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Sample records for nanocrystalline tio2 thin

  1. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  2. A chemical route to room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Habib M.; Kim, Woo Young; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    A lot of methods are developed for the deposition of TiO 2 thin films; however, in each of these methods as-deposited films are amorphous and need further heat treatment at high temperature. In the present article, a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used for the preparation of TiO 2 thin films. We investigated nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films using CBD at room temperature onto glass and ITO coated glass substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The chemically synthesized films were nanocrystalline and composed of crystal grains of 2-3 nm

  3. Photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film with Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin coating technique. While, by introducing polystyrene (PS) microspheres, porous TiO 2 /Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500 o C. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. After 500 o C calcination, the microstructure of PS-TiO 2 film without Ag addition exhibited a sponge-like microstructure while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Meanwhile, coalescence of nanocrystalline anatase-phase TiO 2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where 72% methylene blue can be decomposed after UV exposure for 12 h

  4. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Preetam; Kaur, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO 2 film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO 2 films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  5. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  6. Hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in RF-sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, Manuel; Juarez, Gabriel; Heluani, Silvia P. de; Comedi, David

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature of a nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin film fabricated by reactive RF-sputtering deposition and sandwiched between ITO (indium-tin-oxide)-buffered glass substrate and an indium top electrode. The I-V characteristics are ohmic for low voltages and become non-linear, hysteretic and asymmetric as the voltage is increased. The system is shown to be well represented by two distinct resistance states in the non-ohmic region. Current transient evolutions were also measured for constant voltage excitations. The resistance is stable in time for voltages in the ohmic regime. In contrast, for voltages in the non-ohmic regime, the resistance has a small variation for a short period of time (order of tens seconds) and then increases with time. For those transients, long characteristic times (on the order of tens of minutes up to hours) were found. The behavior of the system is discussed on the basis of experimental results reported in the literature for similar systems and existing models for electric-field induced resistive switching

  7. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Spray pyrolysis techniques; TiO2 thin films; hydrogen gas response. 1. Introduction ... tion is necessary during the production, storage and use of hydrogen. It is also ..... ient, and 'green': it may be used to large scale industrial application for ...

  8. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction ...

  9. Influence of nanocrystalline structure and surface properties of TiO2 thin films on the viability of L929 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osękowska Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the physicochemical and biological properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films were investigated. Thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering method. Their properties were examined by X-ray diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical transmission method and optical profiler. Moreover, surface wettability and scratch resistance were determined. It was found that as-deposited coatings were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure, built from crystallites in size of 24 nm. The surface of the films was homogenous, composed of closely packed grains and hydrophilic. Due to nanocrystalline structure thin films exhibited good scratch resistance. The results were correlated to the biological activity (in vitro of thin films. Morphological changes of mouse fibroblasts (L929 cell line after contact with the surface of TiO2 films were evaluated with the use of a contrast-phase microscope, while their viability was tested by MTT colorimetric assay. The viability of cell line upon contact with the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 film was comparable to the control sample. L929 cells had homogenous cytoplasm and were forming a confluent monofilm, while lysis and inhibition of cell growth was not observed. Moreover, the viability in contact with surface of examined films was high. This confirms non-cytotoxic effect of TiO2 film surface on mouse fibroblasts.

  10. Influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of sol-gel derived nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, M; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, K Narasimha; Mohan, S; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-03-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on glass and silicon substrates with and without surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of nano-crystalline (anatase) phase at an annealing temperature of 300 degrees C. The influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of TiO(2) thin films has been studied. Optical constants and film thickness were estimated by Swanepoel's (envelope) method and by ellipsometric measurements in the visible spectral range. The optical transmittance and reflectance were found to decrease with an increase in PEG percentage. Refractive index of the films decreased and film thickness increased with the increase in percentage of surfactant. The refractive index of the un-doped TiO(2) films was estimated at different annealing temperatures and it has increased with the increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap of pure TiO(2) films was estimated by Tauc's method at different annealing temperature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nano-crystalline thin and nano-particulate thick TiO2 layer: Cost effective sequential deposition and study on dye sensitized solar cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Sengupta, D.; Kasinadhuni, U.; Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin TiO 2 layer is deposited on conducting substrate using sol–gel based dip coating. • TiO 2 nano-particles are synthesized using hydrothermal route. • Thick TiO 2 particulate layer is deposited on prepared thin layer. • Dye sensitized solar cells are made using thin and thick layer based photo-anode. • Introduction of thin layer in particulate photo-anode improves the cell efficiency. - Abstract: A compact thin TiO 2 passivation layer is introduced between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting glass substrate to prepare photo-anode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). In order to understand the effect of passivation layer, other two DSSCs are also developed separately using TiO 2 nano-particulate and compact thin film based photo-anodes. Nano-particles are prepared using hydrothermal synthesis route and the compact passivation layer is prepared by simply dip coating the precursor sol prepared through wet chemical route. The TiO 2 compact layer and the nano-particles are characterised in terms of their micro-structural features and phase formation behavior. It is found that introduction of a compact TiO 2 layer in between the mesoporous TiO 2 nano-particulate layer and the conducting substrate improves the solar to electric conversion efficiency of the fabricated cell. The dense thin passivation layer is supposed to enhance the photo-excited electron transfer and prevent the recombination of photo-excited electrons

  12. Influences of the iron ion (Fe3+)-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Naceur, J.; Mechiakh, R.; Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe 3+ ) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO 2 thin films comprised only the anatase TiO 2 , but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe 3+ content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe 3+ addition to 20%, the phase of TiO 2 thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E g ) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe 3+ content.

  13. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  14. Nanocrystalline SnO2-TiO2 thin film deposited on base of equilateral prism as an opto-electronic humidity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B. C.; Verma, Nidhi; Singh, Satyendra

    2012-09-01

    Present paper reports the synthesis of SnO2-TiO2 nanocomposite, its characterization and performance as opto-electronic humidity sensor. Nanocrystalline SnO2-TiO2 film was deposited on the base of an equilateral prism using a photo resist spinner and the as prepared film was annealed at 200 °C for 2 h. The crystal structure of the prepared film was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Minimum crystallite size of the material was found 7 nm. Surface morphology of the film was investigated by Scanning electron microscope (SEM LEO-0430, Cambridge). SEM image shows that the film is porous. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of as synthesized material shows two exothermic peaks at about 40 and 110 °C, respectively which are due to the evaporation of chemical impurities and water. Further the prepared film was investigated through the exposure of humidity and relative humidity (%RH) was measured directly in terms of modulation in the intensity of light recorded on a digital power meter. The maximum sensitivity of sensor was found 4.14 μW/%RH, which is quite significant for sensor fabrication purposes.

  15. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  16. Comparative analysis of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) having different nanocrystalline TiO2 layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcade, Fresnel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Vigil, Elena; Jennings, James R.; Duna, Halina; Wang, Hongxia; Peter, Laurence M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are very prospective because of their low cost and comparatively not so low efficiency. This represents an advantage together with the innocuous character of the constituent materials. We study different types of DSSC. The procedure for making them has been the same except for the TiO 2 layer structure. This layer must be porous and nanocrystalline in order to increase light absorption by the sensitizer. On the other hand, this condition causes that the electrolyte contacts the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) underneath the TiO 2 originating undesired recombinations. Also the electrical contact of the Tio to the TCO depends on the technology used to deposit the TiO 2 . In order to avoid possible leakage currents caused by recombinations from the TCO to the electrolyte and improve TiO 2 -TCO electrical contact, a thin TiO 2 film is placed in between the porous TiO 2 layer and the TCO. Different structures are obtained using different technologies to obtain the thin TiO 2 film. These structures are analyzed from their volt-amperic characteristic, external quantum efficiency spectra and voltage decay observed when light is suppressed. Results obtained allow making recommendations regarding nanocrystalline TiO 2 structure to be used in DSSC. (author)

  17. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  18. Correlation of Photocatalysis and Photoluminescence Effect in Relation to the Surface Properties of TiO2:Tb Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper structural, optical, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:(2.6 at. % Tb thin films have been compared. Thin films were prepared by high-energy reactive magnetron sputtering process, which enables obtaining highly nanocrystalline rutile structure of deposited films. Crystallites sizes were 8.7 nm and 6.6 nm for TiO2 and TiO2:Tb, respectively. Surface of prepared thin films was homogenous with small roughness of ca. 7.2 and 2.1 nm in case of TiO2 and TiO2:Tb samples, respectively. Optical properties measurements have shown that the incorporation of Tb into TiO2 matrix has not changed significantly the thin films transparency. It also enables obtaining photoluminescence effect in wide range from 350 to 800 nm, what is unique phenomenon in case of TiO2 with rutile structure. Moreover, it has been found that the incorporation of 2.6 at. % of Tb has increased the photocatalytic activity more than two times as compared to undoped TiO2. Additionally, for the first time in the current state of the art, the relationship between photoluminescence effect, photocatalytic activity, and surface properties of TiO2:Tb thin films has been theoretically explained.

  19. Synthesis of photosensitive nanograined TiO2 thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, U.M.; Gurav, K.V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films are deposited by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate from aqueous solution. The as-deposited films are heat treated at 673 K for 2 h in air. The change in structural, morphological and optical properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that the SILAR method allows the formation of anatase, nanocrystalline, and porous TiO 2 thin films. The heat-treated film showed conversion efficiency of 0.047% in photoelectrochemical cell with 1 M NaOH electrolyte.

  20. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  1. Visible photoenhanced current-voltage characteristics of Au : TiO2 nanocomposite thin films as photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N; Amiri, M; Moshfegh, A Z

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of annealing temperature and concentration of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrochemical properties of sol-gel deposited Au : TiO 2 nanocomposite thin films is studied. Various gold concentrations have been added to the TiO 2 thin films and their properties are compared. All the deposited samples are annealed at different temperatures. The optical density spectra of the films show the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of the Au : TiO 2 films decreases with increasing Au concentration. The crystalline structure of the nanocomposite films is studied by x-ray diffractometry indicating the formation of gold nanocrystals in the anatase TiO 2 nanocrystalline thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the presence of gold in the metallic state and the formation of TiO 2 are stoichiometric. The photoelectrochemical properties of the Au : TiO 2 samples are characterized using a compartment cell containing H 2 SO 4 and KOH as cathodic and anodic electrolytes, respectively. It is found that the addition of Au nanoparticles in TiO 2 films enhances the photoresponse of the layer and the addition of gold nanocrystals with an optimum value of 5 mol% resulted in the highest photoelectrochemical activity. Moreover, the photoresponse of the samples is also enhanced with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  2. Rapid fabrication of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by pulsed fibre laser for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Aseel; Alhabradi, Mansour; Chen, Qian; Liu, Hong; Guo, Wei; Curioni, Michele; Cernik, Robert; Liu, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm and a pulse width of milliseconds can be applied to generate mesoporous nanocrystalline (nc) TiO2 thin films on ITO coated glass in ambient atmosphere, by complete vaporisation of organic binder and inter-connection of TiO2 nanoparticles, without thermally damaging the ITO layer and the glass substrate. The fabrication of the mesoporous TiO2 thin films was achieved by stationary laser beam irradiation of 1 min. The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with the laser-sintered TiO2 photoanode reached higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.20% for the TiO2 film thickness of 6 μm compared with 2.99% for the furnace-sintered. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the laser sintering under the optimised condition effectively decreased charge transfer resistance and increased electron lifetime of the TiO2 thin films. The use of the fibre laser with over 40% wall-plug efficiency offers an economically-feasible, industrial viable solution to the major challenge of rapid fabrication of large scale, mass production of mesoporous metal oxide thin film based solar energy systems, potentially for perovskite and monolithic tandem solar cells, in the future.

  3. Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadizadeh, M.R.; Ashkarran, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Among the several oxide semiconductors, titanium dioxide has a more helpful role in our environmental purification due to its photocatalytic activity, photo-induced superhydrophilicity, and as a result of them non-toxicity, self cleaning, and antifogging effects. After the discovery of superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide in 1997, several researches have been performed due to its nature and useful applications. The superhydrophilicity property of the surface allows water to spread completely across the surface rather than remains as droplets, thus making the surface antifog and easy-to-clean. The distinction of photo-induced catalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO 2 thin films has been accepted although, the origin of hydrophilicity property has not been recognized completely yet. TiO 2 thin films on soda lime glass were prepared by the sol-gel method and spin coating process. The calcination temperature was changed from 100 to 550 C. XRD patterns show increasing the content of polycrystalline anatase phase with increasing the calcination temperature. The AFM results indicate granular morphology of the films, which particle size changes from 22 to 166 nm by increasing the calcination temperature. The RBS, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of the films show the ratio of Ti:O∼0.5, and diffusion of sodium ions from substrate into the layer, by increasing the calcination temperature. The UV/Vis. spectroscopy of the films indicates a red shift by increasing the calcination temperature. The contact angle meter experiment shows that superhydrophilicity of the films depends on the formation of anatase crystal structure and diffused sodium content from substrate to the layer. The best hydrophilicity property was observed at 450 C calcination temperature, where the film is converted to a superhydrophilic surface after 10 minutes under 2mW/cm 2 UV irradiation. TiO 2 thin film on Si(111), Si(100), and quartz substrates needs less time to be converted to

  4. Mechanochemical preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 powders and their behavior at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajovic, A.; Furic, K.; Tomasic, N.; Popovic, S.; Skoko, Z.; Music, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 powders were prepared by high-energy ball-milling using zirconia vial and balls. The changes of microstructure caused by material processing were studied using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The milling of the starting TiO 2 powder (anatase + rutile in traces) induced phase transitions to high-pressure polymorph, TiO 2 II, and rutile. We found that the phase transition to TiO 2 II was initiated at the surface of the small particles, while transition to rutile started in their center. Changes in crystallite size during milling process were obtained by the Scherrer method, while the particle size changes were monitored by TEM. The kinetics of phase changes, a decrease in crystallite/particle size, as well as zirconia contamination depended on the powder-to-ball weight ratio. The starting powder and some selected ball-milled samples were investigated in situ by Raman spectroscopy and XRD at high temperatures (up to 1300 deg. C) to examine their behavior during the sintering process. A difference in the results obtained by these two techniques was explained in frame of basic physical properties characterizing both methods. The morphology of the final sinters was monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  5. Aggregate formation of eosin-Y adsorbed on nanocrystalline TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Kaori; Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2012-11-01

    We have studied the adsorption of eosin-Y on nanocrystalline TiO2 films with two different solvents namely acetonitrile (ACN) and ethanol (EtOH). A Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm was observed with ACN. In contrast, a Freundlich-type adsorption isotherm was observed with EtOH, suggesting that EtOH molecules co-adsorbed on TiO2 surface. Absorption spectra of the dye adsorbed films clearly show aggregate formation at high concentrations of dye in the solutions. From the analysis of the spectra, we conclude that head-to-tail type aggregates are observed with ACN, whereas various types of aggregates, including H-type and head-to-tail type aggregates, are observed with EtOH.

  6. An impact of the copper additive on photocatalytic and bactericidal properties of TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcieszak Damian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The biological and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and TiO2:Cu in relation to their structure, surface topography, wettability and optical properties of the thin films was investigated. Thin-film coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering method in oxygen plasma with use of metallic targets (Ti and Ti-Cu. The results of structural studies revealed that addition of Cu into titania matrix (during the deposition process resulted in obtaining of an amorphous film, while in case of undoped TiO2, presence of nanocrystalline anatase (with crystallites size of 20 nm was found. Moreover, an addition of cooper had also an effect on surface diversification and decrease of its hydrophilicity. The roughness of TiO2:Cu film was 25 % lower (0.6 nm as-compared to titania (0.8 nm. These modifications of TiO2:Cu had an impact on the decrease of its photocatalytic activity, probably as a result of the active surface area decrease. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of the thin films against bacteria (Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and yeast (Candida albicans were also examined. For the purpose of this work the method dedicated for the evaluation of antimicrobial properties of thin films was developed. It was revealed that Cu-additive has a positive impact on neutralization of microorganisms.

  7. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  8. Degradation of organic dyes using spray deposited nanocrystalline stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrodes under sunlight illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunge, Y. M.; Yadav, A. A.; Mahadik, M. A.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Shim, J. J.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2018-02-01

    The need to utilize TiO2 based metal oxide hetero nanostructures for the degradation of environmental pollutants like Rhodamine B and reactive red 152 from the wastewater using stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst under sunlight illumination. WO3, TiO2 and stratified WO3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a spray pyrolysis method. It was found that the stratified WO3/TiO2 heterostructure has high crystallinity, no mixed phase formation occurs, strong optical absorption in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and large surface area. The photocatalytic activity was tested for degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and reactive red 152 in an aqueous medium. TiO2 layer in stratified WO3/TiO2 catalyst helps to extend its absorption spectrum in the solar light region. Rh B and Reactive red 152is eliminated up to 98 and 94% within the 30 and 40 min respectively at optimum experimental condition by stratified WO3/TiO2. Moreover, stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode has good stability and reusability than individual TiO2 and WO3 thin film in the degradation of Rh B and reactive red 152. The photoelectrocatalytic experimental results indicate that stratified WO3/TiO2 photoelectrode is a promising material for dye removal.

  9. THERMALLY STABLE NANOCRYSTALLINE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED VIA SOL-GEL METHODS MODIFIED WITH IONIC LIQUID AND SURFACTANT MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, sol-gel methods employing ionic liquids (ILs) have shown significant implications for the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured inorganic materials. Herein, we synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 particles via an alkoxide sol-gel method employing a water-immi...

  10. Sealed two-electrode photoelectrochemical cell based on nanocrystalline TiO2 analyzed as a UV sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forcade, Fresnel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Maqueda, Ma. de la Luz; Curbelo, Larisa; Vigil, Elena; Jennings, James R.; Dunn, Halina; Wang, Hongxia; PeteR, Lauri M.

    2008-01-01

    Potentialities as UV sensor of a sealed two-electrode photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) based on nanocrystalline TiO 2 are analyzed. Ultraviolet component of solar light is responsible for a number of skin disorders and diseases. An inexpensive and simple UV sensor would be convenient to measure the UV intensity been exposed to. Nanocrystalline TiO 2 is a rather inexpensive material, innocuous and very stable which is intensively studied at the present moment because of its possible applications in dye-sensitized solar cells, photocatalysis, electrochromics, etc. The method for obtaining the sensor and its structure are described. Different TiO 2 layer structures for the photoelectrode are studied. Important parameters, such as, spectral response, external quantum efficiency, current vs light intensity and current-voltage curve are presented. Results show prospective for the implementation of this type of sensor. (Full text)

  11. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  12. Integration of High-Performance Nanocrystalline TiO2 Photoelectrodes for N719-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on enhanced performance of N719-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSCs incorporating size and photoelectron diffusion-controlled TiO2 as sensitizer-matched light-scatter layers on conventional nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes. The double-layered N719/TiO2 composite electrode with a high dye-loading capacity exhibits the diffused reflectance of more than 50% in the range of λ = 650–800 nm, even when the films are coupled with the titania nanocrystalline underlayer in the device. As a result, the increased near-infrared light-harvesting produces a high light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of over 9% mainly due to the significant increase of Jsc. Such an optical effect of the NIR-light scattering TiO2 electrodes will be beneficial when the sensitizers with low molar extinction coefficients, such as N719, are introduced in the device.

  13. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO 2 pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO 2 thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O 2 ) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO 2 thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10 -1 Ω cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O 2 gas

  14. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Modified TiO2:a Material for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. BODADE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnO2 doped TiO2 having average crystallite size of 45-50 nm were synthesized by the sol-gel method and studied for gas sensing behavior to reducing gases like CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, NH3 and H2. The material characterization was done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The sensitivity measurements were carried out as a function of different operating temperature in SnO2 doped TiO2. The 15 wt.% SnO2 doped TiO2 based CO sensor shows better sensitivity at an operating temperature 240°C Incorporation of 0.5 wt% Pd improved the sensitivity, selectivity, response time and reduced the operating temperature from 240°C to 200°C for CO sensor.

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  16. The Function of TiO2 with Respect to Sensitizer Stability in Nanocrystalline Dye Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barkschat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyes of characteristically different composition have been tested with respect to long-term stability in operating standardized dye sensitized cells during a time period of up to 3600 hours. Selective solar illumination, the use of graded filters, and imaging of photocurrents revealed that degradation is linked to the density of photocurrent passed. Photoelectrochemical degradation was observed with all sensitizers investigated. Sensitization was less efficient and sensitizers were less photostable with nanostructured ZnO compared to nanostructured TiO2. The best performance was confirmed for cis-RuII(dcbpyH22(NCS2 on TiO2. However, it was 7–10 times less stable under other identical conditions on ZnO. Stability is favored by carboxylate anchoring and metal-centred electron transfer. In presence of TiO2, it is enhanced by formation of a stabilizing charge-transfer complex between oxidized Ru dye and back-bonding interfacial Ti3+ states. This is considered to be the main reason for the ongoing use of expensive Ru complexes in combination with TiO2. The local surface chemistry of the nanocrystalline TiO2 turned out to be a crucial factor for sensitizer stability and requires further investigation.

  17. Comparison Study on the Microstructure of Nanocrystalline TiO2 in Different Ti-Si Binary Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three different Ti-Si oxide structuares, silica supported titania, silica coated titania and intimately mixed silicatitania, containing 10%-40% SiO2, were made by sol-gel process. The variations of microstructure parameters of nanocrystalline (nc) TiO2-anatase in the three kirds of binary oxides, including in-plane spacing d, cell constants (a0, CQ), cell volume V, cell axial ratio c0/a0 and crystal grain size, were comparatively investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the microstructure parameters vary remarkably with increasing SiO2 content and annealing temperature. Different structured Ti-Si binary oxides lead to different variation tendencies of microstructure parameters. The more SiO2 the binary oxide contains, the more lattice defects of nc TiO2-anatase appear; diffusion or migration of Si cations could be an important influential factor in the variations of microstructure. The grain size of nc TiO2 in the three kinds of binary oxides not only depends on SiO2 content and annealing temperature but also on the degree of lattice microstrain and distortion of nc TiO2-anatase. Both grain size and phase transformation of nc TiO2-anatase are effectively inhibited with increasing SiOa content.

  18. Electrophoretic deposition of nanocrystalline TiO2 films on Ti substrates for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Weiwei; Yin Xiong; Zhou Xiaowen; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Lin Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 films were prepared on flexible Ti-metal sheets by electrophoretic deposition followed by chemical treatment with tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBT) and sintering at 450 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that TBT treatment led to the formation of additional anatase TiO 2 , which plays an important role in improving the interconnection between TiO 2 particles, as well as the adherence of the film to the substrate, and in modifying the surface properties of the nanocrystalline particles. The effect of TBT treatment on the electron transport in the nanocrystalline films was studied by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). An increase in the conversion efficiency was obtained for the dye-sensitized solar cells with TBT-treated nanocrystalline TiO 2 films. The cell performance was further optimized by designing nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with a double-layer structure composed of a light-scattering layer and a transparent layer. The light-scattering effect of the double-layer nanocrystalline films was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectra. Employing the double-layer nanocrystalline films as the photoelectrodes resulted in a significant improvement in the incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of the corresponding cells due to enhanced solar absorption by light scattering. A high conversion efficiency of 6.33% was measured under illumination with 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5) simulated sunlight.

  19. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  20. Theoretical Verification of Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation Using Nanocrystalline TiO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yanagida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscopic anatase nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2 electrodes play effective and efficient catalytic roles in photoelectrochemical (PEC H2O oxidation under short circuit energy gap excitation conditions. Interfacial molecular orbital structures of (H2O3 &OH(TiO29H as a stationary model under neutral conditions and the radical-cation model of [(H2O3&OH(TiO29H]+ as a working nc-TiO2 model are simulated employing a cluster model OH(TiO29H (Yamashita/Jono’s model and a H2O cluster model of (H2O3 to examine excellent H2O oxidation on nc-TiO2 electrodes in PEC cells. The stationary model, (H2O3&OH(TiO29H reveals that the model surface provides catalytic H2O binding sites through hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and Coulombic interactions. The working model, [(H2O3&OH(TiO29H]+ discloses to have a very narrow energy gap (0.3 eV between HOMO and LUMO potentials, proving that PEC nc-TiO2 electrodes become conductive at photo-irradiated working conditions. DFT-simulation of stepwise oxidation of a hydroxide ion cluster model of OH−(H2O3, proves that successive two-electron oxidation leads to hydroxyl radical clusters, which should give hydrogen peroxide as a precursor of oxygen molecules. Under working bias conditions of PEC cells, nc-TiO2 electrodes are now verified to become conductive by energy gap photo-excitation and the electrode surface provides powerful oxidizing sites for successive H2O oxidation to oxygen via hydrogen peroxide.

  1. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  2. Photocatalytic Water Treatment on TiO2 Thin Layers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Olga; Spáčilová, L.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Morozová, Magdalena; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 25 (2016), s. 11631-11638 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Protection and Restoration of the Environment /12./. Skiathos Island, 29.06.2014-03.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : water purification * endocrine disruptor * photocatalytic * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  3. Investigation of various properties of HfO2-TiO2 thin film composites deposited by multi-magnetron sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, M.; Poniedziałek, A.; Kaczmarek, D.; Wojcieszak, D.; Domaradzki, J.; Gibson, D.

    2017-11-01

    In this work the properties of hafnium dioxide (HfO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and mixed HfO2-TiO2 thin films with various amount of titanium addition, deposited by magnetron sputtering were described. Structural, surface, optical and mechanical properties of deposited coatings were analyzed. Based on X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measuremets it was observed that there was a significant influence of titanium concentration in mixed TiO2-HfO2 thin films on their microstructure. Increase of Ti content in prepared mixed oxides coatings caused, e.g. a decrease of average crystallite size and amorphisation of the coatings. As-deposited hafnia and titania thin films exhibited nanocrystalline structure of monoclinic phase and mixed anatase-rutile phase for HfO2 and TiO2 thin films, respectively. Atomic force microscopy investigations showed that the surface of deposited thin films was densely packed, crack-free and composed of visible grains. Surface roughness and the value of water contact angle decreased with the increase of Ti content in mixed oxides. Results of optical studies showed that all deposited thin films were well transparent in a visible light range. The effect of the change of material composition on the cut-off wavelength, refractive index and packing density was also investigated. Performed measurements of mechanical properties revealed that hardness and Young's elastic modulus of thin films were dependent on material composition. Hardness of thin films increased with an increase of Ti content in thin films, from 4.90 GPa to 13.7 GPa for HfO2 and TiO2, respectively. The results of the scratch resistance showed that thin films with proper material composition can be used as protective coatings in optical devices.

  4. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  5. TiO2 nanofiber solid-state dye sensitized solar cells with thin TiO2 hole blocking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinwei; Chen, Xi; Xu, Weihe; Nam, Chang-Yong; Shi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    We incorporated a thin but structurally dense TiO 2 layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as an efficient hole blocking layer in the TiO 2 nanofiber based solid-state dye sensitized solar cell (ss-DSSC). The nanofiber ss-DSSCs having ALD TiO 2 layers displayed increased open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, and power conversion efficiency compared to control devices with blocking layers prepared by spin-coating liquid TiO 2 precursor. We attribute the improved photovoltaic device performance to the structural integrity of ALD-coated TiO 2 layer and consequently enhanced hole blocking effect that results in reduced dark leakage current and increased charge carrier lifetime. - Highlights: • TiO 2 blocking locking layer prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. • ALD-coated TiO 2 layer enhanced hole blocking effect. • ALD blocking layer improved the voltage, current and efficiency. • ALD blocking layer reduced dark leakage current and increased electron lifetime

  6. Raman spectra of TiO2 thin films deposited electrochemically and by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishiyanu, S.; Vartic, V.; Shishiyanu, T.; Stratan, Gh.; Rusu, E.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our experimental results concerning the fabrication of TiO 2 thin films by spray pyrolysis and electrochemical deposition method onto different substrates - Corning glass, Si and optical fibers. The surface morphology of the TiO 2 thin films have been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Raman shift spectra measurements have been done for the optical characterization of the fabricated titania thin films. The post-growth rapid photothermal processing (RPP) at temperatures of 100-800 degrees Celsius for 1-3 min have been applied. Our experimental results prove that by the application of post-growth RPP is possible to essentially improve the crystallinity of the deposited TiO 2 films. (authors)

  7. Photocatalytic behaviors and structural characterization of nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO2 synthesized by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Hong, Hyun Seon; Kim, Sun Jae; Song, Jae Sung; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe-doped TiO 2 powders were synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) with varying Fe contents from 0 up to 4.8 wt.% to shift the absorption threshold into the visible light region. The photocatalytic feasibility of the Fe-doped TiO 2 powder was evaluated by quantifying the visible light absorption capacity using ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Effects of Fe additions on the crystal structures and the morphologies of the Fe-doped powders were also investigated as a function of the doping content using transmission electron microscopy-electron diffraction pattern (TEM-EDP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The UV-Vis study showed that the UV absorption for the Fe-doped powder moved to a longer wavelength (red shift) and the photoefficiency was enhanced. Based on the analysis of the photoluminescence spectra, the red shift was believed to be induced by localizing the dopant level near the valence band of TiO 2 . The UV-Vis absorption depended on the Fe concentration. TEM-EDP and XRD investigations showed that the Fe-doped powder had a rutile phase in which the added Fe atoms were dissolved. The rutile phase was composed of spherical particles and chestnut bur shaped particles, resulting in a larger surface area than the spherical P-25 powder

  8. Surface properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 coatings in relation to the in vitro plasma protein adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzetti, M; Kobe, S; Novak, S; Bernardini, G; Santucci, A; Luxbacher, T

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the selective adsorption of whole plasma proteins on hydrothermally (HT) grown TiO 2 -anatase coatings and its dependence on the three main surface properties: surface charge, wettability and roughness. The influence of the photo-activation of TiO 2 by UV irradiation was also evaluated. Even though the protein adhesion onto Ti-based substrates was only moderate, better adsorption of any protein (at pH = 7.4) occurred for the most negatively charged and hydrophobic substrate (Ti non-treated) and for the most nanorough and hydrophilic surface (HT Ti3), indicating that the mutual action of the surface characteristics is responsible for the attraction and adhesion of the proteins. The HT coatings showed a higher adsorption of certain proteins (albumin ‘passivation’ layer, apolipoproteins, vitamin D-binding protein, ceruloplasmin, α-2-HS-glycoprotein) and higher ratios of albumin to fibrinogen and albumin to immunoglobulin γ-chains. The UV pre-irradiation affected the surface properties and strongly reduced the adsorption of the proteins. These results provide in-depth knowledge about the characterization of nanocrystalline TiO 2 coatings for body implants and provide a basis for future studies on the hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of such surfaces. (paper)

  9. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasim, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    During the last quarter of the twentieth century there have been intensive research activities looking for green sources of energy. The main aim of the green generators or converters of energy is to replace the conventional (fossil) energy sources, hence reducing further accumulation of the green house gasses GHGs. Conventional silicon and III-V semiconductor solar cell based on crystalline bulk, quantum well and quantum dots structure or amorphous and thin film structures provided a feasible solution. However, natural dye sensitized solar cells NDSSC are a promising class of photovoltaic cells with the capability of generating green energy at low production cost since no vacuum systems or expensive equipment are required in their fabrication. Also, natural dyes are abundant, easily extracted and safe materials. In NDSSC, once dye molecules exposed to light they become oxidized and transfer electrons to a nano structured layer of wide bandgap semiconductors such as TiO 2 . The generated electrons are drawn outside the cell through ohmic contact to a load. In this paper we review the structure and operation principles of the dye sensitized solar cell DSSC. We discuss preparation procedures, optical and electrical characterization of the NDSSC using local dyes extracted from Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), pomegranate, cherries and Bahraini raspberries (Rubus spp.). These natural organic dyes are potential candidates to replace some of the man-made dyes used as sensitizer in many commercialized photoelectrochemical cells. Factors limiting the operation of the DSSC are discussed. NDSSCs are expected to be a favored choice in the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) due to their robustness, therefore, requiring no special shielding from natural events such as tree strikes or hails. (author)

  10. Structure of electron collection electrode in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Ochiai, Masayuki; Naito, Hiroyoshi; Han, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the effort to control electron transport in the TiO 2 films of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), the structure of the electron collection electrode on the films has been investigated. Here, we report the comparison between a sandwich-type dye-sensitized solar cell (SW-DSC), in which the TiO 2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back charge collection electrode, and a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. In N-DSCs, electrons in TiO 2 that are far from the front electrode have to diffuse for a long distance (ca. 10 μm), and therefore, the photocurrent cannot rapidly respond to light with a modulation frequency >100 Hz. In SW-DSCs, the photocurrent response was enhanced at frequencies between 10 and 500 Hz because electrons in TiO 2 can be extracted by both front and back electrodes, which can be also explained by an electron diffusion model. Calculations based on the electron diffusion model suggested that a high short-circuit photocurrent could be maintained in SW-DSCs even when the electron diffusion length in the TiO 2 film was shortened.

  11. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  12. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  13. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  14. Nanocrystalline TiO2 by three different synthetic approaches: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    TiO2 produced by the above three methods are analysed. Keywords. ... micelles that acted as the micro-reactor for the hydrolysis and condensation of .... (figure 3) indicated the formation of rutile phase (JCPDS card no. 82-0514) of ...

  15. ALD TiO2 thin film as dielectric for Al/p-Si Schottky diode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electrical analysis of Al/p-Si Schottky diode with titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was performed at ..... This work was partially supported by The Management Unit of Scientific Research Project of Bozok University and Hitit. University.

  16. QCM gas sensor characterization of ALD-grown very thin TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S.; Georgieva, V.; Vergov, L.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a technology for preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films suitable for gas sensor applications. Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin TiO2 films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The TiO2 thin films were grown using Ti(iOPr)4 and water as precursors. The surface of the films was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) used for a composition study. The research was focused on the gas-sensing properties of the films. Films of 10-nm thickness were deposited on quartz resonators with Au electrodes and the QCMs were used to build highly sensitive gas sensors, which were tested for detecting NO2. Although very thin, these ALD-grown TiO2 films were sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register as low concentrations as 50 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible, and the sensors could be fully recovered. With the technology presented, the manufacturing of gas sensors is simple, fast and cost-effective, and suitable for energy-effective portable equipment for real-time environmental monitoring of NO2.

  17. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  18. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  19. Structural and vibrational investigations of Nb-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyanga, E.; Gibaud, A.; Daniel, P.; Sangaa, D.; Sevjidsuren, G.; Altantsog, P.; Beuvier, T.; Lee, Chih Hao; Balagurov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the evolutions of structure for TiO 2 thin film as changes with Nb doping and temperatures. • Up to 800 °C, the grain size of Nb 0.1 Ti 0.9 O 2 is smaller than for pure TiO 2 because doped Nb hinders the growth of the TiO 2 grains. • There was no formation of the rutile phase at high temperature. • Nb doped TiO 2 films have high electron densities at 400–700 °C. • Nb dope extends the absorbance spectra of TiO 2 which leads to the band gap reduce. - Abstract: Acid-catalyzed sol–gel and spin-coating methods were used to prepare Nb-doped TiO 2 thin film. In this work, we studied the effect of niobium doping on the structure, surface, and absorption properties of TiO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy at various annealing temperatures. EDX spectra show that the Nb:Ti atomic ratios of the niobium-doped titania films are in good agreement with the nominal values (5 and 10%). XPS results suggest that charge compensation is achieved by the formation of Ti vacancies. Specific niobium phases are not observed, thus confirming that niobium is well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice. Thin films are amorphous at room temperature and the formation of anatase phase appeared at an annealing temperature close to 400 °C. The rutile phase was not observed even at 900 °C (XRD and Raman spectroscopy). Grain sizes and electron densities increased when the temperature was raised. Nb-doped films have higher electron densities and lower grain sizes due to niobium doping. Grain size inhibition can be explained by lattice stress induced by the incorporation of larger Nb 5+ ions into the lattice. The band gap energy of indirect transition of the TiO 2 thin films was calculated to be about 3.03 eV. After niobium doping, it decreased to 2.40 eV

  20. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Leung, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Design guidelines for optimizing the sensing performance of nanoimprinted second order distributed feedback dye lasers are presented. The guidelines are verified by experiments and simulations. The lasers, fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography into Pyrromethene doped Ormocomp thin films on glass......, have their sensor sensitivity enhanced by a factor of up to five via the evaporation of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) waveguiding layer. The influence of the TiO2 layer thickness on the device sensitivity is analyzed with a simple model that accurately predicts experimentally measured wavelength shifts...

  1. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  2. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  3. Yttrium-substituted nanocrystalline TiO 2 photoanodes for perovskite based heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng; Domanski, Anna L.; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Berger, Rü diger; Butt, Hans-Jü rgen; Dar, M. Ibrahim; Moehl, Thomas; Tetreault, Nicolas; Gao, Peng; Ahmad, Shahzada; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K.; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of Y3+-substituted TiO2 (0.5%Y-TiO2) in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells, consisting of CH3NH3PbI3 as the light harvester and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material. A power conversion efficiency of 11.2% under simulated AM 1.5 full sun illumination was measured. A 15% improvement in the short-circuit current density was obtained compared with pure TiO2, due to the effect of Y3+ on the dimensions of perovskite nanoparticles formed on the semiconductor surface, showing that the surface modification of the semiconductor is an effective way to improve the light harvesters' morphology and electron transfer properties in the solid-state mesoscopic solar cells. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Yttrium-substituted nanocrystalline TiO 2 photoanodes for perovskite based heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of Y3+-substituted TiO2 (0.5%Y-TiO2) in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells, consisting of CH3NH3PbI3 as the light harvester and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material. A power conversion efficiency of 11.2% under simulated AM 1.5 full sun illumination was measured. A 15% improvement in the short-circuit current density was obtained compared with pure TiO2, due to the effect of Y3+ on the dimensions of perovskite nanoparticles formed on the semiconductor surface, showing that the surface modification of the semiconductor is an effective way to improve the light harvesters\\' morphology and electron transfer properties in the solid-state mesoscopic solar cells. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Transparent nanostructured Fe-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by ultrasonic assisted spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Ghasemian, Naser; Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Homayoun Keihan, Amir

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 thin films with high transparency were deposited on glass substrate through ultrasonic-assisted spray pyrolysis technique and were used in the visible light photocatalytic degradation of MB dye. The resulting thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy techniques. Based on Raman spectroscopy results, both of the TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 films have anatase crystal structure, however, because of the insertion of Fe in the structure of TiO2 some point defects and oxygen vacancies are formed in the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film. Presence of Fe in the structure of TiO2 decreases the band gap energy of TiO2 and also reduces the electron–hole recombination rate. Decreasing of the electron–hole recombination rate and band gap energy result in the enhancement of the visible light photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film.

  6. Fine control of the amount of preferential <001> orientation in DC magnetron sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, B; Granqvist, C G; Österlund, L

    2014-01-01

    Different crystal facets of anatase TiO 2 are known to have different chemical reactivity; in particular the {001} facets which truncates the bi-tetrahedral anatase morphology are reported to be more reactive than the usually dominant {101} facets. Anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in Ar/O 2 atmosphere and were characterized using Rietveld refined grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy. By varying the partial O2 pressure in the deposition chamber, the degree of orientation of the grains in the film could be systematically varied with preferred <001> orientation changing from random upto 39% as determined by March-Dollase method. The orientation of the films is shown to correlate with their reactivity, as measured by photo-degradation of methylene blue in water solutions. The results have implications for fabrication of purposefully chemically reactive thin TiO 2 films prepared by sputtering methods

  7. Shape-dependent Surface Energetics of Nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T.J.; Wong, S.; Levchenko, A.A.; Zhou, H.; Navrotsky, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the direct determination of surface enthalpies for nanophase TiO 2 anatase with different morphologies derived from drop solution calorimetry in a molten sodium molybdate (3Na 2 Ol·4MoO 3 ) solvent at 702 C. The energetics of surface hydration has been measured using a Calvet microcalorimeter coupled with a gas dosing system. The surface enthalpies of hydrated surfaces for anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles, nanowires and sea-urchin-like assemblies are 0.51 ± 0.05, 1.07 ± 0.28, and 1.29 ± 0.16 J m -2 , respectively, whereas those of anhydrous surfaces are 0.74 ± 0.04, 1.24 ± 0.28, and 1.41 ± 0.16 J m -2 , respectively. The trend in TiO 2 , which shows higher surface enthalpies for more complex nanostructures, is consistent with that reported in ZnO. The shape-dependent surface enthalpy at the nanoscale level is discussed in terms of exposed surface structures. The enthalpies of hydration appear to be similar for all morphologies.

  8. Low-Temperature Preparation of Amorphous-Shell/Nanocrystalline-Core Nanostructured TiO2 Electrodes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshe Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An amorphous shell/nanocrystalline core nanostructured TiO2 electrode was prepared at low temperature, in which the mixture of TiO2 powder and TiCl4 aqueous solution was used as the paste for coating a film and in this film amorphous TiO2 resulted from direct hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 100∘C sintering was produced to connect the particles forming a thick crack-free uniform nanostructured TiO2 film (12 μm, and on which a photoelectrochemical solar cell-based was fabricated, generating a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.58 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.647 V, and an overall 4.48% light-to-electricity conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  9. Red shifts of the Eg(1) Raman mode of nanocrystalline TiO2:Er monoliths grown by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Merino, R.; Trejo-Garcia, P.; Portillo-Moreno, O.; Jiménez-Sandoval, S.; Tomás, S. A.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Nanocrystalline monoliths of Er doped TiO2 were prepared by the sol-gel technique, by controlling the Er-doping levels into the TiO2 precursor solution. As-prepared and annealed in air samples showed the anatase TiO2 phase. The average diameter of the nanoparticles ranged from 19 to 2.6 nm as the nominal concentration of Er varies from 0% to 7%, as revealed by EDS analysis in an electron microscope. Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) allowed calculate the forbidden band gap, evidencing an absorption edge at around 300 nm, attributed to TiO2 and evidence of electronic transitions or Er3+. The Raman spectra, corresponding to the anatase phase, show the main phonon mode Eg(1) band position at 144 cm-1 with a red shift for the annealing samples.

  10. Low temperature self-assembled growth of rutile TiO2/manganese oxide nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenya; Zhou, Daokun; Du, Jianhua; Xie, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    We report formation of rutile TiO2 nanocrystal at low temperature range in the presence of α-MnO2 which self-assembled onto sulfanyl radical activated silicon oxide substrate. SEM, HRTEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the morphology and oxidation state of synthesised crystals. The results showed that when the α-MnO2 was reduced to Mn3O4, it induced the formation of rutile instead of anatase phase in the TiCl4-HCl aqueous system. The finding will promote the understanding of phase transformation mechanism when manganese oxide and titanium oxide co-exist in soil and water environment.

  11. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cervantes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm. Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science.

  12. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Blanca; López-Huerta, Francisco; Vega, Rosario; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Salceda, Emilio; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C) toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm). Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science. PMID:28773740

  13. Effective charge collection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Satoh, Shin; Han, Liyuan

    2013-03-01

    The effective charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is an important factor to improve the efficiency. Here, we report the comparison of three types of structures in DSCs. One type of structure is a sandwich-type DSC (SW-DSC), in which the TiO2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron-collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back collection electrode. The second is a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. The third is a back-contact-type DSC (BC-DSC), in which a sputtered Ti back electrode is deposited on a TiO2 film on the opposite side of the normal glass as an optical window. The photocurrent response of an SW-DSC is the fastest of the three structures due to using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, which can be explained by the electron diffusion model. The model shows that the SW-DSC is a favorable structure for effective charge collection in DSCs.

  14. Effective charge collection in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masatoshi; Numata, Youhei; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Satoh, Shin; Han, Liyuan

    2013-01-01

    The effective charge collection in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is an important factor to improve the efficiency. Here, we report the comparison of three types of structures in DSCs. One type of structure is a sandwich-type DSC (SW-DSC), in which the TiO 2 film is sandwiched between a TCO glass front electron-collection electrode and a sputtered Ti back collection electrode. The second is a normal DSC (N-DSC), which has no back electrode. The third is a back-contact-type DSC (BC-DSC), in which a sputtered Ti back electrode is deposited on a TiO 2 film on the opposite side of the normal glass as an optical window. The photocurrent response of an SW-DSC is the fastest of the three structures due to using intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, which can be explained by the electron diffusion model. The model shows that the SW-DSC is a favorable structure for effective charge collection in DSCs. (paper)

  15. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  16. Chromium doped TiO2 sputtered thin films synthesis, physical investigations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hajjaji, Anouar; Gaidi, Mounir; Bessais, Brahim; El Khakani, My Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book presents co-sputtered processes ways to produce chrome doped TiO2 thin films onto various substrates such as quartz, silicon and porous silicon. Emphasis is given on the link between the experimental preparation and physical characterization in terms of Cr content. Moreover, the structural, optical and optoelectronic investigations are emphasized throughout. The book explores the potencial applications of devices based on Cr doped TiO2 thin films as gas sensors and in photocatalysis and in the photovoltaic industry. Also, this book provides extensive leads into research literature, and each chapter contains details which aim to develop awareness of the subject and the methods used. The content presented here will be useful for graduate students as well as researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry and engineering.

  17. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  18. Undoped TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar and architectured surfaces for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Liang; Soum-Glaude, Adurey; Volpi, Fabien; Salvo, Luc; Berthomé, Grégory; Coindeau, Stéphane; Mantoux, Arnaud; Boichot, Raphaël; Lay, Sabine; Brizé, Virginie; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Giusti, Gaël; Bellet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and nitrogen doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar substrates. Deposition on 3D-architecture substrates made of metallic foams was also investigated to propose architectured photovoltaic stack fabrication. All the films were deposited at 265 °C and nitrogen incorporation was achieved by using titanium isopropoxide, NH 3 and/or N 2 O as precursors. The maximum nitrogen incorporation level obtained in this study was 2.9 at. %, resulting in films exhibiting a resistivity of 115 Ω cm (+/−10 Ω cm) combined with an average total transmittance of 60% in the 400–1000 nm wavelength range. Eventually, TiO 2 thin films were deposited on the 3D metallic foam template

  19. Preparation and optical properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by a two-step sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, I.; Lu, G.Q.; Meredith, P.; Zhao, X.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the preparation of mesoporous titania nanopowders and thin films for use in next generation photoelectrochemical solar cells. We have recently developed a novel method for preparing mesoporous TiO 2 powders using a Two-Step Sol-gel method (TSS). These materials have crystalline domains characteristic of anatase. The first step of the process involves the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in a basic aqueous solution mediated by neutral surfactant. The solid product resulting from Step-1 is then treated in acidified ethanol solution containing a titanium precursor to yield anatase TiO 2 . The resultant powder exhibits a high surface area and large pore volume with uniform mesopores. Slurries made from the resultant powder of Steps 1 and 2 have been used to produce thin titania films on glass slides. The optical and structural properties of these films have been compared to the films made of a commercial titania (Degussa P25, BASF). We will discuss these properties with respect to the possible use of such mesoporous titania films as the wide band gap semiconductor in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells

  20. Nanometer-thin TiO2 enhances skeletal muscle cell phenotype and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaki K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ken Ishizaki*, Yoshihiko Sugita*, Fuminori Iwasa, Hajime Minamikawa, Takeshi Ueno, Masahiro Yamada, Takeo Suzuki, Takahiro OgawaLaboratory for Bone and Implant Sciences, The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Biomaterials and Hospital Dentistry, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA*Authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The independent role of the surface chemistry of titanium in determining its biological properties is yet to be determined. Although titanium implants are often in contact with muscle tissue, the interaction of muscle cells with titanium is largely unknown. This study tested the hypotheses that the surface chemistry of clinically established microroughened titanium surfaces could be controllably varied by coating with a minimally thin layer of TiO2 (ideally pico-to-nanometer in thickness without altering the existing topographical and roughness features, and that the change in superficial chemistry of titanium is effective in improving the biological properties of titanium.Methods and results: Acid-etched microroughened titanium surfaces were coated with TiO2 using slow-rate sputter deposition of molten TiO2 nanoparticles. A TiO2 coating of 300 pm to 6.3 nm increased the surface oxygen on the titanium substrates in a controllable manner, but did not alter the existing microscale architecture and roughness of the substrates. Cells derived from rat skeletal muscles showed increased attachment, spread, adhesion strength, proliferation, gene expression, and collagen production at the initial and early stage of culture on 6.3 nm thick TiO2-coated microroughened titanium surfaces compared with uncoated titanium surfaces.Conclusion: Using an exemplary slow-rate sputter deposition technique of molten TiO2 nanoparticles, this study demonstrated that titanium substrates, even with microscale roughness, can be sufficiently chemically modified to

  1. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  2. Thin TiO2 films deposited by implantation and sputtering in RF inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films in the rutile crystalline phase is reported. The samples result from the implantation of oxygen ions of Ti in argon/oxygen plasma generated by inductively coupled RF at a commercial 13.56 MHz frequency. Simultaneously, a sputtering process is conducted on the titanium target in order to produce TiO 2 thin films in the anatase phase over silicon and glass substrates. Both implantation and sputtering processes shared the same 500 W plasma with the target, polarized between 0 and -3 kV. The substrates were placed between 2 and 3 cm from the target, this distance being found to be determinant of the TiO 2 deposition rate. The rutile phase in the target was obtained at temperatures in the order of 680 degrees C and the anatase (unbiased) one at about 300 degrees C without any auxiliary heating. The crystalline phases were characterized by x ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and average roughness were established by means of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy, whereas the reaction products generated during the oxidation process were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the stoichiometric composition was measured by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  3. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h. The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The optical waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperature using m-lines spectroscopy. The refractive indices and the film thickness were determined from the measured effective indices. The results show that the synthesized planar waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.5 and 0.8 dB/cm for annealing temperature 350 and 500 °C, respectively.

  4. Semiconducting polymer-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 particles for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Fuguo; Wu Jihuai; Li Qingbei; Wang Yue; Yue Gentian; Xiao Yaoming; Li Qinghua; Lan Zhang; Fan Leqing; Lin Jianming; Huang Miaoliang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A P3HT-PCBM/TiO 2 trinary hybrid solar cell has been fabricated. → P3HT-PCBM heterojunction replaces the dye and electrolyte in dye-sensitized cell, → Which simplifies preparation procedure and decreases the device cost. → The hybrid cell achieves a light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 2.61%. - Abstract: In this work, we study hybrid solar cells based on blends of the semiconducting polymer poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(P3OT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl (PCBM) coated titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanocrystal film. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-vis absorption spectra and PL quenching researches show that the films had a stronger absorption in visible light range. The influence of the PCBM:P3OT ratio were researched and the optimized ratio of PCBM to P3OT (1:1.5) exhibit a short circuit current of 4.42 mA cm -2 , an open circuit voltage of 0.81 V, a fill factor of 0.73 and a light-to-electric conversion efficiency of 2.61% under a simulated solar light irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 .

  5. Study on defect properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 during phase transition by positron annihilation lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Dai, Y.-Q.; Fang, P.-F.; Wang, S.-J.

    2012-08-01

    The defect properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as a function of annealed temperature that ranged from 300 to 850 °C. Below 500 °C, the measured positron lifetimes of τ1 (200-206 ps) and τ2 (378-402 ps) revealed the existence of mono-vacancy and vacancy-clusters at grain surface and in the micro-void of intergranular region. Between 500 and 750 °C, the phase transition from anatase to rutile was probed by the variations of positron lifetime and XRD pattern. With the increasing temperature from 500 to 850 °C, the positron lifetime τ1, τ2 and its intensity I2 sharply decreased from 200 ps, 378 ps, and 60% to 135 ps, 274 ps, and 33%, respectively. The results clearly indicate that the mono-vacancy or vacancy-clusters at grain surface and micro-voids between the grains were annealed out during the phase transition.

  6. Low-temperature preparation of rutile-type TiO2 thin films for optical coatings by aluminum doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Kosei; Oikawa, Itaru; Kamegawa, Atsunori; Imura, Masaaki; Kanai, Toshimasa; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    A rutile-type TiO2 thin film with a high refractive index (n), a low extinction coefficient (k) and small surface roughness (Ra) is required for use in a variety of optical coatings to improve the controllability of the reflection spectrum. In this study, Al-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition, and the effects of Al doping on their phases, optical properties, surface roughness and nanoscale microstructure, including Al distribution, were investigated. By doping 5 and 10 mol%Al, rutile-type TiO2 was successfully prepared under a PO2 of 0.5 Pa at 350-600 °C. The nanoscale phase separation in the Al-doped TiO2 thin films plays an important role in the formation of the rutile phase. The 10 mol%Al-doped rutile-type TiO2 thin film deposited at 350 °C showed excellent optical properties of n ≈ 3.05, k ≈ 0.01 (at λ = 400 nm) and negligible surface roughness, at Ra ≈ 0.8 nm. The advantages of the superior optical properties and small surface roughness of the 10 mol%Al-doped TiO2 thin film were confirmed by fabricating a ten-layered dielectric mirror.

  7. Characterization of ultra-thin TiO2 films grown on Mo(112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.; Chen, M.S.; Goodman, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-thin TiO 2 films were grown on a Mo(112) substrate by stepwise vapor depositing of Ti onto the sample surface followed by oxidation at 850 K. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the Ti 2p peak position shifts from lower to higher binding energy with an increase in the Ti coverage from sub- to multilayer. The Ti 2p peak of a TiO 2 film with more than a monolayer coverage can be resolved into two peaks, one at 458.1 eV corresponding to the first layer, where Ti atoms bind to the substrate Mo atoms through Ti-O-Mo linkages, and a second feature at 458.8 eV corresponding to multilayer TiO 2 where the Ti atoms are connected via Ti-O-Ti linkages. Based on these assignments, the single Ti 2p 3/2 peak at 455.75 eV observed for the Mo(112)-(8 x 2)-TiO x monolayer film can be assigned to Ti 3+ , consistent with our previous results obtained with high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

  8. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  9. Surface nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Palmero, A.; Yubero, F.; Vinnichenko, M.; Kolitsch, A.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports a procedure to modify the surface nanostructure of TiO 2 anatase thin films through ion beam irradiation with energies in the keV range. Irradiation with N + ions leads to the formation of a layer with voids at a depth similar to the ion-projected range. By setting the ion-projected range a few tens of nanometers below the surface of the film, well-ordered nanorods appear aligned with the angle of incidence of the ion beam. Slightly different results were obtained by using heavier (S + ) and lighter (B + ) ions under similar conditions

  10. Growth of TiO2 Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO 2 was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O 2 (45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10 -7 to 1.54x10 -6 Ω.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10 -6 to 1.76x10 -5 Ω.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 Ω.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  11. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m respectively, according to four point probe. Keywords: TiO2, Diode laser, XRD, SEM

  12. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO 2 thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO 2 samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  13. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  14. TiO 2 Thin Films Prepared via Adsorptive Self-Assembly for Self-Cleaning Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Baojuan

    2012-02-22

    Low-cost controllable solution-based processes for preparation of titanium oxide (TiO 2) thin films are highly desirable, because of many important applications of this oxide in catalytic decomposition of volatile organic compounds, advanced oxidation processes for wastewater and bactericidal treatments, self-cleaning window glass for green intelligent buildings, dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state semiconductor metal-oxide solar cells, self-cleaning glass for photovoltaic devices, and general heterogeneous photocatalysis for fine chemicals etc. In this work, we develop a solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach to fabricate anatase TiO 2 thin films on different glass substrates such as simple plane glass and patterned glass at variable compositions (normal soda lime glass or solar-grade borofloat glass). By tuning the number of process cycles (i.e., adsorption-then-heating) of TiO 2 colloidal suspension, we could facilely prepare large-area TiO 2 films at a desired thickness and with uniform crystallite morphology. Moreover, our as-prepared nanostructured TiO 2 thin films on glass substrates do not cause deterioration in optical transmission of glass; instead, they improve optical performance of commercial solar cells over a wide range of incident angles of light. Our as-prepared anatase TiO 2 thin films also display superhydrophilicity and excellent photocatalytic activity for self-cleaning application. For example, our investigation of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange indicates that these thin films are indeed highly effective, in comparison to other commercial TiO 2 thin films under identical testing conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. A Humidity Sensor Based on Nb-doped Nanoporous TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing properties of the sensor fabricated from Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes have been investigated. The nanoporous thin film has been prepared by sol-gel technique. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the structure and its morphology. It is found that the impedance of this sensor changes more than four orders of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH range of 11–95 % at 25 °C. The response and recovery time of the sensor are about 19 and 25 s, respectively, during the RH variation from 11 to 95 %. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability, good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop. These results indicate that Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 thin films have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  16. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell with Conventionally Annealed and Post-Hydrothermally Treated Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Oxide TiO2 Derived from Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Yuwono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is one of the very promising alternative renewable energy sources to anticipate the declination in the fossil fuel reserves in the next few decades and to make use of the abundance of intensive sunlight energy in tropical countries like Indonesia. In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles of different nanocrystallinity was synthesized via sol−gel process with various water to inorganic precursor ratio (Rw of 0.85, 2.00 and 3.50 upon sol preparation, followed with subsequent drying, conventional annealing and post-hydrothermal treatments. The resulting nanoparticles were integrated into the DSSC prototype and sensitized with an organic dye made of the extract of red onion. The basic performance of the fabricated DSSC has been examined and correlated to the crystallite size and band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that post-hydrothermally treated TiO2 nanoparticles derived from sol of 2.00 Rw, with the most enhanced nanocrystalline size of 12.46 nm and the lowest band gap energy of 3.48 eV, showed the highest open circuit voltage (Voc of 69.33 mV.

  17. The influence of metal interlayers on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO 2 films

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    TiO 2-M-TiO 2 (M = W, Co and Ag) multilayer films have been deposited on glass substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, then annealed in air for 2 h at 500°C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TiO 2-W-TiO 2 and TiO 2-Co-TiO 2 films showed crystalline phases, whereas the TiO 2-Ag-TiO 2 films remained in the amorphous state. The crystallization temperature for the TiO 2-M-TiO 2 films decreased significantly compared with pure TiO 2 film deposited on quartz. Detailed analysis of the Raman spectra suggested that the crystallization of TiO 2-M-TiO 2 films was associated with the large structural deformation imposed by the oxidation of intermediate metal layers. Moreover, the optical band gap of the films narrowed due to the appearance of impurity levels as the metal ions migrated into the TiO 2 matrix. These results indicate that the insertion of intermediate metal layers provides a feasible access to improve the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO 2 films, leading to promising applications in the field of photocatalysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  19. Coupling of Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2 to Porous Nanosized LaFeO3 for Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have successfully fabricated nanocrystalline anatase TiO2/perovskite-type porous nanosized LaFeO3 (T/P-LFO nanocomposites using a simple wet chemical method. It is clearly demonstrated by means of atmosphere-controlled steady-state surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS responses, photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence spectra related to the formed OH− radical amount that the photogenerated charge carriers in the resultant T/P-LFO nanocomposites with a proper mole ratio percentage of TiO2 display much higher separation in comparison to the P-LFO alone. This is highly responsible for the improved visible-light activities of T/P-LFO nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of gas-phase acetaldehyde and liquid-phase phenol. This work will provide a feasible route to synthesize visible-light responsive nano-photocatalysts for efficient solar energy utilization.

  20. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anatase TiO2 Nanorods Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal method provides an effective reaction environment for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials with high purity and well-controlled crystallinity. In this work, we started with various sizes of commercial TiO2 powders and used the hydrothermal method to prepare TiO2 thin films. We found that the synthesized TiO2 nanorods were thin and long when smaller TiO2 particles were used, while larger TiO2 particles produced thicker and shorter nanorods. We also found that TiO2 films prepared by TiO2 nanorods exhibited larger surface roughness than those prepared by the commercial TiO2 particles. It was found that a pure anatase phase of TiO2 nanorods can be obtained from the hydrothermal method. The dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with TiO2 nanorods exhibited a higher solar efficiency than those fabricated with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles directly. Further, triple-layer structures of TiO2 thin films with different particle sizes were investigated to improve the solar efficiency.

  1. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Formaldehyde and Oxytetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively photodegradate organic pollutants, ZnO composite and Co-B codoped TiO2 films were successfully deposited on glass substrates via a modified sol-gel method and a controllable dip-coating technique. Combining with UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and photoluminescence spectra (PL analyses, the multi-modification could not only extend the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region but also decrease the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. XRD results revealed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had an anatase-brookite biphase heterostructure. FE-SEM results indicated that the multi-modified TiO2 film without cracks was composed of smaller round-like nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2. BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of pure TiO2 and the multi-modified TiO2 sample was 47.8 and 115.8 m2/g, respectively. By degradation of formaldehyde and oxytetracycline, experimental results showed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had excellent photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation.

  2. Surfactant-assisted sol gel preparation of high-surface area mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Francia, C.; Tuel, A.; Bodoardo, S.; Gerbaldi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanocrystalline lithium battery anodes with tunable morphology. • Simple sol–gel technique using different cationic surfactants is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • TiO 2 anatase using C16TAB exhibits stable performance after 200 cycles. • It shows promising prospects as high-voltage safe Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: We here investigate the physico-chemical/morphological characteristics and cycling behaviour of several kinds of nanocrystalline TiO 2 Li-ion battery anodes selectively prepared through a simple sol–gel strategy based on a low-cost titanium oxysulfate precursor, by mediation of different cationic surfactants having different features (e.g., chain lengths, counter ion, etc.): i.e., cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), benzalkonium chloride (BC) or octadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (C 18 TAB). X-ray diffraction profiles reveal single phase anatase having good correspondence with the reference pattern when using short chain CTAB, while in the other cases the presence of chloride and/or an increased chain length affect the purity of the samples. FESEM analysis reveal nanosized particles forming cauliflower-like aggregates. TiO 2 materials demonstrate mesoporous characteristics and large specific surface area ranging from 250 to 30 m 2 g −1 . Remarkably stable electrode performance are achieved by appropriately selecting the cationic surfactant and the surfactant/precursor ratio. Detailed analysis is provided on the effect of the reaction conditions upon the formation of mesoporous crystalline titania enlightening new directions for the development of high performing lithium storage electrodes by a simple and low cost sol–gel strategy

  3. Synthesis, characterization and application of Co doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.

    2018-06-01

    To use the visible portion of solar light, 2% cobalt doped TiO2 (Co: TiO2) multilayer thin films having 1, 2, 3 and 4 stacked layers have been deposited on FTO substrates using spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that 1 and 2 layers of films have anatase phase. Brookite phase has been appeared at the 3 and 4 layered films. The average grain size of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films are 14.4, 23.5, 29.7 and 33.6 nm respectively. UV-Vis results show that 4th layer film has high absorption in the visible region. The calculated Eg of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers is 3.54, 3.42, 3.30 and 3.03 eV respectively. The calculated average sheet resistivity of 1, 2, 3 and 4 layers of films is 7.68 × 104, 4.54 × 104, 8.85 × 103 and 7.95 × 102 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe technique. Solar simulator results show that highest solar conversion efficiency (5.6%) has been obtained by using 3 stacked layers photoanode. This new structure in the form of stack layers provides a way to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Formaldehyde gas sensor based on TiO2 thin membrane integrated with nano silicon structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuan; Ming, An-jie; Ye, Li; Chen, Feng-hua; Sun, Xi-long; Liu, Wei-bing; Li, Chao-bo; Ou, Wen; Wang, Wei-bing; Chen, Da-peng

    2016-07-01

    An innovative formaldehyde gas sensor based on thin membrane type metal oxide of TiO2 layer was designed and fabricated. This sensor under ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diode (LED) illumination exhibits a higher response to formaldehyde than that without UV illumination at low temperature. The sensitivities of the sensor under steady working condition were calculated for different gas concentrations. The sensitivity to formaldehyde of 7.14 mg/m3 is about 15.91 under UV illumination with response time of 580 s and recovery time of 500 s. The device was fabricated through micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) processing technology. First, plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was adopted to form black polysilicon, then a nanoscale TiO2 membrane with thickness of 53 nm was deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering to obtain the sensing layer. By such fabrication approaches, the nanoscale polysilicon presents continuous rough surface with thickness of 50 nm, which could improve the porosity of the sensing membrane. The fabrication process can be mass-produced for the MEMS process compatibility.

  5. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  6. Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 Thin Film Deposited on the Nano Porous Silicon Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mahmood; Dermani, Ensieh Khalili

    The porous silicon (PSi), which is produced by the electrochemical etching, has been used as a substrate for the growth of the titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films. By using the EBPVD method, TiO2 thin films have been deposited on the surface of the PSi substrate. TiO2/PSi layers were annealed at the temperature of 400∘C, 500∘C and 600∘C for different tests. The morphology and structures of layers were investigated by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The current-voltage characteristic curves of samples and the ideality factor of heterojunction were studied. The results showed that the electrical properties of the samples change with increase in the annealing temperature. The optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated by using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Green light emission of the PSi combined with the blue light and violet-blue emission obtained from the TiO2/PSi PL spectra. The results showed that the optical band gap energy of the PSi has increased from 1.86eV to 2.93eV due to the deposition of TiO2 thin film.

  7. TiO2 thin film growth using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 thin films were obtained using the MOCVD method. In this report we discuss the properties of a film, produced using a ordinary deposition apparatus, as a function of the deposition time, with constant deposition temperature (90 °C, oxygen flow (7,0 L/min and substrate temperature (400 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and visible and ultra-violet region spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The films deposited on Si (100 substrates showed the anatase polycrystalline phase, while the films grown on glass substrates showed no crystallinity. Film thickness increased with deposition time as expected, while the transmittance varied from 72 to 91% and the refractive index remained close to 2.6.

  8. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  9. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Ali, Asghar

    TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW) diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe.

  10. Photo catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene using nanocrystalline TiO2 photo catalyst doped with Zn ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso S, E. A.; Perez S, S.; Reyes C, A. P.; Castro R, C. L.; Felix N, R. M.; Lin H, S. W.; Paraguay D, F.; Alonso N, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo catalysis is a method widely used in the degradation of organic pollutants of the environment. The development of new materials is very important to improve the photo catalytic properties and to find new applications for TiO 2 as a photo catalyst. In this article we reported the synthesis of a photo catalyst based on TiO 2 doped with Zn 2+ ions highly efficient in the degradation of nitrobenzene. The results of photo catalytic activity experiments showed that the Zn 2+ doped TiO 2 is more active that un-doped TiO 2 catalyst with an efficiency of 99% for the nitrobenzene degradation at 120 min with an apparent rate constant of 35 x 10 -3 min -1 . For the characterization of photo catalyst X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used. (Author)

  11. TiO2 nanoparticle thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Capone, S.; Ciccarella, G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Romano, F.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.

    2007-01-01

    The MAPLE technique has been used for the deposition of nanostructured titania (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles thin films to be used for gas sensors applications. An aqueous solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles, synthesised by a novel chemical route, was frozen at liquid nitrogen temperature and irradiated with a pulsed ArF excimer laser in a vacuum chamber. A uniform distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles with an average size of about 10 nm was deposited on Si and interdigitated Al 2 O 3 substrates as demonstrated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy-field emission gun inspection (SEM-FEG). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed the presence of only the titanium and oxygen signals and FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) revealed the TiO 2 characteristic composition and bond. A comparison with a spin coated thin film obtained from the same solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles is reported. The sensing properties of the films deposited on interdigitated substrates were investigated, too

  12. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatlıdil, İlknur; Bacaksız, Emin; Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Breen, Chris; Sökmen, Münevver

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower E g values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO 2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO 2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO 2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe 3+ or Co 2+ ion doped TiO 2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO 2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The E g value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO 2 , 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO 2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO 2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO 2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO 2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  13. Formation of TiO2 domains in Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) thin film by hydrolysis-condensation of a metal alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier, V.; Bounor-Legare, V.; Alcouffe, P.; Boiteux, G.; Davenas, J.

    2007-01-01

    New organic-inorganic hybrid thin films based on Poly (9-vinylcarbazole) (P9VK) and Dioxide titanium (TiO 2 ) bulk-heterojunction were obtained by a hydrolysis-condensation (H-C) process of titanium (IV) isopropoxide in thin film. The TiO 2 distribution in the film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that homogeneous TiO 2 particles around 100 nm were formed on the surface of the polymer thin film. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the charge transfer efficiency in the photoactive layer and results were compared with a simplest elaboration route, the dispersion of TiO 2 anatase in a P9VK solution before spin coating. Results showed that TiO 2 elaborated by H-C exhibits a competitive quenching effect with TiO 2 anatase

  14. Photo-induced hydrophilicity of TiO2-xNx thin films on PET plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.-Y.; Lee, E.-K.; You, J.-W.; Yu, S.-S.

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2-x N x thin films were deposited on PET (polyethylene terephthalate) plates by sputtering a TiN target in a N 2 /O 2 plasma and without heating. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the N 1s, Ti 2p core levels and the nitrogen composition in the TiO 2-x N x films. The results indicate that Ti-O-N bonds are formed in the thin films. Two nitrogen states, substitution and interstitial nitrogen atoms, were attributed to peaks at 396 and 399 eV, respectively. It was observed that the nitrogen atoms occupy both the substitutive and interstitial sites in respective of the nitrogen content in the thin films. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy of PET coated thin films shows a significant shift of the absorption edge to lower energy in the visible-light region. UV and visible-light irradiation are used to activate PET coated thin films for the development of hydrophilicity. The photo-induced surface wettability conversion reaction of the thin films has been investigated by means of water contact angle measurement. PET plates coated with TiO 2-x N x thin films are found to exhibit lower water contact angle than non-coated plates when the surface is illuminated with UV and visible light. The effects of nitrogen doping on photo-generated hydrophilicity of the thin films are investigated in this work

  15. Electronic structure of the indium tin oxide/nanocrystalline anatase (TiO2)/ruthenium-dye interfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J. E.; Rayan, M. K.; Beerbom, M. M.; Schlaf, R.

    2008-10-01

    The electronic structure of two interfaces commonly found in dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells based on nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 ("Grätzel cells") was investigated using photoemission spectroscopy (PES). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) measurements were carried out on the indium tin oxide (ITO)/TiO2 and the TiO2/cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)-ruthenium(II)bis-tetrabutylammonium dye ("N719" or "Ruthenium 535-bisTBA") interfaces. Both contacts were investigated using a multistep deposition procedure where the entire structure was prepared in vacuum using electrospray deposition. In between deposition steps the surface was characterized with XPS and UPS resulting in a series of spectra, allowing the determination of the orbital and band lineup at the interfaces. The results of these efforts confirm previous PES measurements on TiO2/dye contacts prepared under ambient conditions, suggesting that ambient contamination might not have significant influence on the electronic structure at the dye/TiO2 interface. The results also demonstrate that there may be a significant barrier for electron injection at the sputtered ITO/TiO2 interface and that this interface should be viewed as a semiconductor heterojunction rather than as metal-semiconductor (Schottky) contact.

  16. Spin Speed and Duration Dependence of TiO2 Thin Films pH Sensing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad AlHadi Zulkefle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were applied as the sensing membrane of an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET pH sensor. TiO2 thin films were deposited by spin coating method and the influences of the spin speed and spin duration on the pH sensing behavior of TiO2 thin films were investigated. The spin coated TiO2 thin films were connected to commercial metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET to form the extended gates and the MOSFET was integrated in a readout interfacing circuit to complete the EGFET pH sensor system. For the spin speed parameter investigation, the highest sensitivity was obtained for the sample spun at 3000 rpm at a fixed spinning time of 60 s, which was 60.3 mV/pH. The sensitivity was further improved to achieve 68 mV/pH with good linearity of 0.9943 when the spin time was 75 s at the speed of 3000 rpm.

  17. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO2 by co-doping with fluorine and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miao, Guashuai; Ma, Xingping; Wang, Bei; Zheng, Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (F, Y)-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. • The highest photocatalytic activity (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ) was exhibited in the codoped TiO 2 with 0.05% Y doping level. • The Y doping induced oxygen vancancies played a duel role on the photocatalyic activity of the codoped TiO 2 . • The photocatalytic reactive oxygen species are critical to the photocatalytic degradation processes. - Abstract: Fluorine and yttrium codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sol–gel method. The products were characterized with various spectroscopic and analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results reveal that neither F nor Y doping causes obvious absorption edge shift in TiO 2 . Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra present that the PL signal is enhanced, suggesting a decrease of photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency, after the F or Y doping. The synergistic action by the F and Y doping leads to the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution in the 0.05% (F, Y)-codoped sample (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ). With the increase of Y doping level, the photocatalytic performance in the codoped samples increases firstly and then decreases. The photocatalytic activity variations after the F and Y doping were interpreted by the formation of photocatalytic reactive oxygen species induced by the dopings

  18. Uniform thin films of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Manera, M.G.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Romano, F.; Spadavecchia, J.; Tunno, T.; Valerini, D.

    2007-01-01

    We report morphological and optical properties of a colloidal TiO 2 nanoparticle film, deposited on a quartz substrate by using the Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Atomic Force Microscopy demonstrated that a good uniformity of the deposition can be obtained. The presence of agglomerates with dimensions of about 1 μm in size was noticed. Form UV-vis transmission spectra, recorded in the 200-800 nm range, the optical constants and the energy gap were determined besides the film thickness. The optical constants resulted in agreement with the values reported in literature for TiO 2 nanoparticle thin films

  19. Polythiophene thin films electrochemically deposited on sol-gel based TiO2 for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valaski, R.; Yamamoto, N.A.D.; Canestraro, C.D.; Micaroni, L.; Mello, R.M.Q.; Quirino, W.G.; Legani, C.; Achete, C.A.; Roman, L.S.; Cremona, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the influence of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films on the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices based on electrochemically synthesized polythiophene (PT) was investigated. TiO 2 films were produced by sol-gel methods with controlled thickness. The best TiO 2 annealing condition was determined through the investigation of the temperature influence on the electron charge mobility and resistivity in a range between 723 K and 923 K. The PT films were produced by chronoamperometric method in a 3-electrode cell under a controlled atmosphere. High quality PT films were produced onto 40 nm thick TiO 2 layer previously deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The morphology of PT films grown on both substrates and its strong influence on the device performance and PT minimum thickness were also investigated. The maximum external quantum efficiency (IPCE) reached was 9% under monochromatic irradiation (λ = 610 nm; 1 W/m 2 ) that is three orders of magnitude higher than that presented by PT-homolayer devices with similar PT thickness. In addition, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) was about 700 mV and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) was 0.03 A/m 2 (λ = 610 nm; 7 W/m 2 ). However, as for the PT-homolayer also the TiO 2 /PT based devices are characterized by antibatic response when illuminated through FTO. Finally, the Fill Factor (FF) of these devices is low (25%), indicating that the series resistance (R s ), which is strongly dependent of the PT thickness, is too large. This large R s value is compensated by TiO 2 /PT interface morphology and by FTO/TiO 2 and TiO 2 /PT interface phenomena producing preferential paths in which the internal electrical field is higher, improving the device efficiency.

  20. Low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 nanocrystalline film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, G.; Lee, K.E.; Charboneau, C.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Gauvin, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2008-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the potential to render solar energy widely accessible. The deposition of titania nano-crystalline powders on a substrate is an important step in the manufacture of the DSSC. The deposition forms a mesoporous thin film that is followed by thermal treatment and sensitization. Usually titania films are deposited on glass by screen printing and then annealed at temperatures as high as 530 degrees C to provide a good electrical contact between the semiconductor particles and crystallization of the anatase phase. Several research and development efforts have focused on the deposition of titania film on flexible plastic substrates that will simplify the whole manufacturing process in terms of flexibility, weight, application and cost. Lower temperature processing is needed for the preparation of plastic-based titania film electrodes, but this has proven to be counterproductive when it comes to the cell's conversion efficiency. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the different coating and annealing techniques at low temperature as well as important processing factors for improvement. To date, these techniques include pressing, hydrothermal process, electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition, microwave or UV irradiation, and lift-off technique.

  1. The properties of metal contacts on TiO2 thin films produced by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brus V. V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with research on volt-ampere characteristics of metal contacts (Al, Cr, In, Mo, Ti on titanium dioxide thin films and influence of annealing in vacuum on their electric properties. Volt-ampere characteristics measurements were taken by three-probe method. There was established that indium contact on TiO2 thin films possessed sharply defined ohmic properties.

  2. Performance of Erbium-doped TiO2 thin film grown by physical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Rini; Ghosh, Anupam; Dwivedi, Shyam Murli Manohar Dhar; Chakrabartty, Shubhro; Chinnamuthu, P.; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2017-09-01

    Undoped and Erbium-doped TiO2 thin films (Er:TiO2 TFs) were fabricated on the n-type Si substrate using physical vapour deposition technique. Field emission scanning electron microscope showed the morphological change in the structure of Er:TiO2 TF as compared to undoped sample. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the Er doping in the TiO2 thin film (TF). The XRD and Raman spectrum showed the presence of anatase phase TiO2 and Er2O3 in the Er:TiO2 TF. The Raman scattering depicted additional number of vibrational modes for Er:TiO2 TF due to the presence of Er as compared to the undoped TiO2 TF. The UV-Vis absorption measurement showed that Er:TiO2 TF had approximately 1.2 times more absorption over the undoped TiO2 TF in the range of 300-400 nm. The main band transition, i.e., the transition between the oxygen (2p) state and the Ti (3d) state was obtained at 3.0 eV for undoped TiO2 and at 3.2 eV for Er:TiO2 TF, respectively. The photo responsivity measurement was done on both the detectors, where Er:TiO2 TF detector showed better detectivity ( D *), noise equivalent power and temporal response as compared to undoped detector under ultra-violet illumination.

  3. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  4. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous and crystalline TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Rajiv, K.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, M.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    TiO2 thin films of widely different structural and morphological characteristics were grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (50 °C ≤ Ts ≤ 400 °C). Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements were carried out to investigate the effect of growth temperature on the optical properties of the films. Measured SE data were analyzed by considering double layer optical model for the sample together with the single oscillator Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation. Surface roughness was taken into consideration due to the columnar growths of grains in crystalline films. The refractive index was found to be increased from amorphous (Ts ≤ 150 °C) to the nanocrystalline films (2500 < Ts ≤ 400 °C). The pronounced surface roughening for the large-grained anatase film obtained at the amorphous to crystalline phase transformation temperature of 200 °C, impeded SE measurement. The dispersions of refractive indices below the interband absorption edge were found to be strongly correlated with the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (WD) model. The increase in dispersion energy parameter in WD model from disordered amorphous to the more ordered nanocrystalline films was found to be associated with the increase in the film density and coordination number.

  5. Structural, morphological and local electric properties of TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergy, E; Pino, A Perez del; Sauthier, G; Figueras, A; Alsina, F; Pascual, J

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were synthesized on (1 0 0) Si substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A frequency quadrupled Nd : YAG (λ = 266 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 5 ns, ν = 10 Hz) laser source was used for the irradiations of metallic Ti targets. The experiments were performed in controlled oxygen atmosphere. Crystallinity, surface morphology and local electric properties of the obtained oxide thin films were investigated by x-ray diffractometry, micro-Raman spectroscopy and current sensing atomic force microscopy. An inter-relation was found between the surface morphology, the crystalline structure and the nano-scale electric properties which open the possibility of synthesizing by the PLD technique TiO 2 thin films with tunable functional properties for future applications such as photocatalysts, gas sensors or solar energy converters

  6. Effects of LP-MOCVD prepared TiO2 thin films on the in vitro behavior of gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpean, Anisoara; Popescu, Simona; Ciofrangeanu, Cristina M.; Gleizes, Alain N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the in vitro response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1 cell line) to various thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited on titanium (Ti) substrates by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD). The aim was to study the influence of film structural parameters on the cell behavior comparatively with a native-oxide covered titanium specimen, this objective being topical and interesting for materials applications in implantology. HGF-1 cells were cultured on three LP-MOCVD prepared thin films of TiO 2 differentiated by their thickness, roughness, transversal morphology, allotropic composition and wettability, and on a native-oxide covered Ti substrate. Besides traditional tests of cell viability and morphology, the biocompatibility of these materials was evaluated by fibronectin immunostaining, assessment of cell proliferation status and the zymographic evaluation of gelatinolytic activities specific to matrix metalloproteinases secreted by cells grown in contact with studied specimens. The analyzed surfaces proved to influence fibronectin fibril assembly, cell proliferation and capacity to degrade extracellular matrix without considerably affecting cell viability and morphology. The MOCVD of TiO 2 proved effective in positively modifying titanium surface for medical applications. Surface properties playing a crucial role for cell behavior were the wettability and, secondarily, the roughness, HGF-1 cells preferring a moderately rough and wettable TiO 2 coating.

  7. Synthesis and visible light photoactivity of anatase Ag, and garlic loaded TiO2 nanocrystalline catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excellent visible light activated Ag and S doped TiO2 nanocatalyst was prepared by using AgNO3 and garlic (Allium sativum) as Ag+ and sulfur sources, respectively. The catalyst resisted the change from anatase to rutile phase even at calcination at 700 oC. The photocatalytic e...

  8. The influence of metal interlayers on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO 2 films

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Bei; Mi, Wenbo; Chen, Long; Li, Lin; Zhao, Chao; Diallo, Elhadj; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    TiO 2-M-TiO 2 (M = W, Co and Ag) multilayer films have been deposited on glass substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, then annealed in air for 2 h at 500°C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the films have been

  9. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiB2 powder from TiO2, B2O3 and Mg ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gered by using: (i) a furnace or (ii) an electrical element touching the surface ... plicity, low energy consumption and good purity of the products. [12,13]. SHS method .... Similar to the TiO2–Mg system, by increasing the ini- tial temperature, the ...

  10. Role of oxygen vacancies in anodic TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Halley, J.W.

    1992-05-01

    Defects play an important role in the electronic and optical properties of amorphous solids in general. Here we present both experimental and theoretical investigations on the nature and origin of defect states in anodic rutile TiO 2 thin films (of thickness 5nm to 20nm). There is experimental evidence that the observed gap state at 0.7eV below the edge of conduction-band is due to an oxygen vacancy. For this reason, oxygen vacancies are used in our model. A comparison of the calculated bulk-photoconductivity to photospectroscopy experiment reveals that the films have bulk-like transport properties. On the other hand a fit of the surface density of states to the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on the (001) surfaces has suggested a surface defect density of 5% of oxygen vacancies. To resolve this discrepancy, we calculated the dc-conductivity where localization effects are included. Our results show an impurity band formation at about p c =9% of oxygen vacancies. We concluded that the gap states seen in STM are localized and the oxygen vacancies are playing the role of trapping centers (deep levels) in the studied films. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  11. Thickness Dependent Optical Properties of Sol-gel based MgF2 – TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Krishnaraja Achar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 – TiO2 thin films were prepared by cost effective solgel technique onto glass substrates and optical parameters were determined by envelope technique. Thin films were characterized by optical transmission spectroscopy in the spectral range 290 – 1000 nm. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, Optical thickness and band gap dependency on thickness were evaluated. Thickness dependency of thin films showed direct allowed transition with band gap of 3.66 to 3.73 eV.

  12. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILM OF TiO2 ON GRAPHITE SUBSTRATE BY Cu-ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphite/TiO2 has been done by mean of Cu electrodeposition. This research aims to study the effect of Cu electrodeposition on photocatalytic enhancing of TiO2. Electrodeposition has been done using CuSO4 0,4 M as the electrolyte at controlled current. The XRD pattern of modified TiO2 thin film on graphite substrate exhibited new peaks at 2θ= 43-44o and 2θ= 50-51o that have been identified as Cu with crystal cubic system, face-centered crystal lattice and crystallite size of 26-30 nm. CTABr still remains in the material as impurities. Meanwhile, based on morphological analysis, Cu particles are dissipated in the pore of thin film. Graphite/TiO2/Cu has higher photoconversion efficiency than graphite/TiO2.   Keywords: semiconductor, graphite/TiO2, Cu electrodeposition

  13. Incorporation of Kojic Acid-Azo Dyes on TiO2 Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolynne Zie Wei Sie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitization of heavy metal free organic dyes onto TiO2 thin films has gained much attention in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A series of new kojic acid based organic dyes KA1–4 were synthesized via nucleophilic substitution of azobenzene bearing different vinyl chains A1–4 with kojyl chloride 4. Azo dyes KA1–4 were characterized for photophysical properties employing absorption spectrometry and photovoltaic characteristic in TiO2 thin film. The presence of vinyl chain in A1–4 improved the photovoltaic performance from 0.20 to 0.60%. The introduction of kojic acid obtained from sago waste further increases the efficiency to 0.82–1.54%. Based on photovoltaic performance, KA4 achieved the highest solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency (η = 1.54% in the series.

  14. An investigation of the photosubstitution reaction between N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles and 4-tert-butylpyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Nguyen, Thai Hoang; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    concentration. Based on this observation, a degradation mechanism was proposed, in which the reaction proceeds through the rate-determining formation of a common intermediate complex, I=[RuII(H2dcbpy)2(NCS)(NCS)]+. An average degradation rate of kdeg=6×10-3s-1 was obtained from the value of Φdeg and the back...... electron-transfer rate, kback of the reaction TiO2+e-|N719+→TiO2|N719, obtained by means of photo-induced absorption (PIA) measurements. The lifetime of the solar cell sensitizer N719 was estimated to be between 34 years, based on kdeg and an average literature value of the regeneration rate, kreg=2×106M-1...... simple model experiments. In these experiments, colloidal solutions of N719-dyed nanocrystalline TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm laser light in the presence of 0-1mol/l of 4-TBP. Five degradation products were identified using LC-ESI-MS: the 4-tert-butylpyridine substitution...

  15. Self-organized nanocrack networks: a pathway to enlarge catalytic surface area in sputtered ceramic thin films, showcased for photocatalytic TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, B.; Vahl, A.; Aktas, O. C.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.

    2018-01-01

    Sputter deposited photocatalytic thin films offer high adherence and mechanical stability, but typically are outperformed in their photocatalytic properties by colloidal TiO2 nanostructures, which in turn typically suffer from problematic removal. Here we report on thermally controlled nanocrack formation as a feasible and batch applicable approach to enhance the photocatalytic performance of well adhering, reactively sputtered TiO2 thin films. Networks of nanoscopic cracks were induced into tailored columnar TiO2 thin films by thermal annealing. These deep trenches are separating small bundles of TiO2 columns, adding their flanks to the overall catalytically active surface area. The variation of thin film thickness reveals a critical layer thickness for initial nanocrack network formation, which was found to be about 400 nm in case of TiO2. The columnar morphology of the as deposited TiO2 layer with weak bonds between respective columns and with strong bonds to the substrate is of crucial importance for the formation of nanocrack networks. A beneficial effect of nanocracking on the photocatalytic performance was experimentally observed. It was correlated by a simple geometric model for explaining the positive impact of the crack induced enlargement of active surface area on photocatalytic efficiency. The presented method of nanocrack network formation is principally not limited to TiO2 and is therefore seen as a promising candidate for utilizing increased surface area by controlled crack formation in ceramic thin films in general.

  16. Nb and Ta Co-Doped TiO2 Transparent Conductive Thin Films by Magnetron Sputtering: Fabrication, Structure, and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Peng, Qian; Qiao, Yadong; Yang, Guang

    2018-06-01

    Nb and Ta co-doped anatase titanium dioxide (NTTO) nanocrystalline thin films were deposited on quartz and Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The influence of RF power on the growth, structure, morphology, and properties of the samples are discussed in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the films are polycrystalline with anatase tetragonal structure, which is further confirmed by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Meanwhile, Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the peak width of E g(1) mode, which is directly correlated to the carrier density, changes obviously with RF power. It is found that the substitution of Nb5+ and Ta5+ at Ti site is significantly improved with the increase of RF power from 150 W to 210 W. For the sample deposited at 210 W, the optical transmittance is above 82% in the visible range and the electrical resistivity is as low as 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.1 × 1021 cm-3 and Hall mobility of 4.5 cm2 V-1 s-1. The optical and electrical properties of NTTO thin films can be compared to those of Nb or Ta doped anatase TiO2. However, co-doping with Nb and Ta gives a possible platform to complement the limitations of each individual dopant.

  17. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  18. Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinfa Luka Domtau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt% of carbon black were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300–900 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350–900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance, and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased (i.e., increase in pore size. Currents and voltages (I-V characteristics of the films were measured by a 4-point probe. Resistivity (ρ and conductivity (σ of the films were computed from the I-V values. It was observed that resistivity increased with carbon black concentrations while conductivity decreased as the pore size of the films increased.

  19. Influence of the growth parameters on TiO2 thin films deposited using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M. I. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin films by the Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD method. The influence of deposition parameters used during the growth in the obtained structural characteristics was studied. Different temperatures of the organometallic bath, deposition time, temperature and type of the substrate were combined. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy associated to Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction, the strong influence of these parameters in the thin films final microstructure was verified.

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic)/SiO2-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Wen-Chen; Yu, Yang-Yen; Chen, Po-Kan; Yu, Hui-Huan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, poly(acrylic)/SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films were successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted polymerization. The coupling agent 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MSMA) was hydrolyzed with colloidal SiO 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles, and then polymerized with two acrylic monomers and initiator to form a precursor solution. The results of this study showed that the spin-coated hybrid films had relatively good surface planarity, high thermal stability, a tunable refractive index (1.525 2 -TiO 2 core-shell nanoparticle hybrid thin films, for potential use in optical applications.

  1. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  2. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Chen Daimai, Wang Dong Yang and Jiang Zhongyi 2006 Ind. Eng. Chem. 45 4110. Cheng Jen-hao 2003 A study on photocatalytic oxidation of aque- ous chlorobenzene solution by nanostructured film of TiO2,. Master Thesis, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan. Deki S, Henin Yu Yu Ko, Fujita T, Akamatsu K, Mizuhata ...

  3. Properties of Sn-doped TiO2 nanotubes fabricated by anodization of co-sputtered Ti–Sn thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyeremateng, Nana Amponsah; Hornebecq, Virginie; Knauth, Philippe; Djenizian, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Self-organized Sn-doped TiO 2 nanotubes (nts) were fabricated for the first time, by anodization of co-sputtered Ti and Sn thin films. This nanostructured material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Due to their remarkable properties, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts can find potential applications in Li-ion microbatteries, photovoltaics, and catalysis. Particularly, the electrochemical performance as an anode material for Li-ion microbatteries was evaluated in Li test cells. With current density of 70 μA cm −2 (1 C) and cut-off potential of 1 V, Sn-doped TiO 2 nts showed improved performance compared to simple TiO 2 nts, and differential capacity plots revealed that the material undergoes full electrochemical reaction as a Rutile-type TiO 2 .

  4. Laser damage properties of TiO2/Al2O3 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-01-01

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm Φ samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 films, the LIDTs were 6.73±0.47 J/cm 2 and 6.5±0.46 J/cm 2 at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  5. Inverted organic solar cells with solvothermal synthesized vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films as efficient electron transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi Dafeh; Samaneh Ghazanfarpour; Mohammad Khanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of using different thicknesses of pure and vanadium-doped thin films of TiO2 as the electron transport layer in the inverted configuration of organic photovoltaic cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT:[6-6] phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM).1% vanadium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via the solvothermal method.Crystalline structure,morphology,and optical properties of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films were studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmittance electron microscopy,and UV-visible transmission spectrum.The doctor blade method which is compatible with roll-2-roll printing was used for deposition of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films with thicknesses of 30 nm and 60 nm.The final results revealed that the best thickness of TiO2 thin films for our fabricated cells was 30 nm.The cell with vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film showed slightly higher power conversion efficiency and great Jsc of 10.7 mA/cm2 compared with its pure counterpart.In the cells using 60 nm pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 layers,the cell using the doped layer showed much higher efficiency.It is remarkable that the extemal quantum efficiency of vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film was better in all wavelengths.

  6. The use of Red Cabbage’s anthocyanine extract as a photosensitizer on a Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline TiO2 Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhiruddin Maddu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell utilizing anthocyanin extract form red cabbage as photosensitizer was fabricated. The solar cell was formed in sandwich structure, which two electrodes sandwiching polymer electrolyte containing a redox couple (I-/I3-. One of the electrodes, namely working electrode, TiO2 layer on TCO (transparent conducting oxide coated glass substrate was sensitized with anthocyanin dye as electron donor in the system. Another electrode was a carbon sheet as a counter electrode. Gel electrolyte based on PEG (polyethylene glycol containing a redox couple (I-/I3- used instead of liquid electrolyte in this photoelectrochemical cell. Two fabricated cells have an active area of 1 cm2 were soaked with anthocyanine dye for 1 hr and 24 hrs, respectively. The cells were tested by irradiation with halogen lamp of 24 Watt with intensity 4 mW/cm2 at a distance 30 cm. The testing results of the cells show an ideal I-V characteristic with output parameters: open circuit voltage (VOC of 500 mV, short circuit current (ISC of 5,6 μA and 7,2 μA for each cells, fill factor (FF of 48% for both cells, energy conversion (η of 0.023 % and 0,055 % for the cells with 1 hr and 24 hrs dye soaked, respectively.

  7. Synthesis and electronic structure of low-density monoliths of nanoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, S O; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y M; van Buuren, T; Satcher, J H

    2004-08-13

    Monolithic nanocrystalline anatase titania aerogels are synthesized by the epoxide sol-gel method followed by thermal annealing at 550 C. These aerogels are formed by {approx}10-20 nm size anatase nanoparticles which are randomly oriented and interconnected into an open-cell solid network. Aerogel monoliths have an apparent density of {approx}6% and a surface area of {approx} 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy reveal good crystallinity of the anatase nanoparticles forming the aerogel skeleton.

  8. Defect controlled tuning of the ratio of ultraviolet to visible light emission in TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, S.; Basak, D.

    2016-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of sol–gel TiO 2 thin film has been found to be largely dependent on the post-deposition processing such as annealing at 500 °C in air, vacuum and ultraviolet (UV) light curing at room temperature. A detailed analysis of room temperature PL spectra shows that the UV/VIS PL peak intensity ratio is maximum for the film which has been annealed at 500 °C in air. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of Ti 3+ type of point defects. The visible emission is deconvoluted to green and orange emissions. Analyses of the present experimental results indicate that V O and/or Ti 3+ causes the green emission and OH and/or excess O 2 adsorption on TiO 2 surface probably causes the orange emission. The time correlated single photon counting spectroscopy data of the UV PL indicates higher number defects in vacuum annealed and UV cured films as compared to the air annealed film. Correlation of the results altogether allows us to conclude that the surface defects those causing the visible emission are smaller in number in the air annealed film. The present results may be useful for tuning the relative PL intensities of UV, green and orange emissions. - Highlights: • Sol–gel TiO 2 films were treated both in air, vacuum at 500 °C and under UV light (room temperature). • UV/VIS PL intensity ratio is maximum for air annealed and minimum for UV cured films. • Both green and orange emission predominantly controls the visible emission of TiO 2 . • The visible emission exhibit a clear correlation with Ti 3+  defects on the surface.

  9. Control of crystallographic texture and surface morphology of Pt/Tio2 templates for enhanced PZT thin film texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Austin J; Drawl, Bill; Fox, Glen R; Gibbons, Brady J; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Optimized processing conditions for Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si templating electrodes were investigated. These electrodes are used to obtain [111] textured thin film lead zirconate titanate (Pb[ZrxTi1-x ]O3 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (PZT). Titanium deposited by dc magnetron sputtering yields [0001] texture on a thermally oxidized Si wafer. It was found that by optimizing deposition time, pressure, power, and the chamber pre-conditioning, the Ti texture could be maximized while maintaining low surface roughness. When oxidized, titanium yields [100]-oriented rutile. This seed layer has as low as a 4.6% lattice mismatch with [111] Pt; thus, it is possible to achieve strongly oriented [111] Pt. The quality of the orientation and surface roughness of the TiO2 and the Ti directly affect the achievable Pt texture and surface morphology. A transition between optimal crystallographic texture and the smoothest templating surface occurs at approximately 30 nm of original Ti thickness (45 nm TiO2). This corresponds to 0.5 nm (2 nm for TiO2) rms roughness as determined by atomic force microscopy and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve 0002 (200) peak of 5.5/spl degrees/ (3.1/spl degrees/ for TiO2). A Pb[Zr0.52Ti 0.48]O3 layer was deposited and shown to template from the textured Pt electrode, with a maximum [111] Lotgering factor of 87% and a minimum 111 FWHM of 2.4/spl degrees/ at approximately 30 nm of original Ti.

  10. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin layers for the processing of memristive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porro, Samuele; Conti, Daniele; Guastella, Salvatore; Ricciardi, Carlo; Jasmin, Alladin; Pirri, Candido F.; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Perrone, Denis; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) represents one of the most fundamental techniques capable of satisfying the strict technological requirements imposed by the rapidly evolving electronic components industry. The actual scaling trend is rapidly leading to the fabrication of nanoscaled devices able to overcome limits of the present microelectronic technology, of which the memristor is one of the principal candidates. Since their development in 2008, TiO 2 thin film memristors have been identified as the future technology for resistive random access memories because of their numerous advantages in producing dense, low power-consuming, three-dimensional memory stacks. The typical features of ALD, such as self-limiting and conformal deposition without line-of-sight requirements, are strong assets for fabricating these nanosized devices. This work focuses on the realization of memristors based on low-temperature ALD TiO 2 thin films. In this process, the oxide layer was directly grown on a polymeric photoresist, thus simplifying the fabrication procedure with a direct liftoff patterning instead of a complex dry etching process. The TiO 2 thin films deposited in a temperature range of 120–230 °C were characterized via Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical current–voltage measurements taken in voltage sweep mode were employed to confirm the existence of resistive switching behaviors typical of memristors. These measurements showed that these low-temperature devices exhibit an ON/OFF ratio comparable to that of a high-temperature memristor, thus exhibiting similar performances with respect to memory applications

  11. Correlation between photoconductivity in nanocrystalline titania and short circuit current transients in MEH-PPV/titania solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z B; Henry, B M; Kirov, K R; Barkhouse, D A R; Burlakov, V M; Smith, H E; Grovenor, C R M; Assender, H E; Briggs, G A D; Kano, M; Tsukahara, Y

    2007-01-01

    We report the first experimental observation of a direct relationship between electron transport in different nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films and the photovoltaic performance of TiO 2 /MEH-PPV composite solar cells made using these same TiO 2 films. We show that the transient behaviour in the composite solar cells under illumination can be explained by the transient photoconductivity performance of the TiO 2 layer

  12. Quantum size effects in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tallarida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the atomic layer deposition of TiO2 by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Ti precursor, titanium isopropoxide, was used in combination with H2O on Si/SiO2 substrates that were heated at 200 °C. The low growth rate (0.15 Å/cycle and the in situ characterization permitted to follow changes in the electronic structure of TiO2 in the sub-nanometer range, which are influenced by quantum size effects. The modified electronic properties may play an important role in charge carrier transport and separation, and increase the efficiency of energy conversion systems.

  13. Physiochemical properties of TiO2 nanoparticle thin films deposited on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Basiaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of TiO2 layer to improve hemocompatibility of 316LVM stainless steel. The TiO2 layers studied in this work were deposited from TiCl4 and H2O in a low-pressure Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD reactor taking into account number of cycles and process temperature. As a part of the research electrochemical studies of the layer after 28 days exposure to artificial plasma were carried out. In particular, potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and impedance studies were conducted. The obtained results were the basis for selection of surface treatment method dedicated to blood-contacting stainless steel implants.

  14. Degradation of gas-phase trichloroethylene over thin-film TiO2 photocatalyst in multi-modules reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Lee, Jun Yub; Kim, Gyung Soo; Hong, Sung Chang

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examined the photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) over thin-film TiO 2 . A large-scale treatment of TCE was carried out using scale-up continuous flow photo-reactor in which nine reactors were arranged in parallel and series. The parallel or serial arrangement is a significant factor to determine the special arrangement of whole reactor module as well as to compact the multi-modules in a continuous flow reactor. The conversion of TCE according to the space time was nearly same for parallel and serial connection of the reactors.

  15. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  16. Effect of electrode type in the resistive switching behaviour of TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, E; Zapata-Torres, M; Márquez-Herrera, A; Zaleta-Alejandre, E; Meléndez-Lira, M; Cruz, W de la

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the electrode/active layer on the electric-field-induced resistance-switching phenomena of TiO 2 -based metal-oxide-metal devices (MOM) is studied. TiO 2 active layers were fabricated by the reactive rf-sputtering technique and devices were made by sandwiching between several metal electrodes. Three different MOM devices were made, according with the junction type formed between the electrode and the TiO 2 active layer, those where Ohmic-Ohmic, Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky. The junction type was tested by electrical I-V measurements. It was found that MOM devices made with the Ohmic-Ohmic combination did not show any resistive switching behaviour in contrast with devices made with Ohmic-Schottky and Schottky-Schottky combinations. From a detailed analysis of the I-V curves it was found that transport characteristics are Ohmic for the low-resistance state for all the contacts combinations of the MOM devices, whereas in the high-resistance state it depends on contact combinations and can be identified as Ohmic, Schottky and Poole-Frenkel type. These conduction mechanisms in the low- and high-resistance states suggest that formation and rupture of conducting filaments through the film oxide is the mechanism responsible for the resistance switching.

  17. Optical, Electrical, and Crystal Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupa, I.; Unal, Y.; Cetin, S. S.; Durna, L.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.; Ates, H.

    2018-05-01

    TiO2 thin films have been deposited on glass and Si(100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using tetrakis(diethylamido)titanium(IV) and water vapor as reactants. Thorough investigation of the properties of the TiO2/glass and TiO2/Si thin films was carried out, varying the deposition temperature in the range from 100°C to 250°C while keeping the number of reaction cycles fixed at 1000. Physical and material property analyses were performed to investigate optical and electrical properties, composition, structure, and morphology. TiO2 films grown by ALD may represent promising materials for future applications in optoelectronic devices.

  18. Equilibrium lithium-ion transport between nanocrystalline lithium-inserted anatase TiO2 and the electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Swapna; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Mulder, Fokko M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2011-12-23

    The power density of lithium-ion batteries requires the fast transfer of ions between the electrode and electrolyte. The achievable power density is directly related to the spontaneous equilibrium exchange of charged lithium ions across the electrolyte/electrode interface. Direct and unique characterization of this charge-transfer process is very difficult if not impossible, and consequently little is known about the solid/liquid ion transfer in lithium-ion-battery materials. Herein we report the direct observation by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of continuous lithium-ion exchange between the promising nanosized anatase TiO(2) electrode material and the electrolyte. Our results reveal that the energy barrier to charge transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface is equal to or greater than the barrier to lithium-ion diffusion through the solid anatase matrix. The composition of the electrolyte and in turn the solid/electrolyte interface (SEI) has a significant effect on the electrolyte/electrode lithium-ion exchange; this suggests potential improvements in the power of batteries by optimizing the electrolyte composition. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)-incorporated nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Quanxin; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Near infrared to visible up-conversion of light by rare earth ion-doped phosphors (NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+)) that convert multiple photons of lower energy to higher energy photons offer new possibilities for improved performance of photovoltaic devices. Here, up-conversion phosphor NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) doped nanocrystalline TiO2 films are designed and used as a electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells, and the photovoltaic performance of DSSCs based on composite electrodes are investigated. The results show the cell with NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) achieves a power conversion efficiency of 7.65% under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mWcm(-2)), which is an increase of 14% compared to the cell without NaYF4:Yb(3+), Er(3+) (6.71%). The performance improvement is attributed to the dual effects of enhanced light harvesting from extended light absorption range and increased light scattering, and lower electron transfer resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies to prepare TiO2 thin films, doped with transition metal ions, that exhibit specific physicochemical properties to support osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayal, Marshal; Kapoor, Renu; Sistla, Pavana Goury; Pandey, Ravi Ranjan; Kar, Satabisha; Saini, Krishan Kumar; Pande, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion doped titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) thin films, as bioactive coatings on metal or other implantable materials, can be used as surfaces for studying the cell biological properties of osteogenic and other cell types. Bulk crystallite phase distribution and surface carbon–oxygen constitution of thin films, play an important role in determining the biological responses of cells that come in their contact. Here we present a strategy to control the polarity of atomic interactions between the dopant metal and TiO 2 molecules and obtain surfaces with smaller crystallite phases and optimal surface carbon–oxygen composition to support the maximum proliferation and adhesion of osteoblast cells. Our results suggest that surfaces, in which atomic interactions between the dopant metals and TiO 2 were less polar, could support better adhesion, spreading and proliferation of cells. - Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of dopants control the nature of TiO 2 thin films. • A model explains the correlation of dopant properties and behaviour of TiO 2 films. • Dopants with less polar interaction with TiO 2 exhibit better biological activity

  1. Effect of precursor concentration and film thickness deposited by layer on nanostructured TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Sol-gel spin coating method is used in the production of nanostructured TiO2 thin film. The surface topology and morphology was observed using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The electrical properties were investigated by using two probe current-voltage (I-V) measurements to study the electrical resistivity behavior, hence the conductivity of the thin film. The solution concentration will be varied from 14.0 to 0.01wt% with 0.02wt% interval where the last concentration of 0.02 to 0.01wt% have 0.01wt% interval to find which concentrations have the highest conductivity then the optimized concentration's sample were chosen for the thickness parameter based on layer by layer deposition from 1 to 6 layer. Based on the result, the lowest concentration of TiO2, the surface becomes more uniform and the conductivity will increase. As the result, sample of 0.01wt% concentration have conductivity value of 1.77E-10 S/m and will be advanced in thickness parameter. Whereas in thickness parameter, the 3layer deposition were chosen as its conductivity is the highest at 3.9098E9 S/m.

  2. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthier, G.; Ferrer, F.J.; Figueras, A.; Gyoergy, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were grown on (001) SiO 2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ FWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO 2 . The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  3. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of F-containing TiO2 sphere thin film induced by its novel hierarchical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiang; Tao Jie; Li Yingying; Zhu Hong

    2009-01-01

    The novel nanostructured F-containing TiO 2 (F-TiO 2 ) sphere was directly synthesized on the surface of Ti foil in the solution of NH 4 F and HCl by one-step hydrothermal approach under low-temperature condition. The samples were characterized respectively by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the F-TiO 2 sphere was hierarchical structure, which composed of porous octahedron crystals with one truncated cone, leading to a football-like morphology. XPS results indicated that F - anions were just physically adsorbed on the surface of TiO 2 microspheres. The studies on the optical properties of the F-TiO 2 were carried out by UV-vis light absorption spectrum. The surface fluorination of the spheres, the unique nanostructure induced accessible macropores or mesopores, and the increased light-harvesting abilities were crucial for the high photoelectrochemical activity of the synthesized F-TiO 2 sphere for water-splitting. The photocurrent density of the F-TiO 2 sphere thin film was more than two times than that of the P25 thin film. Meanwhile, a formation mechanism was briefly proposed. This approach could provide a facile method to synthesize F-TiO 2 microsphere with a special morphology and hierarchical structure in large scale.

  4. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  5. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  6. Strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ion irradiated anatase TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stiller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of epitaxial, undoped anatase TiO2 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Low-energy ion irradiation was used to modify the surface of the films within a few nanometers, yet with high enough energy to produce oxygen and titanium vacancies. The as-prepared thin film shows ferromagnetism which increases after irradiation with low-energy ions. An optimal and clear magnetic anisotropy was observed after the first irradiation, opposite to the expected form anisotropy. Taking into account the experimental parameters, titanium vacancies as di-Frenkel pairs appear to be responsible for the enhanced ferromagnetism and the strong anisotropy observed in our films. The magnetic impurities concentrations was measured by particle-induced X-ray emission with ppm resolution. They are ruled out as a source of the observed ferromagnetism before and after irradiation.

  7. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfeng Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc, short-circuit current (Jsc and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells.

  8. Enhanced Charge Extraction of Li-Doped TiO2 for Efficient Thermal-Evaporated Sb2S3 Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chunfeng; Luo, Jingting; Lan, Huabin; Fan, Bo; Peng, Huanxin; Zhao, Jun; Sun, Huibin; Zheng, Zhuanghao; Liang, Guangxing; Fan, Ping

    2018-01-01

    We provided a new method to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3 thin film solar cells. The TiO2 electron transport layers were doped by lithium to improve their charge extraction properties for the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. The Mott-Schottky curves suggested a change of energy band and faster charge transport in the Li-doped TiO2 films. Compared with the undoped TiO2, Li-doped mesoporous TiO2 dramatically improved the photo-voltaic performance of the thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 thin film solar cells, with the average power conversion efficiency (PCE) increasing from 1.79% to 4.03%, as well as the improved open-voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc) and fill factors. The best device based on Li-doped TiO2 achieved a power conversion efficiency up to 4.42% as well as a Voc of 0.645 V, which are the highest values among the reported thermal-evaporated Sb2S3 solar cells. This study showed that Li-doping on TiO2 can effectively enhance the charge extraction properties of electron transport layers, offering a new strategy to improve the efficiency of Sb2S3-based solar cells. PMID:29495612

  9. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  10. Photocatalytic Anatase TiO2 Thin Films on Polymer Optical Fiber Using Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Choquet, Patrick; Boscher, Nicolas D

    2017-04-19

    Due to the undeniable industrial advantages of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma processes, such as low cost, low temperature, easy implementation, and in-line process capabilities, they have become the most promising next-generation candidate system for replacing thermal chemical vapor deposition or wet chemical processes for the deposition of functional coatings. In the work detailed in this article, photocatalytic anatase TiO 2 thin films were deposited at a low temperature on polymer optical fibers using an atmospheric-pressure plasma process. This method overcomes the challenge of forming crystalline transition metal oxide coatings on polymer substrates by using a dry and up-scalable method. The careful selection of the plasma source and the titanium precursor, i.e., titanium ethoxide with a short alkoxy group, allowed the deposition of well-adherent, dense, and crystalline TiO 2 coatings at low substrate temperature. Raman and XRD investigations showed that the addition of oxygen to the precursor's carrier gas resulted in a further increase of the film's crystallinity. Furthermore, the films deposited in the presence of oxygen exhibited a better photocatalytic activity toward methylene blue degradation assumedly due to their higher amount of photoactive {101} facets.

  11. Influence of annealing on X-ray radiation sensing properties of TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M. P.; Kalita, J. M.; Wary, G.

    2018-03-01

    A recent study shows that the titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film synthesised by a chemical bath deposition technique is a very useful material for the X-ray radiation sensor. In this work, we reported the influence of annealing on the X-ray radiation detection sensitivity of the TiO2 film. The films were annealed at 333 K, 363 K, 393 K, 473 K, and 573 K for 1 hour. Structural analyses showed that the microstrain and dislocation density decreased whereas the average crystallite size increased with annealing. The band gap of the films also decreased from 3.26 eV to 3.10 eV after annealing. The I-V characteristics record under the dark condition and under the X-ray irradiation showed that the conductivity increased with annealing. The influence of annealing on the detection sensitivity was negligible if the bias voltage applied across the films was low (within 0.2 V‒1.0 V). At higher bias voltage (>1.0 V), the contribution of electrons excited by X-ray became less significant which affected the detection sensitivity.

  12. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO_2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  13. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  14. Polycrystalline thin-film TiO2/Se solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, T; Kunioka, A

    1985-07-01

    A new type of selenium solar cell with a titanium dioxide (TiO2)/Se heterojunction has been fabricated by low-cost process.An efficiency of 5.01 percent under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/sq cm) has been achieved without antireflection coatings. The corresponding short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor are 10.8 mA/sq cm, 0.884 V, and 0.525, respectively.The efficiency is the highest among Se-based solar cells reported to date. These cells also have extremely high spectral response at short wavelengths, resulting in efficiencies of 11-13 percent under fluorescent light (500 lux). 10 references.

  15. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  16. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Ledesma, E.; Garcia-Benjume, M.L.; Espitia-Cabrera, I.; Bravo-Patino, A.; Espinoza-Beltran, F.J.; Mostaghimi, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu) 4 and Al(s-OBu) 3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO 2 was demonstrated. Al 2 O 3 -doped TiO 2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  17. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO 2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO 2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO 2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants

  18. Effect of substrate type on the electrical and structural properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Gotoh, Kazuhiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihiko; Usami, Noritaka

    2018-06-01

    Electrical and structural properties of TiO2 thin films deposited at room temperature by reactive DC sputtering have been investigated on three different substrates: high resistivity (>1000 Ω cm) float zone Si(1 1 1), float zone Si(1 0 0) and alkali free glass. As-deposited TiO2 films on glass substrate showed extremely high resistivity of (∼5.5 × 103 Ω cm). In contrast, lower resistivities of ∼2 Ω cm and ∼5 Ω cm were obtained for films on Si(1 1 1) and Si(1 0 0), respectively. The as-deposited films were found to be oxygen-rich amorphous TiO2 for all the substrates as evidenced by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Subsequent annealing led to appearance of anatase TiO2 on Si but not on glass. The surface of as-deposited TiO2 on Si was found to be rougher than that on glass. These results suggest that the big difference of electrical resistivity of TiO2 would be related with existence of more anatase nuclei forming on crystalline substrates, which is consistent with the theory of charged clusters that smaller clusters tend to adopt the substrate structure.

  19. TiO2 anatase thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis of an aerosol of titanium diisopropoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde-Gallardo, A.; Guerrero, M.; Castillo, N.; Soto, A.B.; Fragoso, R.; Cabanas-Moreno, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on crystalline silicon (100) and fused quartz substrates by spray pyrolysis (SP) of an aerosol, generated ultrasonically, of titanium diisopropoxide. The evolution of the crystallization, studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reflection and transmission spectroscopies, shows that the deposition process is nearly close to the classical chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, producing films with smooth surface and good crystalline properties. At deposition temperatures below 400 deg. C, the films grow in amorphous phase with a flat surface (roughness∼0.5 nm); while for equal or higher values to this temperature, the films develop a crystalline phase corresponding to the TiO 2 anatase phase and the surface roughness is increased. After annealing at 750 deg. C, the samples deposited on Si show a transition to the rutile phase oriented in (111) direction, while for those films deposited on fused quartz no phase transition is observed

  20. Structural and electrical characteristics of ZrO2-TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Tseng, Ching-Fang; Lai, Chun-Hung; Tung, Hsin-Han; Lin, Shih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated electrical properties and microstructures of ZrTiO 4 (ZrO 2 -TiO 2 ) thin films prepared by the sol-gel method on ITO substrates at different annealing temperatures. All films exhibited ZrTiO 4 (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) orientations perpendicular to the substrate surface, and the grain size increased with increase in the annealing temperature. A low leakage current density of 2.06 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 was obtained for the prepared films. Considering the primary memory switching behavior of ZrTiO 4 , ReRAM based on ZrTiO 4 shows promise for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  1. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  2. Texture-dependent twin formation in nanocrystalline thin Pd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Idrissi, H.; Shi, H.; Colla, M.S.; Michotte, S.; Raskin, J.P.; Pardoen, T.; Schryvers, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Pd films were produced by electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. The electron-beam-evaporated films reveal randomly oriented nanograins with a relatively high density of growth twins, unexpected in view of the high stacking fault energy of Pd. In contrast, sputter-deposited films show a clear 〈1 1 1〉 crystallographic textured nanostructure without twins. These results provide insightful information to guide the generation of microstructures with enhanced strength/ductility balance in high stacking fault energy nanocrystalline metallic thin films.

  3. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  4. The effect of aeration and solar intensity power on photocatalytic degradation of textile industrial wastewater using TiO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassim, N.F.; Ku Hamid, K.H.; Azizan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solar photo catalytic degradation of the textile industry wastewater using TiO 2 thin films was studied. This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of aeration and solar intensity power on decreasing of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). A serpentine flow photo catalytic reactor was developed for this purpose. TiO 2 thin films photo catalyst supported on the stainless steel 304 substrates were prepared using sol-gel dip coating method. The results of thin films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). XRD result showed that the prepared thin films gave the anatase crystallite formation whilst SEM demonstrated the macro pores were formed. Finally, the aeration and solar intensity power factors are considered to be responsible for the photo catalytic degradation. (Author)

  5. Optimization of time on CF_4/O_2 etchant for inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching of TiO_2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhri, R.; Fathil, M. F. M.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Foo, K. L.; Nuzaihan, M. N. M.; Azman, A. H.; Zaki, M.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Hashim, U.; Ayub, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the optimum etching of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) using inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on our fabricated devices. By using a combination of CF_4/O_2 gases as plasma etchant with ratio of 3:1, three samples of TiO_2 thin film were etched with different time duration of 10 s, 15 s and 20 s. The ion bombardment of CF_4 gases with plasma enhancement by O_2 gas able to break the oxide bond of TiO_2 and allow anisotropic etch profile with maximum etch rate of 18.6 nm/s. The sample was characterized by using optical profilometer to determine the depth of etched area and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for etch profile characterization.

  6. Study the target effect on the structural, surface and optical properties of TiO2 thin film fabricated by RF sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sumit; Tiwary, Rohit; Shubham, Kumar; Chakrabarti, P.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of target (Ti metal target and TiO2 target) on Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin films grown on ITO coated glass substrate by RF magnetron sputtering has been investigated. A comparative study of both the films was done in respect of crystalline structure, surface morphology and optical properties by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies and ellipsometric measurements. The XRD results confirmed the crystalline structure and indicated that the deposited films have the intensities of anatase phase. The surface morphology and roughness values indicated that the film using Ti metal target has a smoother surface and densely packed with grains as compared to films obtained using TiO2 target. A high transmission in the visible region, and direct band gap of 3.67 eV and 3.75 eV for films derived by using Ti metal and TiO2 target respectively and indirect bandgap of 3.39 eV for the films derived from both the targets (Ti metal and TiO2 target) were observed by the ellipsometric measurements.

  7. An in-situ real-time optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for monitoring the growth of TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chia; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Shih, Wen-Ching; Wu, Mu-Shiang

    2013-07-23

    An optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed for monitoring the thickness of deposited nano-thin films. A side-polished multimode SPR optical fiber sensor with an 850 nm-LD is used as the transducing element for real-time monitoring of the deposited TiO2 thin films. The SPR optical fiber sensor was installed in the TiO2 sputtering system in order to measure the thickness of the deposited sample during TiO2 deposition. The SPR response declined in real-time in relation to the growth of the thickness of the TiO2 thin film. Our results show the same trend of the SPR response in real-time and in spectra taken before and after deposition. The SPR transmitted intensity changes by approximately 18.76% corresponding to 50 nm of deposited TiO2 thin film. We have shown that optical fiber sensors utilizing SPR have the potential for real-time monitoring of the SPR technology of nanometer film thickness. The compact size of the SPR fiber sensor enables it to be positioned inside the deposition chamber, and it could thus measure the film thickness directly in real-time. This technology also has potential application for monitoring the deposition of other materials. Moreover, in-situ real-time SPR optical fiber sensor technology is in inexpensive, disposable technique that has anti-interference properties, and the potential to enable on-line monitoring and monitoring of organic coatings.

  8. Structural and electrical studies on sol-gel derived spun TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A K; Chaure, N B; Ray, A K; Nabok, A V; Habesch, S

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by spin coating of sol precursor onto microscopic glass slides, silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. Spin speed was varied between 1000 and 6000 rpm. From the morphological analysis, it is found that thin films spun with speed ω≤4000 rpm assume higher ordered structure than those spun at a speed higher than 4000 rpm. Conduction at low voltages is believed to be variable range hopping at temperatures T a = 0.46 eV below the conduction band edge becomes dominant at temperatures higher than 220 K. At high field charge transport is due to trap-controlled space charge limited mechanism. Traps with a density N t ∼1x10 22 m -3 are thought to be situated at energy level E t 0.3 eV below the conduction band and are associated with film nonstoichiometry and interface states

  9. Crystal Structure And Optical Properties Of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared By Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sputtering deposition process of TiO2, metal Ti or sintered TiO2 target is used as deposition source. In this study, we have compared the characteristic of target materials. When TiO2 target was used, stoichiometric TiO2 films was deposited under the Ar atmosphere containing 1.0% of oxygen. The highest sputtering rate under this atmosphere was 3.9nm/min at 3.4W/cm2. But, sintered TiO2 target is fragile and cannot endure higher density of input power than 3.4W/cm2. On the other hand, Ti target needs higher oxygen concentration (8% in sputtering gas atmosphere for obtaining rutile/anatase. Even though Ti target can be input twice power density of 7.9W/cm2, the highest deposition rate for Ti target was 1.4/nm, which was ~35% of the highest rate for TiO2 target. Then we have study out the composite target consisting of Ti plate and TiO2 chips. Using the composite target, stoichiometric TiO2 films were prepared in the rate of 9.6nm/min at 6.8 W/cm2 under the atmosphere of Ar/2.5%O2. Furthermore, we have found that the TiO2 films obtained from the composite target consisted of about 100% anatase, whereas TiO2 films obtained from other target have rutile dominant structure. The optical band gap energy of the film is determined by using the Tauc plot. The calculated band gap energies for the films deposited by Ti target and composite target were 2.95 and 3.24eV, which are equivalent to that of rutile and anatase structure, respectively.

  10. Chemically synthesized TiO2 and PANI/TiO2 thin films for ethanol sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawri, Isha; Ridhi, R.; Singh, K. P.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol sensing properties of chemically synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO2) and polyaniline/titanium dioxide nanocomposites (PANI/TiO2) had been performed at room temperature. In-situ oxidative polymerization process had been employed with aniline as a monomer in presence of anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles. The prepared samples were structurally and morphologically characterized by x-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectra, high resolution-transmission electron microscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The crystallinity of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite was revealed by XRD and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of chemical bonding between the polymer chains and metal oxide nanoparticles. HR-TEM micrographs depicted that TiO2 particles were embedded in polymer matrix, which provides an advantage over pure TiO2 nanoparticles in efficient adsorption of vapours. These images also revealed that the TiO2 nanoparticles were irregular in shape with size around 17 nm. FE-SEM studies revealed that in the porous structure of PANI/TiO2 film, the intercalation of TiO2 in PANI chains provides an advantage over pure TiO2 film for uniform interaction with ethanol vapors. The sensitivity values of prepared samples were examined towards ethanol vapours at room temperature. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited better sensing response and faster response-recovery examined at different ethanol concentrations ranging from 5 ppm to 20 ppm in comparison to pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The increase in vapour sensing of PANI/TiO2 sensing film as compared to pure TiO2 film had been explained in detail with the help of gas sensing mechanism of TiO2 and PANI/TiO2. This provides strong evidence that gas sensing properties of TiO2 had been considerably improved and enhanced with the addition of polymer matrix.

  11. Biomolecule-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of C-N-S-tridoped TiO2 nanocrystalline photocatalysts for NO removal under simulated solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawen; Huang, Yu; Ho, Wingkei; Zhang, Lizhi; Zou, Zhigang; Lee, Shuncheng

    2009-09-30

    In this study, C-N-S-tridoped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanocrystals were synthesized by using a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of a biomolecule l-cysteine. This biomolecule could not only serve as the common source for the carbon, sulfur and nitrogen tridoping, but also could control the final crystal phases and morphology. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. XPS analysis revealed that S was incorporated into the lattice of TiO(2) through substituting oxygen atoms, N might coexist in the forms of N-Ti-O and Ti-O-N in tridoped TiO(2) and most C could form a mixed layer of carbonate species deposited on the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were tested on the removal of NO at typical indoor air level in a flow system under simulated solar light irradiation. The tridoped TiO(2) samples showed much higher removal efficiency than commercial P25 and the undoped counterpart photocatalyst. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of C-N-S-tridoped TiO(2) nanocrystals was explained on the basis of characterizations. The possible formation process of the monodispersed C-N-S-tridoped anatase TiO(2) nanocrystals was also proposed. This study provides a new method to prepare visible light active TiO(2) photocatalyst.

  12. Biomolecule-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of C-N-S-tridoped TiO2 nanocrystalline photocatalysts for NO removal under simulated solar light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yawen; Huang Yu; Ho Wingkei; Zhang Lizhi; Zou Zhigang; Lee Shuncheng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, C-N-S-tridoped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanocrystals were synthesized by using a facile hydrothermal method in the presence of a biomolecule L-cysteine. This biomolecule could not only serve as the common source for the carbon, sulfur and nitrogen tridoping, but also could control the final crystal phases and morphology. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nitrogen adsorption and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. XPS analysis revealed that S was incorporated into the lattice of TiO 2 through substituting oxygen atoms, N might coexist in the forms of N-Ti-O and Ti-O-N in tridoped TiO 2 and most C could form a mixed layer of carbonate species deposited on the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were tested on the removal of NO at typical indoor air level in a flow system under simulated solar light irradiation. The tridoped TiO 2 samples showed much higher removal efficiency than commercial P25 and the undoped counterpart photocatalyst. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of C-N-S-tridoped TiO 2 nanocrystals was explained on the basis of characterizations. The possible formation process of the monodispersed C-N-S-tridoped anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals was also proposed. This study provides a new method to prepare visible light active TiO 2 photocatalyst.

  13. Contribution of thickness dependent void fraction and TiSixOy interlayer to the optical properties of amorphous TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Xu, Zi-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Xu; Wang, Zi-Yi; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2013-01-01

    The optical properties of TiO 2 thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and analyzed quantitatively using effective medium approximation theory and an effective series capacitance model. The refractive indices of TiO 2 are essentially constant and approach to those of bulk TiO 2 for films thicker than 40 nm, but drop sharply with a decrease in thickness from 40 to 5.5 nm. This phenomenon can be interpreted quantitatively by the thickness dependence of the void fraction and interfacial oxide region. The optical band gaps calculated from Tauc law increase with an increase of film thickness, and can be attributed to the contribution of disorder effect. - Highlights: • Amorphous TiO 2 thin films fabricated on Si substrate by electron beam evaporation • The refractive index and band gap are obtained from spectroscopic ellipsometry. • The refractive index decreases with decreasing film thickness. • Effective medium approximation theory and effective series capacitance model introduced • A band gap increases gradually with an increase in film thickness

  14. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  15. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-05

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface modification of porous nanocrystalline TiO2 films for dye-sensitized solar cell application by various gas plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Yoon, Chang-Ho; Kim, Kang-Jin; Lee, Yeonhee

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has surface defects such as oxygen vacancies created during the annealing process. The authors used a plasma treatment technique to reduce defects on TiO 2 surfaces. They investigated the influence of different gas plasma treatments of TiO 2 film on the photoelectric performance of DSSC. Short-circuit photocurrent density (J sc ), open-circuit photovoltage (V oc ), and the amount of adsorbed dye for DSSCs were measured. As a result, the solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies of the O 2 - and N 2 -treated cells increased by 15%-20% compared to untreated cells. On the other hand, solar energy conversion efficiency of CF 4 -plasma treated cells decreased drastically. The increased amount of adsorbed dye on the TiO 2 film was measured by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. TiO 2 surfaces modified by plasma treatment were characterized using analytical instruments such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure

  17. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  18. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO2 particles deposited on glass microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge; Garcia-Servin, Josafat; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Calixto, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Anatase thin films ( 2 were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO 2 -anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO 2 was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones

  19. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3 films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on multiple grams of TiO2 powder at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a fluidized bed reactor, resulting in the growth of uniform and conformal Al2O3 films with thickness control at sub-nanometer level. The as-deposited Al2O3 films exhibited excellent photocatalytic suppression ability. Accordingly, an Al2O3 layer with a thickness of 1 nm could efficiently suppress the photocatalytic activities of rutile, anatase, and P25 TiO2 nanoparticles without affecting their bulk optical properties. In addition, the influence of high-temperature annealing on the properties of the Al2O3 layers was investigated, revealing the possibility of achieving porous Al2O3 layers. Our approach demonstrated a fast, efficient, and simple route to coating Al2O3 films on TiO2 pigment powders at the multigram scale, and showed great potential for large-scale production development.

  20. The Effect of Film Thickness on the Gas Sensing Properties of Ultra-Thin TiO2 Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyte sensitivity for gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides should be highly dependent on the film thickness, particularly when that thickness is on the order of the Debye length. This thickness dependence has previously been demonstrated for SnO2 and inferred for TiO2. In this paper, TiO2 thin films have been prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The deposition process was performed on standard alumina gas sensor platforms and microscope slides (for analysis purposes, at a temperature of 200 °C. The TiO2 films were exposed to different concentrations of CO, CH4, NO2, NH3 and SO2 to evaluate their gas sensitivities. These experiments showed that the TiO2 film thickness played a dominant role within the conduction mechanism and the pattern of response for the electrical resistance towards CH4 and NH3 exposure indicated typical n-type semiconducting behavior. The effect of relative humidity on the gas sensitivity has also been demonstrated.

  1. Studies of LPCVD and anodised TiO2 thin films and their photoelectrocatalytic photochemical properties for destruction of organic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, F.

    2001-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films prepared by CVD and anodisation methods and their applications for the photoelectrocatalytic and photocatalytic destruction of organic effluents are described in this thesis. The theoretical background of CVD, photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) and photocatalysis (PC) is introduced in Chapter 1. This chapter also contains an intensive literature review about TiO 2 thin film preparation, mainly by CVD, and about PEC and PC destruction of organic effluents by TiO 2 thin films. The experimental methods, which include CVD reactors, PEC cells and film characterisation and chemical analysis, are described in Chapter 2. The results for TiO 2 films deposited by LPCVD on SnO 2 coated glass using either TTIP or TTB precursors in the presence of O 2 , with or without water as a reagent, are discussed in Chapter 3 for a small CVD reactor and Chapter 4 for a large reactor. The effects of precursor, water and annealing on the crystal structure of the films have been investigated and compared. It was found that phase transition temperatures for changes from amorphous to anatase and anatase to rutile with TTIP were higher than those obtained with TTB. Water also had an effect by decreasing the temperature for depositing crystalline films. The other kind of TiO 2 films prepared by anodisation of titanium mesh was studied and the results are presented in Chapter 5. PEC or PC destruction of MPA, RDX and 4-CP have been studied using TiO 2 thin film anodes in small and large PEC reactors which are described in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7, respectively. PC destruction rates of organics are found to be improved significantly with an applied potential; i.e. by a PEC process. The effects of film properties, such as film crystallinity, thickness and film type on the PEC and PC efficiencies have been investigated. It was found that the different behaviour of films in PEC processes probably was due to surface effects rather than internal electric field differences. The extent of PEC and

  2. Elaboration and Characterization of TiO2 and Study of the Influence of The Number of Thin Films on the Methylene Blue Adsorption Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoui, Karima; Medjahed, Aicha; Hamici, Melia; Djamila, Abdi; Boudissa, Mokhtar

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of titanium oxide (TiO2) deposited on glass substrates were fabricated by using the sol-gel route. The realization of these thin layers was made using the dip-coating technique with a solution of titanium isopropoxyde as a precursor. The samples prepared with different numbers of deposited layers were annealed at 400 ° C for 2 hours. The main purposes of this work were investigations of both the effect of the number of thin TiO2 layers on the crystal structure of the anatase form first and, their ability to adsorb the solution of methylene blue in order to make colored filters from a photocatalytic process. The deposited titanium-oxide layers were characterized by using various techniques: namely, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The result obtained by using the XRD technique showed the appearance of an anatase phase, as was confirmed by using Raman spectroscopy. The AFM surface analysis allowed the surface topography to be characterized and the surface roughness to be measured, which increased with increasing number of layers. The UV-Visible spectra showed that the TiO2 films had a good transmittance varying from 65% to 95% according to the number of layers. The gap energy varied as a function of the number of deposited layers. The as deposited TiO2 layers were tested as a photocatalyst towards the adsorption of methylene blue dye. The results obtained during this study showed that the adsorption capacity varied according to the number of deposited thin layers and the exposing duration to ultraviolet (UV) light. The maximum absorption rate of the dye was obtained for the two-layer sample. Seventy-two hours of irradiation allowed the adsorption intensity of the dye to be maximized for two-layer films.

  3. In vitro behaviour of nanocrystalline silver-sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedade, A P; Vieira, M T; Martins, A; Silva, F

    2007-01-01

    Silver thin films were deposited with different preferential orientations and special attention was paid to the bioreactivity of the surfaces. The study was essentially focused on the evaluation of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and contact angle measurements. The deposited thin films were characterized before and after immersion in S-enriched simulated human plasma in order to estimate the influence of the preferential crystallographic orientation on the in vitro behaviour. Silver thin films with and without (111) preferential crystallographic orientation were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering to yield nanocrystalline coatings, high compact structures, very hydrophobic surfaces and low roughness. These properties reduce the chemisorption of reactive species onto the film surface. The in vitro tests indicate that silver thin films can be used as coatings for biomaterials applications

  4. Semi-transparent ordered TiO_2 nanostructures prepared by anodization of titanium thin films deposited onto the FTO substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Skowroński, Łukasz; Karczewski, Jakub; Siuzdak, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality titanium coatings were doposited using industrial magnetron sputtering equipment. • Semi-transparent TiO_2 were prepared via anodization realized in various conditions. • Depending on electrolyte type, ordered tubular or porous TiO_2 layers were obtained. • Prepared material can act as semiconducting layer in photovoltaic cells. - Abstract: In a significant amount of cases, the highly ordered TiO_2 nanotube arrays grow through anodic oxidation of a titanium metal plate immersed in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. However, for some practical applications, e.g. solar cells or electrochromic windows, the semi-transparent TiO_2 formed directly on the transparent, conductive substrate is very much desired. This work shows that high-quality Ti coating could be formed at room temperature using an industrial magnetron sputtering system within 50 min. Under optimized conditions, the anodization process was performed on 2 μm titanium films deposited onto the FTO (fluorine-tin-oxide) support. Depending on the electrolyte type, highly ordered tubular or porous titania layers were obtained. The fabricated samples, after their thermal annealing, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy in order to investigate their morphology, crystallinity and absorbance ability. The photocurrent response curves indicate that materials are resistant to the photocorrosion process and their activity is strongly connected to optical properties. The most transparent TiO_2 films were fabricated when Ti was anodized in water electrolyte, whereas the highest photocurrent densities (12 μA cm"−"2) were registered for titania received after Ti anodization in ethylene glycol solution. The obtained results are of significant importance in the production of thin, semi-transparent titania nanostructures on a commercial scale.

  5. Properties of TiO2-based transparent conducting oxide thin films on GaN(0001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, J.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Hitosugi, T.; Moriyama, M.; Goshonoo, K.; Hoang, N. L. H.; Hasegawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 transparent conducting oxide has been formed on GaN(0001) surfaces using a sputtering method. Amorphous films deposited at room temperature were annealed at a substrate temperature of 500 deg. C in vacuum to form single-phase anatase films. Films with a thickness of 170 nm exhibited a resistivity of 8x10 -4 Ω cm with absorptance less than 5% at a wavelength of 460 nm. Furthermore, the refractive index of the Nb-doped TiO 2 was well matched to that of GaN. These findings indicate that Nb-doped TiO 2 is a promising material for use as transparent electrodes in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), particularly since reflection at the electrode/GaN boundary can be suppressed, enhancing the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs.

  6. Photoluminescence study of trap-state defect on TiO2 thin films at different substrate temperature via RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S. A.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Nafarizal, N.; Saim, H.; Bakri, A. S.; Cik Rohaida, C. H.; Adriyanto, F.; Sari, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This paper highlights the defect levels using photoluminescence spectroscopy of TiO2 thin films. The TiO2 were deposited by Magnetron Sputtering system with 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C substrate temperature on microscope glass substrate. The PL result shows profound effect of various substrate temperatures to defect levels of oxygen vacancies and Ti3+ at titanium interstitial site. Increasing temperature would minimize the oxygen vacancy defect, however Ti3+ shows otherwise. Green region of PL consist of trapped hole for oxygen vacancy, while red region of PL is trapped electron associated to structural defect Ti3+. Green PL is dominant peak at temperature 200 °C, indicating that oxygen vacancy is the main defect at this temperature. However, PL peak shows slightly same value for others samples indicating that the temperature did not give high influence to other level of defect after 200 °C.

  7. Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Chan, C.-C.; Huang, H.-T.; Peng, C.-H.; Hsu, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Electrochromic MoO 3 thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The spin-coated films were initially amorphous; they were calcined, producing nanocrystalline MoO 3 thin films. The effects of annealing temperatures ranging from 100 o C to 500 o C were investigated. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and by in-situ optical transmittance techniques in 1 M LiClO 4 /propylene carbonate electrolyte. Experimental results showed that the transmittance of MoO 3 thin films heat-treated at 350 o C varied from 80% to 35% at λ = 550 nm (ΔT = ∼ 45%) and from 86% to 21% at λ ≥ 700 nm (ΔT = ∼ 65%) after coloration. Films heat-treated at 350 deg. C exhibited the best electrochromic properties in the present study

  8. Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films by electrochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kapadnis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride thin films were deposited onto different substrates as copper, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, Indium tin oxide (ITO, Aluminum and zinc at room temperature via electrochemical route. The morphology of the film shows the nanostructures on the deposited surface of the films and their growth in vertical direction. Different nanostructures developed on different substrates. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that the deposited films are nanocrystalline in nature. UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows the wide range of absorption in the visible region. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy confirms the formation of cadmium telluride.

  9. Stacking fault-mediated ultrastrong nanocrystalline Ti thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. Q.; Cui, J. C.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we prepared nanocrystalline (NC) Ti thin films with abundant stacking faults (SFs), which were created via partial dislocations emitted from grain boundaries and which were insensitive to grain sizes. By employing the nanoindentation test, we investigated the effects of SFs and grain sizes on the strength of NC Ti films at room temperature. The high density of SFs significantly strengthens NC Ti films, via dislocation-SF interactions associated with the reported highest Hall-Petch slope of ˜20 GPa nm1/2, to an ultrahigh strength of ˜4.4 GPa, approaching ˜50% of its ideal strength.

  10. The radiation response of mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini, Ayelén M.; Alurralde, Martin A. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Giménez, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial - CMNB, Av. General Paz 5445, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: vluca@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-12-15

    The next generation of nuclear systems will require materials capable of withstanding hostile chemical, physical and radiation environments over long time-frames. Aside from its chemical and physical stability, crystalline zirconia is one of the most radiation tolerant materials known. Here we report the first ever study of the radiation response of nanocrystalline and mesoporous zirconia and Ce{sup 3+}-stabilized nanocrystalline zirconia (Ce{sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}O{sub 2}) thin films supported on silicon wafers. Zirconia films prepared using the block copolymer Brij-58 as the template had a thickness of around 60–80 nm. In the absence of a stabilizing trivalent cation they consisted of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia nanocrystals with diameters in the range 8–10 nm. Films stabilized with Ce{sup 3+} contained only the tetragonal phase. The thin films were irradiated with iodine ions of energies of 70 MeV and 132 keV at low fluences (10{sup 13} - 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}) corresponding to doses of 0.002 and 1.73 dpa respectively, and at 180 keV and high fluences (2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) corresponding to 82.4 dpa. The influence of heavy ion irradiation on the nanocrystalline structure was monitored through Rietveld analysis of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) patterns recorded at angles close to the critical angle to ensure minimum contribution to the diffraction pattern from the substrate. Irradiation of the mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films with 70 MeV iodine ions, for which electronic energy loss is dominant, resulted in slight changes in phase composition and virtually no change in crystallographic parameters as determined by Rietveld analysis. Iodine ion bombardment in the nuclear energy loss regime (132–180 keV) at low fluences did not provoke significant changes in phase composition or crystallographic parameters. However, at 180 keV and high fluences the monoclinic phase was totally eliminated from the GIXRD

  11. Co-sensitization of quantum dot sensitized solar cells composed of TiO2 nanocrystalline photoanode with CdS and PbS nanoparticles and effect of PbS on the performance of solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Marandi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, CdS and PbS quantum dots were applied as the light sensitizers in TiO2 based nanostructured solar cells. The PbS quantum dots could absorb a wide range of the sunlight spectrum on earth due to their low bandgap energy. As a result, the cell sensitization is more effective by application of both CdS and PbS quantum dots sensitizers. The TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized through a hydrothermal process and deposited on FTO glass substrates as the photoanode scaffold. Then PbS quantum dots were grown on the surface of this nanocrystalline layer by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The CdS quantum dots were over-grown in the next step through a similar deposition method. Finally this sensitized layer was applied as the photoelectrode of the corresponding quantum dot sensitized solar cells. The results demonstrated that the maximum efficiency was achieved for the cell with a photoanode made of co-sensitization through 2 and 6 cycles of PbS and CdS deposition, respectively. The photovoltaic parameters of this cell were measured as Jsc of 10.81 mA/cm2, Voc of 590 mv and energy conversion efficiency of 2.7+0.2%.

  12. Determination of the light-induced degradation rate of the solar cell sensitizer N719 on TiO2 nanocrystalline particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Doan Nguyen, Sau; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    The oxidative degradation rate, kdeg of the solar cell dye (Bu4N+)2 [Ru(dcbpyH)2(NCS)2]2–, referred to as N719 or [RuL2(NCS)2], was obtained by applying a simple model system. Colloidal solutions of N719-dyed TiO2 particles in acetonitrile were irradiated with 532-nm monochromatic light, and the ...

  13. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel ‘brick’ within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  14. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-02

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel 'brick' within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO 2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  15. Preparation of an orthodontic bracket coated with an nitrogen-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film and examination of its antimicrobial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Baocheng; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Na; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yingjie

    2013-01-01

    A bracket coated with a nitrogen-doped (N-doped) TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the thin film were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, while the antimicrobial activity of the bracket against common oral pathogenic microbes was assessed on the basis of colony counts. The rate of antimicrobial activity of the bracket coated with nano-TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscous, and Candida albicans was 95.19%, 91.00%, 69.44%, and 98.86%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fewer microbes adhered to the surface of this newly designed bracket than to the surface of the normal edgewise bracket. The brackets coated with the N-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film showed high antimicrobial and bacterial adhesive properties against normal oral pathogenic bacterial through visible light, which is effective in prevention of enamel demineralization and gingivitis in orthodontic patients.

  16. Surface characterization of poly(methylmethacrylate) based nanocomposite thin films containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.; Haynes, V.; Wheeler-Jones, R.; Sly, J.; Perks, R.M.; Piccirillo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based nanocomposite electron beam resists have been demonstrated by spin coating techniques. When TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles were directly dispersed into the PMMA polymer matrix, the resulting nanocomposites produced poor quality films with surface roughnesses of 322 and 402 nm respectively. To improve the surface of the resists, the oxide nanoparticles were encapsulated in toluene and methanol. Using the zeta potential parameter, it was found that the stabilities of the toluene/oxide nanoparticle suspensions were 7.7 mV and 19.4 mV respectively, meaning that the suspension was not stable. However, when the TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles were encapsulated in methanol the zeta potential parameter was 31.9 mV and 39.2 mV respectively. Therefore, the nanoparticle suspension was stable. This method improved the surface roughness of PMMA based nanocomposite thin films by a factor of 6.6 and 6.4, when TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 were suspended in methanol before being dispersed into the PMMA polymer.

  17. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  18. On the optical, structural, and morphological properties of ZrO2 and TiO2 dip-coated thin films supported on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, Luisa F.; Sanchez, Enrique; Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the optical and morphological properties of dip-coated TiO 2 and ZrO 2 thin films on soda-lime glass substrates by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) of titanium IV and zirconium IV acetylacetonates respectively. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were performed on the precursor powders, indicating pure TiO 2 anatase and tetragonal ZrO 2 phase formation. Phase crystallization processes took place in the range of 300-500 deg. C for anatase and of 410-500 deg. C for ZrO 2 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to confirm precursor bidentate ligand formation with keno-enolic equilibrium character. Deposited films were heated at different temperatures, and their structural, optical and morphological properties were studied by grazing-incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) respectively. Film thinning and crystalline phase formation were enhanced with increasing temperature upon chelate decomposition. The optimum annealing temperature for both pure anatase TiO 2 and tetragonal ZrO 2 thin films was found to be 500 deg. C since solid volume fraction increased with temperature and film refractive index values approached those of pure anatase and tetragonal zirconia. Conditions for clean stoichiometric film formation with an average roughness value of 2 nm are discussed in terms of material binding energies indicated by XPS analyses, refractive index and solid volume fraction obtained indirectly by UV-Vis spectra, and crystalline peak identification provided by GIXRD

  19. Studies on transient characteristics of unipolar resistive switching processes in TiO2 thin film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Das, Amit K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Misra, P.

    2018-05-01

    The transient characteristics of resistive switching processes have been investigated in TiO2 thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to study the temporal evolution of the switching processes and measure the switching times. The reset and set switching times of unipolar Au/TiO2/Pt devices were found to be ~250 µs and 180 ns, respectively in the voltage windows of 0.5–0.9 V for reset and 1.9–4.8 V for set switching processes, obtained from quasi-static measurements. The reset switching time decreased exponentially with increasing amplitude of applied reset voltage pulse, while the set switching time remained insensitive to the amplitude of the set voltage pulse. A fast reset process with a switching time of ~400 ns was achieved by applying a reset voltage of ~1.8 V, higher than that of the quasi-static reset voltage window but below the set voltage window. The sluggish reset process in TiO2 thin film and the dependence of the reset switching time on the amplitude of the applied voltage pulse was understood on the basis of a self-accelerated thermal dissolution model of conducting filaments (CFs), where a higher temperature of the CFs owing to enhanced Joule heating at a higher applied voltage imposes faster diffusion of oxygen vacancies, resulting in a shorter reset switching time. Our results clearly indicate that fast resistive switching with switching times in hundreds of nanoseconds can be achieved in ALD-grown TiO2 thin films. This may find applications in fast non-volatile unipolar resistive switching memories.

  20. Large improvement of electron extraction from CdSe quantum dots into a TiO2 thin layer by N3 dye coabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Dittrich, Thomas; Susha, Andrei S.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Bisquert, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of electrons and holes photogenerated in CdSe quantum dots (QD) of 2.3 nm diameter, is monitored by Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy. The extraction of electrons into a thin TiO 2 layer increases five-fold by absorption of N3 dye molecules on top of the QD layer. This process is facilitated by efficient hole extraction from the valence band of the QDs to the ground state of the N3 dye. Our results represent a direct measurement of charge separation in the N3/QD/TiO 2 system

  1. Effect of growth time on the structure, morphology and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanorod thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Nayak, J.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod thin films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a single step rapid hydrothermal process. The concentration of the precursor, the temperature of the reaction mixture were optimized in order to enhance the rate of deposition. Unlike the previously reported hydrothermal treatment for 24 - 48 h, the deposition of well aligned titanium dioxide nanorods was achieved in a short time such as 3 - 8 h. The crystal structure of the films were investigated by X-rays diffraction. The morphology of the nanorod films were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties were studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  2. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H 2 -annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers. (paper)

  3. TiO2 brookite nanostructured thin layer on magneto-optical surface plasmon resonance transductor for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M. G.; Colombelli, A.; Rella, R.; Caricato, A.; Cozzoli, P. D.; Martino, M.; Vasanelli, L.

    2012-09-01

    The sensing performance comparisons presented in this work were carried out by exploiting a suitable magneto-plasmonic sensor in both the traditional surface plasmon resonance configuration and the innovative magneto-optic surface plasmon resonance one. The particular multilayer transducer was functionalized with TiO2 Brookite nanorods layers deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation, and its sensing capabilities were monitored in a controlled atmosphere towards different concentrations of volatile organic compounds mixed in dry air.

  4. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  5. Thermal analysis of formation of nano-crystalline BaTiO3 using Ba(NO32 and TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jawed Ansaree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of Ba(NO32 with TiO2 was studied by thermogravimetric (TG and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC techniques up to 1000 °C and in nitrogen atmosphere. It was found that the formation of BaTiO3 takes place above 600 °C and that precursor mixing time and heating rate have no effect on the reaction temperature. BaTiO3 powder was prepared by calcination of Ba(NO32 and TiO2 precursor mixture at 800 °C for 8 h. X-ray diffraction analysis of the synthesized BaTiO3 confirmed the formation of tetragonal phase with lattice parameters a = 3.9950±0.0003 Å and c = 4.0318±0.0004 Å. Thermal analysis of the synthesized BaTiO3 powder showed weight loss within temperature range 40–1000 °C of only 0.40%. This small amount of weight loss was connected with some impurity phase, and identified as BaCO3 using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR technique.

  6. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkefle, M A; Rahman, R A; Yusoff, K A; Herman, S H; Abdullah, W F H; Rusop, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H + ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity. (paper)

  7. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped and undoped TiO2 nanostructured thin films under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, Nadir; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without solvent at 200 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films have been prepared on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, SEM, BET and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis-lights. The results showed that (a) hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, (b) the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and (c) the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film

  8. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, D. A.; Massi, M.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototype...

  9. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  10. Anomalous behavior of B1g mode in highly transparent anatase nano-crystalline Nb-doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh K. Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO2 lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb+5 in the TiO2 lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm−1 for the Eg(1 mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B1g mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm−1 with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO2 crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb5+ doping induced reduction of Ti4+ ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.

  11. Ambiguous Role of Growth-Induced Defects on the Semiconductor-to-Metal Characteristics in Epitaxial VO2/TiO2 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Cristian N; Symeou, Elli; Svoukis, Efthymios; Negrea, Raluca F; Ghica, Corneliu; Teodorescu, Valentin; Tanase, Liviu C; Negrila, Catalin; Giapintzakis, John

    2018-04-25

    Controlling the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature in epitaxial VO 2 thin films remains an unresolved question both at the fundamental as well as the application level. Within the scope of this work, the effects of growth temperature on the structure, chemical composition, interface coherency and electrical characteristics of rutile VO 2 epitaxial thin films grown on TiO 2 substrates are investigated. It is hereby deduced that the transition temperature is lower than the bulk value of 340 K. However, it is found to approach this value as a function of increased growth temperature even though it is accompanied by a contraction along the V 4+ -V 4+ bond direction, the crystallographic c-axis lattice parameter. Additionally, it is demonstrated that films grown at low substrate temperatures exhibit a relaxed state and a strongly reduced transition temperature. It is suggested that, besides thermal and epitaxial strain, growth-induced defects may strongly affect the electronic phase transition. The results of this work reveal the difficulty in extracting the intrinsic material response to strain, when the exact contribution of all strain sources cannot be effectively determined. The findings also bear implications on the limitations in obtaining the recently predicted novel semi-Dirac point phase in VO 2 /TiO 2 multilayer structures.

  12. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured mono and double layer thin films for Malachite Green dye degradation under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn 4+ -doped TiO 2 based mono and double layer thin films, contain 50% solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. Their photocatalytic performances were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis irradiation. Sn 4+ -doped nano-TiO 2 particle a doping ratio of about 5[Sn 4+ /Ti(OBu n ) 4 ; mol/mol%] has been synthesized by hydrotermal process at 225 deg. C. The structure, surface and optical properties of the thin films and/or the particles have been investigated by XRD, BET and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The results showed that the double layer coated glass surfaces have a very high photocatalytic performance than the other one under UV and vis lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water. The results also reveal that the coated surfaces have hydrophilic property

  13. The Effect of Normal Force on Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Ti-10Zr Alloy and Porous TiO2-ZrO2 Thin Film Electrochemical Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dănăilă, E.; Benea, L.

    2017-06-01

    The tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti-10Zr alloy and porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy was evaluated in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva solution. Tribocorrosion experiments were performed using a unidirectional pin-on-disc experimental set-up which was mechanically and electrochemically instrumented, under various solicitation conditions. The effect of applied normal force on tribocorrosion performance of the tested materials was determined. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements performed before, during and after sliding tests were applied in order to determine the tribocorrosion degradation. The applied normal force was found to greatly affect the potential during tribocorrosion experiments, an increase in the normal force inducing a decrease in potential accelerating the depassivation of the materials studied. The results show a decrease in friction coefficient with gradually increasing the normal load. It was proved that the porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy lead to an improvement of tribocorrosion resistance compared to non-anodized Ti-10Zr alloy intended for biomedical applications.

  14. Electrochemically assisted photocatalysis using nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodgopal, K [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University Northwest, Gary, Indiana (United States); Kamat, Prashant V [Notre Dame Radiation Laboratory, Notre Dame, Indiana (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The principle and usefulness of electrochemically assisted photocatalysis has been illustrated with the examples of 4-chlorophenol and Acid Orange 7 degradation in aqueous solutions. Thin nanocrystalline semiconductor films coated on a conducting glass surface when employed as a photoelectrode in an electrochemical cell are effective for degradation of organic contaminants. The degradation rate can be greatly improved even in the absence of oxygen by applying an anodic bias to the TiO{sub 2} film electrodes. A ten-fold enhancement in the degradation rate was observed when TiO{sub 2} particles were coupled with SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites at an applied bias potential of 0.83 V versus SCE

  15. Damage performance of TiO2/SiO2 thin film components induced by a long-pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Dai Gang; Zhang Hongchao; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the long-pulsed laser induced damage performance of optical thin films, damage experiments of TiO 2 /SiO 2 films irradiated by a laser with 1 ms pulse duration and 1064 nm wavelength are performed. In the experiments, the damage threshold of the thin films is measured. The damages are observed to occur in isolated spots, which enlighten the inducement of the defects and impurities originated in the films. The threshold goes down when the laser spot size decreases. But there exists a minimum threshold, which cannot be further reduced by decreasing the laser spot size. Optical microscopy reveals a cone-shaped cavity in the film substrate. Changes of the damaged sizes in film components with laser fluence are also investigated. The results show that the damage efficiency increases with the laser fluence before the shielding effects start to act.

  16. Porous (001-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001 facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101 and (001 was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE under AM1.5 G illumination.

  17. Hydrogenated TiO2 Thin Film for Accelerating Electron Transport in Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Liang, Junhui; Li, Yuelong; Luo, Jingshan; Shi, Biao; Wei, Changchun; Zhang, Dekun; Li, Baozhang; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-10-01

    Intensive studies on low-temperature deposited electron transport materials have been performed to improve the efficiency of n-i-p type planar perovskite solar cells to extend their application on plastic and multijunction device architectures. Here, a TiO 2 film with enhanced conductivity and tailored band edge is prepared by magnetron sputtering at room temperature by hydrogen doping (HTO), which accelerates the electron extraction from perovskite photoabsorber and reduces charge transfer resistance, resulting in an improved short circuit current density and fill factor. The HTO film with upward shifted Fermi level guarantees a smaller loss on V OC and facilitates the growth of high-quality absorber with much larger grains and more uniform size, leading to devices with negligible hysteresis. In comparison with the pristine TiO 2 prepared without hydrogen doping, the HTO-based device exhibits a substantial performance enhancement leading to an efficiency of 19.30% and more stabilized photovoltaic performance maintaining 93% of its initial value after 300 min continuous illumination in the glove box. These properties permit the room-temperature magnetron sputtered HTO film as a promising electron transport material for flexible and tandem perovskite solar cell in the future.

  18. Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2–Cu2O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Parans M; Simpson, John T; Christen, David K; Bogorin, Daniela F; Mathis, John E

    2014-01-01

    By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO 2 –Cu 2 O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ∼172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO 2 , the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required. (papers)

  19. Relation between crystallinity and chemical nature of surface on wettability: A study on pulsed laser deposited TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirolkar, Mandar M.; Phase, Deodatta; Sathe, Vasant; Choudhary, Ram Janay; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Kulkarni, Sulabha K.

    2011-01-01

    Pure titania (TiO 2 ) polycrystalline thin films in rutile, anatase and mixed phase have been grown on amorphous glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition method at various oxygen gas pressure. Wettability investigations have been carried out on these films. Consistent with our previous report [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 155308 (2008)] it has been observed that for nearly same surface roughness large contact angle or superhydrophobicity is present when sample has a pure single phase and lower contact angle or hydrophobicity when mixed phases were present. Structural characterizations suggest that in addition to roughness, pure phase film surface associated with hydrophobic sites and mixed phase film surface show association of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites, which might be inducing specific wetting character. UV treatment induces superhydrophilicity in the films. It was observed that UV irradiation causes nonequilibrium state on the TiO 2 surface, leading to changes in the electron density, which in turn produces decrement in the crystallinity and lattice expansion. Reversible changes in the wetting state on the pure phase surfaces were observed to be faster than those on the mixed phase surfaces. We tried to establish the possible relation between crystalline phases, chemical nature of surface on reversible wettability besides the main governing parameter viz. surface roughness.

  20. Polaron variable range hopping in TiO2-δ(-0.04=<δ=<0.2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heluani, S.P.; Comedi, D.; Villafuerte, M.; Juarez, G.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrical conduction in TiO 2-δ (-0.04= 2 +Ar gas atmospheres where changes in δ and film structure had been achieved by varying the O 2 flow rate and the substrate temperature. The electrical transport properties of these samples were investigated by measuring the conductivity as a function of temperature between 17K and room temperature. At the temperature range between 200 and 290K the best fit to the experimental data was obtained assuming a dependence characteristic of adiabatic variable range hopping. At lower temperature the activation energy for the conductivity tends to zero. The results suggest that the conduction mechanism is adiabatic small polaron hopping, which switches to conduction in a polaron band at low temperatures

  1. Evolution of nanostructures of anatase TiO2 thin films grown on (001) LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Regina; Vittadini, Andrea; Selloni, Annabella; Arpaia, Riccardo; Aruta, Carmela; Miletto Granozio, Fabio; Scotti di Uccio, Umberto; Rossi, Giorgio; Carlino, Elvio

    2013-01-01

    Combining reflection high-energy electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy we unveil the existence of a peculiar transition from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional growth mode in anatase TiO 2 /LaAlO 3 heterostructures. Such a growth dynamics is accompanied by Al interdiffusion from substrate to the growing film up to a critical thickness of 20 nm. With the extra support of ab initio calculations, we show that the crossover between the two growth modes corresponds to the formation of two distinct regions characterized by (103)- and (101)-oriented crystallographic shear superstructures, occurring in the upmost film region and in proximity of the film/substrate interface, respectively.

  2. Passivation of nanocrystalline TiO2 junctions by surface adsorbed phosphinate amphiphiles enhances the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-01-01

    We report a new class of molecular insulators that electronically passivate the surface of nanocrystalline titania films for high performance dye sensitized solar cells (DSC). Using electrical impedance measurements we demonstrate that co-adsorption of dineohexyl bis-(3,3-dimethyl-butyl)-phosphinic acid (DINHOP), along with the amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer Z907Na increased substantially the power output of the cells mainly due to a retardation of interfacial recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. The use of phosphinates as anchoring groups opens up new avenues for modification of the surface by molecular insulators, sensitizers and other electro-active molecules to realize the desired optoelectronic performance of devices based on oxide junctions. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Electronic-state-driven adsorption of O2 on a nanocrystalline TiO2 under 'dark' and UV-irradiation conditions: Ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkyants, R.; Sboev, M. N.; Chizhov, Yu. V.

    2018-04-01

    DFT study on O2 adsorption on a nanocrystalline titania is presented for the first time. The dioxide's nanoparticle is modeled via the nanocluster Ti8O16. According to the calculations, O2 physisorbs on the nanocluster Ti8O16 in S0 and T0 states and chemisorbs on the nanocluster in S1 state. The computed adsorption enthalpies, O2 vibrational frequencies, and O2-g-tensor agree well with available data. In contrast to the axial O2 orientation on a surface of titania with oxygen vacancies, in the chemisorption complex O2 is oriented laterally. We explain this by the sterical hindrance of the Ti3+ centers in the former case.

  4. Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Mg-Al Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruska, Karen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Kovarik, Libor; Moser, Trevor H.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-10-05

    An improved understanding of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline materials, and in metals and alloys in general, is of continuing interest to the scientific community. In this study, Mg - Al thin films containing ~10 wt.% Al and with 14.5 nm average grain size were produced by magnetron-sputtering and subjected to heat-treatments. The grain growth evolution in the early stages of heat treatment at 423 K (150 °C), 473 K (200 °C) and 573K (300 °C) was observed with transmission electron microscopy and analyzed based upon the classical equation developed by Burke and Turnbull. The grain growth exponent was found to be 7±2 and the activation energy for grain growth was 31.1±13.4 kJ/mol, the latter being significantly lower than in bulk Mg-Al alloys. The observed grain growth kinetics are explained by the Al supersaturation in the matrix and the pinning effects of the rapidly forming beta precipitates and possibly shallow grain boundary grooves. The low activation energy is attributed to the rapid surface diffusion which is dominant in thin film systems.

  5. Raman scattering and x-ray diffractometry studies of epitaxial TiO2 and VO2 thin films and multilayers on α-Al2O3(11 bar 20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.M.; Chiarello, R.P.; Chang, H.L.M.; You, H.; Zhang, T.J.; Frase, H.; Parker, J.C.; Lam, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of TiO 2 and VO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /VO 2 multilayers were grown on (11 bar 20) sapphire (α-Al 2 O 3 ) substrates using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique and were characterized using Raman scattering and four x-ray diffractometry. X-ray diffraction results indicate that the films are high quality single crystal material with well defined growth plane and small in-plane and out-of-plane mosaic. Single-layer films are shown to obey the Raman selection rules of TiO 2 and VO 2 single crystals. The close adherence to the Raman selection rules indicates the high degree of orientation of the films, both parallel and perpendicular to the growth plane. Selection rule spectra of two and three layer TiO 2 /VO 2 multilayers are dominated by the VO 2 layers with only minimal signature of the TiO 2 layers. Due to the low band gap of semiconducting vanadium dioxide, we attribute the strong signature of the VO 2 layers to resonant enhancement of the VO 2 Raman component accompanied with absorption of the both the incident and scattered laser light from the TiO 2 layers

  6. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO2 anatase for large-area photon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO 2 particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO 2 with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  7. Combination of short-length TiO_2 nanorod arrays and compact PbS quantum-dot thin films for efficient solid-state quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Xiao, Guannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 was successfully prepared. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film was firstly obtained on the TiO_2 nanorod array by spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film sensitized solar cells achieved 4.10% using spiro-OMeTAD as a hole transporting layer, while the PCE of the PbS quantum-dot sensitized solar cells was only 0.54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO_2 nanorod arrays with the length of 600 nm, diameter of 20 nm. • The compact PbS QD thin film and short-length TiO_2 nanorod array were combined. • EDT addition improved PbS nanoparticle coverage and photovoltaic performance. • The compact PbS QD thin film sensitized solar cell achieved the PCE of 4.10%. - Abstract: Considering the balance of the hole diffusion length and the loading quantity of quantum-dots, the rutile TiO_2 nanorod array with the length of 600 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 500 μm"−"2 is successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 105 min. The compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array is firstly obtained by the spin-coating-assisted successive ionic layer absorption and reaction with using 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The result reveals that the strong interaction between lead and EDT is very important to control the crystallite size of PbS quantum-dots and obtain the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film on the TiO_2 nanorod array. The all solid-state sensitized solar cell with the combination of the short-length, high-density TiO_2 nanorod array and the compact PbS quantum-dot thin film achieves the photoelectric conversion efficiency of 4.10%, along with an open

  8. Colorimetric gas detection by the varying thickness of a thin film of ultrasmall PTSA-coated TiO2 nanoparticles on a Si substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Joost

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorimetric gas sensing is demonstrated by thin films based on ultrasmall TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs on Si substrates. The NPs are bound into the film by p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA and the film is made to absorb volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Since the color of the sensing element depends on the interference of reflected light from the surface of the film and from the film/silicon substrate interface, colorimetric detection is possible by the varying thickness of the NP-based film. Indeed, VOC absorption causes significant swelling of the film. Thus, the optical path length is increased, interference wavelengths are shifted and the refractive index of the film is decreased. This causes a change of color of the sensor element visible by the naked eye. The color response is rapid and changes reversibly within seconds of exposure. The sensing element is extremely simple and cheap, and can be fabricated by common coating processes.

  9. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO 2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  10. 500 keV Ar2+ ion irradiation induced anatase to brookite phase transformation and ferromagnetism at room temperature in TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, B.; Mishra, N. C.; Kanjilal, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2018-01-01

    In our earlier report, where we have demonstrated ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature (RT) in TiO2 thin films deposited through electron beam evaporation technique followed by annealing either in Ar or O2 atmosphere [Mohanty et al., Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 355 (2014) 240-245], here we have studied the evolution of structure and magnetic properties after irradiating the TiO2 thin films with 500 keV Ar2+ ions. The pristine film while exhibits anatase phase, the films become amorphous after irradiating at fluence in the range 1 × 1014 to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2. Increasing the fluence up to 5 × 1016 ions/cm2, amorphous to crystalline phase transformation occurs and the structure becomes brookite. Although anatase to rutile phase transformation is usually reported in literatures, anatase to brookite phase transformation is an unusual feature which we have reported here for the first time. Such anatase to brookite phase transformation is accompanied with grain growth without showing any change in film thickness evidenced from Rutherford's Back Scattering (RBS) measurement. From scanning probe micrographs (SPM), roughness is found to be more in amorphous films than in the crystalline ones. Anatase to brookite phase transformation could be realized by considering the importance of intermediate amorphous phase. Because due to amorphous phase, heat deposited by energetic ions are localized as dissipation of heat is less and as a result, the localized region crystallizes in brookite phase followed by grain growth as observed in highest fluence. Further, we have demonstrated ferromagnetic behavior at RT in irradiated films similar to pristine one, irrespective of their phase and crystallinity. Origin for room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) is attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies which is confirmed by carrying out XPS measurement.

  11. Evolution of structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped TiO2 thin films irradiated with 100 MeV Ag7+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P; Singh, V P; Rath, Chandana; Mishra, N C; Ojha, S; Kanjilal, D

    2014-01-01

    In continuation to our earlier studies where we have shown room temperature ferromagnetism observed in TiO 2 and Co-doped TiO 2 (CTO) thin films independent of their phase (Mohanty et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 325301), here the modifications in structure and magnetic properties in CTO thin films using 100 MeV Ag 7+ ion irradiation are reported. Owing to the important role of defects in tailoring the magnetic properties of the material, we vary the ion fluence from 5 × 10 11 to 1 × 10 12  ions cm −2 to create post-deposition defects. While the film deposited under 0.1 mTorr oxygen partial pressure retains its crystallinity showing radiation-resistant behaviour even at a fluence of 1 × 10 12  ions cm −2 , films deposited under 1 to 300 mTorr oxygen partial pressure becomes almost amorphous at the same fluence. Using Poisson's law, the diameter of the amorphized region surrounding the ion path is calculated to be ∼4.2 nm from the x-ray diffraction peak intensity ((1 1 0) for rutile phase) as a function of ion fluence. The saturation magnetization (M s ) decreases exponentially similar to the decrease in x-ray peak intensity with fluence, indicating magnetic disordered region surrounding the ion path. The diameter of the magnetic disordered region is found to be ∼6.6 nm which is larger than the diameter of the amorphized latent track. Therefore, it is confirmed that swift heavy ion irradiation induces a more significant magnetic disorder than the structural disorder. (paper)

  12. Impact of ultra-thin Al2O3-y layers on TiO2-x ReRAM switching characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapatseli, Maria; Cortese, Simone; Serb, Alexander; Khiat, Ali; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2017-05-01

    Transition metal-oxide resistive random access memory devices have demonstrated excellent performance in switching speed, versatility of switching and low-power operation. However, this technology still faces challenges like poor cycling endurance, degradation due to high electroforming (EF) switching voltages and low yields. Approaches such as engineering of the active layer by doping or addition of thin oxide buffer layers have been often adopted to tackle these problems. Here, we have followed a strategy that combines the two; we have used ultra-thin Al2O3-y buffer layers incorporated between TiO2-x thin films taking into account both 3+/4+ oxidation states of Al/Ti cations. Our devices were tested by DC and pulsed voltage sweeping and in both cases demonstrated improved switching voltages. We believe that the Al2O3-y layers act as reservoirs of oxygen vacancies which are injected during EF, facilitate a filamentary switching mechanism and provide enhanced filament stability, as shown by the cycling endurance measurements.

  13. Evidence of room temperature ferromagnetism in argon/oxygen annealed TiO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.; Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, R.K.; Kulriya, P.K.; Sinha, A.S.K.; Rath, Chandana

    2014-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation technique annealed in either O 2 or Ar atmosphere showed ferromagnetism at room temperature. The pristine amorphous film demonstrates anatase phase after annealing under Ar/O 2 atmosphere. While the pristine film shows a super-paramagnetic behavior, both O 2 and Ar annealed films display hysteresis at 300 K. X-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford’s backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to refute the possible role of impurities/contaminants in magnetic properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the O 2 annealed film is found to be higher than the Ar annealed one. It is revealed from shifting of O 1s and Ti 2p core level spectra as well as from the enhancement of high binding energy component of O 1s spectra that the higher magnetic moment is associated with higher oxygen vacancies. In addition, O 2 annealed film demonstrates better crystallinity, uniform deposition and smoother surface than that of the Ar annealed one from glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We conclude that although ferromagnetism is due to oxygen vacancies, the higher magnetization in O 2 annealed film could be due to crystallinity, which has been observed earlier in Co doped TiO 2 film deposited by pulsed laser deposition (Mohanty et al., 2012 [10]). - Highlights: • TiO 2 films were deposited by e-beam evaporation technique and post annealed under O 2 /Ar at 500 °C. • The pristine film shows SPM behavior where as O 2 and Ar annealed films demonstrate RTFM. • The presence of magnetic impurities has been discarded by various characterization techniques. • The magnetic moment is found to be higher in O 2 annealed film than the Ar annealed one. • The higher M s in O 2 annealed film is attributed to oxygen vacancies as well as crystallinity

  14. Releasing cation diffusion in self-limited nanocrystalline defective ceria thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Ni, D. W.; Gualandris, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Acceptor-doped nanocrystalline cerium oxide thin films are mechanically constrained nano-domains, with film/substrate interfacial strain and chemical doping deadlock mass diffusion. In contrast, in this paper we show that chemical elements result in highly unstable thin films under chemical...

  15. Effect of Diethanolamine on Property of Thin Film TiO2 in Treating Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Jirapattarasakul, Sudarat

    2006-01-01

    In this research titanium dioxide thin film was synthesized from hydrolysis and condensation process by sol-gel method. Titanium alkoxide was used as initial substrate. The solvent was ethanal and the additive substance was diethanolamine. All substances are mixed altogether in different ratios. To study the effect of diethanolamine on properties of titanium dioxide thin film, various film analysis were performed which included mass weighing, adhesive test, corrosion test using acid and alkali, surface morphology analysis with scanning electron microscope (SEM), thin film structure analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photo activity by chromium removal test. It was found that diethanolmine enhanced the film strength and improved the adhesive property. The smooth surface was obtained. This thin film showed the effectiveness in chromium removal with high photo activity. Even tough the developed thin film can remove chromium (VI) efficiently, the reaction rate constant (k) was slightly reduced from that using the normal thin film titanium dioxide (without adding diethanolamine). In addition, the reaction time is required little longer to accomplish the chromium (VI) removal with the same performance

  16. Development of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Sputtered N-Doped TiO2 Thin Films: From Modeling the Growth Mechanism of the Films to Fabrication of the Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by DC reactive sputtering at different doping levels for the development of dye-sensitized solar cells. The mechanism of film growth during the sputtering process and the effect of the nitrogen doping on the structural, optical, morphological, chemical, and electronic properties of the TiO2 were investigated by numerical modeling and experimental methods. The influence of the nitrogen doping on the working principle of the prototypes was investigated by current-voltage relations measured under illuminated and dark conditions. The results indicate that, during the film deposition, the control of the oxidation processes of the nitride layers plays a fundamental role for an effective incorporation of substitutional nitrogen in the film structure and cells built with nitrogen-doped TiO2 have higher short-circuit photocurrent in relation to that obtained with conventional DSSCs. On the other hand, DSSCs built with nondoped TiO2 have higher open-circuit voltage. These experimental observations indicate that the incorporation of nitrogen in the TiO2 lattice increases simultaneously the processes of generation and destruction of electric current.

  17. Sol-gel deposition and electrical properties of laser irradiated Cu doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available Multilayer thin films (3, 5 and 7 of 20% copper doped titanium dioxide (Cu:TiO2 have been deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. After deposition, films have been irradiated by a beam of continuous wave diode laser (532 nm for two minutes at the angle of 45°. Structural, surface morphology and electrical properties of films have been investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and four point probe technique respectively. XRD shows the formation of titanium copper oxide. Surface morphology of thin films indicated that the average grain size is increased by increasing the number of layers. The average sheet resistivity of 3, 5 and 7 layers of thin films measured by four point probe technique is 2.2 × 104, 1.2 × 104 and 1.0 × 104 (Ohm-cm respectively. The present study will facilitate a cost effective and environmental friendly study for several properties of materials. Keywords: Cu:TiO2, Multilayer thin films, Diode laser

  18. Quantitative Measurements of Photocatalytic CO-Oxidation as a Function of Light Intensity and Wavelength over TiO2 Nanotube Thin Films in mu-Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; In, Su-il; Olsen, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    Gas-phase photooxidation of CO over TiO2 catalysts (P25 and TiO2 nanotubes) in mu-reactors with quantitative product detection was used to study turnover as a function of illumination intensity over 4 orders of magnitude. Turnover was found to be of order 0.84 in illumination intensity. A CO phot...

  19. Nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by dual ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Ruiz, Patricia; Ferrer, Isabel J.; Figuera, Juan de la; Marco, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have grown tensile and compressive strained nanocrystalline magnetite thin films by dual ion beam sputtering. • The magnetic and thermoelectric properties can be controlled by the deposition conditions. • The magnetic anisotropy depends on the crystalline grain size. • The thermoelectric properties depend on the type of strain induced in the films. • In plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy develops in magnetite thin films with grain sizes ⩽20 nm. - Abstract: We have explored the influence of an ion-assisted beam in the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering. The microstructure has been investigated by XRD. Tensile and compressive strained thin films have been obtained as a function of the parameters of the ion-assisted beam. The evolution of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy was attributed to crystalline grain size. In some films, magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements reveal the existence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the deposition process related with a small grain size (⩽20 nm). Isotropic magnetic properties have observed in nanocrystalline magnetite thin film having larger grain sizes. The largest power factor of all the films prepared (0.47 μW/K 2 cm), obtained from a Seebeck coefficient of −80 μV/K and an electrical resistivity of 13 mΩ cm, is obtained in a nanocrystalline magnetite thin film with an expanded out-of-plane lattice and with a grain size ≈30 nm

  20. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  1. Modification of the microstructure and electronic properties of rutile TiO_2 thin films with 79 MeV Br ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Haripriya; Dash, P.; Singh, U.P.; Avasthi, D.K.; Kanjilal, D.; Mishra, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Modifications induced by 79 MeV Br ions in rutile titanium dioxide thin films, synthesized by dc magnetron sputtering are presented. Irradiations did not induce any new XRD peak corresponding to any other phase. The area and the width of the XRD peaks were considerably affected by irradiation, and peaks shifted to lower angles. But the samples retained their crystallinity at the highest fluence (1 × 10"1"3 ions cm"−"2) of irradiation even though the electronic energy loss of 79 MeV Br ions far exceeds the reported threshold value for amorphization of rutile TiO_2. Fitting of the fluence dependence of the XRD peak area to Poisson equation yielded the radius of ion tracks as 2.4 nm. Ion track radius obtained from the simulation based on the thermal spike model matches closely with that obtained from the fluence dependence of the area under XRD peaks. Williamson–Hall analysis of the XRD spectra indicated broadening and shifting of the peaks are a consequence of irradiation induced defect accumulation leading to microstrains, as was also indicated by Raman and UV–Visible absorption study.

  2. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  3. Characterization of thin TiO2 films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for optical and photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk-Guzenda, A.; Gazicki-Lipman, M.; Szymanowski, H.; Kowalski, J.; Wojciechowski, P.; Halamus, T.; Tracz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Thin titanium oxide films were deposited using a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. Their optical properties and thickness were determined by means of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Films of the optical parameters very close to those of titanium dioxide have been obtained at the high RF power input. Their optical quality is high enough to allow for their use in a construction of stack interference optical filters. At the same time, these materials exhibit strong photocatalytic effects. The results of structural analysis, carried out by Raman Shift Spectroscopy, show that the coatings posses amorphous structure. However, Raman spectra of the same films subjected to thermal annealing at 450 o C disclose an appearance of a crystalline form, namely that of anatase. Surface morphology of the films has also been characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing granular, broccoli-like topography of the films.

  4. PHOTO-ELECTROCHEMICAL QUANTUM EFFICIENCY OF TiO2 THIN FILMS : EFFECT OF CRISTAL STRUCTURE, PLASMA HYDROGENATION AND SURFACE PHOTOETCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E TEYAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of semi-conducting materials in the photoelectrochemical detoxification of water became a very important research field. For this purpose, TiO2 nanostructures thin films with size of 18 nm to 45nm have been synthesized at low temperature. It is found by means of cyclic voltametry and coulometry measurements that the best photoelectrochemical quantum efficiency under UV monochromatic light with a wavelength of 365 nm and a solution of NaOH 0.1N is obtained in the case of thermal oxidation deposition method which can reach 28% compared to ultrasonic spray and dip coating methods of which the quantum is less than 20%. The crystal structure has an influence on the photo-degradation of methanol. The crystal structure which is recommended for this task is the anatase one, especially in the dipping case when the quantum increases after addition of methanol more than twice compared to the solution of NaOH without methanol. The photoelectrochemical quantum efficiency of these films is related to the number of dips and annealing under air at 550°C during one hour. The annealing has no effect on the quantum efficiency of the films, but decreases there photocatalytic activity as showed by the measure of the photocurrent related to methanol photodegradation. The annealing has no effect on the crystal structure of the material. The impedance spectroscopy of six dips deposited films with and without methanol shows that the annealing increases the doping and weakly decreases the film quantum efficiency. This implies, the importance of surface morphology which the rough is decreasing as showed by scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the precursor concentration in ethanol have been investigated by using films, synthesized at T=550°C. The quantum efficiency increases weakly according the precursor concentration. It tends towards a saturation at great concentrations of precursor. In Na OH with methanol added, it passes by a maximum at

  5. Influence of different TiO2 blocking films on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Luo, Yudan; Chen, Xiaohong; Ou-Yang, Wei; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Sumei

    2016-12-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskite materials have been successfully used as light absorbers in efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells. Cell structures based on mesoscopic metal oxides and planar heterojunctions have already demonstrated very impressive and brisk advances, holding great potential to grow into a mature PV technology. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) values have been obtained from the mesoscopic configuration in which a few hundred nano-meter thick mesoporous scaffold (e.g. TiO2 or Al2O3) infiltrated by perovskite absorber was sandwiched between the electron and hole transport layers. A uniform and compact hole-blocking layer is necessary for high efficient perovskite-based thin film solar cells. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of TiO2 compact layer using various methods and its effects on the PV performance of perovskite solar cells. TiO2 compact layer was prepared by a sol-gel method based on titanium isopropoxide and HCl, spin-coating of titanium diisopropoxide bis (acetylacetonate), screen-printing of Dyesol's bocking layer titania paste, and a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique via hydrolysis of TiCl4, respectively. The morphological and micro-structural properties of the formed compact TiO2 layers were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The analyses of devices performance characteristics showed that surface morphologies of TiO2 compact films played a critical role in affecting the efficiencies. The nanocrystalline TiO2 film deposited via the CBD route acts as the most efficient hole-blocking layer and achieves the best performance in perovskite solar cells. The CBD-based TiO2 compact and dense layer offers a small series resistance and a large recombination resistance inside the device, and makes it possible to achieve a high power conversion efficiency of 12.80%.

  6. Up-conversion luminescence application in Er3+: TiO2 thin film prepared by dip coating sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Y.; Battisha, I.K.; Salah, A.; Salem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sol-gel derived nano-crystalline titanium dioxide films doped with 1 up to 5% Er 3+ ions were prepared by dip coating sol-gel method. The coating sol was obtained by hydrolysis of Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 in ethanol/HCI solution. The FT-Raman and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to determine the crystal structure of the prepared samples. The morphology SEM and the cross-sectional of the film were used to characterize the microstructure and the thickness of the prepared film. It is shown that relative homogeneous, crack-free and transparent film was achieved via dipping process at 500 deg C. After the excitation with laser diode at wavelength 808 nm, visible (Vis) and infrared (IR) up-conversion emissions were evidenced in the thin film samples under investigation. The up-conversion was found to depend strongly on the Er 3+ ion concentrations. The visible emission was found to be at 540, 560, 590 and 640 nm for thin film. They are attributed to intra-4f transition of Er 3+ ions and assigned to the ( 2 H 11/2 + 4 S 3/2 ) and 4 F 9/2 , which are populated through excited state absorption (ESA) for 808 nm excitation. (author)

  7. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  8. Synthesis of TiO2-loaded Co0.85Se thin films with heterostructure and their enhanced catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Yong; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Mao, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Yi; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    P-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrazine hydrate are considered to be highly toxic pollutants in wastewater, and it is of great importance to remove them. Herein, TiO 2 -loaded Co 0.85 Se thin films with heterostructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction. The results demonstrate that TiO 2 nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are easily loaded on the surface of graphene-like Co 0.85 Se nanofilms, and the NH 3  · H 2 O plays an important role in the generation and crystallization of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement shows that the obtained nanocomposites have a larger specific surface area (199.3 m 2 g −1 ) than that of Co 0.85 Se nanofilms (55.17 m 2 g −1 ) and TiO 2 nanoparticles (19.49 m 2 g −1 ). The catalytic tests indicate Co 0.85 Se–TiO 2 nanofilms have the highest activity for 4-NP reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition within 10 min and 8 min, respectively, compared with the corresponding precursor Co 0.85 Se nanofilms and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the larger specific surface area and higher rate of interfacial charge transfer in the heterojunction than that of the single components. In addition, recycling tests show that the as-synthesized sample presents stable conversion efficiency for 4-NP reduction. (paper)

  9. Manufacturing and investigation of surface morphology and optical properties of composite thin films reinforced by TiO2, Bi2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarka, Paweł; Tański, Tomasz; Matysiak, Wiktor; Krzemiński, Łukasz; Hajduk, Barbara; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    The aim of submitted paper is to present influence of manufacturing parameters on optical properties and surface morphology of composite materials with a polymer matrix reinforced by TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles. The novelty proposed by the authors is the use of TiO2 and SiO2 and Bi2O3 nanoparticles simultaneously in polymeric matrix. This allows using the combined effect of nanoparticles to a result composite material. The thin films of composite material were prepared by using spin-coating method with various spinning rates from solutions of different concentration of nanoparticles. In order to prepare the spinning solution polymer, Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used as a matrix. The reinforcing phase was the mixture of the nanoparticles of SiO2, TiO2 and B2O3. In order to identify the surface morphology of using thin films and arrangement of the reinforcing phase Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used. In order to study the optical properties of the obtained thin films, the thin films of composites was subjected to an ellipsometry analysis. The measurements of absorbance of the obtained materials, from which the value of the band gap width was specified, were carried out using the UV/VIS spectroscopy. The optical properties of obtain composite thin films depend not only on the individual components used, but also on the morphology and the interfacial characteristics. Controlling the participation of three kinds of nanoparticles of different sizes and optical parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal optical properties of nanocomposites and also controlling the deposition parameters allows to obtaining the most optimal surface morphology of nanocomposites.

  10. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmiller, Jochen; Spolenak, Ralph; Gruber, Patric A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility

  11. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmiller, Jochen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gruber, Patric A., E-mail: patric.gruber@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility.

  12. Ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2-thin layers as a fully integrated analysis system for visual simultaneous detection of organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunxing; Liang, Wenjie; Zheng, Fengying; Lin, Xiaofeng; Cai, Jiabai

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated simultaneously by the mobile phase in 12.0 min with different Rf values. After surface modification, the UV-vis wavelength response range of AA-TiO2@PS was expanded to 650 nm. Under visible-light irradiation, all of the OPs could be photodegraded to PO43- in 25.0 min. Based on the chromogenic reaction between PO43- and chromogenic agents (ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid), OPs were quantified from color intensity images using a scanner in conjunction with image processing software. So, AA-TiO2@PS was respectively used as the stationary phase of TLC for efficient separation of OPs, as a photocatalyst for species transformation of phosphorus, and as a colorimetric probe for on-field simultaneous visual detection of OPs in natural water. Linear calibration curves for each OP ranged from 19.3 nmol P L-1 to 2.30 μmol P L-1. This integrated analysis system was simple, inexpensive, easy to operate, and sensitive.TiO2 photocatalysis and colorimetric detection are coupled with thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the first time to develop a fully integrated analysis system. Titania@polystyrene hybrid microspheres were surface modified with ascorbic acid, denoted AA-TiO2@PS, and used as the stationary phase for TLC. Because the affinity between AA-TiO2@PS and organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was different for different species of OPs (including chlopyrifos, malathion, parathion, parathion-methyl, and methamidophos), OPs could be separated

  13. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by reaction magnetron sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghua Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 films have been prepared by DC reaction magnetron sputtering technique on different substrates (glass, SiO2, platinum electrode-Pt, Silicon-Si. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that all TiO2 films were grown along the preferred orientation of (110 plane. Samples on Si and Pt substrates are almost monophasic rutile, however, samples on glass and SiO2 substrates accompanied by a weak anatase structure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images revealed uniform grain distribution except for films on Pt substrates. Photoluminescence (PL spectra showed obvious intrinsic emission band, but films on glass was accompanied by a distinct defect luminescence region. Raman spectroscopy suggested that all samples moved to high wavenumbers and films on glass moved obviously.

  14. Hydrogen-bonding-mediated synthesis of atomically thin TiO2 films with exposed (001) facets and applications in fast lithium insertion/extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Yang, Zhenzhen; Gan, Wei; Zhao, Yanfei; Yu, Bo; Xu, Huanjun; Ma, Zhishuang; Hao, Leiduan; Chen, Dechao; Miao, Shiding; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-10-05

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials show high specific surface area (SA) of high energy (HE) facets, imparting a significant improvement in their performances. Herein we report a novel route to synthesize TiO2 nanofilms (NFs) with atomic thickness (lithium insertion/extraction, demonstrating foreseeable applications in the energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Bilirubin adsorption on nanocrystalline titania films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhengpeng; Si Shihui; Fung Yingsing

    2007-01-01

    Bilirubin produced from hemoglobin metabolism and normally conjugated with albumin is a kind of lipophilic endotoxin, and can cause various diseases when its concentration is high. Bilirubin adsorption on the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance, UV-vis and IR techniques, and factors affecting its adsorption such as pH, bilirubin concentration, solution ionic strength, temperature and thickness of TiO 2 films were discussed. The amount of adsorption and parameters for the adsorption kinetics were estimated from the frequency measurements of quartz crystal microbalance. A fresh surface of the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films could be photochemically regenerated because holes and hydroxyl radicals were generated by irradiating the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with UV light, which could oxidize and decompose organic materials, and the nanocrystalline TiO 2 films can be easily regenerated when it is used as adsorbent for the removal of bilirubin

  16. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  17. Highly conducting p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films preparation without additional hydrogen dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chandralina; Das, Debajyoti

    2018-04-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline silicon thin film has been successfully prepared at a low substrate temperature (250 °C) in planar inductively coupled RF (13.56 MHz) plasma CVD, without any additional hydrogen dilution. The effect of B2H6 flow rate on structural and electrical properties of the films has been studied. The p-type nc-Si:H films prepared at 5 ≤ B2H6 (sccm) ≤ 20 retains considerable amount of nanocrystallites (˜80 %) with high conductivity ˜101 S cm-1 and dominant crystallographic orientation which has been correlated with the associated increased ultra- nanocrystalline component in the network. Such properties together make the material significantly effective for utilization as p-type emitter layer in heterojunction nc-Si solar cells.

  18. Nanocrystalline Sr2CeO4 thin films grown on silicon by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perea, Nestor; Hirata, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Blue-white luminescent Sr 2 CeO 4 thin films were deposited by using pulsed laser ablation (λ = 248 nm wavelength) on 500 deg. C silicon (111) substrates under an oxygen pressure of 55 mTorr. High-resolution electron transmission microscopy, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films were composed of nanocrystalline Sr 2 CeO 4 grains of the order of 20-30 nm with a preferential orientation in the (130) crystallographic direction. The excitation and photoluminescence spectra measured on the films maintained the characteristic emission of bulk Sr 2 CeO 4 however, the emission peak appeared narrower and blue-shifted as compared to the luminescence spectrum of the target. The blue-shift and a preferential crystallographic orientation during the growth formation of the film is related to the nanocrystalline nature of the grains due to the quantum confinement behavior and surface energy minimization in nanostructured systems

  19. Characterisation of nanocrystalline CdS thin films deposited by CBD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, R.; Sarma, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline thin films of CdS are deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix solution. Crystallite sizes of the films are determined from X-ray diffraction and are found to vary from 5.4 nm to 7 nm. The band gaps of the nanocrystalline material is determined from the U-V spectrograph and are found to be within the range from 2.6 eV to 2.8 eV as grain size decreases. The band gaps are also determined from the dependence of electrical conductivity of the films with temperature. An increase of molarity decreases the grain size which in turn increases the band gap. (author)

  20. Electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline spinel thin film for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay [Carbon Technology Unit, Engineering Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, New-Delhi, 110012 (India); Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Gupta, Shubhra; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Spinels are not known for their supercapacitive nature. Here, we have explored electrochemically synthesized nanostructured NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel thin-film electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors. The nanostructured NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel thin film exhibited a high specific capacitance value of 580 F g{sup -1} and an energy density of 32 Wh kg{sup -1} at the power density of 4 kW kg{sup -1}, accompanying with good cyclic stability. (author)

  1. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    peak position and an asymmetrical broadening on the lower frequency side when compared with the spectrum of the bulk Ge sample. The shift of the Raman .... resultant fit to Ic(ω) (1) (thin line) and a Lorentzian function (dotted line). Figure 6 shows Raman spectra of the samples B and C. A shoulder at 280 cm–1 can be.

  2. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  3. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  4. Anatase TiO2 hierarchical structures composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing high percentage {0 0 1} facets and their application in quantum-dot sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Shuo; Jiang, Shiwei; He, Jinjin; Jiang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical structures assembled from ultra-thin nanosheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were employed as photoanode materials to improve the performance of CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells. - Highlights: • THSs composited of nanosheets exposing high percent {0 0 1} facets were prepared. • THSs improve the QDs loading amount and light scattering of the photoanode. • THSs suppress the carrier recombination and finally lead to ∼25% PCE improvement. - Abstract: TiO 2 hierarchical structures (THSs) composed of ultra-thin nano-sheets exposing ∼90% {0 0 1} facets were prepared via a hydrothermal method. Time dependent trails revealed the formation of THSs experienced a self-assemble process. The as-prepared product were used as the photoanode materials for CdS/CdSe co-sensitized solar cells, and the THSs/nanoparticle hybrid photoanode demonstrated a power conversion efficiency of 3.47%, indicating ∼25% improvement compared with the nanoparticle cell

  5. Effects of Homogenization Scheme of TiO2 Screen-Printing Paste for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seigo Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 porous electrodes have been fabricated for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs using TiO2 screen-printing paste from nanocrystalline TiO2 powder dried from the synthesized sol. We prepared the TiO2 screen-printing paste by two different methods to disperse the nanocrystalline TiO2 powder: a “ball-milling route” and a “mortal-grinding route.” The TiO2 ball-milling (TiO2-BM route gave monodisperse TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in high photocurrent density (14.2 mA cm−2 and high photoconversion efficiency (8.27%. On the other hand, the TiO2 mortal-grinding (TiO2-MG route gave large aggregate of TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in low photocurrent density (11.5 mA cm−2 and low photoconversion efficiency (6.43%. To analyze the photovoltaic characteristics, we measured the incident photon-to-current efficiency, light absorption spectroscopy, and electrical impedance spectroscopy of DSCs.

  6. Structure and photoluminescence of Mn-passivated nanocrystalline ZnO:S thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Y.H.; Tang, Q.X.; Liu, Y.C.; Shao, C.L.; Xu, C.S.; Liu, Y.X.

    2005-01-01

    Mn-passivated nanocrystalline ZnO:S thin films were fabricated by thermally oxidizing Mn-doped ZnS (ZnS:Mn) films prepared by electron beam evaporation. Mn was introduced to passivate the surface defects of ZnO and to improve the optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 81.9 K indicated the S content in ZnO thin film gradually decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The fitted result of the temperature-dependent PL spectra in the range from 81.9 to 302.2 K showed that S dopant could broaden the optical band gap energy of ZnO. Room temperature PL spectra confirmed that the ultraviolet peak shifted to lower energy with the decrease of S content in the thin film because of the Burstein-Moss effect

  7. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  8. Electronic transport in mixed-phase hydrogenated amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienkes, Lee Raymond

    Interest in mixed-phase silicon thin film materials, composed of an amorphous semiconductor matrix in which nanocrystalline inclusions are embedded, stems in part from potential technological applications, including photovoltaic and thin film transistor technologies. Conventional mixed-phase silicon films are produced in a single plasma reactor, where the conditions of the plasma must be precisely tuned, limiting the ability to adjust the film and nanoparticle parameters independently. The films presented in this thesis are deposited using a novel dual-plasma co-deposition approach in which the nanoparticles are produced separately in an upstream reactor and then injected into a secondary reactor where an amorphous silicon film is being grown. The degree of crystallinity and grain sizes of the films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. I describe detailed electronic measurements which reveal three distinct conduction mechanisms in n-type doped mixed-phase amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films over a range of nanocrystallite concentrations and temperatures, covering the transition from fully amorphous to ~30% nanocrystalline. As the temperature is varied from 470 to 10 K, we observe activated conduction, multiphonon hopping (MPH) and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) as the nanocrystal content is increased. The transition from MPH to Mott-VRH hopping around 100K is ascribed to the freeze out of the phonon modes. A conduction model involving the parallel contributions of these three distinct conduction mechanisms is shown to describe both the conductivity and the reduced activation energy data to a high accuracy. Additional support is provided by measurements of thermal equilibration effects and noise spectroscopy, both done above room temperature (>300 K). This thesis provides a clear link between measurement and theory in these complex materials.

  9. Synthesis of TiO_2 thin films by the SILAR method and study of the influence of annealing on its structural, morphological and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Garcia, F N; Segura-Giraldo, B; Restrepo-Parra, E; Lopez-Lopez, G A

    2015-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of TiO_2 films were made. Films were synthesized on glass substrates by the SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) method. The preparation consisted of 150 cycles of a successive and alternate immersion of substrates in the precursor solution and in distilled water at 353 K. Growing was conducted at two conditions of the precursor solution which contained TiCl_3 and NH_2CONH_2: at room temperature and at 343 K. After the growth, films were annealed at 723 K for 2 hours. Regarding characterization, samples were studied using XRD, SEM and UV-Vis. Structural characterization results showed that, in general, the films presented an amorphous crystalline structure except those which were grown with precursor solution at 343 K and thermally treated after the growths, which presented an anatase crystalline structure. Concerning their morphology, a granular structure and a random distribution of a flower-like structure were observed. Grain sizes did not change significantly after annealing. The optical study was carried out taking into account an indirect transition allowed determining the band gap energy to be around 3.1 eV. This value, which is typical for TiO_2, decreases after annealing, usual for this type of films

  10. Effect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sebastien; Dewalque, Jennifer; Colomer, María Teresa; Moreno, Rodrigo; Cloots, Rudi; Boschini, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO 2 and RE 2 O 3– TiO 2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er 3+ and Eu 3+ was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu 3+ and Er 3+ f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. - Highlights: • Eu and Er–TiO 2 mesoporous films were prepared by evaporation induced self-assembly. • Influence of humidity on porosity and photoluminescent properties has been tested. • Influence of calcination on structural and textural properties has been also studied. • f–f transitions indicate that the thin films are active photoluminescent materials

  11. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sanjeevlrs732000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Inamdar, A.I.; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100 715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.G. [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). > The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. > Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. > The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  12. Monte Carlo random walk simulation of electron transport in confined porous TiO2 as a promising candidate for photo-electrode of nano-crystalline solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, M.; Abdi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Monte Carlo continuous time random walk simulation is used to study the effects of confinement on electron transport, in porous TiO2. In this work, we have introduced a columnar structure instead of the thick layer of porous TiO2 used as anode in conventional dye solar cells. Our simulation results show that electron diffusion coefficient in the proposed columnar structure is significantly higher than the diffusion coefficient in the conventional structure. It is shown that electron diffusion in the columnar structure depends both on the cross section area of the columns and the porosity of the structure. Also, we demonstrate that such enhanced electron diffusion can be realized in the columnar photo-electrodes with a cross sectional area of ˜1 μm2 and porosity of 55%, by a simple and low cost fabrication process. Our results open up a promising approach to achieve solar cells with higher efficiencies by engineering the photo-electrode structure.

  13. Monte Carlo random walk simulation of electron transport in confined porous TiO2 as a promising candidate for photo-electrode of nano-crystalline solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadi, M.; Abdi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo continuous time random walk simulation is used to study the effects of confinement on electron transport, in porous TiO 2 . In this work, we have introduced a columnar structure instead of the thick layer of porous TiO 2 used as anode in conventional dye solar cells. Our simulation results show that electron diffusion coefficient in the proposed columnar structure is significantly higher than the diffusion coefficient in the conventional structure. It is shown that electron diffusion in the columnar structure depends both on the cross section area of the columns and the porosity of the structure. Also, we demonstrate that such enhanced electron diffusion can be realized in the columnar photo-electrodes with a cross sectional area of ∼1 μm 2 and porosity of 55%, by a simple and low cost fabrication process. Our results open up a promising approach to achieve solar cells with higher efficiencies by engineering the photo-electrode structure

  14. Density, thickness and composition measurements of TiO2 -SiO2 thin films by coupling X-ray reflectometry, ellipsometry and electron probe microanalysis-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodroj, A.; Roussel, H.; Crisci, A.; Robaut, F.; Gottlieb, U.; Deschanvres, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Mixed TiO 2 -SiO 2 thin films were deposited by aerosol atmospheric CVD method by using di-acetoxi di-butoxi silane (DADBS) and Ti tetra-butoxide as precursors. By varying the deposition temperatures between 470 and 600 deg. C and the ratios between the Si and Ti precursors (Si/Ti) from 2 up to 16, films with different compositions and thicknesses were deposited. The coupled analysis of the results of different characterisation methods was used in order to determine the variation of the composition, the thickness and the density of the films. First EPMA measurements were performed at different acceleration voltages with a Cameca SX50 system. By analysing, with specific software, the evolution of the intensity ratio I x /I std versus the voltage, the composition and the mass thickness (product of density by the thickness) were determined. In order to measure independently the density, X-ray reflectometry experiments were performed. By analysing the value of the critical angle and the Kiessig fringes, the density and the thickness of the layers were determined. The refractive index and the thickness of the films were also measured by ellipsometry. By assuming a linear interpolation between the index value of the pure SiO 2 and TiO 2 films, the film composition was deduced from the refractive index value. XPS measurements were also performed in order to obtain an independent value of the composition. A good agreement between the ways to measure the density is obtained

  15. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, D., E-mail: doina.craciun@inflpr.ro [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania); Socol, G. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania); Lambers, E. [Major Analytical Instrumentation Center, College of Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); McCumiskey, E.J.; Taylor, C.R. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Martin, C. [Ramapo College of New Jersey (United States); Argibay, N. [Materials Science and Engineering Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Tanner, D.B. [Physics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Craciun, V. [Laser Department, National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Magurele (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZrC thin film were grown on Si by pulsed laser deposition technique. • Structural properties weakly depend on the CH{sub 4} pressure used during deposition. • The optimum deposition pressure for low resistivity is around 2 × 10{sup −5} mbar CH{sub 4}. • ZrC films exhibited friction coefficients around 0.4 and low wear rates. - Abstract: Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH{sub 4} pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH{sub 4} pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. Tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline CdTe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ragini Raj, E-mail: raginirajsingh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bhopal University, Bhopal-462026 (India); Department of Physical Electronics, Iby and Aladar Fleishman Faculty of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv-69978 (Israel); Painuly, Diksha [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kerala, Thiruanantpuram, Kerala (India); Pandey, R.K. [Department of Physics, Bhopal University, Bhopal-462026 (India)

    2009-07-15

    Electrodeposition is emerging as a method for the synthesis of semiconductor thin films and nanostructures. In this work we prepared the nanocrystalline CdTe thin films on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate from aqueous acidic bath at the deposition temperature 50 {+-} 1 deg. C. The films were grown potentiostatically from -0.60 V to -0.82 V with respect to saturated calomel reference electrode. The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively and cyclic voltammetery. The structural and optical studies revealed that films are nanocrystalline in nature and possess cubic phase, also the films are preferentially oriented along the cubic (1 1 1) plane. The effect of cadmium composition on the deposited morphology was also investigated. The size dependent blue shift in the experimentally determined absorption edge has been compared with the theoretical predictions based on the effective mass approximation and tight binding approximation. It is shown that the experimentally determined absorption edges depart from the theoretically calculated values.

  17. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  18. Photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds using TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwo, Ching-Song; Chang, Ho; Kao, Mu-Jnug; Lin, Chi-Hsiang

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the photodecomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using TiO2 catalyst fabricated by the Submerged Arc Nanoparticle Synthesis System (SANSS). TiO2 catalyst was employed to decompose volatile organic compounds and compare with Degussa-P25 TiO2 in terms of decomposition efficiency. In the electric discharge manufacturing process, a Ti bar, applied as the electrode, was melted and vaporized under high temperature. The vaporized Ti powders were then rapidly quenched under low-temperature and low-pressure conditions in deionized water, thus nucleating and forming nanocrystalline powders uniformly dispersed in the base solvent. The average diameter of the TiO2 nanoparticles was 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles in the deionized water were Anatase type TiO2. It was found that gaseous toluene exposed to UV irradiation produced intermediates that were even harder to decompose. After 60-min photocomposition, Degussa-P25 TiO2 reduced the concentration of gaseous toluene to 8.18% while the concentration after decomposition by SANSS TiO2 catalyst dropped to 0.35%. Under UV irradiation at 253.7 +/- 184.9 nm, TiO2 prepared by SANSS can produce strong chemical debonding energy, thus showing great efficiency, superior to that of Degussa-P25 TiO2, in decomposing gaseous toluene and its intermediates.

  19. The Recovery of a Magnetically Dead Layer on the Surface of an Anatase (Ti,CoO2 Thin Film via an Ultrathin TiO2 Capping Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thantip S. Krasienapibal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an ultrathin TiO2 capping layer on an anatase Ti0.95Co0.05O2−δ (001 epitaxial thin film on magnetism at 300 K was investigated. Films with a capping layer showed increased magnetization mainly caused by enhanced out-of-plane magnetization. In addition, the ultrathin capping layer was useful in prolonging the magnetization lifetime by more than two years. The thickness dependence of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature indicated the preservation of magnetic domain structure even for a 13 nm thick film covered with a capping layer. Taking into account nearly unchanged electric conductivity irrespective of the capping layer’s thickness, the main role of the capping layer is to prevent surface oxidation, which reduces electron carriers on the surface.

  20. Grain-size effect on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Heon, E-mail: young.h.kim@kriss.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang Jung [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, 267 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Tae Hwan [University of Science & Technology, 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Future Biotechnology Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Seung [Department of Nano Semiconductor Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-Ro, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nanometer-sized small grains were observed in the ITO thin films. • The grain size increased as the post-thermal annealing temperature increased. • The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size. • The ITO film annealed at 300 °C was an amorphous phase, while the others were polycrystalline structure. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate the electrical properties, depending on grain size, of nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films prepared with a solution process. The size distributions of nanometer-sized ITO film grains increased as the post-annealing temperature increased after deposition; the grain sizes were comparable with the calculated electron mean free path. The mobility of ITO thin films increased with increasing grain size; this phenomenon was explained by adopting the charge-trapping model for grain boundary scattering. These findings suggest that it is possible to improve mobility by reducing the number of trapping sites at the grain boundary.

  1. Structural and nanomechanical properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin films for photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawal, Ishpal [Department of Physics, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Panwar, Omvir Singh, E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Tripathi, Ravi Kant; Chockalingam, Sreekumar [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Optoelectronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reports the effect of helium gas pressure upon the structural, nanomechanical, and photoconductive properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin (NCT) films deposited by the filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the nanocrystalline nature of the deposited films with different crystallite sizes (3–7 nm). The chemical structure of the deposited films is further analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest that the deposited films change from graphitelike to diamondlike, increasing in sp{sup 3} content, with a minor change in the dilution of the inert gas (helium). The graphitic character is regained upon higher dilution of the helium gas, whereupon the films exhibit an increase in sp{sup 2} content. The nanomechanical measurements show that the film deposited at a helium partial pressure of 2.2 × 10{sup −4} has the highest value of hardness (37.39 GPa) and elastic modulus (320.50 GPa). At a light intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, the NCT films deposited at 2.2 × 10{sup −4} and 0.1 mbar partial pressures of helium gas exhibit good photoresponses of 2.2% and 3.6%, respectively.

  2. Enhanced field emission from Si doped nanocrystalline AlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapa, R.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Si doped and undoped nanocrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on various substrates by direct current sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of phase pure hexagonal aluminum nitride with a single peak corresponding to (1 0 0) reflection of AlN with lattice constants, a = 0.3114 nm and c = 0.4986 nm. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays confirmed the presence of Si in the doped AlN films. Atomic force microscopic studies showed that the average particle size of the film prepared at substrate temperature 200 deg. C was 9.5 nm, but when 5 at.% Si was incorporated the average particle size increased to ∼21 nm. Field emission study indicated that, with increasing Si doping concentration, the emission characteristics have been improved. The turn-on field (E to ) was 15.0 (±0.7) V/μm, 8.0 (±0.4) V/μm and 7.8 (±0.5) V/μm for undoped, 3 at.% and 5 at.% Si doped AlN films respectively and the maximum current density of 0.27 μA/cm 2 has been observed for 5 at.% Si doped nanocrystalline AlN film. It was also found that the dielectric properties were highly dependent on Si doping.

  3. Photocatalytic effects for the TiO2-coated phosphor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. → The photobleaching of an MB aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. → The ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor composite showed much higher photocatalytic reactivity. → The light emitted from the phosphors contributed to the photo-generation. - Abstract: This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of the coupling of TiO 2 with phosphorescent materials. A TiO 2 thin film was deposited on CaAl 2 O 4 :Eu 2+ ,Nd 3+ phosphor particles by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and its photocatalytic reaction was investigated by the photobleaching of an aqueous solution of methylene-blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. To clarify the mechanism of the TiO 2 -phosphorescent materials, two different samples of TiO 2 -coated phosphor and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor particles were prepared. The photocatalytic mechanisms of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor powders were different from those of the pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor. The absorbance in a solution of the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor decreased much faster than that of pure TiO 2 under visible irradiation. In addition, the ALD TiO 2 -coated phosphor showed moderately higher photocatalytic degradation of MB solution than the TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 -coated phosphor did. The TiO 2 -coated phosphorescent materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS).

  4. Flexible pressure sensor based on graphene aerogel microstructures functionalized with CdS nanocrystalline thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesco, Irina; Dragoman, Mircea; Strobel, Julian; Ghimpu, Lidia; Schütt, Fabian; Dinescu, Adrian; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report on functionalization of graphene aerogel with a CdS thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering and on the development of flexible pressure sensors based on ultra-lightweight CdS-aerogel nanocomposite. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclose the uniform deposition of nanocrystalline CdS films with quasi-stoichiometric composition. The piezoresistive response of the aforementioned nanocomposite in the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than that inherent to suspended graphene membranes, leading to an average sensitivity as high as 3.2 × 10-4 kPa-1.

  5. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  6. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria thin films by low-temperature thermal decomposition of Ce-propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, P.; Farjas, J.; Ricart, S.; Aklalouch, M.; Guzman, R.; Arbiol, J.; Puig, T.; Calleja, A.; Peña-Rodríguez, O.; Garriga, M.; Obradors, X.

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of Ce-propionate (thickness below 20 nm) have been deposited by spin coating and pyrolysed into ceria at temperatures below 200 °C. After 1 h of thermal treatment, no signature of the vibrational modes of Ce-propionate is detected by infrared spectroscopy, indicating that decomposition has been completed. The resulting ceria films are nanocrystalline as revealed by X-ray diffraction (average grain size of 2–2.5 nm) and confirmed by microscopy. They are transparent in the visible region and show the characteristic band gap absorption below 400 nm. A direct band gap energy of 3.50 ± 0.05 eV has been deduced irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature (160, 180 and 200 °C).

  7. Guided assembly of nanoparticles on electrostatically charged nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verveniotis Elisseos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We apply atomic force microscope for local electrostatic charging of oxygen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD thin films deposited on silicon, to induce electrostatically driven self-assembly of colloidal alumina nanoparticles into micro-patterns. Considering possible capacitive, sp2 phase and spatial uniformity factors to charging, we employ films with sub-100 nm thickness and about 60% relative sp2 phase content, probe the spatial material uniformity by Raman and electron microscopy, and repeat experiments at various positions. We demonstrate that electrostatic potential contrast on the NCD films varies between 0.1 and 1.2 V and that the contrast of more than ±1 V (as detected by Kelvin force microscopy is able to induce self-assembly of the nanoparticles via coulombic and polarization forces. This opens prospects for applications of diamond and its unique set of properties in self-assembly of nano-devices and nano-systems.

  8. SHI induced enhancement in green emission from nanocrystalline CdS thin films for photonic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Chandra, Ramesh; Gao, Kun; Zhou, Shengqiang; Agarwal, Avinash; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay; Kanjilal, D.

    2014-01-01

    Intense green emission is reported from nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of ion beam induced dense electronic excitation on luminescence property of CdS films is explored under irradiation using 70 MeV 58 Ni 6+ ions. It is found that swift heavy ion beam irradiation enhances the emission intensity by an order of 1 and broadens the emission range. This feature is extremely useful to enhance the performance of different photonic devices like light emitting diodes and lasers, as well as luminescence based sensors. To examine the role of energy relaxation process of swift heavy ions in creation/annihilation of different defect levels, multi-peaks are fitted in photoluminescence spectra using a Gaussian function. The variation of contribution of different emissions in green emission with ion fluence is studied. Origin of enhancement in green emission is supported by various characterization techniques like UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A possible mechanism of enhanced GE due to ion beam irradiation is proposed on the basis of existing models. -- Highlights: • Room temperature green luminescence nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. • Enhanced green emission by means of swift heavy ion irradiation. • Multipeak fitting of photoluminescence spectra using a Gaussian function. • Variation of area contributed by different emissions in green emission is studied with respect to ion fluence. • Mechanism of enhanced green emission is discussed based on creation/annihilation of defects due to ion beam irradiation

  9. SHI induced enhancement in green emission from nanocrystalline CdS thin films for photonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pragati, E-mail: pkumar.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Shahmat Ganj Road, Bareilly 243005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Saxena, Nupur [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Chandra, Ramesh [Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Gao, Kun; Zhou, Shengqiang [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Agarwal, Avinash [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Shahmat Ganj Road, Bareilly 243005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Delhi University, Delhi 110007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, P.O. Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Intense green emission is reported from nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The effect of ion beam induced dense electronic excitation on luminescence property of CdS films is explored under irradiation using 70 MeV {sup 58}Ni{sup 6+} ions. It is found that swift heavy ion beam irradiation enhances the emission intensity by an order of 1 and broadens the emission range. This feature is extremely useful to enhance the performance of different photonic devices like light emitting diodes and lasers, as well as luminescence based sensors. To examine the role of energy relaxation process of swift heavy ions in creation/annihilation of different defect levels, multi-peaks are fitted in photoluminescence spectra using a Gaussian function. The variation of contribution of different emissions in green emission with ion fluence is studied. Origin of enhancement in green emission is supported by various characterization techniques like UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A possible mechanism of enhanced GE due to ion beam irradiation is proposed on the basis of existing models. -- Highlights: • Room temperature green luminescence nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. • Enhanced green emission by means of swift heavy ion irradiation. • Multipeak fitting of photoluminescence spectra using a Gaussian function. • Variation of area contributed by different emissions in green emission is studied with respect to ion fluence. • Mechanism of enhanced green emission is discussed based on creation/annihilation of defects due to ion beam irradiation.

  10. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutichai Chaisitsak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG sensors by doping with fluorine (F. Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer. The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO2 films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO2 with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time of the SnO2:F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO2 was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO2:F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection.

  11. Structure and magnetic properties of highly textured nanocrystalline Mn–Zn ferrite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Jaison, E-mail: jaisonjosephp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Goverment College, Khandola, Goa 403107 India (India); Tangsali, R.B. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206 India (India); Pillai, V.P. Mahadevan [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala,Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695581 India (India); Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.; Ganeshan, V. [UGC-DAE-CSR Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452017 India. (India)

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Mn{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were chemically synthesized by co-precipitating the metal ions in aqueous solutions in a suitable alkaline medium. The identified XRD peaks confirm single phase spinal formation. The nanoparticle size authentication is carried out from XRD data using Debye Scherrer equation. Thin film fabricated from this nanomaterial by pulse laser deposition technique on quartz substrate was characterized using XRD and Raman spectroscopic techniques. XRD results revealed the formation of high degree of texture in the film. AFM analysis confirms nanogranular morphology and preferred directional growth. A high deposition pressure and the use of a laser plume confined to a small area for transportation of the target species created certain level of porosity in the deposited thin film. Magnetic property measurement of this highly textured nanocrystalline Mn–Zn ferrite thin film revealed enhancement in properties, which are explained on the basis of texture and surface features originated from film growth mechanism.

  12. Pure and Nb2O5-doped TiO2 amorphous thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature: Surface and photo-induced hydrophilic conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchea, M.; Christoulakis, S.; Tudose, I.V.; Vernardou, D.; Lygeraki, M.I.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Kitsopoulos, T.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrophilicity of titanium dioxide makes this material one of the most suitable for various coating applications in antifogging mirrors and self-cleaning glasses. The field of functional titanium dioxide coatings is expanding rapidly not only in applications for glass but also in applications for polymer, metal and ceramic materials. The high hydrophilic surface of TiO 2 is interesting for understanding also the basic photon-related surface science of titanium dioxide. In doing so, it is inevitably necessary to understand the relationship between the photoreaction and the surface properties. In this work, photo-induced hydrophilic conversion was evaluated on amorphous pure and niobium oxide-doped titanium dioxide thin films on Corning 1737F glass grown by dc magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. This study is focused on the influence of the Ar:O ratio during sputtering plasma deposition on thin film surface morphology and subsequent photo-induced hydrophilic conversion results. Structural characterization carried out by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) has shown that our films are amorphous and extremely smooth with a surface roughness bellow 1 nm. Contact angle measurements were performed on as-deposited and during/after 10 min UV exposure. We present evidence that the photo-induced hydrophilic conversion of film surface is directly correlated with surface morphology and can be controlled by growth conditions

  13. Chemically deposited TiO2/CdS bilayer system for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FTO/TiO2/CdS bilayers system showed improved performance of PEC properties over individual ... form distribution of nanocrystalline CdS on TiO2 and this is unfavourable for the ... (TEA), the pH of the solution maintained at 12·0 by drop.

  14. Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, electrical transport and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhare, R.D.; Khuspe, G.D.; Navale, S.T.; Mulik, R.N.; Chougule, M.A.; Pawar, R.C.; Lee, C.S.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel chemical route of synthesis of SnO 2 films. ► Physical properties SnO 2 are influenced by process temperature. ► The room temperature electrical conductivity of SnO 2 is of 10 −7 –10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 . ► SnO 2 exhibit high absorption coefficient (10 4 cm −1 ). -- Abstract: Sol–gel spin coating method has been successfully employed for preparation of nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films. The effect of processing temperature on the structure, morphology, electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and band gap was studied using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, atomic force microscopy, two probe technique and UV–visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that SnO 2 films are crystallized in the tetragonal phase and present a random orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis revealed that surface morphology of the tin oxide film consists nanocrystalline grains with uniform coverage of the substrate surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SnO 2 film showed nanocrystals having diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirms tetragonal phase evolution of SnO 2 . Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed surface morphology of SnO 2 film is smooth. The dc electrical conductivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical conductivity increased from 10 −7 to 10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C. Thermo power measurement confirms n-type conduction. The band gap energy of SnO 2 film decreased from 3.88 to 3.60 eV as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid by spray deposited nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.S.; Shinde, P.S.; Sapkal, R.T.; Oh, Y.W.; Haranath, D.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Influence of substrate temperature onto the physico-chemical properties. ► Photochemical, structural, luminescent, optoelectrical and thermal properties. ► The kinetics of oxalic acid degradation with reaction mechanism. ► Extent of mineralization by COD and TOC. - Abstract: The high quality nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto corning glasses by spray pyrolysis technique. The influence of reaction temperature onto their photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffractometry has complemented by resistivity measurements and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical activity shows enhancement in short circuit current (I sc = 0.357 mA) and open circuit voltage (V oc = 0.48 V). Direct band gap calculated by considering R and T values of ZnO thin films increases from 3.14–3.21 eV exhibiting a slight blue shift in band edge. Three characteristic luminescence peaks having near band-edge, blue and green emission are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in films. Photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid followed with reaction mechanism by using zinc oxide photoelectrode under solar illumination has been investigated.

  16. Improvement of light harvesting and device performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using rod-like nanocrystal TiO2 overlay coating on TiO2 nanoparticle working electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Gao, Mei; Wang, Hongxia; Yang, Weidong; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Novel TiO 2 single crystalline nanorods were synthesized by electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. The role of the TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode in improvement of light harvesting and photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was examined. Although the TiO 2 nanorods had lower dye loading than TiO 2 nanoparticle, they showed higher light utilization behaviour. Electron transfer in TiO 2 nanorods received less resistance than that in TiO 2 nanoparticle aggregation. By just applying a thin layer of TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle working electrode, the DSSC device light harvesting ability and energy conversion efficiency were improved significantly. The thickness of the nanorod layer in the working electrode played an important role in determining the photovoltaic property of DSSCs. An energy conversion efficiency as high as 6.6% was found on a DSSC device with the working electrode consisting of a 12 μm think TiO 2 nanoparticle layer covered with 3 μm thick TiO 2 nanorods. The results obtained from this study may benefit further design of highly efficient DSSCs. - Highlights: • Single crystalline TiO 2 nanorods were prepared for DSSC application. • TiO 2 nanorods show effective light scattering performance. • TiO 2 nanorods have higher electron transfer efficiency than TiO 2 nanoparticles. • TiO 2 nanorods on TiO 2 nanoparticle electrode improve DSSC efficiency

  17. Annealing of TiO2 Films Deposited on Si by Irradiating Nitrogen Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Katsuhiro; Yano, Yoshinori; Miyashita, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were deposited on Si at a temperature of 600 deg. C by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. The TiO2 films were annealed for 30 min in Ar at temperatures below 700 deg. C. The as-deposited TiO2 films had high permittivities such 200 εo and consisted of crystallites that were not preferentially oriented to the c-axis but had an expanded c-axis. On the annealed TiO2 films, permittivities became lower with increasing annealing temperature, and crystallites were oriented preferentially to the (110) plane

  18. Detection of nanocrystallinity by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in thin film transition metal/rare-earth atom, elemental and complex oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, L.F.; Schlom, D.G.; Stemmer, S.; Lucovsky, G.; Luning, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystallinity has been detected in the X-ray absorption spectra of transition metal and rare-earth oxides by (i) removal of d-state degeneracies in the (a) Ti and Sc L 3 spectra of TiO 2 and LaScO 3 , respectively, and (b) O K 1 spectra of Zr(Hf)O 2 , Y 2 O 3 , LaScO 3 and LaAlO 3 , and by the (ii) detection of the O-atom vacancy in the O K 1 edge ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 alloys. Spectroscopic detection is more sensitive than X-ray diffraction with a limit of ∼2 nm as compared to >5 mm. Other example includes detection of ZrO 2 nanocrystallinity in phase-separated Zr(Hf) silicate alloys

  19. Intrinsic Photocatalytic Assessment of Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Driessen, Rick Theodorus; Driessen, Rick T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during

  20. Molecular design of TiO2 for gigantic red shift via sublattice substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guosheng; Deng, Quanrong; Wan, Lin; Guo, Meilan; Xia, Xiaohong; Gao, Yun

    2010-11-01

    The effects of 3d transition metal doping in TiO2 phases have been simulated in detail. The results of modelling indicate that Mn has the biggest potential among 3d transition metals, for the reduction of energy gap and the introduction of effective intermediate bands to allow multi-band optical absorption. On the basis of theoretical formulation, we have incorporated considerable amount of Mn in nano-crystalline TiO2 materials. Mn doped samples demonstrate significant red shift in the optical absorption edge, with a secondary absorption edge corresponding to theoretically predicted intermediate bands/states. The gigantic red shift achievable in Mn-doped TiO2 is expected to extend the useful TiO2 functionalities well beyond the UV threshold via the optical absorption of both visible and infrared photon irradiance.

  1. Photoelectrochemical Properties of FeO Supported on TiO2-Based Thin Films Converted from Self-Assembled Hydrogen Titanate Nanotube Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jong Noh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A photoanode was fabricated using hematite (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles which had been held in a thin film of hydrogen titanate nanotubes (H-TiNT, synthesized by repetitive self-assembling method on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide glass, which were incorporated via dipping process in aqueous Fe(NO33 solution. Current voltage (I-V electrochemical properties of the photoanode heat-treated at 500°C for 10 min in air were evaluated under ultraviolet-visible light irradiation. Microstructure and crystallinity changes were also investigated. The prepared Fe2O3/H-TiNT/FTO composite thin film exhibited about threefold as much photocurrent as the Fe2O3/FTO film. The improvement in photocurrent was considered to be caused by reduced recombination of electrons and holes, with an appropriate amount of Fe2O3 spherical nanoparticles supported on the H-TiNT/FTO film. Nanosized spherical Fe2O3 particles with about 65 wt% on the H-TiNT/FTO film showed best performance in our study.

  2. Enhancement of photovoltaic characteristics of nanocrystalline 2,3-naphthalocyanine thin film-based organic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, A.A.M.; Osiris, W.G.; Ammar, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of NPC films: (a) cross section view, (b) surface morphology of the film at 300 K, (c) surface morphology of the annealed film at 350 K, (d) surface morphology of the annealed film at 400 K, (e) surface morphology of the annealed film at 450 K, and (f) surface morphology of the annealed film at 500 K. Highlights: ► The absorption edge shifts to the lower energy for the annealed NPC film. ► The device of Au/NPC/ITO exhibit rectifying characteristics. ► The devices show improvement in photovoltaic parameters. ► The power conversion efficiency of the devices show enhancement under annealing. - Abstract: In this work, nanocrystalline thin films of 2,3-naphthalocyanine (NPC) were successfully deposited by a thermal evaporation technique at room temperature under high vacuum (∼10 −4 Pa). The crystal structure and surface morphology were measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. A preferred orientation along the (0 0 1) direction was observed in all the studied films and the average crystallite size was calculated. Scanning electron miscroscopy (SEM) images of NPC films at different thermal treatment indicated significant changes on surface level patterns and gave clear evidence of agglomeration of nanocrystalline structures. The molecular structural properties of the thin films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which revealed the stability of the chemical bonds of the compound under thermal treatment. The dark electrical conductivity of the films at various heat treatment stages showed that NPC films have a better conductivity than that of its earlier reported naphthalocyanine films and the activation energy was found to decrease with annealing temperature. The absorption edge shifted to the lower energy as a consequence of the thermal annealing of the film and the fundamental absorption edges correspond to a

  3. Unusual photoelectric behaviors of Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering: effect of barrier tunneling on internal charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B. X.; Luo, S. Y.; Mao, X. G.; Shen, J.; Zhou, Q. F.

    2013-01-01

    Mo-doped TiO2 multilayer thin films were prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering. Microstructures, crystallite parameters and the absorption band were investigated with atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Internal carrier transport characteristics and the photoelectric property of different layer-assemble modes were examined on an electrochemical workstation under visible light. The result indicates that the double-layer structure with an undoped surface layer demonstrated a red-shifted absorption edge and a much stronger photocurrent compared to the uniformly doped sample, signifying that the electric field implanted at the interface between particles in different layers accelerated internal charge transfer effectively. However, a heavily doped layer implanted at the bottom of the three-layer film merely brought about negative effects on the photoelectric property, mainly because of the Schottky junction existing above the substrate. Nevertheless, this obstacle was successfully eliminated by raising the Mo concentration to 1020 cm-3, where the thickness of the depletion layer fell into the order of angstroms and the tunneling coefficient manifested a dramatic increase. Under this circumstance, the Schottky junction disappeared and the strongest photocurrent was observed in the three-layer film.

  4. Preparation of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films with (OiPr)2Ti(CH3COCHCONEt2)2 Precursor by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byoung Jae; Seo, Won Seok; Miah, Arzu; Park, Joon T.; Lee, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Keun Chong

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide with 2 equiv of N,N-diethyl acetoacetamide affords Ti(O i Pr) 2 (CH 3 COCHCONEt 2 ) 2 (1) as colorless crystals in 80% yield. Compound 1 is characterized by spectroscopic (Mass and 1 H/ 13 C NMR) and microanalytical data. Molecular structure of 1 has been determined by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study, which reveals that it is a monomeric, cis-diisopropoxide and contains a six coordinate Ti(IV) atom with a cis(CONEt 2 ), trans(COCH 3 ) configuration (1a) in a distorted octahedral environment. Variable-temperature 1 H NMR spectra of 1 indicate that it exists as an equilibrium mixture of cis, trans (1a) and cis, cis (1b) isomers in a 0.57 : 0.43 ratio at -20 .deg. C in toluene-d 8 solution. Thermal properties of 1 as a MOCVD precursor for titanium dioxide films have been evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and vapor pressure measurement. Thin films of pure anatase titanium dioxide (after annealing above 500 .deg. C under oxygen) have been grown on Si(100) with precursor 1 in the substrate temperature range of 350- 500 .deg. C using a bubbler-based MOCVD method

  5. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  6. Spectroscopy and structural properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halindintwali, Sylvain; Knoesen, D.; Julies, B.A.; Arendse, C.J.; Muller, T. [University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Gengler, Regis Y.N.; Rudolf, P.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    Amorphous SiC:H thin films were grown by hot wire chemical vapour deposition from a SiH{sub 4}/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} mixture at a substrate temperature below 400 C. Thermal annealing in an argon environment up to 900 C shows that the films crystallize as {mu}c-Si:H and SiC with a porous microstructure that favours an oxidation process. By a combination of spectroscopic tools comprising Fourier transform infrared, Raman scattering and X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy we show that the films evolve from the amorphous SiH{sub x}/SiCH{sub 2} structure to nanocrystalline Si and SiC upon annealing at a temperature of 900 C. A strong RT photoluminescence peak of similar shape has been observed at around 420 nm in both as-deposited and annealed samples. Time-resolved luminescence measurements reveal that this peak is fast decaying with lifetimes ranging from 0.5 to {proportional_to}1.1 ns. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Optical properties of Ar ions irradiated nanocrystalline ZrC and ZrN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C. [Ramapo College of New Jersey, Mahwah, NJ 07430 (United States); Miller, K.H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Makino, H. [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi, 782-8502 (Japan); Craciun, D. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Simeone, D. [CEA/DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LEPP-LRC CARMEN CEN Saclay France & CNRS/ SPMS UMR8785 LRC CARMEN, Ecole Centrale de Paris, F92292, Chatenay Malabry (United States); Craciun, V., E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-05-15

    Employing wide spectral range (0.06–6 eV) optical reflectance measurements and high energy X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HE-XPS), we studied the effect of 800 keV Ar ion irradiation on optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline ZrC and ZrN thin films, which were obtain by the pulsed laser deposition technique. Both in ZrC and ZrN, we observed that irradiation affects the optical properties of the films mostly at low frequencies, which is dominated by the free carriers response. In both materials, we found a significant reduction in the free carriers scattering rate and an increase of the zero frequency conductivity, i.e. possible increase in mobility, at higher irradiation fluence. This is consistent with our previous findings that irradiation affects the crystallite size and the micro-strain, but it does not induce major changes in the chemical bonding. HE-XPS investigations further confirms the stability of the Zr-C and Zr-N bonds, despite a small increase in the surface region of the Zr-O bonds fraction with increasing irradiation fluence.

  8. Nanocrystalline CsPbBr3 thin films: a grain boundary opto-electronic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G.; Somma, F.; Nikl, M.

    2005-01-01

    CsPbBr3 thin films with nanocrystalline morphology were studied by using optoelectronic techniques to infer the grain boundary region in respect of the crystallite's interior performance. Co-evaporation of puri-fied powders or crushed Bridgman single crystals were used to deposit materials and compare recombina-tion mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes within them. Nanosecond photoconduction decay was observed on both materials as well as activated hopping transport. An asymmetric Debye-like peak was evaluated from impedance spectroscopy with a FWHM value, which remains constant for 1.25 +/- 0.02 deca-des, addressing the presence of a tight conductivity relaxation times distribution. The evaluated activation energy, equal to 0.72 +/- 0.05 eV, similar to that estimated by DC measurements, is well smaller then that expected for an intrinsic material with exciton absorption at 2.36 eV. A simple model based on Voigt's elements was used to model the electronic characteristics of these nanostructured materials, to discuss observed results and define the role played by grain boundaries.

  9. Effect of helium gas pressure on dc conduction mechanism and EMI shielding properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawal, Ishpal, E-mail: rawalishpal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Avanish Pratap; Dhawan, S.K. [Polymeric and Soft Materials Group, Physics Engineering of Carbon, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-05-05

    This paper reports the effect of helium partial pressures ∼1.2 × 10{sup −5} (base pressure), 1.4 × 10{sup −4}, 8.6 × 10{sup −3} and 0.1 mbar on the variable range hopping conduction in nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies suggest the random distribution of nanocrystallites (∼3–7 nm) in the amorphous matrix. The DC conduction behavior of the deposited nanocrystalline films has been studied in the light of Mott's variable range hopping (VRH) model and found to obey three dimensional VRH conduction. The randomly distributed nanocrystallites in amorphous matrix may lead to change in the distribution of density of states near Fermi level and hence, the conduction behavior. The enhanced electrical conductivity of the deposited films due to the helium environment makes them suitable for electromagnetic interference shielding applications. The sample deposited at a helium partial pressure of 0.1 mbar has a value of shielding effectiveness ∼7.84 dB at 18 GHz frequency. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films (NCTF) has been deposited by FCJCA technique. • Effect of helium gas pressure has been studied on the properties of NCTF. • Investigation of EMI shielding properties of NCTF has been carried out.

  10. Synergistic effects for the TiO2/RuO2/Pt photodissociation of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondel, G; Harriman, A; Williams, D

    1983-07-01

    Compressed discs of naked TiO2 or TiO2 coated with a thin film of a noble metal (e.g. Pt) do not photodissociate water upon illumination with UV light, but small amounts of H2 are generated if the TiO2 has been reduced in a stream of H2 at 600 C. Discs prepared from mixtures of TiO2/RuO2 facilitate the UV photodissociation of water into H2 and O2 although the yields are very low. When a thin (about 9 nm) film of Pt is applied to the TiO2/RuO2 discs, the yields of H2 and O2 observed upon irradiation with UV light are improved drastically. 25 references.

  11. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  12. Thin film nano-photocatalyts with low band gap energy for gas phase degradation of p-xylene: TiO2 doped Cr, UiO66-NH2 and LaBO3 (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loc Luu, Cam; Thuy Van Nguyen, Thi; Nguyen, Tri; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Hoang, Tien Cuong; Ha, Cam Anh

    2018-03-01

    By dip-coating technique the thin films of nano-photocatalysts TiO2, Cr-doped TiO2, LaBO3 perovskites (B  =  Fe, Mn, and Co) prepared by sol-gel method, and UiO66-NH2 prepared by a solvothermal were obtained and employed for gas phase degradation of p-xylene. Physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were examined by the methods of BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopies. The thickness of film was determined by a Veeco-American Dektek 6M instrument. The activity of catalysts was evaluated in deep photooxidation of p-xylene in a microflow reactor at room temperature with the radiation sources of a UV (λ  =  365 nm) and LED lamps (λ  =  400-510 nm). The obtained results showed that TiO2 and TiO2 doped Cr thin films was featured by an anatase phase with nanoparticles of 10-100 nm. Doping TiO2 with 0.1%mol Cr2O3 led to reduce band gap energy from 3.01 down to 1.99 eV and extend the spectrum of photon absorption to the visible region (λ  =  622 nm). LaBO3 perovkite thin films were also featured by a crystal phase with average particle nanosize of 8-40 nm, a BET surface area of 17.6-32.7 m2 g-1 and band gap energy of 1.87-2.20 eV. UiO66-NH2 was obtained in the ball shape of 100-200 nm, a BET surface area of 576 m2 g-1 and a band gap energy of 2.83 eV. The low band gap energy nano-photocatalysts based on Cr-doped TiO2 and LaBO3 perovskites exhibited highly stable and active for photo-degradation of p-xylene in the gas phase under radiation of UV-vis light. Perovskite LaFeO3 and Cr-TiO2 thin films were the best photocatalysts with a decomposition yield being reached up to 1.70 g p-xylene/g cat.

  13. Flow-Regulated Growth of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanotubes in Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Chen, Xinye; Wang, Zihao; Custer, David; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemical anodization of titanium (Ti) in a static, bulk condition is used widely to fabricate self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays. Such bulk approaches, however, require extended anodization times to obtain long TiO 2 nanotubes and produce only vertically aligned nanotubes. To date, it remains challenging to develop effective strategies to grow long TiO 2 nanotubes in a short period of time, and to control the nanotube orientation. Here, it is shown that the anodic growth of TiO 2 nanotubes is significantly enhanced (≈16-20 times faster) under flow conditions in microfluidics. Flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO 2 nanotubes, but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices. Strikingly, when a Ti thin film is deposited on silicon substrates and anodized in microfluidics, both vertically and horizontally aligned (relative to the bottom substrate) TiO 2 nanotubes can be produced. The results demonstrate previously unidentified roles of flow in the regulation of growth of TiO 2 nanotubes, and provide powerful approaches to effectively grow long, oriented TiO 2 nanotubes, and construct hierarchical TiO 2 nanotube arrays on silicon-based materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok; Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju; Hong, MunPyo

    2011-01-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  15. TiO2-BASED Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Guan, Ling-Xiao; Feng, Ji-Jun; Li, Fang; Yao, Ming-Ming

    2015-02-01

    The spread of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has been thought as a threat to the safety of drinking water. In this paper, the photocatalytic activity of the nanocrystalline Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 composite film for the degradation of OTC was studied. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and UV-Vis diffraction reflectance absorption spectra (DRS). The FE-SEM results indicated that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film was composed of smaller nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2 or TiO2-SiO2 film. The BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of the pure TiO2, TiO2-SiO2 and Ca2+/Fe3+ co-doped TiO2-SiO2 is 118.3 m2g-1, 294.3 m2g-1 and 393.7 m2g-1, respectively. The DRS and PL spectra revealed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film had strong visible light adsorption and diminished electrons/holes recombination. Experimental results showed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film is effective in the degradation of OTC under both UV and visible light irradiation.

  16. Electrospinning processed nanofibrous TiO2 membranes for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Katsuhiro; Ding, Bin; Tsuge, Yosuke; Naka, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Sugi, Shinichiro; Ohno, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Masato; Shiratori, Seimei

    2006-02-01

    We have recently fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) comprising nanofibrous TiO2 membranes as electrode materials. A thin TiO2 film was pre-deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated conducting glass substrate by immersion in TiF4 aqueous solution to reduce the electron back-transfer from FTO to the electrolyte. The composite polyvinyl acetate (PVac)/titania nanofibrous membranes can be deposited on the pre-deposited thin TiO2 film coated FTO by electrospinning of a mixture of PVac and titanium isopropoxide in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The nanofibrous TiO2 membranes were obtained by calcining the electrospun composite nanofibres of PVac/titania as the precursor. Spectral sensitization of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes was carried out with a ruthenium (II) complex, cis-dithiocyanate-N,N'-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid) ruthenium (II) dihydrate. The results indicated that the photocurrent and conversion efficiency of electrodes can be increased with the addition of the pre-deposited TiO2 film and the adhesion treatment using DMF. Additionally, the dye loading, photocurrent, and efficiency of the electrodes were gradually increased by increasing the average thickness of the nanofibrous TiO2 membranes. The efficiency of the fibrous TiO2 photoelectrode with the average membrane thickness of 3.9 µm has a maximum value of 4.14%.

  17. Effects of thickness on the nanocrystalline structure and semiconductor-metal transition characteristics of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhenfei, E-mail: zhfluo8@yahoo.com [Terahertz Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Zhou, Xun, E-mail: zx_zky@yahoo.com [Terahertz Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Yan, Dawei [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang, Du; Li, Zeyu [Terahertz Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Yang, Cunbang [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang Sichuan 621900 (China); Jiang, Yadong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on glass substrates by using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering and in situ thermal treatments at low preparation temperatures (≤ 350 °C). The VO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the films were investigated by four-point probe resistivity measurements and infrared spectrometer equipped with heating pads. The testing results showed that the crystal structure, morphology, grain size and semiconductor-metal transition temperature (T{sub SMT}) significantly changed as the film thickness decreased. Multilayer structures were observed in the particles of thinner films whose average particle size is much larger than the film thickness and average VO{sub 2} grain size. A competition mechanism between the suppression effect of decreased thickness and coalescence of nanograins was proposed to understand the film growth and the formation of multilayer structure. The value of T{sub SMT} was found to decrease as average VO{sub 2} grain size became smaller, and SE results showed that small nanograin size significantly affected the electronic structure of VO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide thin films were prepared. • Multilayer structures were observed in the films with large particles. • The transition temperature of the film is correlated with its electronic structure.

  18. Effects of thickness on the nanocrystalline structure and semiconductor-metal transition characteristics of vanadium dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zhenfei; Zhou, Xun; Yan, Dawei; Wang, Du; Li, Zeyu; Yang, Cunbang; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) thin films were grown on glass substrates by using reactive direct current magnetron sputtering and in situ thermal treatments at low preparation temperatures (≤ 350 °C). The VO 2 thin films were characterized by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics of the films were investigated by four-point probe resistivity measurements and infrared spectrometer equipped with heating pads. The testing results showed that the crystal structure, morphology, grain size and semiconductor-metal transition temperature (T SMT ) significantly changed as the film thickness decreased. Multilayer structures were observed in the particles of thinner films whose average particle size is much larger than the film thickness and average VO 2 grain size. A competition mechanism between the suppression effect of decreased thickness and coalescence of nanograins was proposed to understand the film growth and the formation of multilayer structure. The value of T SMT was found to decrease as average VO 2 grain size became smaller, and SE results showed that small nanograin size significantly affected the electronic structure of VO 2 film. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline vanadium dioxide thin films were prepared. • Multilayer structures were observed in the films with large particles. • The transition temperature of the film is correlated with its electronic structure

  19. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n + -type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force

  20. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Conde, J. P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-11-14

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n{sup +}-type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force.

  1. Enhancement of photo sensor properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin film by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S. V.; Upadhye, D. S.; Bagul, S. B. [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Shaikh, S. U.; Birajadar, R. B.; Siddiqui, F. Y.; Huse, N. P. [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Sharma, R. B., E-mail: ramphalsharma@yahoo.com, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India); Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film prepared by Low cost Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. This film was irradiated by 120 MeV Ni{sup 7+} ions with the fluence of 5x10{sup 12}ions/cm{sup 2}. The X-ray diffraction study was shows polycrystalline nature with wurtzite structure. The optical properties as absorbance were determined using UV-Spectrophotometer and band gap was also calculated. The Photo Sensor nature was calculated by I-V characteristics with different sources of light 40W, 60W and 100W.

  2. Suppression of photo-leakage current in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors by n-doped nanocrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hung-Chien; Ho, King-Yuan; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Yan, Jing-Yi; Ho, Jia-Chong

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of photo-leakage current of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si TFTs) is investigated and is found to be successfully suppressed by the use of an n-doped nanocrystalline silicon layer (n+ nc-Si) as an ohmic contact layer. The shallow-level defects of n+ nc-Si can become trapping centres of photo-induced electrons as the a-Si TFT is operated under light illumination. A lower oxygen concentration during n+ nc-Si deposition can increase the creation of shallow-level defects and improve the contrast ratio of active matrix organic light-emitting diode panels.

  3. Photocatalytic Study of New Immobilized TiO2 Technique Towards Degradation of Reactive Red 4 Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on TiO2 for wastewater remediation has gained interest among researchers. However, the application of this photocatalyst is limited due to non-recyclability of conventional TiO2. Thus, immobilization technique has been developed to solve this issue. Hence, a comparison study between two types of immobilized photocatalysts namely titanium dioxide (TiO2 and TiO2 mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA has been conducted in this work to observe the significant effect of PVA polymer in photocatalysis reaction of reactive red 4 (RR4 dye. Double sided adhesive tape (DSAT was used as thin layer binder in this immobilization system. The result shows that the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-PVA/DSAT was higher than that of TiO2/DSAT under both normal UV and visible light irradiations due to the conjugated unsaturated polymer from PVA serve as electron donor for TiO2 thus increase the photocatalysis process. Besides, TiO2-PVA/DSAT was also found to possess much better adhesion strength to the support material compared to TiO2/DSAT. Based on the findings, this TiO2 immobilization system is expected to be beneficial in the industrial wastewater treatment. Thus, further study to improve the photocatalytic activity of this immobilized TiO2 will be in our future work.

  4. Love Wave Ultraviolet Photodetector Fabricated on a TiO2/ST-Cut Quartz Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Water

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2 thin film deposited on a 90° rotated 42°45′ ST-cut quartz substrate was applied to fabricate a Love wave ultraviolet photodetector. TiO2 thin films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of TiO2 thin films were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope. The effect of TiO2 thin film thickness on the phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, temperature coefficient of frequency, and sensitivity of ultraviolet of devices was investigated. TiO2 thin film increases the electromechanical coupling coefficient but decreases the temperature coefficient of frequency for Love wave propagation on the 90° rotated 42°45′ ST-cut quartz. For Love wave ultraviolet photodetector application, the maximum insertion loss shift and phase shift are 2.81 dB and 3.55 degree at the 1.35-μm-thick TiO2 film.

  5. Versatile preparation method for mesoporous TiO2 electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    cyanate into CuI layer further enhanced the efficiency up to 2⋅75% under the irradiance .... an extremely easy way to dope films with virtually any .... to see the effect of ionic liquid on CuI, 1-ethyl-3-methyl- ... This analysis showed that TiO2 electrodes were polycrys- .... thin insulating layer of Al2O3 by using dip-coating meth-.

  6. New TiO2/DSAT Immobilization System for Photodegradation of Anionic and Cationic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Izhan Nawawi Wan Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new immobilized TiO2 technique was prepared by coating TiO2 solution onto double-sided adhesive tape (DSAT as a thin layer binder without adding any organic additives. Glass plate was used as support material to immobilized TiO2/DSAT. Two different charges of dyes were applied, namely, anionic reactive red 4 (RR4 and cationic methylene blue (MB dyes. Photocatalytic degradation of RR4 and MB dyes was observed under immobilized TiO2/DSAT with the degradation rate slightly lower and higher, respectively, compared with TiO2 in suspension mode. It was observed that DSAT is able to provide a very strong intact between glass and TiO2 layers thus making the reusability of immobilized TiO2/DSAT be up to 30 cycles. In fact, a better photodegradation activity was observed by number of cycles due to increasing formation of pores on TiO2 surface observed by SEM analysis.

  7. Promotion of Phenol Photodecomposition over TiO2 Using Au, Pd, and AuPd Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; He, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Pd, AuPd alloys) with a narrow size distribution supported on nanocrystalline TiO2 (M/TiO2) have been synthesized via a sol-immobilization route. The effect of metal identity and size on the photocatalytic performance of M/TiO2 has been systematically investigated u...

  8. Decolorization of dyeing wastewater in continuous photoreactors using tio2 coated glass tube media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a decolorization development of malachite green (MG dyeing wastewater using TiO2 thin films coated glass tube media in photoreactor. The TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by three methods: TTIP sol-gel, TiO2 powder-modified sol, and TiO2 powder suspension coating on raschig ring glass tube media and was investigated crystallinity phase by SEM, XRD, and AFM. Degradation kinetics of the dyeing wastewater by photocatalytic was carried out under UV light irradiation. The Langmuir first-order model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The catalyst prepared by powder suspension technique and coated on glass tube had given the highest of decolorization kinetics and efficiency. Continuous photoreactor packed with the TiO2 coating media was designed and proven to be the high effectiveness for MG dyeing degradation and stable throughout the recyclability test. The light intensity, dye solution flow rate, and TiO2 loading were the most important parameters that response to decolorization efficiency. The optimum condition of photo decolorization of MG dye solution can be obtained from RSM model. Effectiveness of the synthesized TiO2 thin films using suspension technique and the continuous photoreactor design were obtained with a great potential to be proven for wastewater treatment at industrial scale.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and analysis of enhanced photocatalytic activity of Zr-doped TiO2 nanostructured powders under UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, M. Chandra; Purusottam Reddy, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Shanmugam, Gnanendra; Ahn, Chang-Hoi; Park, Si-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Zr-doped and pure TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a simple inexpensive sol-gel method. X-ray powder diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed the presence of anatase-phase TiO2 NPs. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the average nanocrystalline size of approximately 15 nm. The photocatalytic activities of these materials were evaluated using Rhodamine B (Rh B) as an organic contaminant. The photocatalytic activity of pure and Zr-doped TiO2 NPs (with at% 4, 8, 12 and 16) was measured in terms of the degradation of Rh B under UV light. The antibacterial activities of pure and Zr-doped (with 8 at%) TiO2 NPs were evaluated against Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maximum inhibition zone (19 mm) was observed for pure TiO2 NPs, against Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) exhibited a lesser inhibition zone (18 mm) against the same Bacillus subtillis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18 mm). However, Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) NPs exhibited a greater inhibition zone against Escherichia coli (17 mm), while the activity of pure TiO2 NPs against Escherichia coli (15 mm) was retarded. Thus, pure TiO2 NPs and Zr-doped TiO2 (8 at%) NPs have competent activities and can be used as antibacterial agents against different bacteria.

  10. Nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 thin film cathode material prepared by polymer spray pyrolysis method for Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick, S.N.; Richard Prabhu Gnanakan, S.; Subramania, A.; Kim, Hee-Je

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cubic spinel lithium manganese oxide thin film was prepared by a polymer spray pyrolysis method using lithium acetate and manganese acetate precursor solution and polyethylene glycol-4000 as a polymeric binder. The substrate temperature was selected from the thermogravimetric analysis by finding the complete crystallization temperature of LiMn 2 O 4 precursor sample. The deposited LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were annealed at 450, 500 and 600 o C for 30 min. The thin film annealed at 600 o C was found to be the sufficient temperature to form high phase pure nanocrystalline LiMn 2 O 4 thin film. The formation of cubic spinel thin film was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis revealed that the thin film annealed at 600 o C was found to be nanocrystalline in nature and the surface of the films were uniform without any crack. The electrochemical charge/discharge studies of the prepared LiMn 2 O 4 film was found to be better compared to the conventional spray pyrolysed thin film material.

  11. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    phous SiC to cubic nano-crystalline SiC films with the increase in the gas flow ratio. Raman scattering ... Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the carbon incorporation in the .... with a 514 nm Ar+ laser excitation source and the laser.

  12. Superconductive B-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films: Electrical transport and Raman spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nesládek, M.; Tromson, D.; Mer, Ch.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 23 (2006), 232111/1-232111/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * superconductivity * magnetoresistance * Raman spectroscopy * Fano resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.977, year: 2006

  13. Role of grain size in superconducting boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films grown by CVD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, G.; Janssens, S.D.; Vanacken, J.; Timmermans, M.; Vacík, Jiří; Ataklti, G.W.; Decelle, W.; Gillijns, W.; Goderis, B.; Haenen, K.; Wagner, P.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 21 (2011), 214517/1-214517/10 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Nanocrystalline diamond * Superconducting transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  14. Preparation and characterization of phase-pure anatase and rutile TiO2 powder by new chemistry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E. A.; Montanhera, M.A.; Paula, F.R.; Spada, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is used in a wire range applications such as photocatalysis and sensor device. In this work is shown a new and effective method for the preparation of TiO 2 nanocrystalline in the crystallographic forms, anatase and rutile. The method involves dissolving the TiOSO 4 powder in H 2 O 2 solution and thermal treatment of amorphous precipitate. The technique of X-ray diffraction was used to follow the structure evolution of amorphous precipitate. Pure anatase structure and rutile are obtained at 600 deg C and 1000 deg C with a grain size estimated 24 and 55 nm respectively. TiO 2 nanoparticles is a promising alternative of the low cost whose potential for solar cells deserve a careful evaluation, especially in hybrid solar cells that employs TiO 2 as electron acceptor and as transport channels. (author)

  15. Photocorrosion Mechanism of TiO2-Coated Photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen Didden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition was used to coat CdS photoanodes with 7 nm thick TiO2 films to protect them from photocorrosion during photoelectrochemical water splitting. Photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the TiO2 coating does not provide full protection against photocorrosion. The degradation of the film initiates from small pinholes and shows oscillatory behavior that can be explained by an Avrami-type model for photocorrosion that is halfway between 2D and 3D etching. XPS analysis of corroded films indicates that a thin layer of CdS remains present on the surface of the corroded photoanode that is more resilient towards photocorrosion.

  16. Correlation between surface phonon mode and luminescence in nanocrystalline CdS thin films: An effect of ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pragati; Agarwal, Avinash; Saxena, Nupur; Singh, Fouran; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    The influence of swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII) on surface phonon mode (SPM) and green emission in nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition is studied. The SHII of nanocrystalline CdS thin films is carried out using 70 MeV Ni ions. The micro Raman analysis shows that asymmetry and broadening in fundamental longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode increases systematically with increasing ion fluence. To analyze the role of phonon confinement, spatial correlation model (SCM) is fitted to the experimental data. The observed deviation of SCM to the experimental data is further investigated by fitting the micro Raman spectra using two Lorentzian line shapes. It is found that two Lorentzian functions (LFs) provide better fitting than SCM fitting and facilitate to identify the contribution of SPM in the observed distortion of LO mode. The behavior of SPM as a function of ion fluence is studied to correlate the observed asymmetry (Γ a /Γ b ) and full width at half maximum of LO phonon mode and to understand the SHII induced enhancement of SPM. The ion beam induced interstitial and surface state defects in thin films, as observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies, may be the underlying reason for enhancement in SPM. PL studies also show enhancement in green luminescence with increase in ion fluence. PL analysis reveals that the variation in population density of surface state defects after SHII is similar to that of SPM. The correlation between SPM and luminescence and their dependence on ion irradiation fluence is explained with the help of thermal spike model.

  17. Correlation between surface phonon mode and luminescence in nanocrystalline CdS thin films: An effect of ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pragati, E-mail: pkumar.phy@gmail.com; Agarwal, Avinash [Department of Physics, Bareilly College, Bareilly 243 005, Uttar Pradesh (India); Saxena, Nupur; Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2014-07-28

    The influence of swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII) on surface phonon mode (SPM) and green emission in nanocrystalline CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition is studied. The SHII of nanocrystalline CdS thin films is carried out using 70 MeV Ni ions. The micro Raman analysis shows that asymmetry and broadening in fundamental longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode increases systematically with increasing ion fluence. To analyze the role of phonon confinement, spatial correlation model (SCM) is fitted to the experimental data. The observed deviation of SCM to the experimental data is further investigated by fitting the micro Raman spectra using two Lorentzian line shapes. It is found that two Lorentzian functions (LFs) provide better fitting than SCM fitting and facilitate to identify the contribution of SPM in the observed distortion of LO mode. The behavior of SPM as a function of ion fluence is studied to correlate the observed asymmetry (Γ{sub a}/Γ{sub b}) and full width at half maximum of LO phonon mode and to understand the SHII induced enhancement of SPM. The ion beam induced interstitial and surface state defects in thin films, as observed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies, may be the underlying reason for enhancement in SPM. PL studies also show enhancement in green luminescence with increase in ion fluence. PL analysis reveals that the variation in population density of surface state defects after SHII is similar to that of SPM. The correlation between SPM and luminescence and their dependence on ion irradiation fluence is explained with the help of thermal spike model.

  18. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  19. Sol–gel synthesis of highly TiO2 aerogel photocatalyst via high temperature supercritical drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebah Moussaoui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline powders of TiO2 xerogel and aerogel were prepared by using acid-modified sol–gel approach. For TiO2 aerogel material (TA, the solvent was high temperature supercritically extracted at 300 °C and 100 bars. However, the TiO2 xerogel material (TX was dried at 200 °C and ambient pressure. The effects of the drying processes on the crystalline structure, phase transformation and grain growth were determined by Raman spectroscopy, SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses using Rietveld refinement method. The TiO2 aerogel was composed of anatase crystalline structure. The TiO2 xerogel material was composed of anatase, brookite and small amount of amorphous phase with anatase as dominant phase. The TX sample still contains a relatively high concentration of carbon than that of TA, indicating the amorphous character of TiO2 xerogel. These materials were applied as catalyst for the degradation of indigo carmine in aqueous medium. Photo-degradation ability of TA and TX was compared to the TiO2 commercial Degussa P25. The photo-catalytic results showed that the degradation efficiency was in the order TA > P25 > TX. The photo-degradation of indigo carmine followed pseudo first order reaction kinetics.

  20. Metal ion analysis in contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetry and a nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonthalia, Prerna; McGaw, Elizabeth; Show, Yoshiyuki; Swain, Greg M.

    2004-01-01

    Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin-film electrodes were employed for the detection and quantification of Ag (I), Cu (II), Pb (II), Cd (II), and Zn (II) in several contaminated water samples using anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV). Diamond is an alternate electrode that possesses many of the same attributes as Hg and, therefore, appears to be a viable material for this electroanalytical measurement. The nanocrystalline form has been found to perform slightly better than the more conventional microcrystalline form of diamond in this application. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPASV) was used to detect these metal ions in lake water, well water, tap water, wastewater treatment sludge, and soil. The electrochemical results were compared with data from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) and or atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) measurements of the same samples. Diamond is shown to function well in this electroanalytical application, providing a wide linear dynamic range, a low limit of quantitation, excellent response precision, and good response accuracy. For the analysis of Pb (II), bare diamond provided a response nearly identical to that obtained with a Hg-coated glassy carbon electrode

  1. Nanocrystalline Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} thin films grown on silicon by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Nestor [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, CICESE-UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C., 22860 (Mexico); Hirata, G.A. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada-UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: hirata@ccmc.unam.mx

    2006-02-21

    Blue-white luminescent Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} thin films were deposited by using pulsed laser ablation ({lambda} = 248 nm wavelength) on 500 deg. C silicon (111) substrates under an oxygen pressure of 55 mTorr. High-resolution electron transmission microscopy, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films were composed of nanocrystalline Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} grains of the order of 20-30 nm with a preferential orientation in the (130) crystallographic direction. The excitation and photoluminescence spectra measured on the films maintained the characteristic emission of bulk Sr{sub 2}CeO{sub 4} however, the emission peak appeared narrower and blue-shifted as compared to the luminescence spectrum of the target. The blue-shift and a preferential crystallographic orientation during the growth formation of the film is related to the nanocrystalline nature of the grains due to the quantum confinement behavior and surface energy minimization in nanostructured systems.

  2. Ion-implantation of erbium into the nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Babchenko, Oleg; Cajzl, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Prajzler, Václav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7-8 (2016), s. 679-684 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * optical waveguides * erbium * luminescence * ion implantation * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2016

  3. Composition and properties of nanocrystalline Zn S thin films prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei, R.; Goudarzi, A.; Ahmadpoor, H.; Motedayen Aval, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route on soda lime glass and quartz substrates using a weak acidic bath, in which disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) acts as a complexing agent and thioacetamide acts as a source of sulfide ions. The thickness of the films varied from a few nm to 500 nm. The chemical composition of films was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films are very close to Zinc sulfide stoichiometry and we did not observed any organic compounds in the impurity form in them. X-ray diffraction indicates that the film and powder formed in the same reaction bath have cubic zinc blende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy (E g ) was determined to be 3.75 eV from the absorption spectrophotometry measurements.

  4. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  5. Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Gardenia Blue on TiO2 Photoelectrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured porous TiO2 paste was deposited on the FTO conductive glass using squeeze printing technique in order to obtain a TiO2 thin film with a thickness of 10 μm and an area of 4 cm2. Gardenia blue (GB extracted from Gardenia jasminode Ellis was employed as the natural dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Adsorption studies indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of GB on the surface of TiO2 thin film was approximately 417 mg GB/g TiO2 photoelectrode. The commercial and natural dyes, N-719 and GB, respectively, were employed to measure the adsorption kinetic data, which were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with successive adsorptions of GB dye was about 0.2%.

  6. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films on glass and clay substrates by ion-beam sputter deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, S.; Nanjo, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Wakui, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Ebina, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on clay-1 (Clay-TPP-LP-SA), clay-2 (Clay-TPP-SA) and glass substrates using ion-beam sputter deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-deposited ITO films on both clay-1 and clay-2 substrates were a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline. But the as-deposited ITO films on glass substrates were polycrystalline. The surface morphologies of as-deposited ITO/glass has smooth surface; in contrast, ITO/clay-1 has rough surface. The surface roughnesses of ITO thin films on glass and clay-1 substrate were calculated as 4.3 and 83 nm, respectively. From the AFM and SEM analyses, the particle sizes of nanocrystalline ITO for a film thickness of 712 nm were calculated as 19.5 and 20 nm, respectively. Optical study showed that the optical transmittance of ITO/clay-2 was higher than that of ITO/clay-1. The sheet resistances of as-deposited ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were calculated as 76.0 and 63.0 Ω/□, respectively. The figure of merit value for as-deposited ITO/clay-2 (12.70 x 10 -3 /Ω) was also higher than that of ITO/clay-1 (9.6 x 10 -3 /Ω), respectively. The flexibilities of ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were evaluated as 13 and 12 mm, respectively. However, the ITO-coated clay-2 substrate showed much better optical and electrical properties as well as flexibility as compared to clay-1.

  7. Microstructure and optical studies of electron beam evaporated ZnSe1−xTex nanocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam-Ismail, M.; El-Hagary, M.; Shaaban, E.R.; Al-Hedeib, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The structural and optical properties of ZnSeTe thin films were studied. ► The micro structural parameters of the films have been determined. ► The room temperature reflectance and transmittance data are analyzed. ► The refractive index and energy gap are determined. ► The single oscillator parameters were calculated. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline thin films of ZnSe 1−x Te x (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were deposited on glass substrate using electron beam deposition technique. The structure of the prepared films was examined using X-ray diffraction technique and revealed that the deposited films have polycrystalline zinc blend structure with lattice constant, a, increasing linearly from 0.55816 to 0.59989 nm as x varies from 0 to 1. The optical studies of the nanocrystalline ZnSe 1−x Te x films showed that the refractive index increases and fundamental band gap E g decreases from 2.58 to 2.21 eV as the tellurium concentration increases from 0 to 1. Furthermore, it was also found that the variation of E g with composition shows quadratic behavior with bowing parameter equal to 0.105. In addition, the thickness and annealing effects on the structure and optical properties of the deposited films were also investigated. The refractive index dispersion and its dependence on composition were discussed in terms of single oscillator model proposed by Wemple–DiDomenico.

  8. Characterization of Nanocrystalline SiGe Thin Film Solar Cell with Double Graded-Dead Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium (nc-SiGe thin films were deposited by high-frequency (27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD. The films were used in a silicon-based thin film solar cell with graded-dead absorption layer. The characterization of the nc-SiGe films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of SiGe alloy can be adjusted between 0.8 and 1.7 eV by varying the gas ratio. For thin film solar cell application, using double graded-dead i-SiGe layers mainly leads to an increase in short-circuit current and therefore cell conversion efficiency. An initial conversion efficiency of 5.06% and the stabilized efficiency of 4.63% for an nc-SiGe solar cell were achieved.

  9. Variable range hopping in TiO2 insulating layers for oxide electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films are of importance in oxide electronics, e.g., Pt/TiO2/Pt for memristors and Co-TiO2/TiO2/Co-TiO2 for spin tunneling devices. When such structures are deposited at a variety of oxygen pressures, how does TiO2 behave as an insulator? We report the discovery of an anomalous resistivity minimum in a TiO2 film at low pressure (not strongly dependent on deposition temperature. Hall measurements rule out band transport and in most of the pressure range the transport is variable range hopping (VRH though below 20 K it was difficult to differentiate between Mott and Efros-Shklovskii's (ES mechanism. Magnetoresistance (MR of the sample with lowest resistivity was positive at low temperature (for VRH but negative above 10 K indicating quantum interference effects.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of anatase-TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankapal, B.R.; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new and effective method for the preparation of nanocrystalline TiO 2 (anatase) thin films is presented. This method is based on the use of peroxo-titanium complex as a single precursor. Post-annealing treatment is necessary to convert the deposited amorphous film into TiO 2 (anatase) phase. The films obtained are uniform, compact and free of pinholes. A wide range of techniques are used for characterization, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. Glass, indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz are used as substrates. TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (1 0 1) preferred orientation is obtained for the films. Byproduct (collected powder) consists of the same crystal structure. The optical measurement reveals the indirect bandgap of 3.2 eV

  11. Synthesis and characterization of anatase-TiO 2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankapal, B. R.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new and effective method for the preparation of nanocrystalline TiO 2 (anatase) thin films is presented. This method is based on the use of peroxo-titanium complex as a single precursor. Post-annealing treatment is necessary to convert the deposited amorphous film into TiO 2 (anatase) phase. The films obtained are uniform, compact and free of pinholes. A wide range of techniques are used for characterization, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. Glass, indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz are used as substrates. TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (1 0 1) preferred orientation is obtained for the films. Byproduct (collected powder) consists of the same crystal structure. The optical measurement reveals the indirect bandgap of 3.2 eV.

  12. Fabrication of TiO_2-modified polytetrafluoroethylene ultrafiltration membranes via plasma-enhanced surface graft pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yingjia; Chi, Lina; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Multifunctional TiO_2/PAA/PTFE ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated via tight coating of TiO_2 functional layer onto the plasma-assisted graft of PAA on PTFE. • The high water flux rate, remarkable enhanced ultrafiltration performance and excellent self-cleaning ability were demonstrated. • The formation of COO−Ti bidentate coordination between TiO_2 and PAA was responsible for the successful coating. - Abstract: Surface hydrophilic modification of polymer ultrafiltration membrane using metal oxide represents an effective yet highly challenging solution to improve water flux and antifouling performance. Via plasma-enhanced graft of poly acryl acid (PAA) prior to coating TiO_2, we successfully fixed TiO_2 functional thin layer on super hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The characterization results evidenced TiO_2 attached on the PTFE-based UF membranes through the chelating bidentate coordination between surface-grafted carboxyl group and Ti"4"+. The TiO_2 surface modification may greatly reduce the water contact angle from 115.8° of the PTFE membrane to 35.0° without degradation in 30-day continuous filtration operations. The novel TiO_2/PAA/PTFE membranes also exhibited excellent antifouling and self-cleaning performance due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity and photocatalysis properties of TiO_2, which was further confirmed by the photo-degradation of MB under Xe lamp irradiation.

  13. A novel single-step synthesis of N-doped TiO2 via a sonochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xi-Kui; Wang, Chen; Guo, Wei-Lin; Wang, Jin-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The N-doped anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sonochemical method. The as-prepared sample is characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS and UV-Vis DRS. The photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by the photodegradation of an azo dye direct sky blue 5B. Highlights: → A novel singal-step sonochemical synthesis method for the preparation of anatase N-doped TiO 2 nanocrystalline at low temperature has been devoleped. → The as-prepared sample is characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS and UV-Vis DRS. → The photodegradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5 showed that the N-doped TiO 2 catalyst is of high visible-light photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: A novel single-step synthetic method for the preparation of anatase N-doped TiO 2 nanocrystalline at low temperature has been devoleped. The N-doped anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication of the solution of tetraisopropyl titanium and urea in water and isopropyl alcohol at 80 o C for 150 min. The as-prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption spectrum. The product structure depends on the reaction temperature and reaction time. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared photocatalyst was evaluated via the photodegradation of an azo dye direct sky blue 5B. The results show that the N-doped TiO 2 nanocrystalline prepared via sonication exhibit an excellent photocatalytic activity under UV light and simulated sunlight.

  14. Co+ -ion implantation induced doping of nanocrystalline CdS thin films: structural, optical, and vibrational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, S.; Sarangi, S.N.; Majumder, S.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, A.; Sathyamoorthy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) doped CdS nanostructures and nanocrystalline thin films have attracted much attention due to their anticipated applications in magneto-optical, non-volatile memory and future spintronics devices. Introduction of impurities in substitutional positions is highly desirable for such applications. Ion implantation is known to provide many advantages over conventional methods for efficient doping and possibility of its seamless integration with device processing steps. It is not governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and offers the advantages of high spatial selectivity and to overcome the solubility limits. In this communication, we report on modifications of structural morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of 90 keV Co + -ion implanted CdS thin films grown by thermal evaporation. Co + -ion implantation was performed in the fluence range of 0.1-3.6x10 16 ions cm -2 These fluences correspond to Co concentration in the range of 0.34-10.8 at % at the peak position of profile. Implantation was done at an elevated temperature of 573 K in order to avoid amorphization and to enhance the solubility of Co ions in the CdS lattice. Films were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Implantation does not lead to any secondary phase formation either in the form of impurity or the metallic clusters. However, implantation improves the crystalline quality of the samples and leads to supersaturation of Co ions in the CdS lattice. Thus, nanocrystalline CdS thin films can be considered as a good radiation- resistant material, which can be employed for prolonged use in solar cells for space applications. The optical band gap is found to decrease systematically with increasing ion fluence from 2.39 to 2.28 eV. Implantation leads to agglomeration of grains and a systematic increase in the surface roughness. Both GAXRD and micro

  15. Function of thin film nanocrystalline diamond-protein SGFET independent of grain size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátká, Marie; Kromka, Alexander; Ukraintsev, Egor; Ledinský, Martin; Brož, A.; Kalbáčová, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav

    166-167, May (2012), s. 239-245 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA AV ČR KAN400100701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) * fetal bovine serum * osteoblastic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  16. Polydopamine-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films as a platform for bio-sensing applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Neykova, Neda; Proks, Vladimír; Houdková, Jana; Ukraintsev, Egor; Zemek, Josef; Kromka, Alexander; Rypáček, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 543, 30 September (2013), s. 180-186 ISSN 0040-6090. [International Conference on NANO-structures self-assembly - NANOSEA 2012 /4./. S. Margherita di Pula - Sardinie, 25.06.2012-29.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Grant - others:ČVUT(CZ) SGS10/297/OHK4/3T/14 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * NCD * polydopamine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  17. Preparation of flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ren; Wang, Hsiu-Hsuan; Lin, Chia-Feng; Su, Chaochin

    2014-09-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on nanocrystalline TiO2 photoelectrodes on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polymer substrates have drawn great attention due to its lightweight, flexibility and advantages in commercial applications. However, the thermal instability of polymer substrates limits the process temperature to below 150 °C. In order to assure high and firm interparticle connection between TiO2 nanocrystals (TiO2-NC) and polymer substrates, the post-treatment of flexible TiO2 photoelectrodes (F-TiO2-PE) by mechanical compression was employed. In this work, Degussa P25 TiO2-NC was mixed with tert-butyl alcohol and DI-water to form TiO2 paste. F-TiO2-PE was then prepared by coating the TiO2 paste onto ITO coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using doctor blade followed by low temperature sintering at 120 °C for 2 hours. To study the effect of mechanical compression, we applied 50 and 100 kg/cm2 pressure on TiO2/PET to complete the fabrication of F-TiO2-PE. The surface morphology of F-TiO2-PE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The resultant F-TiO2-PE sample exhibited a smooth, crack-free structure indicating the great improvement in the interparticle connection of TiO2-NC. Increase of compression pressure could lead to the increase of DSSC photoconversion efficiency. The best photoconversion efficiency of 4.19 % (open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.79 V, short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) = 7.75 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) = 0.68) was obtained for the F-TiO2-PE device, which showed great enhancement compared with the F-TiO2-PE cell without compression treatment. The effect of compression in DSSC performance was vindicated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement.

  18. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O_2 or C_3F_8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  19. Investigation of nanocrystalline thin cobalt films thermally evaporated on Si(100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, W., E-mail: wkozl@std2.phys.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Balcerski, J.; Szmaja, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Piwoński, I. [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Batory, D. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Łódź University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Łódź (Poland); Miękoś, E. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Łódź, Tamka 12, 91-403 Łódź (Poland); and others

    2017-03-15

    We have made a quantitative study of the morphological and magnetic domain structures of 100 nm thick nanocrystalline cobalt films thermally evaporated on naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates. The morphological structure is composed of densely packed grains with the average grain size (35.6±0.8) nm. The grains exhibit no geometric alignment and no preferred elongation on the film surface. In the direction perpendicular to the film surface, the grains are aligned in columns. The films crystallize mainly in the hexagonal close-packed phase of cobalt and possess a crystallographic texture with the hexagonal axis perpendicular to the film surface. The magnetic domain structure consists of domains forming a maze stripe pattern with the average domain size (102±6) nm. The domains have their magnetizations oriented almost perpendicularly to the film surface. The domain wall energy, the domain wall thickness and the critical diameter for single-domain particle were determined. - Highlights: • 100 nm thick nanocrystalline cobalt films on Si(100) were studied quantitatively. • The grains are densely packed and possess the average size (35.6±0.8) nm. • The films have a texture with the hexagonal axis perpendicular to the film surface. • The magnetic domains form a maze stripe pattern with the average size (102±6) nm. • The domains are magnetized almost perpendicularly to the film surface.

  20. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline CdSe and Al:CdSe thin films for photoelectrochemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawali, Sanjay A. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004 (India); Bhosale, C.H., E-mail: bhosale_ch@yahoo.com [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur - 416 004 (India)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} The CdSe and Al:CdSe thin films have been successfully deposited by SPT. {yields} Hexagonal cubic structured CdSe and Al: CdSe thin films are observed. {yields} Large number of fine grains, Uniform and compact growth morphology. {yields} Hydrophilic surface nature. {yields} Al:CdSe have better PEC performance than CdSe. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline CdSe and Al:CdSe semiconductor thin films have been successfully synthesized onto amorphous and FTO glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. Aqueous solutions containing precursors of Cd and Se have been used to obtain good quality films. The optimized films have been characterized for their structural, morphological, wettability and optical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the films are polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies show that the film surface is smooth, uniform and compact in nature. Water wettability study reveals that the films are hydrophilic behavior. The formation of CdSe and Al:CdSe thin film were confirmed with the help of FTIR spectroscopy. UV-vis spectrophotometric measurement showed a direct allowed band gap lying in the range 1.673-1.87 eV. Output characteristics were studied by using cell configuration n- CdSe/Al:CdSe |1 M (NaOH + Na{sub 2} + S)|C. An efficient solar cell having a power conversion efficiency of 0.38% at illumination 25 mW cm{sup -2} was fabricated.

  1. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  2. Preparation of sol-gel TiO2/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelim, Ni-on; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. → A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO 2 /clay thin film was proposed. → The sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO 2 electrode. → Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO 2 /purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO 2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO 2 /purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO 2 particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO 2 /5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO 2 /10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO 2 semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  3. Preparation of Fluorine-Doped TiO2 Photocatalysts with Controlled Crystalline Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Todorova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline F-doped TiO2 powders were prepared by sol-gel route. The thermal behavior of the powders was recorded by DTA/TG technique. The crystalline phase of the fluorinated TiO2 powders was determined by X-ray diffraction technique. It was demonstrated that F-doping using CF3COOH favors the formation of rutile along with anatase phase even at low temperature. Moreover, the rutile's phase content increases with the increase of the quantity of the fluorine precursor in the starting solution. The surface area of the powders and the pore size distribution were studied by N2 adsorption-desorption using BET and BJH methods. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS revealed that the fluorine is presented in the TiO2 powders mainly as metal fluoride in quantities ∼16 at %. The F-doped TiO2 showed a red-shift absorption in UV-vis region which was attributed to the increased content of rutile phase in the powders. The powders exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in decomposition of acetone.

  4. Preparation of Nanoporous TiO2 Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiue-Hsyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-porous TiO2 thin films have been widely used as the working electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. In this work, the phase-pure anatase TiO2 (a-TiO2 and rutile TiO2 (r-TiO2 have been prepared using hydrothermal processes. The investigation of photo-to-electron conversion efficiency of DSSCs fabricated from mixed-TiO2 with a-TiO2 and r-TiO2 ratio of 80 : 20 (A8R2 was performed and compared to that from commercial TiO2 (DP-25. The results showed higher efficiency of DSSC for A8R2 cells with same dependence of cell efficiency on the film thickness for both A8R2 and DP-25 cells. The best efficiency obtained in this work is 5.2% from A8R2 cell with TiO2 film thickness of 12.0 μm. The correlation between the TiO2 films thickness and photoelectron chemical properties of DSSCs fabricated from A8R2 and DP-25 was compared and discussed.

  5. Low-temperature preparation and microwave photocatalytic activity study of TiO2-mounted activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yazi; Yang Shaogui; Hong Jun; Sun Cheng

    2007-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films were deposited on granular activated carbon by a dip-coating method at low temperature (373 K), using microwave radiation to enhance the crystallization of titania nanoparticles. Uniform and continuous anatase titania films were deposited on the surface of activated carbon. BET surface area of TiO 2 -mounted activated carbon (TiO 2 /AC) decreased a little in comparison with activated carbon. TiO 2 /AC possessed strong optical absorption capacity with a band gap absorption edge around 360 nm. The photocatalytic activity did not increase when the as-synthesized TiO 2 /AC was thermally treated, but was much higher than commercial P-25 in degradation of phenol by irradiation of electrodeless discharge lamps (EDLs)

  6. Influence of Zr doping on structure and morphology of TiO2 nanorods prepared using hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin, Masliana; Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin; Tee, Tan Sin; Beng, Lee Hock; Hui, Tan Chun; Chin, Yap Chi

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of Zr doping on TiO2 nanostructure. TiO2 nanorods thin films with different Zr-doping concentrations (6 × 10-3 M, 13 × 10-3 M and 25 × 10-3 M) were successfully prepared using a simple hydrothermal method. The structural and morphological properties of the samples were evaluated using XRD and FESEM respectively. The XRD results revealed that the TiO2 in all samples stabilized as rutile phase. The FESEM micrographs confirmed that TiO2 exist as square like nanorods with blunt tips. Although the crystallographic nature remains unchanged, the introduction of Zr has altered the surface density, structure and morphology of TiO2 which subsequently will have significant effect on its properties.

  7. Theoretical analysis of thermoelectric power of nanocrystalline ReSi2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kchoudhary, K; Kaurav; Gupta, N; Varshney, D

    2007-01-01

    The formulation is developed for the predictive modeling of thermoelectric power (S) of nano-crystalline ReSi 2 . We have evaluated the phonon thermoelectric power by incorporating the scattering of phonons with impurities, grain boundaries, charge careers and phonons. It is noticed that at low temperatures (T < 400 K), S increases and show power temperature dependence because of the larger mean free path of phonon, S shows a broad peak at about 550 K, which is artefact of the competition among umklapp scattering and grain boundaries scattering. Further, by increasing temperature S decreases with change in slope. The anomalies are well accounted in terms of interaction among the phonons-impurity, phonon grain boundaries and the umklapp scattering. Under certain conditions grain boundary scattering is expected to be more effective on heat carrying phonons than on Umklapp scattering, causing an increased thermoelectric power. Numerical analysis of thermoelectric power from the present model shows similar results as those revealed from experiments

  8. Processing of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for thermal management of wide-bandgap semiconductor power electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, N.; Singh, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Studied effect of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) deposition on device metallization. → Deposited NCD on to top of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) and Si devices. → Temperatures below 290 deg. C for Si devices and 320 deg. C for HEMTs prevent metal damage. → Development of novel NCD-based thermal management for power electronics feasible. - Abstract: High current densities in wide-bandgap semiconductor electronics operating at high power levels results in significant self-heating of devices, which necessitates the development thermal management technologies to effectively dissipate the generated heat. This paper lays the foundation for the development of such technology by ascertaining process conditions for depositing nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) with no visible damage to device metallization. NCD deposition is carried out on Si and GaN HEMTs with Au/Ni metallization. Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy are used to evaluate the quality of the deposited NCD films. Si device metallization is used as a test bed for developing process conditions for NCD deposition on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Results indicate that no visible damage occurs to the device metallization for deposition conditions below 290 deg. C for Si devices and below 320 deg. C for the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Possible mechanisms for metallization damage above the deposition temperature are enumerated. Electrical testing of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs indicates that it is indeed possible to deposit NCD on GaN-based devices with no significant degradation in device performance.

  9. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup, E-mail: kssong10@kumoh.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O{sub 2} or C{sub 3}F{sub 8} gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  10. EGFET pH Sensor Performance Dependence on Sputtered TiO2 Sensing Membrane Deposition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Aimi Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were sputtered by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method and have been employed as the sensing membrane of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing detection application. The TiO2 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates at room temperature and 200°C, respectively. The effect of deposition temperature on thin film properties and pH detection application was analyzed. The TiO2 samples used as the sensing membrane for EGFET pH-sensor and the current-voltage (I-V, hysteresis, and drift characteristics were examined. The sensitivity of TiO2 EGFET sensing membrane was obtained from the transfer characteristic (I-V curves for different substrate heating temperatures. TiO2 thin film sputtered at room temperature achieved higher sensitivity of 59.89 mV/pH compared to the one deposited at 200°C indicating lower sensitivity of 37.60 mV/pH. Moreover the hysteresis and the drift of TiO2 thin film deposited at room temperature showed lower values compared to the one at 200°C. We have also tested the effect of operating temperature on the performance of the EGFET pH-sensing and found that the temperature effect was very minimal.

  11. NANOSTRUCTURED TiO2 SENSITIZED WITH PORPHYRINS FOR SOLAR WATER-SPLITTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA-CORINA ROŞU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured TiO2 sensitized with porphyrins for Solar water-splitting.The production of hydrogen from water using solar light is very promising for generations of an ecologically pure carrier contributing to a clean, sustainable and renewable energy system. The selection of specific photocatalyst material for hydrogen production in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs is based on some important characteristics of semiconductor, such as photo-corrosion and chemical corrosion stability, photocatalytic potential, high sensitivity for UV-visible light. In the present paper, different nanocrystalline TiO2 photoanodes have been prepared via wet-chemical techniques followed by annealing treatment and sensitized with porphyrins and supramolecular complexes of porphyrins. The so obtained photocatalysts were characterized with UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The purpose of these experiments is to show if the prepared materials possess the necessary photocatalytic characteristics and if they can be used with success in H2 production from water decomposition in PECs.

  12. Design, Modeling and Optimization of a Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor based on a Thin-Film PZT Membrane Containing Nanocrystalline Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid MOHAMMADI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper fabrication of a 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin film has been presented and then a pressure sensor based on multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm contain of Lead Zirconate Titanate nanocrystalline powders was designed, modeled and optimized. Dynamics characteristics of this multilayer diaphragm have been investigated by ANSYS® FE software. By this simulation the effective parameters of the multilayer PZT diaphragm for improving the performance of a pressure sensor in different ranges of pressure are optimized. The optimized thickness ratio of PZT layer to SiO2 was given in the paper to obtain the maximum deflection of the multilayer thin-film PZT diaphragm. A 0-3 ceramic/ceramic composite lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 film has been developed to fabricate the pressure sensor by a hybrid sol gel process. PZT nanopowders fabricated via conventional sol gel method and uniformly dispersed in PZT precursor solution by an attrition mill. XRD analysis shows that perovskite structure would be formed due to the presence of a significant amount of ceramic nanopowders. This texture has a good effect on piezoelectric properties of perovskite structure. The film forms a strongly bonded network and less shrinkage occurs, so the films do not crack during process. Also the aspect ratio through this process would be increased. SEM micrographs indicated that PZT films were uniform, crack free and have a composite microstructure and a piezoelectric coefficient d31 of -40 pC.N-1 and d33 ranged from 50pm.N-1 to 60pm.N-1.

  13. Nonlinear optical parameters of nanocrystalline AZO thin film measured at different substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, Faculty of Postgraduate Studies for Advanced Sciences, Beni -Suef University, Beni-Suef (Egypt); Al-ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Dahlan, Ammar sadik [Department of architecture, faculty of environmental design, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    The 2.2 wt% of aluminum (Al)-doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent and preferential c-axis oriented thin films were prepared by using radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 200 °C. For structural analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) was used for morphological studies. The optical parameters such as, optical energy gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric loss, tangent loss, first and third order nonlinear optical properties of transparent films were investigated. High transmittance above 90% and highly homogeneous surface were observed in all samples. The substrate temperature plays an important role to get the best transparent conductive oxide thin films. The substrate temperature at 150 °C showed the growth of highly transparent AZO thin film. Energy gap increased with the increased in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films. Dielectric constant and loss were found to be photon energy dependent with substrate temperature. The change in substrate temperature of Al doped thin films also affect the non-liner optical properties of thin films. The value of χ{sup (3)} was found to be changed with the grain size of the thin films that directly affected by the substrate temperature of the pure and Al doped ZnO thin films.

  14. Pt Catalyst Supported within TiO2 Mesoporous Films for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dekang; Zhang, Bingyan; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Yibo; Wittstock, Gunther; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dispersed Pt nanoparticles into mesoporous TiO 2 thin films are fabricated by a facile electrochemical deposition method as electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. The mesoporous TiO 2 thin films coated on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by screen printing allow a facile transport of reactants and products. The structural properties of the resulted Pt/TiO 2 electrode are evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements are performed to study the electrochemical properties of the Pt/TiO 2 electrode. Further study demonstrates the stability of the Pt catalyst supported within TiO 2 mesoporous films for the oxygen reduction reaction

  15. Phase Competition Induced Bio-Electrochemical Resistance and Bio-Compatibility Effect in Nanocrystalline Zr x -Cu100-x Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhirappan, Geetha Priyadarshini; Nallasivam, Vignesh; Varadarajan, Madhuri; Leobeemrao, Vasantha Priya; Bose, Sivakumar; Venugopal, Elakkiya; Rajendran, Selvakumar; Angleo, Peter Chrysologue

    2018-07-01

    Nano-crystalline Zrx-Cu100-x (x = 20-100 at.%) thin films with thickness ranging from 50 to 185 nm were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering with individual Zr and Cu targets. The as-sputtered thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) for structural and morphological properties. The crystallite size was found to decrease from 57 nm to 37 nm upon increasing the Zr content from 20 to 30 at.% with slight increase in the lattice strain from 0.17 to 0.33%. Further, increase in Zr content to 40 at.% leads to increase in the crystallite size to 57 nm due to stabilization of C10Zr7 phase along with the presence of nanocrystalline Cu-Zr phase. A bimodal distribution of grain size was observed from FE-SEM micrograph was attributed to the highest surface roughness in Zr30Cu70 thin films comprised of Cu10Zr7, Cu9Zr2, Cu-Zr intermetallic phases. In-vitro electrochemical behaviors of nano-crystalline Zrx-Cu100-x thin films in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization studies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data fitting by equivalent electrical circuit fit model suggests that inner bulk layer contributes to high bio-corrosion resistance in Zrx-Cu100-x thin films with increase in Zr content. The results of cyto-compatibility assay suggested that Zr-Cu thin film did not introduce cytotoxicity to osteoblast cells, indicating its suitability as a bio-coating for minimally invasive medical devices.

  16. Preparation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles using low hydrothermal temperature for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, N.; Ridhova, A.; Yuwono, A. H.; Udhiarto, A.

    2018-03-01

    One device being developed as an alternative source of renewable energy by utilizing solar energy source is dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This device works using simple photosynthetic-electrochemical principle in the molecular level. In this device, the inorganic oxide semiconductor of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a great potential for the absorption of the photon energy from the solar energy source, especially in the form of TiO2 nanoparticle structure. This nanoparticle structure is expected to improve the performance of DSSC because the surface area to weight ratio of this nanostructures is very large. In this study, the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle from its precursors has been performed along with the fabrication of the DSSC device. Effort to improve the size of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 was accomplished by low hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures whereas the crystallinity of the anatase phase in the structure was performed by calcination process. Characterization of the materials was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the DSSC performance was examined through a high precision current versus voltage (I-V) curve analyzer. The results showed that pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles could be obtained at low hydrothermal of 100, 125, and 150 °C followed by calcination at 450 °C. The best performance of photocurrent-voltage characteristic was given by TiO2 hydrothermally synthesized at 150 °C with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.40 %, whereas the standard TiO2 nanoparticles has PCE only 4.02 %. This result is very promising in terms low temperature and thus low cost of anatase TiO2 semiconductor preparation for DSSC application.

  17. Influences of Stacking Architectures of TiO2 Nanoparticle Layers on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influences of stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers on characteristics and performances of DSSCs. TiO2 nanoparticles of different sizes and compositions were characterized for their morphological and optical/scattering properties in thin films. They were used to construct different stacking architectures of the TiO2 nanoparticle layers for use as working electrodes of DSSCs. Characteristics and performances of DSSCs were examined to establish correlation of the stacking architectures of TiO2 nanoparticle layers with characteristics of DSSCs. The results suggest that the three-layer DSSC architecture, with sandwiching a 20 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer between a 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer and a hundred nm sized TiO2 back scattering/reflection layer, is effective in enhancing DSSC efficiencies. The high-total-transmittance 37 nm TiO2 nanoparticle layer with a larger haze can serve as an effective front scattering layer to scatter a portion of the incident light into larger oblique angles and therefore increase optical paths and absorption.

  18. A fast-reliable methodology to estimate the concentration of rutile or anatase phases of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Zanatta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-dioxide (TiO2 is a low-cost, chemically inert material that became the basis of many modern applications ranging from, for example, cosmetics to photovoltaics. TiO2 exists in three different crystal phases − Rutile, Anatase and, less commonly, Brookite − and, in most of the cases, the presence or relative amount of these phases are essential to decide the TiO2 final application and its related efficiency. Traditionally, X-ray diffraction has been chosen to study TiO2 and provides both the phases identification and the Rutile-to-Anatase ratio. Similar information can be achieved from Raman scattering spectroscopy that, additionally, is versatile and involves rather simple instrumentation. Motivated by these aspects this work took into account various TiO2 Rutile+Anatase powder mixtures and their corresponding Raman spectra. Essentially, the method described here was based upon the fact that the Rutile and Anatase crystal phases have distinctive phonon features, and therefore, the composition of the TiO2 mixtures can be readily assessed from their Raman spectra. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the suitability of Raman spectroscopy in estimating the concentration of Rutile or Anatase in TiO2 and is expected to influence the study of TiO2-related thin films, interfaces, systems with reduced dimensions, and devices like photocatalytic and solar cells.

  19. Characterization and Comparison of Photocatalytic Activity Silver Ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and Silver Ion doped on Black TiO2(Black TiO2/Ag+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Yi; Sim, Ho Hyung; Song, Sinae; Noh, Yeoung Ah; Lee, Hong Woon; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the representative ceramic materials containing photocatalyst, optic and antibacterial activity. The hydroxyl radical in TiO2 applies to the intensive oxidizing agent, hence TiO2 is suitable to use photocatalytic materials. Black TiO2was prepared through reduction of amorphous TiO2 conducting under H2 which leads to color changes. Its black color is proven that absorbs 100% light across the whole-visible light, drawing enhancement of photocatalytic property. In this study, we aimed to compare the photocatalytic activity of silver ion doped on TiO2(TiO2/Ag+) and silver ion doped on black TiO2(black TiO2/Ag+) under visible light range. TiO2/Ag+ was fabricated following steps. 1) TiO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel method from Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). 2) Then AgNO3 was added during an aging process step for silver ion doping on the surface of TiO2. Moreover, Black TiO2/Ag+ was obtained same as TiO2/Ag+ except for calcination under H2. The samples were characterized X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible reflectance (UV-vis DRS), and Methylene Blue degradation test. XRD analysis confirmed morphology of TiO2. The band gap of black TiO2/Ag+ was confirmed (2.6 eV) through UV-vis DRS, which was lower than TiO2/Ag+ (2.9 eV). The photocatalytic effect was conducted by methylene blue degradation test. It demonstrated that black TiO2/Ag+ had a photocatalytic effect under UV light also visible light.

  20. Wavelet-fractal approach to surface characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoufi, Davood; Kalali, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared by electron beam deposition method on glass substrates at room temperature (RT). Surface morphology characterization of ITO thin films, before and after annealing at 500 °C, were investigated by analyzing the surface profile of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images using wavelet transform formalism. The wavelet coefficients related to the thin film surface profiles have been calculated, and then roughness exponent (α) of the films has been estimated using the scalegram method. The results reveal that the surface profiles of the films before and after annealing process have self-affine nature.

  1. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  2. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  3. Spontaneous and Photoinduced Conversion of CO2 on TiO2 Anatase (001)/(101) Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Zukal, Arnošt; Klementová, Mariana; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 46 (2014), s. 26845-26850 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814; GA MŠk LD14115; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13060 Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1104 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : TiO2 * FT-IR spectroscopy * nanocrystalline anatase Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  4. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost. - Highlights: • Ethanol gas sensors based on Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle thin film were fabricated. • Pd incorporation in NiFe 2 O 4 matrix inhibits grain growth. • The sensors were more selective to ethanol gas. • Sensors exhibited fast response and recovery when doped with palladium. • Pd:NiFe 2 O 4 thin film sensor displays excellent long–term stability.

  5. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of vacuum-evaporated nanocrystalline CdSe thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vipin; Sharma, D.K.; Sharma, Kapil [Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Ghaziabad (India); Dwivedi, D.K. [M.M.M University of Technology, Department of Physics, Gorakhpur (India)

    2016-11-15

    II-VI nanocrystalline semiconductors offer a wide range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Thin films of CdSe were deposited onto ultra-clean glass substrates by vacuum evaporation method. The as-deposited films were annealed in vacuum at 350 K. The structural, elemental, morphological, optical and electrical investigations of annealed films were carried out. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the films shows that films were polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with preferential orientation of grains along (002) plane. SEM image indicates that the films were uniform and well covered to the glass substrate. EDAX analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the film. Raman spectra were used to observe the characteristic vibrational modes of CdSe. The energy band gap of these films was obtained by absorption spectra. The films were found to have a direct type of transition of band gap occurring at 1.75 eV. The dark electrical conductivity and photoconductivity reveals that the films were semiconducting in nature indicating the suitability of these films for photosensor applications. The Hall effect measurement reveals that the films have n-type electrical conductivity. (orig.)

  6. Structural and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline 3,4,9,10-Perylene-Tetracarboxylic-Diimide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. El-Nahhas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of nanocrystalline 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide (PTCDI were prepared on quartz substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The structural properties were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and the X-ray diffraction (XRD. The optical properties for the films were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range from 200 to 2500 nm. The optical constants (refractive index n and absorption index k were calculated and found to be independent on the film thickness in the measured film thickness range 117–163 nm. The dispersion energy (Ed, the oscillator energy (Eo, and the high-frequency dielectric constant ε∞ were obtained. The energy band model was applied, and the types of the optical transitions responsible for optical absorption were found to be indirect allowed transition. The onset and optical energy gaps were calculated, and the obtained results were also discussed.

  7. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Malin B; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Österlund, Lars; Baldissera, Gustavo; Persson, Clas; Valyukh, Iryna; Arwin, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO 3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (P tot ) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low P tot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies E g ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing P tot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO 3 , and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO 3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO 3 and γ-WO 3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that E g in ε-WO 3 is higher than in the δ-WO 3 and γ-WO 3 phases, which provides an explanation for the P tot dependence of the optical data. (paper)

  8. Electronic and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Malin B.; Baldissera, Gustavo; Valyukh, Iryna; Persson, Clas; Arwin, Hans; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Österlund, Lars

    2013-05-01

    The optical and electronic properties of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different total pressures (Ptot) were studied by optical spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Monoclinic films prepared at low Ptot show absorption in the near infrared due to polarons, which is attributed to a strained film structure. Analysis of the optical data yields band-gap energies Eg ≈ 3.1 eV, which increase with increasing Ptot by 0.1 eV, and correlate with the structural modifications of the films. The electronic structures of triclinic δ-WO3, and monoclinic γ- and ε-WO3 were calculated using the Green function with screened Coulomb interaction (GW approach), and the local density approximation. The δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases are found to have very similar electronic properties, with weak dispersion of the valence and conduction bands, consistent with a direct band-gap. Analysis of the joint density of states shows that the optical absorption around the band edge is composed of contributions from forbidden transitions (>3 eV) and allowed transitions (>3.8 eV). The calculations show that Eg in ε-WO3 is higher than in the δ-WO3 and γ-WO3 phases, which provides an explanation for the Ptot dependence of the optical data.

  9. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Preetam, E-mail: preetamphy@gmail.co [Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kaur, Davinder [Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2010-03-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO{sub 2} film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO{sub 2} films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  10. Investigations of the drift mobility of carriers and density of states in nanocrystalline CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Baljinder [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Janpreet; Kaur, Jagdish [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Moudgil, R.K. [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline Cadmium Sulfide (nc-CdS) thin films have been prepared on well-cleaned glass substrate at room temperature (300 K) by thermal evaporation technique using inert gas condensation (IGC) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that the films crystallize in hexagonal structure with preferred orientation along [002] direction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies reveal that grains are spherical in shape and uniformly distributed over the glass substrates. The optical band gap of the film is estimated from the transmittance spectra. Electrical parameters such as Hall coefficient, carrier type, carrier concentration, resistivity and mobility are determined using Hall measurements at 300 K. Transit time and mobility are estimated from Time of Flight (TOF) transient photocurrent technique in gap cell configuration. The measured values of electron drift mobility from TOF and Hall measurements are of the same order. Constant Photocurrent Method in ac-mode (ac-CPM) is used to measure the absorption spectra in low absorption region. By applying derivative method, we have converted the measured absorption data into a density of states (DOS) distribution in the lower part of the energy gap. The value of Urbach energy, steepness parameter and density of defect states have been calculated from the absorption and DOS spectra.

  11. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O2 or C3F8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  12. Significance of a Noble Metal Nanolayer on the UV and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Grown from a Scalable PECVD/PVD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Kamal; Bulou, Simon; Quesada-Gonzalez, Miguel; Bonot, Sébastien; Collard, Delphine; Boscher, Nicolas D; Choquet, Patrick

    2017-11-29

    UV and visible light photocatalytic composite Pt and Au-TiO 2 coatings have been deposited on silicon and glass substrates at low temperature using a hybrid ECWR-PECVD/MS-PVD process. Methylene blue, stearic acid, and sulfamethoxazole were used as dye, organic, and antibiotic model pollutants, respectively, to demonstrate the efficiency of these nanocomposite coatings for water decontamination or self-cleaning surfaces applications. Raman investigations revealed the formation of anatase polymorph of TiO 2 in all synthesized coatings with a shifting of the main vibrational mode peak to higher wavenumber in the case of Au-TiO 2 coating, indicating an increase number of crystalline defects within this coating. Because of the difference of the chemical potentials of each of the investigated noble metals, the sputtered metal layers exhibit different morphology. Pt sputtered atoms, with high surface adhesion, promote formation of a smooth 2D layer. On the other hand, Au sputtered atoms with higher cohesive forces promote the formation of 5-10 nm nanoparticles. As a result, the surface plasmon resonance phenomenon was observed in the Au-TiO 2 coatings. UV photoactivity of the nanocomposite coatings was enhanced 1.5-3 times and 1.3 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively, thanks to the enhancement of electron trapping in the noble metal layer. This electron trapping phenomenon is higher in the Pt-TiO 2 coating because of its larger work function. On the other hand, the enhancement of the visible photoactivity was more pronounced (3 and 7 times for methylene blue and stearic acid, respectively) in the case of Au-TiO 2 thanks to the surface plasmon resonance. Finally, these nanocomposite TiO 2 coatings exhibited also a good ability for the degradation of antibiotics usually found in wastewater such as sulfamethoxazole. However, a complementary test have showed an increase of the toxicity of the liquid medium after photocatalysis, which could be due the presence of sulfamethoxazole's transformation byproducts.

  13. Using TiO2 as a Conductive Protective Layer for Photocathodic H2 Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas; Laursen, Anders Bo

    2013-01-01

    Surface passivation is a general issue for Si-based photoelectrodes because it progressively hinders electron conduction at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. In this work, we show that a sputtered 100 nm TiO2 layer on top of a thin Ti metal layer may be used to protect an n+p Si photocatho...

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet by thiourea-doped TiO2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimisation of the photocatalytic behaviour of crystal violet (CV) by thiourea (Tu)-codoped TiO2 thin film in fixed bed photoreactor was investigated by central composite designs (CCDs). The effective variables were pH, the concentration of CV dye, flow rate and reaction time. The results of the CCD model ...

  15. Electrochemical Characterization of TiO 2 Blocking Layers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kavan, Ladislav; Té treault, Nicolas; Moehl, Thomas; Grä tzel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Thin compact layers of TiO2 are grown by thermal oxidation of Ti, by spray pyrolysis, by electrochemical deposition, and by atomic layer deposition. These layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells to prevent recombination of electrons from

  16. Structural, mechanical and magnetic study on galvanostatic electroplated nanocrystalline NiFeP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A.; Senguttuvan, G.; Kannan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel based alloys has a huge applications in microelectronics and micro electromechanical systems owing to its superior soft magnetic properties. With the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness and controllable patterning, electroplating processes has been chosen to fabricate thin films in our work. The soft magnetic NiFeP thin film was successfully deposited over the surface of copper plate through galvanostatic electroplating method by applying constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for a deposition rate for half an hour. The properties of the deposited NiFeP thin films were analyzed by subjecting it into different physio-chemical characterization such as XRD, SEM, EDAX, AFM and VSM. XRD pattern confirms the formation of NiFeP particles and the structural analysis reveals that the NiFeP particles were uniformly deposited over the surface of copper substrate. The surface roughness analysis of the NiFeP films was done using AFM analysis. The magnetic studies and the hardness of the thin film were evaluated from the VSM and hardness test. The NiFeP thin films possess lower coercivity with higher magnetization value of 69. 36 × 10-3 and 431.92 Gauss.

  17. Influence of nitrogen dopants on N-doped TiO2 electrodes and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Shen Yihua; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Ma Tingli

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three different types of nanocrystalline N-doped TiO 2 synthesized by several nitrogen dopants. → N-doped DSCs achieves a high conversion efficiency of 8.32%. → Ammonia acts as good nitrogen dopants. → Enhanced photocurrent of ca. 36% in N-doped DSCs. → Less charge are needed to get a high open-circuit voltage in N-doped films. - Abstract: Three different types of nanocrystalline, N-doped TiO 2 electrodes were synthesized using several nitrogen dopants through wet methods. The obtained nanocrystalline, N-doped TiO 2 electrodes possessed different crystallite sizes, surface areas, and N-doping amounts. Characterizations were performed to reveal the nitrogen-doping processes for the wet methods using ammonia, urea, and triethylamine as the nitrogen dopants. Additionally, a high conversion efficiency of 8.32% was achieved by the dye-sensitized solar cells, based on the N-doped TiO 2 electrodes. For instance, in comparison with the commercial P25 (5.76%) and pure anatase TiO 2 electrodes (7.14%), significant improvements (44% and 17%, respectively) in the efficiencies were obtained. The findings also indicated that the ammonia nitrogen dopant was more efficient than other two nitrogen dopants. The electron transports, electron lifetimes, and charge recombination in the dye-sensitized N-doped TiO 2 solar cells also differed from those in the pure TiO 2 -based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Specifically, an enhanced photocurrent of ca. 36% in N-doped DSCs resulted from the synergistic effects of the high dye uptake and the efficient electron transport. Moreover, the relationship between charge and voltage revealed that less charge was needed to get a high open-circuit voltage in the N-doping films.

  18. Nano-crystalline Ag–PbTe thermoelectric thin films by a multi-target PLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, E., E-mail: emilia.cappelli@ism.cnr.it [CNR-ISM, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Bellucci, A. [CNR-ISM, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Dip. Fisica, Un. Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Medici, L. [CNR-IMAA, Tito Scalo, 85050 Potenza (Italy); Mezzi, A.; Kaciulis, S. [CNR-ISMN, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Fumagalli, F.; Di Fonzo, F. [Center Nano Science Technology @Polimi, I.I.T., Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Trucchi, D.M. [CNR-ISM, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric PbTe thin films, with increasing Ag percentage, were deposited by PLD. • Almost stoichiometric PbTe (Ag doped) films were grown, as verified by XPS analysis. • GI-XRD established the formation of cubic PbTe, with nano-metric structure (∼35 nm). • Surface resistivity shows an increase in conductivity, with increasing Ag doping. • From Seebeck values and XPS depth analysis, 10% Ag seems to be the solubility limit. - Abstract: It has been evaluated the ability of ArF pulsed laser ablation to grow nano-crystalline thin films of high temperature PbTe thermoelectric material, and to obtain a uniform and controlled Ag blending, through the entire thickness of the film, using a multi-target system in vacuum. The substrate used was a mirror polished technical alumina slab. The increasing atomic percentage of Ag effect on physical–chemical and electronic properties was evaluated in the range 300–575 K. The stoichiometry and the distribution of the Ag component, over the whole thickness of the samples deposited, have been studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and corresponding depth profiles. The crystallographic structure of the film was analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) system. Scherrer analysis for crystallite size shows the presence of nano-structures, of the order of 30–35 nm. Electrical resistivity of the samples, studied by the four point probe method, as a function of increasing Ag content, shows a typical semi-conductor behavior. From conductivity values, carrier concentration and Seebeck parameter determination, the power factor of deposited films was calculated. Both XPS, Hall mobility and Seebeck analysis seem to indicate a limit value to the Ag solubility of the order of 5%, for thin films of ∼200 nm thickness, deposited at 350 °C. These data resulted to be comparable to theoretical evaluation for thin films but order of magnitude lower than the corresponding bulk materials.

  19. Dielectric response and room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr doped anatase TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Swaleha; Khan, Wasi; Khan, Shakeel; Husain, Shahid; Ahmad, Abid

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, nanocrystalline samples of Ti1-xCrxO2 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were synthesized in anatase phase through simple and cost effective acid modified sol gel method. The influence of Cr doping on thermal, microstructural, electrical and magnetic properties was investigated in TiO2 host matrix. The surface morphology has revealed less agglomeration and considerable reduction in particle size in case of Cr doped TiO2 as compared to undoped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) established high purity, appropriate stoichiometry and oxidation states of the compositions. The dielectric properties of the nanoparticles were altered by the doping concentration, applied frequency as well as temperature variation. The variation in dielectric constant (ε‧), dielectric loss (δ) and ac conductivity as a function of frequency and temperature at different doping concentration of Cr were interpreted in the light of Maxwell Wagner theory, space charge polarization mechanism and drift mobility of charge carriers. Both undoped and Cr doped TiO2 samples exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) that remarkably influenced by means of the Cr content. The significant enhancement in the magnetization was observed at 4% Cr doping. However, decrease in magnetization for higher doping signify antiferromagnetic interactions between Cr ions or superexchange mechanism. These results reveal that the oxygen vacancies play a crucial role to initiate the RTFM. Therefore, the present investigation suggests the potential applications of Cr doped TiO2 nanoparticles for spintronics application.

  20. Effect of deposition rate on the microstructure of electron beam evaporated nanocrystalline palladium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin-Ahmadi, B., E-mail: behnam.amin-ahmadi@ua.ac.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Idrissi, H. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Galceran, M. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Matters and Materials Department, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Colla, M.S. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Raskin, J.P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Université catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Pardoen, T. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Godet, S. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Matters and Materials Department, 50 Av. FD Roosevelt CP194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Schryvers, D. [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-07-31

    The influence of the deposition rate on the formation of growth twins in nanocrystalline Pd films deposited by electron beam evaporation is investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Statistical measurements prove that twin boundary (TB) density and volume fraction of grains containing twins increase with increasing deposition rate. A clear increase of the dislocation density was observed for the highest deposition rate of 5 Å/s, caused by the increase of the internal stress building up during deposition. Based on crystallographic orientation indexation using transmission electron microscopy, it can be concluded that a {111} crystallographic texture increases with increasing deposition rate even though the {101} crystallographic texture remains dominant. Most of the TBs are fully coherent without any residual dislocations. However, for the highest deposition rate (5 Å/s), the coherency of the TBs decreases significantly as a result of the interaction of lattice dislocations emitted during deposition with the growth TBs. The analysis of the grain boundary character of different Pd films shows that an increasing fraction of high angle grain boundaries with misorientation angles around 55–65° leads to a higher potential for twin formation. - Highlights: • Fraction of twinned grains and twin boundary density increase with deposition rate. • Clear increase of dislocation density was observed for the highest deposition rate. • A moderate increase of the mean grain size with increase of deposition rate is found. • For the highest deposition rate, the twin boundaries lose their coherency. • Fraction of high angle grain boundary (55–65) increases with deposition rate.

  1. Enhanced gas sensing performance of TiO2 functionalized magneto-optical SPR sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Montagna, G.; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; González-García, Lola; Sánchez-Valencia, J.R.; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, José Miguel; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Rella, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Porous TiO2 thin films deposited by glancing angle deposition are used as sensing layers to monitor their sensing capabilities towards Volatile Organic Compounds both in a standard Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor and in Magneto-Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (MO-SPR) configuration in order to compare their sensing performances. Here our results on the enhanced sensing capability of these TiO2 functionalized MO-SPR sensors with Au/Co/Au transducers with respect to traditional SPR gas...

  2. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Baoli; Li, Duxin; Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO 2 with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO 2 surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO 2 nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO 2 nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: ► TiO 2 nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. ► Functionalized TiO 2 nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. ► Compatibility of TiO 2 nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. ► TiO 2 containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO 2 nanoparticle chemistry.

  3. Preparation of Nanocrystalline Titania Thin Films by Using Pure and Water-modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Cerhová, Marie; Dřínek, Vladislav; Daniš, S.; Matějová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, NOV 2016 (2016), s. 289-296 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titania thin films * supercritical carbon dioxide * crystallization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  4. Evaluate humidity sensing properties of novel TiO2–WO3 composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang-De; Lai, De-Sheng; Chen, Min-Hung; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chen, Fu-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TiO 2 –WO 3 (1:1) showed better humidity sensing properties than others within the range of 12–90% relative humidity (RH), the response and recovery time were about 20 s and 160 s, respectively. Compared to the previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Highlights: • Novel TiO 2 –WO 3 composite material was prepared for humidity sensor. • The sensor exhibits higher sensitivity (S = 451). • Low hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. - Abstract: A novel TiO 2 –WO 3 composite material was prepared using a different proportion of TiO 2 and WO 3 to that investigated in previous studies. The obtained mesoporous material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The humidity-sensing properties were measured using an inductance, capacitance and resistance analyzer. The results demonstrated that the TiO 2 –WO 3 sample with a ratio of 1:1 showed better humidity sensing properties. Compared to previous studies, the prepared sensor exhibited higher sensitivity (S = 451) and the lower hysteresis value was around 0.13% at 32% RH. Complex impedance analysis indicated that the enhanced humidity sensitivity was probably due to spherical Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area and the hetero-junction between TiO 2 –WO 3 thin films, while the impedance varied about three orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrated the potential application of TiO 2 –WO 3 composite for fabricating high performance humidity sensors

  5. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Magneto-optical spectroscopy of diluted magnetic oxides TiO2-δ: Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan'shina, E.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Orlov, A.F.; Perov, N.S.; Vashuk, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental study on transversal Kerr effect (TKE) in magnetic oxide semiconductors TiO 2-δ :Co. The TiO 2-δ : Co thin films were deposited on LaAlO 3 (0 0 1) substrates by magnetron sputtering in the argon-oxygen atmosphere at oxygen partial pressure of 2x10 -6 -2x10 -4 Torr. It was obtained that TKE spectra in ferromagnetic samples are extremely sensitive to the Co-volume fraction, the crystalline structure, and technology parameters. The observed well-pronounced peaks in TKE spectra for anatase Co-doped TiO 2-δ films at low Co ( 2-δ matrix that indicates on intrinsic ferromagnetism in these samples. With increase of Co-volume fraction up to 5-8% the fine structure of TKE spectra disappears and magneto-optical response in reflection mode becomes larger than that for thick Co films

  7. Annealing induced low coercivity, nanocrystalline Co–Fe–Si thin films exhibiting inverse cosine angular variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hysen, T., E-mail: hysenthomas@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Harthi, Salim; Al-Omari, I.A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Geetha, P.; Lisha, R. [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sakthikumar, D. [Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Saitama (Japan); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mra@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India)

    2013-09-15

    Co–Fe–Si based films exhibit high magnetic moments and are highly sought after for applications like soft under layers in perpendicular recording media to magneto-electro-mechanical sensor applications. In this work the effect of annealing on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of Co–Fe–Si thin films was investigated. Compositional analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a native oxide surface layer consisting of oxides of Co, Fe and Si on the surface. The morphology of the as deposited films shows mound like structures conforming to the Volmer–Weber growth model. Nanocrystallisation of amorphous films upon annealing was observed by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of magnetic properties with annealing is explained using the Herzer model. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements carried out at various angles from 0° to 90° to the applied magnetic field were employed to study the angular variation of coercivity. The angular variation fits the modified Kondorsky model. Interestingly, the coercivity evolution with annealing deduced from magneto-optical Kerr effect studies indicates a reverse trend compared to magetisation observed in the bulk. This can be attributed to a domain wall pinning at native oxide layer on the surface of thin films. The evolution of surface magnetic properties is correlated with morphology evolution probed using atomic force microscopy. The morphology as well as the presence of the native oxide layer dictates the surface magnetic properties and this is corroborated by the apparent difference in the bulk and surface magnetic properties. - Highlights: • The relation between grain size and magnetic properties in Co–Fe–Si thin films obeys the Herzer model. • Angular variation of coercivity is found to obey the Kondorsky model. • The MOKE measurements provide further evidence for domain wall pinning.

  8. Nanocrystalline Cobalt-doped SnO2 Thin Film: A Sensitive Cigarette Smoke Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shriram B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a sensitive cigarette smoke sensor based on Cobalt doped Tin oxide (Co-SnO2 thin films deposited on glass substrate by a conventional Spray Pyrolysis technique. The Co-SnO2 thin films have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX. The XRD spectrum shows polycrystalline nature of the film with a mixed phase comprising of SnO2 and Co3O4. The SEM image depicts uniform granular morphology covering total substrate surface. The compositional analysis derived using EDAX confirmed presence of Co in addition to Sn and O in the film. Cigarette smoke sensing characteristics of the Co-SnO2 thin film have been studied under atmospheric condition at different temperatures and smoke concentration levels. The sensing parameters such as sensitivity, response time and recovery time are observed to be temperature dependent, exhibiting better results at 330 oC.

  9. Assessment of Environmental Performance of TiO2 Nanoparticles Coated Self-Cleaning Float Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, superhydrophilic and photocatalytic self-cleaning nanocoatings have been widely used in the easy-to-clean surfaces field. In the building sector, self-cleaning glass was one of the first nanocoating applications. These products are based on the photocatalytic property of a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on the surface of any kind of common glass. When exposed to UV radiation, TiO2 nanoparticles react with the oxygen and water molecules adsorbed on their surface to produce radicals leading to oxidative species. These species are able to reduce or even eliminate airborne pollutants and organic substances deposited on the material’s surface. To date, TiO2 nanoparticles’ benefits have been substantiated; however, their ecological and human health risks are still under analysis. The present work studies the ecodesign of the industrial scale-up of TiO2 nanoparticles self-cleaning coated float glass production performed by the life cycle assessment (LCA methodology and applies new human toxicity indicators to the impact assessment stage. Production, particularly the TiO2 nanoparticle application, is the life cycle phase most contributing to the total damage. According to the ecodesign approach, the production choices carried out have exacerbated environmental burdens.

  10. Foldable and Cytocompatible Sol-gel TiO2 Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lin, Hongtao; Zerdoum, Aidan B; Geiger, Sarah J; Liu, Yangchen; Xiao, Nicholas; Zou, Yi; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Du, Qingyang; Jia, Xinqiao; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Juejun

    2015-09-07

    Integrated photonics provides a miniaturized and potentially implantable platform to manipulate and enhance the interactions between light and biological molecules or tissues in in-vitro and in-vivo settings, and is thus being increasingly adopted in a wide cross-section of biomedical applications ranging from disease diagnosis to optogenetic neuromodulation. However, the mechanical rigidity of substrates traditionally used for photonic integration is fundamentally incompatible with soft biological tissues. Cytotoxicity of materials and chemicals used in photonic device processing imposes another constraint towards these biophotonic applications. Here we present thin film TiO2 as a viable material for biocompatible and flexible integrated photonics. Amorphous TiO2 films were deposited using a low temperature (<250 °C) sol-gel process fully compatible with monolithic integration on plastic substrates. High-index-contrast flexible optical waveguides and resonators were fabricated using the sol-gel TiO2 material, and resonator quality factors up to 20,000 were measured. Following a multi-neutral-axis mechanical design, these devices exhibit remarkable mechanical flexibility, and can sustain repeated folding without compromising their optical performance. Finally, we validated the low cytotoxicity of the sol-gel TiO2 devices through in-vitro cell culture tests. These results demonstrate the potential of sol-gel TiO2 as a promising material platform for novel biophotonic devices.

  11. Deliberate Design of TiO2 Nanostructures towards Superior Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ziqi; Liao, Ting; Sheng, Liyuan; Kou, Liangzhi; Kim, Jung Ho; Dou, Shi Xue

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 nanostructures are being sought after as flexibly utilizable building blocks for the fabrication of the mesoporous thin-film photoelectrodes that are the heart of the third-generation photovoltaic devices, such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), and the recently promoted perovskite-type solar cells. Here, we report deliberate tailoring of TiO2 nanostructures for superior photovoltaic cells. Morphology engineering of TiO2 nanostructures is realized by designing synthetic protocols in which the precursor hydrolysis, crystal growth, and oligomer self-organization are precisely controlled. TiO2 nanostructures in forms varying from isolated nanocubes, nanorods, and cross-linked nanorods to complex hierarchical structures and shape-defined mesoporous micro-/nanostructures were successfully synthesized. The photoanodes made from the shape-defined mesoporous TiO2 microspheres and nanospindles presented superior performances, owing to the well-defined overall shapes and the inner ordered nanochannels, which allow not only a high amount of dye uptake, but also improved visible-light absorption. This study provides a new way to seek an optimal synthetic protocol to meet the required functionality of the nanomaterials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Gold and TiO2 Nanostructure Surfaces for Assembling of Electrochemical Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curulli, A.; Zane, D.

    2008-01-01

    Devices based on nano materials are emerging as a powerful and general class of ultrasensitive sensors for the direct detection of biological and chemical species. In this work, we report the preparation and the full characterization of nano materials such as gold nano wires and TiO 2 nano structured films to be used for assembling of electrochemical biosensors. Gold nano wires were prepared by electroless deposition within the pores of polycarbonate particle track-etched membranes (PMS). Glucose oxidase was deposited onto the nano wires using self-assembling monolayer as an anchor layer for the enzyme molecules. Finally, cyclic voltammetry was performed for different enzymes to test the applicability of gold nano wires as biosensors. Considering another interesting nano material, the realization of functionalized TiO 2 thin films on Si substrates for the immobilization of enzymes is reported. Glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase immobilized onto TiO 2 -based nano structured surfaces exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi reversible voltammetric peaks. The electron exchange between the enzyme and the electrodes was greatly enhanced in the TiO 2 nano structured environment. The electrocatalytic activity of HRP and GOD embedded in TiO 2 electrodes toward H 2 O 2 and glucose, respectively, may have a potential perspective in the fabrication of third-generation biosensors based on direct electrochemistry of enzymes.

  13. Effect of different sol concentrations on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on FTO substrates by sol-gel spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ikhyun; Kim, Younggyu; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Dongwan; Park, Minju; Kim, Haeun; Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Jin Soo

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on fluorine-doped tinoxide (FTO) substrates were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The structural and the optical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared using different sol concentrations were investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films, as observed in the SEM images, exhibited a mountain-chain structure. XRD results indicated that the thin films were preferentially orientated along the direction of the c-axis and that the grain size of the ZnO thin films increased with increasing sol concentration. The PL spectra showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak at 3.22 eV and a broad orange emission peak at 2.0 eV. The intensities of deep-level emission (DLE) gradually increased with increasing sol concentration from 0.4 to 1.0 M. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO thin films showed that the ZnO thin films were transparent (∼85%) in the visible region and exhibited sharp absorption edges at 375 nm. Thus, The Urbach energy of ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sol concentration.

  14. Effects of magnetic flux densities on microstructure evolution and magnetic properties of molecular-beam-vapor-deposited nanocrystalline Fe_3_0Ni_7_0 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yongze; Wang, Qiang; Li, Guojian; Ma, Yonghui; Du, Jiaojiao; He, Jicheng

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe_3_0Ni_7_0 (in atomic %) thin films were prepared by molecular-beam-vapor deposition in magnetic fields with different magnetic flux densities. The microstructure evolution of these thin films was studied by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy; the soft magnetic properties were examined by vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The results show that all our Fe_3_0Ni_7_0 thin films feature an fcc single-phase structure. With increasing magnetic flux density, surface roughness, average particle size and grain size of the thin films decreased, and the short-range ordered clusters (embryos) of thin films increased. Additionally, the magnetic anisotropy in the in-plane and the coercive forces of the thin films gradually reduced with increasing magnetic flux density. - Highlights: • With increasing magnetic flux density, average particle size of films decreased. • With increasing magnetic flux density, surface roughness of thin films decreased. • With increasing magnetic flux density, short-range ordered clusters increased. • With increasing magnetic flux density, the coercive forces of thin films reduced. • With increasing magnetic flux density, soft magnetic properties are improved.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped TiO2 photocatalyst by the sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, Cam Loc; Ho, Si Thoang; Nguyen, Quoc Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Thin layers of pure TiO 2 and TiO 2 doped by different amounts of Fe 2 O 3 have been prepared by the sol–gel method with tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . Physico-chemical properties of catalysts were characterized by BET Adsorption, x-ray Diffraction (XRD), FE-SEM, as well as Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained materials was investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of p-xylene in gas phase under the radiation of UV (λ=365 nm) and LED (λ=470 nm) lamps. It has been found that the particle size of all samples was distributed in the range 20–30 nm. The content of the rutile phase in Fe-doped TiO 2 samples varied in the range 6.8 to 41.8% depending on the Fe content. Iron oxide doped into TiO 2 enables the photon absorbing zone of TiO 2 to extend from UV towards visible waves as well as to reduce its band gap energy from 3.2 to 2.67 eV. Photocatalytic activities of the TiO 2 samples modified by Fe 3+ have been found to be higher than those of pure TiO 2 by about 2.5 times

  16. Characteristics of RuO2-SnO2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin film microsupercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han-Ki; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Young Soo; Chang, Sung-Yong; Ok, Young-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode, grown by DC reactive sputtering, was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) examination results showed that Sn and Ru metal cosputtered electrode in O 2 /Ar ambient have RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystallines in an amorphous oxide matrix. It is shown that the cyclic voltammorgram (CV) result of the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 liquid electrolyte is similar to a bulk-type supercapacitor behavior with a specific capacitance of 62.2 mF/cm 2 μm. This suggests that the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film can be employed in hybrid all-solid state energy storage devises as an electrode of supercapacitor

  17. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO 2 -TiO 2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO 2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO 2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO 2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant. (paper)

  18. Optimization of charge transfer and transport processes at the CdSe quantum dots/TiO2 nanorod interface by TiO2 interlayer passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo-Quintero, O A; Rincon, M E; Triana, M A

    2017-01-01

    Surface trap states hinder charge transfer and transport properties in TiO 2 nanorods (NRs), limiting its application on optoelectronic devices. Here, we study the interfacial processes between rutile TiO 2 NR and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using TiO 2 interlayer passivation treatments. Anatase or rutile TiO 2 thin layers were deposited on an NR surface by two wet-chemical deposition treatments. Reduced interfacial charge recombination between NRs and CdSe QDs was observed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with the introduction of TiO 2 thin film interlayers compared to bare TiO 2 NRs. These results can be ascribed to in-gap trap state passivation of the TiO 2 NR surface, which led to an increase in open circuit voltage. Moreover, the rutile thin layer was more efficient than anatase to promote a higher photo-excited electron transfer from CdSe QDs to TiO 2 NRs due to a large driving force for charge injection, as confirmed by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. (paper)

  19. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO2 nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicai, Liana; Petica, Aurora; Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula; Costovici, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO 2 nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO 2 showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect

  20. Development of nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films using RF-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvan, N.; Thilakan, Periyasamy

    2013-01-01

    ITO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using RF Magnetron puttering Technique from the pre-synthesized ITO target. The sputtering parameters such as the deposition temperature, gas composition and the RF power densities were varied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the crystallization of the films is mostly depending on the RF power density and substrate temperature. Crystallized films exhibited a change in the preferred orientation from (111) plane to (100) plane at specific conditions such as high RF power density and high oxygen mixing to the plasma. Change in the film microstructure and a shift in the optical bandgap were recorded from the SEM and UV-Visible measurements respectively. (author)

  1. Influence of γ-irradiation on the optical properties of nanocrystalline tin phthalocyanine thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nahass, M.M.; Atta, A.A.; El-Shazly, E.A.A.; Faidah, A.S.; Hendi, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    SnPc in powder and thin film forms were found to be polycrystalline with monoclinic lattice. The morphological and structural properties of the obtained SnPc films were characterized from electron scanning micrographs and X-ray diffraction patterns. In the γ-irradiated film the formed agglomeration increased the crystallite size. The refractive index, n, and the absorption index, k, were obtained from spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. γ-Irradiation films shifted the transmission edge toward lower wavelength and increase the optical energy gap value. According to the analysis of dispersion curves, the dielectric constants and dispersion parameters were obtained. The absorption analysis performed indicated indirect allowed electronic transitions and the optical energy band gap 2.84 and 2.63 eV for the as-deposited and the γ-irradiated films, respectively.

  2. Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of TiO_2 Buffered IGZO/TiO_2 Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil

    2016-01-01

    In and Ga doped ZnO (IGZO, 100-nm thick) thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating on a bare glass substrate and a TiO_2-deposited glass substrate to determine the effect of the thickness of a thin TiO_2 buffer layer on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films. The thicknesses of the TiO_2 buffer layers were 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. As-deposited IGZO films with a 10 nm-thick TiO_2 buffer layer had an average optical transmittance of 85.0% with lower resistivity (1.83×10-2 Ω cm) than that of IGZO single layer films. The figure of merit (FOM) reached a maximum of 1.44×10-4 Ω-1 for IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films, which is higher than the FOM of 6.85×10-5 Ω-1 for IGZO single layer films. Because a higher FOM value indicates better quality transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, the IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films are likely to perform better in TCO applications than IGZO single layer films.

  3. Nano-MnO2@TiO2 microspheres: A novel structure and excellent performance as anode of lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiguang; Chen, Xiaoqiao; Xing, Lidang; Liao, Youhao; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2018-03-01

    A structurally hierarchical MnO2/TiO2 composite (Nano-MnO2@TiO2) is fabricated by calcining MnCO3 microspheres and coating a thin layer of TiO2 through the heat decomposition of tetrabutyl titanate, and evaluated as anode of gravimetrically and volumetrically high energy density lithium ion battery. The characterizations from FESEM, TEM, HRTEM and XRD, indicate that the resulting Nano-MnO2@TiO2 takes a spherical morphology with a core of about 2 μm in diameter, consisting of compact MnO2 nanoparticles, and a shell of 60 nm thick, consisting of smaller TiO2 nanoparticles. The charge/discharge tests demonstrate that Nano-MnO2@TiO2 exhibits excellent performance as anode of lithium ion battery, delivering a capacity of 938 mAh g-1 at 300 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, compared to the 103 mAh g-1 of the uncoated sample. The microsphere consisting of compact nanoparticles provides Nano-MnO2@TiO2 with high specific gravity. The dimensionally and structurally stable TiO2 maintains the integrity of MnO2 microspheres and facilitates lithium insertion/extraction. This unique structure yields the excellent cyclic stability and rate capability of Nano-MnO2@TiO2.

  4. Water Adsorption on TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) studies and Density Functional Theory (DFT) investigations of the interaction of water with the rutile TiO2 (110) surface are summarized. From high-resolution STM the following reactions have been revealed: water adsorption and diffusion in the Ti troughs, water...... dissociation in bridging oxygen vacancies, assembly of adsorbed water monomers into rapidly diffusing water dimers, and formation of water dimers by reduction of oxygen molecules. The STM results are rationalized based on DFT calculations, revealing the bonding geometries and reaction pathways of the water...

  5. Preparation of multilayered nanocrystalline thin films with composition-modulated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, D.; Barna, P.B.; Szekely, L.; Geszti, O.; Hattori, T.; Devenyi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of multilayer thin film structures depend on the morphology and structure of interfaces. A broad interface, in which the composition is varying, can enhance, e.g., the hardness of multilayer thin films. In the present experiments multilayers of TiAlN and CrN as well as TiAlN, CrN and MoS 2 were studied by using unbalanced magnetron sputter sources. The sputter sources were arranged side by side on an arc. This arrangement permits development of a transition zone between the layers, where the composition changes continuously. The multilayer system was deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of sputter sources. Thicknesses of layers could be changed both by oscillation frequency and by the power applied to sputter sources. Ti/Al: 50/50 at%, pure chromium and MoS 2 targets were used in the sputter sources. The depositions were performed in an Ar-N 2 mixture at 0.22 Pa working pressure. The sputtering power of the TiAl source was feed-back adjusted in fuzzy-logic mode in order to avoid fluctuation of the TiAl target sputter rate due to poisoning of the target surface. Structure characterization of films deposited on Si wafers covered by thermally grown SiO 2 was performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. At first a 100 nm thick Cr base layer was deposited on the substrate to improve adhesion, which was followed by a CrN transition layer. The CrN transition layer was followed by a 100 nm thick TiAlN/CrN multilayer system. The TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system was deposited on the surface of this underlayer system. The underlayer systems Cr, CrN and TiAlN/CrN were crystalline with columnar structure according to the morphology of zone T of the structure zone models. The column boundaries contained segregated phases showing up in the under-focused TEM images. The surface of the underlayer system was wavy due to dome-shaped columns. The nanometer-scaled TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system followed this waviness

  6. Bi-functional TiO2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhancing the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Zhang; Wu Jihuai; Lin Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Enhanced photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC with conductive grids in the photo and counter electrodes. Highlights: ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids is made for using as electrode in large-area DSSC. ► The electrode has high conductivity and low internal resistance. ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids electrode avoids iodine corrosion in electrolyte. ► The TiO 2 layer also play a blocking layer role. ► Above factors enhance the photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC. - Abstract: A bi-functional TiO 2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhanced the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is prepared with a simple way. The conductive printing paste contains micro-sized Ag powders and nano-sized TiO 2 cementing agent. The conductive printing paste can be well cemented on the FTO glass and form high conductive grids with Ag powders sintered together by the nano-sized TiO 2 particles. The formed conductive grid is protected with a TiO 2 thin layer and TiO 2 sol treatment to avoid the iodine corrosion. The addition of the TiO 2 cemented conductive grid can decrease the internal resistance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell when it is prepared in the photo and counter electrodes. Furthermore, the protecting TiO 2 thin layer and the TiO 2 sol treatment can be done on the whole area of the large-area photo electrode to both play as the blocking under layer at the same time, which can also enhance the photovoltaic performance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell.

  7. Microstructure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Cu2O thin films prepared by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xishun; Zhang, Miao; Shi, Shiwei; He, Gang; Song, Xueping; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition technique at different applied potentials (-0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, and -0.9 V) and were annealed in vacuum at a temperature of 100°C for 1 h. Microstructure and optical properties of these films have been investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The morphology of these films varies obviously at different applied potentials. Analyses from these characterizations have confirmed that these films are composed of regular, well-faceted, polyhedral crystallites. UV-vis absorption spectra measurements have shown apparent shift in optical band gap from 1.69 to 2.03 eV as the applied potential becomes more cathodic. The emission of FL spectra at 603 nm may be assigned as the near band-edge emission.

  8. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline ZnS Thin Films via Spray Pyrolysis for Optoelectronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rahman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnS thin films were deposited on the glass substrates at a temperature of 350 °C by a low cost spray pyrolysis technique and annealed at 450 °C and 550 °C in a closed furnace. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray, X-ray Diffraction and UV-VIS spectrophotometer and dc conductivity by four probe van der Pauw method. The X-ray diffraction spectra of as-deposited films showed amorphous nature and after annealing at 450 °C and 550 °C the films were found polycrystalline nature with wurtzite hexagonal structure. The optical transmission spectra suggest that the fundamental absorption edge in the films is formed by the direct allowed transition. The optical band gap was decreased from 3.75 to 2.5 eV when the as-deposited films were annealed. The existing results of electrical conductivity and the activation energy reveal the semi-conducting behaviour of the samples.

  9. Whiter, brighter, and more stable cellulose paper coated with TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles using a layer-by-layer approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lorch, Mark; Sajedin, Seyed Mani; Kelly, Stephen M; Kornherr, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    To inhibit the photocatalytic degradation of organic material supports induced by small titania (TiO2 ) nanoparticles, four kinds of TiO2 nanoparticles, that is, commercial P25-TiO2 , commercial rutile phase TiO2 , rutile TiO2 nanorods and rutile TiO2 spheres, prepared from TiCl4 , were coated with a thin, but dense, coating of silica (SiO2 ) using a conventional sol-gel technique to form TiO2 /SiO2 core/shell nanoparticles. These core/shell particles were deposited and fixed as a very thin coating onto the surface of cellulose paper samples by a wet-chemistry polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer approach. The TiO2 /SiO2 nanocoated paper samples exhibit higher whiteness and brightness and greater stability to UV-bleaching than comparable samples of blank paper. There are many potential applications for this green chemistry approach to protect cellulosic fibres from UV-bleaching in sunlight and to improve their whiteness and brightness. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Tuning the Phase and Microstructural Properties of TiO2 Films Through Pulsed Laser Deposition and Exploring Their Role as Buffer Layers for Conductive Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Haseman, M. S.; Leedy, K. D.; Winarski, D. J.; Saadatkia, P.; Doyle, E.; Zhang, L.; Dang, T.; Vasilyev, V. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a semiconducting oxide of increasing interest due to its chemical and thermal stability and broad applicability. In this study, thin films of TiO2 were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire and silicon substrates under various growth conditions, and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. XRD patterns revealed that a sapphire substrate is more suitable for the formation of the rutile phase in TiO2, while a silicon substrate yields a pure anatase phase, even at high-temperature growth. AFM images showed that the rutile TiO2 films grown at 805°C on a sapphire substrate have a smoother surface than anatase films grown at 620°C. Optical absorption spectra confirmed the band gap energy of 3.08 eV for the rutile phase and 3.29 eV for the anatase phase. All the deposited films exhibited the usual high resistivity of TiO2; however, when employed as a buffer layer, anatase TiO2 deposited on sapphire significantly improves the conductivity of indium gallium zinc oxide thin films. The study illustrates how to control the formation of TiO2 phases and reveals another interesting application for TiO2 as a buffer layer for transparent conducting oxides.

  11. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity for TiO2 nanoparticles as air purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Adawiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NP’s were prepared using sol-gel process from Titanium Tetrachloride (TiCl4 as a precursor with calcinations at two temperatures (500 and 900 °C. The effect of calcinations temperatures on the structural, optical, morphological and Root Mean Square (roughness properties were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Bacterial inactivation was evaluated using TiO2-coated Petri dishes. A thin layer of photocatalytic TiO2 powder was deposited on glass substrate in order to investigate the self-cleaning effect of TiO2 nanoparticles in indoor and outdoor applications. Ultra-hydrophilicity was assessed by measuring the contact angle and it evaluated photolysis properties through the degradation of potassium permanganate (KMnO4 under direct sunlight. XRD analysis indicated that the structure of TiO2 was anatase at 500 °C and rutile at 900 °C calcination temperatures. As the calcination temperature increases, the crystallinity is improved and the crystallite size becomes larger. Coated films of TiO2 made the has permeability, low water contact angle and good optical activity. These are properties essential for the application of the surface of the self-cleaning. The final results illustrate that titanium dioxide can be used in the build materials to produce coated surfaces in order to minimize air pollutants that are placed in microbiologically sensitive circumference like hospitals and the food factory.

  12. Remediation of Organic and Inorganic Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater using a Nonocrystalline TiO2 Based Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, C.; Meng, X; Calvache, E; Jiang, G

    2009-01-01

    A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 ?g L-1 As(III), 246 ?g L-1 As(V), 151 ?g L-1 MMA, and 202 ?g L-1 DMA was continuously passed through a TiO2 filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 ?g L-1. However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). A nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  13. TiO2 coatings via atomic layer deposition on polyurethane and polydimethylsiloxane substrates: Properties and effects on C. albicans growth and inactivation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, R. S.; dos Santos, V. P.; Cardoso, S. B.; Doria, A. C. O. C.; Figueira, F. R.; Rodrigues, B. V. M.; Testoni, G. E.; Fraga, M. A.; Marciano, F. R.; Lobo, A. O.; Maciel, H. S.

    2017-11-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) surges as an attractive technology to deposit thin films on different substrates for many advanced biomedical applications. Herein titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were successful obtained on polyurethane (PU) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates using ALD. The effect of TiO2 films on Candida albicans growth and inactivation process were also systematic discussed. TiCl4 and H2O were used as precursors at 80 °C, while the reaction cycle number ranged from 500 to 2000. Several chemical, physical and physicochemical techniques were used to evaluate the growth kinetics, elemental composition, material structure, chemical bonds, contact angle, work of adhesion and surface morphology of the ALD TiO2 thin films grown on both substrates. For microbiological analyses, yeasts of standard strains of C. albicans were grown on non- and TiO2-coated substrates. Next, the antifungal and photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 were also investigated by counting the colony-forming units (CFU) before and after UV-light treatment. Chlorine-doped amorphous TiO2 films with varied thicknesses and Cl concentration ranging from 2 to 12% were obtained. In sum, the ALD TiO2 films suppressed the yeast-hyphal transition of C. albicans onto PU, however, a high adhesion of yeasts was observed. Conversely, for PDMS substrate, the yeast adhesion did not change, as observed in control. Comparatively to control, the TiO2-covered PDMS had a reduction in CFU up to 59.5% after UV treatment, while no modification was observed to TiO2-covered PU. These results pointed out that ALD chlorine-doped amorphous TiO2 films grown on biomedical polymeric surfaces may act as fungistatic materials. Furthermore, in case of contamination, these materials may also behave as antifungal materials under UV light exposure.

  14. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB{sub 6} thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; More, Mahendra A. [Savitribai Phule Pune University, Department of Physics, Centre for Advanced Studies in Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, Pune (India); Singh, Anil K.; Sinha, Sucharita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Phase, Deodatta M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research Indore Centre, Indore (India); Late, Dattatray J. [CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, Pune (India)

    2016-10-15

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB{sub 6}) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB{sub 6} on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ∝10{sup -8} mbar. The GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ∝1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of ∝6.0 and 7.0 V/μm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor (β) estimated using the slopes of the F-N plots indicate that the PLD GdB{sub 6} coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB{sub 6}/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB{sub 6}/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ∝1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB{sub 6}/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB{sub 6}/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB{sub 6} films on W and Re substrates. (orig.)

  15. Atomic layer deposited nanocrystalline tungsten carbides thin films as a metal gate and diffusion barrier for Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Beom; Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Won Seok [UP Chemical 576, Chilgoedong, Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do 459-050 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Do-Joong [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Tungsten carbides (WC{sub x}) thin films were deposited on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a fluorine- and nitrogen-free W metallorganic precursor, tungsten tris(3-hexyne) carbonyl [W(CO)(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}C ≡ CCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}], and N{sub 2} + H{sub 2} plasma as the reactant at deposition temperatures between 150 and 350 °C. The present ALD-WC{sub x} system showed an ALD temperature window between 200 and 250 °C, where the growth rate was independent of the deposition temperature. Typical ALD characteristics, such as self-limited film growth and a linear dependency of the film grown on the number of ALD cycles, were observed, with a growth rate of 0.052 nm/cycle at a deposition temperature of 250 °C. The ALD-WC{sub x} films formed a nanocrystalline structure with grains, ∼2 nm in size, which consisted of hexagonal W{sub 2}C, WC, and nonstoichiometric cubic β-WC{sub 1−x} phase. Under typical deposition conditions at 250 °C, an ALD-WC{sub x} film with a resistivity of ∼510 μΩ cm was deposited and the resistivity of the ALD-WC{sub x} film could be reduced even further to ∼285 μΩ cm by further optimizing the reactant pulsing conditions, such as the plasma power. The step coverage of ALD-WC{sub x} film was ∼80% on very small sized and dual trenched structures (bottom width of 15 nm and aspect ratio of ∼6.3). From ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, the work function of the ALD-WC{sub x} film was determined to be 4.63 eV. Finally, the ultrathin (∼5 nm) ALD-WC{sub x} film blocked the diffusion of Cu, even up to 600 °C, which makes it a promising a diffusion barrier material for Cu interconnects.

  16. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  17. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Enhancement of Optoelectronic Properties of PFO-Based Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl- (PFO- based light emitting diode upon incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs is demonstrated. The PFO/TiO2 nanocomposites with different weight ratios between 5 and 35 wt.% were prepared using solution blending method before they were spin coated onto Indium Tin Oxide substrate. Then a thin Al layer was deposited onto the nanocomposite layer to act as top electrode. The nanocomposites were tested as emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The TiO2 NPs played the most crucial role in facilitating charge transport and electrical injection and thus improved device performance in terms of turn-on voltage, electroluminescence spectra (EL, luminance, and luminance efficiency. The best composition was OLED with 5 wt.% TiO2 NPs content having moderate surface roughness and well distribution of NPs. The device performance was reduced at higher TiO2 NPs content due to higher surface roughness and agglomeration of TiO2 NPs. This work demonstrated the importance of optimum TiO2 NPs content with uniform distribution and controlled surface roughness of the emissive layer for better device performance.

  18. Fabrication of TiO2-modified polytetrafluoroethylene ultrafiltration membranes via plasma-enhanced surface graft pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yingjia; Chi, Lina; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Surface hydrophilic modification of polymer ultrafiltration membrane using metal oxide represents an effective yet highly challenging solution to improve water flux and antifouling performance. Via plasma-enhanced graft of poly acryl acid (PAA) prior to coating TiO2, we successfully fixed TiO2 functional thin layer on super hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The characterization results evidenced TiO2 attached on the PTFE-based UF membranes through the chelating bidentate coordination between surface-grafted carboxyl group and Ti4+. The TiO2 surface modification may greatly reduce the water contact angle from 115.8° of the PTFE membrane to 35.0° without degradation in 30-day continuous filtration operations. The novel TiO2/PAA/PTFE membranes also exhibited excellent antifouling and self-cleaning performance due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity and photocatalysis properties of TiO2, which was further confirmed by the photo-degradation of MB under Xe lamp irradiation.

  19. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO_2 photoanode with FTO glass and film both treated by TiCl_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinlun; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Qian, Yannan; Li, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO_2 photoanode with FTO glass and TiO_2 film co-treated by TiCl_4 were fabricated. The effects of TiCl_4 treatment on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs were investigated. TiCl_4 treatment of the FTO glass resulted in the formation of a compact TiO_2 thin layer on its surface, which could increase the electron collection efficiency. Meanwhile, TiCl_4 treatment of the TiO_2 film could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the TiO_2 film, leading to better electron transfer. These advantages make the DSSC exhibit a highest conversion efficiency of 3.34% under a simulated solar irradiation with an intensity of 100 mW/cm"2 (1 sun), increased by 38% compared with that of the untreated DSSC.

  20. Atomic layer deposited TiO2 for implantable brain-chip interfacing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianci, E.; Lattanzio, S.; Seguini, G.; Vassanelli, S.; Fanciulli, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigated atomic layer deposition (ALD) TiO 2 thin films deposited on implantable neuro-chips based on electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor (EOS) junctions, implementing both efficient capacitive neuron-silicon coupling and biocompatibility for long-term implantable functionality. The ALD process was performed at 295 °C using titanium tetraisopropoxide and ozone as precursors on needle-shaped silicon substrates. Engineering of the capacitance of the EOS junctions introducing a thin Al 2 O 3 buffer layer between TiO 2 and silicon resulted in a further increase of the specific capacitance. Biocompatibility for long-term implantable neuroprosthetic systems was checked upon in-vitro treatment.

  1. TiO2 beads and TiO2-chitosan beads for urease immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, İlyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO 2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO 2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO 2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO 2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2 mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5 mg/ml for A and 1.0 mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0 mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60 °C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30 °C (A), 40 °C (B) and 35 °C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65 °C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity. - Highlights: • TiO 2 and TiO 2 -chitosan beads for urease immobilization have been prepared and characterized. • The beads used in this work are good matrices for the immobilization of urease. • The immobilized urease was shown to have good properties and stabilities (pH and thermal stability, operational stability). • The 50% activity was protected after 11 cycles for method A and 16 cycles for method B

  2. Experimental results for TiO2 melting and release using cold crucible melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. W.; Min, B. T.; Park, I. G.; Kim, H. D.

    2000-01-01

    To simulate the severe accident phenomena using the real reactor material which melting point is about 2,800K, the melting and release method for materials with high melting point should be developed. This paper discusses the test results for TiO 2 materials using the cold crucible melting method to study the melting and release method of actual corium. To melt and release of few kg of TiO2, the experimental facility is manufactured through proper selection of design parameters such as frequency and capacity of R.F generator, crucible size and capacity of coolant. The melting and release of TiO 2 has been successfully performed in the cold crucible of 15cm in inner diameter and 30cm in height with 30kW RF power generator of 370 KHz. In the melt delivery experiment, about 2.6kg of molten TiO2, 60% of initial charged mass, is released. Rest of it is remained in the watercage in form of the rubble crust formed at the top of crucible and melt crust formed at the interface between the water-cage and melt. Especially, in the melt release test, the location of the working coil is important to make the thin crust at the bottom of the crucible

  3. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of TiO2/Diatomite-Based Porous Ceramics Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuilin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatomite-based porous ceramics was made by low-temperature sintering. Then the nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis deposition method with titanium tetrachloride as the precursor of TiO2 and diatomite-based porous as the supporting body of the nano-TiO2. The structure and microscopic appearance of nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials was characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic property of the composite was investigated by the degradation of malachite green. Results showed that, after calcination at 550°C, TiO2 thin film loaded on the diatomite-based porous ceramics is anatase TiO2 and average grain size of TiO2 is about 10 nm. The degradation ratio of the composite for 5 mg/L malachite green solution reached 86.2% after irradiation for 6 h under ultraviolet.

  4. Synthesis of dense TiO2 nanoparticle multilayers using spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva, L. Ajith; Thakurdesai, Madhavi; Bandara, T. M. W. J.; Preston, Joshua; Johnson, Wyatt; Gaquere-Parker, Anne; Survase, Smita

    2018-04-01

    A stack of nine layers is prepared by sequential spun casting of commercially available colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles of average size of 10-15 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is employed to investigate the surface morphology of the multilayers. SEM micrographs exhibit formation of highly uniform and dense TiO2 nanoparticle layers. The uniformity and density is found to be increasing with layer thickness. Structural characterization is carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. XRD spectra indicate improvement in crystalline quality of all the layers with increasing layer thickness. All the layers are having mainly the anatase phase of TiO2. Optical characterization is carried out by UV-visible spectroscopy. The value of bandgap estimated on the basis of absorption coefficient is found to be 3.26 eV and approximately remains the same for the layers. The electrical characterization suggests that multilayer resistivity increases with increasing layer thickness. The good quality spin coated thin dense TiO2 layers have many applications in optoelectronics.

  5. Bactericidal Activity of TiO2 on Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Aguilar Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity of semiconductors is increasingly being used to disinfect water, air, soils, and surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is widely used as a photocatalyst in thin films, powder, and in mixtures with other semiconductors or metals. This work presents the antibacterial effects of TiO2 and light exposure (at 365 nm on Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. TiO2 powder was prepared from a mixture of titanium isopropoxide, ethanol, and nitric acid using a green and short time sol-gel technique. The obtained gel annealed at 450°C was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The nanocomposite effectively catalyzed the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Following 90 minutes exposure to TiO2 and UV light, logarithm of cell density was reduced from 6 to 3. These results were confirmed by a factorial design incorporating two experimental replicates and two independent factors.

  6. Facile Conversion of Electrospun TiO2 into Titanium Nitride/Oxynitride Fibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Procházka, Jan; Bastl, Zdeněk; Duchoslav, J.; Rubáček, L.; Havlíček, D.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 13 (2010), s. 4045-4055 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk OC09048; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : visible-light photocatalysis * nitrogen doped TiO2 * thin films Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 6.400, year: 2010

  7. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition method and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraei, Reza, E-mail: r.sahraei@ilam.ac.ir; Darafarin, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films were deposited on quartz, silicon, and glass substrates using chemical bath deposition method in a weak acidic solution containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid disodium salt (Na{sub 2}EDTA) as a complexing agent for zinc ions and thioacetamide (TAA) as a sulfide source at 80 °C. The films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV–vis transmission data showed that the films were transparent in the visible region. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a cubic zinc blend structure. FE-SEM revealed a homogeneous morphology and dense nanostructures. The PL spectra of the ZnS:Ni films showed two characteristic bands, one broad band centered at 430 and another narrow band at 523 nm. Furthermore, concentration quenching effect on the photoluminescence intensity has been observed. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZnS:Ni thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method. • The size of ZnS:Ni nanocrystals was less than 10 nm showing quantum size effect. • SEM images demonstrated a dense and uniform surface that was free of pinholes. • The deposited films were highly transparent (>70%) in the visible region. • The PL spectra of ZnS:Ni thin films showed two emission peaks at 430 and 523 nm.

  8. Grain size and lattice parameter's influence on band gap of SnS thin nano-crystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Yashika [Department of Electronics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi-South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India); Arun, P., E-mail: arunp92@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Electronics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Naudi, A.A.; Walz, M.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, 3101 Oro Verde (Argentina); Albanesi, E.A. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, 3101 Oro Verde (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Guemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2016-08-01

    Tin sulphide nano-crystalline thin films were fabricated on glass and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) substrates by thermal evaporation method. The crystal structure orientation of the films was found to be dependent on the substrate. Residual stress existed in the films due to these orientations. This stress led to variation in lattice parameter. The nano-crystalline grain size was also found to vary with film thickness. A plot of band-gap with grain size or with lattice parameter showed the existence of a family of curves. This implied that band-gap of SnS films in the preview of the present study depends on two parameters, lattice parameter and grain size. The band-gap relation with grain size is well known in the nano regime. Experimental data fitted well with this relation for the given lattice constants. The manuscript uses theoretical structure calculations for different lattice constants and shows that the experimental data follows the trend. Thus, confirming that the band gap has a two variable dependency. - Highlights: • Tin sulphide films are grown on glass and ITO substrates. • Both substrates give differently oriented films. • The band-gap is found to depend on grain size and lattice parameter. • Using data from literature, E{sub g} is shown to be two parameter function. • Theoretical structure calculations are used to verify results.

  9. Controlled Directional Growth of TiO2 Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how the anodization direction and growth rate of vertically aligned, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can be controlled and manipulated by the local concentration of O-2 in the electrolyte. This leads to the growth of highly active TiO2 NT arrays directly on nonconducting s...

  10. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  11. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photocatalyst; TiO2 nanoparticle; polyaniline; conducting polymer; core-shell nanocomposite. 1. Introduction ..... tine TiO2 nanoparticles, HCl-doped PANI and PANI/TiO2 ..... Karim M R, Lim K T, Lee M S, Kim K and Yeum J H 2009 Synth. Met.

  12. Electrical response of electron selective atomic layer deposited TiO2‑x heterocontacts on crystalline silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiboz, Doğuşcan; Nasser, Hisham; Aygün, Ezgi; Bek, Alpan; Turan, Raşit

    2018-04-01

    Integration of oxygen deficient sub-stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO2‑x) thin films as the electron transporting-hole blocking layer in solar cell designs are expected to reduce fabrication costs by eliminating high temperature processes while maintaining high conversion efficiencies. In this paper, we conducted a study to reveal the electrical properties of TiO2‑x thin films grown on crystalline silicon (c-Si) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Effect of ALD substrate temperature, post deposition annealing, and doping type of the c-Si substrate on the interface states and TiO2‑x bulk properties were extracted by performing admittance (C-V, G-V) and current-voltage (J-V) measurements. Moreover, the asymmetry in C-V and J-V measurements between the p-n type and n-n TiO2‑x-c-Si heterojunction types were examined and the electron transport selectivity of TiO2‑x was revealed.

  13. Improved Treatment of Photothermal Cancer by Coating TiO2 on Porous Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kil Ju; Park, Gye-Choon

    2016-02-01

    In present society, the technology in various field has been sharply developed and advanced. In medical technology, especially, photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy have had limelight for curing cancers and diseases. The study investigates the photothermal therapy that reduces side effects of existing cancer treatment, is applied to only cancer cells, and dose not harm any other normal cells. The photothermal properties of porous silicon for therapy are analyzed in order to destroy cancer cells that are more weak at heat than normal ones. For improving performance of porous silicon, it also analyzes the properties when irradiating the near infrared by heterologously junction TiO2 and TiO2NW, photocatalysts that are very stable and harmless to the environment and the human body, to porous silicon. Each sample of Si, PSi, TiO2/Psi, and TiO2NW/PSi was irradiated with 808 nm near-IR of 300, 500, and 700 mW/cm2 light intensity, where the maximum heating temperature was 43.8, 61.6, 67.9, and 61.9 degrees C at 300 mW/cm2; 54.1, 64.3, 78.8, and 68.9 degrees C at 500 mW/cm2; and 97.3, 102.8, 102.5, and 95 0C at 700 mW/cm2. The time required to reach the maximum temperature was less than 10 min for every case. The results indicate that TiO2/PSi thin film irradiated with a single near-infrared wavelength of 808 nm, which is known to have the best human permeability, offers the potential of being the most successful photothermal cancer therapy agent. It maximizes the photo-thermal characteristics within the shortest time, and minimizes the adverse effects on the human body.

  14. Effect of Various Catalysts on the Stability of Characteristics of Acetone Sensors Based on Thin Nanocrystalline SnO2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastyanov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Potekaev, A. I.; Khludkova, L. S.; Chernikov, E. V.; Davydova, T. A.

    2018-02-01

    The results of studies of electrical and gas sensitive characteristics of acetone sensors based on thin nanocrystalline SnO2 films with various catalysts deposited on the surface (Pt/Pd, Au) and introduced into the volume (Au, Ni, Co) are presented. Films containing impurities of gold and 3d-metals were obtained by the method of magnetron sputtering of mosaic targets. Particular attention was paid to the influence of the longterm tests and humidity level on the properties of sensors. It is shown that the sensors with the deposited dispersed gold layers with Au+Ni and, especially, Au+Co additives introduced into the volume are characterized by the increased stability in the process of testing under prolonged exposure to acetone and also under conditions of varying humidity.

  15. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the coating/substrate interface on the photocatalytic behavior of Al-TiO2 coatings was investigated. The TiO2 coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The nanoscale structure of the coating was analyzed using X-ray diffraction; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron...... transport between the coating and the metallic substrate. The highest photocurrents were indeed obtained when the thickness of interfacial aluminum oxide could be reduced by sputtering a thin Ti layer prior to TiO2 coating. Photocurrent plotted for different photon energy for a TiO2 coating on a Ti...

  16. New Hybrid Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Surface Modified With Catecholate Type Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džunuzović Enis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Surface modification of nanocrystalline TiO2 particles (45 Å with bidentate benzene derivatives (catechol, pyrogallol, and gallic acid was found to alter optical properties of nanoparticles. The formation of the inner-sphere charge–transfer complexes results in a red shift of the semiconductor absorption compared to unmodified nanocrystallites. The binding structures were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. The investigated ligands have the optimal geometry for chelating surface Ti atoms, resulting in ring coordination complexes (catecholate type of binuclear bidentate binding–bridging thus restoring in six-coordinated octahedral geometry of surface Ti atoms. From the Benesi–Hildebrand plot, the stability constants at pH 2 of the order 103 M−1 have been determined.

  17. CORONA DISCHARGE REACTOR FOR SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS AND HYDROCARBONS USING OZONATION AND PHOTOXIDATION OF OVER TIO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a process that combines the use of surface corona for the production of ozone by passing air or oxygen through a high voltage electrical discharge and the emitted UV is being used to activate a photocatalyst. A thin film of nanostructured TiO2 with primary part...

  18. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  19. Few-Layer MoS2 Nanodomains Decorating TiO2 Nanoparticles: A Case Study for the Photodegradation of Carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cravanzola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available S-doped TiO2 and hybrid MoS2/TiO2 systems have been synthesized, via the sulfidation with H2S of the bare TiO2 and of MoOx supported on TiO2 systems, with the aim of enhancing the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 for the degradation of carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant drug, whose residues and metabolites are usually inefficiently removed in wastewater treatment plants. The focus of this study is to find a relationship between the morphology/structure/surface properties and photoactivity. The full characterization of samples reveals the strong effects of the H2S action on the properties of TiO2, with the formation of defects at the surface, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and infrared spectroscopy (IR, while also the optical properties are strongly affected by the sulfidation treatment, with changes in the electronic states of TiO2. Meanwhile, the formation of small and thin few-layer MoS2 domains, decorating the TiO2 surface, is evidenced by both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and UV-Vis/Raman spectroscopies, while Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectra give insights into the nature of Ti and Mo surface sites. The most interesting findings of our research are the enhanced photoactivity of the MoS2/TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst toward the carbamazepine mineralization. Surprisingly, the formation of hazardous compounds (i.e., acridine derivatives, usually obtained from carbamazepine, is precluded when treated with MoS2/TiO2 systems.

  20. Above room temperature ferromagnetism in Si:Mn and TiO(2-delta)Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, A; Orlov, A; Perov, N; Gan'shina, E; Semisalova, A; Balagurov, L; Kulemanov, I; Sapelkin, A; Rogalev, A; Smekhova, A

    2012-09-01

    We present recent experimental results on the structural, electrical, magnetic, and magneto-optical properties of Mn-implanted Si and Co-doped TiO(2-delta) magnetic oxides. Si wafers, both n- and p-type, with high and low resistivity, were used as the starting materials for implantation with Mn ions at the fluencies up to 5 x 10(16) cm(-2). The saturation magnetization was found to show the lack of any regular dependence on the Si conductivity type, type of impurity and the short post-implantation annealing. According to XMCD Mn impurity in Si does not bear any appreciable magnetic moment at room temperature. The obtained results indicate that above room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-implanted Si originates not from Mn impurity but rather from structural defects in Si. The TiO(2-delta):Co thin films were deposited on LaAlO3 (001) substrates by magnetron sputtering in the argon-oxygen atmosphere at oxygen partial pressure of 2 x 10(-6)-2 x 10(-4) Torr. The obtained transverse Kerr effect spectra at the visible and XMCD spectra indicate on intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism in TiO(2-delta):Co thin films at low (< 1%) volume fraction of Co.

  1. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  2. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  3. A Designed TiO2 /Carbon Nanocomposite as a High-Efficiency Lithium-Ion Battery Anode and Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Zhang, Huijuan; Bai, Yuanjuan; Feng, Yangyang; Wang, Yu

    2015-10-12

    Herein, a peapod-like TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite has successfully been synthesized by a rational method for the first time. The novel nanostructure exhibits a distinct feature of TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated inside and the carbon fiber coating outside. In the synthetic process, H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes serve as precursors and templates, and glucose molecules act as the green carbon source. With the alliciency of hydrogen bonding between H2 Ti3 O7 and glucose, a thin polymer layer is hydrothermally assembled and subsequently converted into carbon fibers through calcinations under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, the precursors of H2 Ti3 O7 nanotubes are transformed into the TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon fibers. The achieved unique nanocomposites can be used as excellent anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and photocatalytic reagents in the degradation of rhodamine B. Due to the synergistic effect derived from TiO2 nanoparticles and carbon fibers, the obtained peapod-like TiO2 /carbon cannot only deliver a high specific capacity of 160 mAh g(-1) over 500 cycles in LIBs, but also perform a much faster photodegradation rate than bare TiO2 and P25. Furthermore, owing to the low cost, environmental friendliness as well as abundant source, this novel TiO2 /carbon nanocomposite will have a great potential to be extended to other application fields, such as specific catalysis, gas sensing, and photovoltaics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. H2O2 and/or TiO2 photocatalysis under UV irradiation for the removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and their antibiotic resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Kai; Hou, Song; Wan, Li; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiaodong; Chen, Shuyi; Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 thin film was successfully synthesized for treating ARB and ARGs from water. • More than 5.5 log units of ARB reduction was achieved by TiO 2 under UV irradiation. • With TiO 2 , ARGs were reduced by more than 5 log units under UV irradiation. • TiO 2 could remove both intracellular and extracellular forms of ARGs. - Abstract: Inactivating antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and removing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are very important to prevent their spread into the environment. Previous efforts have been taken to eliminate ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution and sludges, however, few satisfying results have been obtained. This study investigated whether photocatalysis by TiO 2 was able to reduce the two ARGs, mecA and ampC, within the host ARB, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. The addition of H 2 O 2 and matrix effect on the removal of ARB and ARGs were also studied. TiO 2 thin films showed great effect on both ARB inactivation and ARGs removal. Approximately 4.5-5.0 and 5.5–5.8 log ARB reductions were achieved by TiO 2 under 6 and 12 mJ/cm 2 UV 254 fluence dose, respectively. For ARGs, 5.8 log mecA reduction and 4.7 log ampC reduction were achieved under 120 mJ/cm 2 UV 254 fluence dose in the presence of TiO 2 . Increasing dosage of H 2 O 2 enhanced the removal efficiencies of ARB and ARGs. The results also demonstrated that photocatalysis by TiO 2 was capable of removing both intracellular and extracellular forms of ARGs. This study provided a potential alternative method for the removal of ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution.

  5. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO2 deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok; You, Sheng-Jie; Chiou, Guan-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles. ► Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH ≥ 7 at all flux conditions. ► The presence of a very thin TiO 2 cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. ► The resistance offered by dense TiO 2 cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO 2 deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH ≥ 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO 2 can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO 2 cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  6. Enhanced visible-light activities for PEC water reduction of CuO nanoplates by coupling with anatase TiO2 and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhijun; Qu, Yang; He, Guangwen; Humayun, Muhammad; Chen, Shuangying; Jing, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuO nanoplates were successfully prepared as photocathodes for PEC water reduction. • Visible-light activity for PEC water reduction is improved after coupling with TiO 2 . • Improved PEC performance is attributed to the enhanced visible-excited charge separation. • Enhanced charge separation results from high-energy electron transfer from CuO to TiO 2 . - Abstract: CuO nanoplates were prepared by a feasible hydrothermal method, and then utilized as photocathodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water reduction in a neutral medium under visible-light irradiation. It is clearly demonstrated that the visible-light activities of the resulting nanoplates for PEC water reduction could be greatly improved after coupling with a proper amount of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 . This is attributed to the enhanced charge separation in the fabricated TiO 2 /CuO nanoplate composites mainly based on the atmosphere-controlled steady-state surface photovoltage spectra. Moreover, it is suggested that the enhanced charge separation resulted from the transfer of visible-light-excited high-energy electrons from CuO to TiO 2 as confirmed from the single-wavelength PEC behavior

  7. Studies of surface morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures grown on different molarities of TiO_2 seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asib, N. A. M.; Afaah, A. N.; Aadila, A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) seed layer was prepared by using sol-gel spin-coating technique, followed by growth of 0.01 M of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures by solution-immersion. The molarities of TiO_2 seed layer were varied from 1.1 M to 0.100 M on glass substrates. The nanostructures thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electrons Microscope (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FESEM images demonstrate that needle-like ZnO nanostructures are formed on all TiO_2 seed layer. The smallest diameter of needle-like ZnO nanostructures (90.3 nm) were deposited on TiO_2 seed layer of 0.100 M. PL spectra of the TiO_2: ZnO nanostructures thin films show the blue shifted emissions in the UV regions compared to the ZnO thin film. Meanwhile, UV-vis spectra of films display high absorption in the UV region and high trasparency in the visible region. The highest absorbance at UV region was recorded for sample which has 0.100 M of TiO_2 seed layer.

  8. Synthesis of carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, Hyukjae

    Carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes are prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal method with an addition of glucose in the starting powder, and are characterized by morphological analysis and electrochemical measurement. A thin carbon coating on the nanotube surface effectively suppresses severe agglomeration of TiO 2 nanotubes during hydrothermal reaction and post calcination. This action results in better ionic and electronic kinetics when applied to lithium-ion batteries. Consequently, carbon-coated TiO 2 nanotubes deliver a remarkable lithium-ion intercalation/deintercalation performance, such as reversible capacities of 286 and 150 mAh g -1 at 250 and 7500 mA g -1, respectively.

  9. Ion beam modification of TiO2 films prepared by Cat-CVD for solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Tomoki; Iida, Tamio; Ogawa, Shunsuke; Mizuno, Kouichi; So, Jisung; Kondo, Akihiro; Yoshida, Norimitsu; Itoh, Takashi; Nonomura, Shuichi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2008-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen ion bombardment on TiO 2 films prepared by the Cat-CVD method have been studied to improve the optical and electrical properties of the material for use in Si thin film solar cells. The refractive index n and the dark conductivity of the TiO 2 film increased with irradiation time. The refractive index n of the TiO 2 film was changed from 2.1 to 2.4 and the electrical conductivity was improved from 3.4 x 10 -2 to 1.2 x 10 -1 S/cm by the irradiation. These results are due to the formation of Ti-N bonds and oxygen vacancies in the film

  10. Fast fabrication of long TiO2 nanotube array with high photoelectrochemical property on flexible stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jie; Wu, Tao; Gao, Peng

    2012-03-01

    Oriented highly ordered long TiO2 nanotube array films with nanopore structure and high photoelectrochemical property were fabricated on flexible stainless steel substrate (50 microm) by anodization treatment of titanium thin films in a short time. The samples were characterized by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoelectrochemical methods, respectively. The results showed that Ti films deposited at the condition of 0.7 Pa Ar pressure and 96 W sputtering power at room temperature was uniform and dense with good homogeneity and high crystallinity. The voltage and the anodization time both played significant roles in the formation of TiO2 nanopore-nanotube array film. The optimal voltage was 60 V and the anodization time is less than 30 min by anodizing Ti films in ethylene glycerol containing 0.5% (w) NH4F and 3% (w) H2O. The growth rate of TiO2 nanotube array was as high as 340 nm/min. Moreover, the photocurrent-potential curves, photocurrent response curves and electrochemical impedance spectra results indicated that the TiO2 nanotube array film with the nanoporous structure exhibited a better photo-response ability and photoelectrochemical performance than the ordinary TiO2 nanotube array film. The reason is that the nanoporous structure on the surface of the nanotube array can separate the photo electron-hole pairs more efficiently and completely than the tubular structure.

  11. Photocatalytic properties of nano-structured TiO2-carbon films obtained by means of electrophoretic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta-Hernandez, J.M.; Manriquez, J.; Meas-Vong, Y.; Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Chapman, Thomas W.; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Godinez, Luis A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the light-absorption and photocatalytic efficiencies of TiO 2 can be improved by coupling TiO 2 nano-particles with nonmetallic dopants, such as carbon. In this paper, we describe the electrophoretic preparation of a novel TiO 2 -carbon nano-composite photocatalyst on a glass indium thin oxide (ITO) substrate. The objective is to take better advantage of the (e - /h + ) pair generated by photoexcitation of semiconducting TiO 2 particles. The transfer of electrons (e - ) into adjacent carbon nano-particles promotes reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) which, in the presence of iron ions, can subsequently form hydroxyl radicals ( · OH) via the Fenton reaction. At the same time, · OH is formed from water by the (h + ) holes in the TiO 2 . Thus, the · OH oxidant is produced by two routes. The efficiency of this photolytic-Fenton process was tested with a model organic compound, Orange-II (OG-II) azo dye, which is employed in the textile industry

  12. Electron Beam Evaporated TiO2 Layer for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells on Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Weiming

    2015-09-30

    The TiO2 layer made by electron beam (e-beam) induced evaporation is demonstrated as electron transport layer (ETL) in high efficiency planar junction perovskite solar cells. The temperature of the substrate and the thickness of the TiO2 layer can be easily controlled with this e-beam induced evaporation method, which enables the usage of different types of substrates. Here, Perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3-xClx achieve power conversion efficiencies of 14.6% on glass and 13.5% on flexible plastic substrates. The relationship between the TiO2 layer thickness and the perovskite morphology is studied with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results indicate that pinholes in thin TiO2 layer lead to pinholes in the perovskite layer. By optimizing the TiO2 thickness, perovskite layers with substantially increased surface coverage and reduced pinhole areas are fabricated, increasing overall device performance.

  13. Laser welding of nanoparticulate TiO2 and transparent conducting oxide electrodes for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2010-01-01

    Poor interfacial contact is often encountered in nanoparticulate film-based devices. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a representative case in which a nanoporous TiO 2 electrode needs to be prepared on the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)-coated glass substrate. In this study, we demonstrate that the inter-electrode contact resistance accounts for a considerable portion of the total resistance of a DSSC and its efficiency can be greatly enhanced by welding the interface with a laser. TiO 2 films formed on the TCO-coated glass substrate were irradiated with a pulsed ultraviolet laser beam at 355 nm; this transmits through the TCO and glass but is strongly absorbed by TiO 2 . Electron microscopy analysis and impedance measurements showed that a thin continuous TiO 2 layer is formed at the interface as a result of the local melting of TiO 2 nanoparticles and this layer completely bridges the gap between the two electrodes, improving the current flow with a reduced contact resistance. We were able to improve the efficiency by 35-65% with this process. DSSCs fabricated using a homemade TiO 2 paste revealed an efficiency improvement from η = 3.3% to 5.4%, and an increase from 8.2% to 11.2% was achieved with the TiO 2 electrodes made from a commercial paste.

  14. Mesoporous anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: A simple template-free synthesis and their high photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhong, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xing; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles with anatase phase were assembled on reduced graphene oxide via a template-free one-step hydrothermal method. • The TiO 2 /rGO nanocomposites have better adsorption capacity and photocatalytic degradation efficiency for dyes removal. • Improved dye adsorption and photogenerated charge separation are responsible for enhanced activity. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase phase TiO 2 was assembled on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using a template-free one-step hydrothermal process. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area. Morphology of TiO 2 was related to the content of graphene oxide. TiO 2 /rGO nanocomposites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the photo-degradation of methyl orange. The degradation rate was 4.5 times greater than that of pure TiO 2 nanoparticles. This difference was attributed to the thin two-dimensional graphene sheet. The graphene sheet had a large surface area, high adsorption capacity, and acted as a good electron acceptor for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the conduction band of TiO 2 . The enhanced surface adsorption characteristics and excellent charge transport separation were independent properties of the photocatalytic degradation process

  15. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  16. Formation of double-layered TiO2 structures with selectively-positioned molecular dyes for efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Yi; Yu, Sora; Moon, Jeong Hoon; Yoo, Seon Mi; Kim, Chulhee; Kim, Hwan Kyu; Lee, Wan In

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel flexible tandem dye-sensitized solar cell, selectively loading different dyes in discrete layers, was successfully formed on a plastic substrate by transferring the high-temperature-processed N719/TiO 2 over an organic dye-adsorbed TiO 2 film by a typical compression process at room temperature. -- Highlights: • A novel flexible dye-sensitized solar cell, selectively loading two different dyes in discrete layers, was successfully formed on a plastic substrate. • η of the flexible tandem cell obtained by transferring the high-temperature-processed TiO 2 layer was enhanced from 2.91% to 6.86%. • Interface control between two TiO 2 layers is crucial for the efficient transport of photo-injected electrons from the top to bottom TiO 2 layer. -- Abstract: To fabricate flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) utilizing full solar spectrum, the double-layered TiO 2 films, selectively loading two different dyes in discrete layers, were formed on a plastic substrate by transferring the high-temperature-processed N719/TiO 2 over an organic dye (TA-St-CA)-sensitized TiO 2 film by a typical compression process at room temperature. It was found that interface control between two TiO 2 layers is crucial for the efficient transport of photo-injected electrons from the N719/TiO 2 to the TA-St-CA/TiO 2 layer. Electron impedance spectra (EIS) and transient photoelectron spectroscopic analyses exhibited that introduction of a thin interfacial TiO 2 layer between the two TiO 2 layers remarkably decreased the resistance at the interface, while increasing the electron diffusion constant (D e ) by ∼10 times. As a result, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) of the flexible tandem DSC was 6.64%, whereas that of the flexible cell derived from the single TA-St-CA/TiO 2 layer was only 2.98%. Another organic dye (HC-acid), absorbing a short wavelength region of solar spectrum, was also applied to fabricate flexible tandem DSC. The η of the cell

  17. Nanocrystalline-diamond thin films with high pH and penicillin sensitivity prepared on a capacitive Si-SiO{sub 2} structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poghossian, A. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: a.poghossian@fz-juelich.de; Abouzar, M.H.; Razavi, A.; Baecker, M. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Bijnens, N. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Williams, O.A.; Haenen, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Division IMOMEC, IMEC vzw., Diepenbeek (Belgium); Moritz, W. [Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, P. [Institute for Materials Research, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    A capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor) sensor with improved pH and penicillin sensitivity has been realised using a nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as sensitive gate material. The NCD growth process on SiO{sub 2} as well as an additional surface treatment in oxidising medium have been optimised to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous O-terminated films without damage of the underlying SiO{sub 2} layer. The surface morphology of O-terminated NCD thin films and the layer structure of EDIS sensors have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To establish the relative coverage of the surface functional groups generated by the oxidation of NCD surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity of NCD thin films has been studied by water contact-angle measurements. A nearly Nernstian pH sensitivity of 54-57 mV/pH has been observed for O-terminated NCD films treated in an oxidising boiling mixture for 80 min and in oxygen plasma. The high pH-sensitive properties of O-terminated NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor. A freshly prepared penicillin biosensor possesses a high sensitivity of 85 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM penicillin G. The lower detection limit is 5 {mu}M.

  18. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 Thin Film Using a Chemical Bath Deposition Method with Improved Deposition Time, Temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnOx thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnOx nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnOx. Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  19. Nanocrystalline-diamond thin films with high pH and penicillin sensitivity prepared on a capacitive Si-SiO2 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poghossian, A.; Abouzar, M.H.; Razavi, A.; Baecker, M.; Bijnens, N.; Williams, O.A.; Haenen, K.; Moritz, W.; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A capacitive field-effect EDIS (electrolyte-diamond-insulator-semiconductor) sensor with improved pH and penicillin sensitivity has been realised using a nanocrystalline-diamond (NCD) film as sensitive gate material. The NCD growth process on SiO 2 as well as an additional surface treatment in oxidising medium have been optimised to provide high pH-sensitive, non-porous O-terminated films without damage of the underlying SiO 2 layer. The surface morphology of O-terminated NCD thin films and the layer structure of EDIS sensors have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. To establish the relative coverage of the surface functional groups generated by the oxidation of NCD surfaces, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was carried out. The hydrophilicity of NCD thin films has been studied by water contact-angle measurements. A nearly Nernstian pH sensitivity of 54-57 mV/pH has been observed for O-terminated NCD films treated in an oxidising boiling mixture for 80 min and in oxygen plasma. The high pH-sensitive properties of O-terminated NCD have been used to develop an EDIS-based penicillin biosensor. A freshly prepared penicillin biosensor possesses a high sensitivity of 85 mV/decade in the concentration range of 0.1-2.5 mM penicillin G. The lower detection limit is 5 μM.

  20. Improved efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by doping of strontium aluminate phosphor in TiO2 photoelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwangbo Seung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by chemical solution route to use as a dopant in TiO2 layer employed as a photoelectrode for down conversion of ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet to visible and near-infrared light in a dye-sensitized solar cell. Nano-crystalline structure of the SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ powder was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Monitored at 520 nm, SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor showed emission peaks at 460 to 610 nm due to 4f6 4f7 transitions of Eu2+ ions. For the study, SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor-doped TiO2 layer was deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by electrostatic spray deposition. The short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency of the cells were measured. Experimental results revealed that the device efficiency for the SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphor-doped TiO2 layer increased to 7.20 %, whereas that of the pure-TiO2 photoelectrode was 4.13 %.