.my; Muhamad, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, K.L. Malaysia (Malaysia); Radhakrishna, S

    2005-11-22

    The optical transmission measurements are used to determine various optical constants and properties of ZnS {sub x}Se{sub 1-x} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation onto glass substrates at 60 deg. C. The dispersion of the complex refractive index, the complex dielectric function and the absorption coefficient is studied in the transparent region of the spectrum and compared with the theoretical results calculated based on the model dielectric function. The fundamental optical energy gap is estimated by fitting the absorption coefficient data in the high absorption region to the direct transition expression. The variation of the energy gap with the composition in the film is investigated and compared with the results reported previously by other workers. The shift in the energy gap caused by the uniaxial stress inside the film and the grain size effect is estimated.

  18. Nitridation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films by treatment with ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Rico, V.; Espinos, J.P.; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Palgrave, Robert G. [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Egdell, Russell G., E-mail: russell.egdell@chem.ox.ac.u [Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-31

    Nanocrystalline anatase (TiO{sub 2}) thin films prepared by a physical vapour deposition method were nitrided by annealing in flowing NH{sub 3} at temperatures ranging between 650 {sup o}C and 700 {sup o}C. It was established that there was a narrow window of temperatures which allowed both incorporation of interstitial nitrogen into the films with retention of the anatase phase without chemical reduction and preservation of the characteristic nanocrystalline morphology. These optimally modified films responded to visible light in photowetting tests and showed the ability to degrade an organic dye under visible light irradiation.

  19. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn2+ Tailored Hierarchical ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-01

    A simple method combing Mn2+ doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn2+ doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn2+ concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn2+. Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  20. Ultrasensitive, Real-time and Discriminative Detection of Improvised Explosives by Chemiresistive Thin-film Sensory Array of Mn(2+) Tailored Hierarchical ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Wu, Zhaofeng; Guo, Yanan; Li, Yushu; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2016-05-10

    A simple method combing Mn(2+) doping with a hierarchical structure was developed for the improvement of thin-film sensors and efficient detection of the explosives relevant to improvised explosive devices (IEDs). ZnS hierarchical nanospheres (HNs) were prepared via a solution-based route and their sensing performances were manipulated by Mn(2+) doping. The responses of the sensors based on ZnS HNs towards 8 explosives generally increase firstly and then decrease with the increase of the doped Mn(2+) concentration, reaching the climate at 5% Mn(2+). Furthermore, the sensory array based on ZnS HNs with different doping levels achieved the sensitive and discriminative detection of 6 analytes relevant to IEDs and 2 military explosives in less than 5 s at room temperature. Importantly, the superior sensing performances make ZnS HNs material interesting in the field of chemiresistive sensors, and this simple method could be a very promising strategy to put the sensors based on thin-films of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures into practical IEDs detection.

  1. The effect of nitrogen on the formation of nanocrystalline copper thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinas, R; Vieira, M T; Ferreira, P J

    2009-06-01

    The current success of nanocrystalline materials is due to their unusual and promising properties compared to coarser grain size materials. However, maintaining the nanocrystalline character during processes or applications is not an easy task, due to the tendency towards grain growth exhibited by nanocrystalline materials. It is well known that the addition of solutes with a strong affinity for grain boundary segregation can act as pinning centers and inhibit grain growth, particularly during the manufacturing process. However, the ideal is to use these elements/compounds only during manufacturing, and after that these elements must disappear in order to attain the desirable properties. The aim of this study is to produce nanocrystalline Cu-based thin films through controlled addition of nitrogen to inhibit grain growth. A detailed chemical composition, structural and grain size analysis of these thin films was made by Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that introduction of nitrogen, even in small amounts, leads to a significant decrease in grain size, particularly if Cu3N is not yielded in the thin film during the deposition process.

  2. Ferroelectric polarization in nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite thin films on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S B; Tofail, S A M; Kholkin, A L; Wojtaś, M; Gregor, M; Gandhi, A A; Wang, Y; Bauer, S; Krause, M; Plecenik, A

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone--a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics.

  3. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Nanocrystalline VO2 Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Chen; YI Xin-Jian; LAI Jian-Jun; LI Yi

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nanocrystalline VO2 films with phase transition temperature 34℃ have been fabricated on Si3N4-film-coated silicon and quartz substrates by argon-annealing films of metastable VO2(B). The original VO2(B) films are obtained by ion beam sputtering in an argon-oxygen atmosphere at 200 ℃. The nanocrystalline VO2 films exhibit strong changes in electrical and optical properties when a phase transition is completed. The phase transition temperature in the as-fabricated samples is about 34 ℃, which is smaller in comparison with 68 ℃ in the singlecrystalline VO2 material. A lower phase transition temperature is favorable for device applications such as smart window coating and low power consumption optical switching.

  5. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin films in PVA matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Devi; P Purkayastha; P K Kalita; B K Sarma

    2007-04-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of CdS are deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix solution. Crystallite sizes of the nanocrystalline films are determined from broadening of X-ray diffraction lines and are found to vary from 5.4–10.2 nm. The band gap of the nanocrystalline material is determined from the UV spectrograph. The absorption edge is shifted towards the lower wave length side (i.e. blue shift) and are found to be within the range from 2.48–2.8 eV as grain sizes decrease from 10.2–5.4 nm. This is also supported by the spectral response curves. An increase of molarity decreases the grain size which in turn increases the band gap.

  6. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) trend for nanocrystalline mercury sulfide thin films growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.S. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Lokhande, C.D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Mane, R.S. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Pathan, H.M. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Oh-Shim [Korea Institute of Science and Technology 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2006-04-15

    Mercury sulfide (HgS) nanocrystalline thin films have been grown onto amorphous glass substrate by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) trend at room temperature (27 deg. C). The optimized preparative parameters including ion concentration, number of immersion cycles, and pH of the solution are used for fine nanocrystalline film growth. A further study has been made for the structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optical absorption and dc two point probe method. The as-deposited grown HgS nanocrystalline films exhibited cubic phase, with optical band gap (E {sub g}) of 2.0 eV and electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup 3} {omega} cm. SEM and TEM images confirmed films of smooth surface morphology and nanocrystaline in nature with fine crystallites of 20-30 nm diameter, respectively.

  7. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E. P.; Sharma, Neha; Harimohan, V.; Amirthapandian, S.; Mani, Awadhesh

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples.

  8. Effect of deposition variables on properties of CBD ZnS thin films prepared in chemical bath of ZnSO4/SC(NH2)2/Na3C3H5O7/NH4OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Long; Yang, Chang-Siao; Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen-Jauh; Fern, Chi-Lon

    2013-01-01

    The CBD ZnS thin films were prepared on substrates of soda lime glass in chemical bath. The effect of deposition variables including zinc sulfate, thiourea, tri-sodium citrate, ammoina water, bath temperature, and deposition time on the properties of CBD ZnS thin films were comprehensively studied. The CBD ZnS thin films were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the surface and cross section morphologies and thicknesses, an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped in FESEM for the atomic% of Zn and S, an ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (300-800 nm) for the transmittance and energy gap, and an atomic force microscope for the surface roughness. The results showed that the CBD ZnS thin films have a transmittance for ultraviolet-visible rays (300-800 nm) from 70.8 to 87.8%. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 5 have an energy gap from 3.881 to 3.980 eV. The CBD ZnS thin films prepared in bath 6 have a growth rate from 1.8 to 3.2 nm/min and activation energy of 59.8 kJ/mol for their growth.

  9. Harmonic generation in ZnO nanocrystalline laser deposited thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, V.; Thareja, R. K.

    2006-04-01

    ZnO plasma produced by third harmonic 355 nm of Nd:YAG laser at various ambient pressures of oxygen was used for depositing quality nanocrystalline ZnO thin films. Time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy is used to correlate the plasma properties with that of deposited thin films. The deposited films showed particle size of 8 and 84 nm at ambient oxygen pressure of 100 and 900 mTorr, respectively. Third harmonic generation observed in ZnO thin films deposited under 100 mTorr of ambient oxygen is reported.

  10. Implantation induced hardening of nanocrystalline titanium thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, R; Amirthapandian, S; Mangamma, G; Ramaseshan, R; Dash, S; Tyagi, A K; Jayaram, V; Raj, Baldev

    2009-09-01

    Formation of nanocrystalline TiN at low temperatures was demonstrated by combining Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) and ion implantation techniques. The Ti films of nominal thickness approximatly 250 nm were deposited at a substrate temperature of 200 degrees C by ablating a high pure titanium target in UHV conditions using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. These films were implanted with 100 keV N+ ions with fluence ranging from 1.0 x 10(16) ions/cm2 to 1.0 x 10(17) ions/cm2 The structural, compositional and morphological evolutions were tracked using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. TEM analysis revealed that the as-deposited titanium film is an fcc phase. With increasing ion fluence, its structure becomes amorphous phase before precipitation of nanocrystalline fcc TIN phase. Compositional depth profiles obtained from SIMS have shown the extent of nitrogen concentration gradient in the implantation zone. Both as-deposited and ion implanted films showed much higher hardness as compared to the bulk titanium. AFM studies revealed a gradual increase in surface roughness leading to surface patterning with increase in ion fluence.

  11. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmiller, Jochen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gruber, Patric A., E-mail: patric.gruber@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility.

  12. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-03-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  13. Thermal stability of nanocrystalline W-Ti diffusion barrier thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline W-Ti diffusion barrier thin films with different phase structures and Cu/barrier/Si multilayer structures were deposited on p-type Si(100) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering.These films were annealed at different temperatures for 1 h.The diffusion barrier properties and thermal stability were studied using four-probe tester(FPP),XRD,AFM,XPS,FESEM,and HRTEM.The experimental results showed that the films were stable up to 700℃.When the annealing temperature was increased,the Cu and Ti atoms began to react and CuTi3 was formed.In addition,the high resistance Cu3Si was formed due to inter-diffusion between the Si and Cu atoms which made the surface rougher and caused the sheet resistance to increase abruptly.At the same time,failure mechanism of the nanocrystalline W-Ti diffusion barrier thin films during annealing process was also discussed.

  14. Preparation of Nano-crystalline Tungsten Carbide Thin Film by Magnetron Sputtering and Their Electrocatalytic Property for PNP Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Jun ZHENG; Jian Guo HUANG; Chun An MA

    2005-01-01

    Nano-crystalline tungsten carbide thin films were deposited on Ni substrates by magnetron sputtering using WC as target material. The crystal structure and morphology of the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Electrochemical investigations showed that the electrode of the thin film exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity in the reaction of p-nitrophenol (PNP) reduction. FT-IR analysis indicated that p-aminophenol (PAP) was synthesized after two step reduction of PNP on nano-crystalline tungsten carbide thin film electrode.

  15. Surface Energy in Nanocrystalline Carbon Thin Films: Effect of Size Dependence and Atmospheric Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Javid, Amjed; Han, Jeon Geon

    2017-03-14

    Surface energy (SE) is the most sensitive and fundamental parameter for governing the interfacial interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. However, on account of the complexities involved of hybridization states and surface bonds, achieved SE values are often less in comparison with their theoretical counterparts and strongly influenced by stability aspects. Here, an advanced facing-target pulsed dc unbalanced magnetron-sputtering process is presented for the synthesis of undoped and H/N-doped nanocrystalline carbon thin films. The time-dependent surface properties of the undoped and H/N-doped nanocrystalline carbon thin films are systematically studied. The advanced plasma process induced the dominant deposition of high-energy neutral carbon species, consequently controlling the intercolumnar spacing of nanodomain morphology and surface anisotropy of electron density. As a result, significantly higher SE values (maximum = 79.24 mJ/m(2)) are achieved, with a possible window of 79.24-66.5 mJ/m(2) by controlling the experimental conditions. The intrinsic (size effects and functionality) and extrinsic factors (atmospheric exposure) are resolved and explained on the basis of size-dependent cohesive energy model and long-range van der Waals interactions between hydrocarbon molecules and the carbon surface. The findings anticipate the enhanced functionality of nanocrystalline carbon thin films in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, and stability.

  16. Anticorrosion Nanocrystalline Beta Zeolite Thin Film for Advanced Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Saud M. Al-subaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel alloys corrosion is ubiquitous and is conventionally protected by anticorrosion chromate coatings. However, the process suffers from the release of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium ions that needs to be replaced by an ecofriendly alternative. In this context, the need for the development of satisfactory ecofriendly chromium-free coating with superior corrosion performance is highly desirable. In the present study, we synthesized fully dispersible nanocrystalline Beta zeolite seeds and coated on steel alloys followed by steaming. The samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, and DLS analyses. The anticorrosion behavior of the synthesized nanoparticle coatings on steel alloys was investigated by electrochemical measurements (DC polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in NaCl and acid and alkaline media under identical experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that the nanozeolite coating can be a potential alternative for toxic and carcinogenic chromate coating.

  17. A study of electrostatically sprayed CuInS2 and ZnS thin films

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of ternary compounds for the fabrication of thin film solar cells is well documented but the production of thin films by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) is still limited. This thesis represents the first attempt to deposit photovoltaic thin films using this novel method. The lack of information regarding the deposition of CuInS2 by ESD required a statistical investigation of the effects of different deposition variables. To achieve this, a new image analysis...

  18. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline nickel thin films due to high-energy heavy-ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajasekhara, S. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 87185-1056 and Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712-1063 (United States); Ferreira, P. J. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas, Austin, TX, 78712-1063 (United States); Hattar, K. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM, 87185-1056 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    This initial feasibility study demonstrates that recent advancements in precession electron diffraction microscopy can be applied to nanostructured metals exposed to high displacement damage from a Tandem accelerator. In this study, high purity, nanocrystalline, free-standing nickel thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition were irradiated with approximately 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} of 35 MeV Ni{sup 6+} ions resulting in an approximately uniform damage profile to approximately 16 dpa. Pristine and ionirradiated regions of the nanocrystalline Ni films were characterized by conventional transmission electron microscopy and precession electron diffraction microscopy. Precession electron diffraction microscopy provided additional insight into the texture, phase, and grain boundary distribution resulting from the displacement damage that could not be obtained from traditional electron microscopy techniques. For the nanocrystalline nickel film studied, this included the growth in number and percentage of a metastable hexagonal closed packed phase grains and the formation of large <001> textured face centered cubic grains. The application of precession electron diffraction microscopy to characterize other nanocrystalline metals, which are being considered for radiation tolerant applications, will permit a comparison of materials that goes beyond the dominant length scale to consider the effects of local phase, texture, and grain boundary or interface information.

  19. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline nickel thin films due to high-energy heavy-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhara, S.; Ferreira, P. J.; Hattar, K.

    2013-04-01

    This initial feasibility study demonstrates that recent advancements in precession electron diffraction microscopy can be applied to nanostructured metals exposed to high displacement damage from a Tandem accelerator. In this study, high purity, nanocrystalline, free-standing nickel thin films produced by pulsed laser deposition were irradiated with approximately 3 × 1014 ions/cm2 of 35 MeV Ni6+ ions resulting in an approximately uniform damage profile to approximately 16 dpa. Pristine and ionirradiated regions of the nanocrystalline Ni films were characterized by conventional transmission electron microscopy and precession electron diffraction microscopy. Precession electron diffraction microscopy provided additional insight into the texture, phase, and grain boundary distribution resulting from the displacement damage that could not be obtained from traditional electron microscopy techniques. For the nanocrystalline nickel film studied, this included the growth in number and percentage of a metastable hexagonal closed packed phase grains and the formation of large textured face centered cubic grains. The application of precession electron diffraction microscopy to characterize other nanocrystalline metals, which are being considered for radiation tolerant applications, will permit a comparison of materials that goes beyond the dominant length scale to consider the effects of local phase, texture, and grain boundary or interface information.

  20. Intrinsic Doping in Electrodeposited ZnS Thin Films for Application in Large-Area Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugu, Mohammad Lamido; Olusola, Olajide Ibukun-Olu; Echendu, Obi Kingsley; Kadem, Burak; Dharmadasa, Imyhamy Mudiy

    2016-06-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films with both n- and p-type electrical conductivity were grown on glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide-conducting substrates from acidic and aqueous solution containing ZnSO4 and (NH4)2S2O3 by simply changing the deposition potential in a two-electrode cell configuration. After deposition, the films were characterised using various analytical techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the materials are amorphous even after heat treatment. Optical properties (transmittance, absorbance and optical bandgap) of the films were studied. The bandgaps of the films were found to be in the range (3.68-3.86) eV depending on the growth voltage. Photoelectrochemical cell measurements show both n- and p-type electrical conductivity for the films depending on the growth voltage. Scanning electron microscopy shows material clusters on the surface with no significant change after heat treatment at different temperatures. Atomic force microscopy shows that the surface roughness of these materials remain fairly constant reducing only from 18 nm to 17 nm after heat treatment. Thickness estimation of the films was also carried out using theoretical and experimental methods. Direct current conductivity measurements on both as-deposited and annealed films show that resistivity increased after heat treatment.

  1. Electron Filtering by an Intervening ZnS Thin Film in the Au Nanoparticle-loaded CdS Plasmonic Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kouichi; Fujiwara, Keigo; Kume, Takahiro; Naya, Shin-Ichi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2016-12-12

    In the gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-loaded CdS film on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode (Au/CdS/FTO), the localized plasmonic resonance excitation-induced electron injection from Au NP to CdS has been proved by photoelectrochemical measurements. Formation of ZnS thin films between the Au NP and CdS film leads to a drastic increase of the photocurrent under visible-light irradiation ( > 610 nm) in a 0.1 M NaClO4 aqueous electrolyte solution due to the electron filtering effect. The photocurrent strongly depends on the thickness of the ZnS film, and the maximum value is obtained at the thickness of as thin as 2.1 nm. Further, the ZnS overlayer significantly stabilizes the photocurrent of the CdS/FTO electrode in a polysulfide/sulfide electrolyte solution even under the excitation of CdS ( > 430 nm). This work presents important information about the design for the new plasmonic photocatalysts consisting of plasmonic metal NP and chalcogenide semiconductors with high conduction band edge.

  2. Electron Filtering by an Intervening ZnS Thin Film in the Gold Nanoparticle-Loaded CdS Plasmonic Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kouichi; Fujiwara, Keigo; Kume, Takahiro; Naya, Shin-Ichi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2017-01-05

    In the gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-loaded CdS film on fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode (Au/CdS/FTO), the localized plasmonic resonance excitation-induced electron injection from Au NP to CdS has been proven by photoelectrochemical measurements. Formation of ZnS thin films between the Au NP and CdS film leads to a drastic increase of the photocurrent under visible-light irradiation (λ > 610 nm) in a 0.1 M NaClO4 aqueous electrolyte solution due to the electron filtering effect. The photocurrent strongly depends on the thickness of the ZnS film, and the maximum value is obtained at a thickness as thin as 2.1 nm. Furthermore, the ZnS overlayer significantly stabilizes the photocurrent of the CdS/FTO electrode in a polysulfide/sulfide electrolyte solution even under the excitation of CdS (λ > 430 nm). This work presents important information about the design for new plasmonic photocatalysts consisting of plasmonic metal NPs and chalcogenide semiconductors with high conduction band edge.

  3. The corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline nickel based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danışman, Murat, E-mail: muratdan@gmail.com

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Cr addition on corrosion behavior of Ni thin films were investigated. Ni thin films and Ni films with three different Cr content were deposited on glass substrates by magnetron sputtering. After deposition process, thin films with different Cr content were thermally treated in a rapid thermal process system. Phase analysis and grain size calculations of the samples were carried out by X-ray diffraction analysis. In order to reveal corrosion properties, potentiodynamic tests were conducted on samples. Analysis revealed that, although Cr addition to pure-Ni thin films improved their corrosion resistance, occurrence of σ-Cr{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} phase at higher Cr contents increased corrosion rate. The corrosion properties of the samples were also investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface related parameters caused by corrosion reactions were calculated. The analysis revealed that at 55% wt. Cr, rapid ion exchange occurred and highest corrosion current, 23.4 nA cm{sup −2} was observed. - Highlights: • Thin film Ni–Cr samples were deposited on glass substrate. • Effect of Cr addition on corrosion behavior of Ni thin films were investigated. • Potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods were used. • Cr content in Ni thin films plays and important role on corrosion. • Up to a certain Cr content, Cr addition reduces corrosion rate.

  4. Statistical and fractal features of nanocrystalline AZO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinabadi, S.; Abrinaei, F.; Shirazi, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, We investigate the morphology effect of Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films on the physical properties such as conductivity and grain size. The AZO thin films are prepared by spray pyrolysis at different thicknesses in the range 100-400 nm. Height fluctuations obtained from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis are applied to the statistical and fractal analysis of thin films. We show that the conductivity of thin films is proportional to the roughness parameter as σ ∼Wm which m = 6 . 42 ± 0 . 50. Calculating the nonlinear measures (skewness and kurtosis) of height fluctuations demonstrates the isotropic nature of AZO rough surfaces. Fractal analysis of the mentioned thin films using two dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis illustrates the multifractality scaling and the strength of multifractality increases with thickness. Our results show that the reason for the multi-affinity is the existence of different correlations in the height fluctuations of the thin films. Calculating the contour loops features of the height fluctuations reveals that the radius, length, and area of loops increase with thickness enhancement and the radius of contour loops is introduced as a new statistical parameter which is linearly related to the grain size and could be useful to calculate it.

  5. Growth of nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S W; Moon, J Y; Ahn, S S; Kim, H Y; Shin, D H

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using SiH sub 4 , CH sub 4 , and H sub 2 gases. The effects of gas mixing ratio (CH sub 4 /SiH sub 4), deposition temperature, and RF power on the film properties have been studied. The growth rate, refractive index, and the optical energy gap depends critically on the growth conditions. The dependence of the growth rate on the gas flow ratio is quite different from the results obtained for the growth using C sub 2 H sub 2 gas instead of CH sub 4. As the deposition temperature is increased from 300 .deg. C to 600 .deg. C, hydrogen and carbon content in the film decreases and as a result the optical gap decreases. At the deposition temperature of 600 .deg. C and RF power of 150 W, the film structure si nanocrystalline, As the result of the nanocrystallization the dark conductivity is greatly improved. The nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films may be used for large area optoelectronic devices...

  6. Defect evolution of nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} thin films induced by pulsed delivery during in situ annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W., E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)] [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, H.J.; Li, Z.; Jiao, Z. [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu, M.H., E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, C.H.; Wu, C.M.L.; Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The microstructural defects of nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Defects inside nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} thin films could be significantly reduced by in situ annealing SnO{sub 2} thin films at 300 deg. C for 2 h. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that the stacking faults and twins were annihilated upon in situ annealing. In particular, the inside of the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles demonstrated perfect lattices free of defects after in situ annealing. Raman spectra also confirmed that the in situ annealed specimen was almost defect-free. By using in situ annealing, defect-free nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} thin films can be prepared in a simple and practical way, which holds the promise for applications as transparent electrodes and solid-state gas sensors.

  7. Properties of CdTe nanocrystalline thin films grown on different substrates by low temperature sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Huimin; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Baohua

    2009-01-01

    CdTe nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass, Si and Al2O3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at liquid nitrogen temperature. The crystal structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The XRD examinations revealed that CdTe films on glass and Si had a better crystal quality and higher preferential orientation along the (111) plane than the Al2O3. FESEM observations revealed a continuous and dense morphology of CdTe films on glass and Si substrates. Optical properties of nanocrystalline CdTe films deposited on glass substrates for different deposited times were studied.

  8. Ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes as pressure sensors for harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, S. D., E-mail: stoffel.d.janssens@gmail.com; Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Drijkoningen, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-02-17

    Glass and diamond are suitable materials for harsh environments. Here, a procedure for fabricating ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes on glass, acting as an electrically insulating substrate, is presented. In order to investigate the pressure sensing properties of such membranes, a circular, highly conductive boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond membrane with a resistivity of 38 mΩ cm, a thickness of 150 nm, and a diameter of 555 μm is fabricated in the middle of a Hall bar structure. During the application of a positive differential pressure under the membrane (0–0.7 bar), four point piezoresistive effect measurements are performed. From these measurements, it can be concluded that the resistance response of the membrane, as a function of differential pressure, is highly linear and sensitive.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of n-type nanocrystalline bismuth-telluride-based thin films deposited by flash evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashiri, M.; Takiishi, M.; Tanaka, S.; Miyazaki, K.; Tsukamoto, H.

    2007-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of n-type nanocrystalline bismuth-telluride-based thin films (Bi2.0Te2.7Se0.3) is investigated by a differential 3ω method at room temperature. The nanocrystalline thin films are grown on a glass substrate by a flash evaporation method, followed by hydrogen annealing at 250 °C. The structure of the thin films is studied by means of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The thin films exhibit an average grain size of 60 nm and a cross-plane thermal conductivity of 0.8 W/m K. The in-plane electrical conductivity and in-plane Seebeck coefficient are also investigated. Assuming that the in-plane thermal conductivity of the thin films is identical to that of the cross-plane direction, the in-plane figure of merit of the thin films is estimated to be ZT =0.7. As compared with a sintered bulk sample with average grain size of 30 μm and nearly the same composition as the thin films, the nanocrystalline thin films show approximately a 50% reduction in the thermal conductivity, but the electrical conductivity also falls 40%. The reduced thermal and electrical conductivities are attributed to increased carrier trapping and scattering in the nanocrystalline film.

  10. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  11. Stress and morphological development of CdS and ZnS thin films during the SILAR growth on (1 0 0)GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, Giedrius; Lindroos, Seppo; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Leskelä, Markku

    2001-12-01

    Cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide films were grown on (1 0 0)GaAs substrate by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique from aqueous precursor solutions at room temperature and normal pressure. The stress development of the thin films was characterized by laser interferometry as a function of the thickness of the films. The morphology and roughness of the films were monitored by atomic force microscopy. Additionally the crystallinity and crystallite size were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and composition by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The CdS thin films had significantly higher stress level and also better crystallinity compared with ZnS thin films. Both films were polycrystalline and cubic, but the CdS thin films followed the substrate (1 0 0) orientation, whereas the ZnS films were (1 1 1) orientated. The roughness vs. film thickness curves of both films followed each other in shape, but the CdS films consisted of smaller particles.

  12. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez, R., E-mail: rodrigo.henriquez@ucv.cl [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Badan, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay); Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E. [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay); Gomez, H. [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. > Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. > Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  13. Photoluminescence of Eu2+ Doped ZnS Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Man; GUO Hai-Qing; ZHANG Zhi-Hua; LIU Feng-Qi; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2000-01-01

    Eu2+ doped ZnS nanocrystals exhibit new luminescence properties because of the enlarged energy gap of nanocrys talline ZnS host due to quantum confinement effects. Photoluminescence emission at about 520nm from Eu2+ doped ZnS nanocrystals at room temperature is investigated by using photoluminescence emission and excitation spectroscopy. Such green emission with long lifetime (ms) is proposed to be a result of excitation, ionization, carriers recapture and recombination via Eu2+ centers in nanocrystalline ZnS host.

  14. Electronic transport in mixed-phase hydrogenated amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienkes, Lee Raymond

    Interest in mixed-phase silicon thin film materials, composed of an amorphous semiconductor matrix in which nanocrystalline inclusions are embedded, stems in part from potential technological applications, including photovoltaic and thin film transistor technologies. Conventional mixed-phase silicon films are produced in a single plasma reactor, where the conditions of the plasma must be precisely tuned, limiting the ability to adjust the film and nanoparticle parameters independently. The films presented in this thesis are deposited using a novel dual-plasma co-deposition approach in which the nanoparticles are produced separately in an upstream reactor and then injected into a secondary reactor where an amorphous silicon film is being grown. The degree of crystallinity and grain sizes of the films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. I describe detailed electronic measurements which reveal three distinct conduction mechanisms in n-type doped mixed-phase amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films over a range of nanocrystallite concentrations and temperatures, covering the transition from fully amorphous to ~30% nanocrystalline. As the temperature is varied from 470 to 10 K, we observe activated conduction, multiphonon hopping (MPH) and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) as the nanocrystal content is increased. The transition from MPH to Mott-VRH hopping around 100K is ascribed to the freeze out of the phonon modes. A conduction model involving the parallel contributions of these three distinct conduction mechanisms is shown to describe both the conductivity and the reduced activation energy data to a high accuracy. Additional support is provided by measurements of thermal equilibration effects and noise spectroscopy, both done above room temperature (>300 K). This thesis provides a clear link between measurement and theory in these complex materials.

  15. Room-temperature deposition of nanocrystalline PbWO 4 thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. H.; Yoon, J.-W.; Shim, K. B.; Koshizaki, N.

    2006-07-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was applied to synthesize nanocrystalline PbWO4 thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of Ar background gas pressure on phase evolution, microstructures and optical characteristics of PbWO4 thin films were investigated in detail. The PLA processes were carried out at room temperature without substrate heating or post-annealing treatment. XRD and HR-TEM results revealed that the PbWO4 thin films are composed of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Moreover, the films contained a high density of lattice defects such as twin boundaries and edge dislocations. The crystallite size and crystallinity increased, which were associated with a change in surface morphology as the Ar pressure increased. Reduced tungsten states W5+ or W4+ induced by oxygen vacancies were observed at 10 Pa and the atomic concentration of all constituent element was almost stoichiometric, especially the [Pb]/[W] ratio, which was nearly unity above 50 Pa. The optical energy band-gap was 3.03 eV at 50 Pa and increased to 3.35 eV at 100 Pa, which are narrower than the reported value (4.20 eV). This optical band-gap narrowing could be attributed to localized band-tail states and new energy levels induced by the amorphous structure and inherent lattice defects.

  16. Luminescent Nanocrystalline Silicon Carbide Thin Film Deposited by Helicon Wave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wan-bing; YU Wei; WU Li-ping; CUI Shuang-kui; FU Guang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on the single-crystal silicon substrate using the helicon wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HW-PECVD) technique. The influences of magnetic field and hydrogen dilution ratio on the structures of SiC thin film were investigated with the atomic force microscopy (AFM), the Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the high plasma activity of the helicon wave mode proves to be a key factor to grow crystalline SiC thin films at a relative low substrate temperature. Also, the decrease in the grain sizes from the level of microcrystalline to that of nanocrystalline can be achieved by increasing the hydrogen dilution ratios. Transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the size of most nanocrystals in the film deposited under the higher hydrogen dilution ratios is smaller than the doubled Bohr radius of 3C-SiC (approximately 5.4 nm), and the light emission measurements also show a strong blue photoluminescence at the room temperature, which is considered to be caused by the quantum confinement effect of small-sized SiC nanocrystals.

  17. Structural, optical and photo-catalytic activity of nanocrystalline NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M. Sh., E-mail: mshabaan90@yahoo.com [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Farghali, A.A. [Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Hasan, P.M.Z. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocrystalline NiO thin films with different thicknesses using DC magnetron sputtering technique. • Effect of film thickness and particle size on photo-catalytic degradation of methyl green dye under UV light was studied. • The deposited NiO thin films are efficient, stable and possess high photo-catalytic activity upon reuse. - Abstract: Physical deposition of nanocrystalline nickel oxide (NiO) thin films with different thickness 30, 50 and 80 nm have been done on glass substrate by DC magnetron sputtering technique and varying the deposition time from 600, 900 to 1200 s. The results of surface morphology and optical characterization of these films obtained using different characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis spectrophotometry provide important information like formation of distinct nanostructures in different films and its effect on their optical band gap which has decreased from 3.74 to 3.37 eV as the film thickness increases. Most importantly these films have shown very high stability and a specialty to be recycled without much loss of their photo-catalytic activity, when tested as photo-catalysts for the degradation of methyl green dye (MG) from the wastewater under the exposure of 18 W energy of UV lamp.

  18. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sutichai Chaisitsak

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors by doping with fluorine (F). Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer). The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the ...

  19. Nanocrystalline gold in Au-doped thin C{sub 60} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenyi, A.; Manaila, R.; Belu-Marian, A.; Macovei, D.; Manciu, M.; Popescu, E.M.; Tanase, M.; Fratiloiu, D.; Mihai, N.D. [Nat. Inst. for Phys. of Mater., Bucharest (Romania); Barna, P.B.; Labar, J.; Safran, G.; Kovacs, A. [Research Institute for Technical Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 76, H-1325, Budapest (Hungary); Braun, T. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, L. Eoetvoes University, P.O. Box 123, 1443, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-14

    Thin Au-C{sub 60} films with global composition Au{sub x}C{sub 100-x} (x between 0.35 and 4.50 at.%) were prepared by vacuum co-deposition and investigated by X-ray diffraction, EDS, XTEM and electrical transport. Evidence indicated the formation of distorted nanocrystalline Au, presumably stabilized by interface electron transfer into C{sub 60} LUMO. Electrical results are interpreted in the frame of the dominant current model, with a continuous density of localized states induced by Au in the C{sub 60} gap. There is also evidence for variable range hopping at low temperatures. (orig.) 20 refs.

  20. Structural characterization of supported nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, J.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Heredia, E.A., E-mail: eheredia@citedef.gob.ar [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.D.; Canepa, H.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kellermann, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Craievich, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The structures of several thin films subjected to (i) isochronous annealing at 350, 450 and 550 deg. C, and (ii) isothermal annealing at 450 deg. C during different time periods, were characterized. The studied thin films are composed of ZnO nanocrystals as revealed by analysing several GIXD patterns, from which their average sizes were determined. Thin film thickness and roughness were determined from quantitative analyses of AFM images and XR patterns. The analysis of XR patterns also yielded the average density of the studied films. Our GISAXS study indicates that the studied ZnO thin films contain nanopores with an ellipsoidal shape, and flattened along the direction normal to the substrate surface. The thin film annealed at the highest temperature, T = 550 deg. C, exhibits higher density and lower thickness and nanoporosity volume fraction, than those annealed at 350 and 450 deg. C. These results indicate that thermal annealing at the highest temperature (550 deg. C) induces a noticeable compaction effect on the structure of the studied thin films.

  1. Chemical synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline copper selenide thin films for heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B.; Mane, R. S.; Kale, S. S.; Sonawane, S. H.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of copper selenide have been grown on glass and tin doped-indium oxide substrates using chemical method. At ambient temperature, golden films have been synthesized and annealed at 200 °C for 1 h and were examined for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Cu 2- xSe phase was confirmed by XRD pattern and spherical grains of 30 ± 4 - 40 ± 4 nm in size aggregated over about 130 ± 10 nm islands were seen by SEM images. Effect of annealing on crystallinity improvement, band edge shift and photoelectrochemical performance (under 80 mW/cm 2 light intensity and in lithium iodide electrolyte) has been studied and reported. Observed p-type electrical conductivity in copper selenide thin films make it a suitable candidate for heterojunction solar cells.

  2. Chemical synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline copper selenide thin films for heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambade, Swapnil B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 411037 (India); Mane, R.S. [Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kale, S.S. [Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sonawane, S.H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 411037 (India); Shaikh, Arif V. [Department of Electronic Science, AKI' s Poona College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Camp, Pune 411 001 (India); Han, Sung-Hwan [Inorganic Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sungdong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr

    2006-12-15

    Nanocrystalline thin films of copper selenide have been grown on glass and tin doped-indium oxide substrates using chemical method. At ambient temperature, golden films have been synthesized and annealed at 200 deg. C for 1 h and were examined for their structural, surface morphological and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry techniques, respectively. Cu{sub 2-x}Se phase was confirmed by XRD pattern and spherical grains of 30 {+-} 4 - 40 {+-} 4 nm in size aggregated over about 130 {+-} 10 nm islands were seen by SEM images. Effect of annealing on crystallinity improvement, band edge shift and photoelectrochemical performance (under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} light intensity and in lithium iodide electrolyte) has been studied and reported. Observed p-type electrical conductivity in copper selenide thin films make it a suitable candidate for heterojunction solar cells.

  3. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  4. Microstructures and electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline ceria-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, Jennifer L.M.; Gauckler, Ludwig J. [Institute of Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials, Department of Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str.10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-31

    Ceria-based thin films are potential materials for use as gas-sensing layers and electrolytes in micro-solid oxide fuel cells. Since the average grain sizes of these films are on the nanocrystalline scale (<150 nm), it is of fundamental interest whether the electrical conductivity might differ from microcrystalline ceria-based ceramics. In this study, CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9-x} thin films have been fabrication by spray pyrolysis and pulsed laser deposition, and the influence of the ambient average grain size on the total DC conductivity is investigated. Dense and crack-free CeO{sub 2} and Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9-x} thin films were produced that withstand annealing up to temperatures of 1100 {sup o}C. The dopant concentration and annealing temperature affect highly the grain growth kinetics of ceria-based thin films. Large concentrations of dopant exert Zener drag on grain growth and result in retarded grain growth. An increased total DC conductivity and decreased activation energy was observed when the average grain size of a CeO{sub 2} or Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9-x} thin film was decreased. (author)

  5. Nanocrystalline NiMoO4 with an ordered mesoporous morphology as potential material for rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haetge, Jan; Djerdj, Igor; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2012-07-07

    Nanocrystalline nickel molybdate (NiMoO(4)) thin film electrodes with a 3D honeycomb structure of uniform 17 nm diameter pores were successfully produced through facile polymer templating strategies. These novel sol-gel type materials exhibit enhanced lithium ion storage capabilities, and thus show promise for battery applications.

  6. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sivakumar; V Senthil Kumar; N Muthukumarasamy; M Thambidurai; T S Senthil

    2012-06-01

    ZnO nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. ZnO thin films have been coated at room temperature and at four different pH values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that ZnO nanocrystalline thin films are of hexagonal structure and the grain size was found to be in the range of 25–45 nm. Scanning electron microscopic images show that the surface morphology improves with increase of pH values. TEM analysis reveals formation of ZnO nanocrystalline with an average grain size of 44 nm. The compositional analysis results show that Zn and O are present in the sample. Optical band studies show that the films are highly transparent and exhibit a direct bandgap. The bandgap has been found to lie in the range of 3.14–3.32 eV depending on pH suggesting the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline thin films.

  7. Studies on the interfacial charge transfer processes of nanocrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer kinetics of the nanocrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes have been studied in sodium polysulfide solutions by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). The interfacial direct and indirect charge transfer and recombination processes were analyzed in terms of the parameters: normalized steady state photocurrents and surface state lifetimes obtained by measuring the IMPS responses under different applied potentials and different solution concentrations. IMPS responses of polycrystalline CdSe thin film electrodes were also presented for comparison.

  8. Influence of Deposition Parameters on the Morphology, Structural, and Optical Properties of ZnSe Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Aixiang; Zhao, Xianghui; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Zinc selenide (ZnSe) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by using chemical bath deposition at different ammonia concentrations and different deposition temperatures. The structural and optical properties of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were investigated as a function of the ammonia concentration in precursors or the deposition temperature using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction measurements, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry measurements. The results reveal that the ZnSe thin films are composed of a large number of uniform spherical particles. Each spherical particle contains several nanocrystals 5 nm to 7 nm in crystallite size. An increase in both the average diameter of the spherical particles and the crystallite size of the nanocrystals occurs with an increase in ammonia concentration and/or deposition temperature. The Se/Zn atom ratios in the ZnSe thin films increase and the optical band gaps, E g, of the ZnSe thin films decrease with an increase in ammonia concentration or deposition temperature. The kinetics and reaction mechanism of the ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films during deposition are discussed.

  9. Grain-size effect on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Heon, E-mail: young.h.kim@kriss.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Jung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Tae Hwan [University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Future Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Seung [Department of Nano Semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-Ro, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanometer-sized small grains were observed in the ITO thin films. • The grain size increased as the post-thermal annealing temperature increased. • The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size. • The ITO film annealed at 300 °C was an amorphous phase, while the others were polycrystalline structure. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the electrical properties, depending on grain size, of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films prepared with a solution process. The size distributions of nanometer-sized ITO film grains increased as the post-annealing temperature increased after deposition; the grain sizes were comparable with the calculated electron mean free path. The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size; this phenomenon was explained by adopting the charge-trapping model for grain boundary scattering. These findings suggest that it is possible to improve mobility by reducing the number of trapping sites at the grain boundary.

  10. Structural and nanomechanical properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin films for photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawal, Ishpal [Department of Physics, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Panwar, Omvir Singh, E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Tripathi, Ravi Kant; Chockalingam, Sreekumar [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Optoelectronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reports the effect of helium gas pressure upon the structural, nanomechanical, and photoconductive properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin (NCT) films deposited by the filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the nanocrystalline nature of the deposited films with different crystallite sizes (3–7 nm). The chemical structure of the deposited films is further analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest that the deposited films change from graphitelike to diamondlike, increasing in sp{sup 3} content, with a minor change in the dilution of the inert gas (helium). The graphitic character is regained upon higher dilution of the helium gas, whereupon the films exhibit an increase in sp{sup 2} content. The nanomechanical measurements show that the film deposited at a helium partial pressure of 2.2 × 10{sup −4} has the highest value of hardness (37.39 GPa) and elastic modulus (320.50 GPa). At a light intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, the NCT films deposited at 2.2 × 10{sup −4} and 0.1 mbar partial pressures of helium gas exhibit good photoresponses of 2.2% and 3.6%, respectively.

  11. Multifunctional nature of UV-irradiated nanocrystalline anatase thin films for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, F; Haupt, M; Klostermann, H; Kim, H-S; Eichler, M; Peetsch, A; Scheideler, L; Doering, C; Oehr, C; Wendel, H P; Sinn, S; Decker, E; von Ohle, C; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2010-12-01

    Anatase is known to decompose organic material by photocatalysis and to enhance surface wettability once irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. In this study, pulse magnetron-sputtered anatase thin films were investigated for their suitability with respect to specific biomedical applications, namely superhydrophilic and biofilm degrading implant surfaces. UV-induced hydrophilicity was quantified by static and dynamic contact angle analysis. Photocatalytic protein decomposition was analyzed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. The surfaces were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The radical formation on anatase, responsible for photocatalytic effects, was analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Results have shown that the nanocrystalline anatase films, in contrast to reference titanium surfaces, were sensitive to UV irradiation and showed rapid switching towards superhydrophilicity. The observed decrease in carbon adsorbents and the increase in the fraction of surface hydroxyl groups upon UV irradiation might contribute to this hydrophilic behavior. UV irradiation of anatase pre-conditioned with albumin protein layers induces the photocatalytic decomposition of these model biofilms. The observed degradation is mainly caused by hydroxyl radicals. It is concluded that nanocrystalline anatase films offer different functions at implant interfaces, e.g. bedside hydrophilization of anatase-coated implants for improved osseointegration or the in situ decomposition of conditioning films forming the basal layer of biofilms in the oral cavity.

  12. Influence of laser doping on nanocrystalline ZnO thin films gas sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of laser doping of Al on the gas sensing behavior of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films is reported. The doping of Al was carried out by the spin-coating of Al-precursors on nanocrystalline ZnO films followed by a pulsed laser irradiation. The laser-doped films were characterized as a function of laser power density by measuring the optical, structural, electrical, morphological and gas sensing properties of ZnO films. It was found that the laser doping process resulted in an increase of electrical conductivity of ZnO films. The performance of gas sensor was investigated for different concentrations of H2 and NH3 in the air. The results indicate that the laser doping process can be utilized to improve the sensor characteristics such as sensitivity and response time by optimization of laser power density. The optimum laser power is interpreted as the critical power level required to compete the effective doping versus developing the effective grain boundaries. Also, the selectivity of laser-doped ZnO sensors for H2 was studied for a likelihood practical gas mixture composed of H2, NH3 and CH4. It is found that these films can be optimized to develop H2 and NH3 sensors in PPM level with a higher selectivity over other reducing gases.

  13. Microstructure evolution and photoluminescence in nanocrystalline Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)O thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaym, U; Norton, M G; Huso, J; Morrison, J L; Che, H; Bergman, L

    2011-10-21

    The effects of Mg concentration and annealing temperature on the characteristics of nanocrystalline Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)O thin films (where x = 0-0.4) were studied using electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The films were prepared by a sol-gel method. The solid solubility limit of MgO in ZnO for the sol-gel-derived Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)O films in the present study was determined to be ∼ 20 at.%. Microstructural characterization of the films showed that the wurtzite crystallites decrease in size with increase in Mg concentration up to the solubility limit. Increasing Mg concentration beyond the solubility limit resulted in a decrease in crystallinity of the films. The bandgap energy was found to increase with Mg concentration whereas the linewidth first increased and then decreased when the Mg concentration was increased beyond the solubility limit. Photoluminescence properties have been correlated to the microstructure of the films. A growth mechanism for Mg(x)Zn(1 - x)O nanocrystalline films under the present processing conditions has also been proposed.

  14. Room temperature atomic layerlike deposition of ZnS on organic thin films: Role of substrate functional groups and precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Walker, Amy V., E-mail: amy.walker@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, RL10, 800 W. Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The room temperature atomic layerlike deposition (ALLD) of ZnS on functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was investigated, using diethyl zinc (DEZ) and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as reactants. Depositions on SAMs with three different terminal groups, –CH{sub 3,} –OH, and –COOH, were studied. It was found that the reaction of DEZ with the SAM terminal group is critical in determining the film growth rate. Little or no deposition is observed on –CH{sub 3} terminated SAMs because DEZ does not react with the methyl terminal group. ZnS does deposit on both –OH and –COOH terminated SAMs, but the grow rate on –COOH terminated SAMs is ∼10% lower per cycle than on –OH terminated SAMs. DEZ reacts with the hydroxyl group on –OH terminated SAMs, while on –COOH terminated SAMs it reacts with both the hydroxyl and carbonyl bonds of the terminal groups. The carbonyl reaction is found to lead to the formation of ketones rather than deposition of ZnS, lowering the growth rate on –COOH terminated SAMs. SIMS spectra show that both –OH and –COOH terminated SAMs are covered by the deposited ZnS layer after five ALLD cycles. In contrast to ZnO ALLD where the composition of the film differs for the first few layers on –COOH and –OH terminated SAMs, the deposited film composition is the same for both –COOH and –OH terminated SAMs. The deposited film is found to be Zn-rich, suggesting that the reaction of H{sub 2}S with the Zn-surface adduct may be incomplete.

  15. Graded-Bandgap Solar Cells Using All-Electrodeposited ZnS, CdS and CdTe Thin-Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi K. Echendu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 3-layer graded-bandgap solar cell with glass/FTO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe/Au structure has been fabricated using all-electrodeposited ZnS, CdS and CdTe thin layers. The three semiconductor layers were electrodeposited using a two-electrode system for process simplification. The incorporation of a wide bandgap amorphous ZnS as a buffer/window layer to form glass/FTO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe/Au solar cell resulted in the formation of this 3-layer graded-bandgap device structure. This has yielded corresponding improvement in all the solar cell parameters resulting in a conversion efficiency >10% under AM1.5 illumination conditions at room temperature, compared to the 8.0% efficiency of a 2-layer glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au reference solar cell structure. These results demonstrate the advantages of the multi-layer graded-bandgap device architecture over the conventional 2-layer structure. In addition, they demonstrate the effective application of the two-electrode system as a simplification to the conventional three-electrode system in the electrodeposition of semiconductors with the elimination of the reference electrode as a possible impurity source.

  16. 用ZnS薄膜作为空穴缓冲层的高效率有机发光二极管%Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with ZnS Thin Films as Hole Buffer Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张靖磊; 仲飞; 刘彭义

    2008-01-01

    用磁控溅射方法制备的ZnS薄膜作为有机发光器件(OLEDs)的空穴缓冲层,使典型结构的 OLEDs(ITO/TPD/Alq/LiF/Al) 的发光性能得到改善.ZnS 缓冲层厚度对器件性能影响的实验结果表明,当ZnS缓冲层厚度为 5 nm 时,器件的亮度增加了2倍多;当ZnS缓冲层厚度为5、10 nm时,器件的发光电流效率增加40%.研究结果表明 ZnS 薄膜是一种好的缓冲层材料,它能够提高器件的发光效率,改善器件的稳定性.%An organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using ZnS thin film by RF magnetron sputtering as a hole buffer layer were prepared. With the presence of the buffer layer, the devices using the typical struc-ture of ITO/TPD/Alq/LiF/Al performed a good electroluminescent properties compared with the devices without ZnS buffer layer. The investigation on the effects of the ZnS thickness showed that the device with 5 nm ZnS buffer layer double its luminance under driven voltage 20 V, and the current efficiency of the de-vices with 5 and 10 nm ZnS is improved by about a factor of forty percent compared with the devices with-out buffer layer. The results suggested that ZnS may be a good anode buffer layer material and can improve the efficiency and stability of OLEDs.

  17. Synthesis and optical characterization of nanocrystalline CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, A. A.; Khan, Shamshad A.; Nagat, A.; Abd El-Sadek, M. S.

    2010-11-01

    From several years the study of binary compounds has been intensified in order to find new materials for solar photocells. The development of thin film solar cells is an active area of research at this time. Much attention has been paid to the development of low cost, high efficiency thin film solar cells. CdTe is one of the suitable candidates for the production of thin film solar cells due to its ideal band gap, high absorption coefficient. The present work deals with thickness dependent study of CdTe thin films. Nanocrystalline CdTe bulk powder was synthesized by wet chemical route at pH≈11.2 using cadmium chloride and potassium telluride as starting materials. The product sample was characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffraction showed that the films are polycrystalline in nature. CdTe thin films with thickness 40, 60, 80 and 100 nm were prepared on glass substrates by using thermal evaporation onto glass substrate under a vacuum of 10 -6 Torr. The optical constants (absorption coefficient, optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary part of dielectric constant) of CdTe thin films was studied as a function of photon energy in the wavelength region 400-2000 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data shows that the rule of direct transitions predominates. It has been found that the absorption coefficient, refractive index ( n) and extinction coefficient ( k) decreases while the values of optical band gap increase with an increase in thickness from 40 to 100 nm, which can be explained qualitatively by a thickness dependence of the grain size through decrease in grain boundary barrier height with grain size.

  18. Determination of dispersive optical constants of nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kriti; Al-Kabbi, Alaa S.; Saini, G.S.S. [Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Centre of Advanced Study in Physics, Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► nc-CdSe thin films are prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation technique. ► TEM analysis shows NCs are spherical in shape. ► XRD reveals the hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure of nc-CdSe thin films. ► The direct optical bandgap of nc-CdSe is 2.25 eV in contrast to bulk (1.7 eV). ► Dispersion of refractive index is discussed in terms of Wemple–DiDomenico single oscillator model. -- Abstract: The nanocrystalline thin films of CdSe are prepared by thermal evaporation technique at room temperature. These thin films are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The transmission spectra are recorded in the transmission range 400–3300 nm for nc-CdSe thin films. Transmittance measurements are used to calculate the refractive index (n) and absorption coefficient (α) using Swanepoel's method. The optical band gap (E{sub g}{sup opt}) has been determined from the absorption coefficient values using Tauc's procedure. The optical constants such as extinction coefficient (k), real (ε{sub 1}) and imaginary (ε{sub 2}) dielectric constants, dielectric loss (tan δ), optical conductivity (σ{sub opt}), Urbach energy (E{sub u}) and steepness parameter (σ) are also calculated for nc-CdSe thin films. The normal dispersion of refractive index is described using Wemple–DiDomenico single-oscillator model. Refractive index dispersion is further analysed to calculate lattice dielectric constant (ε{sub L}).

  19. Low-voltage Driving Phototransistor Based on Dye-sensitized Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaoqi; Cai, Chuanbing

    2012-01-01

    Photo-gated transistors based on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin film are established. A transistor-like transport behavior characterized by the linear increase, saturated plateau, and breakdown-like increase in the voltage-current curve is achievable with a low driven bias for the present device. The response current exhibits a linear dependence on the intensity of gated light, and the measured maximum photosensitivity is approximately 0.1 A/W. The dynamic responses for various light frequencies and their dependences on the load resistances are investigated as well. The cut-off frequency of ~50 Hz is abstracted, indicating the potential application for economical and efficient light switch or optical communication unit. The dc photo-gated response is explained by the energy level diagram, and is numerically simulated by an equivalent circuit model, suggesting a clear correlation between photovoltaic and photoconductive behaviors as well as their optical responses.

  20. Double-metal-gate nanocrystalline Si thin film transistors with flexible threshold voltage controllability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Uio-Pu; Pan, Fu-Ming, E-mail: fmpan@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Jia-Min, E-mail: jmshieh@narlabs.org.tw, E-mail: jmshieh@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [National Nano Device Laboratories, No. 26, Prosperity Road 1, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Departments of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chih-Chao [National Nano Device Laboratories, No. 26, Prosperity Road 1, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Huang, Wen-Hsien [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China); National Nano Device Laboratories, No. 26, Prosperity Road 1, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Kao, Yo-Tsung [Departments of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-11

    We fabricated nano-crystalline Si (nc-Si:H) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a double-metal-gate structure, which showed a high electron-mobility (μ{sub FE}) and adjustable threshold voltages (V{sub th}). The nc-Si:H channel and source/drain (S/D) of the multilayered TFT were deposited at 375 °C by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition. The low grain-boundary defect density of the channel layer is responsible for the high μ{sub FE} of 370 cm{sup 2}/V-s, a steep subthreshold slope of 90 mV/decade, and a low V{sub th} of −0.64 V. When biased with the double-gate driving mode, the device shows a tunable V{sub th} value extending from −1 V up to 2.7 V.

  1. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  2. High-Q optomechanical circuits made from polished nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ummethala, S; Lewes-Malandrakis, G; Brink, D; Nebel, C; Pernice, W H P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate integrated optomechanical circuits with high mechanical quality factors prepared from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Using chemomechanical polishing, the RMS surface roughness of as grown polycrystalline diamond films is reduced below 3nm to allow for the fabrication of high-quality nanophotonic circuits. By integrating free-standing nanomechanical resonators into integrated optical devices, efficient read-out of the thermomechanical motion of diamond resonators is achieved with on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Mechanical quality factors up to 28,800 are measured for four-fold clamped optomechanical resonators coupled to the evanescent near-field of nanophotonic waveguides. Our platform holds promise for large-scale integration of optomechanical circuits for on-chip metrology and sensing applications.

  3. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria thin films by low-temperature thermal decomposition of Ce-propionate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, P., E-mail: pere.roura@udg.es [GRMT, Dept. of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Farjas, J. [GRMT, Dept. of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Ricart, S.; Aklalouch, M.; Guzman, R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Arbiol, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Puig, T.; Calleja, A.; Pena-Rodriguez, O.; Garriga, M.; Obradors, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of Ce-propionate (thickness below 20 nm) have been deposited by spin coating and pyrolysed into ceria at temperatures below 200 Degree-Sign C. After 1 h of thermal treatment, no signature of the vibrational modes of Ce-propionate is detected by infrared spectroscopy, indicating that decomposition has been completed. The resulting ceria films are nanocrystalline as revealed by X-ray diffraction (average grain size of 2-2.5 nm) and confirmed by microscopy. They are transparent in the visible region and show the characteristic band gap absorption below 400 nm. A direct band gap energy of 3.50 {+-} 0.05 eV has been deduced irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature (160, 180 and 200 Degree-Sign C).

  4. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F thin films for liquid petroleum gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisitsak, Sutichai

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO(2)-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors by doping with fluorine (F). Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer). The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO(2) films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO(2) with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time) of the SnO(2):F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO(2) was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C) with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO(2):F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection.

  5. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutichai Chaisitsak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG sensors by doping with fluorine (F. Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer. The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO2 films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO2 with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time of the SnO2:F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO2 was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO2:F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection.

  6. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanocrystalline Cuprous Oxide Thin Film Deposited By Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Bansilal Ahirrao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O is an interesting p-type semiconductor material used in solar cell applications.  The Modified Chemical Bath Deposition (M-CBD method is suitable for growing thin multilayer structure due to low deposition temperature. This method does not require any sophisticated instrument and substrate need not to be conductive. The nanocrystalline Cu2O thin films were deposited on glass substrates by M-CBD method. The deposited films were characterized by different characterization techniques to study structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The structural studies show that, the formation of Cu2O thin films with an average crystallite size of 14 nm. Optical studies show a direct band gap 2.48 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity is of the order of 1.3 kW-cm and activation energy 0.33 eV. The films exhibit p-type electrical conductivity as seen by thermo-emf measurements.

  7. Structure and magnetic properties of highly textured nanocrystalline Mn–Zn ferrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Jaison, E-mail: jaisonjosephp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Goverment College, Khandola, Goa 403107 India (India); Tangsali, R.B. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206 India (India); Pillai, V.P. Mahadevan [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala,Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695581 India (India); Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.; Ganeshan, V. [UGC-DAE-CSR Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452017 India. (India)

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Mn{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were chemically synthesized by co-precipitating the metal ions in aqueous solutions in a suitable alkaline medium. The identified XRD peaks confirm single phase spinal formation. The nanoparticle size authentication is carried out from XRD data using Debye Scherrer equation. Thin film fabricated from this nanomaterial by pulse laser deposition technique on quartz substrate was characterized using XRD and Raman spectroscopic techniques. XRD results revealed the formation of high degree of texture in the film. AFM analysis confirms nanogranular morphology and preferred directional growth. A high deposition pressure and the use of a laser plume confined to a small area for transportation of the target species created certain level of porosity in the deposited thin film. Magnetic property measurement of this highly textured nanocrystalline Mn–Zn ferrite thin film revealed enhancement in properties, which are explained on the basis of texture and surface features originated from film growth mechanism.

  8. High-rate deposition of nano-crystalline silicon thin films on plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, E.; Guduru, V.; Cerqueira, F.; Alpuim, P. [Centro de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ribeiro, M. [Centro de Nanotecnologia e Materiais Tecnicos, Funcionais e Inteligentes (CeNTI), 4760-034 Vila Nova de Famalicao (Portugal); Bouattour, A. [Institut fuer Physikalische Elektronik (ipe), Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) is commonly used in the bottom cell of tandem solar cells. With an indirect bandgap, nc-Si:H requires thicker ({proportional_to}1 {mu}m) films for efficient light harvesting than amorphous Si (a-Si:H) does. Therefore, thin-film high deposition rates are crucial for further cost reduction of highly efficient a-Si:H based photovoltaic technology. Plastic substrates allow for further cost reduction by enabling roll-to-roll inline deposition. In this work, high nc-Si:H deposition rates on plastic were achieved at low substrate temperature (150 C) by standard Radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. Focus was on the influence of deposition pressure, inter-electrode distance (1.2 cm) and high power coupled to the plasma, on the hydrogen-to-silane dilution ratios (HD) necessary to achieve the amorphous-to-nanocrystalline phase transition and on the resulting film deposition rate. For each pressure and rf-power, there is a value of HD for which the films start to exhibit a certain amount of crystalline fraction. For constant rf-power, this value increases with pressure. Within the parameter range studied the deposition rate was highest (0.38 nm/s) for nc-Si:H films deposited at 6 Torr, 700 mW/cm{sup 2} using HD of 98.5%. Decreasing the pressure to 3 Torr (1.5 Torr) and rf-power to 350 mW/cm{sup 2} using HD - 98.5% deposition rate is 0.12 nm/s (0.076 nm/s). Raman crystalline fraction of these films is 72, 62 and 53% for the 6, 3 and 1.5 Torr films, respectively (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Defect engineered d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in tin-doped indium oxide nanostructures and nanocrystalline thin-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Gobinda Gopal, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com, E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com; Sarkar, Ayan [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD-2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Ghosh, Shyamsundar, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com, E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bejoy Narayan Mahavidyalaya, P.O. Itachuna, Hooghly 712 147 (India); Mandal, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Goutam Dev [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, BCKV Campus Main Office, Nadia 741 252 (India); Manju, Unnikrishnan [Materials Characterization Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 2A & 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banu, Nasrin; Dev, Bhupendra Nath [Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-08-21

    Origin of unexpected defect engineered room-temperature ferromagnetism observed in tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanostructures (Nanowires, Nano-combs) and nanocrystalline thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated. It is found that the ITO nanostructures prepared under argon environment exhibit strongest ferromagnetic signature as compared to that nanocrystalline thin films grown at oxygen. The evidence of singly ionized oxygen vacancy (V{sub 0}{sup +}) defects, obtained from various spectroscopic measurements, suggests that such V{sub 0}{sup +} defects are mainly responsible for the intrinsic ferromagnetic ordering. The exchange interaction of the defects provides extensive opportunity to tune the room-temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetism and optical properties of ITOs.

  10. Granular superconductivity in metallic and insulating nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, B L; Zhang, G; Vanacken, J; Moshchalkov, V V [INPAC-Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200-D, 3000-Leuven (Belgium); Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Wagner, P, E-mail: bramleo@hotmail.co [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2010-09-22

    The low-temperature electrical transport properties of nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond (b-NCD) thin films have been found to be strongly affected by the system's granularity. The important differences between the high and low-temperature behaviour are caused by the inhomogeneous nucleation of superconductivity in the samples. In this paper we will discuss the experimental data obtained on several b-NCD thin films, which were studied by either varying their thickness or boron concentration. It will be shown that the low-temperature properties are influenced by the b-NCD grain boundaries as well as by the appearance of an intrinsic granularity inside these granules. Moreover, superconducting effects have been found to be present even in insulating b-NCD films and are responsible for the negative magnetoresistance regime observed at low temperatures. On the other hand, the low-temperature electrical transport properties of b-NCD films show important similarities with those observed for granular superconductors.

  11. Investigations of Ar ion irradiation effects on nanocrystalline SiC thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, V., E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Craciun, D.; Socol, G. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Behdad, S.; Boesl, B. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Himcinschi, C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany); Makino, H. [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Socol, M. [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Simeone, D. [CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S/SRMA/LA2M-LRC CARMEN CEN, Saclay (France); CNRS/SPMS UMR8785 LRC CARMEN, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92292 Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Thin polycrystalline SiC films grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique were irradiated by 800 keV Ar ions at a dose of 2.6 × 10{sup 14} at/cm{sup 2}. • The SiC films hardness and Young modulus values significantly decreased after irradiation. • Glancing X-ray diffraction investigations showed a partial transformation of the SiC hexagonal phase into the cubic phase. • Smooth PLD grown thin films are excellent for radiation effects investigations using XRR, GIXRD and nanoindentation techniques. - Abstract: The effects of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on thin nanocrystalline SiC films grown on (100) Si substrates using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique were investigated. On such PLD grown films, which were very dense, flat and smooth, X-ray reflectivity, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation investigations were easily performed to evaluate changes induced by irradiation on the density, surface roughness, crystalline structure, and mechanical properties. Results indicated that the SiC films retained their crystalline nature, the cubic phase partially transforming into the hexagonal phase, which had a slightly higher lattice parameter then the as-deposited films. Simulations of X-ray reflectivity curves indicated a 3% decrease of the films density after irradiation. Nanoindentation results showed a significant decrease of the hardness and Young's modulus values with respect to those measured on as-deposited films. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations found an increase of the C−C bonds and a corresponding decrease of the Si−C bonds in the irradiated area, which could explain the degradation of mechanical properties.

  12. Reactive Radiofrequency Sputtering-Deposited Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-Juan; HE Xin; HAN De-Dong; SUN Lei; WANG Yi; HAN Ru-Qi; CHAN Man-Sun; ZHANG Sheng-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of ZnO 61ms deposited by reactive radiofrequency sputtering with a metallic zinc target are systematically investigated. While the as-deposited ZnO film is in a poly-crystalline structure when the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) is low, the grain size abruptly decreases to a few nanometers as pO2 increases to a criticaJ vaiue, and then becomes almost unchanged with a further increase in pO2.In addition, the resistivity of the ZnO films shows a non-monotonic dependence on pO2, including an abrupt transition of about seven orders of magnitude at the critical pO2. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the nanocrystalline ZnO films as channel layers have an on/off current ratio of more than 107, an off-current in the order of pA, a threshold voltage of about 4.5 V, and a carrier mobility of about 2cm2/(V-s). The results show that radiofrequency sputtered ZnO with a zinc target is a promising candidate for high-performance ZnO TFTs.%The structural and electrical properties of ZnO films deposited by reactive radiofrequency sputtering with a metallic zinc target are systematically investigated.While the as-deposited ZnO film is in a poly-crystalline structure when the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 ) is low,the grain size abruptly decreases to a few nanometers as pO2 increases to a critical value,and then becomes almost unchanged with a further increase in pO2.In addition,the resistivity of the ZnO films shows a non-monotonic dependence on pO2,including an abrupt transition of about seven orders of magnitude at the critical pO2.Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the nanocrystalline ZnO films as channel layers have an on/off current ratio of more than 10 7,an off-current in the order of pA,a threshold voltage of about 4.5 V,and a carrier mobility of about 2 cm2/(V.s).The results show that radiofrequency sputtered ZnO with a zinc target is a promising candidate for high-performance ZnO TFTs.

  13. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Nanocrystalline Tungsten Carbide Thin Film and Its Electro-catalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajun ZHENG; Chunan MA; Jianguo HUANG; Guohua LI

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten carbide thin films were fabricated on graphite substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at H2 and Ar atmosphere, using WF6 and CH4 as precursors. The crystal phase, structure and chemical components of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), respectively. The results show that the film prepared at CH4/WF6concentration ratio of 20 and at 800℃ is composed of spherical particles with a diameter of 20~35 nm. Electrochemical investigations show that the electrochemical real surface area of electrode of the film is large, and the electrode of the film exhibits higher electro-catalytic activity in the reaction of methanol oxidation. The designated constant current of the film catalyst is 123.6 mA/cm2 in the mixture solution of H2SO4 and CH3OH at the concentration of 0.5 and 2.0 mol/L at 70℃, and the designated constant potential is only 0.306 V (vs SCE).

  14. Optical Properties of Ar Ions Irradiated Nanocrystalline ZrC and ZrN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Miller, K. H.; Makino, H.; Craciun, D.; Simeone, D.; Craciun, V.

    2016-01-01

    Thin nanocrystalline ZrC and ZrN films (less than 400 nanometers), grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 degrees Centigrade by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, were irradiated by 800 kiloelectronvolts Ar ion irradiation with fluences from 1 times 10(sup 14) atoms per square centimeter up to 2 times 10(sup 15) atoms per square centimeter. Optical reflectance data, acquired from as-deposited and irradiated films, in the range of 500-50000 per centimeter (0.06–6 electronvolts), was used to assess the effect of irradiation on the optical and electronic properties. Both in ZrC and ZrN films we observed that irradiation affects the optical properties of the films mostly at low frequencies, which is dominated by the free carriers response. In both materials, we found a significant reduction in the free carriers scattering rate, i.e. possible increase in mobility, at higher irradiation flux. This is consistent with our previous findings that irradiation affects the crystallite size and the micro-strain, but it does not induce major structural changes.

  15. EPR Spectroscopy of Different Sol Concentration Synthesized Nanocrystalline-ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline zinc oxide (nc-ZnO thin films were grown on p-type silicon substrate through spin coating by sol-gel process using different sol concentrations (10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, and 25 wt.%. These films were characterized by high resolution nondestructive X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS attachment, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques to understand variations in structural, morphological, and oxygen vacancy with respect to sol concentration. The film surface morphology changes from nanowall to nanorods on increasing sol concentration. EPR spectra revealed the systematic variation from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic nature in these nc-ZnO films. The broad EPR resonance signal arising from the strong dipolar-dipolar interactions among impurity defects present in nc-ZnO film deposited from 10 wt.% sol has been observed and a single strong narrow resonance signal pertaining to oxygen vacancies is obtained in 25 wt.% sol derived nc-ZnO film. The concentrations of impurity defects and oxygen vacancies are evaluated from EPR spectra, necessary for efficient optoelectronic devices development.

  16. Oxidation-Based Continuous Laser Writing in Vertical Nano-Crystalline Graphite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Loïc; Florea, Ileana; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin; Tay, Beng Kang; Lebental, Bérengère

    2016-05-01

    Nano and femtosecond laser writing are becoming very popular techniques for patterning carbon-based materials, as they are single-step processes enabling the drawing of complex shapes without photoresist. However, pulsed laser writing requires costly laser sources and is known to cause damages to the surrounding material. By comparison, continuous-wave lasers are cheap, stable and provide energy at a more moderate rate. Here, we show that a continuous-wave laser may be used to pattern vertical nano-crystalline graphite thin films with very few macroscale defects. Moreover, a spatially resolved study of the impact of the annealing to the crystalline structure and to the oxygen ingress in the film is provided: amorphization, matter removal and high oxygen content at the center of the beam; sp2 clustering and low oxygen content at its periphery. These data strongly suggest that amorphization and matter removal are controlled by carbon oxidation. The simultaneous occurrence of oxidation and amorphization results in a unique evolution of the Raman spectra as a function of annealing time, with a decrease of the I(D)/I(G) values but an upshift of the G peak frequency.

  17. Photoluminescence and photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarwal, N.L.; Shinde, V.V.; Kamble, A.S.; Jadhav, P.R.; Patil, D.S.; Patil, V.B. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India); Patil, P.S., E-mail: psp_phy@unishivaji.ac.in [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Vidyanagar, Kolhapur 416 004, Maharashtra (India)

    2011-10-01

    A simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) was employed for the synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films onto soda lime glass and tin doped indium oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates at different substrate temperatures ranging from 300 deg. C to 500 deg. C. The synthesized films were polycrystalline, with a (0 0 2) preferential growth along c-axis. SEM micrographs revealed the uniform distribution of spherical grains of about 80-90 nm size. The films were transparent with average visible transmittance of 85% having band gap energy 3.25 eV. All the samples exhibit room temperature photoluminescence (PL). A strong ultraviolet (UV) emission at 398 nm with weak green emission centered at 520 nm confirmed the less defect density in the samples. Moreover, the samples are photoelectrochemically active and exhibit the highest photocurrent of 60 {mu}A, a photovoltage of 280 mV and 0.23 fill factor (FF) for the Zn{sub 450} films in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte, when illuminated under UV light.

  18. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongre, J. K., E-mail: jk-dongre@yahoo.com; Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K. [Government Autonomous Post Graduate College Chhindwara, 480001 (India)

    2015-07-31

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer’s formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η)

  19. Study of nanocrystalline thin cobalt films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy obtained by thermal evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Witold; Balcerski, Józef; Szmaja, Witold

    2017-02-01

    We have performed a detailed investigation of the morphological and magnetic domain structures of nanocrystalline thin cobalt films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The films were thermally evaporated at an incidence angle of 0° in a vacuum of about 10-5 mbar and possessed thicknesses in the range from 60 nm to 100 nm. The films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron diffraction of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the Fresnel mode of TEM. The films are polycrystalline and consist of very densely packed grains with sizes at the nanometer range. The grains are roundish in shape and generally exhibit no geometric alignment. The films are mainly composed of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) phase of cobalt and possess preferential orientation of the cobalt grains with the hexagonal axis perpendicular to the film surface. 70 nm thick films and thicker have fully perpendicular magnetization, while 60 nm thick films possess clearly dominating perpendicular magnetization component. The magnetic domain structure is in the form of stripe domains forming a maze pattern. When the film thickness increases from 60 nm to 100 nm, the average grain size increases from 28.9 nm to 31.5 nm and the average domain width increases from 79.4 nm to 98.7 nm.

  20. Optical and Surface Characteristics of Mg-Doped GaAs Nanocrystalline Thin Film Deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the most promising p-type dopant for gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor technology. Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline thin film has been deposited at room temperature by the thermionic vacuum arc technique, a rapid deposition method for production of doped GaAs material. The microstructure and surface and optical properties of the deposited sample were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and interferometry. The crystalline direction of the deposited sample was determined to be (220) plane and (331) plane at 44.53° and 72.30°, respectively. The Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline sample showed high transmittance.

  1. In situ spectroelectrochemical behaviour of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films electrode fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅正文; 孔继烈; 秦启宗; 田中群

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium oxide thin films have been successfully deposited on ITO coated glass by pulsed laser ablation of metallic Ti target in O3/O2 ambient gases. The intercalation of Li ions in the anatase TiO2 film electrode is examined by cyclic vohammetry. The electrochromic behaviour of TiO2 electrode is investigated by in-situ visible transmittance measurement, and two absorption bands at 420 and 650 nm are observed. The absorption falling and rising in color changing with excellent revisibility is relative to the insertion and deintercalation processes of Li ion. These resuits suggest that nanocrystalline titanium oxide films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition exhibit excellent spectroelectrochemical property.

  2. Effect of deposition parameters on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Charita; Saini, G. S. S.; Abbas, Jasim M.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents the chemical bath deposition of zinc selenide (n-ZnSe) nanocrystalline thin films on non-conducting glass substrates, in an aqueous alkaline medium using sodium selenosulphate as Se 2- ion source. The X-ray diffraction studies show that the deposited ZnSe material is nanocrystalline with a mixture of hexagonal and cubic phase. The direct optical band gap ' Eg' for the as-deposited n-ZnSe films is found to be 3.5 eV. TEM studies show that the ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) are spherical in shape. Formation of ZnSe has been confirmed with the help of infrared (IR) spectroscopy by observing bands corresponding to the multiphonon absorption. We demonstrate the effect of the deposition temperature and reactant concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnSe films.

  3. Influence of film thickness on structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films obtained by SILAR method and analysis of Zn/ZnS/n-GaAs/In sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezakin, Oguzhan; Guezeldir, Betuel; Saglam, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Yildirim, M. Ali [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ates, Aytunc [Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-04-15

    ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using SILAR method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The relationship between refractive index and energy bandgap was investigated. The film thickness effect on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS thin films was investigated. The crystalline and surface properties of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The energy bandgap values changed from 3.87 to 3.58 eV with increasing film thickness. The refractive index (n), high frequency dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub {infinity}}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the film thickness. Also, ZnS thin film was deposited directly on n-GaAs substrate for obtaining the Zn/ZnS/n-GaAs/In sandwich structure at room temperature. The sandwich structure demonstrated clearly rectifying behaviour by the current-voltage (I-V) curves at room temperature. From I-V characteristics n and {phi}{sub b} values were calculated as 1.894 and 0.632 eV at room temperature, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok [Dept. of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju [National Fusion Research Institute, 52, Yuseong-Gu, Deajeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, MunPyo, E-mail: goodmoon@korea.ac.kr [Dept. of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  5. Microstructure evolution of metallic nanocrystalline thin-films under ion-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoumi, Djamel

    The microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline metallic thin-films under ion irradiation, especially grain growth and second-phase precipitation, was studied with detailed in situ experiments, and a theoretical model was developed to explain the results of grain-growth. Free-standing Zr, Pt, Cu and Au, Cu-Fe, and Zr-Fe nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sputter deposition were irradiated in-situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory with Ar and Kr ions to fluences in excess of 1016 ion/cm2 at temperatures ranging from 20 to 773 K. The microstructural evolution of the thin-films was followed in situ by systematically recording bright field images and diffraction patterns at successive ion-irradiation doses. Grain growth was observed as a result of irradiation in all samples at all irradiation temperatures. The results suggest the existence of three regimes with increasing irradiating temperature: a low temperature regime (below about 0.15 to 0.22 Tm) where grain-growth does not depend on the irradiation temperature, a thermally assisted regime where both the grain-growth rate and the final grain size increase with increasing irradiation temperature, and a thermal regime where thermal effects dominate ion beam effects. Similarly to thermal grain growth, the ion-irradiation induced grain growth curves could be best fitted with curves of the type: Dn-Dn0=KF with n˜3 in the low temperature regime. The effect of solute addition on grain-growth was investigated using Zr(Fe) and Cu(Fe) supersaturated solid-solutions. In the case of Zr-Fe, Zr2Fe precipitates formed during irradiation (with the dose-to-precipitation of Zr2Fe decreasing with increasing irradiation temperature), whereas Cu-Fe remained as a solid-solution. The grain-growth rate and final size decreased in both alloys with respect to the pure metallic films as a result of second-phase particle pinning (Zener drag) (Zr-Fe), and solute drag (Cu-Fe). The grain

  6. Cobalt and nickel macrocycles anchored to nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: Sensitization, catalysis, and ligand association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Darren Craig

    The global demand for renewable, clean electricity and fuel has compelled efforts to utilize the immense power incident upon the Earth from the Sun. Photovoltaic systems could power the planet's electrical demands with only moderate efficiencies. However, mitigation of fossil fuels used for transportation and night-time electricity requires the storage of photon energy, for example, in the form of chemical bonds. Mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films provide a manifold for anchoring molecular species that absorb and utilize photons to catalyze fuel-generating reactions. The overarching theme of this thesis is to improve understanding of the semiconductor/molecule interface utilizing earth abundant first-row transition metal coordination compounds. Chapter 2 presents the non-ideal redox behavior of cobalt porphyrins anchored to semiconductor surfaces. Additionally, CoI porphyrins were utilized as photocatalysts for the 2e- reduction of organobromides to yield a CoIII-R intermediate. The cobalt-carbon bond of CoIII-R was photodissociated with visible light to yield Co II and R·. The organic radical dimerized to form R-R. Light excitation of CoI compounds was found to result in electron transfer to TiO2, Chapter 3. Cobalt porphyrins, phthalocyanines, glyoximes, and corrins were all observed to exhibit this behavior. Electron transfer was demonstrated to primarily occur via excitation into the large extinction coefficient metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorption bands of CoI complexes. Chapter 4 focuses on the unique coordination chemistry of cobalt porphyrins anchored to a TiO2 thin film. Notably, pyridine axially ligated a CoII porphyrin following excited-state electron transfer of the CoI porphyrin to the TiO2. The rate constant for recombination of an electron in the TiO2 with CoII was observed to decrease with increasing pyridine concentration, behavior attributed primarily to a negative shift of the CoII/I potential in the presence of pyridine. Finally

  7. Effect of Annealing Temperature on CuInSe2/ZnS Thin-Film Solar Cells Fabricated by Using Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CuInSe2 (CIS thin films are successfully prepared by electron beam evaporation. Pure Cu, In, and Se powders were mixed and ground in a grinder and made into a pellet. The pallets were deposited via electron beam evaporation on FTO substrates and were varied by varying the annealing temperatures, at room temperature, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. Samples were analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD for crystallinity and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM for grain size and thickness. I-V measurements were used to measure the efficiency of the CuInSe2/ZnS solar cells. XRD results show that the crystallinity of the films improved as the temperature was increased. The temperature dependence of crystallinity indicates polycrystalline behaviour in the CuInSe2 films with (1 1 1, (2 2 0/(2 0 4, and (3 1 2/(1 1 6 planes at 27°, 45°, and 53°, respectively. FESEM images show the homogeneity of the CuInSe2 formed. I-V measurements indicated that higher annealing temperatures increase the efficiency of CuInSe2 solar cells from approximately 0.99% for the as-deposited films to 1.12% for the annealed films. Hence, we can conclude that the overall cell performance is strongly dependent on the annealing temperature.

  8. Enhanced violet photoemission of nanocrystalline fluorine doped zinc oxide (FZO) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Muthukumar; Arivuoli, D.; Manikandan, E.; Jayachandran, M.

    2015-09-01

    Highly stable fluorine doped nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films were prepared on corning glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at variable deposition temperature of 360 °C, 380 °C and 420 °C. Especially, the optimum deposition temperature was investigated for high intense violet emission. The film crystallinity improved with the increasing deposition temperature and highly textured film was obtained at 420 °C. The films exhibited surface morphology variation from spherical to platelets due to deposition temperature effect, analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Higher growth rate observed at 420 °C which leads larger grains and lowest resistivity of ∼5.77 Ω cm among the deposited films which may be due to reduction in zinc vacancies and grain boundary area. Zinc vacancies are acts as electron killer centres. UV-visible spectra indicated higher transmittance (83-90%) in the visible region. Red shift of optical absorption edges associated with the increase in particle size consistent well with the XRD results. Reduced E2(high) intensity was observed in Raman spectra, for the film deposited at 380 °C which indicates decreased oxygen incorporation confirmed by PL spectra. Especially, enhanced violet emission observed at 3.06 eV for the films deposited at 380 °C due to electronic transition from the defect level of zinc vacancies to the conduction band, probably attributed to enhanced incorporation of 'F' into 'O' sites associated with increased Zn vacancies and also decreased oxygen incorporation consistent with the electrical and Raman analyses.

  9. Room-temperature deposition of nanocrystalline PbWO{sub 4} thin films by pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, J.H.; Yoon, J.-W.; Shim, K.B. [Hanyang University, Department of Ceramic Engineering, Ceramic Processing Research Center (CPRC), Seoul (Korea); Koshizaki, N. [Nanoarchitectonics Research Center (NARC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) was applied to synthesize nanocrystalline PbWO{sub 4} thin films onto glass substrates. The effects of Ar background gas pressure on phase evolution, microstructures and optical characteristics of PbWO{sub 4} thin films were investigated in detail. The PLA processes were carried out at room temperature without substrate heating or post-annealing treatment. XRD and HR-TEM results revealed that the PbWO{sub 4} thin films are composed of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Moreover, the films contained a high density of lattice defects such as twin boundaries and edge dislocations. The crystallite size and crystallinity increased, which were associated with a change in surface morphology as the Ar pressure increased. Reduced tungsten states W{sup 5+} or W{sup 4+} induced by oxygen vacancies were observed at 10 Pa and the atomic concentration of all constituent element was almost stoichiometric, especially the [Pb]/[W] ratio, which was nearly unity above 50 Pa. The optical energy band-gap was 3.03 eV at 50 Pa and increased to 3.35 eV at 100 Pa, which are narrower than the reported value (4.20 eV). This optical band-gap narrowing could be attributed to localized band-tail states and new energy levels induced by the amorphous structure and inherent lattice defects. (orig.)

  10. Effect of film thickness on NO2 gas sensing properties of sprayed orthorhombic nanocrystalline V2O5 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, A. A.; Moholkar, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The nanocrystalline V2O5 thin films with different thicknesses have been grown onto the glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) deposition method. The XRD study shows that the films exhibit an orthorhombic crystal structure. The narrow scan X-ray photoelectron spectrum of V-2p core level doublet gives the binding energy difference of 7.3 eV, indicating that the V5+ oxidation state of vanadium. The FE-SEM micrographs show the formation of nanorods-like morphology. The AFM micrographs show the high surface area to volume ratio of nanocrystalline V2O5 thin films. The optical study gives the band gap energy values of 2.41 eV, 2.44 eV, 2.47 eV and 2.38 eV for V2O5 thin films deposited with the thicknesses of 423 nm, 559 nm, 694 nm and 730 nm, respectively. The V2O5 film of thickness 559 nm shows the NO2 gas response of 41% for 100 ppm concentration at operating temperature of 200 °C with response and recovery times of 20 s and 150 s, respectively. Further, it shows the rapid response and reproducibility towards 10 ppm NO2 gas concentration at 200 °C. Finally, NO2 gas sensing mechanism based on chemisorption process is discussed.

  11. Swift heavy ion induced optical and structural modifications in RF sputtered nanocrystalline ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Singhal, R.; Vishnoi, R.; Kumar, V. V. S.; Kulariya, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, 100 MeV Ag7+ ion beam-induced structural and optical modifications of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films are investigated. The nanocrystalline ZnO thin films are grown using radio frequency magnetron sputtering and irradiated at fluences of 3 × 1012, 1 × 1013 and 3 × 1013 ions/cm2. The incident swift heavy ions induced change in the crystallinity together with the preferential growth of crystallite size along the c axis (002) orientation. The average crystallite size is found to be increased from 10.8 ± 0.7 to 20.5 ± 0.3 nm with increasing the ion fluence. The Atomic force microscopy analysis confirms the variation in the surface roughness by varying the incident ion fluences. The UV-visible spectroscopy shows the decrement in transmittance of the film with ion irradiation. The micro-Raman spectra of ZnO thin films are investigated to observe ion-induced modifications which support the increased lattice defects with higher fluence. The variation in crystallinity indicates that ZnO-based devices can be used in piezoelectric transduction mechanism.

  12. Enhancement of photo sensor properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin film by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S. V.; Upadhye, D. S.; Shaikh, S. U.; Birajadar, R. B.; Siddiqui, F. Y.; Bagul, S. B.; Huse, N. P.; Sharma, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film prepared by Low cost Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. This film was irradiated by 120 MeV Ni7+ ions with the fluence of 5x1012ions/cm2. The X-ray diffraction study was shows polycrystalline nature with wurtzite structure. The optical properties as absorbance were determined using UV-Spectrophotometer and band gap was also calculated. The Photo Sensor nature was calculated by I-V characteristics with different sources of light 40W, 60W and 100W.

  13. Structural, Optical and Electrochromic Properties of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin filmswere prepared by spin coating on covered glass substrates with an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer. The structural, electrochromic and optical properties of the films were investigated. The films are crystallized predominantly in the anatase phase with lattice parameters a = b = 0.378 nm and c = 0.958 nm . The crystallite size was found to be of the order of 14 nm. The films showed reversible coloration/bleaching cycles as demonstrated by cyclic voltametry and curre...

  14. Radiation Hard and Self Healing Substrate Agnostic Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Film Electronics (Per5 E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    of the proposed project is to advance the fundamental understanding of radiation induced changes in the electronic properties of metal-oxide (M-O...T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-9 Radiation-Hard and Self-Healing Substrate-Agnostic Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Film Electronics (Per5-E...From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  15. Enhancement of photo sensor properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin film by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S. V.; Upadhye, D. S.; Bagul, S. B. [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Shaikh, S. U.; Birajadar, R. B.; Siddiqui, F. Y.; Huse, N. P. [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Sharma, R. B., E-mail: ramphalsharma@yahoo.com, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film prepared by Low cost Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. This film was irradiated by 120 MeV Ni{sup 7+} ions with the fluence of 5x10{sup 12}ions/cm{sup 2}. The X-ray diffraction study was shows polycrystalline nature with wurtzite structure. The optical properties as absorbance were determined using UV-Spectrophotometer and band gap was also calculated. The Photo Sensor nature was calculated by I-V characteristics with different sources of light 40W, 60W and 100W.

  16. Magnetic domain structure in nanocrystalline Ni-Zn-Co spinel ferrite thin films using off-axis electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Ray, N. M.; Petuskey, W. T.; Smith, D. J.; McCartney, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (˜90 °C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy and microanalysis revealed that the films consisted of columnar grains with uniform chemical composition. Off-axis electron holography combined with magnetic force microscopy indicated a multi-grain domain structure with in-plane magnetization. The correlation between the magnetic domain morphology and crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  17. Direct synthesis and characterization of optically transparent conformal zinc oxide nanocrystalline thin films by rapid thermal plasma CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Joachim D; Esposito, Heather J; Teh, Kwok Siong

    2011-10-31

    We report a rapid, self-catalyzed, solid precursor-based thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition process for depositing a conformal, nonporous, and optically transparent nanocrystalline ZnO thin film at 130 Torr (0.17 atm). Pure solid zinc is inductively heated and melted, followed by ionization by thermal induction argon/oxygen plasma to produce conformal, nonporous nanocrystalline ZnO films at a growth rate of up to 50 nm/min on amorphous and crystalline substrates including Si (100), fused quartz, glass, muscovite, c- and a-plane sapphire (Al2O3), gold, titanium, and polyimide. X-ray diffraction indicates the grains of as-deposited ZnO to be highly textured, with the fastest growth occurring along the c-axis. The individual grains are observed to be faceted by (103) planes which are the slowest growth planes. ZnO nanocrystalline films of nominal thicknesses of 200 nm are deposited at substrate temperatures of 330°C and 160°C on metal/ceramic substrates and polymer substrates, respectively. In addition, 20-nm- and 200-nm-thick films are also deposited on quartz substrates for optical characterization. At optical spectra above 375 nm, the measured optical transmittance of a 200-nm-thick ZnO film is greater than 80%, while that of a 20-nm-thick film is close to 100%. For a 200-nm-thick ZnO film with an average grain size of 100 nm, a four-point probe measurement shows electrical conductivity of up to 910 S/m. Annealing of 200-nm-thick ZnO films in 300 sccm pure argon at temperatures ranging from 750°C to 950°C (at homologous temperatures between 0.46 and 0.54) alters the textures and morphologies of the thin film. Based on scanning electron microscope images, higher annealing temperatures appear to restructure the ZnO nanocrystalline films to form nanorods of ZnO due to a combination of grain boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion.PACS: films and coatings, 81.15.-z; nanocrystalline materials, 81.07.Bc; II-VI semiconductors, 81.05.Dz.

  18. Characterization and antibacterial activity of nanocrystalline Mn doped Fe2O3 thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method have been successfully employed to grow nanocrystalline Mn doped α-Fe2O3 thin films onto glass substrates. The structural analysis revealed that, the films are nanocrystalline in nature with rhombohedral structure. The optical studies showed that α-Fe2O3 thin film exhibits 3.02 eV band gap energy and it decreases to 2.95 eV as the Mn doping percentage in it was increased from 0 to 8 wt.%. The SILAR grown α-Fe2O3 film exhibits antib...

  19. Annealing and light effect on structural, optical and electrical properties of CuS, CuZnS and ZnS thin films grown by the SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Yildirim, M.; Ateş, Aytunç; Astam, Aykut

    2009-08-01

    CuS, Cu 0.6Zn 0.4S and ZnS thin films were grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass substrates at room temperature. The annealing temperature effect on the crystal structure, optical band gap and the light effect on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used for the investigation of structural properties of films. The SEM and XRD studies showed that the films are covered well with glass substrates and exhibit polycrystalline characterization. Using the absorption measurements, the band gap energies for CuS, Cu 0.6Zn 0.4S and ZnS thin films were found as 2.03, 2.14 and 3.92 eV at room temperature, respectively. The two-point-probe method was used for the investigation of electrical properties of films and it was found that the current increase with increasing light intensity and increasing rate in illuminated 500 W cm -2 films was greater than in others. There is an important increasing in the current values of the CuS and Cu 0.6Zn 0.4S films which have annealed at 400 °C. But the annealed ZnS thin film has less current values than the as-grown film. This is the first study which led to deposition of the CuZnS thin films by using the SILAR method.

  20. Formation of nanocrystalline GeSn thin film on Si substrate by sputtering and rapid thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmodi, H.; Hashim, M. R.; Hashim, U.

    2016-10-01

    Nanocrystalline Ge1-xSnx thin films have been formed after rapid thermal annealing of sputtered GeSn layers. The alloy films were deposited onto the Silicon (100) substrate via low cost radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Then, the films were annealed by rapid thermal annealing at 350 °C, 400 °C, and 450 °C for 10 s. The morphological, structural, and optical properties of the layers were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD). The Raman analysis showed that the only observed phonon mode is attributed to Ge-Ge vibrations. Raman phonon intensities of GeSn thin films were enhanced with increasing the annealing temperature. The results clearly revealed that by increasing the annealing temperature the crystalline quality of the films were improved. The XRD measurements revealed the nanocrystalline phase formation in the annealed films with (111) preferred orientation. The results showed the potentiality of using the sputtering technique and rapid thermal anneal to produce crystalline GeSn layer.

  1. Photoluminescence of dense nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films: effect of doping and thickness and relation to gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Candy; Seeley, Zachary; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita; McHale, Jeanne L

    2011-07-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of dense nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO(2) thin films is reported as a function of calcination temperature, thickness, and tungsten and nickel doping. The dependence of the optical absorption, Raman spectra, and PL spectra on heat treatment and dopants reveals the role of oxygen vacancies, crystallinity, and phase transformation in the performance of TiO(2) films used as gas sensors. The broad visible PL from defect states of compact and undoped TiO(2) films is found to be much brighter and less sensitive to the presence of oxygen than that of mesoporous films. The dense nanocrystalline grains and the nanoparticles comprising the mesoporous film are comparable in size, demonstrating the importance of film morphology and carrier transport in determining the intensity of defect photoluminescence. At higher calcination temperatures, the transformation to rutile results in the appearance of a dominant near-infrared peak. This characteristic change in the shape of the PL spectra demonstrates efficient capture of conduction band electrons by the emerging rutile phase. The W-doped samples show diminished PL with quenching on the red side of the emission spectrum occurring at lower concentration and eventual disappearance of the PL at higher W concentration. The results are discussed within the context of the performance of the TiO(2) thin films as CO gas sensors and the chemical nature of luminescent defects.

  2. Modeling and simulation of boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin film by a field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping; Lee, James D

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the application of a multiscale field theory in modeling and simulation of boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon carbide (B-SiC). The multiscale field theory was briefly introduced. Based on the field theory, numerical simulations show that intergranular glassy amorphous films (IGFs) and nano-sized pores exist in triple junctions of the grains for nanocrystalline B-SiC. Residual tensile stress in the SiC grains and compressive stress on the grain boundaries (GBs) were observed. Under tensile loading, it has been found that mechanical response of 5 wt% boron-SiC exhibits five characteristic regimes. Deformation mechanism at atomic scale has been revealed. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of nanocrystalline SiC were accurately reproduced.

  3. X-ray microstructural analysis of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films by diffraction pattern modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, D. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); PCM Computacional Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Ospina, R. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Gómez, A.G. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Seccional Cali, Facultad de Ingeniería, Departamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniería y la Producción (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); PCM Computacional Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Arango, P.J. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia)

    2014-02-15

    A detailed microstructural characterization of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films grown at different substrate temperatures (T{sub S}) was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Total diffraction pattern modeling based on more meaningful microstructural parameters, such as crystallite size distribution and dislocation density, was performed to describe the microstructure of the thin films more precisely. This diffraction modeling has been implemented and used mostly to characterize powders, but the technique can be very useful to study hard thin films by taking certain considerations into account. Nanocrystalline films were grown by using the cathodic pulsed vacuum arc technique on stainless steel 316L substrates, varying the temperature from room temperature to 200 °C. Further surface morphology analysis was performed to study the dependence of grain size on substrate temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystallite and surface grain sizes obtained and the high density of dislocations observed indicate that the films underwent nanostructured growth. Variations in these microstructural parameters as a function of T{sub S} during deposition revealed a competition between adatom mobility and desorption processes, resulting in a specific microstructure. These films also showed slight anisotropy in their microstructure, and this was incorporated into the diffraction pattern modeling. The resulting model allowed for the films' microstructure during synthesis to be better understood according to the experimental results obtained. - Highlights: • Mobility and desorption competition generates a critical temperature. • A microstructure anisotropy related to the local strain was observed in thin films. • Adatom mobility and desorption influence grain size and microstrain.

  4. Highly conductive boron doped micro/nanocrystalline silicon thin films deposited by VHF-PECVD for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneja, Sucheta; Sudhakar, S., E-mail: sudhakars@nplindia.org; Gope, Jhuma; Lodhi, Kalpana; Sharma, Mansi; Kumar, Sushil

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: AFM images of boron doped micro/nanocrystalline silicon films at different diborane gas flow. - Highlights: • High deposition rate of 10 Å/s was achieved for boron doped silicon films. • Wide range of optical band gap from 1.32 eV to 1.84 eV observed for the deposited films. - Abstract: Boron doped hydrogenated micro/nanocrystalline silicon (μc/nc-Si:H) thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) using silane (SiH{sub 4}) diluted in argon. Diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) was used as the dopant gas and deposition was carried out at substrate temperature of 200 °C. The diborane flow (F{sub B}) varied in the range 0.00–0.30. Here, we report the effects of B{sub 2}H{sub 6} doping on electronic, optical and structural properties of hydrogenated micro/nanocrystalline silicon films. The structural properties were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The doped micro/nano crystalline silicon films presented a crystallographic orientation preferentially in the (1 1 1) and (2 2 0) plane. We resolve the deposition parameters that lead to the formation of p-type micro/nanocrystalline silicon thin films with very high value of conductivity and lower optical band gap. Correlations between structural and electrical properties were also studied. Based on temperature dependent conductivity measurements, it has been observed that the room temperature dark conductivity varies in the range 1.45 × 10{sup −4} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} to 2.02 Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} for the B-doped films. Meanwhile, the corresponding value of activation energies decreased to 0.06 eV for the B-doped films, which indicates the doped μc/nc-Si films with high conductivity can be achieved and these films prove to be a very good candidate for application in amorphous and micro/nano crystalline silicon solar cells as a p-type window layer.

  5. Novel p-Type Conductive Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Film as the Back Electrode for High-Performance Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Lin, Qinxian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Mei, Zongwei; Liang, Jun; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-02-10

    Thin film solar cells, due to the low cost, high efficiency, long-term stability, and consumer applications, have been widely applied for harvesting green energy. All of these thin film solar cells generally adopt various metal thin films as the back electrode, like Mo, Au, Ni, Ag, Al, graphite, and so forth. When they contact with p-type layer, it always produces a Schottky contact with a high contact potential barrier, which greatly affects the cell performance. In this work, we report for the first time to find an appropriate p-type conductive semiconductor film, digenite Cu9S5 nanocrystalline film, as the back electrode for CdTe solar cells as the model device. Its low sheet resistance (16.6 Ω/sq) could compare to that of the commercial TCO films (6-30 Ω/sq), like FTO, ITO, and AZO. Different from the traditonal metal back electrode, it produces a successive gradient-doping region by the controllable Cu diffusion, which greatly reduces the contact potential barrier. Remarkably, it achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11.3%) with the traditional metal back electrode (Cu/Au thin films, 11.4%) in CdTe cells and a higher PCE (13.8%) with the help of the Au assistant film. We believe it could also act as the back electrode for other thin film solar cells (α-Si, CuInS2, CIGSe, CZTS, etc.), for their performance improvement.

  6. Characterization of Zns-GaP Naon-composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, V.

    1993-12-09

    It proved possible to produce consistent, high-quality nanocrystalline ZnS powders with grain sizes as small as 8 nm. These powders are nano-porous and are readily impregnated with GaP precursor, although inconsistently. Both crystal structure and small grain size of the ZnS can be maintained through the use of GaP. Heat treatment of the impregnated powders results in a ZnS-GaP composite structure where the grain sizes of the phases are on the order of 10--20 nm. Conventional powder processing should be able to produce optically dense ceramic compacts with improved mechanical properties and suitable IR transmission.

  7. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  8. Effect of substrate temperature on ZnS films prepared by thermal evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Rahul

    2015-06-01

    The nanocrystalline ZnS semiconducting thin films of 500 nm thickness have been deposited on glass substrate at different substrate temperatures ( T s) by thermal evaporation technique. The structural property of deposited thin films has been measured by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Energy dispersive analysis of X-ray. The electrical and optical properties of thin films have been determined by D.C. two point probe and ultra-violet visible spectroscopy measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that thin films have cubic structure. The electrical resistivity of thin films has decreased from 0.36 × 106 to 0.15 × 106 Ω cm as substrate temperature increases from 300 to 400 K. It shows that films have semiconducting in nature. The grain size and electrical conductivity of the thin films have increased as the deposition temperature increased while dislocation density, activation energy, and band gap decreased. The minimum band gap 3.43 eV has been found.

  9. Novel aspect in grain size control of nanocrystalline diamond film for thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Cho, Jung-Min; Lee, Taek-Sung; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2013-11-27

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film growth was systematically investigated for application for the thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor. The NCD thin film was grown on the Si wafer or on the SiO2-coated sapphire substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). The structural/optical properties of the samples were characterized by the high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The waveguide modes of the NCD layer were studied by prism coupler technique using laser (wavelength: 632.8 nm) with varying incident angle. A novel aspect was disclosed in the grain size dependence on the growth temperature at the relatively low methane concentration in the precursor gas, which was important for optical property: the grain size increased with decreasing growth temperature, which was contrary to the conventional knowledge prevailing in the microcrystalline diamond (MCD) domain. We have provided discussions to reconcile such observation. An optical waveguide mode resonance was demonstrated in the visible region using the microstructure-controlled transparent NCD thin film waveguide, which provided a strong potential for the waveguide mode resonance sensor applications.

  10. Synthesis, Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Nanocrystalline CdSe Thin Films Prepared By Chemical Bath Deposition Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nikam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium Selenide (CdSe thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by simple and low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD technique. Aqueous ammonia was used as a complexing agent for the synthesis of these films. Deposition parameters were optimised and the crystal structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, respectively. XRD pattern revealed that the as-prepared CdSe thin films are polycrystalline with hexagonal structure. The average crystallite size of CdSe thin film was found to be in the range of 12-16 nm. FE-SEM image revealed that deposited thin films were consisting of nanocrystalline grains, which were coalesced to form bigger grains that are in cluster form distributed over the substrate surface. Transmission spectra showed high transmittance in the visible region and direct optical band gap energy was found to be a function of deposition time.

  11. Dynamic scaling and optical properties of Zn(S, O,OH) thin film grown by chemical bath deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Li Bo-Yan; Dang Xiang-Yu; Wu Li; Jin Jing; Li Feng-Yan; Ao Jian-Ping; Sun Yun

    2011-01-01

    The scaling behavior and optical properties of Zn(S,O and OH) thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method were studied by combined roughness measurements,scanning electron microscopy and optical properties measurement.From the scaling behaviour,the value of growth scaling exponent β,0.38±0.06,was determined.This value indicated that the Zn(S,O,OH) film growth in the heterogeneous process was influenced by the surface diffusion and shadowing effect.Results of the optical properties measurements disclosed that the transmittance of the film was in the region of 70%-88% and the optical properties of the film grown for 40 min were better than those grown under other conditions.The energy band gap of the film deposited with 40 min was around 3.63 eV.

  12. Study of 44Ti grain boundary self-diffusion in thin nanocrystalline TiO2 films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumal, Petr [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); National University of Science and Technology, MISIS, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divinski, Sergiy; Wilde, Gerhard [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Titanium dioxide is known for its photo-catalytic properties and enhanced corrosion resistance in aqueous environments. Due to these properties TiO2 is very attractive material for light-induced self-cleaning glass, water-cleaning and producing hydrogen from water applications. Numerous works are dedicated to the diffusion of various dopants like niobium or chromium in TiO2 but so far, none studied the self-diffusion of titanium in nanocrystalline TiO2. The grain boundary self-diffusion in thin nanocrystalline TiO2 films is investigated. The oxide films are produced using a novel deposition method from metal-organic precursors at relatively low (400-500 C) temperatures. A relaxation annealing at 800 C was performed. The diffusion was measured in temperature interval between 200 C and 600 C by means of the radiotracer technique applying the 44Ti isotope and utilizing ion beam sputtering for sectioning. The diffusion was measured at different oxygen pressures. In addition, the microstructure and its possible evaluation during diffusion annealing was investigated using TEM. The results are discussed with respect of the relationship between grain boundary self-diffusion and the synthesis pathway, the oxygen pressure and resulting microstructure of the nanoscale functional oxide films.

  13. Band gap bowing of nanocrystalline Zn(1-x)CaxO thin films for blue and ultraviolet optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Nripasree; Deepak, N. K.

    2017-09-01

    Alloying materials having different band gaps is a tool to tailor the optical energy gaps of semiconducting materials. In the present study, the effect of alloying ZnO with CaO was investigated. Thin films of Zn(1-x)CaxO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20) were deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. All the films possessed nanocrystalline grains and crystallinity deteriorated with increase in Ca2+ substitution level. Elemental composition analysis confirmed the presence of Ca in the samples. Films showed good optical transmission in the visible and near infrared region and the absorption edge blue-shifted with Ca2+ substitution. Optical energy gap enhanced by 9.89% upon 20% Ca2+ substitution. Photoluminescence analysis also confirmed band gap broadening with mesovalent cation substitution.

  14. Determination of elastic and thermal properties of a thin nanocrystalline diamond coating using all-optical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sermeus, J.; Verstraeten, B.; Salenbien, R. [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Soft Matter and Biophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Pobedinskas, P.; Haenen, K. [Instituut voor Materiaalonderzoek (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Glorieux, C., E-mail: christ.glorieux@fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, Soft Matter and Biophysics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-09-01

    Results are presented on the thermal and elastic properties of a thin, 1.5 μm, nanocrystalline diamond coating (NCD), deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A combination of two all-optical measurement techniques, impulsive stimulated thermal scattering and grating induced laser beam deflection, was employed to launch and detect surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The relation between the dispersive propagation velocity of SAWs to the coating-substrate geometry is exploited to determine the elastic properties of the NCD coating. The elastic properties are found to be consistent with literature values. The thermal properties of the coating were determined by monitoring the thermal diffusion induced washing away of the laser induced transient surface temperature grating. The transient thermal grating signals were fitted by the low-frequency limit of a thermoelastic model for a multilayer configuration. Similar to the dispersion of the surface acoustic wave velocity, the characteristic time of the thermal diffusion driven grating decay evolves from a coating-dominated value at short grating spacings towards a substrate-dominated value at grating spacings well exceeding the coating thickness. The grating spacing dependence of the corresponding effective thermal diffusivity was experimentally determined and fitted, leading to a value for the thermal diffusivity of the NCD coating α{sub NCD} = 8.4{sub −0.1}{sup +2.7} mm{sup 2}·s{sup −1}, which is an order of magnitude lower than that of the silicon substrate. The low value of the thermal diffusivity is interpreted with a simple touching model. - Highlights: • We investigate a thin nano-crystalline diamond coating. • We used two all optical surface acoustic wave based methods. • We found a young's modulus and density that is in line with literature. • The thermal diffusivity of the NCD coating was 2 orders of magnitude lower than the one of bulk diamond.

  15. Solution assisted growth mechanism and characterization of ZnS microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoderao, Karuna P.; Jamble, Shweta N.; Sawant, Jitendra P.; Kale, Rohidas B.

    2017-02-01

    The ZnS microspheres were synthesized via simple, efficient and cost-effective hydrothermal method. The x-ray diffraction study revealed nanocrystalline nature of the synthesized ZnS with the cubic crystal structure. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations revealed the formation of 3D microspheres that consist of numerous ZnS nanocrystals. The grown microspheres are also interconnected with each other by driving force of attachment. The obtained product has excellent elemental stoichiometric proportion as evidenced by the EDS technique. The electron diffraction pattern reveals the polycrystalline nature of obtained ZnS product. The band gap was measured from UV–Vis spectroscopic study and found to be blue shifted from the bulk band gap value. The PL study exhibits negligibly weak band edge emission and dominant, widespread defect-related green emission. The nucleation of a ZnS nanocrystals and subsequent growth into the microspheres is also discussed.

  16. Characterization of Nanocrystalline SiGe Thin Film Solar Cell with Double Graded-Dead Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium (nc-SiGe thin films were deposited by high-frequency (27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD. The films were used in a silicon-based thin film solar cell with graded-dead absorption layer. The characterization of the nc-SiGe films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of SiGe alloy can be adjusted between 0.8 and 1.7 eV by varying the gas ratio. For thin film solar cell application, using double graded-dead i-SiGe layers mainly leads to an increase in short-circuit current and therefore cell conversion efficiency. An initial conversion efficiency of 5.06% and the stabilized efficiency of 4.63% for an nc-SiGe solar cell were achieved.

  17. Sn-doped ZnO nanocrystalline thin films with enhanced linear and nonlinear optical properties for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, V.; Yahia, I. S.; AlFaify, S.; Shkir, Mohd.

    2017-01-01

    In the current work, nanocrystalline undoped and Sn doped ZnO thin films with different doping concentrations (1, 3, 5, 7 at%) have been deposited on glass substrate by low cost spin coating technique. The strong effect of Sn doping on structural, morphological, optical, nonlinear properties have been observed. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all the thin films are preferentially grown along (002) plane. The crystallite size is found to be increased with increasing the concentration of Sn, similar behavior was observed by atomic force microscopy analysis. Optical study shows that the prepared thin films are highly transparent. The direct optical band gap was calculate and found to be 3.16, 3.20, 3.22, 3.34, 3.18 eV for pure and doped films respectively. The refractive index, linear susceptibility, nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. Furthermore, the third order nonlinear optical properties are investigated using Z-scan technique and their values are found to be -3.75×10-8 cm2/W, -3.76×10-3 cm/W and 0.65×10-3 esu for 7% Sn doped ZnO, respectively. There is a good correlation between theoretical and experimental third order nonlinear properties and higher values shows that the deposited films are may be applied in nonlinear optical applications.

  18. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A U Ubale; R J Dhokne; P S Chikhlikar; V S Sangawar; D K Kulkarni

    2006-04-01

    Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposition method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium acetate was used as cationic and sodium tellurite as anionic precursor in aqueous medium. In this process hydrazine hydrate is used as reducing agent and NH4OH as the catalytic for the decomposition of hydrazine. By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was done. In this paper the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdTe film are reported. The XRD pattern shows that films are nanocrystalline in nature. The resistivity is found to be of the order of 4.11 × 103 -cm at 523 K temperature with an activation energy of ∼ 0.2 eV. The optical absorption studies show that films have direct band gap (1.41 eV).

  19. Structural, optical and photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh Tripathi; R K Shukla

    2014-05-01

    Undoped SnO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method reveal polycrystalline nature with prominent peaks along (110), (101) and (211) planes. All the films are nanocrystalline with particle size lying in the range of 3.14–8.6 nm calculated by DS formula. Orientation along plane (200) decreases continuously as molar concentration of SnO2 increases. Dislocation density along plane (110) also decreases as molar concentration increases except 0.4 M SnO2 thin film. Scanning electron microscopy image of the films contain jelly structures along with agglomerated clusters of particles. SnO2 synthesized successfully, which confirms by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The optical transmittance spectra of 0.2 M SnO2 thin film shows transmittance about 50–60% transmission in visible and near infrared region with a sharp cut off in the ultraviolet region. The transmission decreases in visible and near infrared region as molar concentration increases. Broad UV emission at 398 nm is observed in photoluminescence spectra of the films along with a blue emission, when excited at 250 nm wavelength. Emission intensity randomly changed as SnO2 molar concentration increases. When excited at 320 nm, one UV and two visible peaks appeared at 385, 460 and 485 nm, respectively.

  20. Polydopamine-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films as a platform for bio-sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen, E-mail: georgievski@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Neykova, Neda, E-mail: neykova@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering Trojanova 13, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Proks, Vladimir [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Houdkova, Jana; Ukraintsev, Egor; Zemek, Josef; Kromka, Alexander [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 16253 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Rypaček, František [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky sq. 2, 16206 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-30

    Diamond exhibits good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, and thus, it is particularly suitable for bio-functionalization and bio-sensing. Modification of the diamond surface can be achieved through mussel-inspired surface chemistry based on polydopamine (PDA) while maintaining the intrinsic properties of the surface. We present a comparative study on the polymerization/deposition of PDA from an aqueous solution of dopamine on hydrogen- (H) and oxygen- (O) terminated nanocrystalline diamond films (NCD). The dopamine polymerization/deposition was performed under mild conditions, which resulted in a confluent PDA layer. A detailed investigation of the growth kinetics of the PDA film on H- and O-terminated NCD substrates was performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The chemical composition, the functional group distribution, the surface topography and the wetting properties of the adherent PDA films were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle goniometry, respectively. According to the results, a PDA layer can be used as a platform for future bio-functionalization and/or optical bio-sensing applications. - Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) was modified through polydopamine (PDA) chemistry. ► PDA's growth kinetics on H- and O-terminated NCD films were investigated. ► The growth kinetics and composition of PDA were independent of the NCD termination.

  1. Increased upper critical field for nanocrystalline MoN thin films deposited on AlN buffered substrates at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, R.; Thanikai Arasu, A. V.; Amaladass, E. P.; Vaidhyanathan, L. S.; Baisnab, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    Molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films have been deposited using reactive DC magnetron sputtering on aluminum nitride buffered oxidized silicon substrates at ambient temperature. GIXRD of aluminum nitride (AlN) deposited under similar conditions has revealed the formation of wurtzite phase AlN. GIXRD characterization of molybdenum thin films deposited on AlN buffered oxidized silicon substrates has indicated the formation of nanocrystalline MoN thin films. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate MoN thin films have a superconducting transition temperature of ~8 K. The minimum transition width of the MoN thin film is 0.05 K at 0 T. The inferred upper critical field B c2(0) for these nanocrystalline MoN thin films obtained by fitting the temperature dependence of critical field with Werthamer, Helfand and Hohenberg theory lies in the range of 17-18 T which is the highest reported in literature for MoN thin films.

  2. Thin Film Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes: Dependence of Flat Band Potential on pH and Anion Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minella, M; Maurino, V; Minero, C; Pelizzetti, E

    2015-05-01

    Thin nanocrystalline TiO2 films were produced on ITO conductive glass by dip-coating of a sol-gel TiO2 precursor. The transparent films were characterized from the optical and structural point of view with UV-Vis, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, the roughness of the coating by AFM. The changes in the electrochemical properties features of ITO/TiO2 electrodes were evaluated in the presence of different electrolytes (KCI, Na2SO4 and phosphate buffer) with the aim to clarify the role of the ion adsorption on the structure of the electrical double layer. Electrochemical tests (Cyclic Voltammetry, CV, and Impedance Electrochemical Spectroscopy, EIS) showed a strong influence of the electrolyte properties on the semiconductor band edge position in the electrochemical scale and on band bending. The CV profiles recorded can be explained by considering that the interface capacity is due to the charging of surface states (e.g., Ti(IV) surface sites coordinated by oxygen atoms, ≡Ti-OH or Ti-O-Ti). The surface charge is strongly affected also by the density and nature of adsorbed ions and by dissociation of surficial OH. Of interest the fact that for the produced nanocrystalline electrodes the flat band potential, measured from the Mott-Schottky analysis of the space charge layer capacity obtained with EIS, showed a non Nernstian behavior with the pH probably caused by a change in the surface acidity as a consequence of specific anion adsorption. The modulation of flat band potential with adsorbed ions is of interest for many applications, in particular for photocatalysis (change in the redox potential of photogenerated carriers) and for photovoltaic applications like DSSC (change in the photopotentials).

  3. Characterization and antibacterial activity of nanocrystalline Mn doped Fe2O3 thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Belkhedkar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method have been successfully employed to grow nanocrystalline Mn doped α-Fe2O3 thin films onto glass substrates. The structural analysis revealed that, the films are nanocrystalline in nature with rhombohedral structure. The optical studies showed that α-Fe2O3 thin film exhibits 3.02 eV band gap energy and it decreases to 2.95 eV as the Mn doping percentage in it was increased from 0 to 8 wt.%. The SILAR grown α-Fe2O3 film exhibits antibacterial character against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and it increases remarkably with Mn doping.

  4. Structural, Surface Morphology and Optical Properties of ZnS Films by Chemical Bath Deposition at Various Zn/S Molar Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Peng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition at various Zn/S molar ratios from 1/50 to 1/150. The effects of Zn/S molar ratio in precursor on the characteristics of ZnS films were demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It was found that more voids were formed in the ZnS film prepared using the precursor with Zn/S molar ratio of 1/50, and the other ZnS films showed the denser structure as the molar ratio was decreased from 1/75 to 1/150. From the analyses of chemical bonding states, the ZnS phase was indeed formed in these films. Moreover, the ZnO and Zn(OH2 also appeared due to the water absorption on film surface during deposition. This would be helpful to the junction in cell device. With changing the Zn/S molar ratio from 1/75 to 1/150, the ZnS films demonstrate high transmittance of 75–88% in the visible region, indicating the films are potentially useful in photovoltaic applications.

  5. Electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline LiMPO{sub 4} thin-films prepared by electrostatic spray deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jun; Qin, Qi-Zong [Department of Chemistry, Laser Chemistry Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-09-15

    LiMPO{sub 4} (M=Mn, Fe) and LiMn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.6}PO{sub 4} thin-films have been fabricated by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) combined with sol-gel method, in which P{sub 2}O{sub 5} was used as a phosphorous resource in Li-M-P-O alcohol precursor solution. Analyses of LiMPO{sub 4} solid films using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated the formation of an olivine phase of space group Pmnb with nanocrystalline morphology. The prepared LiMPO{sub 4} films were evaluated electrochemically by cyclic-voltammetry and charge/discharge measurements. The results showed that thin-film electrode of LiMn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.6}PO{sub 4} exhibited better electrochemical performance than that of pure LiFePO{sub 4} and LiMnPO{sub 4}. (author)

  6. Study of nanocrystalline Fe-Al-N soft magnetic thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢天; 郑代顺; 李晓红; 马云贵; 魏福林; 杨正

    2002-01-01

    Fe-Al-N films were fabricated by reactive sputtering using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. Theeffects of Al and N content and annealing temperature on microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated.The Fe-Al-N films, which have good soft magnetic properties, consist of nanocrystalline α-Fe grains and a small amountof other phases in the boundaries of α-Fe grains. The average α-Fe grain size is about 10-15nm. A slight amount ofFeN and Al-N compounds precipitate in the boundaries of α-Fe grains and suppress their growth. Annealing improvesthe soft magnetic properties slightly by releasing the residual stress and reducing defects.

  7. Investigation of nanocrystalline thin cobalt films thermally evaporated on Si(100) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Szmaja, W.; Piwoński, I.; Batory, D.; Miękoś, E.; Cichomski, M.

    2017-03-01

    We have made a quantitative study of the morphological and magnetic domain structures of 100 nm thick nanocrystalline cobalt films thermally evaporated on naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates. The morphological structure is composed of densely packed grains with the average grain size (35.6±0.8) nm. The grains exhibit no geometric alignment and no preferred elongation on the film surface. In the direction perpendicular to the film surface, the grains are aligned in columns. The films crystallize mainly in the hexagonal close-packed phase of cobalt and possess a crystallographic texture with the hexagonal axis perpendicular to the film surface. The magnetic domain structure consists of domains forming a maze stripe pattern with the average domain size (102±6) nm. The domains have their magnetizations oriented almost perpendicularly to the film surface. The domain wall energy, the domain wall thickness and the critical diameter for single-domain particle were determined.

  8. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nisha R; K N Madhusoodanan; T V Vimalkumar; K P Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystalline oxygen-deficient ZnO thinfilm sensors were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using zinc acetate dissolved in propanol and water as precursor. Response of the sensor to target gases NO2 and H2S is studied. At optimum temperature of 200° C, the sensors have a response of 3.32 to 7 ppm NO2 and 1.4 to 18 ppm of H2S gas. The analytical characterizations of the prepared sensors were performed using X-ray diffraction measurement, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamic response of sensors to different concentrations of NO2 and H2S gas was tested at optimum temperature. Experimental data revealed the sensors to be more selective to NO2 gas with satisfactory response and recovery time.

  9. Microstructure and strain relaxation in thin nanocrystalline platinum films produced via different sputtering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.gruber@tu-clausthal.de [Institut für Metallurgie, TU Clausthal, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Baehtz, Carsten [Institut für Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Horisberger, Michael [Laboratory for Scientific Developments & Novel Materials (LDM), Paul-Scherrer-Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ratschinski, Ingmar [Institut für Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe, TU Clausthal, Zehntnerstr. 2a, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum für Materialtechnik, Leibnizstraße 9, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmidt, Harald [Institut für Metallurgie, TU Clausthal, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Clausthaler Zentrum für Materialtechnik, Leibnizstraße 9, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Residual strain relaxation in nano crystalline platinum films was investigated. • Magnetron sputtered and ion beam sputtered Pt films are compared. • XRD measurements were carried out using synchrotron radiation. • Thickness fringes in the Bragg peak give information on microstructure. • Residual strain relaxation is stronger in films composed of equally oriented columns. - Abstract: In this study we investigated the correlation between microstructure and residual strain relaxation in nanocrystalline Pt films with a thickness of about 20 nm produced by different deposition techniques: magnetron sputtering and ion beam sputtering. X-ray diffractometry was carried out using synchrotron radiation. The out-of-plane interplanar distance was measured during isothermal in situ annealing at temperatures between 130 °C und 210 °C. The thermoelastic expansion coefficient is equal for both types of nanocrystalline Pt films and slightly lower than for coarse grained Pt. The relaxation of residual out-of-plain strain depends on temperature and is significantly stronger in the case of the magnetron sputtered films than for the ion beam sputtered films. Different relaxation of compressive stress is ascribed to the different microstructures which evolve during deposition via the corresponding deposition technique. Thickness fringes around the (1 1 1) Bragg peak deposited via magnetron sputtering reveal that these films are essentially composed of columnar (1 1 1) oriented grains which cover the whole film thickness. In contrast, no thickness fringes are observed around the (1 1 1) Bragg peak of films prepared by ion beam sputtering indicating a significantly different microstructure. This is confirmed by Electron Backscatter Diffraction which reveals a (1 1 1) texture for both types of films. The (1 1 1) texture, however, is significantly stronger in the case of the magnetron sputtered films. Grain growth at low homologous

  10. Effect of annealing temperature on photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunkhe, Manauti; Pawar, Nita; Patil, P. S.; Bhosale, P. N.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thermoelectric thin films have been deposited on ultrasonically cleaned glass and FTO-coated glass substrates by Arrested Precipitation Technique. The change in properties of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films were examined after annealing at the temperature 473 K for 3 h. The structural, morphological, compositional and electrical properties of thin films were characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, etc. Thermoelectric properties of the thin films have been evaluated by measurements of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the temperature range 300-500 K. Our aim is to investigate the effect of annealing on behaviour of MoBi2(Se0.5Te0.5)5 thin films along with photoelectrochemical properties.

  11. Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Film with Improved Work Function as a Buffer Layer in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinjoo; Shin, Chonghoon; Park, Hyeongsik; Jung, Junhee; Lee, Youn-Jung; Bong, Sungjae; Dao, Vinh Ai; Balaji, Nagarajan; Yi, Junsin

    2015-03-01

    We investigated thin film silicon solar cells with boron doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon/ hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide [p-type nc-Si:H/a-SiOx:H] layer. First, we researched the bandgap engineering of diborane (B2H6) doped wide bandgap hydrogenated nanocryslline silicon (p-type nc-Si:H) films, which have excellent electrical properties of high dark conductivity, and low activation energy. The films prepared with lower doping ratio and higher hydrogen dilution ratio had higher optical gap (Eg), with higher dark conductivity (σ(d)), and lower activation energy (Ea). We controlled Eg from 2.10 eV to 1.75 eV, with σ(d) from 1.1 S/cm to 7.59 x 10(-3) S/cm, and Ea from 0.040 eV to 0.128 eV. Next, we focused on the fabrication of thin film silicon solar cells. By inserting p-type nc-Si:H film into the thin film silicon solar cells, we achieved a remarkable increase in the built-in potential from 0.803 eV to 0.901 eV. By forming p-type nc-Si:H film between SnO2:F/ZnO:Al (30 nm) and p-type a-SiOx:H layer, the solar cell properties of open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), and efficiency (η) were improved by 3.7%, 9.2%, and 9.8%, respectively.

  12. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid MOHAMMADI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper fabrication of a 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized. Dynamics characteristics of this multilayer diaphragm have been investigated by ANSYS® FE software. By this simulation the effective parameters of the multilayer PZT diaphragm for improving the performance of a pressure sensor in different ranges of pressure are optimized. The optimized thickness ratio of PZT layer to SiO2 was given in the paper to obtain the maximum deflection of the multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm. A 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film has been developed to fabricate the pressure sensor by a hybrid sol gel process. PZT nanopowders fabricated via conventional sol gel method and uniformly dispersed in PZT precursor solution by an attrition mill. XRD analysis shows that perovskite structure would be formed due to the presence of a significant amount of ceramic nanopowders. This texture has a good effect on piezoelectric properties of perovskite structure. The film forms a strongly bonded network and less shrinkage occurs, so the films do not crack during process. Also the aspect ratio through this process would be increased. SEM micrographs indicated that PZT films were uniform, crack free and have a composite microstructure and a piezoelectric coefficient d31 of -40 pC.N-1 and d33 ranged from 50pm.N-1 to 60pm.N-1.

  13. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni -Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Al-ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dahlan, Ammar sadik [Department of architecture, faculty of environmental design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ{sup (3)} was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  14. Synthesis of nanocrystalline silicon thin films using the increase of the deposition pressure in the hot-wire chemical vapour deposition technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Rath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured thin silicon-based films have been deposited using the hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD technique at the University of the Western Cape. A variety of techniques including optical and infrared spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-rays diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM have been used for characterisation of the films. The electrical measurements show that the films have good values of photoresponse, and the photocurrent remains stable after several hours of light soaking. This contribution will discuss the characteristics of the hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon thin films deposited using increased process chamber pressure at a fixed hydrogen dilution ratio in monosilane gas.

  15. Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films Deposited by Electron Beam Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rigana Begam; N. Madhusudhana Rao; S. Kaleemulla; M. Shobana; N. Sai Krishna; M. Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdTe thin films has been investigated. All the CdTe films exhibited zinc blende structure with (111) preferential orientation. The crystallite size of the films increased from 35 nm to 116 nm with the increase of substrate temperature and the band gap of the films decre...

  16. Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films Deposited by Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rigana Begam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using electron beam evaporation technique. The effect of substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdTe thin films has been investigated. All the CdTe films exhibited zinc blende structure with (111 preferential orientation. The crystallite size of the films increased from 35 nm to 116 nm with the increase of substrate temperature and the band gap of the films decreased from 2.87 eV to 2.05 eV with the increase of the crystallite size.

  17. Synthesis, phase to phase deposition and characterization of rutile nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanjeev K., E-mail: sanjeev@ceeri.ernet.in [Sensors and Nano-Technology Group, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India); Singh, Jitendra; Anbalagan, K.; Kothari, Prateek; Bhatia, Ravi Raj [Sensors and Nano-Technology Group, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India); Mishra, Pratima K. [Advanced Materials Technology Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals Materials Technology (IMMT), Bhubaneswar 751 013, Odisha (India); Manjuladevi, V.; Gupta, Raj K. [Surface Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani 333031 (India); Akhtar, J. [Sensors and Nano-Technology Group, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystalline rutile TiO{sub 2} thin film has been deposited by e-beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A vacuum compatible target material (TiO{sub 2}) was indigenously prepared for such deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase to phase (rutile to rutile) transformation was observed employing various characterization tools (XRD, RAMAN, UV-vis, FTIR and AFM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A process induced self annealing phenomenon shows a strong effect on the structural, morphological and optical properties of deposited thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deposited film has sufficient possibility to realize a novel thin film material in the fabrication of active devices. - Abstract: In this work the preparation, deposition and structural properties of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films were investigated. The films were deposited by means of the e-beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) method in high vacuum (10{sup -7} Torr). A controlled deposition rate in the range of 0.1-0.3 Angstrom-Sign /s was monitored in situ employing quartz crystal. The films were deposited on the oxidized Si (1 0 0) wafer, glass micro slides. These films were analyzed using Grazing Angle X-ray diffraction (GA-XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy (RAMAN), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible Spectroscopy (UV-vis). Structural characterization results showed mainly presence of the crystalline rutile phase, however an interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer between TiO{sub 2} and the substrate and the minor anatase crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} was also identified in FTIR analysis. Grain size was found to be in the range of 100-125 nm while grain boundary was estimated to be 20 nm. Direct and indirect optical band gap was estimated to be 3.64 and 3.04 eV, respectively. A process induced self annealing of deposited film shows a strong effect on the structural

  18. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  19. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating. After annealation at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure. The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV. In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichlorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr. A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  20. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhou; Jiuhui Qu; Xu Zhao; Huijuan Liu

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating.After annealation at 400, 500, and 600℃, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry.The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure.The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV.In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichiorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (λ.> 420 nm).Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr.A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  1. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of vacuum-evaporated nanocrystalline CdSe thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vipin; Sharma, D.K.; Sharma, Kapil [Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Ghaziabad (India); Dwivedi, D.K. [M.M.M University of Technology, Department of Physics, Gorakhpur (India)

    2016-11-15

    II-VI nanocrystalline semiconductors offer a wide range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Thin films of CdSe were deposited onto ultra-clean glass substrates by vacuum evaporation method. The as-deposited films were annealed in vacuum at 350 K. The structural, elemental, morphological, optical and electrical investigations of annealed films were carried out. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the films shows that films were polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with preferential orientation of grains along (002) plane. SEM image indicates that the films were uniform and well covered to the glass substrate. EDAX analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the film. Raman spectra were used to observe the characteristic vibrational modes of CdSe. The energy band gap of these films was obtained by absorption spectra. The films were found to have a direct type of transition of band gap occurring at 1.75 eV. The dark electrical conductivity and photoconductivity reveals that the films were semiconducting in nature indicating the suitability of these films for photosensor applications. The Hall effect measurement reveals that the films have n-type electrical conductivity. (orig.)

  2. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of vacuum-evaporated nanocrystalline CdSe thin films for photosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin; Sharma, D. K.; Sharma, Kapil; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    II-VI nanocrystalline semiconductors offer a wide range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Thin films of CdSe were deposited onto ultra-clean glass substrates by vacuum evaporation method. The as-deposited films were annealed in vacuum at 350 K. The structural, elemental, morphological, optical and electrical investigations of annealed films were carried out. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the films shows that films were polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with preferential orientation of grains along (002) plane. SEM image indicates that the films were uniform and well covered to the glass substrate. EDAX analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the film. Raman spectra were used to observe the characteristic vibrational modes of CdSe. The energy band gap of these films was obtained by absorption spectra. The films were found to have a direct type of transition of band gap occurring at 1.75 eV. The dark electrical conductivity and photoconductivity reveals that the films were semiconducting in nature indicating the suitability of these films for photosensor applications. The Hall effect measurement reveals that the films have n-type electrical conductivity.

  3. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films prepared by HWCVD technique without hydrogen dilution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Shariatmadar Tehrani

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on Si(111) by the hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) technique using silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) gases without hydrogen dilution. The effects of SiH4 to CH4 gas flow ratio (R) on the structural properties, chemical composition and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the films deposited at the different gas flow ratios were investigated and compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed a structural transition from amorphous SiC to cubic nano-crystalline SiC films with the increase in the gas flow ratio. Raman scattering confirmed the multi-phased nature of the films. Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the carbon incorporation in the film structure was strongly dependent on the gas flow ratio. A similar broad visible room-temperature PL with two peaks was observed for all SiC films. The main PL emission was correlated to the band to band transition in uniform a-SiC phase and the other lower energy emission was related to the confined a-Si : H clusters in a-SiC matrix. SiC nano-crystallites exhibit no significant contribution to the radiative recombination.

  4. RETRACTED: Ammonia-free method for synthesis of CdS nanocrystalline thin films through chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Rabiee, M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Bodaghi, M.; Tahriri, M.

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief of Solid State Communications as the authors have plagiarized part of a paper that has also appeared in Current Applied Physics: Controlled synthesis, characterization and optical properties of CdS nanocrystalline thin films via chemical bath deposition (CBD) route Meysam Karimi, Mohammad Rabiee, Fathollah Moztarzadeh, Mohammadreza Tahriri and Masoud Bodaghi; Curr. Appl. Phys., 9 (2009) 1263-1268, doi: 10.1016/j.cap.2009.02.006. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  5. Growth and Characterization of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Molarity of Precursor Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mishra

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Variation of structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties with molarity of the precursor solution is investigated in detail. XRD studies have shown that the films are polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal wurtzite structure with strong c-axis orientation which increases with increase in molarity of the precursor solution. Also the grain size increases from ~ 13.3 nm to 14.4 nm. SEM shows bead like structure scattered throughout the surface. The transmission study reveals a decrease in transmittance with an increase in molarity and the optical band gap lies in the range of ~ 3.25 eV to 3.27 eV for all the samples. The resistivity is found to be of the order of ~10-2 Ωcm, carrier concentration is ~ 1016/ cm3 and hall mobility is ~ 4 cm2/Vs using Vander Pauw method. Sheet resistance is estimated to be ~ 102 Ω/Sq for the samples under investigation.

  6. Investigations of the drift mobility of carriers and density of states in nanocrystalline CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Baljinder [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Janpreet; Kaur, Jagdish [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Moudgil, R.K. [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline Cadmium Sulfide (nc-CdS) thin films have been prepared on well-cleaned glass substrate at room temperature (300 K) by thermal evaporation technique using inert gas condensation (IGC) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the films crystallize in hexagonal structure with preferred orientation along [002] direction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies reveal that grains are spherical in shape and uniformly distributed over the glass substrates. The optical band gap of the film is estimated from the transmittance spectra. Electrical parameters such as Hall coefficient, carrier type, carrier concentration, resistivity and mobility are determined using Hall measurements at 300 K. Transit time and mobility are estimated from Time of Flight (TOF) transient photocurrent technique in gap cell configuration. The measured values of electron drift mobility from TOF and Hall measurements are of the same order. Constant Photocurrent Method in ac-mode (ac-CPM) is used to measure the absorption spectra in low absorption region. By applying derivative method, we have converted the measured absorption data into a density of states (DOS) distribution in the lower part of the energy gap. The value of Urbach energy, steepness parameter and density of defect states have been calculated from the absorption and DOS spectra.

  7. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (gas at operating temperatures of ∼225 °C. The optimal composition of 1 wt % W-doped films exhibit lowest crystallite size of the order of ∼8-10 nm with reduced energy band gap and large roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  8. Band gap states in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M. B.; Kristiansen, P. T.; Duda, L.; Niklasson, G. A.; Österlund, L.

    2016-11-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering have been studied using soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements reveal band gap states in sub-stoichiometric γ-WO3-x with x  =  0.001-0.005. The energy positions of these states are in good agreement with recently reported density functional calculations. The results were compared with optical absorption measurements in the near infrared spectral region. An optical absorption peak at 0.74 eV is assigned to intervalence transfer of polarons between W sites. A less prominent peak at energies between 0.96 and 1.16 eV is assigned to electron excitation of oxygen vacancies. The latter results are supported by RIXS measurements, where an energy loss in this energy range was observed, and this suggests that electron transfer processes involving transitions from oxygen vacancy states can be observed in RIXS. Our results have implications for the interpretation of optical properties of WO3, and the optical transitions close to the band gap, which are important in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

  9. Band gap states in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M B; Kristiansen, P T; Duda, L; Niklasson, G A; Österlund, L

    2016-11-30

    Nanocrystalline tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering have been studied using soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements reveal band gap states in sub-stoichiometric γ-WO3-x with x  =  0.001-0.005. The energy positions of these states are in good agreement with recently reported density functional calculations. The results were compared with optical absorption measurements in the near infrared spectral region. An optical absorption peak at 0.74 eV is assigned to intervalence transfer of polarons between W sites. A less prominent peak at energies between 0.96 and 1.16 eV is assigned to electron excitation of oxygen vacancies. The latter results are supported by RIXS measurements, where an energy loss in this energy range was observed, and this suggests that electron transfer processes involving transitions from oxygen vacancy states can be observed in RIXS. Our results have implications for the interpretation of optical properties of WO3, and the optical transitions close to the band gap, which are important in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

  10. Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline 3,4,9,10-Perylene-Tetracarboxylic-Diimide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. El-Nahhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of nanocrystalline 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide (PTCDI were prepared on quartz substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The structural properties were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical properties for the films were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The optical constants (refractive index n and absorption index k were calculated and found to be independent on the film thickness in the measured film thickness range 117–163 nm. The dispersion energy (Ed, the oscillator energy (Eo, and the high-frequency dielectric constant ε∞ were obtained. The energy band model was applied, and the types of the optical transitions responsible for optical absorption were found to be indirect allowed transition. The onset and optical energy gaps were calculated, and the obtained results were also discussed.

  11. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O2 or C3F8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  12. Amorphous-nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Betriu, X., E-mail: xdiezbetriu@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rioboo, R.; Marcos, J. Sanchez-; Cespedes, E.; Espinosa, A.; Andres, A. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al- doped ZnO films by RF- sputtering as amorphous TCO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural characterization confirms amorphous-nanocrystalline nature of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical gap dependence on substrate and grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistivity correlates to the optical bandgap. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO films have been deposited at room temperature by means of RF sputtering under different conditions and subjected to annealing treatments looking for amorphous Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) films in the search for their integration into the emerging area of the flexible electronics. Structural studies have been performed as well as optical and electrical characterization. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for the determination of the optical gap for films grown on Si and the films thickness. The amorphous fraction of the films (up to 86%) depends on the substrate and RF power but not on the annealing temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C for glass substrates. The resistivity is found to be independent of the amorphous degree and correlates to the optical bandgap which presents three regimes depending on the annealing temperature.

  13. Development of High-Performance UV Detector Using Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are promising materials for wide-spread applications due to their outstanding characteristics of chemical, physical, and highly smooth surface. Our present work aimed at the fabrication of high performance diamond-based UV detector. NCD films were prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process, and then Au interdigital electrodes were deposited onto the surface of the as-grown NCD film by sputtering technique. Annealing procedures were conducted at various temperatures to obtain Ohmic contact of NCD/Au structure. The surface morphology, microstructure, and wettablity of the NCD films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic forced microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The electrical property and photoconductivity of the fabricated devices were tested for UV detection application. It was found that the NCD films possessed high sp3 fraction of 68.6%, low surface roughness of 9.6 nm, and good hydrophobicity, as deposited under working pressure of 40 Torr. Also, the NCD/Au structure annealed at 500°C exhibited a good Ohmic contact characteristic, high detection efficiency, and fast response to UV irradiation in air ambient. The proposed study indeed demonstrates prospective applications of NCD films in UV detector, photocatalyst, solar cell, and so on.

  14. Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films Prepared by Hot-Wire Method with Varied Process Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Waman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films were prepared by hot-wire method at low substrate temperature (200∘C without hydrogen dilution of silane (SiH4. A variety of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, were used to characterize these films for structural and optical properties. Films are grown at reasonably high deposition rates (>15 Å/s, which are very much appreciated for the fabrication of cost effective devices. Different crystalline fractions (from 2.5% to 63% and crystallite size (3.6–6.0 nm can be achieved by controlling the process pressure. It is observed that with increase in process pressure, the hydrogen bonding in the films shifts from Si–H to Si–H2 and (Si–H2n complexes. The band gaps of the films are found in the range 1.83–2.11 eV, whereas the hydrogen content remains <9 at.% over the entire range of process pressure studied. The ease of depositing films with tunable band gap is useful for fabrication of tandem solar cells. A correlation between structural and optical properties has been found and discussed in detail.

  15. Growth of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films and crystal anisotropy of anatase phase deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Bimal K., E-mail: sarmabimal@gmail.com [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati 781035 (India); Department of Physics, Gauhati University, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Guwahati 781014 (India); Pal, Arup R.; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati 781035 (India)

    2013-05-15

    This work describes the growth and elastic anisotropy of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films deposited by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering. The films are nanocrystalline in the gas pressure range 0.4–1.0 Pa even in the absence of substrate bias and substrate heating. It has been observed that gas pressure has a considerable effect on the phase evolution of TiO{sub 2} and at a higher pressure, nanocrystalline anatase can be produced with a greater crystallinity and dense surface. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis of anatase TiO{sub 2} has been performed and the integral breadth expressions of line broadening due to the domain size and lattice microstrain are combined on the basis of the Williamson–Hall (WH) method. The Miller indices dependence of Young's modulus is estimated on the basis of the Reuss approximation for polycrystalline aggregates. Young's modulus shows strong anisotropy. The anisotropic nature of the elastic medium has been introduced in the classical WH plot under the uniform stress deformation model (USDM) and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM). USDM represents the better fit of the experimental data. - Highlights: ► Growth of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. ► Anatase grains grow much faster than rutile grains. ► Near band edge luminescence of TiO{sub 2} due to oxygen vacancies. ► Facile X-ray line profile analysis for nanocrystalline thin films. ► Elastic anisotropy causes X-ray diffraction line broadening of anatase TiO{sub 2}.

  16. Dielectric, optical and electric studies on nanocrystalline Ba5Nb4O15 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, C.; Pamu, D.

    2015-06-01

    We report the fabrication of nanocrystalline Ag/BNO/Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si thin film capacitors by RF magnetron sputtering with different film thicknesses. The effect of Ba5Nb4O15 (BNO) thickness on structural, microstructural, electrical, optical and dielectric properties is investigated for the first time. BNO sputtering target prepared is by mechanochemical synthesis method to eliminate the subordinate phases. As deposited thin films were X-ray amorphous and crystallinity is induced after annealing at 700 °C. Upon annealing, refractive indices of the films enhanced whereas the bandgap is decreased and are in the range of 1.89-2.16 and 4.07-4.24, respectively. With an increase in thickness, the dielectric properties improved substantially, which is described by the representation of a dead layer connected in series with a bulk region of the BNO film. The extracted values of thickness and dielectric constant for the dead layer found to be 15.21 nm and 37.03, correspondingly. The activation energy of the mobile charge carriers obtained using the Arrhenius relation are found to be 0.254, 0.036 and 0.027 eV, for the films with 150, 250 and 450 nm, respectively. The leakage current density found to decrease with thickness and found to be 2.5 × 10-6 A/cm2 at applied voltage of 50 kV/cm. The J-E characteristics of the BNO films show a combined response of grain, grain boundaries and film-electrode interfaces. It is interesting to note that in the negative electric field region, conduction is ohmic in nature whereas in the positive field region BNO films exhibit both ohmic and the space charge-limited current mechanisms. The achieved dielectric, electrical and optical properties make these films suitable for MIC, CMOS and optoelectronic applications.

  17. Synthesis of colloidal Mn2+:ZnO quantum dots and high-TC ferromagnetic nanocrystalline thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Nick S; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Amonette, James E; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Schwartz, Dana A; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2004-08-04

    We report the synthesis of colloidal Mn(2+)-doped ZnO (Mn(2+):ZnO) quantum dots and the preparation of room-temperature ferromagnetic nanocrystalline thin films. Mn(2+):ZnO nanocrystals were prepared by a hydrolysis and condensation reaction in DMSO under atmospheric conditions. Synthesis was monitored by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. Zn(OAc)(2) was found to strongly inhibit oxidation of Mn(2+) by O(2), allowing the synthesis of Mn(2+):ZnO to be performed aerobically. Mn(2+) ions were removed from the surfaces of as-prepared nanocrystals using dodecylamine to yield high-quality internally doped Mn(2+):ZnO colloids of nearly spherical shape and uniform diameter (6.1 +/- 0.7 nm). Simulations of the highly resolved X- and Q-band nanocrystal EPR spectra, combined with quantitative analysis of magnetic susceptibilities, confirmed that the manganese is substitutionally incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystals as Mn(2+) with very homogeneous speciation, differing from bulk Mn(2+):ZnO only in the magnitude of D-strain. Robust ferromagnetism was observed in spin-coated thin films of the nanocrystals, with 300 K saturation moments as large as 1.35 micro(B)/Mn(2+) and T(C) > 350 K. A distinct ferromagnetic resonance signal was observed in the EPR spectra of the ferromagnetic films. The occurrence of ferromagnetism in Mn(2+):ZnO and its dependence on synthetic variables are discussed in the context of these and previous theoretical and experimental results.

  18. Anomalous hopping conduction in nanocrystalline/amorphous composites and amorphous semiconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakalios, James; Bodurtha, Kent

    Composite nanostructured materials consisting of nanocrystals (nc) embedded within a thin film amorphous matrix can exhibit novel opto-electronic properties. Composite films are synthesized in a dual-chamber co-deposition PECVD system capable of producing nanocrystals of material A and embedding then within a thin film matrix of material B. Electronic conduction in composite thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) containing nc-germanium or nc-silicon inclusions, as well as in undoped a-Si:H, does not follow an Arrhenius temperature dependence, but rather is better described by an anomalous hopping expression (exp[-(To/T)3/4) , as determined from the ``reduced activation energy'' proposed by Zabrodskii and Shlimak. This temperature dependence has been observed in other thin film resistive materials, such as ultra-thin disordered films of Ag, Bi, Pb and Pd; carbon-black polymer composites; and weakly coupled Au and ZnO quantum dot arrays. There is presently no accepted theoretical understanding of this expression. The concept of a mobility edge, accepted for over four decades, appears to not be necessary to account for charge transport in amorphous semiconductors. Supported by NSF-DMR and the Minnesota Nano Center.

  19. Ag Nanodots Emitters Embedded in a Nanocrystalline Thin Film Deposited on Crystalline Si Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungil; Ryu, Sel Gi; Ji, HyungYong; Kim, Myeong Jun; Peck, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Keunjoo

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated crystalline Si solar cells with the inclusion of various Ag nanodots into the additional emitters of nanocrystallite Si thin films. The fabricated process was carried out on the emitter surface of p-n junction for the textured p-type wafer. The Ag thin films were deposited on emitter surfaces and annealed at various temperatures. The amorphous Si layers were also deposited on the Ag annealed surfaces by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition and then the deposited layers were doped by the second n-type doping process to form an additional emitter. From the characterization, both the Ag nanodots and the deposited amorphous Si thin films strongly reduce photo-reflectances in a spectral region between 200-400 nm. After embedding Ag nanodots in nanocrystallite Si thin films, a conversion efficiency of the sample with added emitter was achieved to 15.1%, which is higher than the 14.1% of the reference sample and the 14.7% of the de-posited sample with a-Si:H thin film after the Ag annealing process. The additional nanocrystallite emitter on crystalline Si with Ag nanodots enhances cell properties.

  20. Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O thin film based transparent Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayen, R.N. [Department of Physics, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Paul, R., E-mail: rajiv2008juniv@gmail.com [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Highly transparent and nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.008, 0.017, 0.046) thin films have been synthesized by sol–gel spin coating technique on glass and SnO{sub 2} coated glass substrates. The microstructural and compositional analyses confirm the incorporation of Mn in hexagonal ZnO lattice without affecting its structure. Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O thin films are highly transparent in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. The optical band gap, estimated from the transmittance spectra, decreases from 3.32 to 3.21 eV with the increase in Mn content in ZnO films. Photoluminescence study reveals that Mn introduces more defects in ZnO suppressing the excitonic recombination by the defect center (oxygen vacancy) induced recombination. The non-linear current–voltage characteristics at room temperature reveal Schottky barrier junction formation of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O films with Ag. The diode parameters, extracted from the thermionic emission model, vary with Mn incorporation in ZnO. Both the ideality factor and potential barrier height decrease from 6.5 and 0.63 for pure ZnO to 4.7 and 0.54 respectively, for Zn{sub 0.954}Mn{sub 0.046}O film. The series resistance that arises from the defect distributions at the interface and effects the charge transport through the junction, also decreases for higher percentage of Mn in Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O thin films. - Highlights: • Mn doped transparent ZnO thin film synthesis using sol–gel spin coating • Particle size and optical band-gap decreases with increasing Mn doping. • Absence of any secondary phase upto 4.6 at.% of Mn which substitutes Zn sites in ZnO lattice • Interesting Schottky diode characteristics with Ag contact • Ideality factor and barrier height decreases with increasing Mn content.

  1. Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Nanocrystalline Tungsten and Tungsten-Based Alloy Thin Films for Extreme Environment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gustavo

    Extreme environments associated with nuclear applications often results in degradation of the physical, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of the materials. Tungsten (W) exhibits unique physical and mechanical properties, which makes tungsten a good candidate for nuclear applications; however, intrinsic W exhibits low fracture toughness at all temperatures in addition to a high ductile to brittle transition. In the present work, nanocrystalline W, W-Y and W-Mo alloys were nanoengineered for nuclear applications. Nanocrystalline tungsten coatings with a thickness of 1 microm were deposited onto Silicon (100) and Sapphire (C-plane) using RF and DC sputtering techniques under various growth conditions. Yttrium content in W-Y alloys has been varied to enhance the irradiation tolerance under optimum concentration. The W, W-Y coatings were characterized to understand the structure and morphology and to establish a mapping of conditions to obtain phase and size controlled materials. The samples were then subjected to depth-controlled irradiation by neutrons and Au3+ ions. Solid solution strengthening was achieved by doping molybdenum (Mo) solute atoms to W matrix under varied sputtering pressures and temperatures with the intention of creating interstitial point defects in the crystals that impede dislocation motion, increasing the hardness and young modulus of the material. The effect of PAr (3-19 mTorr) was also investigated and associated microstructure are significant on the mechanical characteristics; the hardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (Er) of the nc W-Mo thin films were higher at lower pressures but decreases continuously with increasing PAr. Using nano-indentation and nano-scratch technique, mechanical characterization testing was performed before and after irradiation. The structure, mechanics and irradiation stability of the W and W-Y coatings will be presented and discussed to demonstrate that Y-addition coupled with nano-scale features

  2. Post-annealing-free, room temperature processed nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoung Jang, Jin; Jong Lee, You; Jang, YunSung; Yun, JangWon; Yi, Seungjun; Hong, MunPyo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we confirm that bombardment by high energy negative oxygen ions (NOIs) is the key origin of electro-optical property degradations in indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes. To minimize the bombardment effect of NOIs, which are generated on the surface of the ITO targets and accelerated by the cathode sheath potential on the magnetron sputter gun (MSG), we introduce a magnetic field shielded sputtering (MFSS) system composed of a permanent magnetic array between the MSG and the substrate holder to block the arrival of energetic NOIs. The MFSS processed ITO thin films reveal a novel nanocrystal imbedded polymorphous structure, and present not only superior electro-optical characteristics but also higher gas diffusion barrier properties. To the best of our knowledge, no gas diffusion barrier composed of a single inorganic thin film formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes achieves such a low moisture permeability.

  3. Enhancement of Ammonia Sensitivity in Swift Heavy Ion Irradiated Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Rani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swift heavy ion irradiation is an effective technique to induce changes in the microstructure and electronic energy levels of materials leading to significant modification of properties. Here we report enhancement of ammonia (NH3 sensitivity of SnO2 thin films subjected to high-energy Ni+ ion irradiation. Sol-gel-derived SnO2 thin films (100 nm thickness were exposed to 75 MeV Ni+ ion irradiation, and the gas response characteristics of irradiated films were studied as a function of ion fluence. The irradiated films showed p-type conductivity with a much higher response to NH3 compared to other gases such as ethanol. The observed enhancement of NH3 sensitivity is discussed in context of ion beam generated electronic states in the SnO2 thin films.

  4. Photoinduced properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 sol–gel derived thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akbar Eshaghi; Mahmoud Pakshir; Reza Mozaffarinia

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, nanostructure TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to determine film behaviour. The super-hydrophilicity was assessed by contact angle measurement. Photocatalytic properties of these films were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The XRD pattern of TiO2 powder samples confirmed the presence of polycrystalline anatase phase with a crystal size of 17 nm. The results indicated that UV light irradiation had significant effect on super-hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films.

  5. Copper doped nickel ferrite nano-crystalline thin films: A potential gas sensor towards reducing gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com

    2016-03-01

    NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and (1 wt% and 3 wt%) Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films have been fabricated using spray pyrolysis deposition technique at 350 °C and then sintered at 650 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDAX, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SQUID VSM were carried out to investigate phase formation, microstructural and influence of Cu doping on magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films. The gas response towards various gases viz. ethanol, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), methanol and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is investigated. The results of XRD revealed that all samples had shown the principal phase of nickel ferrite and the lattice parameter was found to vary from 8.294 Å to 8.314 Å on an incorporation of Cu, and the crystalline sizes were about 40–45 nm. The effect of Cu concentration on saturation magnetization and coercive force were studied. The maximum value of saturation magnetization calculated from hysteresis loop was 89.16 emu/g at room temperature and 96.88 emu/g at 50 K. Cu content on the film surface was found to be maximum for 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film and this film showed an improved response towards all gases. Response of ethanol for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film was found to be higher as compared to all the other gases. The lowering of the optimum operating temperature is observed in 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film with higher selectivity towards ethanol than other gases. All results indicated that the Cu doping in nickel ferrite thin films has a significant influence on the properties. - Highlights: • Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films are synthesized by low cost spray pyrolysis technique. • Addition of Cu content improves magnetic properties. • Cu content on the surface of the film enhances the gas response. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit predominant selectivity towards ethanol. • 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film responses towards ethanol at lower optimum temperature.

  6. Swift heavy ion induced surface modifications in nano-crystalline Li-Mg ferrite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sanjukta [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India) and Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)]. E-mail: sanjukta@iopb.res.in; Ganesan, V. [Inter University Consortium for DAE facilities, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Khan, S.A. [Nuclear Science Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ayyub, Pushan [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Kumar, Nitendar [Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2006-09-30

    The swift heavy ion (190 MeV Au{sup 14+}) induced modifications in surface morphologies of the nanocrystals of ferrite thin films have been extensively studied through the images of atomic force microscopy (AFM). In most of the irradiated films significant features like, the ditch and dike structures, have been observed through out the surface. We try to explain the observed changes on the basis of thermal spike model followed by momentum transfer induced lateral mass transport. In addition to these changes some new and interesting features have been noticed after irradiation in 8F and 9F ferrite thin films. These new features are attributed to sputtering phenomenon due to the presence of defects like latent tracks.

  7. Spectroscopy and structural properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halindintwali, Sylvain; Knoesen, D.; Julies, B.A.; Arendse, C.J.; Muller, T.; Gengler, Régis Y.N.; Rudolf, P.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous SiC:H thin films were grown by hot wire chemical vapour deposition from a SiH4/CH4/H2 mixture at a substrate temperature below 400 °C. Thermal annealing in an argon environment up to 900 °C shows that the films crystallize as μc-Si:H and SiC with a porous microstructure that favours an oxi

  8. Spectroscopy and structural properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halindintwali, Sylvain; Knoesen, D.; Julies, B.A.; Arendse, C.J.; Muller, T.; Gengler, Régis Y.N.; Rudolf, P.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous SiC:H thin films were grown by hot wire chemical vapour deposition from a SiH4/CH4/H2 mixture at a substrate temperature below 400 °C. Thermal annealing in an argon environment up to 900 °C shows that the films crystallize as μc-Si:H and SiC with a porous microstructure that favours an

  9. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of nanocrystalline CdS thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Galil, A.; Balboul, M. R.; Atta, A.; Yahia, I. S.; Sharaf, A.

    2014-08-01

    Nano-structured CdS thin film was deposited onto a glass substrate by an electron beam evaporation technique at room temperature from a powder prepared by a hydrothermal method. The morphology and structural properties of the as-deposited film were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The AFM morphology study confirms that the CdS thin film has nano-sized grains and a dense morphology. The mean particle size that resulted from XRD analyses was 8.4 nm. Also, the XRD patterns show that CdS powder and thin film have hexagonal wurtzite type structure with a preferred c-axis orientation along (002) plane. The refractive index and the film thickness were obtained using the Swanepoel method from transmission spectrum. The optical band gap was calculated from the absorption spectrum, and was found to be 2.41 eV corresponding to direct optical transition. The dispersion of the refractive index was explained using a single oscillator model. The dielectric relaxation time and the optical conductivity were determined and studied with photon energy.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Eu(3+), Ti(4+) @ ZnO organosols and nanocrystalline c-ZnTiO3 thin films aiming at high transparency and luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Tangi; Grasset, Fabien; Potel, Michel; Nazabal, Virginie; Cardinal, Thierry; Pechev, Stanislav; Saito, Noriko; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-08-01

    By exploiting colloidal properties, such as transparency, rheology and versatile chemistry, we propose to synthesize new photonic nanomaterials based on colloidal solutions and thin films. This contribution highlights our efforts to elaborate and to characterize nanostructures based on the ZnO-TiO2 system. Using a recently developed sol-gel route to synthesize new Ti(4+)@ZnO organosols, we were able to prepare, at relatively low temperature (400 °C) and short annealing time (15 min), highly transparent, luminescent, nanocrystalline Eu(3+) doped c-ZnTiO3 thin films. The organosols and thin films were characterized with UV-visible-near infrared absorption, ellipsometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Eu3+,Ti4+@ZnO organosols and nanocrystalline c-ZnTiO3 thin films aiming at high transparency and luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Tangi; Grasset, Fabien; Potel, Michel; Nazabal, Virginie; Cardinal, Thierry; Pechev, Stanislav; Saito, Noriko; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-08-01

    By exploiting colloidal properties, such as transparency, rheology and versatile chemistry, we propose to synthesize new photonic nanomaterials based on colloidal solutions and thin films. This contribution highlights our efforts to elaborate and to characterize nanostructures based on the ZnO-TiO2 system. Using a recently developed sol-gel route to synthesize new Ti4+@ZnO organosols, we were able to prepare, at relatively low temperature (400 °C) and short annealing time (15 min), highly transparent, luminescent, nanocrystalline Eu3+ doped c-ZnTiO3 thin films. The organosols and thin films were characterized with UV-visible-near infrared absorption, ellipsometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Eu3+,Ti4+@ZnO organosols and nanocrystalline c-ZnTiO3 thin films aiming at high transparency and luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangi Aubert, Fabien Grasset, Michel Potel, Virginie Nazabal, Thierry Cardinal, Stanislav Pechev, Noriko Saito, Naoki Ohashi and Hajime Haneda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By exploiting colloidal properties, such as transparency, rheology and versatile chemistry, we propose to synthesize new photonic nanomaterials based on colloidal solutions and thin films. This contribution highlights our efforts to elaborate and to characterize nanostructures based on the ZnO–TiO2 system. Using a recently developed sol–gel route to synthesize new Ti4+@ZnO organosols, we were able to prepare, at relatively low temperature (400 °C and short annealing time (15 min, highly transparent, luminescent, nanocrystalline Eu3+ doped c-ZnTiO3 thin films. The organosols and thin films were characterized with UV-visible-near infrared absorption, ellipsometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Gas doping ratio effects on p-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon thin films grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, P.Q. [Solar Energy Institute, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: robt@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhou, Z.B. [Solar Energy Institute, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: zbzhou@sjtu.edu.cn; Chan, K.Y. [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor (Malaysia); Tang, D.Y.; Cui, R.Q.; Dou, X.M. [Solar Energy Institute, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-12-30

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) has recently drawn significant attention in the area of thin-film large area optoelectronics due to possibility of high deposition rate. We report on the effects of diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) doping ratio on the microstructural and optoelectrical properties of the p-type nc-Si:H thin films grown by HWCVD at low substrate temperature of 200 deg. C and with high hydrogen dilution ratio of 98.8%. An attempt has been made to elucidate the boron doping mechanism of the p-type nc-Si:H thin films deposited by HWCVD and the correlation between the B{sub 2}H{sub 6} doping ratio, crystalline volume fraction, optical band gap and dark conductivity.

  14. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB6 thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Singh, Anil K.; Phase, Deodatta M.; Late, Dattatray J.; Sinha, Sucharita; More, Mahendra A.

    2016-10-01

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB6 on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ~10-8 mbar. The GdB6/W and GdB6/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ~1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm2 at an applied field of ~6.0 and 7.0 V/µm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim ( F- N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor ( β) estimated using the slopes of the F- N plots indicate that the PLD GdB6 coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ~1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB6/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB6/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB6 films on W and Re substrates.

  15. Formation of nano-crystalline C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films on stainless steel from hexamethylenetetramine and urea using simple sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Nizam, E-mail: nizam3472@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet-3114 (Bangladesh); Yang, Yong Suk, E-mail: ysyang@pusan.ac.kr [College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, RCDAMP, Pusan National University, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    Nano-crystalline C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films have been deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrates from hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea separately using simple sol–gel method. For that purpose hot-dip coating processes were carried out. The coated specimens were annealed at 800 °C in N{sub 2}. The samples were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, nanoindenter, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The deposits show C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with clear hexagonal morphology and size range of 50–500 nm. The hardness values of the synthesized films show 2.74–4.35 times higher than that of SS. The hardness and Young's modulus of the films synthesized from HMTA show the highest values; 16.10 and 394.29 GPa, respectively. This significant achievement of the production of nano-crystalline C{sub 3}N{sub 4} from inexpensive sources and simple methods at ambient pressure opens up a door for its low cost production on SS for a wide range of applications. Irrespective of the sources with different chemical structures we got similar product, which implies that different sources of carbon and nitrogen might be used with our methods of sol–gel deposition. - Highlights: • Formation of nano-crystalline C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films with a low cost and simple sol–gel method • Uses of inexpensive materials, like steel, hexamethylenetetramine and urea • Repeatability of this method using different precursors for crystalline C{sub 3}N{sub 4} thin films.

  16. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and interference enhanced Raman scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Balaji; S Mohan; D V S Muthu; A K Sood

    2003-10-01

    Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ripening of the grains occurs as the thickness of the film increases. Raman spectra of the Ge films reveal phonon confinement along the growth direction and show that the misfit strain is relieved for film thickness greater than 4 nm.

  17. Influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the optical properties of nanocrystalline tin phthalocyanine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Nahass, M.M., E-mail: prof_nahhas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Atta, A.A.; El-Shazly, E.A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy 11757, Cairo (Egypt); Faidah, A.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Hendi, A.A. [Department of Physics, Girl' s College of Education, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-10-15

    SnPc in powder and thin film forms were found to be polycrystalline with monoclinic lattice. The morphological and structural properties of the obtained SnPc films were characterized from electron scanning micrographs and X-ray diffraction patterns. In the {gamma}-irradiated film the formed agglomeration increased the crystallite size. The refractive index, n, and the absorption index, k, were obtained from spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. {gamma}-Irradiation films shifted the transmission edge toward lower wavelength and increase the optical energy gap value. According to the analysis of dispersion curves, the dielectric constants and dispersion parameters were obtained. The absorption analysis performed indicated indirect allowed electronic transitions and the optical energy band gap 2.84 and 2.63 eV for the as-deposited and the {gamma}-irradiated films, respectively.

  18. Hydrogen desorption in nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2} thin films at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R., E-mail: joser.ares@uam.e [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Leardini, F.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Bodega, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Koon, D.W. [Physics Department, St Lawrence University, Canton, NY, 13617 (United States); Ferrer, I.J.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-16

    Hydrogen desorption process of Pd-capped magnesium hydride thin films of different thicknesses was investigated. Decomposition of magnesium hydride into magnesium under air exposure is observed in all investigated films. During decomposition no novel crystalline phases are detected. Desorption process was qualitatively analysed and it was concluded that is thermodynamically driven controlled by a nucleation and growth or by an interphase controlled mechanism. Moreover, H-kinetics investigation of desorption process was carried out by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Decomposition of MgH{sub 2} films occurs at T{sub d} {approx} 148 {sup o}C and the process seems to be controlled by a bidimensional interphase mechanism with an activation energy of 135 {+-} 20 kJ/mol H{sub 2}. No significant influence of thickness and crystallite size on desorption temperature is observed and obtained activation energy is similar to that of milled bulk magnesium.

  19. Fabrication and properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin film prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumetha Suwanboon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were prepared on glass substrate by sol-gel dip-coating method. The structural properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD method and atomic force microscope (AFM. The optical properties were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The XRD patterns showed that the films formed preferred orientation along c-axis which increased as a function of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP concentration. The films gave the crystallite size of 15-18 nm calculated by Scherrer’s formula and grain size of 48-70 nm measured by AFM at different PVP concentrations. The direct optical band gap of the films was in the range of 3.80-4.08 eV.

  20. Determination of the Origin of Crystal Orientation for Nanocrystalline Bismuth Telluride-Based Thin Films Prepared by Use of the Flash Evaporation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashiri, M.; Tanaka, S.; Miyazaki, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the origin of crystal orientation for nanocrystalline bismuth telluride-based thin films. Thin films of p-type bismuth telluride antimony (Bi-Te-Sb) and n-type bismuth telluride selenide (Bi-Te-Se) were fabricated by a flash evaporation method, with exactly the same deposition conditions except for the elemental composition of the starting powders. For p-type Bi-Te-Sb thin films the main x-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks were from the c-axis (Σ{00l}/Σ{ hkl} = 0.88) whereas n-type Bi-Te-Se thin films were randomly oriented (Σ{00l}/Σ{ hkl} = 0.40). Crystal orientation, crystallinity, and crystallite size were improved for both types of thin film by sintering. For p-type Bi-Te-Sb thin films, especially, high-quality structures were obtained compared with those of n-type Bi-Te-Se thin films. We also estimated the thermoelectric properties of the as-grown and sintered thin films. The power factor was enhanced by sintering; maximum values were 34.9 μW/cm K2 for p-type Bi-Te-Sb thin films at a sintering temperature of 300°C and 23.9 μW/cm K2 for n-type Bi-Te-Se thin films at a sintering temperature of 350°C. The exact mechanisms of film growth are not yet clear but we deduce the crystal orientation originates from the size of nano-clusters generated on the tungsten boat during flash evaporation.

  1. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin film by SILAR and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Satpati, B.; Bhattacharyya, S. R.; Ghosh, R.; Mitra, P.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique using ammonium sulphide as anionic precursor. Characterization techniques of XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR and EDX were utilized to study the microstructure of the films. Structural characterization by x-ray diffraction reveals the polycrystalline nature of the films. Cubic structure is revealed from X-ray diffraction and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. The particle size estimated using X-ray line broadening method is approximately 7 nm. Instrumental broadening was taken into account while particle size estimation. TEM shows CdS nanoparticles in the range 5-15 nm. Elemental mapping using EFTEM reveals good stoichiometric composition of CdS. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of CdS was observed in the absorption band of FTIR spectrum. Optical absorption study exhibits a distinct blue shift in band gap energy value of about 2.56 eV which confirms the size quantization.

  2. Highly ordered, accessible and nanocrystalline mesoporous TiO₂ thin films on transparent conductive substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violi, Ianina L; Perez, M Dolores; Fuertes, M Cecilia; Soler-Illia, Galo J A A

    2012-08-01

    Highly porous (V(mesopore) = 25-50%) and ordered mesoporous titania thin films (MTTF) were prepared on ITO (indium tin oxide)-covered glass by a fast two-step method. The effects of substrate surface modification and thermal treatment on pore order, accessibility and crystallinity of the MTTF were systematically studied for MTTF deposited onto bare and titania-modified ITO. MTTF exposed briefly to 550 °C resulted in highly ordered films with grid-like structures, enlarged pore size, and increased accessible pore volume when prepared onto the modified ITO substrate. Mesostructure collapse and no significant change in pore volume were observed for MTTF deposited on bare ITO substrates. Highly crystalline anatase was obtained for MTTF prepared on the modified-ITO treated at high temperatures, establishing the relationship between grid-like structures and titania crystallization. Photocatalytic activity was maximized for samples with increased crystallization and high accessible pore volume. In this manner, a simple way of designing materials with optimized characteristics for optoelectronic applications was achieved through the modification of the ITO surface and a controlled thermal treatment.

  3. Electrical Characteristics and Nanocrystalline Formation of Sprayed Iridium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructure and electrical properties of iridium oxide (IrO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT have been experimentally characterized. The effect of solution molarity (SM and substrate temperature (sub on the nanostructure features and electrical conductivity of these films has been investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD showed that all samples prepared at sub=350∘C with different SM, IrO2 appear almost in amorphous form. XRD revealed that the films deposited at sub=450∘C were tetragonal structures with a preferential orientation along ⟨101⟩ direction. Moreover, the degree of crystallinity was improved by solution molarity. Single order Voigt profile method has been used to determine the nanostructure parameters at different SM and sub. The dark conductivity measurements at room temperature as a function of SM were observed and the value of conductivity were slightly increases at higher SM, reaching the bulk value of 20 Ω−1cm−1. The values of activation energy of Δ and of IrO2 were found to be 0.21 eV and 1.68×10−3Ω−1·cm−1, respectively.

  4. PREPARATION OF NANO-CRYSTALLINE Fe-Cu THIN FILMS AND THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.F.Bi; S.K.Gong; H.B.Xu; K.I.Arai

    2002-01-01

    Fe-Cu thin films of 0.2μm in thickness with different Cu contents were prepared byusing r.f. magnetron sputtering onto glass substrate. The effect of sputtering param-eters, including Ar gas pressure and input rf power, on the structure and magneticproperties was investigated. It was found that when the power is lower than 70W,the structure of the films remained single bcc-Fe phase with Cu solubility of up to50at.%. TEM observations for the bcc-Fe phase showed that the grain size was inthe nanometer range of less than 20nm. The coercivity of Fe-Cu films was largelyaffected by not only Ar gas pressure but also rf power, and reached about 2.5Oe in thepressure of 0.67-6.67Pa and in the power of less than 100W. In addition, saturationmagnetization, with Cu content less than 60at.%, was about proportional to the con-tent of bcc-Fe. When Cu content was at 60at.%, however, saturation magnetizationwas much smaller than its calculation value.

  5. Hydrogen plasma treatment of very thin p-type nanocrystalline Si films grown by RF-PECVD in the presence of B(CH33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Alexandrovich Filonovich, Hugo Águas, Tito Busani, António Vicente, Andreia Araújo, Diana Gaspar, Marcia Vilarigues, Joaquim Leitão, Elvira Fortunato and Rodrigo Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized the structure and electrical properties of p-type nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and explored optimization methods of such layers for potential applications in thin-film solar cells. Particular attention was paid to the characterization of very thin (~20 nm films. The cross-sectional morphology of the layers was studied by fitting the ellipsometry spectra using a multilayer model. The results suggest that the crystallization process in a high-pressure growth regime is mostly realized through a subsurface mechanism in the absence of the incubation layer at the substrate-film interface. Hydrogen plasma treatment of a 22-nm-thick film improved its electrical properties (conductivity increased more than ten times owing to hydrogen insertion and Si structure rearrangements throughout the entire thickness of the film.

  6. Electrochromic devices based on surface-modified nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin-film electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campus, F.; Bonhote, P.; Graetzel, M. [Institut de Chimie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heinen, S.; Walder, L. [Institut fuer Chemie, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastr 7, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    1998-12-30

    Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin film electrodes on conductive glass were modified with monolayers of different electrochromic compounds (mono-, di- and trimeric N,N`-dialkyl- or-diphenyl-4,4`-bipyridinium salts) equipped with TiO{sub 2} anchoring groups (An=benzoate, salicylate, phosphonate). The synthesis of these compounds is reported. Different approaches have been studied to increase the surface concentration {Gamma}{sub CS} of electrochemically active coloring centers (CS) on TiO{sub 2}. The electrodes were checked coulometrically and spectroelectrochemically under potentiostatic conditions in MeCN/TEAP. {Gamma}{sub CS} of mono- and oligomeric viologens was shown to depend on the ratio (CS/An) of CS to anchoring groups (An). A cone-shaped trimeric arborol-type viologen was prepared with the intention to fill out the space above the convex surface of the nanoparticles particularly well. Preliminary results of a new type of TiO{sub 2} solid-phase supported synthesis of the viologens is reported. Electrochromic devices including filters and displays have been prepared. The filter devices (12-100 cm{sup 2}) consist generally of OTE/TiO{sub 2}-poly-viologen/glutaronitrile-LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}+spacer/Prussian Blue/OTE and exhibit optical density changes up to 2 (transparent to blue or yellowish to green and red-brown (at higher potential)) at switching times in the range of 1-3 s. Even higher optical density changes (at slower switching times) were achieved with systems such as OTE/TiO{sub 2}-poly-viologen/glutaronitrile-LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}+spacer/Prussian Blue-TiO{sub 2}/OTE. The display devices prepared include reflective displays with two to four separately addressable segments ((OTE/TiO{sub 2} (both structured)-oligo-viologen/microcrystalline rutile (reflective layer)/molten salt+spacer/Zn) or (OTE/TiO{sub 2} (both structured)-oligo-viologen/microcrystalline rutile (reflective layer)/glutaronitrile-LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}+spacer

  7. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB{sub 6} thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, Mahendra A. [Savitribai Phule Pune University, Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Pune (India); Singh, Anil K.; Sinha, Sucharita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Phase, Deodatta M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research Indore Centre, Indore (India); Late, Dattatray J. [CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, Pune (India)

    2016-10-15

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB{sub 6}) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB{sub 6} on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ∝10{sup -8} mbar. The GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ∝1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of ∝6.0 and 7.0 V/μm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor (β) estimated using the slopes of the F-N plots indicate that the PLD GdB{sub 6} coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ∝1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB{sub 6}/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB{sub 6}/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB{sub 6} films on W and Re substrates. (orig.)

  8. Spray-ILGAR {sup registered} deposition of controllable ZnS nanodots and application as passivation/point contact at the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} junction in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanpeng Fu

    2012-03-15

    The spray ion layer gas reaction (Spray-ILGAR) technique produces homogeneous compact metal chalcogenide films used as buffer layers for thin film solar cells with high efficiencies. It was a great challenge to elaborate this method for the deposition of nanodots. This thesis shows that high quality, uncoated, monodisperse and sub 10 nm ZnS nanodots with controllable dot density and size (to some extend) can be prepared at the requisite low temperature by this sequential, cyclic and low cost method which can be scaled up for industrial in-line production. In addition, by this Spray-ILGAR technique, a structured buffer layer, composed of ZnS nanodots covered by a closed In{sub 2}S{sub 3} film, has been introduced as a defect passivation / point contact layer at the Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) absorber interface. The ZnS nanodots are deposited starting from nebulizing an aqueous Zn acetylacetonate (Zn(acac){sub 2}) solution followed by H{sub 2}S sulfurization. The unique sequential process allows the formation of the nanodot film with good properties. The choice of the process parameters (e.g. solvent, temperature, concentration) allows the control of particle density and partly also of particle size. These nanodots are rather homogeneous in size, shape and composition, and tend to keep maximum distance from each other. In contrast, ZnS nanodots deposited by a continuous spray chemical vapor deposition (Spray-CVD) are irregular in shape with inclusions of ZnO. The mechanism behind the ZnS nanodots formation is studied in two ways. On one hand, the decomposition mechanism of Zn(acac){sub 2} on the hot substrate in the spray based processes is studied by means of in-situ mass spectroscopy. On the other hand, by interpretation of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy filtered transmission electron microscopy results (EF-TEM), it is possible to elucidate the self-limiting growth of ZnS nanodots in the Spray-ILGAR and Spray-CVD processes. The fundamental

  9. Shallow chemical bath deposition of ZnS buffer layer for environmentally benign solar cell devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, R. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Lan, C. W.

    2014-06-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film was grown by a shallow chemical bath deposition (SCBD) technique. In this technique a highly conducting hot plate was used to heat the substrate, while higher thermal gradient was achieved by a shallow bath of the ZnS solution. Consequently, homogeneous nucleation is reduced and quality of ZnS thin films can be improved by shaking. The main advantage of this technique over a traditional one is that the use of solution can be reduced greatly, which is crucial for cost reduction in practice. The effects of shaking on growth kinetics and film properties were investigated by characterizing the as-grown ZnS thin films by x-ray diffraction, transmittance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  10. PECVD法制备纳米晶硅薄膜的研究进展%Research Progress on Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films Prepared by PECVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳; 邱海宁; 郑祺

    2012-01-01

    简要介绍了纳米晶硅薄膜的微结构表征方法,重点讨论了PECVD制备方法中工艺参数对薄膜结构的影响,并探讨了氢在薄膜形成和生长中的作用.通过优化氢稀释率、衬底温度、反应气压、激励功率和激发频率等工艺参数可提高纳米晶硅薄膜的晶化率并改善薄膜质量.结合喇曼光谱、X射线衍射谱、傅里叶红外光谱和高分辨透射电镜等表征方法可深入研究薄膜形成机理,对进一步探索薄膜光电特性有重要意义.分析了等离子体化学气相沉积(PECVD)制备方法中各工艺参数对薄膜质量和沉积速率的影响,指出其存在的问题,并探寻了今后的研究方向.%The measurement methods to characterize the nanocrystalline silicon thin film micro-structure are introduced with the emphasis on the discussion of the influence of the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process parameters on the thin film microstructure, and the effects of the hydrogen on the formation and growth of nanocrystalline silicon thin films are presented. The crystalline fraction and other properties of the nanocrystalline silicon thin films can be improved by optimizing the process parameters, such as the hydrogen dilution, substrate temperature, reaction pressure, driving power and excitation frequency. The film formation mechanism can be obtained by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope and other characterize methods, which is significant for the further study of the photoelectric properties of the films. The effects of the process parameters of the PECVD method on the film quality and deposition rate are analyzed. The limitations of the PECVD method and the development tendency in the future are presented.

  11. Photodriven spin change of Fe(II) benzimidazole compounds anchored to nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Long; Ardo, Shane; Narducci Sarjeant, Amy A; Huang, Sunxiang; Meyer, Gerald J

    2009-12-01

    Ferrous tris-chelate compounds based on 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (pybzim) have been prepared and characterized for studies of spin equilibria in fluid solution and when anchored to the surface of mesoporous nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO(2) and colloidal ZrO(2) thin films. The solid state structure of Fe(pybzim)(3)(ClO(4))(2).CH(3)CN.H(2)O was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 110 K to be triclinic, P-1, a = 11.6873(18), b = 12.2318(12), c = 14.723(4) A, alpha = 89.864(13) degrees , beta = 71.430(17) degrees , gamma = 73.788(11) degrees , V = 1907.1(6) A(3), Z = 2, and R = 0.0491. The iron compound has a meridional FeN(6) distorted octahedral geometry with bond lengths expected for a low-spin iron center at 110 K. The visible absorption spectra of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) and Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+), where pymbA is 4-(2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzoic acid, in methanol solution were dominated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands. Variable-temperature UV-visible absorption spectroscopy revealed dramatic changes in the extinction coefficient consistent with a high-spin ((1)A) left harpoon over right harpoon low-spin ((5)T) equilibrium. Thermodynamic parameters for the temperature-dependent spin equilibrium of Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in methanol were determined to be DeltaH(HL) = 3270 +/- 210 cm(-1) and DeltaS(HL) = 13.3 +/- 0.8 cm(-1) K(-1). The corresponding values for Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+), where pybzimEE is (2-pyridin-2-yl-benzimidazol-1-yl)-acetic acid ethyl ester, in acetonitrile solution were determined to be 3072 +/- 34 cm(-1)and 10.5 +/- 0.1 cm(-1) K(-1). The temperature-dependent effective magnetic moments of Fe(pybzimEE)(3)(2+) in acetonitrile solution were also quantified by the Evans method. Pulsed 532 nm light excitation of Fe(pybzim)(3)(2+) or Fe(pymbA)(3)(2+) in solution resulted in an immediate bleach of the MLCT absorption bands. Relaxation back to the equilibrium state followed a first-order reaction mechanism. Arrhenius analysis

  12. Spray-ILGAR {sup registered} deposition of controllable ZnS nanodots and application as passivation/point contact at the In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} junction in thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanpeng Fu

    2012-03-15

    The spray ion layer gas reaction (Spray-ILGAR) technique produces homogeneous compact metal chalcogenide films used as buffer layers for thin film solar cells with high efficiencies. It was a great challenge to elaborate this method for the deposition of nanodots. This thesis shows that high quality, uncoated, monodisperse and sub 10 nm ZnS nanodots with controllable dot density and size (to some extend) can be prepared at the requisite low temperature by this sequential, cyclic and low cost method which can be scaled up for industrial in-line production. In addition, by this Spray-ILGAR technique, a structured buffer layer, composed of ZnS nanodots covered by a closed In{sub 2}S{sub 3} film, has been introduced as a defect passivation / point contact layer at the Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) absorber interface. The ZnS nanodots are deposited starting from nebulizing an aqueous Zn acetylacetonate (Zn(acac){sub 2}) solution followed by H{sub 2}S sulfurization. The unique sequential process allows the formation of the nanodot film with good properties. The choice of the process parameters (e.g. solvent, temperature, concentration) allows the control of particle density and partly also of particle size. These nanodots are rather homogeneous in size, shape and composition, and tend to keep maximum distance from each other. In contrast, ZnS nanodots deposited by a continuous spray chemical vapor deposition (Spray-CVD) are irregular in shape with inclusions of ZnO. The mechanism behind the ZnS nanodots formation is studied in two ways. On one hand, the decomposition mechanism of Zn(acac){sub 2} on the hot substrate in the spray based processes is studied by means of in-situ mass spectroscopy. On the other hand, by interpretation of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy filtered transmission electron microscopy results (EF-TEM), it is possible to elucidate the self-limiting growth of ZnS nanodots in the Spray-ILGAR and Spray-CVD processes. The fundamental

  13. New co-spray way to synthesize high quality ZnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouznit, Y., E-mail: Bouznit80@gmail.com [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Beggah, Y. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Jijel University, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Boukerika, A. [Laser Department, Nuclear Research Centre of Algeria, Algiers 16000 (Algeria); Lahreche, A. [Science and Technology Department, University of Bejaia, Bejaia 06000 (Algeria); Ynineb, F. [Laboratory of Thin Films and Interface, University Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria)

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we report for the first time the synthesis of ZnS films using co-spray method, in which the reactants were mixed in the vapor state contrary to that seen in previous spray configurations. In order to obtain the optimum conditions for growing high quality ZnS thin films related to this approach, a series of samples with different Zn:S atomic ratios were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that both solid state and phase formation were strongly dependent on Zn:S atomic ratio. In the absence of sulfur element, pure ZnO phase showing hexagonal wurtzite structure with (0 0 2) preferential orientation was obtained. When one eighth of sulfur was implicated, the (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZnO was broadened and displaced toward lower angles. Once one quarter of sulfur was involved, no discernible diffraction peaks could be seen. Films deposited using solutions with Zn:S ratio of 1:1/2, 1:1 and 1:2 have pure ZnS phase showing hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong preferential orientation. Near stoichiometric ZnS films were achieved with Zn:S atomic ratio close to 1:1. All films have high transmittance of about 80% in the visible region.

  14. ZnS films for infrared optical coatings: improvement of adhesion to Ge substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Agudo, M.; Génova, I.; Orr, H. J. B.; Harris, G.; Pérez, G.

    2008-09-01

    In this work, physical and optical properties of ZnS films grown at different evaporation conditions have been studied. ZnS 3000 nm thick films have been deposited on Ge substrates at 200°C, 120°C and without substrate heating. In addition, evaporation rates of 4, 2 and 1 nm/s have been considered. The structural and morphological properties of the films have been analysed by XRD and AFM, respectively and the refractive index in the 2.4-11.5 microns range has been determined from transmittance spectra through reverse synthesis. From this analysis, the most suitable evaporation conditions for ZnS thin films deposition have been defined in terms of film properties and intended applications on thermal IR multilayer coatings. Afterwards, adhesion properties of ZnS films deposited under the optimised conditions have been analysed. ZnS films deposited at 120°C and 4 nm/s peeled off when subjected to MIL-F-48616 standard surface durability testing. The use of a MgO bonding layer to enhance the ZnS film adherence to the substrate has been proposed and its effect on the ZnS film properties has been studied. Finally, the mechanical stability of the ZnS coating under MIL-F-48616 standard testing has been confirmed for films grown onto MgO coated substrates.

  15. Parallelized laser-direct patterning of nanocrystalline metal thin films by use of a pulsed laser-induced thermo-elastic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyeonggeun; Shin, Hyunkwon; Sim, Boyeon; Kim, Sangtae; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2009-06-17

    Thin film patterning by the conventional lithographic technique requires a number of steps including the deposition, development, and removal of the photoresist layer. Here we demonstrate that metal thin films evaporated on glass can be directly patterned by a spatially modulated pulsed Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength = 1064 nm, pulse width = 6 ns) incident from the backside of the substrate. This method utilizes a pulsed laser-induced thermo-elastic force exerted on the film which plays a role in detaching it from the substrate. High-fidelity patterns at the micrometer scale have been fabricated over a few square centimeters by a single pulse with pulse energy of 850 mJ. This is attributed to the fact that deposited metal films are polycrystalline with nano-sized grains, and thus localized etching of the material is possible with shearing along the weakly bonded grain boundary regions. We have also developed a nano-block model to simulate the laser-direct patterning of nanocrystalline thin films. Experimental results could be well described with this simulation model. The patterning process presented here provides a simple photoresist-free route to fabricate metal thin film patterns on transparent substrates.

  16. A novel method for the deposition of nanocrystalline Bi 2Se 3, Sb 2Se 3 and Bi 2Se 3-Sb 2Se 3 thin films — SILAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Sankapal, B. R.; Sartale, S. D.; Pathan, H. M.; Giersig, M.; Ganesan, V.

    2001-10-01

    The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method is relatively new, simple and less expensive. This method is employed to deposit nanocrystalline Bi 2Se 3, Sb 2Se 3 and Bi 2Se 3-Sb 2Se 3 thin films onto amorphous glass substrates at low temperature (300 K). The preparative parameters such as concentration of precursor solutions, rinsing time, immersion cycles and immersion time are optimized to get nanocrystalline films. These films are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), optical absorption and electrical measurement techniques.

  17. Evaluation of undoped ZnS single crystal materials for x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muad; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCloy, John S.

    2017-05-01

    ZnS-based materials have a long history of use as x-ray luminescent materials. ZnS was one of the first discovered scintillators and is reported to have one of the highest scintillator efficiencies. The use of ZnS for high energy luminescence has been thus far limited to thin powder screens, such as ZnS:Ag which is used for detecting alpha radiation, due to opacity to its scintillation light, primarily due to scattering. ZnS in bulk form (chemical vapor deposited, powder processed, and single crystal) has high transmission and low scattering compared to powder screens. In this paper, the performance of single crystalline ZnS is evaluated for low energy x-ray (decay time, and low levels of afterglow. We present a trade study which compares the calculated scintillation gain and absolute efficiency for low energy x-rays (<10 keV) comparing thin (<100 μm) ZnS to CsI:Tl, Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO), and Y3Al5O12:Ce (YAG:Ce). The study also gives insight into the spatial resolution of these scintillators. Further, photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) of several undoped ZnS single crystals is compared to their Radioluminescence (RL) spectra. It was found that the ZnS emission wavelength varies on the excitation source energy.

  18. Evolution of structure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline FeXN thin films via Ta and Al addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Guo-Guang; Wu Dong-Ping; Zheng Kuo-Hai; Wei Fu-Lin; Yang Zheng; A. S. Kamzin

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline FeAlN and FeTaN films are prepared by direct growth and crystallization of their as-deposited amorphous films, respectively. The two films both show soft magnetism of nanocrystalline, but their uniaxial anisotropy is observed to be different from each other. Measurements of microstructure reveal that Ta addition leads to higher N-solubility in these films, and results in larger lattice dilation and more compressive stress. The uniaxial anisotropy is the consequence of the anisotropic distribution of interstitial N atoms in an α-Fe lattice. Al is easy to react with nitrogen, therefore the α-Fe is purer in the FeAlN film than in the FeTaN film and the stress is tensile in the FeAlN film. The difference in anisotropy may be attributed to the different microstructures in both films.

  19. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films grown by the spray-pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandel, Tarun, E-mail: tarunchandel777@yahoo.com; Singh, Joginder; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Spray pyrolysis was used to deposit Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films on soda lime glass substrates at 300 °C. Aqueous solutions of copper chloride, zinc chloride, stannous chloride and thiourea were mixed together to form the spray liquid. The sprayed films were annealed under vacuum at 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. Structural and optical characterization was performed on the CZTS films using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. XRD results indicate that the films are single phase nanocrystalline CZTS. Optical studies show that the optical gap values are 1.44 eV for the as-grown film and 1.46 eV, 1.48 eV and 1.49 eV for the films annealed at 350 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C, respectively.

  20. Microstructure and optical studies of electron beam evaporated ZnSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} nanocrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emam-Ismail, M., E-mail: me_ismail_01@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Collage of Science, Qassim University, P.O. 6644, 51452 Buryadh (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 11566 Cairo (Egypt); El-Hagary, M. [Physics Department, Collage of Science, Qassim University, P.O. 6644, 51452 Buryadh (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, 11792 Cairo (Egypt); Shaaban, E.R. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, 71452 Assuit (Egypt); Al-Hedeib, A.M. [Physics Department, Collage of Science and Arts, Qassim University, Buryadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural and optical properties of ZnSeTe thin films were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The micro structural parameters of the films have been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The room temperature reflectance and transmittance data are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The refractive index and energy gap are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single oscillator parameters were calculated. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline thin films of ZnSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} (0.0 {<=} x {<=} 1.0) were deposited on glass substrate using electron beam deposition technique. The structure of the prepared films was examined using X-ray diffraction technique and revealed that the deposited films have polycrystalline zinc blend structure with lattice constant, a, increasing linearly from 0.55816 to 0.59989 nm as x varies from 0 to 1. The optical studies of the nanocrystalline ZnSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} films showed that the refractive index increases and fundamental band gap E{sub g} decreases from 2.58 to 2.21 eV as the tellurium concentration increases from 0 to 1. Furthermore, it was also found that the variation of E{sub g} with composition shows quadratic behavior with bowing parameter equal to 0.105. In addition, the thickness and annealing effects on the structure and optical properties of the deposited films were also investigated. The refractive index dispersion and its dependence on composition were discussed in terms of single oscillator model proposed by Wemple-DiDomenico.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous ZnS with narrow size distribution of small pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, L. C.; Mateescu, C. D.; Birjega, R.; Nistor, S. V.

    2008-08-01

    Pure, nanocrystalline cubic ZnS forming a stable mesoporous structure was synthesized at room temperature by a non-toxic surfactant-assisted liquid liquid reaction, in the 9.5 10.5 pH range of values. The appearance of an X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak in the region of very small angles (˜ 2°) reveals the presence of a porous material with a narrow pore size distribution, but with an irregular arrangement of the pores, a so-called worm hole or sponge-like material. The analysis of the wide angle XRD diffractograms shows the building blocks to be ZnS nanocrystals with cubic structure and average diameter of 2 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations confirm the XRD results; ZnS crystallites of 2.5 nm with cubic (blende) structure are the building blocks of the pore walls with pore sizes from 1.9 to 2.5 nm, and a broader size distribution for samples with smaller pores. Textural measurements (N2 adsorption desorption isotherms) confirm the presence of mesoporous ZnS with a narrow range of small pore sizes. The relatively lower surface area of around 100 m2/g is attributed to some remaining organic molecules, which are filling the smallest pores. Their presence, confirmed by IR spectroscopy, seems to be responsible for the high stability of the resulting mesoporous ZnS as well.

  2. Effect of Annealing Temperature on CuInSe2/ZnS Thin-Film Solar Cells Fabricated by Using Electron Beam Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films are successfully prepared by electron beam evaporation. Pure Cu, In, and Se powders were mixed and ground in a grinder and made into a pellet. The pallets were deposited via electron beam evaporation on FTO substrates and were varied by varying the annealing temperatures, at room temperature, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C. Samples were analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for crystallinity and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for grain size and thicknes...

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Spin Coating Speed on Mn-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Thin Film by Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azie Azura Mohd Arif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnS:Mn nanocrystals thin film was fabricated at 300°C and 500°C via the spin coating method. Its sol-gel was spin coated for 20 s at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm with metal tape being used to mold the shape of the thin film. A different combination of these parameters was used to investigate their influences on the fabrication of the film. Optical and structural characterizations have been performed. Optical characterization was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrophotometer while the structural and compositional analysis of films was measured via field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. From UV-vis spectra, the wavelength of the ZnS:Mn was 250 nm and the band gap was within the range 4.43 eV–4.60 eV. In room temperature PL spectra, there were two emission peaks centered at 460 nm and 590 nm. Under higher annealing temperature and higher speed used in spin coating, an increase of 0.05 eV was observed. It was concluded that the spin coating process is able to synthesize high quality spherical ZnS:Mn nanocrystals. This conventional process can replace other high technology methods due to its synthesis cost.

  4. Structural and optical properties of zinc sulphide–polyvinyl alcohol (ZnS–PVA) nanocomposite thin films: effect of Zn source concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Baishya; D Sarkar

    2011-12-01

    ZnS–PVA nanocomposite thin films are grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method by varying the concentration of zinc source. Formation of nanocrystalline hexagonal ZnS is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Hexagonal form is predominant at some lower concentration. The morphological properties of the films are determined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size as given by TEM indicates increase in particle size. Bandgap measured from UV-Visible transmission spectra shows a decreasing trend with decrease of Zn source concentration. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed blue emission centred at 417 nm and that the intensity decreases with decrease in Zn source concentration.

  5. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com; Talantikite, D.; Merzouk, H.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.

    2015-08-31

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h.

  6. Structure and Properties of Nanocrystalline (TiZrxN1−x Thin Films Deposited by DC Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen flow rate (0–2.5 sccm on the structure and properties of TiZrN films. Nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films were deposited on Si (001 substrates by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The major effects of the nitrogen flow rate were on the phase, texture, N/(Ti + Zr ratio, thickness, hardness, residual stress, and resistivity of the TiZrN films. The nitrogen content played an important role in the phase transition. With increasing nitrogen flow rate, the phase changed from mixed TiZr and TiZrN phases to a single TiZrN phase. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that (111 was the preferred orientation for all TiZrN specimens. The N/(Ti + Zr ratio of the TiZrN films first increased with increasing nitrogen flow rate and then stabilized when the flow rate further increased. When the nitrogen flow rate increased from 0.4 to 1.0 sccm, the hardness and residual stress of the TiZrN thin film increased, whereas the electrical resistivity decreased. None of the properties of the TiZrN thin films changed with nitrogen flow rate above 1.0 sccm because the films contained a stable single phase (TiZrN. At high nitrogen flow rates (1.0–2.5 sccm, the average hardness and resistivity of the TiZrN thin films were approximately 36 GPa and 36.5 μΩ·cm, respectively.

  7. Intermittent spray pyrolytic growth of nanocrystalline and highly oriented transparent conducting ZnO thin films: Effect of solution spray rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, C.M., E-mail: c_mahajan9@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering Sciences and Humanities, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune 411 037 (India); School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Takwale, M.G. [School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • ZnO films show enhancement in structural, optical and electrical properties. • Film orientation is altered from [0 0 2] to [1 0 1] direction for higher S{sub f} > 5 ml/min. • E{sub g} (eV) is influenced by variation in crystallinity, grain size and film thickness. • Nanocrystalline ZnO films are superior for TCO and optoelectronic applications. • FE-SEM and AFM study reveal growth of an array of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods. -- Abstract: Uniformly distributed jet of fine droplets was created with control of spray rate (S{sub f}) to deposit nanocrystalline ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the polycrystalline film growth with most preferred orientation along c-axis [0 0 2] direction for S{sub f} ⩽ 4.5 ml/min, above which films favored [1 0 1] direction. FE-SEM and AFM analysis revealed the uniform vertical growth of ZnO nano-rods for S{sub f} = 2.5 ml/min and the film exhibited highest transmittance (95%) with lowest dark resistivity (∼10{sup −2} Ω-cm). The deposition rate increased due to rise in S{sub f}. Alteration of crystallinity, grain size and film thickness with variation in S{sub f} lead to variation of band-gap energy from 3.198 eV to 3.302 eV. ZnO film deposited at optimal S{sub f} = 2.5 ml/min exhibited maximum electrical conductivity σ = 78.8 Ω{sup −1}-cm{sup −1}, minimum sheet resistance R{sub s} = 2.04 × 10{sup 2} Ω/□ and highest figure of merit Φ{sub TC} = 2.93 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}.

  8. Nanocrystalline-diamond thin films with high pH and penicillin sensitivity prepared on a capacitive Si-SiO{sub 2} structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poghossian, A. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de; Abouzar, M.H.; Razavi, A.; Baecker, M. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Bijnens, N. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Williams, O.A.; Haenen, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Division IMOMEC, IMEC vzw., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Moritz, W. [Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, P. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    A capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor) sensor with improved pH and penicillin sensitivity has been realised using a nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as sensitive gate material. The NCD growth process on SiO{sub 2} as well as an additional surface treatment in oxidising medium have been optimised to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous O-terminated films without damage of the underlying SiO{sub 2} layer. The surface morphology of O-terminated NCD thin films and the layer structure of EDIS sensors have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To establish the relative coverage of the surface functional groups generated by the oxidation of NCD surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity of NCD thin films has been studied by water contact-angle measurements. A nearly Nernstian pH sensitivity of 54-57 mV/pH has been observed for O-terminated NCD films treated in an oxidising boiling mixture for 80 min and in oxygen plasma. The high pH-sensitive properties of O-terminated NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor. A freshly prepared penicillin biosensor possesses a high sensitivity of 85 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM penicillin G. The lower detection limit is 5 {mu}M.

  9. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 Thin Film Using a Chemical Bath Deposition Method with Improved Deposition Time, Temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnOx thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnOx nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnOx. Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  10. Influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of sol-gel derived nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, M; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, K Narasimha; Mohan, S; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-03-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on glass and silicon substrates with and without surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of nano-crystalline (anatase) phase at an annealing temperature of 300 degrees C. The influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of TiO(2) thin films has been studied. Optical constants and film thickness were estimated by Swanepoel's (envelope) method and by ellipsometric measurements in the visible spectral range. The optical transmittance and reflectance were found to decrease with an increase in PEG percentage. Refractive index of the films decreased and film thickness increased with the increase in percentage of surfactant. The refractive index of the un-doped TiO(2) films was estimated at different annealing temperatures and it has increased with the increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap of pure TiO(2) films was estimated by Tauc's method at different annealing temperature.

  11. Optical and structural properties of nanocrystalline anatase (TiO{sub 2}) thin films prepared by non-aqueous sol-gel dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haimi, E., E-mail: eero.haimi@tkk.fi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Lipsonen, H.; Larismaa, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kapulainen, M. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, Espoo P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Krzak-Ros, J. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Mechanics, Wroclaw University of Technology, PL-50371, Wroclaw (Poland); Hannula, S.-P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    Anatase (TiO{sub 2}) thin films were grown by non-aqueous sol-gel dip-coating using titanium (IV) n-butoxide as precursor and 1-butanol as solvent. High withdrawal speed of 4.7 mm/s in dip-coating resulted in defect free films of 100 nm average film thickness after subsequent heat treatments. According to scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements, the films consisted of nanocrystalline anatase with 30 nm mean crystallite size. Refractive index n({lambda}) and extinction coefficient k({lambda}) were determined over the wavelength range from 200 to 1650 nm. The optical band gap of the film material was approximately 3.2 eV. The results showed very similar optical characteristics to those that are accomplished with chemically more reactive aqueous sol-gel processes. Furthermore, it was found that in addition to porosity, coordination number of Ti atoms to nearest oxygen neighbors is likely to have a significant role in explaining differences of optical properties between bulk anatase and thin film materials of the present work.

  12. Effect of metal-ion doping on the optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Galván, A.; Trejo-Cruz, C.; Lee, J.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Metson, J.; Evans, P. J.; Pal, U.

    2006-01-01

    Optical properties of metal (Al, Ag, Sb, and Sn)-ion-implanted ZnO films have been studied by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometric techniques. The effects of metal-ion doping on the optical band gap (Eg), refractive index (n), and extinction coefficient (k) of nanocrystalline ZnO films have been studied for the similar implantation dose of all the metal ions. The ellipsometric spectra of the ion-implanted samples could be well described by considering an air/roughness/ZnO-M (layer 1)/ZnO (layer 2)/glass model. The band gap of ZnO films increases with Al ion doping and decreases with doping of Ag, Sb, and Sn ions. The refractive index of ZnO films in the visible spectral region increases substantially on Sb and Sn ion doping, while it decreases to some extent with Al ion doping.

  13. Optical and electrical properties of copper-incorporated ZnS films applicable as solar cell absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, M.; Esteki, Z.; Shokrvash, H.; Kavei, G.

    2016-10-01

    Un-doped and Cu-doped ZnS (ZnS:Cu) thin films were synthesized by Successive Ion Layer Absorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. The UV-visible absorption studies have been used to calculate the band gap values of the fabricated ZnS:Cu thin films. It was observed that by increasing the concentration of Cu2+ ions, the Fermi level moves toward the edge of the valence band of ZnS. Photoluminescence spectra of un-doped and Cu-doped ZnS thin films was recorded under 355 nm. The emission spectrum of samples has a blue emission band at 436 nm. The peak positions of the luminescence showed a red shift as the Cu2+ ion concentration was increased, which indicates that the acceptor level (of Cu2+) is getting close to the valence band of ZnS.

  14. Surfactant and template free synthesis of porous ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Saeed [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, College Road Township, Lahore (Pakistan); Schools of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Riaz, Saira [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Rana Farhat [University of Education, Lahore, D.G. Khan Campus, Kangan Road, Dera Ghazi Khan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Khuram Shahzad [Environmental Sciences Department, Fatima Jinnah Women University, The Mall, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Alghamdi, Yousef [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science & Art –Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Malik, Mohammad Azad, E-mail: Azad.malik@manchester.ac.uk [Schools of Materials, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwa-Dlangezwa, 3886 (South Africa); Naseem, Shahzad [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2017-03-01

    ZnS thin films composed of porous nanoparticles have been deposited on to glass substrates by combining three simple synthesis methodologies i.e. chemical bath deposition, co-precipitation and spin coating. The XRD results reveal the cubic phase of ZnS thin films crystallized at nano scale. The crystallite size estimated by Scherrer formula was 3.4 nm. The morphology of the samples was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and is evident that thin films are composed of porous nanoparticles with an average size of 150 nm and pores of 40 nm on almost every grain. Crystallinity, phase and morphology were further confirmed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stoichiometry and phase purity of thin films were determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, respectively. The surface topography and homogeneity of thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and obtained root mean square roughness (4.0326 nm) reveals the morphologically homogeneous growth of ZnS on glass substrates. The UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were carried out to estimate the band gap and observe the emission spectra in order to speculate the viability of ZnS porous nanoparticles in optoelectronic devices and sensors. - Highlights: • ZnS thin films composed of porous nanoparticles have been deposited. • Methodology is based on a combination of three techniques. • Cubic phase ZnS nanoparticles deposited onto glass substrates. • Films characterized by UV/Vis, PL, XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM and XPS.

  15. Use of modified chemical route for ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films growth: Study on surface morphology and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, R. B.; Lokhande, C. D.; Mane, R. S.; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2006-06-01

    The zinc selenide thin films have been deposited using modified chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method. Zinc acetate and sodium selenosulphate were used as Zn 2+ and Se 2- ion sources, respectively. The preparative parameters such as concentration, pH, number of deposition cycles have been optimized in order to deposit ZnSe thin films. The as-deposited ZnSe thin films are specularly reflective and faint yellowish in color. The as-deposited ZnSe films are annealed in an air atmosphere at 473 K for 2 h. The films are characterized using structural, morphological, compositional, optical and electrical properties.

  16. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    In this work, Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost. - Highlights: • Ethanol gas sensors based on Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle thin film were fabricated. • Pd incorporation in NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} matrix inhibits grain growth. • The sensors were more selective to ethanol gas. • Sensors exhibited fast response and recovery when doped with palladium. • Pd:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film sensor displays excellent long–term stability.

  17. Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties and antibacterial activity of nanocrystalline Ag-doped In$_2$O$_3$ thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P DEEPA; P PHILOMINATHAN

    2016-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Ag-doped indium oxide (AIO) thin films, by employing a much simplified spray pyrolysis technique in different substrate temperatures (300, 350, 400 and 450$\\deg$ C), were fabricated for the first time. The deposited films were subjected to various characterization studies, to explore certain features like the influence of various deposition temperatures on physical and antibacterial properties. XRD results showed that all the samples exhibited preferential orientation along the (2 2 2) plane. The variation in the crystalline size with increasing substrate temperature was explained on the basis of the Zener pinning effect. The electrical sheet resistance ($R_{sh}$) was found to decrease sharply with increasing substrate temperature and attained a minimum value (62$\\Omega$/$\\square$) at 400$\\deg$C and then started increasing for higher deposition temperatures. Further, PL emission spectra of the samples in the visible range ascertained the possibility of applicability of the same in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. From the studies, it was found that at 400.C deposition temperature, one could expect better antibacterial efficiency against {\\it Escherichia coli}. The influence of the shape and size of AIO nanograins on the antibacterial activity was analysed using scanning electron microscopy images.

  18. Effect of variation of precursor concentration on structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalchand A Patil; Dinesh N Suryawanshi; Idris G Pathan; Dhanashri G Patil

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of variation of precursor concentration (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 M) on the structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of TiO2 thin films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were prepared from aqueous solution of titanium chloride (TiCl3.6H2O, 99.9%pure, Merckmade, Germany) onto the glass substrates heated at a temperature of 350 °C by the spray pyrolysis technique. Bandgap energy of the films vary from 3.28 to 3.29 eV. X-ray diffraction shows that films to be nanocrystalline with anatase phase having tetragonal crystal structure. The values calculated from electron diffraction patterns (TEM) were observed to be matching with values calculated from XRD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveled that grain sizes were observed to increase (10–29 nm) with an increase in the concentration of precursor solution. The gas sensing performance of the films was tested.

  19. Anomalous behavior of B1g mode in highly transparent anatase nano-crystalline Nb-doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh K. Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO2 lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb+5 in the TiO2 lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm−1 for the Eg(1 mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B1g mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm−1 with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO2 crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb5+ doping induced reduction of Ti4+ ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.

  20. An Investigation of Nanocrystalline and Electrochemically Grown Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Using Redox Couples of Different Band Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Sarswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative electrolytes were examined to evaluate photoelectrochemical response of Cu2ZnSnS4 films at different biasing potential. Selections of the electrolytes were made on the basis of relative Fermi level position and standard reduction potential. Our search was focused on some cost-effective electrolytes, which can produce good photocurrent during illumination. Thin films were grown on FTO substrate using ink of nanocrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 particles as well as electrodeposition-elevated temperature sulfurization approach. Our investigations suggest that photoelectrochemical response is mostly due to conduction band-mediated process. Surface topography and phase purity were investigated after each electrochemical test, in order to evaluate film quality and reactivity of electrolytes. Raman examination of film and nanocrystals was conducted for comparison. The difference in photocurrent response was explained due to various parameters such as change in charge transfer rate constant, presence of dangling bond, difference in concentration of adsorbed species in electrode.

  1. Determination of the compositions of the DIGM zone in nanocrystalline Ag/Au and Ag/Pd thin films by secondary neutral mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Y. Molnár

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alloying by grain boundary diffusion-induced grain boundary migration is investigated by secondary neutral mass spectrometry depth profiling in Ag/Au and Ag/Pd nanocrystalline thin film systems. It is shown that the compositions in zones left behind the moving boundaries can be determined by this technique if the process takes place at low temperatures where solely the grain boundary transport is the contributing mechanism and the gain size is less than the half of the grain boundary migration distance. The results in Ag/Au system are in good accordance with the predictions given by the step mechanism of grain boundary migration, i.e., the saturation compositions are higher in the slower component (i.e., in Au or Pd. It is shown that the homogenization process stops after reaching the saturation values and further intermixing can take place only if fresh samples with initial compositions, according to the saturation values, are produced and heat treated at the same temperature. The reversal of the film sequence resulted in the reversal of the inequality of the compositions in the alloyed zones, which is in contrast to the above theoretical model, and explained by possible effects of the stress gradients developed by the diffusion processes itself.

  2. Catastrophic vs gradual collapse of thin-walled nanocrystalline Ni hollow cylinders as building blocks of microlattice structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jie; Jang, Dongchan; Valdevit, Lorenzo; Schaedler, Tobias A; Jacobsen, Alan J; B Carter, William; Greer, Julia R

    2011-10-12

    Lightweight yet stiff and strong lattice structures are attractive for various engineering applications, such as cores of sandwich shells and components designed for impact mitigation. Recent breakthroughs in manufacturing enable efficient fabrication of hierarchically architected microlattices, with dimensional control spanning seven orders of magnitude in length scale. These materials have the potential to exploit desirable nanoscale-size effects in a macroscopic structure, as long as their mechanical behavior at each appropriate scale - nano, micro, and macro levels - is properly understood. In this letter, we report the nanomechanical response of individual microlattice members. We show that hollow nanocrystalline Ni cylinders differing only in wall thicknesses, 500 and 150 nm, exhibit strikingly different collapse modes: the 500 nm sample collapses in a brittle manner, via a single strain burst, while the 150 nm sample shows a gradual collapse, via a series of small and discrete strain bursts. Further, compressive strength in 150 nm sample is 99.2% lower than predicted by shell buckling theory, likely due to localized buckling and fracture events observed during in situ compression experiments. We attribute this difference to the size-induced transition in deformation behavior, unique to nanoscale, and discuss it in the framework of "size effects" in crystalline strength.

  3. Effect of doping on the surface modification of nebulizer sprayed Ba x Zn1-x O nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishnan, V.; Elango, P.; Ragavendar, M.; Sathish, P.; Gowrisankar, G.

    2017-03-01

    The influence of Ba doped zinc oxide films were investigated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique at 673 K. X-ray diffraction reveals the polycrystalline hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure with (0 0 2) preferential orientation. Energy dispersive spectroscopy confirms the presence of Ba, Zn and O elements in the films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy shows that the surface morphology of the nanocrystalline films were changed from spherical shape structure to flake net-like shape and sprout like spherical structure with average grain size is ~100 nm due to the critical doping concentration. PL spectra prominent peaks corresponding to near band edge UV emission and intrinsic defect of the visible blue light region and defect related deep level green emission regions were discussed. The films are highly transparent in the visible region with a transmittance higher than 74%, and have an optical band gap energy values are increased from 3.22 eV to 4.02 eV depending on the Ba doping concentration. Interparticle like grains, grain boundary effect of deposited films is studied by complex impedance spectroscopy.

  4. An investigation on the effect of high partial pressure of hydrogen on the nanocrystalline structure of silicon carbide thin films prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouahi, Mohsen; Omri, Mourad; Kerm, Abdul Ghani Yousseph; Al-Agel, Faisal Abdulaziz; Rekik, Najeh

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study reported in this paper is to investigate the role of the high partial pressure of hydrogen introduced during the growth of nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films (nc-SiC:H). For this purpose, we report the preparation as well as spectroscopic studies of four series of nc-SiC:H obtained by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at high partial pressure of hydrogen by varying the percentage of H2 in the gas mixture from 70% to 100% at common substrate temperature (TS=500°C). The effects of the dilution on the structural changes and the chemical bonding of the different series have been studied using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. For this range of hydrogen dilution, two groups of films were obtained. The first group is characterized by the dominance of the crystalline phase and the second by a dominance of the amorphous phase. This result confirms the multiphase structure of the grown nc-SiC:H thin films by the coexistence of the SiC network, carbon-like and silicon-like clusters. Furthermore, infrared results show that the SiC bond is the dominant absorption peak and the carbon atom is preferentially bonded to silicon. The maximum value obtained of the crystalline fraction is about 77%, which is relatively important compared to other results obtained by other techniques. In addition, the concentration of CHn bonds was found to be lower than that of SiHn for all series. Raman measurements revealed that the crystallization occurs in all series even at 100% H2 dilution suggesting that high partial pressure of hydrogen favors the formation of silicon nanocrystallites (nc-Si). The absence of both the longitudinal acoustic band and the transverse optical band indicate that the crystalline phase is dominant.

  5. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-19

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm(-1) K(-2)), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  6. Structural, optical, and transport properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride thin films treated with homogeneous electron beam irradiation and thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashiri, Masayuki; Asai, Yuki; Yamauchi, Kazuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of homogeneous electron beam (EB) irradiation and thermal annealing treatments on the structural, optical, and transport properties of bismuth telluride thin films. Bismuth telluride thin films were prepared by an RF magnetron sputtering method at room temperature. After deposition, the films were treated with homogeneous EB irradiation, thermal annealing, or a combination of both the treatments (two-step treatment). We employed Williamson-Hall analysis for separating the strain contribution from the crystallite domain contribution in the x-ray diffraction data of the films. We found that strain was induced in the thin films by EB irradiation and was relieved by thermal annealing. The crystal orientation along c-axis was significantly enhanced by the two-step treatment. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the melting and aggregation of nano-sized grains on the film surface by the two-step treatment. Optical analysis indicated that the interband transition of all the thin films was possibly of the indirect type, and that thermal annealing and two-step treatment methods increased the band gap of the films due to relaxation of the strain. Thermoelectric performance was significantly improved by the two-step treatment. The power factor reached a value of 17.2 μW (cm-1 K-2), approximately 10 times higher than that of the as-deposited thin films. We conclude that improving the crystal orientation and relaxing the strain resulted in enhanced thermoelectric performance.

  7. Nanocrystalline biphasic resorbable calcium phosphate (HAp/β-TCP) thin film prepared by electron beam evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elayaraja, K.; Chandra, V. Sarath; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Suganthi, R.V. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-06-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) thin film having resorbable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and non-resorbable hydroxyapatite (HAp) phases having enhanced bioactivity was synthesized by electron beam evaporation technique. Nanosized BCP was deposited as a layer (500 nm) on (0 0 1) silicon substrate by electron beam evaporation and crystalline phase of samples were found to improve on annealing at 700 °C. Uniform deposition of calcium phosphate on silicon substrate was verified from elemental mapping using scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). Annealing of the samples led to a decrease in surface roughness, hydrophobicity and dissolution of the coating layer. Amoxicillin loaded thin films exhibited significant bacterial resistance. In addition, BCP thin films did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. Antibiotics incorporated BCP coated implants might prevent the post-surgical infections and could promote bone-bonding of orthopedic devices.

  8. A biosolar cell incorporating a TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline thin-film electrode with chlorophyllin as the photosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, T.T.C; Ho, K.C. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The exploration for new, sustainable energy technologies, such as solar energy, has been driven by the depletion of fossil fuels and the prevention of pollution. A new type of photovoltaic cell known as the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was discovered in 1990. Studies have shown that the DSSC adsorbs dye on the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} surface area to absorb visible light with a cell efficiency of 11 per cent. Ruthenium complexes are commonly used as the photosensitizers to achieve high cell efficiencies. However, due to the environmental concerns regarding the use of heavy metal, derivatives of chlorophyll have been suggested as alternatives. In this study, the phytyl ester and the cyclopentanone of chlorophyll have been saponified and opened, respectively. Chlorophyllin, a derivative of chlorophyll, was absorbed on a TiO{sub 2} film electrode to act as the photosensitizer in a dye-sensitized biosolar cell. Chlorophyllin was generated with the formation of two additional carboxyl groups which are needed for anchoring the dye onto the surface of a TiO{sub 2} electrode to ensure good cell performance. The cell yielded an open-circuit voltage of 0.44 V and a short-circuit current density of 420 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, with a calculated fill factor of 0.61. The overall energy conversion efficiency of the cell was approximately 0.11 to 0.13 per cent. Although chlorophyllin had good absorption properties in the visible range, the cell efficiency of a DSSC containing chlorophyllin was low. The efficiency of the biosolar cell first decreased, but achieved a stable value within a short period of time. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Doped nanocrystalline silicon oxide for use as (intermediate) reflecting layers in thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In summary, this thesis shows the development and nanostructure analysis of doped silicon oxide layers. These layers are applied in thin-film silicon single and double junction solar cells. Concepts of intermediate reflectors (IR), consisting of silicon and/or zinc oxide, are applied in tandem cells

  10. Effect of Annealing on Structure, Morphology, Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Raut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-transparent and highly conducting nanostructured titanium oxide thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method. Thin films of TiO2 deposited on glass substrates using spin coating technique and the effect of annealing temperature (400 - 700 °C on structural, microstructural, electrical and optical properties were studied. The X-ray diffraction and Atomic force microscopy measurements confirmed that the films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal mixed anatase and rutile phase structure and homogeneous surface. The study also reveals that the rms value of thin film roughness increases from 7 to 19 nm. HRTEM image of TiO2 thin film (annealed at 700 °C shows that a grain of about 50 - 60 nm in size is really aggregate of many small crystallites of around 10 - 15 nm. Electron diffraction pattern shows that the TiO2 films exhibited tetragonal structure. The surface morphology (SEM of the TiO2 film showed that the nanoparticles are fine with an average grain size of about 50 - 60 nm. The optical band gap slightly decreases from 3.26 - 3.24 eV and the dc electrical conductivity was found in the range of 10-6 to 10-5(Ω·cm-1 when the annealing temperature is changed from 400 to 700 °C. It is observed that TiO2 thin film annealed at 700 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O nanocrystalline powders and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, J.; Cordoba, C. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Narino, Ciudad Universitaria Torobajo, Pasto (Colombia); Doria, J. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Gomez, A. [Laboratorio de caracterizacion de materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Paucar, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Fuchs, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Solid State Physics, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe Germany (Germany); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Campus Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia)

    2012-12-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1) nanocrystalline powders and thin epitaxial films were studied in detail. Epitaxial films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on c-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. To this end, ablation targets were prepared by pressing nano-sized powders of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.02, 0.1) synthesized by the wet polymeric precursor method. The method was chosen in order to improve purity and homogeneity of the grain-size distribution. The epitaxial growth was optimized with respect to crystalline quality by varying deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, laser fluence and background gas conditions. Films prepared under optimized conditions show a mosaic spread < 0.3 Degree-Sign and a bulk-like c-axis lattice parameter of 5.198 A. The structural data indicate the substitution of Zn{sup 2+} by the Mn{sup 2+} cations in the wurtzite structure of pristine ZnO. The influence of Mn on the lattice dynamics of ZnO is confirmed by Raman scattering. It is found that Mn doping increases the lattice defects and induces two Raman vibration modes of 275 and 526 cm{sup -1}. Magnetic measurements, in turn, show while thin films, grown in vacuum, are ferromagnetic at RT, the growth in an oxygen atmosphere results in a dramatic decrease of the magnetic properties, demonstrating that oxygen vacancies are most likely responsible for the magnetic exchange. The co-doping with nitrogen has no major influence on the structural and magnetic properties of the ZnO films. A correct Mn doping concentration seems to be crucial for making a viable diluted magnetic semiconductor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O thin films by pulsed laser deposition is optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue-shift of the absorption edge with increasing Mn is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deffect density in Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O increases with increasing Mn

  12. Enhanced growth and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica Grausova

    Full Text Available Intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films have been proven to be promising substrates for the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone-derived cells. To understand the role of various degrees of doping (semiconducting to metallic-like, the NCD films were deposited on silicon substrates by a microwave plasma-enhanced CVD process and their boron doping was achieved by adding trimethylboron to the CH(4:H(2 gas mixture, the B∶C ratio was 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm. The room temperature electrical resistivity of the films decreased from >10 MΩ (undoped films to 55 kΩ, 0.6 kΩ, and 0.3 kΩ (doped films with 133, 1000 and 6700 ppm of B, respectively. The increase in the number of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in 7-day-old cultures on NCD films was most apparent on the NCD films doped with 133 and 1000 ppm of B (153,000 ± 14,000 and 152,000 ± 10,000 cells/cm(2, respectively, compared to 113,000 ± 10,000 cells/cm(2 on undoped NCD films. As measured by ELISA per mg of total protein, the cells on NCD with 133 and 1000 ppm of B also contained the highest concentrations of collagen I and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. On the NCD films with 6700 ppm of B, the cells contained the highest concentration of focal adhesion protein vinculin, and the highest amount of collagen I was adsorbed. The concentration of osteocalcin also increased with increasing level of B doping. The cell viability on all tested NCD films was almost 100%. Measurements of the concentration of ICAM-1, i.e. an immunoglobuline adhesion molecule binding inflammatory cells, suggested that the cells on the NCD films did not undergo significant immune activation. Thus, the potential of NCD films for bone tissue regeneration can be further enhanced and tailored by B doping and that B doping up to metallic-like levels is not detrimental for cells.

  13. Low power optical limiting studies on nanocrystalline benzimidazole thin films prepared by modified liquid phase growth technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P A Praveen; S P Prabhakaran; R Ramesh Babu; K Sethuraman; K Ramamurthi

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, benzimidazole (BMZ), a well known nonlinear optical material, thin films were deposited using the modified liquid phase growth technique at different solution temperatures. The prepared samples were subjected to spectral, structural and surface analyses. Linear optical properties and third-order optical nonlinearity of the deposited BMZ thin films were analysed using UV–visible–NIR spectrum and -scan technique, respectively. The experimental results show that the BMZ films exhibit reverse saturable absorption and positive nonlinearity at 650 nm CW laser of power 5 mW. The measured third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the films is about 10−10 esu. Optical limiting studies were performed using the same laser source and the potentiality of the BMZ films is reported.

  14. Influence of Nb dopant on the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleji, Behzad Koozegar, E-mail: bkaleji@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box:14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarraf-Mamoory, Rasoul, E-mail: rsarrafm@modares.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box:14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fujishima, Akira [Photo-catalyst Group, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, KSP East 412, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan)

    2012-01-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We coated Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} films on glazed porcelain via sol-gel dip coating method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined coatings by degradation of MB solution and optical light transmittance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings show enhanced photo-catalytic activity in 1 mol% Nb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nb doping inhibited the grain growth, and which are found to inhibit the anatase to rutile phase transformation. - Abstract: In this study, preparation of Nb-doped (0-20 mol% Nb) TiO{sub 2} dip-coated thin films on glazed porcelain substrates via sol-gel process has been investigated. The effects of Nb on the structural, optical, and photo-catalytic properties of applied thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Surface topography and surface chemical state of thin films was examined by atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. XRD and Raman study showed that the Nb doping inhibited the grain growth. The photo-catalytic activity of the film was tested on degradation of methylene blue. Best photo-catalytic activity of Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were measured in the TiO{sub 2}-1 mol% Nb sample. The average optical transmittance of about 47% in the visible range and the band gap of films became wider with increasing Nb doping concentration. The Nb{sup 5+} dopant presented substitutional Ti{sup 4+} into TiO{sub 2} lattice.

  15. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for hydrogen gas detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lalchand A Patil; Dinesh N Suryawanshi; Idris G Pathan; Dhanashri G Patil

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured pure and Pt-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Aqueous solution of TiCl3.6H2O (0.01 M) was chosen as the starting solution for the preparation of pure TiO2 thin film. Aqueous solutions of PtCl6.6H2O (0.01 M) and TiCl3.6H2O (0.01 M) were mixed in volume % of 1 : 99, 2.5 : 97.5 and 5 : 95 respectively to obtain Pt-doped TiO2 thin films. The solutions were sprayed onto quartz substrate heated at 350 °C temperature to obtain the films. These thin films were fired for one hour at 550 °C. The sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases such as LPG, H2, CO2, ethanol, NH3 and Cl2 (1000 ppm). The Pt-doped TiO2 (1 : 99) was observed to be most sensitive (572) to H2 at 400 °C with high selectivity against other gases. Its response time was short (10 s) and recovery was also fast (14 s). To understand the reasons behind the gas-sensing performance of the films, their structural and micro-structral properties were studied using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy (FE–SEM and TEM), respectively. Thicknesses of all these samples were determined using Surface Profiler. The results are interpreted.

  16. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films Prepared by CBD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Djelloul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD. The effect of annealing temperature on the morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of the crystalline CdS films were investigated for different annealing temperature (as deposited, 300, 400 and 500 °C.The annealing time is 1 h. The materials have been prepared using simple aqueous solutions containing cadmium sulfate, as source of cadmium, and thiourea as source of sulfur and ammonium hydroxide as the complexing agent. The temperature of the bath was maintained at low temperature of 80 °C. The surface morphological properties studied by SEM and AFM respectively. The structural properties of CdS thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction. The optical parameter such as transmittance and energy band gap of the films with thermal annealing temperature was investigated by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The variation of band gap values of CdS thin film samples were found to be in the range of 2.37 to 2.5 eV. Electrical resistivity measurements were carried out in four-probe Van Der Pauw geometry at room temperature by the Hall measurement. SEM image confirmed that film of smooth surface morphology.

  17. Anomalous behavior of B{sub 1g} mode in highly transparent anatase nano-crystalline Nb-doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com, E-mail: fouran@gmail.com; Ojha, S.; Singh, Fouran, E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com, E-mail: fouran@gmail.com [Material Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi -110067 (India); Gautam, Naina [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi - 110023 (India); Singh, R. G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi– 110043 (India); Shukla, D. K. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2015-12-15

    The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO) thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO{sub 2} lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb{sup +5} in the TiO{sub 2} lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR) spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm{sup −1} for the E{sub g(1)} mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B{sub 1g} mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm{sup −1} with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO{sub 2} crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb{sup 5+} doping induced reduction of Ti{sup 4+} ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.

  18. Magnetic properties and amorphous-to-nanocrystalline transformation by thermal treatments in Fe{sub 84.3}Si{sub 4}P{sub 3}B{sub 8}Cu{sub 0.7} amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coïsson, Marco, E-mail: m.coisson@inrim.it [INRIM, Electromagnetics Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Viteri Villacis, Patricio J. [Università degli Studi di Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Barrera, Gabriele [INRIM, Electromagnetics Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Università degli Studi di Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Celegato, Federica; Enrico, Emauele [INRIM, Electromagnetics Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Rizzi, Paola [Università degli Studi di Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tiberto, Paola; Vinai, Franco [INRIM, Electromagnetics Division, strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Fiore, Gianluca; Battezzati, Livio [Università degli Studi di Torino, Chemistry Department, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High-BS alloy, prepared in thin films form. • As-prepared films display low coercivity, comparable to rapidly quenched ribbons. • Furnace annealed films show even lower coercivity while retaining a high saturation. • On annealing, a fully nanocrystalline state is achieved in thin films. - Abstract: Thin films of nominal composition Fe{sub 84.3}Si{sub 4}P{sub 3}B{sub 8}Cu{sub 0.7} have been prepared by sputtering from ribbons of the same alloy. Their microstructure has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy, and reveals a partly amorphous state in the as-prepared samples. Their magnetic properties are soft and comparable to those measured on rapidly quenched ribbons. After annealing in furnace at temperatures up to 400 °C, their soft magnetic properties are improved thanks to the development of a fully nanocrystalline state. Annealing at higher temperature causes the coarsening of the α-Fe like grains, the development of hard magnetic phases and an increase of the coercive field.

  19. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films Prepared by CBD Method

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The CdS thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The effect of annealing temperature on the morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of the crystalline CdS films were investigated for different annealing temperature (as deposited, 300, 400 and 500 °C).The annealing time is 1 h. The materials have been prepared using simple aqueous solutions containing cadmium sulfate, as source of cadmium, and thiourea as source of sulfur and ammoniu...

  20. High Resolution Cathodoluminescence of Yellow and Waterclear CVD Polycrystalline ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , 20...55. Kobayashi, H. et al. "Excitation Mechanism of Electro- luminescent ZnS Thin Films Doped with Rare-Earth Ions." Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , 13...Al Phosphor." Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , 19 no 9: 1647-53 (September 1980). 112 _W0%. . . 57. Kukimoto, H., S. Oda, and T.

  1. Nanocrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for solar cells application: Microdiffraction and structural characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Dussan, A.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a study of the structural characterization of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microdiffraction measurements. Samples were deposited varying both mass (MX) and substrate temperature (TS) at which the Cu and ZnSe composites were evaporated. CZTSe samples were deposited by co-evaporation method in three stages. From XRD measurements, it was possible to establish, with increased Ts, the presence of binary phases associated with the quaternary composite during the material's growth process. A stannite-type structure in Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films and sizes of the crystallites varying between 30 and 40 nm were obtained. X-ray microdiffraction was used to investigate interface orientations and strain distributions when deposition parameters were varied. It was found that around the main peak, 2ϴ = 27.1°, the Cu1.8Se and ZnSe binary phases predominate, which are formed during the subsequent material selenization stage. A Raman spectroscopy study revealed Raman shifts associated with the binary composites observed via XRD.

  2. Structure and magnetic properties of hcp and fcc nanocrystalline thin Ni films and nanoparticles produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaklis, Vassilios; Pappas, Spiridon D; Poulopoulos, Panagiotis; Trachylis, Dimitrios; Schweiss, Peter; Politis, Constantin

    2010-09-01

    We report on the growth of thin Ni films by radio frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar-plasma. The growth temperature was about 350 K and the films were deposited on various substrates such as glass, silicon, sapphire and alumina. The thickness of the thinnest films was estimated by the appearance of Kiessig fringes up to about 2theta = 8 degrees in the small-angle X-ray diffraction pattern, as expected for high-quality atomically-flat thin films. With the help of this, a quartz balance system was calibrated and used for measuring the thickness of thicker samples with an accuracy of better than 5%. Structural characterization via X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an Ar-gas pressure window, where single phase hcp Ni films may be grown. The magnetic response of the Ni films was checked at room temperature via a newly established and fully automatic polar magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer. The hcp films show no magnetic response. Interestingly, the magnetic saturation field of fcc films deposited at low Ar pressure is comparable to the one of bulk Ni, while the one of fcc films deposited at high Ar pressures is decreased, revealing the presence of residual strain in the films. Finally, it is shown that it is possible to form films which contain magnetic Ni fcc nanoparticles in a non-magnetic hcp matrix, i.e., a system interesting for technological applications demanding a single Ni target for its production.

  3. Unravelling a simple method for the low temperature synthesis of silicon nanocrystals and monolithic nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ka-Hyun; Johnson, Erik V.; Kazanskii, Andrey G.; Khenkin, Mark V.; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present new results on the plasma processing and structure of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) thin films. pm-Si:H thin films consist of a low volume fraction of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon matrix with medium range order, and they possess this morphology as a significant contribution to their growth comes from the impact on the substrate of silicon clusters and nanocrystals synthesized in the plasma. Quadrupole mass spectrometry, ion flux measurements, and material characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy all provide insight on the contribution to the growth by silicon nanocrystals during PECVD deposition. In particular, cross-section TEM measurements show for the first time that the silicon nanocrystals are uniformly distributed across the thickness of the pm-Si:H film. Moreover, parametric studies indicate that the best pm-Si:H material is obtained at the conditions after the transition between a pristine plasma and one containing nanocrystals, namely a total gas pressure around 2 Torr and a silane to hydrogen ratio between 0.05 to 0.1. From a practical point of view these conditions also correspond to the highest deposition rate achievable for a given RF power and silane flow rate.

  4. Unravelling a simple method for the low temperature synthesis of silicon nanocrystals and monolithic nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ka-Hyun; Johnson, Erik V.; Kazanskii, Andrey G.; Khenkin, Mark V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present new results on the plasma processing and structure of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) thin films. pm-Si:H thin films consist of a low volume fraction of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silicon matrix with medium range order, and they possess this morphology as a significant contribution to their growth comes from the impact on the substrate of silicon clusters and nanocrystals synthesized in the plasma. Quadrupole mass spectrometry, ion flux measurements, and material characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy all provide insight on the contribution to the growth by silicon nanocrystals during PECVD deposition. In particular, cross-section TEM measurements show for the first time that the silicon nanocrystals are uniformly distributed across the thickness of the pm-Si:H film. Moreover, parametric studies indicate that the best pm-Si:H material is obtained at the conditions after the transition between a pristine plasma and one containing nanocrystals, namely a total gas pressure around 2 Torr and a silane to hydrogen ratio between 0.05 to 0.1. From a practical point of view these conditions also correspond to the highest deposition rate achievable for a given RF power and silane flow rate. PMID:28091562

  5. Effect of annealing on the properties of nanocrystalline CuInSSe thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrotriya, Vipin, E-mail: vipinshrotriya@gmail.com; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The effect of annealing CuInSSe thin films, which were grown on glass substrates using the spray pyrolysis technique from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6, were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical transmission measurements. The CuInSSe films were co-deposited from an aqueous solution containing CuCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 3}, thiourea and SeO{sub 2}. EDC was used as a complexing agent and films were deposited at the constant temperature 300°C. Post annealing (at 350°C) was used to improve the structural, morphological and optical properties of CuInSSe thin films. From the results, it is found that the films are single phase, p-type in conductivity having the chalcopyrite structure. From the Scherrer formula the average size of the films was found to be in the range (15-28) nm. Optical studies show that the optical band gap value increases slightly from 1.35 eV to 1.37 eV with annealing for films grown from spray solutions having S/Se ionic ratio 0.6.

  6. Nanocrystalline diamond thin films on titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy temporomandibular joint prosthesis simulants by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc Douglas

    A course of research has been performed to assess the suitability of nanocrystal-line diamond (NCD) films on Ti-6Al-4V alloy as wear-resistant coatings in biomedical implant use. A series of temporomandibular (TMJ) joint condyle simulants were polished and acid-passivated as per ASTM F86 standard for surface preparation of implants. A 3-mum-thick coating of NCD film was deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) over the hemispherical articulation surfaces of the simulants. Plasma chemistry conditions were measured and monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), using hydrogen as a relative standard. The films consist of diamond grains around 20 nm in diameter embedded in an amorphous carbon matrix, free of any detectable film stress gradient. Hardness averages 65 GPa and modulus measures 600 GPa at a depth of 250 nm into the film surface. A diffuse film/substrate boundary produces a minimal film adhesion toughness (GammaC) of 158 J/m2. The mean RMS roughness is 14.6 +/- 4.2 nm, with an average peak roughness of 82.6 +/- 65.9 nm. Examination of the surface morphology reveals a porous, dendritic surface. Wear testing resulted in two failed condylar coatings out of three tests. No macroscopic delamination was found on any sample, but micron-scale film pieces broke away, exposing the substrate. Electrochemical corrosion testing shows a seven-fold reduction in corrosion rate with the application of an NCD coating as opposed to polished, passivated Ti-6Al-4V, producing a corrosion rate comparable to wrought Co-Cr-Mo. In vivo biocompatibility testing indicates that implanted NCD films did not elicit an immune response in the rabbit model, and osteointegration was apparent for both compact and trabecular bone on both NCD film and bare Ti-6Al-4V. Overall, NCD thin film material is reasonably smooth, biocompatible, and very well adhered. Wear testing indicates that this material is unacceptable for use in demanding TMJ applications without

  7. Microstructure and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO and ZnO:(Li or Al) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, A. Yavuz [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze 41400 (Turkey)]. E-mail: aoral@gyte.edu.tr; Bahsi, Z. Banu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze 41400 (Turkey); Aslan, M. Hasan [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze 41400 (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    Zinc oxide thin films (ZnO, ZnO:Li, ZnO:Al) were deposited on glass substrates by a sol-gel technique. Zinc acetate, lithium acetate, and aluminum chloride were used as metal ion sources in the precursor solutions. XRD analysis revealed that Li doped and undoped ZnO films formed single phase zincite structure in contrast to Al:ZnO films which did not fully crystallize at the annealing temperature of 550 deg. C. Crystallized films had a grain size under 50 nm and showed c-axis grain orientation. All films had a very smooth surface with RMS surface roughness values between 0.23 and 0.35 nm. Surface roughness and optical band tail values increased by Al doping. Compared to undoped ZnO films, Li doping slightly increased the optical band gap of the films.

  8. Microstructural and Morphological Properties of Nanocrystalline Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Films: Identification New Phase on Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P.; Seña, N. J.; Dussan, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the structural and morphological properties of thin films of compound Cu2ZnSnSe4. Mass (MX) and temperature of the substrate (TS(Cu)) of compound copper (Cu), were varied. All samples were deposited by co-evaporation method in three stages. From measurements of X-ray diffraction it was possible to establish with TS increasing the presence of associated binary phases quaternary compound during the growth process of the material. It was found that the main peak around, 2θ= 27.1°, predominate binary phases Cu1.8Se and ZnSe. Measurements of X-ray diffraction were performed to pure binary compounds, showing a peak corresponding to the main peak found around the compound. Raman shifts showed associated binary compounds with the observed by XRD. In this work, we report for the first time the binary phase identification Cu1.8Se and ZnSe as part of the structure of the stannite CZTSe. Since the Scherrer equation was found that the crystallite sizes ranged between 30 and 40 nm. A correlation between structure and topography superficial is presented.

  9. Effect of Zn doping on optical properties and photoconductivity of SnS2 nanocrystalline thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Etefagh; N Shahtahmasebi; M Karimipour

    2013-06-01

    Zn-doped SnS2 thin films have been deposited simply by spray pyrolysis technique. The doping level was changed from [Zn/Sn] = 0 to 7.5 at%. The films were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), photoluminescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy. XRD patterns of the films with different zinc contents show that all samples have polycrystalline structure with Berndtite dominant phase and preferred orientation of (001) growth plane. Zn insertion causes a significant decrease in grain size. Optical bandgap of the films have been calculated for different dopant concentrations and they lie in the region of 2.3–2.7 eV. Surprisingly, regardless of doping level, the luminescent properties of films are related to the fundamental bandgap energy and deep levels inside the bandgap. Photoconductivity of the films have been measured under visible light. Sensitivity to the light increases by zinc incorporation, which was a large amount for SnS2:Zn of 7.5%.

  10. Synthesis of nanocrystalline thin films of gold on the surface of GaSb by swift heavy ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadhav, Vidya; Dubey, S. K.; Yadav, A. D.; Singh, A. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Santacruz (E), Mumbai-400 098 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Thin films of gold ({approx}100 nm thick) were deposited on p-type GaSb substrates. These samples were irradiated with 100 MeV Fe{sup 7+}ions for the fluence of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} and 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} ions cm{sup -2}. After irradiation, samples were characterized using AFM, UV-VIS -NIR, X-Ray Diffraction techniques. AFM studies showed the presence of clusters on the surface of GaSb. R.M.S. roughness of the sample was found to increase w.r.t ion fluence. Absorption coefficient obtained from the Ultra violet - Visible NIR (UV-VIS -NIR) spectra of the samples irradiated with various fluences compared with non irradiated GaSb. The annealing experiment showed a significant improvement in the absorption coefficient after rapid thermal annealing at temperature of 400 Degree-Sign C. X-Ray Diffraction study reveals different orientations of Au film.

  11. Measurement of XUV-absorption spectra of ZnS radiatively heated foils

    CERN Document Server

    Kontogiannopoulmos, Nikolaos; Thais, Frédéric; Chenais-Popovics, Claude; Sauvan, Pascal; Schott, R; Fölsner, Wolfgang; Arnault, Philippe; Poirier, Michel; Blenski, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved absorption of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and aluminum in the XUV-range has been measured. Thin foils in conditions close to local thermodynamic equilibrium were heated by radiation from laser-irradiated gold spherical cavities. Analysis of the aluminum foil radiative hydrodynamic expansion, based on the detailed atomic calculations of its absorption spectra, showed that the cavity emitted flux that heated the absorption foils corresponds to a radiation temperature in the range 55 60 eV. Comparison of the ZnS absorption spectra with calculations based on a superconfiguration approach identified the presence of species Zn6+ - Zn8+ and S5+ - S6+. Based on the validation of the radiative source simulations, experimental spectra were then compared to calculations performed by post-processing the radiative hydrodynamic simulations of ZnS. Satisfying agreement is found when temperature gradients are accounted for.

  12. Formation of CuxAu1− x phases by cold homogenization of Au/Cu nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkova, Alona; Katona, Gabor L; Langer, Gabor A; Sidorenko, Sergey I; Voloshko, Svetlana M

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is shown, by using depth profiling with a secondary neutral mass spectrometer and structure investigations by XRD and TEM, that at low temperatures, at which the bulk diffusion is frozen, a complete homogenization can take place in the Cu/Au thin film system, which leads to formation of intermetallic phases. Different compounds can be formed depending on the initial thickness ratio. The process starts with grain boundary interdiffusion, which is followed by a formation of reaction layers at the grain boundaries that leads to the motion of the newly formed interfaces perpendicular to the grain boundary plane. Finally, the homogenization finishes when all the pure components have been consumed. The process is asymmetric: It is faster in the Au layer. In Au(25nm)/Cu(50nm) samples the final state is the ordered AuCu3 phase. Decrease of the film thicknesses, as expected, results in the acceleration of the process. It is also illustrated that changing the thickness ratio either a mixture of Cu-rich AuCu and AuCu3 phases (in Au(25nm)/Cu(25nm) sample), or a mixture of disordered Cu- as well as Au-rich solid solutions (in Au(25nm)/Cu(12nm) sample) can be produced. By using a simple model the interface velocity in both the Cu and Au layers were estimated from the linear increase of the average composition and its value is about two orders of magnitude larger in Au (ca. 10−11 m/s) than in Cu (ca. 10−13 m/s). PMID:25247132

  13. Optical Properties of ZnO-Alloyed Nanocrystalline Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Che

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO is emerging as one of the materials of choice for UV applications. It has a deep excitonic energy level and a direct bandgap of ~3.4 eV. Alloying ZnO with certain atomic constituents adds new optical and electronic functionalities to ZnO. This paper presents research on MgxZn1−xO and ZnS1−xOx nanocrystalline flexible films, which enable tunable optical properties in the deep-UV and in the visible range. The ZnO and Mg0.3Zn0.7O films were found to have bandgaps at 3.35 and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence of the Mg0.3Zn0.7O exhibited a bandedge emission at 3.95 eV, and at lower energy 3.38 eV due to the limited solubility inherent to these alloys. ZnS0.76O0.24 and ZnS0.16O0.84 were found to have bandgaps at 3.21 and 2.65 eV, respectively. The effect of nitrogen doping on ZnS0.16O0.84 is discussed in terms of the highly lattice mismatched nature of these alloys and the resulting valence-band modification.

  14. Absorption and Exciton Emission Spectra of Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Thin Films%二氧化钛纳米晶薄膜的吸收光谱和激发发射光谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振范; 李玉光

    2006-01-01

    由TiO2反胶束溶胶制备一系列TiO2纳米晶薄膜,对膜的吸收光谱和激发发射光谱研究表明制备的膜存在有二种模式的跃迁,直接跃迁和间接跃迁.由于厚膜中存在较强的表面相互作用,厚膜的直接跃迁禁带宽与薄膜相比发生了红移.在不同陈化时间,浸渍相同次数制得的膜具有相同的直接跃迁禁带宽.除浸渍一次的膜不存在间接跃迁外,所有的膜具有相同的间接跃迁禁带宽.所有的膜具有几乎相同的发射光谱模式.%A series of TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films were fabricated by using dip coating method from TiO2 reverse micelle solution. The studies on absorption and exciton emission spectra showed that both the indirect and direct transition exist in these TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films. A thick film has a red shift of direct transition bandgap than thin films due to the strong interface interaction. The films made at different aging time with same dip times have the same direct transition bandgaps. All the films have the same indirect transition bandgap, but those with one time dip have no indirect transition. All the films have almost the same patterns of photoluminescence spectra.

  15. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  16. Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Optical Properties of ZnS Thin Films Deposited by Electron-Beam Evaporation%衬底温度对电子束蒸发ZnS薄膜结构和光学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付蕊; 化麒麟; 涂洁磊

    2013-01-01

    采用电子束蒸发法在不同衬底温度下,150℃、200℃、250℃和300℃,制备了ZnS薄膜;用X射线衍射仪、原子力显微镜、膜厚仪和紫外-可见光-近红外分光光度计分别表征ZnS薄膜的晶体结构、表面形貌和光学特性;并分析了不同衬底温度对薄膜的结构和光学特性的影响.结果表明:在硅衬底上制备的ZnS都为多晶薄膜,具有闪锌矿β-ZnS结构;随衬底温度升高呈(111)晶面高度择优取向,平均晶粒尺寸有所增大,内应力、位错密度、折射率和吸收系数有所减小,禁带宽度随之增大;衬底温度为300℃时制备的薄膜表面均匀致密,呈现较优的结构和光学性能.%ZnS thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by electron-beam evaporation technique at different substrate temperatures.The crystal structure,surface morphology and optical properties of ZnS films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD),atomic force microscope (AFM),optical spectrophotometer and thickness gauge.The effects of substrate temperature on structure and optical properties of films were investigated.The results showed that the films grown at these temperatures exhibited zinc blende structure (β-ZnS).As the of substrate temperature increasing,the films were highly (111) preferred orientation,and grain size increased.In addition,intrinsic stress,dislocation density,refractive index and absorption coefficient decreased as substrate temperature increasing,while optical band gap increased.The surface morphology of ZnS thin film at 300 ℃ was uniform and compact,presenting the better structural and optical properties.

  17. Photo-electrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline meso-porous n-type TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using simple synthesized azo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, C. G.; Nwanya, A. C.; Ezema, B. E.; Patil, B. H.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Ukoha, P. O.; Lokhande, C. D.; Maaza, Malik; Ezema, Fabian I.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate at room temperature (300 K). Titanium trichloride and sodium hydroxide were used as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, electrical and wettability properties. The photoelectrochemical study of TiO2 sensitized with a laboratory synthesized organic dye (azo) was evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte at 40 mW cm-2 light illumination intensity. The photovoltaic characteristics show a fill factor of 0.24 and solar conversion efficiency value of 0.032 % for a TiO2 thickness of 0.96 µm as compared to efficiency of 0.014 % for rose Bengal of the same thickness.

  18. Design and Fabrication of Edge Filter Using Absorbed ZnS Single Layer Prepared by Flash Evaporation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habubi, Nadir F.; Mishjil, Khudheir A.; Rashid, Hayfa G.; Mansour, H. L.

    Long-wave pass edge filter of high transmittance and wide bandpass have been designed and fabricated using on a single weakly absorbed ZnS thin film material of thickness of about 300 nm which was prepared by using the flash evaporation technique. The design was based on characteristic matrix theory, taking into account the effect of dispersion phenomena for all spectral wavelength.

  19. Room temperature fabrication of dielectric Bragg reflectors composed of a CaF2/ZnS multilayered coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muallem, Merav; Palatnik, Alex; Nessim, Gilbert D; Tischler, Yaakov R

    2015-01-14

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of mechanically stable, reproducible, and highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) composed of thermally evaporated thin films of calcium fluoride (CaF2) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). CaF2 and ZnS were chosen as the low and high refractive index components of the multilayer DBR structures, with n = 1.43 and n = 2.38 respectively, because neither material requires substrate heating during the deposition process in order to produce optical quality thin films. DBRs consisting of seven pairs of CaF2 and ZnS layers, were fabricated with thicknesses of 96 and 58 nm, respectively, as characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), and exhibited a center wavelength of λc = 550 nm and peak reflectance exceeding 99%. The layers showed good adhesion to each other and to the glass substrate, resulting in mechanically stable DBR coatings. Complete optical microcavities consisting of two such DBR coatings and a CaF2 spacer layer between them could be fabricated in a single deposition run. Optically, these structures exhibited a resonator quality factor of Q > 160. When a CaF2/ZnS DBR was grown, without heating the substrate during deposition, on top of a thin film containing the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 6G, the fluorescence intensity showed no degradation compared to an uncoated film, in contrast to a MgF2/ZnS DBR coating grown with substrate heating which showed a 92% reduction in signal. The ability to fabricate optical quality CaF2/ZnS DBRs without substrate heating, as introduced here, can therefore enable formation of low-loss high-reflectivity coatings on top of more delicate heat-sensitive materials such as organics and other nanostructured emitters, and hence facilitate the development of nanoemitter-based microcavity device applications.

  20. ZnS薄膜原子层沉积机理的密度泛函理论研究%Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of ZnS thin films:a density functional theory study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫标; 任杰

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory was employed to study the growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of ZnS on the silicon surfaces. Both the diethylzinc (DEZn) and the H2S half-reactions proceed through a C2 H6 elimination mechanism. By comparison with the reactions on silicon surfaces with single and double _SH sites, we find that the existence of neighboring -SH can facilitate the adsorption of precursors and lower the activation barrier. Also, we find that it is energetically more favorable for the reactions on silicon surfaces with double -SH sites. In addition, calculations show that the DEZn half-reaction is more favorable as compared to the H2S half-reaction.%使用密度泛函方法研究了以二乙基锌(DEZn)和H2S作为前驱体在硅表面原子层沉积ZnS的初始反应机理.ZnS薄膜的原子层沉积包括2个连续的“半反应”:即DEZn与H2S“半反应”.研究显示:DEZn与H2S“半反应”都经历了一个C2H6消去过程.通过对比在单硫氢基及双硫氢基硅表面上的反应,发现邻位硫氢基的存在有利于前驱体分子的吸附并能够降低反应活化能,这意味着双硫氢基硅表面上的反应是能量上更有利的反应.另外,也发现DEZn“半反应”比H2S“半反应”更容易进行.

  1. Biomolecule-mediated synthesis of nanocrystalline semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Weon

    CdS and ZnS nanocrystalline semiconductors (NCs) were prepared by titrating inorganic sulfide into preformed Cd(II)- or Zn(II)-complexes of phytochelatins, glutathione or cysteine. This strategy resulted in the formation NCs capped by the chosen biomolecule. The range of sizes and their distributions depended primarily on the quantity of sulfide titrated and the biomolecule chosen for the initial metallo-complex. The processes of NC formation were studied by absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The size distribution was analyzed by gel permeation chromatography. Ethanol precipitation of NCs under aqueous conditions was used to isolate nanoparticles within a very narrow size-range. Reduction of selected dyes was also studied on the surfaces of NCs. Glutathione-capped CdS nanoparticles exhibited significant size heterogeneity even at a single sulfide titration. In contrast, phytochelatins showed much less dispersion in size at a given sulfide titration. Phytochelatins could replace glutathione without changing the size of glutathione-capped CdS nanoparticles. Cysteine appeared to be intermediate between glutathione and phytochelatins in the formation of CdS nanoparticles. The calculated radii, using an effective mass approximation method, were 10.8-17.3, 10.6-11.8, and 13.5-15.5A for glutathione-, phytochelatin-, and cysteine-capped CdS nanoparticles, respectively. Cysteine-capped ZnS showed narrower size distribution than glutathione-capped ZnS. However, elevated temperatures were necessary to accomplish optimal yields of cysteine-capped ZnS NCs. An additional control over the size distribution of NCs was achieved by size-selective precipitation with ethanol. These procedures led to the isolation of nanoparticles that were more uniform in size and chemical compositions as determined by spectroscopic and chemical analyses of size-fractionated samples. Precipitation also allowed preparation of large quantities of powdered nanoparticles that could be

  2. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  3. Fabrication of micro hole array on the surface of CVD ZnS by scanning ultrafast pulse laser for antireflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangping; Zhang, Tianhui; Fan, Siling; Cheng, Guanghua

    2017-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS is a promising long-wave infrared (8-12 μm) window material. Yet antireflection is necessary since Fresnel reflection from its surface is high due to the high refractive index of ZnS. Sub-wavelength structured surface of micro hole array was fabricated on CVD ZnS by scanning ultrafast pulse laser ablation. The effects of beam profile, pulse width and beam power on the radius and morphology of the holes were studied. Gaussian beam can cause severe melted-resolidified layers around the hole, yet Bessel beam only resulted in thin ribbon around the hole. The picosecond Bessel laser is more suitable than femtosecond laser for ablating holes on ZnS. The radius of the holes increases with increasing the Bessel beam pulse width and the beam power. But larger power may cause circle grooves around the central holes. Ordered hole array was fabricated on single side of CVD ZnS and antireflection was realized.

  4. Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured Ag incorporated ZnS films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Chalana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Silver incorporated zinc sulfide thin films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique and the influence of silver incorporation on the structural, optical and luminescence properties is analyzed using techniques like grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and laser photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD analysis presents hexagonal wurtzite structure for the films. A reduction of crystallinity of the films is observed due to Ag incorporation. The Raman spectral analysis confirms the reduction of crystallinity and increase of strain due to the Ag incorporation. AFM analysis reveals a rough surface morphology for the undoped film and Ag incorporation makes the films uniform, dense and smooth. A blue shift of band gap energy with increase in Ag incorporation is observed due to quantum confinement effect. An absorption band (450-650 nm region due to surface plasmon resonance of the Ag clusters present in the ZnS matrix is observed for the samples with higher Ag incorporation. The complex dielectric constant, loss factor and distribution of volume and surface energy loss of the ZnS thin films are calculated. Laser photoluminescence measurements gives an intense bluish green emission from the ZnS films and a quenching of the PL emission is observed which can be due to the metal plasmonic absorption and non-radiative energy transfer due to Ag incorporation.

  5. Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured Ag incorporated ZnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalana, S. R.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P., E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram– 695581, Kerala (India); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore- 452017, Madhyapradesh (India)

    2015-10-15

    Silver incorporated zinc sulfide thin films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique and the influence of silver incorporation on the structural, optical and luminescence properties is analyzed using techniques like grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and laser photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD analysis presents hexagonal wurtzite structure for the films. A reduction of crystallinity of the films is observed due to Ag incorporation. The Raman spectral analysis confirms the reduction of crystallinity and increase of strain due to the Ag incorporation. AFM analysis reveals a rough surface morphology for the undoped film and Ag incorporation makes the films uniform, dense and smooth. A blue shift of band gap energy with increase in Ag incorporation is observed due to quantum confinement effect. An absorption band (450-650 nm region) due to surface plasmon resonance of the Ag clusters present in the ZnS matrix is observed for the samples with higher Ag incorporation. The complex dielectric constant, loss factor and distribution of volume and surface energy loss of the ZnS thin films are calculated. Laser photoluminescence measurements gives an intense bluish green emission from the ZnS films and a quenching of the PL emission is observed which can be due to the metal plasmonic absorption and non-radiative energy transfer due to Ag incorporation.

  6. Nanocrystalline high-entropy alloy (CoCrFeNiAl 0.3 ) thin-film coating by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Weibing; Lan, Si; Gao, Libo; Zhang, Hongti; Xu, Shang; Song, Jian; Wang, Xunli; Lu, Yang

    2017-09-01

    High-entropy CoCrFeNiAl0.3 alloy thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering technique. The thin film surface was very smooth and homogeneous. The synchrotron X-ray experiment confirmed that (111) type of texture existed in the thin film, and the structure was face-centered cubic nanocrystals with a minor content of ordered NiAl-type body-centered cubic structures. Interestingly, the elastic modulus of the thin film was nearly the same to the bulk single-crystal counterpart, however, the nanohardness is about four times of the bulk single-crystal counterpart. It was found that the high hardness was due to the formation of nanocrystal structure inside the thin films and the preferred growth orientation, which could be promising for applications in micro fabrication and advanced coating technologies.

  7. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of GaN and GaN-Mn Blue Nanocrystalline Thin-film Phosphor for FED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Kucharsky, I Y; Chakhovskoi, A G

    2003-04-09

    The technologies of fabrication of thin film phosphors based on gallium nitride using rf-magnetron sputtering are developed and structural properties of films are studied. Luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of GaN and GaN-Mn thin films have been studied. The correlation between cathodoluminescence intensity and conductivity of GaN films has been found. The nature of emission centers in GaN and GaN-Mn thin films is discussed as well as mechanism of luminescence in these films is proposed.

  8. Ordered mesoporous MFe(2)O(4) (M = Co, Cu, Mg, Ni, Zn) thin films with nanocrystalline walls, uniform 16 nm diameter pores and high thermal stability: template-directed synthesis and characterization of redox active trevorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haetge, Jan; Suchomski, Christian; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2010-12-20

    In this paper, we report on ordered mesoporous NiFe(2)O(4) thin films synthesized via co-assembly of hydrated ferric nitrate and nickel chloride with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, referred to as KLE. We establish that the NiFe(2)O(4) samples are highly crystalline after calcination at 600 °C, and that the conversion of the amorphous inorganic framework comes at little cost to the ordering of the high quality cubic network of pores averaging 16 nm in diameter. We further show that the synthesis method employed in this work can be readily extended to other ferrites, such as CoFe(2)O(4), CuFe(2)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), and ZnFe(2)O(4), which could pave the way for innovative device design. While this article focuses on the self-assembly and characterization of these materials using various state-of-the-art techniques, including electron microscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy, we also examine the electrochemical properties and show the benefits of combining a continuous mesoporosity with nanocrystalline films. KLE-templated NiFe(2)O(4) electrodes exhibit reasonable levels of lithium ion storage at short charging times which stem from facile pseudocapacitance.

  9. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO{sub 2} layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D. [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India); CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India); Kasinadhuni, U. [Department of Engineering Physics, Bengal College of Engineering and Technology, Durgapur, West Bengal (India); Mondal, B. [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India); Mukherjee, K., E-mail: kalisadhanm@yahoo.com [Centre for Advanced Materials Processing, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, 713209 West Bengal (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thin TiO{sub 2} layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO{sub 2} nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO{sub 2} particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO{sub 2} passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO{sub 2} compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO{sub 2} layer in between the mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons.

  10. Synthesis of fibrous reticulate nanocrystalline n-type MoBi{sub 2}(Se{sub 1−x}Te{sub x}){sub 5} thin films: Thermocooling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salunkhe, Manauti M.; Kharade, Rohini R.; Kharade, Suvarta D. [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Mali, Sawanta S.; Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Bhosale, P.N., E-mail: p_n_bhosale@rediffmail.com [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Ostwald ripening: If small nucleus is close to a larger crystal, ions formed by particle dissolution of smaller crystal incorporated into larger crystal, and film formation takes place by ion by ion condensation. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Arrested Precipitation Technique is applied to deposit MoBi{sub 2}(Se{sub 1−x}Te{sub x}){sub 5}. ► X-ray diffraction confirms the proper phase formation of material. ► MoBi{sub 2}(Se{sub 1−x}Te{sub x}){sub 5} exhibits an n-type semiconducting behavior. ► Good thermoelectric performance suggests future fantasy. -- Abstract: In the present investigation n-type MoBi{sub 2}(Se{sub 1−x}Te{sub x}){sub 5} nanocrystalline thin films with various compositions of Se and Te were successfully deposited on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates using recently developed Arrested Precipitation Technique (APT). The effect of composition on optical, morphological, structural, electrical and thermocooling properties of MoBi{sub 2}(Se{sub 1−x}Te{sub x}){sub 5} were investigated using UV–vis–NIR Spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermoelectric power and thermocooling measurements. Thermoelectric properties including electrical conductivity (σ), Seeback coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) were measured at 300 K. Our aim is to investigate thermocooling behavior in respect of variation in composition of Se and Te in MoBi{sub 2}(Se{sub 1−x}Te{sub x}){sub 5} thin films along with optostructural and optoelectric properties.

  11. Pulsed Laser Deposition ZnS Buffer Layers for CIGS Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pai-feng Luo; Guo-shun Jiang; Chang-fei Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ZnS films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on quartz glass substrates under different growth conditions at different substrate temperatures of 20, 200, 400, and 600 ℃, which is a suitable alternative to chemical bath deposited (CBD) CdS as a buffer layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. X-ray diffraction studies indicate the films are polycrystalline with zinc-blends structure and they exhibit preferential orientation along the cubic phase β-ZnS (111) direction, which conflicts with the conclusion of wurtzite struc-ture by Murali that the ZnS films deposited by pulse plating technique was polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The Raman spectra of grown films show A1 mode at approxi-mately 350 cm-1, generally observed in the cubic phase β-ZnS compounds. The planar and the cross-sectional morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopic. The dense, smooth, uniform grains are formed on the quartz glass substrates through PLD technique. The grain size of ZnS deposited by PLD is much smaller than that of CdS by conventional CBD method, which is analyzed as the main reason of detrimental cell performance. The composition of the ZnS films was also measured by X-ray fluorescence. The typical ZnS films obtained in this work are near stoichiometric and only a small amount of S-rich. The energy band gaps at different temperatures were obtained by absorption spectroscopy measurement, which increases from 3.2 eV to 3.7 eV with the increasing of the deposition temperature. ZnS has a wider energy band gap than CdS (2.4 eV), which can enhance the blue response of the photovoltaic cells. These results show the high-quality of these substitute buffer layer materials are prepared through an all-dry technology, which can be used in the manufacture of CIGS thin film solar cells.

  12. Technology development of the nano-crystalline silicon thin film materials%纳米晶硅薄膜材料的技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大维; 吴越侠; 唐志斌

    2012-01-01

    The recent development of the nano - crystalline silicon thin film material is reviewed in this paper. Some ideas is proposed to promote advances of the silicon thin film solar cells. In this paper, we make come discussions on the development of silicon thin film solar cells and predict the prospect of latest ones.%本文综述了硅基薄膜材料的发展历程;提出了一些促进硅基薄膜电池技术进步的思路;并对硅 基薄膜电池的发展进行了有益的探讨,对最新的硅基薄膜太阳能电池作了展望.

  13. Correlation between microstructure and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Ceramiques, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria); Sedrine, N. Ben; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Bensaha, R. [Laboratoire de Ceramiques, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria)

    2010-11-15

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been prepared from tetrabutyl-orthotitanate solution and methanol as a solvent by sol-gel dip coating technique. TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared using a sol-gel process have been analyzed for different annealing temperatures. Structural properties in terms of crystal structure were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and composition of the films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited on silicon substrate were also determined. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study was used to determine the annealing temperature effect on the optical properties and the optical gap of the TiO{sub 2} thin films. The results show that the TiO{sub 2} thin films crystallize in anatase phase between 400 and 800 deg. C, and into the anatase-rutile phase at 1000 deg. C, and further into the rutile phase at 1200 deg. C. We have found that the films consist of titanium dioxide nano-crystals. The AFM surface morphology results indicate that the particle size increases from 5 to 41 nm by increasing the annealing temperature. The TiO{sub 2} thin films have high transparency in the visible range. For annealing temperatures between 1000 and 1400 deg. C, the transmittance of the films was reduced significantly in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm due to the change of crystallite phase and composition in the films. We have demonstrated as well the decrease of the optical band gap with the increase of the annealing temperature.

  14. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  15. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathap, P.; Revathi, N.; Venkata Subbaiah, Y. P.; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity.

  16. Deformation in nanocrystalline metals

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Van Swygenhoven; Julia R. Weertman

    2006-01-01

    It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic...

  17. Diffusion in nanocrystalline solids

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Alan V.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced atomic migration was an early observation from experimental studies into nanocrystalline solids. This contribution presents an overview of the available diffusion data for simple metals and ionic materials in nanocrystalline form. It will be shown that enhanced diffusion can be interpreted in terms of atomic transport along the interfaces, which are comparable to grain boundaries in coarse-grained analogues. However, the method of sample preparation is seen to play a major role in...

  18. Nonlinearities in composition dependence of structure parameters and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline fcc/bcc-mixed Co-Ni-Fe thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Khomenko, E. V.; Vainchtein, D. I.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the nonlinearities are analyzed in fcc-to-bcc (fcc/bcc) population ratio, lattice parameters (a(exp)(fcc)/a(ideal)(fcc) and a(exp)(bcc)/a(ideal)(bcc)) and saturation magnetization (I(S)(obs)/I(S)(a)) of the electrodeposited thin Co-Fe-Ni films as a function of average number of elect

  19. Influence of zinc concentration on band gap and sub-band gap absorption on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films sol-gel grown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munirah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were fabricated on quartz substrates at different zinc acetate molar concentrations using sol-gel spin coating method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Sub-band gap absorption of ZnO thin films in the forbidden energy region was carried out using highly sensitive photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS. The absorption coefficients of ZnO thin films increased in the range of 1.5 eV to 3.0 eV, upon increasing zinc concentration. The optical band gaps were evaluated using Tauc’s plots and found to be in the range of 3.31 eV to 3.18 eV. They showed the red shift in the band edge on increase in zinc concentration. The PL spectra of ZnO thin films revealed the characteristic band edge emission centered at the 396 nm along with green emission centered at the 521 nm.

  20. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase deposition technique and its application for photocatalytic degradation studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Noor Shahina Begum; H M Farveez Ahmed

    2008-02-01

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction measurement, the deposited film was found to be amorphous and turns crystalline at 500°C. The deposited film showed excellent adherence to the substrate and was characterized by homogeneous flat surface. TiO2 thin films can be used as a photocatalyst to clean up organohalides, a class of compound in pesticides that pollute the ground water. Photocatalytic degradation experiments show that indanthrene golden orange dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to ultraviolet light. The suitable surface structure and porosity increases the photocatalytic activity. It was also observed that hemin doped TiO2 thin films break up organohalides at a surprisingly high rate under visible light.

  1. Luminescent Processes Elucidated by Simple Experiments on ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwankner, R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes some impurity-related optical properties of semiconductors, with special emphasis on the luminescence of zinc sulfide (ZnS). Presents and interprets five experiments using a ZnS screen, ultraviolet lamp, transparent Dewar liquid nitrogen, and a helium/neon gas base. Includes application of luminescence measurements to archaeology. (SK)

  2. Coherency strain and its effect on ionic conductivity and diffusion in solid electrolytes--an improved model for nanocrystalline thin films and a review of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, C; Keppner, J; Peters, A; Schichtel, N; Aydin, H; Janek, J

    2014-11-28

    A phenomenological and analytical model for the influence of strain effects on atomic transport in columnar thin films is presented. A model system consisting of two types of crystalline thin films with coherent interfaces is assumed. Biaxial mechanical strain ε0 is caused by lattice misfit of the two phases. The conjoined films consist of columnar crystallites with a small diameter l. Strain relaxation by local elastic deformation, parallel to the hetero-interface, is possible along the columnar grain boundaries. The spatial extent δ0 of the strained hetero-interface regions can be calculated, assuming an exponential decay of the deformation-forces. The effect of the strain field on the local ionic transport in a thin film is then calculated by using the thermodynamic relation between (isostatic) pressure and free activation enthalpy ΔG(#). An expression describing the total ionic transport relative to bulk transport of a thin film or a multilayer as a function of the layer thickness is obtained as an integral average over strained and unstrained regions. The expression depends only on known material constants such as Young modulus Y, Poisson ratio ν and activation volume ΔV(#), which can be combined as dimensionless parameters. The model is successfully used to describe own experimental data from conductivity and diffusion studies. In the second part of the paper a comprehensive literature overview of experimental studies on (fast) ion transport in thin films and multilayers along solid-solid hetero-interfaces is presented. By comparing and reviewing the data the observed interface effects can be classified into three groups: (i) transport along interfaces between extrinsic ionic conductors (and insulator), (ii) transport along an open surface of an extrinsic ionic conductor and (iii) transport along interfaces between intrinsic ionic conductors. The observed effects in these groups differ by about five orders of magnitude in a very consistent way. The

  3. Pulsed laser deposition from ZnS and Cu2SnS3 mulitcomponent targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Canulescu, Stela;

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS and Cu2SnS3have been produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), the latter for the firsttime. The effect of fluence and deposition temperature on the structure and the transmission spectrumas well as the deposition rate has been investigated, as has the stoichiometry of the film...

  4. Transport properties and microstructure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 nanocrystalline thin films grown by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang; Li Lv; Zhantao Wei; Xinsheng Yang; Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite-based materials can be widely used in the aerospace and transportation field. Perovskite man-ganese oxides La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin films were grown on LaAlO3 (100) and Si (100) single crystal sub-strates by the polymer-assisted chemical solution deposi-tion (PACSD) method. Electronic transport behavior, microstructure, and magnetoresistance (MR) of LSMO thin films on different substrates were investigated. The resis-tance of LSMO films fabricated on LaAlO3 substrates is smaller than that on the Si substrates. The magnetic field reduces resistance of LSMO films both on Si and LAO in the wide temperature region, when the insulator-metal transition temperature shifts to higher temperature. The low-field magnetoresistance of LSMO films on Si in low temperature range at 1 T is larger than that of LSMO films on LAO. However, the MR of LSMO film on LAO films at room-temperature is about 5.17%. The thin films are smooth and dense with uniform nanocrystal size grain. These results demonstrate that PACSD is an effective technique for producing high quality LSMO films, which is significant to improve the magnetic properties and the application of automotive sensor.

  5. ZnS0.8Se0.2 film for high resolution liquid crystal light valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Da-ke(沈大可); HAN Gao-rong(韩高荣); DU Pi-yi(杜丕一); QUE Duan-lin(阙端麟); SOU I.K.

    2004-01-01

    The structural characteristics and optical and electrical properties of molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) grown ZnS0.8Se0.2 thin films on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates were investigated in this work. The X-ray diffraction (XRD)results indicated that high quality polycrystalline ZnS0.8Se0.2 thin film grown at the optimized temperature had a preferred orientation along the (111) planes. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-sectional micrograph of the sample showed a well defined columnar structure with lateral crystal dimension in the order ofa few hundred angstroms. Ultraviolet (UV) photoresponsivity as high as 0.01 A/W had been demonstrated and for wavelengths longer than 450 nm, the response was down from the peak response by more than 3 orders of magnitude. The thin ZnS0.8Se0.2 photosensor layer, with a wide energy gap and anisotropic electrical property, makes a transmission UV liquid crystal light valve ( LCLV) with high resolution feasible.

  6. ZnS0.8Se0.2 film for high resolution liquid crystal light valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈大可; 韩高荣; 杜丕一; 阙端麟; SOUI.K

    2004-01-01

    The structural characteristics and optical and electrical properties of molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) grown ZnS0.8Se0.2 thin films on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates were investigated in this work. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that high quality polycrystalline ZnS0.8Se0.2 thin film grown at the optimized temperature had a preferred orientation along the (111) planes. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-sectional micrograph of the sample showed a well defined columnar structure with lateral crystal dimension in the order of a few hundred angstroms. Ultraviolet(UV) photoresponsivity as high as 0.01 A/W had been demonstrated and for wavelengths longer than 450 nm, the response was down from the peak response by more than 3 orders of magnitude. The thin ZnS0.8Se0,2 photosensor layer, with a wide energy gap and anisotropic electrical property, makes a transmission UV liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) with high resolution feasible.

  7. Influence of hydrogen dilution on structural, electrical and optical properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funde, A.M.; Bakr, Nabeel Ali; Kamble, D.K. [School of Energy Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Hawaldar, R.R.; Amalnerkar, D.P. [Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), Panchawati, Pune 411 008 (India); Jadkar, S.R. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2008-10-15

    Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films were deposited from pure silane (SiH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas mixture by conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) method at low temperature (200 C) using high rf power. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films are carefully and systematically investigated as a function of hydrogen dilution of silane (R). Characterization of these films with low angle X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the crystallite size in the films tends to decrease and at same time the volume fraction of crystallites increases with increase in R. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis showed at low values of R, the hydrogen is predominantly incorporated in the nc-Si:H films in the mono-hydrogen (Si-H) bonding configuration. However, with increasing R the hydrogen bonding in nc-Si:H films shifts from mono-hydrogen (Si-H) to di-hydrogen (Si-H{sub 2}) and (Si-H{sub 2}){sub n} complexes. The hydrogen content in the nc-Si:H films decreases with increase in R and was found less than 10 at% over the entire studied range of R. On the other hand, the Tauc's optical band gap remains as high as 2 eV or much higher. The quantum size effect may responsible for higher band gap in nc-Si:H films. A correlation between electrical and structural properties has been found. For optimized deposition conditions, nc-Si:H films with crystallite size {proportional_to}7.67 nm having good degree of crystallinity ({proportional_to}84%) and high band gap (2.25 eV) were obtained with a low hydrogen content (6.5 at%). However, for these optimized conditions, the deposition rate was quite small (1.6 Aa/s). (author)

  8. Nanocrystalline Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films for solar cells application: Microdiffraction and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroz, Heiddy P., E-mail: hpquirozg@unal.edu.co; Dussan, A., E-mail: adussanc@unal.edu.co [Departmento de Física, Grupo de Materiales Nanoestructurados y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá 11001 (Colombia)

    2016-08-07

    This work presents a study of the structural characterization of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microdiffraction measurements. Samples were deposited varying both mass (M{sub X}) and substrate temperature (T{sub S}) at which the Cu and ZnSe composites were evaporated. CZTSe samples were deposited by co-evaporation method in three stages. From XRD measurements, it was possible to establish, with increased Ts, the presence of binary phases associated with the quaternary composite during the material's growth process. A stannite-type structure in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin films and sizes of the crystallites varying between 30 and 40 nm were obtained. X-ray microdiffraction was used to investigate interface orientations and strain distributions when deposition parameters were varied. It was found that around the main peak, 2ϴ = 27.1°, the Cu{sub 1.8}Se and ZnSe binary phases predominate, which are formed during the subsequent material selenization stage. A Raman spectroscopy study revealed Raman shifts associated with the binary composites observed via XRD.

  9. Optimization of the ZnS Buffer Layer by Chemical Bath Deposition for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated a ZnS buffer layer prepared using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) process for application in cadmium-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. The ZnS buffer layer showed good transmittance (above 90%) in the spectral range from 300 to 800 nm and was non-toxic compared with the CdS buffer layers normally used in CIGS solar cells. The CBD process was affected by several deposition conditions. The deposition rate was dependent on the ammonia concentration (complexing agent). When the ammonia concentration was either too high or low, a decrease in the deposition rate was observed. In addition, post heat treatments at high temperatures had detrimental influences on the ZnS buffer layers because portions of the ZnS thin films were transformed into ZnO. With optimized deposition conditions, a CIGS solar cell with a ZnS buffer layer showed an efficiency of 14.18% with a 0.23 cm2 active area under 100 mW/cm2 illumination.

  10. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Deepak; Palomino, Javier; Gil, Jennifer; Resto, Oscar; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo

    2014-02-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production.

  11. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshney, Deepak, E-mail: deepvar20@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo [Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, Puerto Rico (United States); Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PO Box 70377, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PO Box 70377, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Gil, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States); Weiner, Brad R. [Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931, Puerto Rico (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936, Puerto Rico (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production.

  12. Tuning photoluminescence of ZnS nanoparticles by silver

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Murugadoss; Arun Chattopadhyay

    2008-06-01

    We report the results of investigation of the interaction of silver with presynthesized ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) that was stabilized by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The photoluminescence properties of ZnS NPs were followed in the presence of Ag+ ions, Ag NPs and by the synthesis of Ag@ZnS core-shell nanoparticles. We observed that CTAB stabilized ZnS NPs emitted broadly in the region from 350–450 nm, when excited by 309 nm light. In the presence of Ag+ ions the emission peak intensity up to 400 nm was reduced, while two new and stronger peaks at 430 nm and 550 nm appeared. Similar results were obtained when Ag NPs solution was added to ZnS solution. However, when Ag@ZnS NPs were synthesized, the emission in the 350–450 nm region was much weaker in comparison to that at 540 nm, which itself appeared at a wavelength shorter than that of Ag+ ion added ZnS NPs. The observations have been explained by the presence of interstitial sulfur and Zn2+, especially near the surface of the nanocrystals and their interaction with various forms of silver. In addition, our observations suggest that Ag+ ions diffuse into the lattice of the preformed ZnS NPs just like the formation of Ag+ doped ZnS NPs and thus changes the emission characteristics. We also have pursued similar experiments with addition of Mn2+ ions to ZnS and observed similar results of emission characteristics of Mn2+ doped ZnS NPs. We expect that results would stimulate further research interests in the development of fluoremetric metal ion sensors based on interaction with quantum dots.

  13. High durability antireflection coatings for silicon and multispectral ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shay; Marcovitch, Orna; Yadin, Ygal; Klaiman, Dror; Koren, Nitzan; Zipin, Hedva

    2007-04-01

    In the current complex battle field, military platforms are required to operate on land, at sea and in the air in all weather conditions both day and night. In order to achieve such capabilities, advanced electro-optical systems are being constantly developed and improved. These systems such as missile seeker heads, reconnaissance and target acquisition pods and tracking, monitoring and alert systems have external optical components (window or dome) which must remain operational even at extreme environmental conditions. Depending on the intended use of the system, there are a few choices of window and dome materials. Amongst the more common materials one can point out sapphire, ZnS, germanium and silicon. Other materials such as spinel, ALON and yittria may also be considered. Most infrared materials have high indices of refraction and therefore they reflect a large part of radiation. To minimize the reflection and increase the transmission, antireflection (AR) coatings are the most common choice. Since these systems operate at different environments and weather conditions, the coatings must be made durable to withstand these extreme conditions. In cases where the window or dome is made of relatively soft materials such as multispectral ZnS, the coating may also serve as protection for the window or dome. In this work, several antireflection coatings have been designed and manufactured for silicon and multispectral ZnS. The coating materials were chosen to be either oxides or fluorides which are known to have high durability. Ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the optical constants of the thin films. The effects of the deposition conditions on the optical constants of the deposited thin films and durability of the coatings will be discussed. The coatings were tested according to MIL-STD-810E and were also subjected to rain erosion tests at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) whirling arm apparatus in which one of the coatings showed

  14. Microstructure and blueshift in optical band gap of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeed Khan, M.A., E-mail: majeed_phys@rediffmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, Sushil [Materials ScienceLaboratory, Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055 (India); Naziruddin Khan, M.; Ahamed, Maqusood [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Al Dwayyan, A.S. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we report the structural and optical properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown on glass substrates using the sol–gel process. To understand the effect of Al doping on the structural and optical response of ZnO nanoparticles thin films, the prepared samples have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), UV–vis absorption and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results show that Al doped ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal phase similar to ZnO nanoparticles. TEM images as well as XRD data exhibit the estimated size of nanoparticles to be in the range 35–45 nm. The optical band gap has been determined from optical absorption spectra. The band gap varied from 3.27 eV for undoped ZnO film to 3.87 eV for AZO film having 3 atwt% Al. The blue shift in energy band gap mainly related to carrier concentration induced by Al-donor doping, and to the degree of crystalline order. Photoluminescence study further confirms the blue shift in UV emission when Al doping concentration is increased, as a consequence of extension in band gap. - Highlights: • Undoped and Al doped ZnO nanoparticles has been synthesized by the sol–gel method. • Undoped and Al doped ZnO films have a (0 0 2) peak, indicating a hexagonal wurtzite structure. • The stacking faults induced by Al-doped provide another path for electron transfer. • Influence of Al doping on the physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles was investigated. • The quality and crystallinity of Al-doped ZnO films were investigated by varying the Al compositions.

  15. Synthesis and optical characterization of n-ZnO and p-Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystalline thin films for low cost solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Galil, A.; Balboul, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    High quality ZnO/Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films as a window/absorber layers were successfully synthesized via spin coating the sol-gel precursor of each composition without using any vacuum facilities. In this study, the impact of annealing temperature (400 °C, 3 h) on the ZnO window layer and different thickness (3 and 5 layers) of the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layer were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy were used for the structural, compositional, morphological and optical absorption analysis of each layer. ZnO exhibits wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure with particle size equals to 8.60 and 28.59 nm for fresh and annealed films, respectively. Micro-strain and dislocations density decreased with the annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns for CZTS films show small peak at (112) according to the kesterite structure with particle size in nano-scale for the two thicknesses. ZnO films demonstrated direct optical band gap of 3.23 and 3.21 eV for fresh and annealed films, respectively. CZTS films (3 and 5 layers) also have direct optical band with optimum value (1.51 eV) for thickness of 5 layers. The J-V characteristics of the CZTS-based thin film solar cells (CZTS/ZnO/ZnO:Ag) were measured under air mass AM 1.5 and 100 mW/cm2 illumination. The values of the short circuit current (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) also have been obtained.

  16. Deformation in nanocrystalline metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Van Swygenhoven

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It is now possible to synthesize polycrystalline metals made up of grains that average less than 100 nm in size. Such nanocrystalline metals contain a significant volume fraction of interfacial regions separated by nearly perfect crystals. The small sizes involved limit the conventional operation of dislocation sources and thus a fundamental question arises: how do these materials deform plastically? We review the current views on deformation mechanisms in nanocrystalline, face-centered cubic metals based on insights gained by atomistic computer simulations. These insights are discussed with reference to recent striking experimental observations that can be compared with predictions made by the simulations.

  17. Effect of laser irradiation on gas sensing properties of sol–gel derived nanocrystalline Al-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yue; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H., E-mail: ajayati@utnet.utoledo.edu

    2014-07-01

    The effect of laser irradiation on the performance of gas sensor made with sol–gel derived Al-doped ZnO thin films was investigated. The films with desired thicknesses were deposited on the alkali-free glass substrates by a sol–gel process. A pulsed laser system with a wavelength of 532 nm, a pulsed duration of 8 ns, pulsed frequency of 5 kHz and the laser fluence in the range of 1.06–3.58 J/cm{sup 2} was used as the irradiation source. The microstructure, optical transmittance, surface morphology, electrical conductivity and gas sensor performance of the as-deposited and laser-irradiated Al-doped ZnO films were studied as a function of laser energy level. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that low laser energy significantly enhanced the crystallinity and promoted grain growth, whereas high laser energy irradiation resulted in deterioration of crystalline quality. It was also found that the laser irradiation affected the surface morphology and electrical conductivity of ZnO films. The gas sensor performance of Al-doped ZnO sensors was examined in terms of ZnO film thicknesses and H{sub 2} concentrations in the air at an operating temperature of 130 °C. It was found that the sensing response of Al-doped ZnO sensors varied depending on the film thickness as well as the laser energy level. An optimum laser energy level resulted in high and rapid response characteristics of gas sensors for the detection of H{sub 2}. The results also suggested that the crystallinity was critical to achieve the optimum sensor performance. - Highlights: • Aluminum was doped in ZnO thin films via a sol–gel coating process. • Laser irradiation was employed to improve the effect of doping. • The properties of ZnO were investigated as a function of laser energy. • We found that the laser irradiation enhances the gas sensor performance.

  18. Ultraviolet photosensors based on ZnS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrenko Yu. N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available High efficient photodiodes on the base of р-Cu1,8S/n-ZnS/(ZnSх(CdSe1–х/CdSe/Mo-structure with variband interlayer were fabricated. Optimization of this layer thickness was shown to be efficient method of reduction of photosensitivity behind UV region while preserving one in UV region.

  19. Effect of Ni and Au ion irradiations on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir, Feroz A. [University of Kashmir, University Science Instrumentation Centre, Srinagar, J and K (India); Batoo, Khalid Mujasam [King Saud University, King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-04-15

    The effect of swift heavy ion irradiations on the structural and optical properties of 6 % Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films deposited on quartz substrate by electron beam evaporation technique is presented. Two ion species Ni and Au with energy 120 MeV and fluence of 1 x 10{sup 13} ion/cm{sup 2} were used. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, UV-visible and micro-Raman spectroscopy. From structural analysis, these films exhibit tetragonal rutile structure and retain it even after irradiation. The ion irradiations have shown improvement in the structural properties, such as increase in grain size and decrease in the lattice strain. Raman study also indicates enhancement in quality of crystal structure after irradiations. The grain growth after ion interaction is also observed by atomic force microscope study. Further, a variation in optical band gap and reduction in disorder is observed after irradiation. Other parameters such as Urbach tails energy and steepness parameter are obtained from optical data. The overall observed physical properties show a significant improvement after irradiation. A good correspondence between structures with its various properties can be seen. (orig.)

  20. Tin-Incorporation Induced Changes in the Microstructural, Optical, and Electrical Behavior of Tungsten Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Films Grown Via Spray Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ramnayan; Prajapati, C. S.; Sahay, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Undoped and Sn-doped WO3 thin films were grown on cleaned glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis, using ammonium tungstate (NH4)2WO4 as the host precursor and tin chloride (SnCl4·5H2O) as the source of dopant. The XRD spectra confirm the monoclinic structure with a sharp narrow peak along (200) direction along with other peaks of low relative intensities for all the samples. On Sn doping, the films exhibit reduced crystallinity relative to the undoped film. The standard deviation for relative peak intensity with dopant concentration shows enhancement in heterogeneous nucleation growth. As evident from SEM images, on Sn doping, appearance of island-like structure (i.e., cluster of primary crystallites at few places) takes place. The transmittance has been found to decrease in all the Sn-doped films. The optical band gap has been calculated for both direct and indirect transitions. On Sn doping, the direct band gap shows a red shift and becomes 2.89 eV at 2 at.% doping. Two distinct peaks, one blue emission at 408 nm and other green emission at 533 nm, have been found in the PL spectra. Electrical conductivity has been found to increase with Sn doping.

  1. 3-D solar cells by electrochemical-deposited Se layer as extremely-thin absorber and hole conducting layer on nanocrystalline TiO2 electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy-Cuong; Tanaka, Souichirou; Nishino, Hitoshi; Manabe, Kyohei; Ito, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    A three-dimensional selenium solar cell with the structure of Au/Se/porous TiO2/compact TiO2/fluorine-doped tin oxide-coated glass plates was fabricated by an electrochemical deposition method of selenium, which can work for the extremely thin light absorber and the hole-conducting layer. The effect of experimental conditions, such as HCl and H2SeO3 in an electrochemical solution and TiO2 particle size of porous layers, was optimized. This kind of solar cell did not use any buffer layer between an n-type electrode (porous TiO2) and a p-type absorber layer (selenium). The crystallinity of the selenium after annealing at 200°C for 3 min in the air was significantly improved. The cells with a selenium layer deposited at concentrations of HCl = 11.5 mM and H2SeO3 = 20 mM showed the best performance, resulting in 1- to 2-nm thickness of the Se layer, short-circuit photocurrent density of 8.7 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage of 0.65 V, fill factor of 0.53, and conversion efficiency of 3.0%.

  2. Influence of RF excitation during pulsed laser deposition in oxygen atmosphere on the structural properties and luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meljanac, Daniel, E-mail: dmeljan@irb.hr; Plodinec, Milivoj; Siketić, Zdravko; Gracin, Davor [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Juraić, Krunoslav [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia and Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9/IV, 8010 Graz (Austria); Krstulović, Nikša; Salamon, Krešimir; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Kregar, Zlatko; Rakić, Iva Šrut [Institute of Physics, Bijenička 46, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bernstorff, Sigrid [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14, Km 163.5, I-34049 Basovizza (TS) (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Thin ZnO:Al layers were deposited by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum and in oxygen atmosphere at gas pressures between 10 and 70 Pa and by applying radio-frequency (RF) plasma. Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) data showed that an increase in the oxygen pressure leads to an increase in the roughness, a decrease in the sample density, and changes in the size distribution of nanovoids. The nanocrystal sizes estimated from GIXRD were around 20 nm, while the sizes of the nanovoids increased from 1 to 2 nm with the oxygen pressure. The RF plasma mainly influenced the nanostructural properties and point defects dynamics. The photoluminescence consisted of three contributions, ultraviolet (UV), blue emission due to Zn vacancies, and red emission, which are related to an excess of oxygen. The RF excitation lowered the defect level related to blue emission and narrowed the UV luminescence peak, which indicates an improvement of the structural ordering. The observed influence of the deposition conditions on the film properties is discussed as a consequence of two main effects: the variation of the energy transfer from the laser plume to the growing film and changes in the growth chemistry.

  3. Magnetism in undoped ZnS nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Aixian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Rongming; Chen, Chinping

    2013-02-21

    The magnetism of undoped ZnS nanotetrapods, synthesized by a solvothermal method, has been investigated by magnetization measurements and first principle numerical calculations. The background magnetic impurity concentrations of Fe, Co and Ni were determined at ppm level by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Hysteresis loops of weak ferromagnetism were observed, attributable to the magnetic impurities. However, the total magnetic moments analyzed from the paramagnetism are far beyond the explanations from the presence of these magnetic impurities, by about two orders of magnitude larger. It implies a different origin of the magnetic moments. Electron microscopy analysis reveals that there are defects in the sample. Numerical simulations indicate that the excessive magnetic moments might arise from the local band structure of polarized electrons associated with the defects of cation deficiency. This study elaborates on the understanding of magnetic properties in the non-magnetic II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials.

  4. Surface plasmon resonance in nanocrystalline gold-copper alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S; Datta, Subhadeep; Roy, R K; Pal, A K

    2007-12-01

    Nanocrystalline Au(x)Cu(1-x) films were synthesized by depositing Cu/Au/Cu multilayer in nanocrystalline thin film form with requisite thickness of individual layers onto fused silica substrates by high pressure sputtering technique. The absorbance spectra showed only one surface plasmon peak for all the compositions with the exception that the peak position did not indicate gradual shift as gold concentration was increased. Peak position for the two compositions corresponding to the two superlattice structures, AuCu3 and AuCu, deviated significantly from linear variation. The experimental results have been discussed in light of the existing Mie theory and the Core-shell model.

  5. Nanocrystalline and Nanoporous Ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Henk

    1996-01-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanoporous ceramics, renowned for their special transport properties, have typical applications in the fields of energy, the environment, and separation technology. One example is a solid oxide fuel cell, where an anode with improved characteristics was obtained by an optimized n

  6. Nanocrystalline Heterojunction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Scott H.; Su, Yali; Gao, Yufei; Heald, Steve M.

    2004-02-03

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials and methods of making the same are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

  7. Optical properties of nanocrystalline WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3-x} thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Malin B., E-mail: majo4400@gmail.com; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Österlund, Lars, E-mail: lars.osterlund@angstrom.uu.se [Division of Solid State Physics, Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Zietz, Burkhard [Division of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 523, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-06-07

    The optical properties of tungsten trioxide thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering, with different oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) concentration, have been studied by spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. Absorption and PL spectra show that the films exhibit similar band gap energies, E{sub g} ≈ 2.9 eV. The absorption spectra of the films show two pronounced absorption bands in the near-infrared region. One peak (P1) is located at approximately 0.7 eV, independent of V{sub o} concentration. A second peak (P2) shifts from 0.96 eV to 1.16 eV with decreasing V{sub o} concentration. Peak P1 is assigned to polaron absorption due to transitions between tungsten sites (W{sup 5+} → W{sup 6+}), or an optical transition from a neutral vacancy state to the conduction band, V{sub o}{sup 0} → W{sup 6+}. The origin of peak P2 is more uncertain but may involve +1 and +2 charged vacancy sites. The PL spectra show several emission bands in the range 2.07 to 3.10 eV in the more sub-stoichiometric and 2.40 to 3.02 eV in the less sub-stoichiometric films. The low energy emission bands agree well with calculated optical transition energies of oxygen vacancy sites, with dominant contribution from neutral and singly charged vacancies in the less sub-stoichiometric films, and additional contributions from doubly charged vacancy sites in the more sub-stoichiometric films.

  8. Underlayer Roughness Influence on the Properties of ag Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Wang, Reng; Liu, Dingquan; Zhang, Fengshan; Su, Weitao; Xu, Xiaofeng

    The effects of the roughness of ZnS underlayer on the microstructure, optical, and electrical properties of nanometer Ag thin film have been investigated in this paper. Nanometer Ag thin films in glass/ZnS/7.5 nm Ag/30 nm ZnS stacks have been deposited and analyzed. In the stacks, the underlayers of ZnS have been sputtered with various thicknesses to generate various surface roughnesses. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to study the crystal structure of Ag films. The surface topography and the roughness of ZnS underlayer have been analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The sheet resistant will become larger as the increasing of the roughness. The optical constants can be derived by fitting the transmission and reflectance spectrum. From optical constants comparison of Ag films, with the surface of the stack becoming rougher, it was found that the refractive index will increase but the extinction coefficient will decrease.

  9. Electrical conduction mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Hassan [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Karim, S. [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rafiq, M.A. [Micro and Nano Devices Group, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Maaz, K., E-mail: maaz@impcas.ac.cn [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rahman, Atta ur [Material Laboratory, Department of Physics, Abul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Nisar, A.; Ahmad, M. [Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore 45650, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • ZnS nanoparticles have been prepared by coprecipitation route with diameter of 20 nm. • The bandgap energy shows small shift as compared to the bulk value of ZnS. • This is explained by weak quantum confinement effects resulted from the quantization of exciton motion. • The photoluminescence spectrum shows two peaks that are assigned to the recombination of electrons and holes. • And to the transitions of electrons from the sulfur to zinc vacancy states. - Abstract: ZnS nanoparticles with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure have been prepared by coprecipitation method at 70 °C and subsequently annealed at 400 °C for 4 h. The average particle size has been found to be ∼20 nm. ZnS nanopowder has been characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometry. The band gap has been calculated in the range of 3.9 eV. Impedance spectroscopic technique has been used to examine the electrical properties of ZnS nanoparticles pressed to pellet form in the temperature range of 300–400 K. Correlated barrier hopping has been the prevailing conduction mechanism in ZnS. The activation energy calculated from the Arrhenius relation is consistent with bipolaron and single polaron hopping in correlated barrier hopping model.

  10. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, optical dispersion and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline dimer complex (PEPyr–diCd) thin films as novel organic semiconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed Farouk Al-Hossainy

    2016-02-01

    Dimer complex PEPyr–diCd (5a) has been prepared by reacting CdCl$_2$·2.5H$_2$O with 1,1$'$-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethyl-6-methyl-3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,4-dihydro-pyridazine tungsten tetracarbonyl PEPyr (4a) as bipyridine ligand. The structural properties of PEPyr–diCd complex were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared spectra, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric/ differential thermal analysis, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pbca. Cd(II) metal in PEPyr–diCd organic semiconductor complex coordinated with two N of the PEPyr and three Cl$^−$ (one terminal and two bridging). The micro-structural properties of the films were studied via X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The as-deposited films were annealed in air for 1 h at 150, 200, and 250°C. An average transmittance >70% for PEPyr–diCd complex at higher wavelength >800 nm was observed.In UV spectrum, the transmittance increases followed by a sharp decrease at wavelength 700–750 nm within visible range. The results of the absorption coefficient were determined to find the binding energy (EB) of PEPyr–diCd organic semiconductor complex as 0.242 and 0.47 eV, respectively. Refractive index () and absorption index () of PEPyr–diCd complex were calculated. Moreover, the dispersion parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy, dielectric constant, and dissipation factor were determined. The oxidation of the imino-phosphine derivatives were examined using cyclic voltammetry in methylene chloride solvent. The cyclic voltammogram of PEPyr–diCd (5a) organic semiconductor appears to have two quasi-reversible oxidations at 543 and 441 mV. The obtained results indicate that the PEPyr–diCd organic semiconductor thin film is a good candidate in optoelectronic devices based on its band gap and dispersion parameters.

  11. Single-material multilayer ZnS as anti-reflective coating for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Ammar T.; Najim, Aus A.; Muhi, Malek A. H.; Gbashi, Kadhim R.

    2017-04-01

    Multilayer Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) is a promising low cost antireflective coating for solar cell applications, in this work; thin films with novel structure containing cubic and hexagonal phases were successfully deposited by thermal evaporation technique with three different layers. XRD analysis confirms the existence of both phases and high specific surface area. AFM analysis reveals that films with three layers have lower roughness and average grain size than other films. The optical measurements obtained by UV-vis, the calculated values of refractive index and reflectivity using some well known refractive index-band gap relations indicate that thin films with triple layer TL-ZnS have lower refractive index and reflectivity than other films, empirical equations were suggested and show the quantum confinement effects on band gap and reflectivity.

  12. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenberg, Eda, E-mail: goldenberg@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM – National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Kemal Okyay, Ali [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200 °C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2 nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4 nm when the annealing duration increased from 30 min to 2 h (800 °C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ∼85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (λ = 550 nm) with the increased Al content x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400 nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900 °C for 2 h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95 eV, and it decreased to 3.90 eV for films annealed at 800 °C for 30 min and 2 h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1 eV for GaN films annealed at 900 °C for 2 h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25 eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not

  13. In situ observation of deformation processes in nanocrystalline face-centered cubic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Aaron; Brandl, Christian; Hahn, Horst; Kübel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The atomistic mechanisms active during plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals are still a subject of controversy. The recently developed approach of combining automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM) and in situ straining inside a transmission electron microscope was applied to study the deformation of nanocrystalline Pd x Au1- x thin films. This combination enables direct imaging of simultaneously occurring plastic deformation processes in one experiment, such as grain boundary motion, twin activity and grain rotation. Large-angle grain rotations with ≈39° and ≈60° occur and can be related to twin formation, twin migration and twin-twin interaction as a result of partial dislocation activity. Furthermore, plastic deformation in nanocrystalline thin films was found to be partially reversible upon rupture of the film. In conclusion, conventional deformation mechanisms are still active in nanocrystalline metals but with different weighting as compared with conventional materials with coarser grains.

  14. Immobilization of Various Cobalt (Ⅱ) Phthalocyanine Sulphonates on Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films and Their Effect on Degradation of Methylene Blue%酞菁钴磺酸盐在纳米TiO2薄膜上的固载化及对亚甲基蓝的降解作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史成武; 占小平; 史高杨; 桃李

    2011-01-01

    Single-nuclear cobalt (Ⅱ) phthalocyanine tetrasulphonates (s-CoPc), bi-nuclear cobalt ( Ⅱ ) phthalocyanine hexasulphonates(b-CoPc) and tri-nuclear cobalt (Ⅱ) phthalocyanine octasulphonates (t-CoPc) were synthesized and immobilized on nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra of s-CoPc, b-CoPc and t-CoPc in aqueous solution were examined, and the adsorption of t-CoPc on the nanocrystalline TiO2 powder was investigated by infrared (IR) spectrometer. The photocatalytic and catalytic activity of various CoPc/nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution with air as an oxidant under visible light irradiation and dark condition. From the UV-Vis spectra, the Q-band of b-CoPc and t-CoPc shifts from 655 nm of s-CoPc to 658 and 663 nm, respectively. The IR spectra indicate that the TiO2 could bind t-CoPc by interactions between some sulfonic groups of t-CoPc and nanocrystalline TiO2 powder. According to the degradation result, various CoPc could sensitize nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films and improve their photocatalytic activity and catalytic activity under dark condition (t-CoPc>b-CoPc>s-CoPc), and the order is similar to that of catalytic activity under dark condition. The CoPc/nanoerystalline TiO2thin films for the utilization of solar energy in a large scale could be recycled in degradation of MB.%合成了单、双、三核酞菁钴磺酸盐[single-nuclear cobalt(Ⅱ)phthalocyanine tetrasulphonates,s-CoPc;bi-nuclenr cobalt(Ⅱ)phthalocyanine hexasulphonates,b-CoPc:tri-nuclear cobalt(Ⅱ)phthalocyanine octasulphonates,t-CoPc],并将其固载于纳米TiO2薄膜上,测量了s-CoPc,b-CoPc和t-CoPc水溶液的紫外可见光谱,利用红外光谱表征t-CoPc在纳米TiO2粉末上的吸附特性.以空气为氧化剂,比较了3种CoPc/纳米TiO2薄膜在可见光照射和黑暗条件下对亚甲基蓝(methylene blue,MB)降解的光催化和催化活性.结果表明:b-CoPc和t-CoPc

  15. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS; Isolierte Vaskulitis des ZNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, F. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Reith, W. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2000-11-01

    Vasculitis is a rare cause for disease of the CNS. The isolated vasculitis of the CNS is restricted to the CNS whereas other forms of vasculitis affect various organs including the CNS. Headache, encephalopathy, focal deficits and epileptic seizures are the major symptoms suggestive for vasculitis. One major criterion of the isolated vasculitis of the CNS is the lack of evidence for other vasculitis forms or for pathology of other organs. Angiography displays multifocal segmental stenosis of intracranial vessels. MRI demonstrates multiple lesions which in part show enhancement after gadolinium. A definite diagnosis can only be made on the grounds of biopsy from leptomeninges and parenchyma. Therapy consists of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamid. (orig.) [German] Vaskulitiden sind eine seltene Ursache fuer Erkrankungen des ZNS. Die Vaskulitiden lassen sich in primaere und sekundaere einteilen, von denen sich die ueberwiegende Mehrzahl an verschiedenen Organsystemen einschliesslich dem ZNS manifestieren kann. Die isolierte ZNS-Vaskulitis ist auf das ZNS beschraenkt, bei ihr stehen klinisch-neurologisch wie bei den anderen Vaskulitisformen Kopfschmerzen, Enzephalopathie, fokale Defizite und epileptische Anfaelle im Vordergrund. Ein Kriterium der isolierten ZNS-Vaskulitis ist der klinische und laborchemische Ausschluss anderer Vaskulitiden bzw. der Beteiligung anderer Organsysteme. Multiple Kaliberspruenge intrakranieller Arterien in der zerebralen Angiographie und multiple, kleine, z.T. kontrastmittelaufnehmende Laesionen in der MRT des Schaedels sind vaskulitistypische Befunde, die allerdings auch bei anderen Vaskulitiden zu finden sind. Einzig beweisend ist eine Hirnhaut- und Hirnparenchymbiopsie. Besonders vor dem Hintergrund der therapeutischen Option, Immunsuppression mit Kortison und Cyclophosphamid, ist eine moeglichst genaue Diagnose erforderlich. (orig.)

  16. Electron Momentum Density and Phase Transition in ZnS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Munjal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron momentum density distribution and phase transition in ZnS are reported in this paper. The calculations are performed on the basis of density functional theory (DFT based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO method. To compare the theoretical Compton profile, the measurement on polycrystalline ZnS has been made using a Compton spectrometer employing 59.54 keV gamma rays. The spherically averaged theoretical Compton profile is in agreement with the measurement. On the basis of equal valence-electron-density Compton profiles, it is found that ZnS is less covalent as compared to ZnSe. The present study suggests zincblende (ZB to rocksalt (RS phase transition at 13.7 GPa. The calculated transition pressure is found in good agreement with the previous investigations.

  17. Coupling between ferromagnetic electrodes through ZnS barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, T. [IPCMS-GMI (UMR 7504 du CNRS), ULP-ECPM, 23 rue du Loess, BP43 F-67034 Strasbourg (France)]. E-mail: thomas.fix@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr; Colis, S. [IPCMS-GMI (UMR 7504 du CNRS), ULP-ECPM, 23 rue du Loess, BP43 F-67034 Strasbourg (France); Schmerber, G. [IPCMS-GMI (UMR 7504 du CNRS), ULP-ECPM, 23 rue du Loess, BP43 F-67034 Strasbourg (France); Ulhaq, C. [IPCMS-GMI (UMR 7504 du CNRS), ULP-ECPM, 23 rue du Loess, BP43 F-67034 Strasbourg (France); Dinia, A. [IPCMS-GMI (UMR 7504 du CNRS), ULP-ECPM, 23 rue du Loess, BP43 F-67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2005-02-01

    Magnetization measurements are performed on CoFe{sub 2}/ZnS/CoFe{sub 2}/NiFe structures to investigate the interactions between ferromagnetic electrodes through the ZnS barrier. Negative shifts observed in magnetization minor loops indicate a ferromagnetic interaction. The influence of the hard-layer deposition temperature on this shift and on the hard-layer coercive field is considered. The amplitude of the shift decreases as the thickness of the ZnS layer increases. The decrease in this shift at low temperature confirms the presence of an indirect exchange coupling between the magnetic electrodes mediated by spin-polarized quantum tunneling through the ZnS layer.

  18. Richardson-Schottky transport mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan; Khan, Usman; Rafiq, M. A.; Falak, Attia; Narain, Adeela; Jing, Tang; Xu, Xiulai

    2016-05-01

    We report the synthesis and electrical transport mechanism in ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles. Temperature dependent direct current transport measurements on the compacts of ZnS have been performed to investigate the transport mechanism for temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. High frequency dielectric constant has been used to obtain the theoretical values of Richardson-Schottky and Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering coefficients. Experimental value of the barrier lowering coefficient has been calculated from conductance-voltage characteristics. The experimental value of barrier lowering coefficient βexp lies close to the theoretical value of Richardson-Schottky barrier lowering coefficient βth,RS showing Richardson-Schottky emission has been responsible for conduction in ZnS nanoparticles for the temperature range studied.

  19. Richardson-Schottky transport mechanism in ZnS nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and electrical transport mechanism in ZnS semiconductor nanoparticles. Temperature dependent direct current transport measurements on the compacts of ZnS have been performed to investigate the transport mechanism for temperature ranging from 300 K to 400 K. High frequency dielectric constant has been used to obtain the theoretical values of Richardson-Schottky and Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering coefficients. Experimental value of the barrier lowering coefficient has been calculated from conductance-voltage characteristics. The experimental value of barrier lowering coefficient βexp lies close to the theoretical value of Richardson-Schottky barrier lowering coefficient βth,RS showing Richardson-Schottky emission has been responsible for conduction in ZnS nanoparticles for the temperature range studied.

  20. Electronic structure of nanocrystalline and polycrystalline hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smardz, L. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17 Street, 60-179 Poznan (Poland); Jurczyk, M.; Smardz, K.; Nowak, M.; Makowiecka, M.; Okonska, I. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, M. Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2008-02-15

    To optimise the choice of the compounds for a selected application, a better understanding of the role of each alloy constituent on the electronic properties of the material is crucial. In this work, we study experimentally the electronic properties of nanocrystalline and polycrystalline (Mg{sub 1-x}M{sub x}){sub 2}Ni, (Mg{sub 1-x}M{sub x}){sub 2}Cu, La(Ni{sub 1-x}M{sub x}){sub 5}, and Ti(Ni{sub 1-x}M'{sub x}) (M = Mn, Al; M' = Fe, Mg, Zr) alloys. The nanocrystalline and polycrystalline samples were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing and arc melting method, respectively. All X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra were measured immediately after cleaning of the sample surface in a vacuum of 8 x 10{sup -11} mbar. Furthermore, we have measured XPS spectra of in situ prepared nanocrystalline and polycrystalline LaNi{sub 5}, TiNi, and Mg{sub 2}Ni thin films and compared with those obtained for ex situ prepared bulk materials. The substitution of Mg in Mg{sub 2}Ni and Mg{sub 2}Cu, Ni in LaNi{sub 5} and TiNi by transition metals leads to significant modifications of the shape and width of the valence band of the nanocrystalline as well as polycrystalline samples. Especially, the valence bands of the MA nanocrystalline alloys are considerably broader compared to those measured for the polycrystalline samples. Results also showed that the strong modifications of the electronic structure of the nanocrystalline alloys could significantly influence on their hydrogenation properties. (author)

  1. The effect of different complexing agents on the properties of zinc sulfide thin films deposited from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition using the aqueous solutions of zinc chloride, thiourea, pH regulator and complexing agent (ammonia and hydrazine hydrate, trisodium citrate or sodium hydroxide). The calculations of boundary conditions for formation of zinc sulfide and zinc hydroxide were made at various zinc salt concentrations with different complexing agents. The structural, morphology and optical properties of the ZnS thin film...

  2. Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide for Solar Cells and Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladislav; Kavan; J.Heyrovsky

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) has attracted considerable interest for applications in regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells[1]. This device is based on charge injection from photoexcited organometallic dye which is adsorbed on the TiO2 surface. A considerable enhancement of the solar cell efficiency was demonstrated on highly organized mesoporous TiO2 thin films made by supramolecular templating with amphiphilic triblock copolymer Pluronic[2]. Titanium dioxide can electrochemically ac...

  3. Effect of Cr doping on structural and magnetic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virpal,; Singh, Jasvir; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Ravi Chand, E-mail: ravichand.singh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The structural, optical and magnetic properties of pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles were studied at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the absence of any mixed phase and the cubic structure of ZnS in pure and Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirmed the Zn-S stretching bond at 664 cm{sup −1} of ZnS in all prepared nanoparticles. The UV-Visible absorption spectra showed blue shift which became even more pronounced in Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles. However, at relatively higher Cr concentrations a slower red shift was shown by the doped nanoparticles. This phenomenon is attributed to sp-d exchange interaction that becomes prevalent at higher doping concentrations. Further, magnetic hysteresis measurements showed that Cr doped ZnS nanoparticles exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  4. Magnetic and transport properties of chemical solution deposited (100)-textured La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} nanocrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartopu, Giray [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, University of Applied Sciences Kiel, Grenzstrasse 3, 24149 Kiel (Germany); Yalcin, Orhan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde (Turkey); Serdar Demiray, A, E-mail: o.yalcin@nigde.edu.t, E-mail: orhanyalcin@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    A study of the magnetic and electrical properties of (100)-oriented La{sub 0.7}(Sr,Ca){sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films prepared by an optimized chemical solution deposition process on a (100) SrTiO{sub 3} single-crystal substrate is reported in this paper. The films were studied by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, ferromagnetic resonance and four-point-probe electrical measurements. A characteristic nanocrystalline texture with {approx}15 nm crystallites is observed in both films. Remarkably, the resistivities of these films are three orders of magnitude smaller compared with unoptimized films grown even on the same substrate. The magnetotransport properties were determined as a function of temperature and applied field magnitude, and compared with bulk crystals and vacuum-deposited single crystalline (epitaxial) thin films as well as manganite nanostructures reported in the literature. Both films display large values of colossal magnetoresistance at around room temperature. Significantly, the magnetoresistance in (100) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin film is observed to be highly linear even at low fields near the metal-insulator transition temperature. However, the dependence of these promising properties on the nanocrystal size remains to be explored.

  5. ZnS nanostructure arrays: a developing material star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaosheng; Wu, Limin; Hu, Linfeng

    2011-02-01

    Semiconductor nanostructure arrays are of great scientific and technical interest because of the strong non-linear and electro-optic effects that occur due to carrier confinement in three dimensions. The use of such nanostructure arrays with tailored geometry, array density, and length-diameter-ratio as building blocks are expected to play a crucial role in future nanoscale devices. With the unique properties of a direct wide-bandgap semiconductor, such as the presence of polar surfaces, excellent transport properties, good thermal stability, and high electronic mobility, ZnS nanostructure arrays has been a developing material star. The research on ZnS nanostructure arrays has seen remarkable progress over the last five years due to the unique properties and important potential applications of nanostructure arrays, which are summarized here. Firstly, a survey of various methods to the synthesis of ZnS nanostructure arrays will be introduced. Next recent efforts on exploiting the unique properties and applications of ZnS nanostructure arrays are discussed. Potential future directions of this research field are also highlighted.

  6. Dynamic modelling and process control of ZnS precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, J.; Keesman, K.J.; Veeken, A.H.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic modelling and design of a control strategy for the ZnS precipitation process. During lab¿scale experiments, the sulfide concentration in a precipitator was controlled at a prespecified pS value by manipulating the flow from a buffer vessel. Batch tests showed that the

  7. A new approach to grain boundary engineering for nanocrystalline materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Kobayashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to grain boundary engineering (GBE for high performance nanocrystalline materials, especially those produced by electrodeposition and sputtering, is discussed on the basis of some important findings from recently available results on GBE for nanocrystalline materials. In order to optimize their utility, the beneficial effects of grain boundary microstructures have been seriously considered according to the almost established approach to GBE. This approach has been increasingly recognized for the development of high performance nanocrystalline materials with an extremely high density of grain boundaries and triple junctions. The effectiveness of precisely controlled grain boundary microstructures (quantitatively characterized by the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD and grain boundary connectivity associated with triple junctions has been revealed for recent achievements in the enhancement of grain boundary strengthening, hardness, and the control of segregation-induced intergranular brittleness and intergranular fatigue fracture in electrodeposited nickel and nickel alloys with initial submicrometer-grained structure. A new approach to GBE based on fractal analysis of grain boundary connectivity is proposed to produce high performance nanocrystalline or submicrometer-grained materials with desirable mechanical properties such as enhanced fracture resistance. Finally, the potential power of GBE is demonstrated for high performance functional materials like gold thin films through precise control of electrical resistance based on the fractal analysis of the grain boundary microstructure.

  8. A new approach to grain boundary engineering for nanocrystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to grain boundary engineering (GBE) for high performance nanocrystalline materials, especially those produced by electrodeposition and sputtering, is discussed on the basis of some important findings from recently available results on GBE for nanocrystalline materials. In order to optimize their utility, the beneficial effects of grain boundary microstructures have been seriously considered according to the almost established approach to GBE. This approach has been increasingly recognized for the development of high performance nanocrystalline materials with an extremely high density of grain boundaries and triple junctions. The effectiveness of precisely controlled grain boundary microstructures (quantitatively characterized by the grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) and grain boundary connectivity associated with triple junctions) has been revealed for recent achievements in the enhancement of grain boundary strengthening, hardness, and the control of segregation-induced intergranular brittleness and intergranular fatigue fracture in electrodeposited nickel and nickel alloys with initial submicrometer-grained structure. A new approach to GBE based on fractal analysis of grain boundary connectivity is proposed to produce high performance nanocrystalline or submicrometer-grained materials with desirable mechanical properties such as enhanced fracture resistance. Finally, the potential power of GBE is demonstrated for high performance functional materials like gold thin films through precise control of electrical resistance based on the fractal analysis of the grain boundary microstructure.

  9. Light emission, light detection and strain sensing with nanocrystalline graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Adnan; Pyatkov, Feliks; Alam, Asiful; Dehm, Simone; Felten, Alexandre; Chakravadhanula, Venkata S K; Flavel, Benjamin S; Kübel, Christian; Lemmer, Uli; Krupke, Ralph

    2015-08-14

    Graphene is of increasing interest for optoelectronic applications exploiting light detection, light emission and light modulation. Intrinsically, the light-matter interaction in graphene is of a broadband type. However, by integrating graphene into optical micro-cavities narrow-band light emitters and detectors have also been demonstrated. These devices benefit from the transparency, conductivity and processability of the atomically thin material. To this end, we explore in this work the feasibility of replacing graphene with nanocrystalline graphene, a material which can be grown on dielectric surfaces without catalyst by graphitization of polymeric films. We have studied the formation of nanocrystalline graphene on various substrates and under different graphitization conditions. The samples were characterized by resistance, optical transmission, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy measurements. The conducting and transparent wafer-scale material with nanometer grain size was also patterned and integrated into devices for studying light-matter interaction. The measurements show that nanocrystalline graphene can be exploited as an incandescent emitter and bolometric detector similar to crystalline graphene. Moreover the material exhibits piezoresistive behavior which makes nanocrystalline graphene interesting for transparent strain sensors.

  10. Biological applications of nanocrystalline diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Oliver; Daenen, Michael; Haenen, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have generated substantial interest in recent years due to their low cost, extreme properties and wide application arena. Diamond is chemically inert, has a wide electrochemical window and is stable in numerous harsh environments. Nanocrystalline diamond has the advantage of being readily grown on a variety of substrates at very low thickness, resulting in smooth conformal coatings with high transparency. These films can be doped from highly insulating to metalli...

  11. Dislocation Dynamics in Nanocrystalline Nickel

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Z. W.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.; Stach, E. A.; Follstaedt, D. M.; Knapp, J. A.; Mao, S. X.

    2007-01-01

    It is believed that the dynamics of dislocation processes during the deformation of nanocrystalline materials can only be visualized by computational simulations. Here we demonstrate that observations of dislocation processes during the deformation of nanocrystalline Ni with grain sizes as small as 10 nm can be achieved by using a combination of in situ tensile straining and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Trapped unit lattice dislocations are observed in strained grains...

  12. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased.

  13. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion re...

  14. Characterization of Bi-Catalyzed Nanocrystalline CdTe Thin Films Prepared by Close Spaced Sublimation%近距离升华法制备Bi催化纳米晶CdTe薄膜的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦; 尚飞; 郑毓峰; 孙言飞; 简基康; 吴荣

    2009-01-01

    采用近距离升华法(Close-Spaced-Sublimation,CSS)引入Bi催化剂成功制备出了具有纳米线、近阵列排布的纳米棒等形貌的纳米晶CdTe薄膜.并利用X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、紫外可见分光光度计等研究了薄膜的结构、表面形貌和光学性能.讨论了CdTe纳米结构可能的生长机制.%Bi-catalyzed nanocrystalline CdTe films were prepared by close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique successfully.These nanocrystalline CdTe films had surface appearance of nanowires or a similar array arrangement nanorod.The structure,the surface topograph and the optical properties of these films were studied using X-ray diffraction(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and ultroviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometer.And the possible growth mechanisms of these nanostructures were discussed.

  15. A Facile Method for the Synthesis Fluorescent Zinc Chalcogenide (ZnO, ZnS and ZnSe) Nanoparticles in PS and PMMA Polymer Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, P S; Subhashini, N; Vasanthalakshmi, J; Anthony, Savarimuthu Philip

    2016-03-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of fluorescent zinc chalcogenide (ZnO, ZnS and ZnSe) nanoparticles directly in the transparent PMMA and PS polymer matrices were reported. Highly dispersed small spherical ZnO nanoparticles (3-5 nm) was obtained by hydrothermal reaction of PMMA/PS-Zn(acac)2H2O in toluene. ZnS and ZnSe nanoparticles were prepared by heterogeneous stirring of PMMA/PS-Zn(acac)2H2O in toluene with aqueous solution of thiourea or NaHSe. Interestingly, ZnO and ZnS-PMMA thin film showed strong fluorescence quenching upon exposure to ammonia.

  16. Molten-salt Synthesis and Properties of ZnS with Hexagonal Prism Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Jin-Song; JI, Guang-Bin; LI, Zi-Quan; CAO, Jie-Ming; ZHENG, Ming-Bo; KE, Xing-Fei

    2007-01-01

    ZnS with hexagonal prism morphology has been synthesized successfully by molten-salt method with ZnS nanoparticles as precursors, and the ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by one-step solid-state reaction of Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O with Na2S·9H2O at ambient temperature. Crystal structure and morphology of the product were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and HRTEM. Ultraviolet-visible optical absorption spectrum of the ZnS hexagonal prism shows a distinct red shift from that of bulk ZnS crystals and photoluminescence spectrum exhibits strong emissions at 380 and 500 nm, respectively. Further experiments were designed and the formation mechanism of the ZnS hexagonal prism has been also discussed in brief.

  17. Optical and photocatalytic properties of Corymbia citriodora leaf extract synthesized ZnS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Hu, Binjie; Zhi, Jinhu

    2016-05-01

    ZnS nanoparticles were biosynthesized via a green and simple method using Corymbia citriodora leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized ZnS nanoparticles were in the size range of 45 nm with a surface plasmon resonance band at 325 nm. XRD analysis revealed that the nanoparticles were in the sphalerite phase. Quantum confinement effects of biosynthesized ZnS nanoparticles were observed using photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnS nanoparticles has been investigated by degradation methylene blue under UV light irradiation. Due to the smaller size and excellent dispersicity, the biosynthesized ZnS nanoparticles showed a superior photocatalytic performance compared with that of chemical synthesize ZnS nanoparticles.

  18. Effect of ZnS nanoparticles on the photoluminescence of Sm3+ ions in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoti, D.; Rajkonwar, N.; Dehingia, N.; Boruah, A.; Gogoi, P.; Dutta, P.

    2016-10-01

    ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with Sm3+ ions were prepared in methanol medium for fixed Sm3+ and varying ZnS concentrations. Enhancements in absorption as well as photoluminescence efficiency of the co-doped samples were observed. This enhanced efficiency is attributed to the effective increase in oscillator strengths of the Sm3+ transitions because of the addition of ZnS nanoparticles.

  19. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukoje, Ivana D., E-mail: ivanav@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tomašević-Ilić, Tijana D., E-mail: tommashev@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zarubica, Aleksandra R., E-mail: zarubica2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Dimitrijević, Suzana, E-mail: suzana@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budimir, Milica D., E-mail: mickbudimir@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ, Mila R., E-mail: mila@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Šaponjić, Zoran V., E-mail: saponjic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nedeljković, Jovan M., E-mail: jovned@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO{sub 2} support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact.

  20. Induced Nucleation of Diamond Films on ZnS Substrates Precoated with Ceramic Interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xu-Hui; YANG Hai; LU Fan-Xiu; TONG Yu-Mei; GUO Hui-Bin; TANG Wei-Zhong; LI Cheng-Ming; CHEN Guang-Chao; YU Huai-Zhi; CHENG Hong-Fan

    2004-01-01

    @@ We attempt to coat a multi-spectrum chemical-vapour-deposition ZnS substrate with smooth crystalline diamond films on the top of properly designed ceramic interlayer, which provides protection for ZnS against corrosion by the H2-CH4 microwave plasma and mitigates the thermal expansion coefficient mismatching between diamond and ZnS. However, difficulties in the homogeneous diamond nucleation on a ceramic interlayer were encountered.It was found that high rate nucleation of diamond could be induced by a metal or semiconductor mask placed on the top of ZnS.

  1. Stresses in nanocrystalline materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Residual, mechanical stresses in thin films are of great importance for the reliability and performance of film systems in technological applications. The residual stresses can be due to the deposition process, the mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the thin film(s) and the substrate upon cooling or heating (thermal stresses), interdiffusion (differences in the molar volumes and differences in the atomic fluxes of the diffusing species), (continued) grain growth, excess vaca...

  2. Formation of ZnS nanorods by simple evaporation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velumani, S.; Ascencio, J. A.

    Semiconductor nanocrystals and nanorods whose properties are largely determined by the quantum confinement effect are currently being intensively studied by materials scientists, physicists and chemists. Zinc sulphide (ZnS), a II-VI group semiconductor material possessing a direct band gap of 3.66 eV, has recently been extensively investigated due to its multifaceted applications. We report the synthesis of ZnS nanorods by a simple physical vapor deposition method and an in-detail surface analysis for device applications. Our interest in this material mainly lies behind its use as an n-window layer for our investigations on different window layers for CdTe- and CIS (Copper Indium diselenide) based solar cells and for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water using the photocatalysts CdS/ZnS. ZnS films are deposited onto well-cleaned glass substrates at a vacuum of 5×10-5 Torr and various parameters are determined. The distance between the substrate and the source was maintained at 0.15 cm. The deposition time was about 20 min at a constant rate of evaporation and the substrates were maintained at room temperature. Structural analysis reveals the cubic nature of the crystallites, which is confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. The AFM analysis reveals the formation of nanorods due to coalescence, which is substantiated from sectional analysis. A further analysis reveals the preferential growth of the nanorods and the coalescence limited by the energy in the (002) face. The composition was analyzed using an energy-dispersive X-ray method (EDX) and the film was found to possess excess sulfur. The band gap of the vacuum-deposited ZnS film was found to be 3.6 eV.

  3. Characterisation of interfaces in nanocrystalline palladium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Divakar; V S Raghunathan

    2003-02-01

    Structures of grain boundaries and triple line junctions in nanocrystalline materials are of interest owing to large fractions of atoms in nanocrystalline materials being at these interfacial positions. Grain boundary and triple line junction structures in nanocrystalline palladium have been studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The main microstructural features observed include the varying atomic structures of grain boundaries and the presence of disordered regions at triple line junctions. Also, there is variation in lattice parameters in different nanocrystalline grains. Geometric phase analysis is used to quantify atomic displacements within nanocrystalline grains. Displacement fields thus detected indicate links to the interface structures.

  4. Nanocrystalline magnetic alloys and ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Pal; D Chakravorty

    2003-02-01

    Magnetic properties of materials in their nanocrystalline state have assumed significance in recent years because of their potential applications. A number of techniques have been used to prepare nanocrystalline magnetic phases. Melt spinning, high energy ball milling, sputtering, glassceramization and molecular beam epitaxy are some of the physical methods used so far. Among the chemical methods, sol-gel and co-precipitation routes have been found to be convenient. Ultrafine particles of both ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems show superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Coercivity $(H_c)$ and maximum energy product $(BH)_{\\text{max}}$ of the magnetic particles can be changed by controlling their sizes. The present paper reviews all these aspects in the case of nanocrystalline magnetic systems — both metallic and ceramics.

  5. Single crystalline wurtzite ZnO/zinc blende ZnS coaxial heterojunctions and hollow zinc blende ZnS nanotubes: synthesis, structural characterization and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xing; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Fan, Hua; Xie, Zai-lai; Wang, Lei; Klein-Hoffmann, Achim; Girgsdies, Frank; Lee, Chun-Sing; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2014-08-07

    Synthesis of ZnO/ZnS heterostructures under thermodynamic conditions generally results in the wurtzite (WZ) structure of the ZnS component because its WZ phase is thermodynamically more stable than its zinc blende (ZB) phase. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of ZnO/ZnS coaxial nanocables composed of single crystalline ZB structured ZnS epitaxially grown on WZ ZnO via a two-step thermal evaporation method. The deposition temperature is believed to play a crucial role in determining the crystalline phase of ZnS. Through a systematic structural analysis, the ZnO core and the ZnS shell are found to have an orientation relationship of (0002)ZnO(WZ)//(002)ZnS(ZB) and [01-10]ZnO(WZ)//[2-20]ZnS(ZB). Observation of the coaxial nanocables in cross-section reveals the formation of voids between the ZnO core and the ZnS shell during the coating process, which is probably associated with the nanoscale Kirkendall effect known to result in porosity. Furthermore, by immersing the ZnO/ZnS nanocable heterojunctions in an acetic acid solution to etch away the inner ZnO cores, single crystalline ZnS nanotubes orientated along the [001] direction of the ZB structure were also achieved for the first time. Finally, optical properties of the hollow ZnS tubes were investigated and discussed in detail. We believe that our study could provide some insights into the controlled fabrication of one dimensional (1D) semiconductors with desired morphology, structure and composition at the nanoscale, and the synthesized WZ ZnO/ZB ZnS nanocables as well as ZB ZnS nanotubes could be ideal candidates for the study of optoelectronics based on II-VI semiconductors.

  6. Laser Compression of Nanocrystalline Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M. A.; Jarmakani, H. N.; Bringa, E. M.; Earhart, P.; Remington, B. A.; Vo, N. Q.; Wang, Y. M.

    2009-12-01

    Shock compression in nanocrystalline nickel is simulated over a range of pressures (10-80 GPa) and compared with experimental results. Laser compression carried out at Omega and Janus yields new information on the deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline Ni. Although conventional deformation does not produce hardening, the extreme regime imparted by laser compression generates an increase in hardness, attributed to the residual dislocations observed in the structure by TEM. An analytical model is applied to predict the critical pressure for the onset of twinning in nanocrystalline nickel. The slip-twinning transition pressure is shifted from 20 GPa, for polycrystalline Ni, to 80 GPa, for Ni with g. s. of 10 nm. Contributions to the net strain from the different mechanisms of plastic deformation (partials, perfect dislocations, twinning, and grain boundary shear) were quantified in the nanocrystalline samples through MD calculations. The effect of release, a phenomenon often neglected in MD simulations, on dislocation behavior was established. A large fraction of the dislocations generated at the front are annihilated.

  7. Superb nanocrystalline alloys for plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With high rigidity and antiwear performance,nanocrystalline metals and their alloys can find wide applications in surface protection.However, the existence of grain boundaries often leads to erosive micro-batteries which accelerate the process of corrosion.Therefore, it has already become a key issue for surface engineering researchers to find nano materials with higher lubricating, anticorrosion and antiwear capacities.

  8. Room-temperature synthesis of wurtzite ZnS at the oil--water interface and its photocatalytic performance%纤锌矿ZnS在油--水界面处的室温制备及光催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小红; 赵轩; 邱国飞; 贾晓明

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature synthesis of ZnS was controlled at the oil- water liquid- liquid interface. Combining with polymer films which were modified by hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers ( SAMs) as flexible substrates, nanocrystalline ZnS films were fabricated on the substrates. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the ZnS films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure, which is the high-temperature polymorph of sphalerite. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations show that the ZnS films consist of nanoparticles with the diameter of 30-50 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange by these prod-ucts under UV-light irradiation was observed, which confirmed the photocatalytic degradation ability of the nanocrystalline ZnS films to organics. In view of the results, a facile one-step method, combining the oil- water interface with the SAMs-modified substrate, was proposed for fabricating the wurtzite ZnS functional films without any additive at room temperature. The relationship between photocata-lytic performance and the morphology of the products was also discussed.%通过控制硫化锌室温成核反应在油-水液-液界面处进行,并采用羟基端基自组装分子层修饰的聚合物膜作为柔性衬底,最终在衬底表面制得硫化锌纳米晶膜. X射线衍射表征显示产物为高温稳定的纤锌矿结构. 扫描电镜和透射电镜观察发现硫化锌膜由粒径30~50 nm的颗粒构成. 产物对甲基橙的光催化降解研究证实在紫外光辅助下硫化锌纳米晶膜对有机物的降解能力. 鉴于上述结果,提出了一种结合油-水液-液界面及自组装分子层功能化的衬底,在室温且无添加剂条件下一步制备高温稳定相ZnS功能膜的方法,并分析了产物形貌与光催化性能间的关系.

  9. Nanocrystalline Metal Oxides for Methane Sensors: Role of Noble Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane is an important gas for domestic and industrial applications and its source is mainly coalmines. Since methane is extremely inflammable in the coalmine atmosphere, it is essential to develop a reliable and relatively inexpensive chemical gas sensor to detect this inflammable gas below its explosion amount in air. The metal oxides have been proved to be potential materials for the development of commercial gas sensors. The functional properties of the metal oxide-based gas sensors can be improved not only by tailoring the crystal size of metal oxides but also by incorporating the noble metal catalyst on nanocrystalline metal oxide matrix. It was observed that the surface modification of nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films by noble metal sensitizers and the use of a noble metal catalytic contact as electrode reduce the operating temperatures appreciably and improve the sensing properties. This review article concentrates on the nanocrystalline metal oxide methane sensors and the role of noble metals on the sensing properties.

  10. 碳化钨纳米晶薄膜电极的制备及其对甲醇电氧化性能%Preparation of nano-crystalline tungsten carbide thin film electrode and its electrocatalytic activity for oxidation of methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑华均; 马淳安; 黄建国

    2005-01-01

    Nano-crystalline tungsten carbide thin films were fabricated on graphite substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition in H2 and Ar atmosphere, using WF6 and CH4 as precursors. The crystal phase, structure and chemical components of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), respectively. The results showed that the film prepared at CH4/WF6 concentration ratio of 20, working pressure of 100Pa and temperature of 800℃ were composed of sphere particles with a diameter of 20-35nm Electrochemical investigations show that the electrochemical surface area of electrode of the film was large.The electrode of the film exhibited higher electro-catalytic activity in the reaction of methanol oxidation, and its catalytic properties were similar to those of Pt or Pt group catalysts. The constant current of the film catalyst was 123.6mA·cm-2 in the mixture solution of H2SO4 and CH3OH at the concentration of 0.5 mol·L-1 and 2.0 mol·L-1 respectively at 70℃, and its constant potential was only 0. 306V(vs. SCE).

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ruby; Kumar, Ashavani; Chaudhary, Ram Pal

    2013-09-01

    Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles (Zn1-xFexS; where x=0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrometer. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies show that the size of crystallites is in the range of 2-5 nm. Photocatalytic activities of ZnS and 3, 5 and 10 mol% Fe doped ZnS were evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. It was found that the Fe doped ZnS bleaches methylene blue much faster than the undoped ZnS upon its exposure to the visible light as compared to ultraviolet light. The optimal Fe/Zn ratio was observed to be 3 mol% for photocatalytic applications.

  12. Far-infrared characteristics of ZnS nanoparticles measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Chen, Wei; Thamizhmani, L; Azad, Abul K; Zhu, Zhiyuan

    2006-02-01

    The optical and dielectric properties of ZnS nanoparticles are studied by use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) over the frequency range from 0.3 to 3.0 THz. The effective medium approach combined with the pseudo-harmonic model of the dielectric response, where nanoparticles are embedded in the host medium, provides a good fit on the experimental results. The extrapolation of the measured data indicates that the absorption is dominated by the transverse optical mode localized at 11.6+/-0.2 THz. Meanwhile, the low-frequency phonon resonance of ZnS nanoparticles is compared with the single-crystal ZnS. The THz-TDS clearly reveals the remarkable distinction in the low-frequency phonon resonances between ZnS nanoparticles and single-crystal ZnS. The results demonstrate that the acoustic phonons become confined in small-size nanoparticles.

  13. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties.

  14. Deformation Twinning During Nanoindentation of Nanocrystalline Ta

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y. M.; Hodge, A. M.; Biener, J.; Hamza, A.V.; Barnes, D E; Liu, Kai; Nieh, T. G.

    2005-01-01

    The deformation mechanism of body-centered cubic (bcc) nanocrystalline tantalum with grain sizes of 10–30 nm is investigated by nanoindentation, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In a deviation from molecular dynamics simulations and existing experimental observations on other bcc nanocrystalline metals, the plastic deformation of nanocrystalline Ta during nanoindentation is controlled by deformation twinning. The observation of multiple twin i...

  15. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order......Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... resistance, chemical inertness, superior electrochemical behavior, biocompatibility, and nontoxicity. These properties have positioned the nanocrystalline diamond films as an attractive class of materials for a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications in the biomedical field. Consequently...

  16. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  17. Electrical properties of Cu4ZnSnS2/ZnS heterojunction prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitouni, S.; Khammar, M.; Messaoudi, M.; Attaf, N.; Aida, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS)/ZnS heterojunctions have been prepared by a successive deposition of ZnS and CZTS thin films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrates. The cupric chloride concentration has been varied in the starting solution in order to investigate its influence on device properties. CZTS/ZnS heterojunctions were characterized by recording their current-voltage characteristics at different temperatures. The obtained results exhibit a good rectifying behavior of the realized heterojunction. Analysis of these results yields saturation current, series resistance and ideality factor determination. From the activation energy of saturation current we inferred that the thermal emission through the barrier height is the dominant mechanism of the reverse current rather than the defects contribution.

  18. Influences of the iron ion (Fe{sup 3+})-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Naceur, J. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} thin films comprised only the anatase TiO{sub 2}, but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe{sup 3+} content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe{sup 3+} addition to 20%, the phase of TiO{sub 2} thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe{sup 3+} content.

  19. Studies on chemical bath deposited zinc sulphide thin films with special optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladar, Maria [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); ' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne [' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail: jennypopovici@yahoo.com; Baldea, Ioan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grecu, Rodica [' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Indrea, Emil [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Donath 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2007-05-31

    Adherent and uniform zinc sulphide thin films were deposited on optical glass platelets from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, ammonia and sodium citrate. The samples, as they were prepared were investigated by UV-vis absorption/reflection spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of growth conditions such as reagent concentration and deposition technique (mono- and multi-layer) on optical and structural properties of the ZnS thin films have been studied. The ability of ZnS films to exhibit luminescent properties has also been investigated.

  20. Tensile behavior of nanocrystalline copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Eastman, J.A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-11-01

    High density nanocrystalline copper produced by inert gas condensation was tested in tension. Displacements were measured using foil strain gauges, which greatly improved the accuracy of the strain data. The Young`s modulus of nanocrystalline copper was found to be consistent with that of coarse-grained copper. Total elongations of {approx} 1% were observed in samples with grain sizes less than 50 nm, while a sample with a grain size of 110 nm exhibited more than 10% elongation, perhaps signifying a change to a dislocation-based deformation mechanism in the larger-grained material. In addition, tensile tests were performed as a function of strain rate, with a possible trend of decreased strength and increased elongation as the strain rate was decreased.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic and reusability studies of capped ZnS nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagdeep Kaur; Manoj Sharma; O P Pandey

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents results of a study on the structural and morphological properties of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) capped ZnS nanoparticles (NPs). The photocatalytic and reusability study of the synthesized NPs to degrade dyes was also done. ZnS semiconductor NPs were synthesized via chemical precipitation route using 2-ME as a stabilizing agent. The as-prepared NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to confirm the nanometer sized particle formation. Morphological features of capped ZnS NPs were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was used to determine the hydrodynamic size of capped ZnS NPs. UV–Vis studies were done to determine the absorption edge and bandgap of the capped ZnS NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) studies were done to confirm the presence of 2-ME on the surface of NPs. Photocatalytic studies of the as-prepared ZnS NPs were done by taking Ponceau S and crystal violet dyes as model pollutants. Their comparative degradation behaviour has been discussed. Reusability study of ZnS NPs was done to ensure its applicability as recycled catalyst in photocatalysis. The result showed photocatalytic enhancement of reused catalyst. Possible reason has been discussed in this work.

  2. Wurtzite-type ZnS nanoparticles by pulsed electric discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurzak, Emil; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Sulaimankulova, Saadat; Takebe, Shintaro; Chen, Liliang; Abdullaeva, Zhypargul; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Oishi, Yudai; Ihara, Hirotaka; Okudera, Hiroki; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2011-09-01

    The synthesis of wurtzite-type ZnS nanoparticles by an electric discharge submerged in molten sulfur is reported. Using a pulsed plasma between two zinc electrodes of diameter 5 mm in molten sulfur, we have synthesized high-temperature phase (wurtzite-type) ZnS nanocrystals with an average size of about 20 nm. The refined lattice parameters of the synthesized wurtzite-type ZnS nanoparticles were found to be larger than those of the reported ZnS (JCPDS card no 36-1450). Synthesis of ZnMgS (solid solution of ZnS and MgS) was achieved by using ZnMg alloys as both cathode and anode electrodes. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis showed that the absorption peak of the as-prepared ZnS sample (319 nm) displays a blue-shift compared to the bulk ZnS (335 nm). Photoluminescence spectra of the samples revealed peaks at 340, 397, 423, 455 and 471 nm, which were related to excitonic emission and stoichiometric defects.

  3. Effect of structure, size and copper doping on the luminescence properties of ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, Ch. Satya [Crystal Growth and Nanoscience Research Centre, Government College (A), Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh 533 105 (India); Mishra, R.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Patel, Dinesh K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Casali Center for Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 9190401 (Israel); Rao, K. Ramachandra, E-mail: drkrcr@gmail.com [Crystal Growth and Nanoscience Research Centre, Government College (A), Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh 533 105 (India); Sudarsan, V., E-mail: vsudar@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vatsa, R.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Blue and green emission intensity form ZnS is sensitive to crystallographic form. • For ZnS nanoparticles, emission characteristics are not affected by copper doping. • Cu solubility poor in ZnS nanoparticles compared to corresponding bulk. - Abstract: Luminescence properties of wurtzite and cubic forms of bulk ZnS have been investigated in detail and compared with that of ZnS nanoparticles. Blue emission observed in both hexagonal and cubic forms of undoped bulk ZnS is explained based on electron–hole recombination involving electron in conduction band and hole trapped in Zn{sup 2+} vacancies where as green emission arises due to electron hole recombination from Zn{sup 2+} and S{sup 2−} vacancies. Conversion of wurtzite form to cubic form is associated with relative increase in intensity of green emission due to increased defect concentration brought about by high temperature heat treatment. Copper doping in ZnS, initially leads to formation of both Cu{sub Zn} and Cu{sub i} (interstitial copper) centers, and latter to mainly Cu{sub Zn} centers as revealed by variation in relative intensities of blue and green emission from the samples.

  4. Intergranular fracture in nanocrystalline metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, D.; van Swygenhoven, H.; Derlet, P. M.

    2002-08-01

    Crack propagation studies in nanocrystalline Ni samples with mean grain sizes ranging from 5 to 12 nm are reported using atomistic simulations. For all grain sizes pure intergranular fracture is observed. Intergranular fracture is shown to proceed by the coalescence of microvoids formed at the grain boundaries ahead of the crack. The energy released during propagation is higher than the Griffith value, indicating an additional grain-boundary accommodation mechanism.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Thin Films of Al2O3 or TiO2 Doped Scandia Stabilized Zirconia Solid Electrolytes%Al2O3或TiO2掺杂的ScSZ固体电解质纳米晶薄膜的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚文; 杨宇; 金舒; 田曙坚; 李国宝; 贾江涛; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2001-01-01

    Dense,crack-free and uniform nanocrystalline (Al2O3)0.10(Sc2O3)0.08(ZrO2)0.82and (Sc2O3)0.125(TiO2)0.175(ZrO2)0.70 thin films with thickness of 0.31 μm and 0.36 μm respectively on Si(100) substrate,have been successfully prepared by a Sol\\|Gel spin coating method.Cubic nanocrystals can be obtained at relatively low sintering temperature with an average grain size of about 47 nm and 51 nm respectively.The aluminia-doped ScSZ thins film are the same dense as the ScSZ thin films.However,there are a small amount of pinholes found in the microstructure of the titania-doped ScSZ films.%利用溶胶-凝胶旋涂法,在单晶硅基片(100)上分别制得了厚度约为0.31 μm的(Al2O3)0.10(Sc2O3)0.08(ZrO2)0.82和0.36 μm的(Sc2O3)0.125(TiO2)0.175(ZrO2)0.70固体电解质纳米晶薄膜。烧结实验结果表明,两种薄膜均在650℃以上开始晶化,温度越高,晶化越完全,在800℃可完全晶化;所得纳米晶颗粒呈纯的萤石结构立方相;铝和钛掺杂的纳米晶颗粒的平均大小分别为47和51 nm。铝掺杂的薄膜非常均匀致密,然而,钛掺杂的薄膜存在少量微气孔。

  6. Recent Progress in One-dimensional ZnS Nanostructures:Syntheses and Novel Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosheng FANG; Yoshio BANDO; Dmitri GOLBERG

    2008-01-01

    In this review, the progress made during the last two years with respect to the syntheses and novel properties of one-dimensional (1D) ZnS nanostructures is presented. Primarily the research on 1D ZnS nanostructures has been of growing interest owing to their promising applications in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Diverse 1D ZnS nanostructures with delicately-tuned morphologies, sizes, and microstructures have been synthesized through relatively simple and well-controlled techniques. Some novel properties of the nanomaterials have been explored and the relationships between their structural features and functions have been understood gradually.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF HYDROPHILIC ZnS NANOCRYSTALS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF DYE POLLUTANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping Li; Yao Xu; Yong Liu; Dong Wu; Yuhan Sun

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophilic ZnS nanocrystals with narrow size distribution were synthesized via homogeneous precipitation using EDTA as stabilizer. The as-synthesized products were characterized with XRD, TEM, HRTEM and UV-Vis spectrum. UV-Vis spectra showed that ZnS nanocrystals exhibited strong quantum-confined effect with a blue shift in the band gap of light absorbance. The photocatalytic activity of these nanocrystals was also investigated for the liquid phase photocatalytic degradation of Basic Violet 5BN (BV5) dye under UV irradiation. It was found that the ZnS nanocrystals had good catalytic activity for photodegradation of BV5.

  8. Ferromagnetic exchange interaction between hard and soft ferromagnetic layers through ZnS semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinia, A. E-mail: aziz.dinia@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr; Colis, S.; Schmerber, G.; Ayoub, J.P

    2004-05-01

    We experimentally evidenced the presence of an indirect exchange coupling between hard and soft ferromagnetic electrodes through a ZnS barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions. For a 2 nm thick ZnS barrier, a negative shift of about -25 Oe is observed in asymmetric magnetization minor loop. This is attributed to a ferromagnetic interaction between the CoFe/Fe soft bilayer and the thick CoFe layer. The amplitude of the observed shift decreased as the thickness of the ZnS barrier increased, which agrees with theoretical models that the exchange interaction is mediated by spin polarized tunneling.

  9. Mechanochemically Synthesized CIGS Nanocrystalline Powder for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Rehani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS is a compound semiconductor material from the group of I-III-VI. The material is a solid solution of copper, indium and selenium (CIS and copper, gallium and selenium with an empirical formula of CuIn(1 – xGaxSe2, where 0  x  1. CIGS has an exceptionally high absorption coefficient of more than 105 cm – 1 for 1.5 eV. Solar cells prepared from absorber layers of CIGS materials have shown an efficiency higher than 20 %. CuIn(1 – xGaxSe2 (x  0.3 nanocrystalline compound was mechanochemically synthesized by high-energy milling in a planetary ball mill. The phase identification and crystallite size of milled powders at different time intervals were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The XRD analysis indicates chalcopyrite structure and the crystallite size of about 10 nm of high-energy milled CIGS powder after two and half hours of milling. An attempt for preparing the thin film from CIGS nanocrystalline powder was carried out using the flash evaporation technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM reveals uniform distribution of CIGS particles in thin film.

  10. Nanocrystalline films for gas-reactive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, Loren J.

    2004-02-17

    A gas sensor for detection of oxidizing and reducing gases, including O.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, and H.sub.2, monitors the partial pressure of a gas to be detected by measuring the temperature rise of an oxide-thin-film-coated metallic line in response to an applied electrical current. For a fixed input power, the temperature rise of the metallic line is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity of the oxide coating. The oxide coating contains multi-valent cation species that change their valence, and hence the oxygen stoichiometry of the coating, in response to changes in the partial pressure of the detected gas. Since the thermal conductivity of the coating is dependent on its oxygen stoichiometry, the temperature rise of the metallic line depends on the partial pressure of the detected gas. Nanocrystalline (<100 nm grain size) oxide coatings yield faster sensor response times than conventional larger-grained coatings due to faster oxygen diffusion along grain boundaries rather than through grain interiors.

  11. Rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose aqueous suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei-Sabet, Sadaf; Hamad, Wadood Y; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2012-12-11

    The rheological properties and microstructure of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) aqueous suspensions have been investigated at different concentrations. The suspension is isotropic up to 3 wt %, and phase separates to liquid crystalline and isotropic domains at higher concentrations where the samples exhibit a fingerprint texture and the viscosity profile shows a three-region behavior, typical of liquid crystals. The suspension behaves as a rheological gel at even higher concentrations where the viscosity profile shows a single shear thinning behavior over the whole range of shear rates investigated. The effects of ultrasound energy and temperature on the rheological properties and structure of these suspensions were studied using polarized optical microscopy and rheometry. Our results indicate that the amount of applied ultrasound energy affects the microstructure of the suspensions and the pitch of the chiral nematic domains. The viscosity profile is changed significantly at low shear rates, whereas the viscosity of biphasic suspensions at intermediate and high shear rates decreased with increasing temperature. This suggests that, between 30 and 40 °C, structural rearrangement takes place. At higher concentrations of about 10 wt %, the temperature has no significant effect on viscosity; however, a marked increase in viscosity has been observed at around 50 °C. Finally, the Cox-Merz rule was found to fail after a critical concentration, thereby implying significant structural formation. This critical concentration is much higher for sonicated compared to unsonicated suspensions.

  12. Structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Murty; M K Datta; S K Pabi

    2003-02-01

    Nanocrystalline materials, which are expected to play a key role in the next generation of human civilization, are assembled with nanometre-sized “building blocks” consisting of the crystalline and large volume fractions of intercrystalline components. In order to predict the unique properties of nanocrystalline materials, which are a combination of the properties of the crystalline and intercrystalline regions, it is essential to understand precisely how the structures of crystalline and intercrystalline regions vary with decrease in crystallite size. In addition, study of the thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials against significant grain growth is both scientific and technological interest. A sharp increase in grain size (to micron levels) during consolidation of nanocrystalline powders to obtain fully dense materials may consequently result in the loss of some unique properties of nanocrystalline materials. Therefore, extensive interest has been generated in exploring the size effects on the structure of crystalline and intercrystalline region of nanocrystalline materials, and the thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials against significant grain growth. The present article is aimed at understanding the structure and stability of nanocrystalline materials.

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Silicon Films Prepared by Hot-Wire Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jugdersuren, B. [Sotera Defense Solutions, Inc.; Kearney, B. T. [Naval Research Laboratory; Queen, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory; Metcalf, T. H. [Naval Research Laboratory; Culbertson, J. C. [Naval Research Laboratory; Chervin, C. N. [Naval Research Laboratory; Stroud, R. M. [Naval Research Laboratory; Wang, Q. [Formerly NREL; Liu, Xiao [Naval Research Laboratory

    2017-07-31

    We report 3..omega.. thermal conductivity measurements of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films from 85 to 300 K prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition, where the crystallinity of the films is controlled by the hydrogen dilution during growth. The thermal conductivity of the amorphous silicon film is in agreement with several previous reports of amorphous silicon prepared by a variety of deposition techniques. The thermal conductivity of the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon film is 70% higher and increases 35% more after an anneal at 600 degrees C. They all have similarly weak temperature dependence. Structural analysis shows that the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon is approximately 60% crystalline, nanograins and grain boundaries included. The nanograins, averaging 9.1 nm in diameter in the as-grown film, are embedded in an amorphous matrix. The grain size increases to 9.7 nm upon annealing, accompanied by the disappearance of the amorphous phase. We extend the models of grain boundary scattering of phonons with two different non-Debye dispersion relations to explain our result of nanocrystalline silicon, confirming the strong grain size dependence of heat transport for nanocrystalline materials. However, the similarity in thermal conductivity between amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon suggests the heat transport mechanisms in both structures may not be as dissimilar as we currently understand.

  14. Thermal conductivity of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jugdersuren, B.; Kearney, B. T.; Queen, D. R.; Metcalf, T. H.; Culbertson, J. C.; Chervin, C. N.; Stroud, R. M.; Nemeth, W.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Xiao

    2017-07-01

    We report 3..omega.. thermal conductivity measurements of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films from 85 to 300 K prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition, where the crystallinity of the films is controlled by the hydrogen dilution during growth. The thermal conductivity of the amorphous silicon film is in agreement with several previous reports of amorphous silicon prepared by a variety of deposition techniques. The thermal conductivity of the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon film is 70% higher and increases 35% more after an anneal at 600 degrees C. They all have similarly weak temperature dependence. Structural analysis shows that the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon is approximately 60% crystalline, nanograins and grain boundaries included. The nanograins, averaging 9.1 nm in diameter in the as-grown film, are embedded in an amorphous matrix. The grain size increases to 9.7 nm upon annealing, accompanied by the disappearance of the amorphous phase. We extend the models of grain boundary scattering of phonons with two different non-Debye dispersion relations to explain our result of nanocrystalline silicon, confirming the strong grain size dependence of heat transport for nanocrystalline materials. However, the similarity in thermal conductivity between amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon suggests the heat transport mechanisms in both structures may not be as dissimilar as we currently understand.

  15. Thermal conductivity of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdersuren, B.; Kearney, B. T.; Queen, D. R.; Metcalf, T. H.; Culbertson, J. C.; Chervin, C. N.; Stroud, R. M.; Nemeth, W.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Xiao

    2017-07-01

    We report 3 ω thermal conductivity measurements of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films from 85 to 300 K prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition, where the crystallinity of the films is controlled by the hydrogen dilution during growth. The thermal conductivity of the amorphous silicon film is in agreement with several previous reports of amorphous silicon prepared by a variety of deposition techniques. The thermal conductivity of the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon film is 70% higher and increases 35% more after an anneal at 600 ∘C . They all have similarly weak temperature dependence. Structural analysis shows that the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon is approximately 60 % crystalline, nanograins and grain boundaries included. The nanograins, averaging 9.1 nm in diameter in the as-grown film, are embedded in an amorphous matrix. The grain size increases to 9.7 nm upon annealing, accompanied by the disappearance of the amorphous phase. We extend the models of grain boundary scattering of phonons with two different non-Debye dispersion relations to explain our result of nanocrystalline silicon, confirming the strong grain size dependence of heat transport for nanocrystalline materials. However, the similarity in thermal conductivity between amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon suggests the heat transport mechanisms in both structures may not be as dissimilar as we currently understand.

  16. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  17. The energetic structure and recombination processes for selected lanthanides in the crystals Ca{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}F{sub 2} and ZnS; Struktura energetyczna i procesy rekombinacji dla wybranych pierwiastkow z grupy ziem rzadkich w krysztalach Ca{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}F{sub 2} in ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiatek, K. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    1991-12-31

    The results of investigations on ionization and recombination processes in crystals of Ca{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x}F{sub 2} type doped of europium as well as in crystals and thin layers of ZnS doped of Eu, Yb, Sm and Tb have been presented and discussed. Several scientific methods and analytical techniques have been used, among them electron spin resonance (ESR), photo-ESR, absorption and emission spectroscopy. Theoretical consideration and modeling of physical processes have enabled to understand the mechanism of observed phenomena. 227 refs, 61 figs, 9 tabs.

  18. Infrared Radiation Assisted Stokes’ Law Based Synthesis and Optical Characterization of ZnS Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Beer Pal; Upadhyay, Ravish Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Yadav, Kamna; Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I

    2016-01-01

    .... Nanoparticles of zinc sulfide (ZnS) have been synthesized by new infrared radiation (IR) assisted and Stokes' law based controlled bottom-up approach without using any capping agent and stirring...

  19. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemically Synthesized ZnS Nanoparticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. PAWAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different samples of ZnS nanoparticals were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method at room temperature using zincsulphate as zinc source and sodium sulphide as sulphur source. Structural properties of synthesized ZnS nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD while optical properties were examined by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. XRD pattern showed the as synthesized ZnS nanoparticles have cubic zinc blended structure with 2.0-2.87 nm average crystallite size and lattice constant a=5.829 Ao. UV-Visible absorption spectrum showed the band gap energy of the ZnS nanoparticals corresponding to absorption edge are found in the range of 2.63eV-3.87eV, which shows increase in band gap with the decrease of crystallite size of the nanoparticles.

  20. Thin films for micro solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckel, D.; Bieberle-Hütter, A.; Harvey, A.; Infortuna, A.; Muecke, U. P.; Prestat, M.; Rupp, J. L. M.; Gauckler, L. J.

    Thin film deposition as applied to micro solid oxide fuel cell (μSOFC) fabrication is an emerging and highly active field of research that is attracting greater attention. This paper reviews thin film (thickness ≤1 μm) deposition techniques and components relevant to SOFCs including current research on nanocrystalline thin film electrolyte and thin-film-based model electrodes. Calculations showing the geometric limits of μSOFCs and first results towards fabrication of μSOFCs are also discussed.

  1. Photo-Seebeck effect in ZnS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yuuka; Okazaki, Ryuji; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    To explore the thermoelectric transport nature of photo-excited carriers, the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient are measured under ultraviolet illumination in the wide-gap semiconductor ZnS near room temperature. The conductivity increases linearly as against the photon flux density with little dependence on temperature, indicating the conduction under illumination is mostly governed by the photo-doped carriers. We have found that, in high contrast to the temperature-insensitive photoconductivity, the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is dramatically varied by illumination, which is unexplained from a simple photo-doping effect for one majority carrier. Such a distinct difference in the transport quantities is rather understood within a two-carrier model, in which only the Seebeck coefficient is strongly affected by photo-excited minority carriers. The present result is also compared with earlier reports of the photo-Hall experiments to discuss the underlying photo-transport mechanism.

  2. Altering strength and plastic deformation behavior via alloying and laminated structure in nanocrystalline metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, F., E-mail: wangfei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang, P., E-mail: huangping@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, T.J. [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); MOE Key Laboratory for Multifunctional Materials and Structures, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xu, K.W. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Material, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-29

    Nanoindentation and electron microscope techniques have been performed on sputtering deposited monolayered nanocrystalline CuNb and multilayered CuNb/Cu thin films. Microstructural features, hardness and surface morphologies of residual indentation have been evaluated to identify the effects of alloying and laminated structure on strength and plastic deformation behavior of nanocrystalline metals. By altering the content of Nb in CuNb alloy and adding crystalline Cu layers into CuNb alloy, the volume fraction of amorphous phase in CuNb alloy and interface structures changed dramatically, resulting in various trends that are related to hardness, indentation induced pileup and shear banding deformation. Based on the experimental results, the dominant deformation mechanisms of the CuNb and CuNb/Cu thin films with various Nb contents were proposed and extended to be discussed.

  3. Bulk nano-crystalline alloys

    OpenAIRE

    T.-S. Chin; Lin, C. Y.; Lee, M.C.; R.T. Huang; S. M. Huang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) Fe–B–Y–Nb–Cu, 2 mm in diameter, were successfully annealed to become bulk nano-crystalline alloys (BNCAs) with α-Fe crystallite 11–13 nm in size. A ‘crystallization-and-stop’ model was proposed to explain this behavior. Following this model, alloy-design criteria were elucidated and confirmed successful on another Fe-based BMG Fe–B–Si–Nb–Cu, 1 mm in diameter, with crystallite sizes 10–40 nm. It was concluded that BNCAs can be designed in general by the proposed cr...

  4. Photoluminescence study of Mn doped ZnS nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, M. P., E-mail: vishwadeshpande@yahoo.co.in; Patel, Kamakshi, E-mail: kamphysics@gmail.com; Gujarati, Vivek P.; Chaki, S. H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, VallabhVidyanagr-388120,Anand, Gujarat, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    ZnS nanoparticles co-doped with different concentration (5,10,15%) of Mn were synthesized using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent under microwave irradiation. We confirmed doping of Mn in the host ZnS by EDAX whereas powder X-ray diffractogram showed the cubic zinc blende structure of all these samples. TEM images did showed agglomeration of particles and SAED pattern obtained indicated polycrystalline nature. From SAED pattern we calculated lattice parameter of the samples which have close resemblance from that obtained from XRD pattern. The band gap values of pure and doped ZnS nanoparticles were calculated from UV-Visible absorption spectra. ZnS itself is a luminescence material but when we dope it with transition metal ion such as Mn, Co, and Cu they exhibits strong and intense luminescence in the particular region. The photoluminescence spectra of pure ZnS nanoparticles showed an emission at 421 and 485nm which is blue emission which was originated from the defect sites of ZnS itself and also sulfur deficiency and when doped with Mn{sup 2+} an extra peak with high intensity was observed at 530nm which is nearly yellow-orange emission which isrelated to the presence of Mn in the host lattice.

  5. ZnS nanosheets: Egg albumin and microwave-assisted synthesis and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuying; Wen, Jin; Hu, Jilin; Chen, Zhanjun; Wang, Shumei; Peng, Hongxia; Li, Jing

    2016-09-01

    ZnS nanosheets were prepared via egg albumin and microwave-assisted method. The phases, crystalline lattice structures, morphologies, chemical and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and fluorescence(FL) spectrometer and growth mechanism of ZnS nanosheets was investigated. The results showed that all samples were pure cubic zinc blende with polycrystalline structure. The width of ZnS nanosheets with a rectangular nanostructure was in the range of 450-750 nm. The chemical interaction existed between egg albumin molecules and ZnS nanoparticles via the amide/carboxylate group. The band gap value calculated was 3.72 eV. The band at around 440 nm was attributed to the sulfur vacancies of the ZnS nanosheets. With increasing volumes of egg albumin, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of ZnS samples firstly increased and then decreased, attributed to concentration quenching.

  6. Sensitive and selective detection of adenine using fluorescent ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerabai Devi, L; Negi, Devendra P S, E-mail: dpsnegi@nehu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, North-Eastern Hill University, Permanent Campus, Shillong 793022 (India)

    2011-06-17

    We have used fluorescent ZnS nanoparticles as a probe for the determination of adenine. A typical 2 x 10{sup -7} M concentration of adenine quenches 39.3% of the ZnS fluorescence. The decrease in ZnS fluorescence as a function of adenine concentration was found to be linear in the concentration range 5 x 10{sup -9}-2 x 10{sup -7} M. The limit of detection (LOD) of adenine by this method is 3 nM. Among the DNA bases, only adenine quenched the fluorescence of ZnS nanoparticles in the submicromolar concentration range, thus adding selectivity to the method. The amino group of adenine was important in determining the quenching efficiency. Steady-state fluorescence experiments suggest that one molecule of adenine is sufficient to quench the emission arising from a cluster of ZnS consisting of about 20 molecules. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements indicate that the adenine molecules block the sites on the surface of ZnS responsible for emission with the longest lifetime component. This method may be applied for the determination of adenine in biological samples since the measurements have been carried out at pH 7.

  7. Thermal Conduction Inhomogeneity of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films by Dual-Side Thermoreflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Applications International Corporation, McLean, VA, 22102 4Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 20375 Abstract Thin diamond films of thickness...nucleate film growth on a foreign substrate. In this work, the seeds are nanodiamonds (typically 5-10 nm diamond particles) spread at roughly 10 12...performance of integrated nanocrystalline diamond thermal spreaders for high-power transistor applications . ACKNOWLEDGMENT Special thanks are due

  8. Electrochemical investigations into ferrocenylphosphonic acid functionalized mesostructured porous nanocrystalline titanium oxide films.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Grosso, David; Boissière, Cédric; Sanchez, Clément; Oms, Olivier; Leclercq, Dominique; Vioux, André; Miomandrec, Fabien; Audebert, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Titanium dioxide nanocrystalline mesoporous thin films were prepared by Evaporation Induced Self Assembly process onto a FTO electrode and post-functionalized by ferrocenylphosphonic acid as grafted electrochemical probe. We showed that the pseudo-diffusive electron hopping between the redox species is related to the specific order of the TiO2 layer mesoporosity. The electrochemical measurements exhibit a very unusual behavior for a modified electrode as far as concern...

  9. Distortion Regions near the Grain Boundary and Their Effects on Nanocrystalline Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The distortion regions near grain boundaries in α-Fe-C solid solution were studied by use of internal friction method. It was found that the total thickness of these regions is quite large though the thickness of real grain boundaries is usually very thin. It was also found that the smaller the grain size, the thicker the total distortion region. A model for the structure of distortion regions near grain boundaries is proposed. Their effects on nanocrystalline materials are discussed.

  10. Synthesis and self-assembly of photonic materials from nanocrystalline titania sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Wang, Jinguo; Lv, Fujian; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin; Li, Hexing

    2013-03-27

    We describe the use of benzyl alcohols in a solvothermal/alcoholysis reaction to form nanocrystalline sheets of anatase titania. By tuning the reaction conditions, we adjust the size of the nanosheets. The type and density of benzyl groups that decorate the basal plane of the titania sheets control the self-assembly into layered structures. These layered materials can be grown from solid substrates to create iridescent thin films that reflect specific wavelengths of visible light.

  11. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  12. Nanocrystalline CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} alloys as thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition: Effect of x on the structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, E.A. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez-Perez, M.A., E-mail: mhernandezp0606@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Hernandez, J. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Rangel-Salinas, E. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • CdS1−xSe{sub x} films with tunable structural and optical properties were grown by CBD. • Thin films are composed by a solid solution of the CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} ternary alloy. • Crystal size, band gap and photoluminescence signal, decrease with the composition. • Ternary alloys show hexagonal phase with preferential orientation on (0 0 2) plane. • Films with x ⩾ 0.5 show semi-spherical grains composed by nanoworms structures. - Abstract: CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} thin films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at 75 °C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) varying the composition “x” from 0 to 1 at a constant deposition time of 120 min. The composition of the films was adjusted by modifying the concentration as well as the ratio of the precursors. The morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties of the films were analyzed using several techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis Spectroscopy (UV–Vis) and Photoluminescence (PL). The films grow as layers following the ion by ion mechanism, the density of the films decreases with x. Films are constituted by clusters (100–600 nm in diameter) of semispherical particles with sizes fluctuating from 10 to 20 nm. For x ⩾ 0.5 the particles are well-arranged in a “worm-like” structure. All the films are polycrystalline, to x = 0 (CdS) the cubic phase is present, the increase of composition promotes the formation of hexagonal phase or a mixture of both cubic and hexagonal phases. Preferential orientation in the (1 0 0) or (0 0 2) plane is observed. The crystal size decreases from 20 to 6 nm when x is increased. The optical properties can be easily tuned by adjusting the composition. Optical absorption analysis shows that the band gap (E{sub g}) value shifts to red in function of x (from 2.47 to 1.99 eV). Photoluminescence signal changes as “x” varies showing a regular behavior

  13. Micromechanics Modeling of Fracture in Nanocrystalline Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Piascik, R. S.; Raju, I. S.; Harris, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocrystalline metals have very high theoretical strength, but suffer from a lack of ductility and toughness. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of these materials before their full potential can be achieved. Because classical fracture mechanics is based on the comparison of computed fracture parameters, such as stress intlmsity factors, to their empirically determined critical values, it does not adequately describe the fundamental physics of fracture required to predict the behavior of nanocrystalline metals. Thus, micromechanics-based techniques must be considered to quanti@ the physical processes of deformation and fracture within nanocrystalline metals. This paper discusses hndamental physicsbased modeling strategies that may be useful for the prediction Iof deformation, crack formation and crack growth within nanocrystalline metals.

  14. Bilirubin adsorption on nanocrystalline titania films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhengpeng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Si Shihui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)]. E-mail: sishihui@mail.csu.edu.cn; Fung Yingsing [Department of Chemistry, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-02-26

    Bilirubin produced from hemoglobin metabolism and normally conjugated with albumin is a kind of lipophilic endotoxin, and can cause various diseases when its concentration is high. Bilirubin adsorption on the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis and IR techniques, and factors affecting its adsorption such as pH, bilirubin concentration, solution ionic strength, temperature and thickness of TiO{sub 2} films were discussed. The amount of adsorption and parameters for the adsorption kinetics were estimated from the frequency measurements of quartz crystal microbalance. A fresh surface of the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films could be photochemically regenerated because holes and hydroxyl radicals were generated by irradiating the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films with UV light, which could oxidize and decompose organic materials, and the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films can be easily regenerated when it is used as adsorbent for the removal of bilirubin.

  15. An experimental and theoretical investigation on the optical and photocatalytic properties of ZnS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porta, F. A.; Nogueira, A. E.; Gracia, Lourdes; Pereira, W. S.; Botelho, G.; Mulinari, T. A.; Andrés, Juan; Longo, E.

    2017-04-01

    From the viewpoints of materials chemistry and physical chemistry, crystal structure directly determines the electronic structure and furthermore their optical and photocatalytic properties. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) with tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission and high photocatalytic activity have been obtained by means of a microwave-assisted solvothermal (MAS) method using different precursors (i.e., zinc nitrate (ZN), zinc chloride (ZC), or zinc acetate (ZA)). The morphologies, optical properties, and electronic structures of the as-synthesized ZnS NPs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherms for N2 adsorption/desorption processes, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), PL measurements and theoretical calculations. Density functional theory calculations were used to determine the geometries and electronic properties of bulk wurtzite (WZ) ZnS NPs and their (0001), (101 ̅0), (112 ̅0), (101 ̅1), and (101 ̅2) surfaces. The dependence of the PL emission behavior of ZnS NPs on the precursor was elucidated by examining the energy band structure and density of states. The method for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was used as a probe reaction to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the as-Synthesised ZnS NPs under UV light irradiation. The PL behavior as well as photocatalytic activities of ZnS NPs were attributed to specific features of the structural and electronic structures. Increased photocatalytic degradation was observed for samples synthesized using different precursors in the following order: ZAZnS NPs were also briefly discussed.

  16. Eu(2)(+) -induced enhancement of defect luminescence of ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Bo, Zhang; Fu-Xiang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The Eu(2)(+) -induced enhancement of defect luminescence of ZnS was studied in this work. While photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibited 460 nm and 520 nm emissions in both ZnS and ZnS:Eu nanophosphors, different excitation characteristics were shown in their photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra. In ZnS nanophosphors, there was no excitation signal in the PLE spectra at the excitation wavelength λex  > 337 nm (the bandgap energy 3.68 eV of ZnS); while in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors, two excitation bands appeared that were centered at 365 nm and 410 nm. Compared with ZnS nanophosphors, the 520 nm emission in the PL spectra was relatively enhanced in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors and, furthermore, in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors the 460 nm and 520 nm emissions increased more than 10 times in intensity. The reasons for these differences were analyzed. It is believed that the absorption of Eu(2)(+) intra-ion transition and subsequent energy transfer to sulfur vacancy, led to the relative enhancement of the 520 nm emission in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors. In addition, more importantly, Eu(2)(+) acceptor-bound excitons are formed in ZnS:Eu nanophosphors and their excited levels serve as the intermediate state of electronic relaxation, which decreases non-radiative electronic relaxation and thus increases the intensity of the 460 nm and 520 nm emission dramatically. In summary, the results in this work indicate a new mechanism for the enhancement of defect luminescence of ZnS in Eu(2)(+) -doped ZnS nanophosphors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Charge Transfer in Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouroushian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline electrodes in liquid junction devices possess a number of unique properties arising from their convoluted structure and the dimensions of their building units. The light-induced charge separation and transport in photoelectrochemical systems using nanocrystalline/nanoporous semiconductor electrodes is discussed here in connection with the basic principles of the (Schottky barrier theory. Recent models for charge transfer kinetics in normal and unipolar (dye-sensitized cells are reviewed, and novel concepts and materials are considered.

  18. Resolving the nanostructure of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline SiOx layers for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsporn, M.; Kirner, S.; Villringer, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Costina, I.; Lehmann, M.; Stannowski, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon suboxides (nc-SiOx) have attracted attention during the past years for the use in thin-film silicon solar cells. We investigated the relationships between the nanostructure as well as the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of phosphorous, doped, nc-SiO0.8:H fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure was varied through the sample series by changing the deposition pressure from 533 to 1067 Pa. The samples were then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and a specialized plasmon imaging method. We found that the material changed with increasing pressure from predominantly amorphous silicon monoxide to silicon dioxide containing nanocrystalline silicon. The nanostructure changed from amorphous silicon filaments to nanocrystalline silicon filaments, which were found to cause anisotropic electron transport.

  19. Does nanocrystalline silver have a transferable effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadworny, Patricia L; Landry, Breanne K; Wang, JianFei; Tredget, Edward E; Burrell, Robert E

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mechanism of nanocrystalline silver antiinflammatory activity, and tested nanocrystalline silver for systemic antiinflammatory effects. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy of skin treated directly with nanocrystalline silver for 24 hours showed that at skin surfaces there were significant deposits at weights corresponding to Ag, AgO, AgCl, AgNO(3), Ag(2)O, and silver clusters Ag(2-6), but silver penetration was minimal. To test for translocation of the effect, a porcine contact dermatitis model in which wounds were induced on one side of the back and then treated with nanocrystalline silver on the opposite side of the back was used. Visual and histological data showed improvement relative to animals treated with saline only. Significantly increased induction of apoptosis in the inflammatory cells present in the dermis was observed with remote nanocrystalline silver treatments. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis showed decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8, and increased levels of antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin-4, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor, and keratinocyte growth factor-2. Thus, the antiinflammatory effects of nanocrystalline silver appear to be induced by interactions with cells in the top layers of the skin, which then release biological signals resulting in widespread antiinflammatory activity.

  20. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline (NC) Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature. The activation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni, including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary. The formation and storage of 60? full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains. The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips, leading to dislocation pile-up, severe lattice distortion, and formation of sub-grain boundary. The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation. The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  1. Plastic deformation of nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoLei

    2009-01-01

    A high-resolution electron microscopy study has uncovered the plastic behavior of accommodating large strains in nanocrystalline(NC)Ni subject to cold rolling at liquid nitrogen temperature.The acti vation of grain-boundary-mediated-plasticity is evidenced in NC-Ni,including twinning and formation of stacking fault via partial dislocation slips from the grain boundary.The formation and storage of 60° full dislocations are observed inside NC-grains.The grain/twin boundaries act as the barriers of dislocation slips,leading to dislocation pile-up,severe lattice distortion,and formation of sub-grain boundary.The vicinity of grain/twin boundary is where defects preferentially accumulate and likely the favorable place for onset of plastic deformation.The present results indicate the heterogeneous and multiple natures of accommodating plastic strains in NC-grains.

  2. Mechanochemistry of Chitosan-Coated Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) Nanocrystals for Bio-imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujňáková, Zdenka; Dutková, Erika; Kello, Martin; Mojžiš, Ján; Baláž, Matej; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2017-05-01

    The ZnS nanocrystals were prepared in chitosan solution (0.1 wt.%) using a wet ultra-fine milling. The obtained suspension was stable and reached high value of zeta potential (+57 mV). The changes in FTIR spectrum confirmed the successful surface coating of ZnS nanoparticles by chitosan. The prepared ZnS nanocrystals possessed interesting optical properties verified in vitro. Four cancer cells were selected (CaCo-2, HCT116, HeLa, and MCF-7), and after their treatment with the nanosuspension, the distribution of ZnS in the cells was studied using a fluorescence microscope. The particles were clearly seen; they passed through the cell membrane and accumulated in cytosol. The biological activity of the cells was not influenced by nanoparticles, they did not cause cell death, and only the granularity of cells was increased as a consequence of cellular uptake. These results confirm the potential of ZnS nanocrystals using in bio-imaging applications.

  3. Synthesis of ZnS hollow nanospheres with holes using different amine templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eingang LI; Yu TANG; Yuanming ZHANG; Jun YANG; Biying DU

    2008-01-01

    ZnS hollow nanospheres with holes were prepared by reacting ZnSO4 with H2S, the sulfide source formed in the reaction of CS2 with ethylenediamine, 1,3-propylenediamine, butylamine or 2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethanol, which also acted as a template agent, at 50℃ under agitation. The shape, particle size of about 100-850 nm and hole size of about 150-600 nm of ZnS hollow nanospheres with holes were shown by SEM and TEM images. These ZnS nanospheres with β cubic ZnS phase and composed of 2-5 nm nanocrystals were characterized by XRD and HRTEM. The blue shift of maximum absorption in UV-vis displayed the effect of quantum size. The two amino groups of amine templates reacted favorably with Zn2+ to form uniform and relatively smooth ZnS nanospheres with holes, while hydroxyethyl played a disadvantageous role. A reason-able mechanism of hole formation by H2S rushing out is suggested.

  4. Shape- and phase-controlled ZnS nanostructures and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xin [School of Physical Science and Technology and Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zeng, Xianghua, E-mail: xhzeng@yzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology and Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Yan, Xiaoqing [Nantong College, Jiangsu Open University, Nantong 226006, Jiangsu (China); Xia, Weiwei; Zhou, Yuxue; Shen, Xiaoshuang [School of Physical Science and Technology and Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM images of the nanorods, the HRTEM images for the lower (b) and the upper (c) part of the rod in (a). - Highlights: • Stacking faults were observed for ZnS nanocrystals with the size of ∼5 nm. • Nanotwinning structures and stacking faults were observed in ZnS nanorod. • Microstructure defects were found to be formed randomly for nanocrystals and nanorods. • The 1LO phonon mode exhibits a red-shift of 6 cm{sup −1} as the particle size increases from 5 to 15 nm. - Abstract: Single-crystalline ZnS nanoparticles with a zinc-blende crystal structure have some microdefects such as stacking faults and nanotwins. In contrast, ZnS nanorods have a wurtzite crystal structure, which grows along the [0 0 0 1] direction, although some nanorods display the intergrowth of a minor zinc-blende phase and the major wurtzite phase, which forms stacking faults or zinc-blende/wurtzite ZnS nanotwins. Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal surface phonons and longitudinal optical phonons in the nanoparticles, nanorods and doublet phonons that are associated with the transversal optical phonons of the A1 and E1 modes in only the nanorods. The first-order longitudinal optical phonon mode exhibits a blueshift of 6 cm{sup −1} when the particle size increases from 5 to 15 nm, but there is no shift in the range of 15–30 nm because of quantum confinement and microdefects.

  5. Shape dependent synthesis and field emission induced rectification in single ZnS nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupakula, Umamahesh; Dalui, Amit; Debangshi, Anupam; Bal, Jayanta K; Kumar, Gundam S; Acharya, Somobrata

    2014-05-28

    We report on the synthesis of shape controlled ZnS nanocrystals designed into nanodots, nanorods, and nanowires retaining the same diameter and crystallographic phase. We used UHV scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to study rectification behavior from single nanocrystals. The nanorod and nanowire show large tunneling current at the negative bias in comparison to the positive bias demonstrating current rectification, while the nanodot shows symmetric current-voltage behavior. We proposed a tunneling mechanism where direct tunneling is followed by resonant tunneling mechanism through ZnS nanocrystal at lower applied bias voltages. Stimulation of field emission in Fowler-Nordheim tunneling regime at higher negative bias voltages enables the rectification behavior from the ZnS nanorod or nanowire. Absence of rectification from the ZnS nanodot is associated with spherical shape where the field emission becomes less significant. Realizing functional electronic component from such shape dependent single ZnS nanocrystal may provide a means in realizing nanocrystal based miniaturized devices.

  6. One-Dimensional (1D) ZnS Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosheng FANG; Lide ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and nanostructures have received much attention due to their potential interest for understanding fundamental physical concepts and for applications in constructing nanoscale electric and optoelectronic devices. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is an important semiconductor compound of Ⅱ-Ⅵ group,and the synthesis of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures has been of growing interest owing to their promising application in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. This paper reviews the recent progress on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures, including nanowires, nanowire arrays, nanorods, nanobelts or nanoribbons,nanocables, and hierarchical nanostructures etc. This article begins with a survey of various methods that have been developed for generating 1D nanomaterials and nanostructures, and then mainly focuses on structures,synthesis, characterization, formation mechanisms and optical property tuning, and luminescence mechanisms of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards future research on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  7. Synthesis and influence of ultrasonic treatment on luminescence of Mn incorporated ZnS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadis, A.-I.; Muresan, L. E.; Perhaita, I.; Munteanu, V.; Karabulut, Y.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Canimoglu, A.; Ayvacikli, M.; Can, N.

    2017-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) doping of ZnS phosphors was achieved by precipitation method using different ultrasound (US) maturation times. The structural and luminescence properties of the samples were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL). The real amount of manganese incorporated in ZnS lattice was calculated based on ICP-OES results. According with XRD patterns, the phase structure of ZnS:Mn samples is cubic. EDS spectra reveal deviations of the Mn dopant concentration from the target composition. Both 300 K PL and CL emission spectra of the Mn doped ZnS phosphors display intense orange emission at 590 and 600 nm, respectively, which is characteristic emission of Mn ion corresponding to a 4T1→6A1 transition. Both PL and CL spectra confirmed manganese is substitutionally incorporated into the ZnS host as Mn2+. However, it is suggested that the origin of broad blue emission around 400 nm appeared in CL is due to the radiative recombination at deep level defect states in the ZnS. The ultrasound treatment at first enhances the luminescent intensity by ∼3 times in comparison with samples prepared by classical way. This study gives rise to an optimization guideline, which is extremely demanded for the development of new luminescent materials.

  8. Cytotoxicity tests of water soluble ZnS and CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Mengyan; Shih, Wan Y; Lelkes, Peter I; Shih, Wei-Heng

    2011-04-01

    Cytotoxicity tests of zinc sulfide (ZnS) and cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) synthesized via all-aqueous process with various surface conditions were carried out with human endothelial cells (EA hy926) using two independent viability assays, i.e., by cell counting following Trypan blue staining and by measuring Alamar Blue (AB) fluorescence. The ZnS QDs with all four distinct types of surface conditions were nontoxic at both 1 microM and 10 microM concentrations for at least 6 days. On the other hand, the CdS QDs were nontoxic only at 1 microM, and showed significant cytotoxicity at 10 microM after 3 days in the cell counting assay and after 4 days in the AB fluorescence assay. The CdS QDs with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPS)-replacement plus silica capping were less cytotoxic than those with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) capping and those with MPS-replacement capping. Comparing the results of ZnS and CdS QDs with the same particle size, surface condition and concentration, it is indicated that the cytotoxicity of CdS QDs and the lack of it in ZnS QDs were probably due to the presence and absence of the toxic Cd element, respectively. The nontoxicity of the aqueous ZnS QDs makes them favorable for in vivo imaging applications.

  9. Strong adhesion in nanocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, T.; Umeno, M.; Soga, T.; Jimbo, T.

    2001-05-01

    Strong adhesion is shown to be achieved in the growth of smooth nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films on silicon substrates at 600 °C using biased enhanced growth in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The strong adhesion is evident from the films sustaining compressive stress, which may be as high as 85 GPa. The substrates are bent spherically after deposition, however, films are not peeled off, in spite of having enormous in-plane stress. The strong adhesion may be a result of implanted carbon below the substrate surface with an optimized ion flux density in the initial stages of growth. The compressive stress in the films is shown to be generating from the graphitic and other nondiamond carbon impurities in the films. It was observed that the NCD grain size decreases with biasing hence increasing grain boundary area in the films accommodating more graphitic impurities, which in turn results in an increase in compressive stress in the films.

  10. Mesoporous nanocrystalline film architecture for capacitive storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Wang, John; Brezesinski, Torsten; Gruner, George

    2017-05-16

    A mesoporous, nanocrystalline, metal oxide construct particularly suited for capacitive energy storage that has an architecture with short diffusion path lengths and large surface areas and a method for production are provided. Energy density is substantially increased without compromising the capacitive charge storage kinetics and electrode demonstrates long term cycling stability. Charge storage devices with electrodes using the construct can use three different charge storage mechanisms immersed in an electrolyte: (1) cations can be stored in a thin double layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface (non-faradaic mechanism); (2) cations can interact with the bulk of an electroactive material which then undergoes a redox reaction or phase change, as in conventional batteries (faradaic mechanism); or (3) cations can electrochemically adsorb onto the surface of a material through charge transfer processes (faradaic mechanism).

  11. Nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by laser-induced crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅广生; 于威; 李社强; 侯海虹; 彭英才; 韩理

    2003-01-01

    The excimer laser-induced crystallization technique has been used to investigate the preparation of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) from amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin films on silicon or glass substrates. The α-Si films without hydrogen grown by pulsed-laser deposition are chosen as precursor to avoid the problem of hydrogen effluence during annealing.Analyses have been performed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Experimental results show that silicon nanocrystals can be formed through laser annealing. The growth characters of nc-Si are strongly dependent on the laser energy density. It is shown that the volume of the molten silicon predominates essentially the grain size of nc-Si, and the surface tension of the crystallized silicon is responsible for the mechanism of nc-Si growth.

  12. Microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of magnetron sputtered nanocrystalline TiN films on glass substrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vipin Chawla; R Jayaganthan; Ramesh Chandra

    2009-04-01

    Nanocrystalline TiN thin films were deposited on glass substrate by d.c. magnetron sputtering. The microstructural characteristics of the thin films were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and AFM. XRD analysis of the thin films, with increasing thickness, showed the (200) preferred orientation up to 1.26 m thickness and then it transformed into (220) and (200) peaks with further increase in thickness up to 2.83 m. The variation in preferred orientation was due to the competition between surface energy and strain energy during film growth. The deposited films were found to be very dense nanocrystalline film with less porosity as evident from their FE-SEM and AFM images. The surface roughness of the TiN films has increased slightly with the film thickness as observed from its AFM images. The mechanical properties of TiN films such as hardness and modulus of elasticity () were investigated by nanoindentation technique. The hardness of TiN thin film was found to be thickness dependent. The highest hardness value (24 GPa) was observed for the TiN thin films with less positive micro strain.

  13. Nanocrystalline cellulose from coir fiber: preparation, properties, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanocrystalline cellulose derived from various botanical sources offers unique and potentially useful characteristics. In principle, any cellulosic material can be considered as a potential source of a nanocrystalline material, including crops, crop residues, and agroindustrial wastes. Because of t...

  14. Optical, phonon and efficient visible and infrared photocatalytic activity of Cu doped ZnS micro crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Neena; Balasubramanian, Karthikeyan

    2017-02-01

    We report, the enhanced photocatalytic behaviour of Cu doped ZnS micro crystals. ZnS and different concentrations of Cu doped ZnS microcrystals were prepared. X-ray diffraction confirms the crystalline and phase of the particles. Morphology and sizes were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Recorded optical absorption spectra show a band for around 365 nm for pure ZnS, but there is a broad band in the near infrared regime for the Cu-doped ZnS microcrystals which are attributed to the d-d transitions of Cu2 + ions. Phonon properties of as-prepared samples were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Present work we investigate the potential of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS as a photocatalyst. For this from the degradation of methylene blue dye in aqueous media the photocatalytic activity of pure and highest doped ZnS samples with the irradiation of white light and infrared, enhanced photocatalytic activity were observed. Mechanism of white light an IR light based photocatalytic activity is explained based on the electron-hole pair production.

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles loaded with MoS2 nanoflakes by self-assembly approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Byon, Chan; Jeon, Sora

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid consisting of ZnS nanoparticles supported on layered MoS2-ZnS was synthesized by a hydrothermal method based on self-assembly technique without using a template. XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HR-TEM, TG-DTA, XPS, N2 adsorption-desorption, and UV-Vis spectroscopies were used to characterize the structural features, morphology, and composition of the MoS2-ZnS hybrid. The results show that the MoS2-ZnS hybrid is mainly ZnS nanoparticles on layered MoS2 with a thickness of ca. 5-20 nm. The combination of the MoS2 and ZnS hybrid structure is beneficial for enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. A possible photoreaction mechanism of the MoS2-ZnS hybrid in the degradation is proposed. The photoexcited electrons from the ZnS could easily transfer to the conduction band of MoS2, thus decreasing the recombination of photoinduced carriers and enabling the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation.

  16. Characterization and Application of Colloidal Nanocrystalline Materials for Advanced Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Khagendra P.

    Solar energy is Earth's primary source of renewable energy and photovoltaic solar cells enable the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. Crystalline silicon solar cells and modules have dominated photovoltaic technology from the beginning and they now constitute more than 90% of the PV market. Thin film (CdTe and CIGS) solar cells and modules come in second position in market share. Some organic, dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells are emerging in the market but are not yet in full commercial scale. Solar cells made from colloidal nanocrystalline materials may eventually provide both low cost and high efficiency because of their promising properties such as high absorption coefficient, size tunable band gap, and quantum confinement effect. It is also expected that the greenhouse gas emission and energy payback time from nanocrystalline solar PV systems will also be least compared to all other types of PV systems mainly due to the least embodied energy throughout their life time. The two well-known junction architectures for the fabrication of quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are the Schottky junction and heterojunction. In Schottky junction cells, a heteropartner semiconducting material is not required. A low work function metal is used as the back contact, a transparent conducting layer is used as the front contact, and the layer of electronically-coupled quantum dots is placed between these two materials. Schottky junction solar cells explain the usefulness of nanocrystalline materials for high efficiency heterojunction solar cells. For heterojunction devices, n-type semiconducting materials such as ZnO , CdS or TiO2 have been used as suitable heteropartners. Here, PbS quantum dot solar cells were fabricated using ZnO and CdS semiconductor films as window layers. Both of the heteropartners are sputter-deposited onto TCO coated glass substrates; ZnO was deposited with the substrate held at room temperature and for CdS the substrate was at 250

  17. Effect of effective mass and spontaneous polarization on photocatalytic activity of wurtzite and zinc-blende ZnS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor zinc sulphide (ZnS has two common phases: hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc-blende structures. The crystal structures, energy band structures, density of states (DOS, bond populations, and optical properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende ZnS were investigated by the density functional theory of first-principles. The similar band gaps and DOS of wurtzite and zinc-blende ZnS were found and implied the similarities in crystal structures. However, the distortion of ZnS4 tetrahedron in wurtzite ZnS resulted in the production of spontaneous polarization and internal electric field, which was beneficial for the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes.

  18. Kinetics of oxygen adsorption on ZnS nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized through a one-step precipitation process. Effect of time and temperature on the formation reaction was investigated. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, ultraviolet (UV visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL spectrophotometry. Based on XRD and UV-Vis data, the particles produced at 70 °C had a mean particle size of about 5 nm. Increasing time and temperature of the synthesis reaction resulted in photoluminescence intensification. PL spectroscopy helped understanding the adsorption kinetics of oxygen on ZnS nanoparticles during the precipitation synthesis process. Fabrication of ZnS structures with appropriate oxygen adsorption capacity was suggested as a means of PL emission intensity control.

  19. Controlling crystalline structure of ZnS nanocrystals only by tuning sulfur precursor addition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong; Pan, Liqing; Xu, Mei; Xiao, John Q

    2010-12-01

    Unlike previous studies that emphasize the important role of thermodynamics or surface energy on the structure stabilization of ZnS nanocrystals, we successfully controlled the crystalline structure of ZnS nanocrystals simply by tuning sulfur precursor addition rate under exactly the same other conditions. We observed the structure of as prepared ZnS nanocrystals was evolved from wurtzite into zinc blende with increasing the addition rate of sulfur precursor. The method may extend to engineer other nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties by controlling crystalline structure. On the other hand, it also makes a new approach to understand the crucial factors that determine the growth mechanism and the crystal structure of nanomaterials in theory.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of ZnS doped with metallic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Estela; Sanchez-Mora, Enrique; Silva, Rutilo; Perez-Hernandez, Leticia; Lopez-Garcia, Cesar; Lozada-Dircio, Victor

    2007-03-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is a wide band gap and direct transition semiconductor. It is an important material for detection emission and modulation of visible and ultraviolet light, and for electroluminescent devices among other applications. The object of this work was to deposit by the sol-gel method/deep coating, ZnS, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Sm films (5 coatings) on glass substrate. The samples were characterized to study the surface morphology, composition and some optical properties. SEM micrographs show a porous surface morphology with agglomerate type defects. FTIR spectra show the presence of surface O-H and S-O groups. By AES it was determined the composition of the films, and UV-Vis spectra confirmed the ZnS compound formation. This work has been partially supported by VIEP-BUAP, Project No. 11/EXC/06/G.

  1. Role of magnesium in ZnS structure: Experimental and theoretical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wide band gap semiconductor materials are extending significant applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry. They are showing continued advancement in ultraviolet to infrared LEDs and laser diodes. Likewise the band gap tunability of ZnS with intentional impurities such as Mg and Mn are found useful for optoelectronic devices. Information from literature indicates slight blue shift in the band gap energy of ZnS by Mg doping but nevertheless, we report a reasonable red shift (3.48 eV/356 nm to 2.58 eV/480 nm in ZnS band gap energy in Mg-ZnS structure. Theoretical model based on first principle theory using local density approximation revealed consistent results on Mg-ZnS structure. Similarly, structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the as grown Mg-ZnS were studied by XRD, SEM, FTIR, EDS, UV-Vis Spectrophotometer and Hall measurement techniques.

  2. Synthesis of Cu doped ZnS nanostructures on flexible substrate using low cost chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Nitin, E-mail: nitinmishra97@gmail.com; Purohit, L. P., E-mail: lppurohit@gmail.com [Gurukula Kangari University, Haridwar UK (India); Goswami, Y. C., E-mail: y-goswami@yahoo.com [ITM University, Turari, Gwalior, MP (India)

    2015-08-28

    Flexible electronics is one of the emerging area of this era. In this paper we have reported synthesis of Cu doped Zinc sulphide nanostructures on filter paper flexible substrates. Zinc chloride and Thio urea were used as a precursor for Zinc and Sulphur. The structures were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and UV visible spectrometer. All the peaks identified for cubic structure of ZnS. Appearance of small Cu peaks indicates incorporation of Cu into ZnS lattice. Zns nanostructures assembled as nanobelts and nanofibers as shown in FE-SEM micrographs. Compound Structures provide the reasonable electrical conductivity on filter paper. Absorption in UV region makes them suitable for flexible electronic devices.

  3. Spin coating of ZnS nanostructures on filter paper and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitin; Purohit, L. P.; Goswami, Y. C.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we have reported spin coating of Cu doped Zinc sulphide nanostructures on filter paper flexible substrates. Zinc chloride and thiourea were used as precursors of zinc and sulphur. The samples were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, EDAX and UV-visible spectrum studies. All the diffractogram peaks confirm the cubic structure of ZnS with small peak of Cu indicates incorporation of Cu into ZnS lattice. FE-SEM micrographs exhibit fibrous morphologies of ZnS structures on filter paper. Compound structures on flexible substrates show ohmic behavior with conductivity about 3.07×106 (Ωcm)-1 to 4.27×106 (Ωcm)-1. Excellent photoluminescence property doped with copper makes them suitable for flexible opto-electronic devices.

  4. Structural, morphological and optical properties of Mn doped ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Mote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mn doped ZnS samples with composition formula Zn1-xMn xS where x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.10 were prepared by chemical method. Samples characterized for its structural, morphological and optical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and UV-vis spectrometer. XRD patterns confirm cubic zinc blend structure with no secondary phases for pure and Mn doped ZnS. Lattice constant value increases slightly with Mn concentration due to the substitution of Mn in ZnS lattice. TEM images show that the particles have spherical in shape with an average particle size between 3-4 nm. The chemical species of the grown crystals are identified by FTIR spectra. Optical absorption spectra show decrement in band gap with increasing Mn concentration.

  5. Observation of two-photon absorption at UV radiation in ZnS quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manajit Chattopadhyay; Pathik Kumbhakar; Udit Chatterjee

    2014-02-01

    Research studies on quantum dots (QDs) of semiconductor materials are of potential interest in present days having promising applications in different optoelectronic devices. Among other materials, ZnS is a direct bandgap semiconductor material having a wide bandgap of 3.6 eV for its cubic phase at room temperature and it shows excellent optical properties. However, here the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of chemically synthesized ZnS QDs of average size of ∼ 1.5 nm have been reported which are measured by using an indigenously developed Z-scan technique. The pump radiation is 355 nm which is the third harmonic of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation having pulsed duration of 10 ns with the repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measured experimental data have been analysed by using analytical models and two-photon absorption coefficients of the ZnS QDs at 355 nm have been extracted.

  6. Raman selection rule of surface optical phonon in ZnS nanobelts

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-02-18

    We report Raman scattering results of high-quality wurtzite ZnS nanobelts (NBs) grown by chemical vapor deposition. In Raman spectrum, the ensembles of ZnS NBs exhibit first order phonon modes at 274 cm-1 and 350 cm-1, corresponding to A1/E1 transverse optical and A1/E1 longitudinal optical phonons, in addition with strong surface optical (SO) phonon mode at 329 cm-1. The existence of SO band is confirmed by its shift with different surrounding dielectric media. Polarization dependent Raman spectrum was performed on a single ZnS NB and for the first time SO phonon band has been detected on a single nanobelt. Different selection rules of SO phonon modeshown from their corresponding E1/A1 phonon modeswere attributed to the anisotropic translational symmetry breaking on the NB surface.

  7. Advancements in the Quantification of the Crystal Structure of ZNS Materials Produced in Variable Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Screens and displays consume tremendous amounts of power. Global trends to significantly consume less power and increase battery life have led to the reinvestigation of electroluminescent materials. The state of the art in ZnS materials has not been furthered in the past 30 years and there is much potential in improving electroluminescent properties of these materials with advanced processing techniques. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) utilises a rapid exothermic process involving high energy and nonlinearity coupled with a high cooling rate to produce materials formed outside of normal equilibrium boundaries thus possessing unique properties. The elimination of gravity during this process allows capillary forces to dominate mixing of the reactants which results in a superior and enhanced homogeneity in the product materials. ZnS type materials have been previously conducted in reduced gravity and normal gravity. It has been claimed in literature that a near perfect phases of ZnS wurtzite was produced. Although, the SHS of this material is possible at high pressures, there has been no quantitative information on the actual crystal structures and lattice parameters that were produced in this work. Utilising this process with ZnS doped with Cu, Mn, or rare earth metals such as Eu and Pr leads to electroluminescence properties, thus making this an attractive electroluminescent material. The work described here will revisit the synthesis of ZnS via high pressure SHS and will re-examine the work performed in both normal gravity and in reduced gravity within the ZARM drop tower facility. Quantifications in the lattice parameters, crystal structures, and phases produced will be presented to further explore the unique structure-property performance relationships produced from the SHS of ZnS materials.

  8. Displacive radiation-induced structural contraction in nanocrystalline ZrN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Fengyuan; Sun Hongtao; Lian Jie [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytech Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Huang, Mengbing; Yaqoob, Faisal [Ion Beam Laboratory, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Lang, Maik; Ewing, Rodney C. [Departments of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Materials Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States); Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-23

    Nanocrystalline ZrN thin films with 5 nm grain size, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, maintained their isometric structure upon intensive displacive and ionizing irradiations, indicating an extremely high stability similar to bulk ZrN. However, a unique structural contraction up to 1.42% in lattice parameter occurred only in nano-sized ZrN upon displacive irradiations. A significant nitrogen loss occurred with reduced N:Zr atomic ratio to 0.88, probably due to the production of displaced nitrogen atoms and fast diffusion along grain boundaries in nanocrystalline ZrN matrix. The accumulation of nitrogen vacancies and related strain relaxation may be responsible for the structural contraction.

  9. Origin of the planar Hall effect in nanocrystalline Co60Fe20B20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K M; Freimuth, F; Zhang, H; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Bürgler, D E; Schneider, C M

    2011-08-19

    An angle dependent analysis of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in nanocrystalline single-domain Co(60)Fe(20)B(20) thin films is reported. In a combined experimental and theoretical study we show that the transverse resistivity of the PHE is entirely driven by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Our results for Co(60)Fe(20)B(20) obtained from first principles theory in conjunction with a Boltzmann transport model take into account the nanocrystallinity and the presence of 20 at. % boron. The ab initio AMR ratio of 0.12% agrees well with the experimental value of 0.22%. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that the anomalous Hall effect contributes negligibly in the present case.

  10. Solvothermal Synthesis of Well-Disperse ZnS Nanorods with Efficient Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-disperse short-range-ordered ZnS nanorods with efficient photocatalytic property for photodegradation of Rhodamin B have been successfully synthesized through a solvothermal method. Solvent used can be recovered and reused, which makes the route environment-friendly. Dodecylamine was found effective in organizing nanorods to ordered monolayer. Characterization showed that these nanorods were uniform with the diameter of about 3 nm and length of nearly 30 nm. And it is expected that these monodisperse ZnS nanorods have potential applications in electroluminescence materials.

  11. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of Mn-doped ZnS nanobelts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-yan; YANG Xiao-ling; HOU De-dong; LIU Ying-kai

    2009-01-01

    Mn-doped ZnS nanobelts have been prepared through a thermal evaporation method at 1100℃. The synthesized nanobelts are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results show that the nanobelts have an uniform single-crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure and grow along [0001] direction. Room-temperature photoluminescence reveals that the intrinsic PL of the nanobelts disappears and a new PL peak of the Mn-doped ZnS nanobelts emerges at 575 nm.

  12. ZnS (Mn Nanoparticles as Luminescent Centers for Siloxane Based Scintillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carturan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of oleic acid stabilized ZnS nanocrystals activated with Mn is pursued. A hydrothermal method where high pressure and temperature are applied to control the nanocrystals growth is adopted. Capping the nanoparticle surface with oleic acid (OA improved light output. Samples loaded with both the phosphor and the neutron sensitizer have been produced and tested in a preliminary test as alpha particle detectors and secondly as thermal neutron detectors. The results support further development for siloxane-based scintillator detectors employing ZnS (Mn nanoparticles.

  13. Structural elucidation of nanocrystalline biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltsev, S.

    2008-10-23

    Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are the second most prevalent health problem worldwide. In Germany approximately 5 millions people are affected by arthritis. Investigating biomineralization processes and bone molecular structure is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was the primary technique used due to its advantages in characterising poorly ordered and disordered materials. Compared to all the diffraction techniques that widely applied in structural investigations, the usefulness of NMR is independent of long range molecular order. This makes NMR an outstanding technique for studies of complex/amorphous materials. Conventional NMR experiments (single pulse, spin-echo, cross polarization (CP), etc.) as well as their modifications and high-end techniques (2D HETCOR, REDOR, etc.) were used in this work. Combining the contributions from different techniques enhances the information content of the investigations and can increase the precision of the overall conclusions. Also XRD, TEM and FTIR were applied to different extent in order to get a general idea of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystallite structure. Results: - A new approach named 'Solid-state NMR spectroscopy using the lost I spin magnetization in polarization transfer experiments' has been developed for measuring the transferred I spin magnetization from abundant nuclei, which is normally lost when detecting the S spin magnetization. - A detailed investigation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite core was made to prove that proton environment of the phosphates units and phosphorus environment of hydroxyl units are the same as in highly crystalline hydroxyapatite sample. - Using XRD it was found that the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals is not completely disordered, as it was suggested before, but resembles the hydroxyapatite structure with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (and some CO{sub 3}{sup

  14. Controlling the quality of nanoc