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Sample records for nanocrystalline sno2 films

  1. Nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, electrical transport and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhare, R.D.; Khuspe, G.D.; Navale, S.T.; Mulik, R.N.; Chougule, M.A.; Pawar, R.C.; Lee, C.S.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel chemical route of synthesis of SnO 2 films. ► Physical properties SnO 2 are influenced by process temperature. ► The room temperature electrical conductivity of SnO 2 is of 10 −7 –10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 . ► SnO 2 exhibit high absorption coefficient (10 4 cm −1 ). -- Abstract: Sol–gel spin coating method has been successfully employed for preparation of nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films. The effect of processing temperature on the structure, morphology, electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and band gap was studied using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction pattern, atomic force microscopy, two probe technique and UV–visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that SnO 2 films are crystallized in the tetragonal phase and present a random orientation. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis revealed that surface morphology of the tin oxide film consists nanocrystalline grains with uniform coverage of the substrate surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of SnO 2 film showed nanocrystals having diameter ranging from 5 to 10 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirms tetragonal phase evolution of SnO 2 . Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed surface morphology of SnO 2 film is smooth. The dc electrical conductivity showed the semiconducting nature with room temperature electrical conductivity increased from 10 −7 to 10 −5 (Ω cm) −1 as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C. Thermo power measurement confirms n-type conduction. The band gap energy of SnO 2 film decreased from 3.88 to 3.60 eV as processing temperature increased from 400 to 700 °C

  2. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  3. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F thin films for liquid petroleum gas sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisitsak, Sutichai

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO(2)-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors by doping with fluorine (F). Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer). The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO(2) films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO(2) with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time) of the SnO(2):F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO(2) was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C) with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO(2):F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection.

  4. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutichai Chaisitsak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG sensors by doping with fluorine (F. Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer. The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the film thickness uniformity and film transparency. The effect of F concentration on the structural, surface morphological and LPG sensing properties of the SnO2 films was investigated. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction pattern measurements showed that the obtained thin films are nanocrystalline SnO2 with nanoscale-textured surfaces. Gas sensing characteristics (sensor response and response/recovery time of the SnO2:F sensors based on a planar interdigital structure were investigated at different operating temperatures and at different LPG concentrations. The addition of fluorine to SnO2 was found to be advantageous for efficient detection of LPG gases, e.g., F-doped sensors are more stable at a low operating temperature (300 °C with higher sensor response and faster response/recovery time, compared to un-doped sensor materials. The sensors based on SnO2:F films could detect LPG even at a low level of 25% LEL, showing the possibility of using this transparent material for LPG leak detection.

  5. Nanocrystalline SnO2:F Thin Films for Liquid Petroleum Gas Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisitsak, Sutichai

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the improvement in the sensing performance of nanocrystalline SnO2-based liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensors by doping with fluorine (F). Un-doped and F-doped tin oxide films were prepared on glass substrates by the dip-coating technique using a layer-by-layer deposition cycle (alternating between dip-coating a thin layer followed by a drying in air after each new layer). The results showed that this technique is superior to the conventional technique for both improving the ...

  6. Enhancement of Ammonia Sensitivity in Swift Heavy Ion Irradiated Nanocrystalline SnO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Rani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swift heavy ion irradiation is an effective technique to induce changes in the microstructure and electronic energy levels of materials leading to significant modification of properties. Here we report enhancement of ammonia (NH3 sensitivity of SnO2 thin films subjected to high-energy Ni+ ion irradiation. Sol-gel-derived SnO2 thin films (100 nm thickness were exposed to 75 MeV Ni+ ion irradiation, and the gas response characteristics of irradiated films were studied as a function of ion fluence. The irradiated films showed p-type conductivity with a much higher response to NH3 compared to other gases such as ethanol. The observed enhancement of NH3 sensitivity is discussed in context of ion beam generated electronic states in the SnO2 thin films.

  7. Nanocrystalline SnO2-Pt Thick Film Gas Sensor for Air Pollution Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Shahrokh Abadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of xSnO2(1-xPt nanopowder (x = 1, 0.995, 0.99, 0.985, 0.98 was calcinated at 950 °C, mixed with an organic vehicle, printed on premade silver electrodes, and fired at 650 °C. Microstructural, morphological, and elemental properties of the mixed powders and films were determined by using XRD, TEM, SEM, and EDX. Samples were exposed to ethyl alcohol, xylene, methanol, isopropanol, acetone, isobutane, and truck exhaust fumes, at wide range of operating temperature, and sensitivity as well as response time of the samples were measured and compared with Taguchi Gas Sensors of TGS2602 (air contaminants, TGS3870 (CO, and TGS4160 (CO2. It was discovered that crystallite sizes of SnO2 powder and response times of samples are decreased with increasing Pt contents, whilst sensitivity is increased. Measurements are shown that 1 wt.% Pt loaded sensor, operating at 300 °C, can detect exhaust gas with high differentiating between the applied gases.

  8. Properties of Resistive Hydrogen Sensors as a Function of Additives of 3 D-Metals Introduced in the Volume of Thin Nanocrystalline SnO2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevast'yanov, E. Yu.; Maksimova, N. K.; Potekaev, A. I.; Sergeichenko, N. V.; Chernikov, E. V.; Almaev, A. V.; Kushnarev, B. O.

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of the results of studying electrical and gas sensitive characteristics of the molecular hydrogen sensors based on thin nanocrystalline SnO2 films coated with dispersed Au layers and containing Au+Ni and Au+Co impurities in the bulk showed that the characteristics of these sensors are more stable under the prolonged exposure to hydrogen in comparison with Au/SnO2:Sb, Au films modified only with gold. It has been found that introduction of the nickel and cobalt additives increases the band bending at the grain boundaries of tin dioxide already in freshly prepared samples, which indicates an increase in the density Ni of the chemisorbed oxygen. It is important that during testing, the band bending eφs at the grain boundaries of tin dioxide additionally slightly increases. It can be assumed that during crystallization of films under thermal annealing, the 3d-metal atoms in the SnO2 volume partially segregate on the surface of microcrystals and form bonds with lattice oxygen, the superstoichiometric tin atoms are formed, and the density Ni increases. If the bonds of oxygen with nickel and cobalt are stronger than those with tin, then, under the prolonged tests, atomic hydrogen will be oxidized not by lattice oxygen, but mainly by the chemisorbed one. In this case, stability of the sensors' characteristics increases.

  9. Studying Structural, Optical, Electrical, and Sensing Properties of Nanocrystalline SnO2:Cu Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for CO Gas Sensor Application at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.; Elttayf, Abdulhussain K.; Saber, Amel S.

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 and SnO2:Cu thin films derived from SnCl2ṡ2H2O precursors have been prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The deposited film was 300±20nm thick and the films were annealed in air at 500∘C for 1h. Structural, optical and sensing properties of the films were studied under different preparation conditions, such as Cu-doping concentration of 2%, 4% and 6wt.%. X-ray diffraction studies show the polycrystalline nature with tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2 and Cu:SnO2 thin films. The films have highly preferred orientation along (110). The crystallite size of the prepared samples reduced with increasing Cu-doping concentrations and the addition of Cu as dopants changed the structural properties of the thin films. Surface morphology was determined through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results show that the particle size decreased as doping concentration increased. The films have moderate optical transmission (up to 82.4% at 800nm), and the transmittance, absorption coefficient and energy gap at different Cu-doping concentration were measured and calculated. Results show that Cu-doping decreased the transmittance and energy gap whereas it increased the absorption coefficient. Two peaks were noted with Cu-doping concentration of 0-6wt.%; the first peak was positioned exactly at 320nm ultraviolet emission and the second was positioned at 430-480nm. Moreover, emission bands were noticed in the photoluminescence spectra of Cu:SnO2. The electrical properties of SnO2 films include DC electrical conductivity, showing that the films have two activation energies, namely, Ea1 and Ea2, which increase as Cu-doping concentration increases. Cudoped nanocrystalline SnO2 gas-sensing material has better sensitivity to CO gas compared with pure SnO2.

  10. OPTIMISATION OF SPRAY DEPOSITED Sno2 THIN FILM FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1987-09-01

    Sep 1, 1987 ... ABSTRACT. The use of conducting tin-oxide (SnO2 ) films for fabrication of solar cell is becoming increasingly important because of reasonably high efficiency and ease in fabrication. The role of the thin-oxide film is very critical for high efficiency. Resistivity, thickness and transmittance of the film should be ...

  11. CO2 Sensors Based on Nanocrystalline SnO2 Doped with CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, Chung Chiun; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) doped with copper oxide (CuO) has been found to be useful as an electrical-resistance sensory material for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in air. SnO2 is an n-type semiconductor that has been widely used as a sensing material for detecting such reducing gases as carbon monoxide, some of the nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons. Without doping, SnO2 usually does not respond to carbon dioxide and other stable gases. The discovery that the electrical resistance of CuO-doped SnO2 varies significantly with the concentration of CO2 creates opportunities for the development of relatively inexpensive CO2 sensors for detecting fires and monitoring atmospheric conditions. This discovery could also lead to research that could alter fundamental knowledge of SnO2 as a sensing material, perhaps leading to the development of SnO2-based sensing materials for measuring concentrations of oxidizing gases. Prototype CO2 sensors based on CuO-doped SnO2 have been fabricated by means of semiconductor-microfabrication and sol-gel nanomaterial-synthesis batch processes that are amendable to inexpensive implementation in mass production.

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline SnO2 powder at 100°C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Recently, gel combustion routes using a variety of organic fuels like urea, hydrazine, citric acid and others have been reported to be promising meth- ods to prepare a variety of oxides including nanocrystalline. SnO2 (Bhagwat et al 2003). Though the combustion meth- ods are ... Silicon was used as an internal stan- dard.

  13. OPTIMISATION OF SPRAY DEPOSITED Sno2 THIN FILM FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1987-09-01

    Sep 1, 1987 ... Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Nigeria, Nsukka. (Manuscript received December 1986 and in revised form July 1987). ABSTRACT. The use of conducting tin-oxide (SnO2 ) films for fabrication of solar cell is becoming increasingly important because of reasonably high efficiency and ...

  14. Nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures for gas sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lyson-Sypien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the role of nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 n–n heterojunctions for hydrogen sensing. Nanopowders of pure SnO2, 90 mol % SnO2/10 mol % TiO2, 10 mol % SnO2/90 mol % TiO2 and pure TiO2 have been obtained using flame spray synthesis (FSS. The samples have been characterized by BET, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, Mössbauer effect and impedance spectroscopy. Gas-sensing experiments have been performed for H2 concentrations of 1–3000 ppm at 200–400 °C. The nanomaterials are well-crystallized, anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2 and cassiterite SnO2 polymorphic forms are present depending on the chemical composition of the powders. The crystallite sizes from XRD peak analysis are within the range of 3–27 nm. Tin exhibits only the oxidation state 4+. The H2 detection threshold for the studied TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures is lower than 1 ppm especially in the case of SnO2-rich samples. The recovery time of SnO2-based heterostructures, despite their large responses over the whole measuring range, is much longer than that of TiO2-rich samples at higher H2 flows. TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures can be intentionally modified for the improved H2 detection within both the small (1–50 ppm and the large (50–3000 ppm concentration range. The temperature Tmax at which the semiconducting behavior begins to prevail upon water desorption/oxygen adsorption depends on the TiO2/SnO2 composition. The electrical resistance of sensing materials exhibits a power-law dependence on the H2 partial pressure. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the first step in the gas sensing mechanism related to the adsorption of oxygen ions at the surface of nanomaterials.

  15. Structural and optical characterization of p-type highly Fe-doped SnO2 thin films and tunneling transport on SnO2:Fe/p-Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Othmen, Walid; Ben Hamed, Zied; Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed; Elhouichet, Habib; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2018-03-01

    Nanocrystalline highly Fe-doped SnO2 thin films were prepared using a new simple sol-gel method with iron amounts of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The obtained gel offers a long durability and high quality allowing to reach a sub-5 nm nanocrystalline size with a good crystallinity. The films were structurally characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) that confirms the formation of rutile SnO2. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images reveals the good crystallinity of the nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy shows that the SnO2 rutile structure is maintained even for high iron concentration. The variation of the PL intensity with Fe concentration reveals that iron influences the distribution of oxygen vacancies in tin oxide. The optical transmittance results indicate a redshift of the SnO2 band gap when iron concentration increases. The above optical results lead us to assume the presence of a compensation phenomenon between oxygen vacancies and introduced holes following Fe doping. From current-voltage measurements, an inversion of the conduction type from n to p is strongly predicted to follow the iron addition. Electrical characterizations of SnO2:Fe/p-Si and SnO2:Fe/n-Si heterojunctions seem to be in accordance with this deduction. The quantum tunneling mechanism is expected to be important at high Fe doping level, which was confirmed by current-voltage measurements at different temperatures. Both optical and electrical properties of the elaborated films present a particularity for the same iron concentration and adopt similar tendencies with Fe amount, which strongly correlate the experimental observations. In order to evaluate the applicability of the elaborated films, we proceed to the fabrication of the SnO2:Fe/SnO2 homojunction for which we note a good rectifying behavior.

  16. Effect of Firing Temperature on Humidity Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Borse

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of SnO2 were prepared using standard screen printing technique. The films were dried and fired at different temperatures. Tin-oxide is an n-type wide band gap semiconductor, whose resistance is described as a function of relative humidity. An increasing firing temperature on SnO2 film increases the sensitivity to humidity. The parameters such as sensitivity, response times and hysteresis of the SnO2 film sensors have been evaluated. The thick films were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDAX and grain size, composition of elements, relative phases are obtained.

  17. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Modified TiO2:a Material for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. BODADE; M. ALVI; A. V.KADU; S. V.JAGTAP; S. K. RITHE; P. R. PADOLE; G. N. CHAUDHARI

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 doped TiO2 having average crystallite size of 45-50 nm were synthesized by the sol-gel method and studied for gas sensing behavior to reducing gases like CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), NH3 and H2. The material characterization was done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The sensitivity measurements were carried out as a function of different operating temperature in SnO2 doped TiO2....

  18. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Modified TiO2:a Material for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. BODADE

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnO2 doped TiO2 having average crystallite size of 45-50 nm were synthesized by the sol-gel method and studied for gas sensing behavior to reducing gases like CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, NH3 and H2. The material characterization was done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The sensitivity measurements were carried out as a function of different operating temperature in SnO2 doped TiO2. The 15 wt.% SnO2 doped TiO2 based CO sensor shows better sensitivity at an operating temperature 240°C Incorporation of 0.5 wt% Pd improved the sensitivity, selectivity, response time and reduced the operating temperature from 240°C to 200°C for CO sensor.

  19. SnO2/TiO2 bilayer thin films exhibiting superhydrophilic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talinungsang, Nibedita Paul; Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured thin films of TiO2, SnO2, and SnO2/TiO2 have been deposited by sol-gel method. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, wettability and optical properties. In the present work, we have achieved a way of converting hydrophilic to super-hydrophilic state by incorporating TiO2 buffer layer in between substrate and SnO2 film, which has its utility in anti-fogging surfaces. The decrease in contact angle of water over SnO2/TiO2 bilayer is attributed to the increase in roughness of the film as well as surface energy of the substrate.

  20. Triboelectric charge generation by semiconducting SnO2 film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, No Ho; Yoon, Seong Yu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Seong Keun; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-07-01

    Improving the energy harvesting efficiency of triboelectric generators (TEGs) requires exploring new types of materials that can be used, and understanding their properties. In this study, we have investigated semiconducting SnO2 thin films as friction layers in TEGs, which has not been explored thus far. Thin films of SnO2 with various thicknesses were grown by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. Either polymer or glass was used as counter friction layers. Vertical contact/separation mode was utilized to evaluate the TEG efficiency. The results indicate that an increase in the SnO2 film thickness from 5 to 25 nm enhances the triboelectric output voltage of the TEG. Insertion of a 400-nm-thick Pt sub-layer between the SnO2 film and Si substrate further increased the output voltage up to 120 V in a 2 cm × 2 cm contact area, while the enhancement was cancelled out by inserting a 10-nm-thick insulating Al2O3 film between SnO2 and Pt films. These results indicate that n-type semiconducting SnO2 films can provide triboelectric charge to counter-friction layers in TEGs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Bio-green synthesis of Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticle thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Ketan P.; Ghule, Kalyani; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Dive, Avinash S.; Bagul, Sagar B.; Digraskar, Renuka V.; Sharma, Ramphal; Ghule, Anil V.

    2017-05-01

    Herein Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using simple, cost effective and ecofriendly biosynthesis method, in which remnant water (ideally kitchen waste) collected from soaked Bengal gram beans (Cicer arietinum L.) was used. This extract consists of different bio-molecules which acted as complexing as well as capping agents for synthesis of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed uniform size distribution with the average size of 6 nm and confirmed the formation of rutile structure with space group (P42/mnm) and nanocrystalline nature of the products with spherical morphology. Further, the gas sensing properties of the materials have been studied in comparison with other gases. The reported gas sensing results are promising, which suggest that the Fe-dopant is a promising noble metal additives to fabricate low cost SnO2 based sensor.

  2. Structural, optical and gas sensing properties of screen-printed nanostructured Sr-doped SnO2 thick film sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.I.; Chikhale, L.P.; Patil, J.Y.; Rajgure, A.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline materials of strontium doped tin oxide powders were synthesized by conventional co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanophase SnO 2 powders were used to fabricate thick films of pure and Sr-doped SnO 2 using screen-printing technology and investigated for their gas sensing properties towards LPG, ethanol, ammonia and acetone vapor. The crystal structure and phase of the sintered powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the doped and undoped SnO 2 compositions revealed single phase and solid solution formation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results indicated that well crystallized Sr-doped SnO 2 particles of size about 10 nm were obtained at sintering temperature 700℃. The optical properties viz. UV-Vis, FTIR and Raman were used to characterize various physico-chemical properties of samples. The reduction of grain size in metal oxide is a key factor to enhance the gas sensing properties. The doping of Sr in SnO 2 has reduced the grain size and improved the gas response. The results of gas sensing measurements showed that the thick films deposited on alumina substrates using screen-printing technique exhibited high gas response, quick response time and fast recovery time to acetone gas at a working temperature of 250℃. Further, the selectivity of sensor towards acetone with respect to other reducing gases (LPG, ethanol, ammonia) was studied. (author)

  3. Optimisation of Spray Deposited SnO 2 Thin Film for Solar Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of conducting tin-oxide (SnO2 ) films for fabrication of solar cell is becoming increasingly important because of reasonably high efficiency and ease in fabrication. The role of the thin-oxide film is very critical for high efficiency. Resistivity, thickness and transmittance of the film should be of correct order. The most ...

  4. Sb (P, As OR F) - DOPED SnO2 FILMS PREPARED BY MOCVD

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, W.; Tan, C.; Ren, P.; Tan, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Metallorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) is employed for the growth of Sb(P, As or F) doped thin films of SnO2. Using (CH3)4Sn (TMT) as a tin source, oxygen-argon mixture as the carrier gas and Sb (P, As or F) as dopants, we have obtained four kinds of doped SnO2 films on different substrates. These films (thickness 102-103Å) possess sheet resistances of 30-40 [MATH] and transmissivities up to 85-95% in the visible spectral region. The experiments show that the doping causes a change ...

  5. Optoelectronic properties of SnO2 thin films sprayed at different deposition times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, Abdelkrim; Saâd, Rahmane; Ouahab, Abdelouahab; Attouche, Hafida; Kouidri, Nabila

    2016-04-01

    This article presents the elaboration of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films on glass substrates by using a home-made spray pyrolysis system. Effects of film thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical film properties are investigated. The films are characterized by several techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) transmission, and four-probe point measurements, and the results suggest that the prepared films are uniform and well adherent to the substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that SnO2 film is of polycrystal with cassiterite tetragonal crystal structure and a preferential orientation along the (110) plane. The calculated grain sizes are in a range from 32.93 nm to 56.88 nm. Optical transmittance spectra of the films show that their high transparency average transmittances are greater than 65% in the visible region. The optical gaps of SnO2 thin films are found to be in a range of 3.64 eV-3.94 eV. Figures of merit for SnO2 thin films reveal that their maximum value is about 1.15 × 10-4 Ω-1 at λ = 550 nm. Moreover, the measured electrical resistivity at room temperature is on the order of 10-2 Ω·cm.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of SnO2 thin films sprayed at different deposition times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkrim, Allag; Rahmane, Saâd; Abdelouahab, Ouahab; Hafida, Attouche; Nabila, Kouidri

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the elaboration of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films on glass substrates by using a home-made spray pyrolysis system. Effects of film thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical film properties are investigated. The films are characterized by several techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) transmission, and four-probe point measurements, and the results suggest that the prepared films are uniform and well adherent to the substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that SnO 2 film is of polycrystal with cassiterite tetragonal crystal structure and a preferential orientation along the (110) plane. The calculated grain sizes are in a range from 32.93 nm to 56.88 nm. Optical transmittance spectra of the films show that their high transparency average transmittances are greater than 65% in the visible region. The optical gaps of SnO 2 thin films are found to be in a range of 3.64 eV–3.94 eV. Figures of merit for SnO 2 thin films reveal that their maximum value is about 1.15 × 10 −4 Ω −1 at λ = 550 nm. Moreover, the measured electrical resistivity at room temperature is on the order of 10 −2 Ω·cm. (paper)

  7. Sensors of the gas CO in thin film of SnO2:Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Sanchez Z, F. E.

    2011-10-01

    Thin films of SnO 2 :Cu with different thickness, were deposited on soda-lime glass substrates and prepared by the Sol-gel process and repeated immersion. The sensor properties of these films to the gas CO for the range of 0-200 ppm in the gas concentration and operating to temperatures of 23, 100, 200, and 300 C were studied. Prepared films of pure SnO 2 were modified superficially with 1, 3, 5 and 10 layers of the catalyst Cu (SnO 2 :Cu) with the purpose of studying the effect on the sensor capacity of the gas CO by part of the films SnO 2 :Cu. Using the changes in the electric properties of the films with the incorporation of the different copper layers and experimental conditions, the sensor modifications of the gas CO were evaluated. To complete this study, was realized a characterization of the superficial morphology of the films by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, equally was studied their structure and their electric and optical properties. (Author)

  8. Strain effect in epitaxial VO2 thin films grown on sapphire substrates using SnO2 buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial VO2/SnO2 thin film heterostructures were deposited on m-cut sapphire substrates via pulsed laser deposition. By adjusting SnO2 (150 nm) growth conditions, we are able to control the interfacial strain between the VO2 film and SnO2 buffer layer such that the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature (TC) of VO2 films can be tuned without diminishing the magnitude of the transition. It is shown that in-plane tensile strain and out-of-plane compressive strain of the VO2 film leads to a decrease of Tc. Interestingly, VO2 films on SnO2 buffer layers exhibit a structural phase transition from tetragonal-like VO2 to tetragonal-VO2 during the semiconductor-to-metal transition. These results suggest that the strain generated by SnO2 buffer provides an effective way for tuning the TC of VO2 films.

  9. Chemical synthesis and characterization of hydrous tin oxide (SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SnO2:H2O) thin films by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature (∼300 K). The films are characterized for their structural and surface morphological properties. The formation of nanocrystalline SnO2 ...

  10. In2O3- and SnO2-Based Thin Film Ozone Sensors: Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Korotcenkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers SnO2 and In2O3 thin films as materials for the design of solid-state conductometric ozone sensors in depth. In particular, the present review covers the analysis of the fundamentals of SnO2- and In2O3-based conductometric ozone sensor operation. The main focus is on the description of mechanisms of ozone interaction with metal oxides, the influence of air humidity on sensor response, and processes that control the kinetics of sensor response to ozone.

  11. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sis of the hydrolysis reaction between tin tetrachloride and water vapour showed that the rate of deposition of SnO2 is a strong function of the temperature and the ratio of the reactants. Later, in the year 1990, undoped tin oxide films have been prepared by a chemical vapour deposition tech- nique by Sanon et al (1990).

  12. Preparation and optical properties of SiO2 stablized SnO2 quantum dot films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qiangxiang; Li Zhijie; Zu Xiaotao

    2009-01-01

    SiO 2 stabilized SnO 2 quantum dot were prepared by sol-gel-hydrothermal process. Then SnO 2 quantum dot thin films were obtained by spin-coating with preprocess of well dispersing SnO 2 quantum dots in SiO 2 sol. The as-prepared SnO 2 quantum dots showed tetragonal rutile crystal structure and quantum dot radius of about 4.0 nm. The optical bad gap of the thin films was derived from UV-vis transmission spectra, with value of about 3.96 eV. The SnO 2 quantum dot thin films showed multi-peak photoluminescence properties at room temperature, mainly excitation emission at 356 nm and defect emission at 388 nm. (authors)

  13. Texture-Etched SnO2 Glasses Applied to Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Rui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrodes of tin dioxide (SnO2 on glasses were further wet-etched in the diluted HCl:Cr solution to obtain larger surface roughness and better light-scattering characteristic for thin-film solar cell applications. The process parameters in terms of HCl/Cr mixture ratio, etching temperature, and etching time have been investigated. After etching process, the surface roughness, transmission haze, and sheet resistance of SnO2 glasses were measured. It was found that the etching rate was increased with the additions in etchant concentration of Cr and etching temperature. The optimum texture-etching parameters were 0.15 wt.% Cr in 49% HCl, temperature of 90°C, and time of 30 sec. Moreover, silicon thin-film solar cells with the p-i-n structure were fabricated on the textured SnO2 glasses using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. By optimizing the texture-etching process, the cell efficiency was increased from 4.04% to 4.39%, resulting from the increment of short-circuit current density from 14.14 to 15.58 mA/cm2. This improvement in cell performances can be ascribed to the light-scattering effect induced by surface texturization of SnO2.

  14. Accelerated Stress Testing of Thin-Film Modules with SnO2:F Transparent Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C. R.; McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J. A.; Adelstein, J.; Puett, J.

    2003-05-01

    This paper reviews a testing program conducted at NREL for the past two years that applied voltage, water vapor, and light stresses to thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules with SnO2:F transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) deposited on soda-lime glass superstrates. Electrochemical corrosion at the glass-TCO interface was observed to result in delamination of the thin-film layers. Experimental testing was directed toward accelerating the corrosion and understanding the nature of the resulting damage.

  15. Experimental studies of O2-SnO2 surface interaction using powder, thick films and monocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukko, S.; Lassi, Ulla; Lantto, V.; Kroneld, M.; Novikov, S.; Kuivalainen, P.; Rantala, T.T.; Mizsei, J.

    2005-01-01

    Surface properties of solids and the interactions between molecules and solid surfaces are important for many technical applications. They also involve a range of physical and chemical phenomena of fundamental scientific interest. The importance of oxygen chemistry at SnO 2 surfaces follows from the fact that SnO 2 is used as an active material in gas sensor applications. The operation principle of these sensors is usually based on measurable conductance response of the material, which is understood in terms of reactions of gas molecules with different oxygen species adsorbed onto the surface. The role of the lattice oxygen, but in particular, the bridging oxygen atoms on SnO 2 surfaces, is also active. Detailed understanding of the reaction mechanisms of various oxygen species at SnO 2 surfaces is important, as it offers a way to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the sensors. Oxygen adsorption-desorption kinetics at the SnO 2 surface is studied experimentally using O 2 -temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) method together with conductance measurements in the case of SnO 2 powder and polycrystalline thick films made from the powder. In addition, CO-TPD is studied and the transient behaviour of various oxygen species is considered. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was also used to fabricate polycrystalline and monocrystalline thin films with the SnO 2 (101) face on single crystal sapphire substrate. Simultaneous surface potential and conductance measurements during heating and cooling in different ambient atmospheres were used to characterize the monocrystalline SnO 2 (101) surface after various surface treatments

  16. Field-assisted diffusion of silver in SnO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharesi, Mohsen; Moalaghi, Maryam; Dehghani, Niloofar; Ansari, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Tin oxide films are known for their wide spread applications in the field of optoelectronics as transparent conductors and as atmosphere sensitive ceramic pellets for chemical sensor fabrication. Forming durable ohmic contacts to these films is vitally necessary for the effective performance and long life of almost all such devices. Silver electrodes are commonly considered as low resistance ohmic contacts to many metal-oxide semiconductors. Particularly in devices operating at elevated temperatures, silver migration can considerably decrease useful device lifetime. Here, we study the performance of silver electrodes paste printed on SnO2 thin films and show that the I-V characteristics of the silver/SnO2 contact changes with operating time at elevated temperatures. SnO2 films are grown on alumina substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. A pair of Ag electrodes are paste-printed on the surface of the grown films followed by a heat-treatment step to stabilize the deposits. The as-fabricated Ag/SnO2 contacts present ohmic characteristics. Continuous application of DC voltages to the samples operating at 350 °C results in a significant drop in the devices’ resistance. The results originate from field-assisted migration of silver ions from the anode to the cathode electrode and formation of Ag micro-filaments in the polycrystalline SnO2 layer.

  17. F-doped SnO2 thin films grown on flexible substrates at low temperatures by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Auyeung, R.C.Y.; Pique, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :F) films were deposited on polyethersulfone plastic substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The electrical and optical properties of the SnO 2 :F films were investigated as a function of deposition conditions such as substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure during deposition. High quality SnO 2 :F films were achieved under an optimum oxygen pressure range (7.4-8 Pa) at relatively low growth temperatures (25-150 deg. C). As-deposited films exhibited low electrical resistivities of 1-7 mΩ-cm, high optical transmittance of 80-90% in the visible range, and optical band-gap energies of 3.87-3.96 eV. Atomic force microscopy measurements revealed a reduced root mean square surface roughness of the SnO 2 :F films compared to that of the bare substrates indicating planarization of the underlying substrate.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of nitrogen doped SnO2 thin films deposited on flexible substrates by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Feng; Zhang, Yeyu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Shao, Qiyue; Xie, Zonghan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The best SnO 2 :N TCO film: about 80% transmittance and 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm. - Highlights: • Nitrogen-doped tin oxide film was deposited on PET by RF-magnetron sputtering. • Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the properties of thin films were investigated. • For SnO 2 :N film, visible light transmittance was 80% and electrical resistivity was 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped tin oxide (SnO 2 :N) thin films were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at room temperature by RF-magnetron sputtering. Effects of oxygen partial pressure (0–4%) on electrical and optical properties of thin films were investigated. Experimental results showed that SnO 2 :N films were amorphous state, and O/Sn ratios of SnO 2 :N films were deviated from the standard stoichiometry 2:1. Optical band gap of SnO 2 :N films increased from approximately 3.10 eV to 3.42 eV as oxygen partial pressure increased from 0% to 4%. For SnO 2 :N thin films deposited on PET, transmittance was about 80% in the visible light region. The best transparent conductive oxide (TCO) deposited on flexible PET substrates was SnO 2 :N thin films preparing at 2% oxygen partial pressure, the transmittance was about 80% and electrical conductivity was about 9.1 × 10 −4 Ω cm

  19. H2S Sensing by Hybrids Based on Nanocrystalline SnO2 Functionalized with Cu(II Organometallic Complexes: The Role of the Ligand Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rumyantseva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the functionalization of nanocrystalline SnO2 with Cu(II complexes with organic ligands, aimed at the improvement of sensor selectivity towards gas molecules. For the synthesis of metalorganic/SnO2 hybrid material complexes of Cu(II with phthalocyanine, porphyrinines, bipyridine and azadithiacrown etherwere used. The analysis of gas sensor properties showed the possibility of increasing the sensitivity and selectivity of hybrid materials in H2S detection due to the electron transfer from SnO2 to an adsorbed organic molecule, which changes during the interaction between H2S and Cu(II ions.

  20. Au thin films deposited on SnO2:In and glass: Substrate effects on the optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansaker, P.C.; Gunnarsson, K.; Roos, A.; Niklasson, G.A.; Granqvist, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a detailed study on the optical and electrical properties of Au films made by sputter deposition onto glass substrates with and without transparent and electrically conducting layers of SnO 2 :In. The Au films had thicknesses up to 10.7 nm and hence spanned the range for thin film growth from discrete islands, via large scale coalescence and formation of a meandering conducting network, to the formation of a more or less 'holey' film. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the SnO 2 :In films were considerably rougher than the glass itself, and this roughness influenced the Au film formation so that large scale coalescence set in at a somewhat larger thickness for films on SnO 2 :In than on glass. Measurements of spectral optical transmittance and reflectance and of electrical resistance gave a fully consistent picture that could be reconciled with impeded Au film formation on the SnO 2 :In layer; this led to pronounced 'plateaus' in the near infrared optical spectra for Au films on SnO 2 :In and a concomitant change from such two-layer films having a lower resistance than the single gold film at thicknesses below large scale coalescence to the opposite behavior for larger film thicknesses. Our work highlights the importance of the substrate roughness for transparent conductors comprising coinage metal films backed by wide band gap transparent conducting oxides.

  1. Insights into microstructural evolution from nanocrystalline Sn O2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. W.; Lai, J. K. L.; Shek, C. H.

    2004-10-01

    Low-dimensional nanostructures of SnO2 thin films with the interesting features of the tetragonal rutile structure have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films has been investigated using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Experimental results indicate that the as-prepared SnO2 thin films appear to be of polycrystalline state, have a large amount of defects, such as oxygen vacancies, vacancy clusters, and local lattice disorder at the interface and surface, and the appearance of a new Raman peak. It suggests that this new Raman peak is closely related to a surface layer of nonstoichiometic SnOx with different symmetries than SnO2 , or in other words, the new peak marks an additional characteristic of space symmetry of the grain agglomeration of nanocrystalline SnO2 . The study of the microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline SnO2 is significant for the understanding of the whole structure feature of nanomaterials and for the fabrication of new nanomaterials with favorable properties.

  2. Fully transparent thin-film transistor devices based on SnO2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, Eric N; Wan, Qing; Guo, Wei; Chen, Yanbin; Pan, Xiaoqing; Lu, Wei

    2007-08-01

    We report on studies of field-effect transistor (FET) and transparent thin-film transistor (TFT) devices based on lightly Ta-doped SnO2 nano-wires. The nanowire-based devices exhibit uniform characteristics with average field-effect mobilities exceeding 100 cm2/V x s. Prototype nano-wire-based TFT (NW-TFT) devices on glass substrates showed excellent optical transparency and transistor performance in terms of transconductance, bias voltage range, and on/off ratio. High on-currents and field-effect mobilities were obtained from the NW-TFT devices even at low nanowire coverage. The SnO2 nanowire-based TFT approach offers a number of desirable properties such as low growth cost, high electron mobility, and optical transparency and low operation voltage, and may lead to large-scale applications of transparent electronics on diverse substrates.

  3. Electrochemical and optical properties of CeO2-SnO2 and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C, Si films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berton Marcos A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin solid films of CeO2-SnO2 (17 mol% Sn and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C and Si were prepared by the sol-gel route, using an aqueous-based process. The addition of Li, C and Si to the precursor solution leads to films with different electrochemical performances. The films were deposited by the dip-coating technique on ITO coated glass (Donnelly Glass at a speed of 10 cm/min and submitted to a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 10 min in air. The electrochemical and optical properties of the films were determined from the cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements using 0.1 M LiOH as supporting electrolyte. The ion storage capacity of the films was investigated using in situ spectroelectrochemical method and during the insertion/extraction process the films remained transparent. The powders were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC/TGA and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Cobalt Doped SnO2 Thick Film Gas Sensors: Conductance and Gas Response Characteristics for LPG and CNG Gas

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kumar; S. K. Srivastava; Kiran Jain

    2009-01-01

    Cobalt doped thick films tin oxide sensors were studied for their LPG and CNG gas sensitivity. SnO2 powder was synthesized by precipitation technique and doped with cobalt sulphate (0 to 10 wt %) by impregnation technique. The sensing characteristics were found to depend on the cobalt concentration and operating temperature. Best performance for LPG and CNG detection was obtained for 3 wt % addition of cobalt sulphate. Cobalt doped SnO2 sensors showed a decrease in the optimum temperature for...

  5. Synthesis of Ag doped SnO2 thin films for the evaluation of H2S gas sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, Pankaj S.; Koinkar, Pankaj M.; Maiti, Namita; Sonawane, Kishor M.

    2017-11-01

    The Tin Oxide (SnO2) based thin films doped with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mol% of Ag were deposited on the glass substrates using the advanced chemical spray pyrolysis technique. All the films were deposited at temperature 400 °C. The crystalline structure of the samples was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). All the XRD patterns of the films showed a well-defined polycrystalline phase, fitting well with the SnO2 tetragonal rutile type structure. The optical properties of the Ag doped SnO2 films were studied using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The surface morphological analysis of as-synthesized Ag doped SnO2 films have been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The sensor response was estimated by the change in the electrical resistance of the film in the absence and presence of H2S gas. The sensor response and sensitivity in relation to, operation temperature and the gas concentration have been systematically studied. A significant response (∼ 1.38) and with a short response and recovery time (46 s, 110 s) towards 450 ppm H2S at 100 °C operating temperature is observed for the 3 mol% Ag-doped SnO2 film. This method offers a highly promising candidate for development of materials sensors due to facile fabrication route and desirable sensing performance.

  6. Enhanced LPG response characteristics of SnO2 thin film based sensors loaded with Pt clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Haridas, Divya; Chowdhuri, Arijit; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    RF sputtered SnO2 thin films (90 nm thick) loaded with clusters of nanoscale (8 nm) metal catalysts (Pt, Ag, Ni, Pb, Al, Pd) are investigated for LPG detection. SnO2 film loaded with Pt catalyst clusters exhibits enhanced response (~ 7.5×102) to 200 ppm of LPG at a relatively low operating temperature (185oC) with a fast response time of 100s. Variation of thickness of Pt clusters in the nanoscale range (2 to 20 nm) is seen to significantly influence the sensor response characteristics. Enhan...

  7. SnO2Inverse Opal Composite Film with Low Angle-dependent Structural Color and Enhanced Mechanical Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Shan, Bin; Zhang, Shufen; Tang, Bingtao

    2018-03-13

    Structural colors are attracting considerable attention for their advantages of environmental friendliness and resistance to fading. However, the weak mechanical strength and intrinsic iridescent color restrict their widespread application. This article describes a SnO 2 inverse opal composite film with low angle-dependent structural color and enhanced mechanical strength. In the present study, a direct template method was used to prepare SnO 2 inverse opals, which were then embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The structural colors of obtained composite films were low angle-dependent due to light scattering and high effective refractive index. Meanwhile, owing to the good physical strength of PDMS, structures of SnO 2 inverse opals were provided with effective protection. No specific wavelength shift occurred during stretching, and exhibited excellent cycling stability. All these advantages indicated potential applications in packing and decorating materials.

  8. LPG and NH3 Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. GARDE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thick film resistors deposited on alumina substrates has been investigated for LPG and NH3 gas. The standard screen printing technology was used to prepare the thick films. The films were fired at optimized temperature of 780 0C for 30 minutes. The material characterization was performed by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV and EDAX for elemental analysis. IR spectroscopy analysis at 2949.26 cm-1 showed the peak assigned to the –Sn-H vibration due to the effect of hybridization i.e. sp3 and the sharp peak at 3734.31 cm-1 assigned to –Sn-OH stretching vibration due to hydrogen bonding. The variation of D.C electrical resistance of SnO2 film samples was measured in air as well as in LPG and NH3 gas atmosphere as a function of temperature. The SnO2 film samples show negative temperature coefficient of résistance. The SnO2 film samples showed the highest sensitivity to 600 ppm of LPG at 230 0C and NH3 at 370 0C. The effect of microstructure on sensitivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of LPG and NH3 gases were studied and discussed.

  9. Implantation of cobalt in SnO2 thin films studied by TDPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Schell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we report time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC results of Co-doped SnO2 thin films. Making use of stable Co and radioactive 111In implanted at the Bonn Radioisotope Separator with energies of 80 keV and 160 keV, respectively, it was possible to study the dopant incorporation and its lattice location during annealing. The hyperfine parameters have been probed as a function of temperature in vacuum. Two quadrupole interactions were observed. At high temperatures the dominant fraction for the probe nuclei can be assigned to the Cd-incorporation at the cation substitutional site in a highly disordered structure, obtained after implantation, to high crystallinity for the measurements at 873 K and 923 K. The similarity in TDPAC spectra obtained in undoped SnO gives indirect evidence that In and Co diffuse to different depths during the annealing process. Other interpretations will be discussed.

  10. Highly Sensitive Nanostructured SnO2 Thin Films For Hydrogen Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, L. A.; Shinde, M. D.; Bari, A. R.; Deo, V. V.

    2010-10-01

    Nanostructured SnO2 thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Aqueous solution (0.05 M) of SnCl4ṡ5H2O in double distilled water was chosen as the starting solution for the preparation of the films. The stock solution was delivered to nozzle with constant and uniform flow rate of 70 ml/h by Syringe pump SK5001. Sono-tek spray nozzle, driven by ultrasonic frequency of 120 kHz, converts the solution into fine spray. The aerosol produced by nozzle was sprayed on glass substrate heated at 150 °C. The sensing performance of the films was tested for various gases such as LPG, hydrogen, ethanol, carbon dioxide and ammonia. The sensor (30 min) showed high gas response (S = 3040 at 350 °C) on exposure of 1000 ppm of hydrogen and high selectivity against other gases. Its response time was short (2 s) and recovery was also fast (12 s). To understand reasons behind this uncommon gas sensing performance of the films, their structural, microstructural, and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) respectively. The results are interpreted

  11. Fabrication and gas sensitivity of SnO2 hierarchical films with interwoven tubular conformation by a biotemplate-directed sol gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qun; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Fangying

    2006-08-01

    A facile and versatile method is reported to fabricate the interwoven tubular hierarchy of SnO2 films using a biotemplate eggshell membrane (ESM) combined sol-gel approach. In order to promote the crystallization of SnO2 films, calcination is necessary and can adjust the size of the building units in the range 2.8-26 nm. Under the direction of ESM biomacromolecules, SnO2 nanocrystallites come into being and assemble into nanotubes, and further pattern porous hierarchical meshworks to faithfully retain the morphology of natural ESM. The sensor performance of as-prepared biomorphic SnO2 was measured for ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), H2S, and gasoline. It is found that the SnO2 hierarchical films obtained have a good selectivity for LPG with a working temperature above 300 °C while for ethanol below 270 °C.

  12. A Label-Free Impedimetric DNA Sensor Based on a Nanoporous SnO2 Film: Fabrication and Detection Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Hai Le

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous SnO2 thin films were elaborated to serve as sensing electrodes for label-free DNA detection using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Films were deposited by an electrodeposition process (EDP. Then the non-Faradic EIS behaviour was thoroughly investigated during some different steps of functionalization up to DNA hybridization. The results have shown a systematic decrease of the impedance upon DNA hybridization. The impedance decrease is attributed to an enhanced penetration of ionic species within the film volume. Besides, the comparison of impedance variations upon DNA hybridization between the liquid and vapour phase processes for organosilane (APTES grafting on the nanoporous SnO2 films showed that vapour-phase method is more efficient. This is due to the fact that the vapour is more effective than the solution in penetrating the nanopores of the films. As a result, the DNA sensors built from vapour-treated silane layer exhibit a higher sensitivity than those produced from liquid-treated silane, in the range of tested target DNA concentration going to 10 nM. Finally, the impedance and fluorescence response signals strongly depend on the types of target DNA molecules, demonstrating a high selectivity of the process on nanoporous SnO2 films.

  13. CO sensing properties and mechanism of Pd doped SnO2 thick-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2018-01-01

    Pd doped SnO2 nano-particles were synthesized using co-precipitation method. The resistances of the samples first decrease and then increase, which maybe influenced by the Pd doping and temperature effect. The CO response of SnO2 was improved by doping with Pd. At low temperature range, the response decreases with increasing of operating temperature, which was caused by the physical adsorption. At higher operating temperature (160-400 °C), the response of Pd doped SnO2 for CO increases at first, undergoes a maximum at 260 °C, and finally drops. The 1.5 wt.% PdO doping SnO2 was verified to be significantly sensitive. The largest gas sensitive response of 6.59 was found at 260 °C in 400 ppm CO atmosphere. For 200 ppm CO, the response and recovery time were about 43 s and 10 s, respectively. The possible CO sensing mechanisms for Pd doped SnO2 sensors were investigated with first principles calculations. The calculation results showed that CO molecule can grab O from the pre-adsorbed oxygen on Pd4 cluster or the PdO cluster on the SnO2 (110) surface forming CO2. These processes may play important role in CO sensing for Pd doped SnO2. The calculated result is a good explanation of the experimental observation.

  14. Surfactant modified SnO2 nanostructured thin film for improved sensing performance of LPG and ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K. Prasanna; Thomas, Boben

    2017-05-01

    SnO2 nanostructured thin films have been successfully synthesized by way of spray pyrolysis from surfactant added solution. The X-ray diffraction pattern discloses the tetragonal rutile phase of the deposited SnO2 films, which experience a grain size reduction from 35 nm to 19 nm, on the addition of PVP surfactant in precursor. Gas sensing investigations on the surfactant modified film show considerable LPG and NH3 response at a lower operating temperature of 150°C. Quick response (˜20s) and fast recovery (˜30s) are the main features of these sensors. The measurement of AC conductivity of the sample allows understanding the conduction mechanism and sensing action for to enhance the detection sensitivity greatly.

  15. Improvement of H2S Sensing Properties of SnO2-Based Thick Film Gas Sensors Promoted with MoO3 and NiO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sung Son

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the SnO2 pore size and metal oxide promoters on the sensing properties of SnO2-based thick film gas sensors were investigated to improve the detection of very low H2S concentrations (<1 ppm. SnO2 sensors and SnO2-based thick-film gas sensors promoted with NiO, ZnO, MoO3, CuO or Fe2O3 were prepared, and their sensing properties were examined in a flow system. The SnO2 materials were prepared by calcining SnO2 at 600, 800, 1,000 and 1,200 °C to give materials identified as SnO2(600, SnO2(800, SnO2(1000, and SnO2(1200, respectively. The Sn(12Mo5Ni3 sensor, which was prepared by physically mixing 5 wt% MoO3 (Mo5, 3 wt% NiO (Ni3 and SnO2(1200 with a large pore size of 312 nm, exhibited a high sensor response of approximately 75% for the detection of 1 ppm H2S at 350 °C with excellent recovery properties. Unlike the SnO2 sensors, its response was maintained during multiple cycles without deactivation. This was attributed to the promoter effect of MoO3. In particular, the Sn(12Mo5Ni3 sensor developed in this study showed twice the response of the Sn(6Mo5Ni3 sensor, which was prepared by SnO2(600 with the smaller pore size than SnO2(1200. The excellent sensor response and recovery properties of Sn(12Mo5Ni3 are believed to be due to the combined promoter effects of MoO3 and NiO and the diffusion effect of H2S as a result of the large pore size of SnO2.

  16. Exploring and Controlling Intrinsic Defect Formation in SnO2 Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Porte, Yoann

    2015-12-15

    By investigating the influence of key growth variables on the measured structural and electrical properties of SnO2 prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) we demonstrate fine control of intrinsic n-type defect formation. Variation of growth temperatures shows oxygen vacancies (VO) as the dominant defect which can be compensated for by thermal oxidation at temperatures > 500°C. As a consequence films with carrier concentrations in the range 1016-1019 cm-3 can be prepared by adjusting temperature alone. By altering the background oxygen pressure (PD) we observe a change in the dominant defect - from tin interstitials (Sni) at low PD (< 50 mTorr) to VO at higher oxygen pressures with similar ranges of carrier concentrations observed. Finally we demonstrate the importance of controlling the composition target surface used for PLD by exposing a target to > 100,000 laser pulses. Here carrier concentrations > 1x1020 cm-3 are observed that are attributed to high concentrations of Sni which cannot be completely compensated for by modifying the growth parameters.

  17. A novel method for preparing stoichiometric SnO(2) thin films at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S G; Dar, M A; Dhage, M S; Kim, Young Soon; Ansari, Z A; Al-Hajry, A; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2009-04-01

    Tin oxide is a well known nonstoichiometric material with dual valency. The invariance of stoichiometry is very intriguing. As of today no report is available for preparing perfect stoichiometric tin oxide. Here we report a novel method to prepare stoichiometric tin oxide by modifying the known plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique using SnCl(4)-xH(2)O as precursor and O(2) as reactant gas at various temperatures from 300 to 800 degrees C. Tetragonal rutile structure of SnO(2) was found, grown along the [110] direction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurement showed constant Sn/O ratio. Sn 3d and O 1s were found composed of only Sn(4+) (487.2 eV) and O-Sn(4+) (531.2 eV) with equal peak widths. Raman band intensity ( approximately 633 cm(-1)) was found increasing with temperature, indicating the morphological changes. Sheet resistance of approximately 0.5 kOmega/at 300 degrees C was measured that reduces to approximately 0.1 kOmega/at 600 degrees C. It is found that film stoichiometry remains unaltered, while the structural morphology changes significantly.

  18. Sb doping effects and oxygen adsorption in SnO2 thin films deposited via sol-gel

    OpenAIRE

    Viviany Geraldo; Luis Vicente de Andrade Scalvi; Evandro Augusto de Morais; Celso Valentim Santilli; Sandra Helena Pulcinelli

    2003-01-01

    Transparent electrically conducting antimony-doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process from colloidal aqueous suspension. The effect of doping content on the structural, optical and electrical properties is analyzed. Results from infrared optical transmission and reflection have shown that the higher the Sb concentration the lower the transmission intensity and the higher the reflection signal. Absorption intensity increases as well. Results of X-ray reflectometr...

  19. LPG and NH3 Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. GARDE

    2010-01-01

    The gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thick film resistors deposited on alumina substrates has been investigated for LPG and NH3 gas. The standard screen printing technology was used to prepare the thick films. The films were fired at optimized temperature of 780 0C for 30 minutes. The material characterization was performed by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV and EDAX for elemental analysis. IR spectroscopy analysis at 2949.26 cm-1 showed the peak assigned to the –Sn-H vibration due to the effect of hybridizat...

  20. Cobalt Doped SnO2 Thick Film Gas Sensors: Conductance and Gas Response Characteristics for LPG and CNG Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt doped thick films tin oxide sensors were studied for their LPG and CNG gas sensitivity. SnO2 powder was synthesized by precipitation technique and doped with cobalt sulphate (0 to 10 wt % by impregnation technique. The sensing characteristics were found to depend on the cobalt concentration and operating temperature. Best performance for LPG and CNG detection was obtained for 3 wt % addition of cobalt sulphate. Cobalt doped SnO2 sensors showed a decrease in the optimum temperature for CNG detection from 450°C to 350°C. The transient response characteristics were determined at different temperatures and doping concentrations to understand the effect of doping on the rate kinetics. A correlation was established between response time, sensor response and the intergranular potential barriers.

  1. Thin gold films on SnO2:In: Temperature-dependent effects on the optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansåker, P.C.; Niklasson, G.A.; Granqvist, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Gold films with thicknesses of 5 ± 0.5 nm were sputter deposited onto SnO 2 :In-coated glass kept at different temperatures up to 140 °C, and similar films, deposited onto substrates at 25 °C, were annealing post treated at the same temperatures. Nanostructures and optical properties were recorded by scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometry in the 0.3 to 2.5 μm wavelength range, respectively. Annealing had a minor influence on the optical transmittance despite significant changes in the scale of the nanostructure, whereas deposition onto substrates heated to 140 °C yielded granular films with strong plasmon absorption of luminous radiation. These results are of considerable interest for optical devices with gold films prepared at elevated temperature or operating at such temperature. - Highlights: ► Thin gold films have been deposited onto base layers of SnO 2 :In. ► The gold depositions were made onto both non-heated and heated substrates. ► Gold depositions onto non-heated substrates were followed by heat treatment. ► Depending on heating procedure, the gold films show apparently different structure.

  2. Nanostructured SnO2 thick films for gas sensor application: analysis of structural and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskovic, Goran; Aleksic, Obrad S.; Nikolic, Maria V.; Nicolics, Johann; Radosavljevic, Goran; Vasiljevic, Zorka Z.; Lukovic, Miloljub D.; Smetana, Walter

    2016-03-01

    This research is focused on structural and electrical characterisation of tin oxide (SnO2) applied as a thick film and investigation of its properties as gas sensitive material. Micron sized SnO2 powder was milled in an agate mill for six hours to fabricate SnO2 nanopowder, which was afterwards sieved by 325 mesh sieve and characterized by XRD and SEM. This powder was used as functional part in the production of thick film tin oxide paste containing a resin vehicle with 4 wt. % nanosize glass frits acting as permanent binder. The glass frits where additionally milled for twelve hours in the agate mills to nanosized powder and sieved by a 325 mesh sieve as well. The achieved thick film paste was screen printed on alumina and fired at 850oC peak temperature for 10 minutes in air. After the sintering process, thick film samples where characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The reflectivity was measured on the same samples by UV-VIS spectrophotometer: the band gap was determined from the slope of reflectance. After that a matrix of different interdigitated electrode structure of PdAg paste was printed and sintered using the mentioned sintering conditions. The tin oxide thick film was printed over the interdigitated electrodes as a top layer and sintered again under the same conditions. The total electrical resistance was measured as a function of the electrode spacing and temperature. A negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was identified and measured in the range from room temperature (27°C) to 180°C in a climate chamber. Finally the samples were placed into a gas reactor with NOx and CO gas and the resistance was measured in the same temperature range (27°C-200°C).

  3. Effect of different sound atmospheres on SnO2:Sb thin films prepared by dip coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Adem; Ozturk, Erhan; Ejderha, Kadir; Turgut, Guven

    2017-11-01

    Different sound atmosphere effects were investigated on SnO2:Sb thin films, which were deposited with dip coating technique. Two sound atmospheres were used in this study; one of them was nay sound atmosphere for soft sound, another was metallic sound for hard sound. X-ray diffraction (XRD) graphs have indicated that the films have different orientations and structural parameters in quiet room, metallic and soft sound atmospheres. It could be seen from UV-Vis spectrometer measurements that films have different band gaps and optical transmittances with changing sound atmospheres. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and AFM images of the films have been pointed out that surfaces of films have been affected with changing sound atmospheres. The electrical measurements have shown that films have different I-V plots and different sheet resistances with changing sound atmospheres. These sound effects may be used to manage atoms in nano dimensions.

  4. Characterization of n and p-type (SnO2)x(ZnO)1-x nanoparticles thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud Ali, Hazem; Abdel Hakeem, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Electron beam evaporation technique was used to deposit (SnO2)x(ZnO)1-x thin films with different concentrations of SnO2 and ZnO. Optical transmittance (T) and reflectance (R) of the films were measured in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. It was found that the optical properties of the films are strongly affected by the ratio of Sn content. The optical energy gaps of direct and indirect transition for the films were determined. Values of energy gap were in the range from 3.35 to 4 eV for direct transition, and from 2.53 to 3.43 eV for indirect transition. The electrical resistivity of the films was measured by means of two contact method. Values of electrical resistivity were in the range between 5.06 × 10-4 and 1.55 × 102 Ω cm depending on the ratio of Sn and Zn ratios. A transformation from n-type to p-type semiconductors was observed.

  5. Scalable fabrication of SnO2 thin films sensitized with CuO islands for enhanced H2S gas sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Chien, Nguyen Viet; Van Duy, Nguyen; Vuong, Dang Duc; Lam, Nguyen Huu; Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Van Hieu, Nguyen; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2015-01-01

    The detection of H2S, an important gaseous molecule that has been recently marked as a highly toxic environmental pollutant, has attracted increasing attention. We fabricate a wafer-scale SnO2 thin film sensitized with CuO islands using microelectronic technology for the improved detection of the highly toxic H2S gas. The SnO2-CuO island sensor exhibits significantly enhanced H2S gas response and reduced operating temperature. The thickness of CuO islands strongly influences H2S sensing characteristics, and the highest H2S gas response is observed with 20 nm-thick CuO islands. The response value (Ra/Rg) of the SnO2-CuO island sensor to 5 ppm H2S is as high as 128 at 200 °C and increases nearly 55-fold compared with that of the bare SnO2 thin film sensor. Meanwhile, the response of the SnO2-CuO island sensor to H2 (250 ppm), NH3 (250 ppm), CO (250 ppm), and LPG (1000 ppm) are low (1.3-2.5). The enhanced gas response and selectivity of the SnO2-CuO island sensor to H2S gas is explained by the sensitizing effect of CuO islands and the extension of electron depletion regions because of the formation of p-n junctions.

  6. MeV ion irradiation induced evolution of morphological, structural and optical properties of nanostructured SnO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, Satyabrata; Bhardwaj, Neha; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured SnO 2 thin films were prepared by carbothermal evaporation method. Morphological, structural and optical properties of the SnO 2 thin films, before and after 8 MeV Si ion irradiation to fluences varying from 1 × 10 13 to 1 × 10 15 ions cm −2 , were well characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD studies revealed the presence of SnO 2 and Sn nanoparticles in the as-deposited samples. AFM and FESEM studies on the irradiated samples revealed formation of nanoring-like structures, at a fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions cm −2 , with a central hole and circular rim consisting of nearly monodisperse SnO 2 nanoparticles. PL studies revealed strong enhancement in UV emissions upon 8 MeV Si ion irradiation. A growth mechanism underlying the formation of SnO 2 nanorings involving self-assembly of SnO 2 nanoparticles around nanoholes is tentatively proposed. (paper)

  7. Sb doping effects and oxygen adsorption in SnO2 thin films deposited via sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviany Geraldo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrically conducting antimony-doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process from colloidal aqueous suspension. The effect of doping content on the structural, optical and electrical properties is analyzed. Results from infrared optical transmission and reflection have shown that the higher the Sb concentration the lower the transmission intensity and the higher the reflection signal. Absorption intensity increases as well. Results of X-ray reflectometry and electron microscopy have shown that the density of films fired at 400 °C after each dip is higher than that of multi-dipped films prepared with a single annealing. Both the electrical characteristics in the dark and the increase in conductivity as function of illumination through different filters, at 190 K, evidence that the transport properties of these films are dominated by the presence of defects, including the trapping at grain boundary due to excess of oxygen.

  8. XPS study of the surface chemistry of Ag-covered L-CVD SnO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoka, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Passacantando, M.; Czempik, G.; Santucci, S.; Szuber, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of SnO 2 thin films prepared by laser chemical vapour deposition (L-CVD) and subsequently covered by Ag atoms just after deposition and after long-term exposed to dry air, subsequent annealing in ultra high vacuum at 400 deg. C and dry air oxidation at 400 deg. C. Using the standard analytical procedure based on atomic sensitivity factors, the variation of surface chemistry defined in terms of the relative concentration of the main components of the films after the above-mentioned procedures has been determined. It was confirmed that after dry air exposure as well as dry air oxidation, the layers undergo an oxidation reaching almost SnO 2 stoichiometry. Besides, during ultra high vacuum annealing, the films undergo reduction to almost SnO stoichiometry. At the same time, Ag atoms deposited at the top of layers diffuse into the subsurface layers. This was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis

  9. Mechanism of band gap persistent photoconductivity (PPC) in SnO2 nanoscrystalline films: Nature of local states, simulation of PPC and comparison with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzari, V.

    2017-07-01

    A phenomenological model of room temperature photoconductivity in nanocrystalline SnO2 under photon excitation below the fundamental bandgap based on electronic states located at the bottom part of the band gap was proposed. Nature of these states is related to the surface oxygen vacancies and Sn-derived electronic states. Appropriate distribution of these states was considered. Numerical simulation of the photoconductivity response and decay on the basis of balance rate equation for excited electrons and immobile holes was done. Analysis revealed that response time is determined by the photoionization cross section of these states and intensity of illumination. Stationary photoresponse is saturated due to the limited number of these states. Intergrain potential barrier that originated due to the ionosorbed oxygen is the main factor limiting the reverse annihilation process and determining the photoconductivity decay time. Stretched exponential behavior of the photoconductivity decay was interpreted in terms of structural and electronic film disordering that results in asymmetric probability distribution of intergrain barrier heights and corresponding distribution of time constants.

  10. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  11. Detection of TATP precursor acetone at trace levels using rf sputtered SnO2 thin film-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Sharma, Anjali; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Emerging threats of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and homemade explosives (HMEs) have created a demand for reliable and unambiguous recognition of constituent analytes. Triacetone triperoxide (TATP), a cyclic peroxide based explosive has become a weapon of choice [1] in the hands of resourceful urban insurgents mainly because of ease of manufacture with readily available precursor constituents (acetone and concentrated hydrogen peroxide). Failure of conventional EDDs due to absence of nitrogen compounds coupled with the fact that TATP exhibits no significant absorption in UV region and does not demonstrate fluorescence has confined its detection to IR and Raman spectroscopy besides some enzyme-based tests and mass spectrometry [2]. Hence there is an urgent need for highly sensitive technique with a fast response speed that can detect presence of TATP at extremely low vapour pressure and purposely camouflaged physically or under cross-contamination with interfering compounds. In the present work trace level (20 ppm) acetone (precursor of TATP) sensing characteristics of rf sputtered semiconducting SnO2 thin films having embedded Pt interdigital electrodes have been investigated. Specifically a fast response speed of 08 seconds is noted and sensing characteristics of bare SnO2 and catalyst-SnO2 hetero-structures are compared. Innovative catalyst dispersal technique is shown to enhance sensor response as also reduce response times. Novel sensing hetero-structures with reversible acetone detection capabilities are shown to provide a feasible alternative for real-field operation along with remote detection with limited sample size.

  12. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Gas Sensing Performance of SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. PATIL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of variation of annealing temperature on the gas sensing characteristics of SnO2 thin films, which have been prepared by spray pyrolysis on alumina substrate at 350 oC, is investigated systematically for various gases at different operating temperature. The XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy and SEM techniques were employed to establish the structural, optical and morphological characteristics of the materials, resp. The X-ray diffraction results showed an increase in the crystallinity at higher annealing temperature. A high value of sensitivity is obtained for H2S gas at an optimum temperature of 100 oC is improved considerably. A SnO2 gas sensor annealed at 950 oC with sensitivity as high as 24 %, 4 times higher than that of sensor annealed at 550oC, are obtained for 80 ppm of H2S. The degree of crystallinity and grain size calculated from the XRD patterns has been found increasing with annealing temp

  13. Foam-like, microstructural SnO2-carbon composite thin films synthesized via a polyol-assisted thermal decomposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, See-How; Chew, Sau-Yen; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Chen, Jun; Dou, Shi-Xue; Liu, Hua-Kun

    2009-01-28

    Foam-like, microstructural SnO2-carbon composite thin films were synthesized by refluxing SnCl2.2H2O in ethylene glycol (EG) at 195 degrees C for 4 h under vigorous stirring in air followed by thermal decomposition of the as-synthesized precursor solution, whereby the products were deposited onto stainless steel (SS) substrates. Subsequently, the decomposed product, which now consists only of the microstructural SnO2-carbon composite thin film, without the addition of any binder and carbon black conductive agent, was directly applied as an anode material for use in a Li-ion rechargeable battery. Physical and electrochemical characterizations of the as-synthesized thin films were carried out. The foam-like, microstructural SnO2-carbon composite thin films that undergo thermal decomposition in air at 300 degrees C demonstrated the best cyclability, delivering a specific discharge capacity of approximately 496 mAh g(-1) beyond 100 cycles. We believe that the presence of a uniform, SnO2-carbon network throughout the foam-like thin film, acts not only as an improved conducting network but also buffered the volume expansion upon Li-Sn alloying, resulting in a much improved cycling of the composite thin film electrode.

  14. An Investigation of Structural and Electrical Properties of Nano Crystalline SnO2:Cu Thin Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Podder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pure tin oxide (SnO2 and Cu doped SnO2 thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by a simple spray pyrolysis technique under atmospheric pressure at temperature 350 °C. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1 to 8 wt. % while all other deposition parameters such as spray rate, carrier air gas pressure, deposition time, and distance between spray nozzle to substrate were kept constant. Surface morphology of the as-deposited thin films has been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The SEM micrograph of the films shows uniform deposition. The structural properties of the as-deposited and annealed thin films have been studied by XRD and the electrical characterization was performed by Van-der Pauw method. The as-deposited films are found polycrystalline in nature with tetragonal crystal structure. Average grain sizes of pure and Cu doped SnO2 thin film have been obtained in the range of 7.2445 Å to 6.0699 Å, which indicates the nanometric size of SnO2 grains developed in the film. The resistivity of SnO2 films was found to decrease initially from 4.5095×10−4 Ωm to 1.1395× 10−4 Ωm for concentration of Cu up to 4 % but it was increased further with increasing of Cu concentrations. The experimental results depict the suitability of this material for using as transparent and conducting window materials in solar cells and gas sensors.

  15. Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of SnO2 Thin Films Doped by Group-Ia Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhebal, Hadj; Benrabah, Bedhiaf; Ammari, Aek; Madoune, Yacine; Lambert, Stéphanie D.

    This paper presents the results of an experimental work devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of tin dioxide (SnO2) thin layers doped with group-IA elements (Li, Na and K). The materials were synthesized by the sol-gel method and deposited by dip-coating, using tin (II) chloride dihydrate as a source of tin and absolute ethyl alcohol as solvent. Thin films prepared were characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy and complex impedance method. The results obtained show that the materials kept their tetragonal rutile structure with preferred orientation of (101), whereas doping leads to a reduction of their energy band gap. The complex impedance analysis suggests that the different processes occurring at the electrode interface are modeled by an electrical circuit not affected by the doping.

  16. A study of structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type Zn-doped SnO2 films versus deposition and annealing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tran; Phuc Dang, Huu; Luc, Quang Ho; Hieu Le, Van

    2017-04-01

    This study presents a detailed investigation of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of p-type Zn-doped SnO2 versus the deposition and annealing temperature. Using a direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering method, p-type transparent conductive Zn-doped SnO2 (ZTO) films were deposited on quartz glass substrates. Zn dopants incorporated into the SnO2 host lattice formed the preferred dominant SnO2 (1 0 1) and (2 1 1) planes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for identifying the valence state of Zn in the ZTO film. The electrical property of ZTO films changed from n-type to p-type at the threshold temperature of 400 °C, and the films achieved extremely high conductivity at the optimum annealing temperature of 600 °C after annealing for 2 h. The best conductive property of the film was obtained on a 10 wt% ZnO-doped SnO2 target with a resistivity, hole concentration, and hole mobility of 0.22 Ω · cm, 7.19  ×  1018 cm-3, and 3.95 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Besides, the average transmission of films was  >84%. The surface morphology of films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the acceptor level of Zn2+ was identified using photoluminescence spectra at room temperature. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics revealed the behavior of a p-ZTO/n-Si heterojunction diode.

  17. Cauliflower hillock formation through crystallite migration of SnO2 thin films prepared on alumina substrates by using MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gwangpyo; Ryu, Hyunwook; Lee, Woosun; Hong, Kwangjun; Shin, Dongcharn; Park, Jinseong; Seo, Yongjin; Akbar, Sheikh A.

    2003-01-01

    Tin-oxide thin films were deposited at 375 .deg. C on α-alumina substrates by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process. A number of hillocks were formed on the film after annealing in air at 500 .deg. C for 30 min, but fewer hillocks were formed for annealing in N 2 . The hillocks on the film and the grains on the alumina substrate were composed of crystallites. The oxygen content and the binding energy after annealing in air came to close to values for the stoichiometric SnO 2 . There was no relationship between the film thickness and the binding energy shift, but the binding energy did change with the annealing atmosphere and the oxygen content. The cauliflower hillocks on the film seem to be formed by the continuous migration of crystallites from cauliflower grains on the substrate to release the stress due to the increased oxygen content and volume. A cauliflower hillock can be grown by continuous migration of crystallites from nearby grains to the hillock.

  18. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Sprayed alpha-Fe2O3 Thin Films : Influence of Si Doping and SnO2 Interfacial Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.; Enache, C.S.; Van De Krol, R.

    2008-01-01

    a-Fe2O3 thin film photoanodes for solar water splitting were prepared by spray pyrolysis of Fe(AcAc)3. The donor density in the Fe2O3 films could be tuned between 10171020cm-3 by doping with silicon. By depositing a 5 nm SnO2 interfacial layer between the Fe2O3 films and the transparent conducting

  19. Concentration influence on structural and optical properties of SnO2 thin films synthesized by the spin coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhamri, Soumia; Hamdadou, Nasr-Eddine

    2016-10-01

    Tin dioxide is an n-type semiconductor, with wide band gap 3.6 eV and special properties such as high optical transmission in the visible range, the infrared reflection and chemical stability. The objective of our work is to study the effect of solution concentration on the properties of SnO2 thin films, which were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy after annealing for one hour at 500°C. X ray diffraction spectra (XRD) showed that the films deposited at different concentrations (0.7 mol/l, 1 mol/l, 1.5 mol/l) are polycrystalline with a rutile type tetragonal. The grains have two preferred orientations along the directions (110) and (101) corresponding to 2θ = 26,744° and 34,113° respectively. We have also noted that the grain size change between 20 and 40 nm. The peak of diffraction becomes less intense when the solution concentration is more than 0.7 mol / l. The opticall transmittance of the films in the visible spectrum was in the range of 59 - 44%.

  20. Study of 120 MeV Ni7+ ion beam irradiated SnO2/Ag/SnO2 multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Sharma, Neeru; Surbhi, Singh, Satyavir; Singh, Devendra; Makhija, Garima; Asokan, K.; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2017-05-01

    Multilayer thin films of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 were prepared on silicon and quartz substrates by electron beam and thermal evaporation method for the SnO2 and Ag layer respectively. As prepared specimen were irradiated with 120 MeV Ni7+ ions of two fluences of 1×1012 and 5×1012 ions /cm2 to modify the structural and optical properties. These films were then systematically investigated to observe the modifications produced in the multilayer films. XRD was used for structural investigation which shows crystallinity induced by irradiation in the otherwise amorphous samples. FTIR results reveal the presence of functional groups with stretching and bending vibration. The average transmittance of the pristine multilayer film was ˜73% which shows a slight increase on irradiation. Peak positions in Raman spectra are indicative of strain in the irradiated sample. A decrease in grain size is observed after irradiation.

  1. Effects of laser-induced recovery process on conductive property of SnO2:F thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Fei; Lin, Keh-moh; Ho, Yu-Sen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed a laser annealing process to enhance the electrical properties of SnO 2 :F (FTO) films. It is already known that in contrast to indium oxides or zinc oxides, the carrier mobility of FTO films is relatively lower. Thus, improving the mobility is a direct way to enhance the conductivity of FTO films. Furthermore, improving the crystal quality of the thin films is in turn a direct way to enhance the mobility effectively. Contrary to the high working temperatures of traditional annealing processes, the laser annealing process, with its focusing character, enables us to modify the crystal quality of oxide films on substrates with low-melting points. Using a self-built laser system, which consists of a Nd:YAG solid-state laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a beam shaper lens, we carried out a series of experiments to achieve the optimal laser annealing process. Hall, SEM, and XRD measurements were used to characterize the opto-electrical as well as the structural properties. As experimental results show, the tin oxide crystallites recovered well during the laser annealing process. By using a suitable beam profile and a proper laser intensity, the film resistivity was reduced from 7.19 ± 0.55 x 10 -3 Ω cm to 6.70 ± 0.20 x 10 -3 Ω cm while the carrier mobility was enhanced from 11.18 ± 0.29 cm 2 /V s to 11.71 ± 0.34 cm 2 /V s.

  2. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified new method of CVD for formation of pure layers of tin oxide films was developed. This method is very simple and inexpensive and produces films with good electrical properties. The effect of substrate temperature on the sheet resistance, resistivity, mobility, carrier concentration and transparency of the films has ...

  3. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO 2 thin films deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified new method of CVD for formation of pure layers of tin oxide films was developed. This method is very simple and inexpensive and produces films with good electrical properties. The effect of substrate temperature on the sheet resistance, resistivity, mobility, carrier concentration and transparency of the films has ...

  4. A simple method to deposit palladium doped SnO2 thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Wahab, Rizwan; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, S. G.; Ansari, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple method to deposit palladium doped tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films using modified plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature at a radio frequency plasma power of 150 W. Stannic chloride (SnCl 4 ) was used as precursor and oxygen (O 2 , 100 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) as reactant gas. Palladium hexafluroacetyleacetonate (Pd(C 5 HF 6 O 2 ) 2 ) was used as a precursor for palladium. Fine granular morphology was observed with tetragonal rutile structure. A peak related to Pd 2 Sn is observed, whose intensity increases slightly with deposition temperature. Electrical resistivity value decreased from 8.6 to 0.9 mΩ cm as a function of deposition temperature from 400 to 600 deg. C. Photoelectron peaks related to Sn 3d, Sn 3p3, Sn 4d, O 1s, and C 1s were detected with varying intensities as a function of deposition temperature.

  5. High-mobility transparent thin-film transistors with an Sb-doped SnO2 nanocrystal channel fabricated at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Lu Aixia; Wang Liping; Hu Yu; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    Transparent thin-film transistors with bottom-gate figure are fabricated by sputter deposition of an Sb-doped SnO 2 nanocrystal channel layer onto glass substrates at room temperature with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiO 2 gate dielectrics and sputtering ITO electrodes. These devices exhibit high-performance n-type transistor characteristics operating in depletion mode with an ultrahigh field-effect mobility of 158 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing are found to be 3 x 10 4 and 0.2 V/decade, respectively. These achievements demonstrate that SnO 2 -based nanocrystal thin-film transistors are promising for high-speed transparent and flexible electronics on temperature-sensitive substrates.

  6. Determination of optical dispersion and film thickness of semiconducting disordered layers by transmission measurements: Application for chemically vapor deposited Si and SnO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davazoglou, D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of the optical dispersion and thickness of thin semiconducting disordered layers, or stacks of such layers, deposited on fully or partly transparent substrates using transmission measurements. The method consists in fitting to the experimentally recorded spectra, theoretical ones, generated simulating the optical dispersion of the films involved with the help of the physical model proposed by Forouhi and Bloomer for amorphous semiconductors [Phys. Rev. B 34, 7018 (1986)]. The fit is made using standard regression analysis techniques that allow determination of the model parameters corresponding to these films. This method is applied for amorphous Si layers deposited on fused silica substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and SnO2 films grown by atmospheric pressure CVD on glass substrates and give results that are in agreement with those reported in the literature.

  7. An economic CVD technique for pure SnO2 thin films deposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have been widely used for a long time in opto-electronics industries as well as in research fields. Tin oxide films have, besides a high transparency and a low ... coating of glass containers and infrared reflectors for glass windows (Chopra et al 1983; Takahashi et al 2000; Haga et al. 2001; Salehi 2003; Medvedeva and ...

  8. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  9. Stabilization of organometal halide perovskite films by SnO2 coating with inactive surface hydroxyl groups on ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Jinjin; Liu, Jinxi; Wei, Liyu; Liu, Zhenghao; Guan, Lihao; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells have advanced rapid in the last few years, however the thermal instability of perovskite film on ZnO nanorods (NRs) remains a big challenge limiting its commercialization. The present work demonstrated effective suppression of the decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite through inserting a thin tin oxide (SnO2) passivation layer between ZnO NRs and perovskite films. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed no distinct difference in the amount of hydroxyl groups and oxygen vacancies on the surface of ZnO NRs and ZnO@SnO2 NRs, Raman spectra suggested the hydroxyl groups might be trapped in oxygen vacancies on SnO2 surface, preventing the decomposition of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite through reacting with the hydroxyl groups. The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells was significantly increased from 6.92% to 12.17% and became hysteresis-free by applying SnO2 passivating layer between perovskite and ZnO layers.

  10. Honeycomb-inspired design of ultrafine SnO2@C nanospheres embedded in carbon film as anode materials for high performance lithium- and sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Xiang; Jiang, Jianjun; Ruan, Yunjun; Li, Zhishan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jianwu; Wang, Chundong

    2017-08-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) has been considered as one of the most promising anodes for advanced rechargeable batteries due to its advantages such as high energy density, earth abundance and environmental friendly. However, its large volume change during the Li-Sn/Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying processes will result in a fast capacity degradation over a long term cycling. To solve this issue, in this work we design and synthesize a novel honeycomb-like composite composing of carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanospheres embedded in carbon film by using dual templates of SiO2 and NaCl. Using these composites as anodes both in lithium ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries, no discernable capacity degradation is observed over hundreds of long term cycles at both low current density (100 mA g-1) and high current density (500 mA g-1). Such a good cyclic stability and high delivered capacity have been attributed to the high conductivity of the supported carbon film and hollow encapsulated carbon shells, which not only provide enough space to accommodate the volume expansion but also prevent further aggregation of SnO2 nanoparticles upon cycling. By engineering electrodes of accommodating high volume expansion, we demonstrate a prototype to achieve high performance batteries, especially high-power batteries.

  11. Gas sensing properties and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy study of trichloroethylene adsorption and reactions on SnO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxin; Huang, Kaijin; Yuan, Fangli; Xie, Changsheng

    2014-05-01

    The detection of trichloroethylene has attracted much attention because it has an important effect on human health. The sensitivity of the SnO2 flat-type coplanar gas sensor arrays to 100 ppm trichloroethylene in air was investigated. The adsorption and surface reactions of trichloroethylene were investigated at 100-200 °C by in-situ diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DIRFTS) on SnO2 films. Molecularly adsorbed trichloroethylene, dichloroacetyl chloride (DCAC), phosgene, HCl, CO, H2O, CHCl3, Cl2 and CO2 surface species are formed during trichloroethylene adsorption at 100-200 °C. A possible mechanism of the reaction process is discussed.

  12. Characterization of core/shell structures based on CdTe and GaAs nanocrystalline layers deposited on SnO2 microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimpu, L.; Ursaki, V. V.; Pantazi, A.; Mesterca, R.; Brâncoveanu, O.; Shree, Sindu; Adelung, R.; Tiginyanu, I. M.; Enachescu, M.

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of SnO2/CdTe and SnO2/GaAs core/shell microstructures. CdTe or GaAs shell layers were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on core SnO2 microwires synthesized by a flame-based thermal oxidation method. The produced structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (HR-STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and FTIR spectroscopy. It was found that the SnO2 core is of the rutile type, while the shells are composed of CdTe or GaAs nanocrystallites of zincblende structure with the dimensions of crystallites in the range of 10-20 nm. The Raman scattering investigations demonstrated that the quality of the porous nanostructured shell is improved by annealing at temperatures of 420-450 °C. The prospects of implementing these microstructures in intrinsic type fiber optic sensors are discussed.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  14. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 2. Characterization of nanocrystalline ... Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposition method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, ...

  15. Structural, optical and photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Undoped SnO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method reveal polycrystalline nature with prominent peaks along (110), (101) and (211) planes. All the films are nanocrystalline with particle size lying in the range of 3.14–8.6 nm calculated by DS formula. Orientation along plane (200) decreases continuously as molar ...

  16. Unusual high sensitivity in highly oriented laser ablated thin films of SnO_2 on (1102) sapphire and (100) LaAlO_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekar, K. I.; Rambabu, B.; Langry, K. C.

    2002-04-01

    A systematic investigation on growth and sensor characteristics of SnO2 thin films of different orientations is reported for the first time. Thin films were grown by pulsed laser (KrF; λ=248 nm) ablation technique under in-situ conditions. Films deposited at 525 °C on (1102) sapphire were predominantly (101) orientated whereas those deposited on (100) LaAlO3 were highly a-axis orientated. Sensors made of predominantly (101) oriented films exhibited more than two orders magnitude change in resistance even for 100 ppm of H2 in air at 310 °C. The response and retracing times of the sensor were remarkably short respectively 30 and 200 s. Sensors made of a-axis oriented films also exhibited similar sensitivity and response time for the same quantity of both H2 and LPG. However, the retrace time was very long typically about 20 min. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) investigation reveals that the films are highly granular with an average size of about 100 150 nm which is ten times larger than the critical size of 6 nm, a criterion required for high sensitivity. (The Debye length of SnO_2 \\cong 3.07 nm at 293 K and the critical grain size is therefore 2 × Debye length, which is 6 nm.)

  17. SnO2 thin-films prepared by a spray-gel pyrolysis: Influence of sol properties on film morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyo, Clemente; Fabregas, Ismael; Reyes, L.; Solis, Jose L.; Rodriguez, Juan; Estrada, Walter; Candal, Roberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructured tin oxide films were prepared by depositing different sols using the so-called spray-gel pyrolysis process. SnO 2 suspensions (sols) were obtained from tin (IV) tert-amyloxide (Sn(t-OAm) 4 ) or tin (IV) chloride pentahydrate (SnCl 4 .5H 2 O) precursors, and stabilized with ammonia or tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEA-OH). Xerogels from the different sols were obtained by solvent evaporation under controlled humidity. The Relative Gelling Volumes (RGV) of these sols strongly depended on the type of precursor. Xerogels obtained from inorganic salts gelled faster, while, as determined by thermal gravimetric analysis, occluding a significant amount of volatile compounds. Infrared spectroscopic analysis was performed on raw and annealed xerogels (300, 500 deg. C, 1 h). Annealing removed water and ammonium or alkyl ammonium chloride, increasing the number of Sn-O-Sn bonds. SnO 2 films were prepared by spraying the sols for 60 min onto glass and alumina substrates at 130 deg. C. The films obtained from all the sols were amorphous or displayed a very small grain size, and crystallized after annealing at 400 deg. C or 500 deg. C in air for 2 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of the cassiterite structure and line broadening indicated a polycrystalline material with a grain size in the nanometer range. Results obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis demonstrated a strong dependence of the film morphology on the RGV of the sols. Films obtained from Sn(t-OAm) 4 showed a highly textured morphology based on fiber-shape bridges, whereas the films obtained from SnCl 4 .5H 2 O had a smoother surface formed by 'O-ring' shaped domains. Lastly, the performance of these films as gas sensor devices was tested. The conductance (sensor) response for ethanol as a target analyte was of the same order of magnitude for the three kinds of films. However, the response of the highly textured films was more stable with shorter response times

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  19. Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon germanium film and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium films (Si/Ge) and Si/Ge nanotubes have low band gaps and high carrier mobility, thus offering appealing potential for absorbing gas molecules. Interaction between hydrogen molecules and bare as well as functionalized Si/Ge nanofilm and nanotube was investigated using Monte ...

  20. Hall and Seebeck measurements estimate the thickness of a (buried) carrier system: Identifying interface electrons in In-doped SnO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogianni, Alexandra; White, Mark E.; Speck, James S.; Galazka, Zbigniew; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    We propose a simple method based on the combination of Hall and Seebeck measurements to estimate the thickness of a carrier system within a semiconductor film. As an example, this method can distinguish "bulk" carriers, with homogeneous depth distribution, from "sheet" carriers, that are accumulated within a thin layer. The thickness of the carrier system is calculated as the ratio of the integral sheet carrier concentration, extracted from Hall measurements, to the volume carrier concentration, derived from the measured Seebeck coefficient of the same sample. For rutile SnO2, the necessary relation of Seebeck coefficient to volume electron concentration in the range of 3 × 1017 to 3 × 1020 cm-3 has been experimentally obtained from a set of single crystalline thin films doped with varying Sb-doping concentrations and unintentionally doped bulk samples, and is given as a "calibration curve." Using this calibration curve, our method demonstrates the presence of interface electrons in homogeneously deep-acceptor (In) doped SnO2 films on sapphire substrates.

  1. Preparation and structural characterization of SnO2 and GeO2 methanol steam reforming thin film model catalysts by (HR)TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Harald; Zhao Qian; Turner, Stuart; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Kloetzer, Bernhard; Rameshan, Christoph; Penner, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Structure, morphology and composition of different tin oxide and germanium oxide thin film catalysts for the methanol steam reforming (MSR) reaction have been studied by a combination of (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, dark-field imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Deposition of the thin films on NaCl(0 0 1) cleavage faces has been carried out by thermal evaporation of the respective SnO 2 and GeO 2 powders in varying oxygen partial pressures and at different substrate temperatures. Preparation of tin oxide films in high oxygen pressures (10 -1 Pa) exclusively resulted in SnO phases, at and above 473 K substrate temperature epitaxial growth of SnO on NaCl(0 0 1) leads to well-ordered films. For lower oxygen partial pressures (10 -3 to 10 -2 Pa), mixtures of SnO and β-Sn are obtained. Well-ordered SnO 2 films, as verified by electron diffraction patterns and energy-loss spectra, are only obtained after post-oxidation of SnO films at temperatures T ≥ 673 K in 10 5 Pa O 2 . Preparation of GeO x films inevitably results in amorphous films with a composition close to GeO 2 , which cannot be crystallized by annealing treatments in oxygen or hydrogen at temperatures comparable to SnO/SnO 2 . Similarities and differences to neighbouring oxides relevant for selective MSR in the third group of the periodic system (In 2 O 3 and Ga 2 O 3 ) are also discussed with the aim of cross-correlation in formation of nanomaterials, and ultimately, also catalytic properties.

  2. Photocatalytic Degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol using N-doped SnO2/TiO2 Thin Film Coated Glass Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerawas Kongsong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP contaminant in water was investigated. Composite SnO2/TiO2 films N-doped to varying degrees were prepared via sol-gel method, and coated on glass fibers by dipping method. The effects of nitrogen-doping on coating morphology, physical properties, and glyphosate degradation rates were experimentally determined. Nitrogen-doping shifted absorption wavelengths and narrowed the energy band gap, enhancing photocatalytic performance. The maximum efficiency of 2,4-DCP degradation was up to 93.65% for 12 h of 40N/SnO2/TiO2 composite film. The near optimal 40N/SnO2/TiO2 composite thin film exhibited about 4 folds degradation rates relative to pure TiO2, and should perform well in water purification applications.

  3. Linear temperature behavior of thermopower and strong electron-electron scattering in thick F-doped SnO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Both the semi-classical and quantum transport properties of F-doped SnO2 thick films (˜1 μm) were investigated experimentally. We found that the resistivity caused by the thermal phonons obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law from ˜90 to 300 K, while only the diffusive thermopower, which varies linearly with temperature from 300 down to 10 K, can be observed. The phonon-drag thermopower is completely suppressed due to the long electron-phonon relaxation time in the compound. These observations, together with the fact that the carrier concentration has negligible temperature dependence, indicate that the conduction electrons in F-doped SnO2 films possess free-electron-like characteristics. At low temperatures, the electron-electron scattering dominates over the electron-phonon scattering and governs the inelastic scattering process. The theoretical predications of scattering rates of large- and small-energy-transfer electron-electron scattering processes, which are negligibly weak in three-dimensional disordered conventional conductors, are quantitatively tested in this lower carrier concentration and free-electron-like highly degenerate semiconductor.

  4. Characterization of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Paul K.; Li Liuhe

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films possess special chemical and physical properties such as high chemical inertness, diamond-like properties, and favorable tribological proprieties. The materials usually consist of graphite and diamond microstructures and thus possess properties that lie between the two. Amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films can exist in different kinds of matrices and are usually doped with a large amount of hydrogen. Thus, carbon films can be classified as polymer-like, diamond-like, or graphite-like based on the main binding framework. In order to characterize the structure, either direct bonding characterization methods or the indirect bonding characterization methods are employed. Examples of techniques utilized to identify the chemical bonds and microstructure of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films include optical characterization methods such as Raman spectroscopy, Ultra-violet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, electron spectroscopic and microscopic methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, surface morphology characterization techniques such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) as well as other characterization methods such as X-ray reflectivity and nuclear magnetic resonance. In this review, the structures of various types of amorphous carbon films and common characterization techniques are described

  5. High-rate deposition of Ta-doped SnO2 films by reactive magnetron sputtering using a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Nakatomi, S.; Oka, N.; Iwabuchi, Y.; Kotsubo, H.; Shigesato, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ta-doped SnO 2 films were deposited on glass substrate (either unheated or heated at 200 °C) by reactive magnetron sputtering with a Sn–Ta metal-sintered target using a plasma control unit (PCU) and mid-frequency (mf, 50 kHz) unipolar pulsing. The PCU feedback system precisely controlled the flow of the reactive and sputtering gases (O 2 and Ar, respectively) by monitoring either discharge impedance or the plasma emission of the atomic O* line at 777 nm. The planar target was connected to the switching unit, which was operated in unipolar pulse mode. Power density on the target was maintained at 4.4 W cm −2 during deposition. The lowest obtained resistivity for the films deposited on heated substrate was 6.4 × 10 −3 Ωcm, where the deposition rate was 250 nm min −1 .

  6. Resistividade do filme depositado via sol-gel e estado de oxidação do dopante Ce na matriz SnO2 Resistivity of the film deposited via sol-gel and oxidation state of Ce doping in SnO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. A. Scalvi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporação de Ce3+ ou Ce4+ em filmes finos de SnO2 depositados via sol-gel-dip-coating aumenta drasticamente a resistividade elétrica. No primeiro caso, temos comportamento aceitador do dopante, levando a matriz à alta compensação de carga. Por outro lado, para Ce4+, verifica-se aumento na largura da região de depleção do contorno de grão, resultando em maior espalhamento de elétrons. Medidas de caracterização elétrica sob pressão ambiente levam à barreiras de potencial mais altas do que as medidas sob vácuo, devido a adsorção de oxigênio na superfície das partículas. A presença de Ce3+ aumenta a transmitância no infravermelho, o que significa menor quantidade de elétrons livres. Dados de XANES confirmam que o tratamento térmico a 550 ºC dos filmes, ainda que promova oxidação parcial para Ce4+, preserva uma quantidade significativa (em torno de 60% no estado Ce3+. Espectroscopia Raman mostra a evolução dos modos de vibração intra-grãos de SnO2 com o aumento da temperatura de tratamento térmico.Incorporation of Ce3+ or Ce4+ in sol-gel dip-coating SnO2 thin films increases drastically its electrical resistivity. In the first case, it is due the acceptor-like nature of the doping ion, leading the matrix to high charge compensation. On the other hand, for Ce+4 doped samples, it is verified a broadening of the grain boundary depletion layer. Measurements under room pressure leads to higher intergrain potential barriers when compared to measurements carried out under vacuum conditions, due to oxygen adsorption at particles surface. The presence of Ce3+ increases the infrared transmittance, which means a lower free electron concentration. XANES data confirms that the thermal annealing at 550 ºC of thin films, although promotes oxidation to Ce4+, still keeps a significantly amount (about 60% of ions in the oxidation state Ce3+. Raman spectroscopy data show the evolution of the SnO2 bulk vibration modes with

  7. Films prepared from electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Tejado, Alvaro; Alam, Nur; Antal, Miro; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2012-05-22

    Electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) was modified in three ways: (1) the hydroxyl groups on C2 and C3 of glucose repeat units of ENCC were converted to aldehyde groups by periodate oxidation to various extents; (2) the carboxyl groups in the sodium form on ENCC were converted to the acid form by treating them with an acid-type ion-exchange resin; and (3) ENCC was cross-linked in two different ways by employing adipic dihydrazide as a cross-linker and water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylaminopropyl)] carbodiimide as a carboxyl-activating agent. Films were prepared from these modified ENCC suspensions by vacuum filtration. The effects of these three modifications on the properties of films were investigated by a variety of techniques, including UV-visible spectroscopy, a tensile test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and contact angle (CA) studies. On the basis of the results from UV spectra, the transmittance of these films was as high as 87%, which shows them to be highly transparent. The tensile strength of these films was increased with increasing aldehyde content. From TGA and WVTR experiments, cross-linked films showed much higher thermal stability and lower water permeability. Furthermore, although the original cellulose is hydrophilic, these films also exhibited a certain hydrophobic behavior. Films treated by trichloromethylsilane become superhydrophobic. The unique characteristics of these transparent films are very promising for potential applications in flexible packaging and other high-technology products.

  8. Visible emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin films deposited by sol-gel Emissão no visível de filmes finos, depositados via sol-gel, de SnO2 dopados com Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Ravaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin film deposited via sol-gel by the dip coating technique is obtained in the range 500-700 nm with peak at 530 nm (green. Electron-hole generation in the tin dioxide matrix is used to promote the rare-earth ion excitation. Evaluation of crystallite dimensions through X-ray diffraction results leads to nanoscopic size, what could play a relevant role in the emission spectra. The electron-hole mechanism is also responsible for the excitation of the transition in the 1540 nm range in powders obtained from the same precursor solution of films. The thin film matrix presents a very useful shape for technological application, since it allows integration in optical devices and the application of electric fields to operate electroluminescent devices.Foi obtida emissão de filmes finos de SnO2 dopados com Er no intervalo 500-700 nm, com pico em 530 nm (verde. Esses filmes foram depositados pela técnica de molhamento via sol-gel. A geração de pares elétron-buraco na matriz de SnO2 é usada para promover a excitação do íon terra-rara. A avaliação do tamanho dos cristalitos por meio de resultados de difração de raios X indica dimensões nanoscópicas, o que pode ser relevante para a interpretação do espectro de emissão. O mecanismo de excitação elétron-buraco é também responsável pela excitação da transição no intervalo que inclui 1540 nm em pós obtidos da mesma solução precursora dos filmes. Filmes finos constituem um formato muito útil para aplicações tecnológicas, desde que permite integração em dispositivos ópticos e a aplicação de campos elétricos para operar dispositivos eletroluminescentes.

  9. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. Sarbani Basu Yeong-Her Wang C Ghanshyam Pawan Kapur. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 521-533 ...

  10. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 4. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. Sarbani Basu Yeong-Her Wang C Ghanshyam Pawan Kapur. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 521-533 ...

  11. Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fast response time alcohol gas sensor using nanocrystalline F-doped. SnO2 films derived via sol–gel method. SARBANI BASU, YEONG-HER WANG†, C GHANSHYAM. ∗ and PAWAN KAPUR. CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Sector-30, Chandigarh 160 030, India. †Department of Electrical Engineering, ...

  12. Thermal Conductivity in Nanocrystalline Ceria Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marat Khafizov; In-Wook Park; Aleksandr Chernatynskiy; Lingfeng He; Jianliang Lin; John J. Moore; David Swank; Thomas Lillo; Simon R. Phillpot; Anter El-Azab; David H. Hurley

    2014-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline ceria films grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering is determined as a function of temperature using laser-based modulated thermoreflectance. The films exhibit significantly reduced conductivity compared with stoichiometric bulk CeO2. A variety of microstructure imaging techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the thermal conductivity is influenced by grain boundaries, dislocations, and oxygen vacancies. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is analyzed using an analytical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The conclusion of this study is that oxygen vacancies pose a smaller impediment to thermal transport when they segregate along grain boundaries.

  13. Self-assembled SnO2 micro- and nanosphere-based gas sensor thick films from an alkoxide-derived high purity aqueous colloid precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelp, G.; Tätte, T.; Pikker, S.; Mändar, H.; Rozhin, A. G.; Rauwel, P.; Vanetsev, A. S.; Gerst, A.; Merisalu, M.; Mäeorg, U.; Natali, M.; Persson, I.; Kessler, V. G.

    2016-03-01

    Tin oxide is considered to be one of the most promising semiconductor oxide materials for use as a gas sensor. However, a simple route for the controllable build-up of nanostructured, sufficiently pure and hierarchical SnO2 structures for gas sensor applications is still a challenge. In the current work, an aqueous SnO2 nanoparticulate precursor sol, which is free of organic contaminants and sorbed ions and is fully stable over time, was prepared in a highly reproducible manner from an alkoxide Sn(OR)4 just by mixing it with a large excess of pure neutral water. The precursor is formed as a separate liquid phase. The structure and purity of the precursor is revealed using XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, HRTEM imaging, FTIR, and XRF analysis. An unconventional approach for the estimation of the particle size based on the quantification of the Sn-Sn contacts in the structure was developed using EXAFS spectroscopy and verified using HRTEM. To construct sensors with a hierarchical 3D structure, we employed an unusual emulsification technique not involving any additives or surfactants, using simply the extraction of the liquid phase, water, with the help of dry butanol under ambient conditions. The originally generated crystalline but yet highly reactive nanoparticles form relatively uniform spheres through self-assembly and solidify instantly. The spheres floating in butanol were left to deposit on the surface of quartz plates bearing sputtered gold electrodes, producing ready-for-use gas sensors in the form of ca. 50 μm thick sphere-based-films. The films were dried for 24 h and calcined at 300 °C in air before use. The gas sensitivity of the structures was tested in the temperature range of 150-400 °C. The materials showed a very quickly emerging and reversible (20-30 times) increase in electrical conductivity as a response to exposure to air containing 100 ppm of H2 or CO and short (10 s) recovery times when the gas flow was stopped.Tin oxide is considered to be one of the

  14. Deposition and characterization of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Sinan; Gökmen, F. Özge; Yaman, Elif; Nebi, Murat

    2018-02-01

    ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were deposited at different deposition times by using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. Effects of deposition time on structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained thin films were characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structural properties of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films. It was found that ZnSe thin films have a cubic structure with a preferentially orientation of (111). The calculated average grain size value was about 28-30 nm. The surface morphology of these films was studied by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The surfaces of the thin films were occurred from small stacks and nano-sized particles. The band gap values of the ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were determined by UV-Visible absorption spectrum and the band gap values were found to be between 2.65-2.86 eV.

  15. Texture-dependent twin formation in nanocrystalline thin Pd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Idrissi, H.; Shi, H.; Colla, M.S.; Michotte, S.; Raskin, J.P.; Pardoen, T.; Schryvers, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Pd films were produced by electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. The electron-beam-evaporated films reveal randomly oriented nanograins with a relatively high density of growth twins, unexpected in view of the high stacking fault energy of Pd. In contrast, sputter-deposited films show a clear 〈1 1 1〉 crystallographic textured nanostructure without twins. These results provide insightful information to guide the generation of microstructures with enhanced strength/ductility balance in high stacking fault energy nanocrystalline metallic thin films.

  16. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  17. Near unity photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells built on cationic water-soluble porphyrins electrostatically decorated onto thin-film nanocrystalline SnO₂ surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiyan, Navaneetha K; Maligaspe, Eranda; D'Souza, Francis

    2011-07-01

    Thin transparent SnO(2) films have been surface modified with cationic water-soluble porphyrins for photoelectrochemical investigations. Free-base and zinc(II) derivatives of three types of cationic water-soluble porphyrins, (P)M, viz., tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin chloride, (TMPyP)M, tetrakis(trimethylanilinium)porphyrin chloride, (TAP)M, and tetrakis(4'-N-methylimidazolyl-phenyl)porphyrin iodide, (TMIP)M, (M = 2H or Zn) are employed. The negative surface charge and the porous structure of SnO(2) facilitated binding of positively charged porphyrins via electrostatic interactions, in addition to strong electronic interactions in the case of (TMPyP)M binding to nanocrystalline SnO(2). The SnO(2)-porphyrin binding in solution was probed by absorption spectroscopy which yielded apparent binding constants in the range of 1.5-2.6 × 10(4) M(-1). Both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies revealed quenching of porphyrin emission upon binding to SnO(2) in water suggesting electron injection from singlet excited porphyrin to SnO(2) conduction band. Addition of LiClO(4) weakened the ion-paired porphyrin-SnO(2) binding as revealed by reversible emission changes. Over 80% of the quenched fluorescence was recovered in the case of (TMPyP)M and (TAP)M compounds but not for (TMIP)M suggesting stronger binding of the latter to SnO(2) surface. Photoelectrochemical studies performed on FTO/SnO(2)/(P)M electrodes revealed incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) up to 91% at the peak maxima for the SnO(2)-dye modified electrodes, with very good on-off switchability. The high IPCE values have been attributed to the strong electrostatic and electronic interactions between the dye, (TMPyP)M and SnO(2) nanoparticles that would facilitate better charge injection from the excited porphyrin to the conduction band of the semiconductor. Electrochemical impedance spectral measurements of electron recombination resistance calculations were supportive of this

  18. Electron-transfer dynamics from Ru polypyridyl complexes to In2O3 nanocrystalline thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchang; Stockwell, David; Ai, Xin; She, Chunxing; Anderson, Neil A; Lian, Tianquan

    2006-03-23

    Photoinduced electron injection dynamics from Ru(dcbpy)(2)(X)(2) (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine; X(2) = 2SCN(-), 2CN(-), and dcbpy; referenced as RuN3, Ru505, and Ru470) to In(2)O(3) nanocrystalline thin films were studied using ultrafast transient IR absorption spectroscopy. After 532 nm excitation of the adsorbates, the dynamics of electron injection from their excited states to In(2)O(3) were studied by monitoring the IR absorption of the injected electrons in the semiconductor. The injection kinetics were non-single-exponential. For samples exposed to air, the half rise times, defined as the time of 50% injection yield, were 5 +/- 0.8, 85 +/- 20, and >200 ps for RuN3, Ru505, and Ru470, respectively. For samples in pH 2 buffer, the corresponding half time for injection from these complexes became 6 +/- 1, 105 +/- 20, and 18 +/- 5 ps. The injection kinetics from RuN3 to In(2)O(3) was found to be similar to that to SnO(2). These kinetics traces showed a negligible semiconductors are discussed.

  19. Room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline pure tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Seal, S

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (6-8 nm) tin oxide (SnO2) thin film (100-150 nm) sensor is synthesized via sol-gel dip-coating process. The thin film is characterized using focused ion-beam microscopy (FIB) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques to determine the film thickness and the nanocrystallite size. The utilization of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film to sense a typical reducing gas such as hydrogen, at room temperature, is demonstrated in this investigation. The grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 is analyzed, which shows very low activation energy (9 kJ/mol) for the grain growth within the nanocrystallite size range of 3-20 nm. This low activation energy value is correlated, via excess oxygen-ion vacancy concentration, with the room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of the nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film sensor.

  20. A novel SnO(2)-based gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroký, K; Jiresová, J

    1994-10-01

    A novel 'two-terminal' semiconductor gas sensor was developed based on a heavily Sb-doped SnO(2) film prepared by cathodic sputtering. The sensor is heated at its operational temperature by the gas sensitive film itself. A device for detecting the leakage of flammable gases, some noxious or hazardous gases can be made in this way.

  1. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin films in PVA matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    The band gap of the nanocrystalline material is determined from the UV spectrograph. The absorption edge is shifted towards the lower wave length side (i.e. blue ... In recent years nanocrystalline thin films of different II–VI compound semiconductors have been widely synthesized and studied. Nanocrystalline thin films are ...

  2. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, M.; Bulto, V.; Kliss, R.; Hahn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersions of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical deposition under oxidizing conditions process with organic surfactants, were spin coated on glass substrates. After sintering, the microstructure, surface morphology, and electro-optical properties of the transparent nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been investigated for different coating thicknesses and organic solvents

  3. Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films by electrochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kapadnis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride thin films were deposited onto different substrates as copper, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, Indium tin oxide (ITO, Aluminum and zinc at room temperature via electrochemical route. The morphology of the film shows the nanostructures on the deposited surface of the films and their growth in vertical direction. Different nanostructures developed on different substrates. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that the deposited films are nanocrystalline in nature. UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows the wide range of absorption in the visible region. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy confirms the formation of cadmium telluride.

  4. Incorporation of graphene into SnO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J.; Biggs, Mark J.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Incorporation of a graphene structure into SnO 2 dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode films has been demonstrated for the first time. The use of graphene in the SnO 2 has been found to be a promising strategy to address many problems of photovoltaic cells based on SnO 2 photoanodes. - Highlights: • SnO 2 -reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid is prepared using a microwave technique. • The first SnO 2 -RGO photoanode based DSSC is fabricated. • Use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO 2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode. • RGO significantly improved the electron transport rate within the DSSC devices. • Incorporation of RGO into the SnO 2 photoanode enhanced the DSSC efficiency by 91.5%. - Abstract: In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO 2 ), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO 2 and reduced graphene oxide (SnO 2 -RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO 2 photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO 2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  5. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry study of chiral nanocrystalline cellulose films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Galván, Arturo; Muñoz-Pineda, Eloy; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Santos, Moliria V.; Järrendahl, Kenneth; Arwin, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Chiral nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) free-standing films were prepared through slow evaporation of aqueous suspensions of cellulose nanocrystals in a nematic chiral liquid crystal phase. Mueller matrix (MM) spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the polarization and depolarization properties of the chiral films. In the reflection mode, the MM is similar to the matrices reported for the cuticle of some beetles reflecting near circular left-handed polarized light in the visible range. The polarization properties of light transmitted at normal incidence for different polarization states of incident light are discussed. By using a differential decomposition of the MM, the structural circular birefringence and dichroism of a NCC chiral film are evaluated.

  6. The radiation response of mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini, Ayelén M.; Alurralde, Martin A. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Giménez, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial - CMNB, Av. General Paz 5445, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: vluca@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-12-15

    The next generation of nuclear systems will require materials capable of withstanding hostile chemical, physical and radiation environments over long time-frames. Aside from its chemical and physical stability, crystalline zirconia is one of the most radiation tolerant materials known. Here we report the first ever study of the radiation response of nanocrystalline and mesoporous zirconia and Ce{sup 3+}-stabilized nanocrystalline zirconia (Ce{sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}O{sub 2}) thin films supported on silicon wafers. Zirconia films prepared using the block copolymer Brij-58 as the template had a thickness of around 60–80 nm. In the absence of a stabilizing trivalent cation they consisted of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia nanocrystals with diameters in the range 8–10 nm. Films stabilized with Ce{sup 3+} contained only the tetragonal phase. The thin films were irradiated with iodine ions of energies of 70 MeV and 132 keV at low fluences (10{sup 13} - 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}) corresponding to doses of 0.002 and 1.73 dpa respectively, and at 180 keV and high fluences (2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) corresponding to 82.4 dpa. The influence of heavy ion irradiation on the nanocrystalline structure was monitored through Rietveld analysis of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) patterns recorded at angles close to the critical angle to ensure minimum contribution to the diffraction pattern from the substrate. Irradiation of the mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films with 70 MeV iodine ions, for which electronic energy loss is dominant, resulted in slight changes in phase composition and virtually no change in crystallographic parameters as determined by Rietveld analysis. Iodine ion bombardment in the nuclear energy loss regime (132–180 keV) at low fluences did not provoke significant changes in phase composition or crystallographic parameters. However, at 180 keV and high fluences the monoclinic phase was totally eliminated from the GIXRD

  7. Seeding of polymer substrates for nanocrystalline diamond film growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Kozak, Halyna; Hruška, Karel; Rezek, Bohuslav; Ledinský, Martin; Potměšil, Jiří; Michalka, M.; Vaněček, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5-8 (2009), s. 734-739 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * chemical vapor deposition * polymer * sscanning electron spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2009

  8. Electrophoretic Deposition of SnO2 Nanoparticles and Its LPG Sensing Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Günkaya, Göktuğ; Gürbüz, Mevlüt; Doğan, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Homogenized SnO2 nanoparticles (60 nm) in acetylacetone mediums, both with and without iodine, were deposited onto platinum coated alumina substrate and interdigital electrodes using the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method for gas sensor applications. Homogeneous and porous film layers were processed and analyzed at various coating times and voltages. The structure of the deposited films was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas sensing properties of the SnO2 film...

  9. Chemical synthesis and characterization of hydrous tin oxide (SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The formation of nanocrystalline SnO2 with porous and agglomerated particle morphology is revealed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirmed the formation of Sn–O phase and hydrous nature of the ...

  10. Grain boundaries and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline diamond films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busmann, H.-G.; Pageler, A.; Gruen, D. M.

    1999-08-06

    Phase-pure nanocrystalline diamond thin films grown from plasmas of a hydrogen-poor carbon argon gas mixture have been analyzed regarding their hardness and elastic moduli by means of a microindentor and a scanning acoustic microscope.The films are superhard and the moduli rival single crystal diamond. In addition, Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm shows a peak at 1438 l/cm and no peak above 1500 l/cm, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy a shake-up loss at 4.2 eV. This gives strong evidence for the existence of solitary double bonds in the films. The hardness and elasticity of the films then are explained by the assumption, that the solitary double bonds interconnect the nanocrystals in the films, leading to an intergrain boundary adhesion of similar strength as the intragrain diamond cohesion. The results are in good agreement with recent simulations of high-energy grain boundaries.

  11. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposi- tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium acetate was used as cationic and sodium tellurite as anionic precursor in aqueous me-.

  12. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  13. YBa2Cu3O7 thin films on nanocrystalline diamond films for HTSC bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G.; Beetz, C. P., Jr.; Boerstler, R.; Steinbeck, J.

    1993-03-01

    Superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been fabricated. A composite buffer layer system consisting of diamond/Si3N4/YSZ/YBCO was explored for this purpose. The as-deposited YBCO films were superconducting with Tc of about 84 K and a relatively narrow transition width of about 8 K. SEM cross sections of the films showed very sharp interfaces between diamond/Si3N4 and between Si3N4/YSZ. The deposited YBCO film had a surface roughness of about 1000 A, which is suitable for high-temperature superconductive (HTSC) bolometer fabrication. It was also found that preannealing of the nanocrystalline diamond thin films at high temperature was very important for obtaining high-quality YBCO films.

  14. Ferroelectric Polarization in Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Thin Films on Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, S. B.; Tofail, S. A. M.; Kholkin, A. L.; Wojtaś, M.; Gregor, M.; Gandhi, A. A.; Wang, Y.; Bauer, S.; Krause, M.; Plecenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals in natural form are a major component of bone- a known piezoelectric material. Synthetic hydroxyapatite is widely used in bone grafts and prosthetic pyroelectric coatings as it binds strongly with natural bone. Nanocrystalline synthetic hydroxyapatite films have recently been found to exhibit strong piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity. While a spontaneous polarization in hydroxyapatite has been predicted since 2005, the reversibility of this polarization (i.e. ferroelectricity) requires experimental evidence. Here we use piezoresponse force microscopy to demonstrate that nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite indeed exhibits ferroelectricity: a reversal of polarization under an electrical field. This finding will strengthen investigations on the role of electrical polarization in biomineralization and bone-density related diseases. As hydroxyapatite is one of the most common biocompatible materials, our findings will also stimulate systematic exploration of lead and rare-metal free ferroelectric devices for potential applications in areas as diverse as in vivo and ex vivo energy harvesting, biosensing and electronics. PMID:23884324

  15. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for hydrogen gas detection. LALCHAND A PATIL* .... tions of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films using spray pyro- lysis. 2.4 Thickness and roughness determination of ... Electrical and gas sensing properties were measured using a static gas sensing system.

  16. Covalent attachment and growth of nanocrystalline films of photocatalytic TiOF 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jian [Chinese Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai, China; Lv, Fujian [Chinese Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai, China; Xiao, Shengxiong [Chinese Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai, China; Bian, Zhenfeng [Chinese Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai, China; Buntkowsky, Gerd [Eduard-Zintl-Institut für Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie Technische Universität Darmstadt; , Germany; Nuckolls, Colin [Chinese Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai, China; Department of Chemistry; Columbia University; Li, Hexing [Chinese Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials; Shanghai Normal University; Shanghai, China

    2014-01-01

    An evaporation induced alcoholysis process has been applied to synthesize nanocrystalline TiOF2film. The nanocrystalline TiOF2becomes chemically attached to the surface of the glass slide. These films show potential applications in both photocatalytic and antibacterial fields.

  17. Investigation of nanocrystalline Gd films loaded with hydrogen

    KAUST Repository

    Hruška, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The present work reports on microstructure studies of hydrogen-loaded nanocrystalline Gd films prepared by cold cathode beam sputtering on sapphire (112¯0) substrates. The Gd films were electrochemically step-by-step charged with hydrogen and the structural development with increasing concentration of absorbed hydrogen was studied by transmission electron microscopy and in-situ   X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The relaxation of hydrogen-induced stresses was examined by acoustic emission measurements. In the low concentration range absorbed hydrogen occupies preferentially vacancy-like defects at GBs typical for nanocrystalline films. With increasing hydrogen concentration hydrogen starts to occupy interstitial sites. At the solid solution limit the grains gradually transform into the ββ-phase (GdH2). Finally at high hydrogen concentrations xH>2.0xH>2.0 H/Gd, the film structure becomes almost completely amorphous. Contrary to bulk Gd specimens, the formation of the γγ-phase (GdH3) was not observed in this work.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing performance of SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The H2S sensing properties of the SnO2 films were investigated with different annealing temperatures and H2S gas concentrations. It was found that the annealing temperature significantly affects the sensitivity of the SnO2 to the H2S. The sensitivity was found to be maximum for the film annealed at temperature 950°C at ...

  19. Effects of metal doping on photoinduced hydrophilicity of SnO 2 thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of metal dopants (Mn2+, Al3+ and Cu2+) on the wetting properties of SnO2 thin films deposited by thermal evaporation is reported. The undoped and doped SnO2 films crystallize into the orthorhombic structure upon annealing at 200°C for 110 h. It is shown that wettability behaviour, before and after ultraviolet ...

  20. Electronic structures and excitonic transitions in nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide diluted magnetic semiconductor films: an optical spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Wu, Jiada; Gan, Jie; Zhu, Min; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2011-04-07

    Nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide (Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2)) films with x from 0 to 0.2 were prepared on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analysis show that the films are of the rutile structure at low compositions and an impurity phase related to Fe(2)O(3) appears until the x is up to 0.2, suggesting the general change of lattice structure due to the Fe ion substitution. The dielectric functions are successfully determined from 0.0248 to 6.5 eV using the Lorentz multi-oscillator and Tauc-Lorentz dispersion models in the low and high photon energy regions, respectively. With increasing Fe composition, the highest-frequency transverse optical phonons E(u) shifts towards a lower energy side and can be well described by (608 - 178x) cm(-1). From the transmittance spectra, the fundamental absorption edge is found to be decreased with the Fe composition due to the joint contributions from SnO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). It can be observed that the doped films exhibit evident excitonic excitation features, which are strongly related to the Fe doping. Among them, the 6A(1g)→ 4T(2g) transition contributes to the onset of optical absorption. Moreover, the remarkable intensity reduction and a red-shift trend with the doping composition, except for the pure film, can be testified by the photoluminescence spectra. It can be concluded that the replacement of Sn with the Fe ion could induce the 2p-3d hybridization and result in the electronic band structure modification of the Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2) films.

  1. Electrophoretic Deposition of SnO2 Nanoparticles and Its LPG Sensing Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göktuğ Günkaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Homogenized SnO2 nanoparticles (60 nm in acetylacetone mediums, both with and without iodine, were deposited onto platinum coated alumina substrate and interdigital electrodes using the electrophoretic deposition (EPD method for gas sensor applications. Homogeneous and porous film layers were processed and analyzed at various coating times and voltages. The structure of the deposited films was characterized by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The gas sensing properties of the SnO2 films were investigated using liquid petroleum gas (LPG for various lower explosive limits (LEL. The results showed that porous, crack-free, and homogeneous SnO2 films were achieved for 5 and 15 sec at 100 and 150 V EPD parameters using an iodine-free acetylacetone based SnO2 suspension. The optimum sintering for the deposited SnO2 nanoparticles was observed at 500°C for 5 min. The results showed that the sensitivity of the films was increased with the operating temperature. The coated films with EPD demonstrated a better sensitivity for the 20 LEL LPG concentrations at a 450°C operating temperature. The maximum sensitivity of the SnO2 sensors at 450°C to 20 LEL LPG was 30.

  2. Boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon thin films for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, E.; Vygranenko, Y.; Vieira, M.; Sazonov, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of boron-doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films. The films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at a substrate temperature of 150 deg. C. Crystalline volume fraction and dark conductivity of the films were determined as a function of trimethylboron-to-silane flow ratio. Optical constants of doped and undoped nc-Si:H were obtained from transmission and reflection spectra. By employing p + nc-Si:H as a window layer combined with a p' a-SiC buffer layer, a-Si:H-based p-p'-i-n solar cells on ZnO:Al-coated glass substrates were fabricated. Device characteristics were obtained from current-voltage and spectral-response measurements.

  3. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  4. Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite films studied by magneto-optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lišková-Jakubisová, E., E-mail: liskova@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Višňovský, Š. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, Prague (Czech Republic); Široký, P.; Hrabovský, D.; Pištora, J. [Nanotechnology Center, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Sahoo, Subasa C. [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Kasaragod, Kerala 671314 (India); Prasad, Shiva [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Venkataramani, N. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bohra, Murtaza [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), Okinawa (Japan); Krishnan, R. [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS-UVSQ, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78935 Versailles (France)

    2015-05-07

    Ferrimagnetic Zn-ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) films can be grown with the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of 40 Oe at 9.5 GHz without going through a high temperature processing. This presents interest for applications. The work deals with laser ablated ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films deposited at O{sub 2} pressure of 0.16 mbar onto fused quartz substrates. The films about 120 nm thick are nanocrystalline and their spontaneous magnetization, 4πM{sub s}, depends on the nanograin size, which is controlled by the substrate temperature (T{sub s}). At T{sub s} ≈ 350 °C, where the grain distribution peaks around ∼20–30 nm, the room temperature 4πM{sub s} reaches a maximum of ∼2.3 kG. The films were studied by magnetooptical polar Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy at photon energies between 1 and 5 eV. The complementary characteristics were provided by spectral ellipsometry (SE). Both the SE and MOKE spectra confirmed ferrimagnetic ordering. The structural details correspond to those observed in MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} spinels. SE experiments confirm the insulator behavior. The films display MOKE amplitudes somewhat reduced with respect to those in Li{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2.5}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} due to a lower degree of spinel inversion and nanocrystalline structure. The results indicate that the films are free of oxygen vacancies and Fe{sup 3+}-Fe{sup 2+} exchange.

  5. Piezoresistivity in films of nanocrystalline manganites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayanta; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2007-06-01

    Rare earth manganites having perovskite structure are susceptible to lattice strain. So far most investigations have been done with hydrostatic pressure or biaxial strain. We have observed that hole doped rare-earth manganites, which are known to display colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) also show change in its resistance under the influence of uniaxial strain. We report the direct measurement of piezoresistive response of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) of this manganite family. The measurements were carried out on nanostructured polycrystalline films of LCMO and LSMO grown on oxidized Si(100) substrates. The piezoresistance was measured by bending the Si cantilevers (on which the film is grown) in flexural mode both with compressive and tensile strain. At room temperature the gauge factor approximately 10-20 and it increases to a large value near metal-insulator transition temperature (Tp) where the resistivity shows a peak.

  6. Magnetotransport in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available SmB6 has been predicted to be a prototype of topological Kondo insulator (TKI but its direct experimental evidence as a TKI is still lacking to date. Here we report on our search for the signature of a topological surface state and investigation of the effect of disorder on transport properties in nanocrystalline SmB6 thin films through longitudinal magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient measurements. The magnetoresistance (MR at 2 K is positive and linear (LPMR at low field and become negative and quadratic at higher field. While the negative part is understood from the reduction of the hybridization gap due to Zeeman splitting, the positive dependence is similar to what is observed in other topological insulators (TI. We conclude that the LPMR is a characteristic of TI and is related to the linear dispersion near the Dirac cone. The Hall resistance shows a sign change around 50K. It peaks and becomes nonlinear around 10 K then decreases below 10 K. This indicates that carriers with opposite signs emerge below 50 K. These properties indicate that the surface states are robust and probably topological in our nanocrystalline films.

  7. Tunable nanostructured columnar growth of SnO2 for efficient detection of CO gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avneet; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2018-02-01

    The present work is focused on the growth and modification of the columnar nanostructures of SnO2 using a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) assisted rf sputtering technique for low temperature detection of carbon monoxide (CO) gas. The GLAD angle and deposition pressure are optimized to tailor the grow of columnar nanostructures of SnO2, which exhibit an enhanced gas sensing response of 1.50 × 102 towards 500 ppm of CO gas at a comparatively lower operating temperature of 110 °C. The enhanced sensing response at low operating temperature is related to the growth of nanoporous columnar structures of SnO2 thin film under the GLAD configuration, which results in an enhanced interaction of target CO gas molecules with the large surface area of sensing SnO2 thin film. The origin of the sensing mechanism supporting the observed response characteristics towards CO gas is identified and discussed in detail.

  8. Preparation of porous SnO2 helical nanotubes and SnO2 sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Ling; Xu, Yun; Chen, Zheng; Yuan, Bin; Wu, Xiaofei; Hill, Joshua; Lin, Qianglu; Deng, Shuguang; Andersen, Paul; Lu, Yunfeng; Luo, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    We report a surfactant-free chemical solution route for synthesizing one-dimensional porous SnO 2 helical nanotubes templated by helical carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional SnO 2 sheets templated by graphite sheets. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic discharge–charge analysis are used to characterize the SnO 2 samples. The unique nanostructure and morphology make them promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Both the SnO 2 with the tubular structure and the sheet structure shows small initial irreversible capacity loss of 3.2% and 2.2%, respectively. The SnO 2 helical nanotubes show a specific discharge capacity of above 800 mAh g −1 after 10 charge and discharge cycles, exceeding the theoretical capacity of 781 mAh g −1 for SnO 2 . The nanotubes remain a specific discharge capacity of 439 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles, which is better than that of SnO 2 sheets (323 mAh g −1 ). - Highlights: • Synthesized porous SnO 2 helical nanotubes with diameters of 100–120 nm. • Synthesized porous SnO 2 sheets template by graphite sheets. • The tubular and sheet SnO 2 have small initial irreversible capacity loss of 3.2 and 2.2%. • The tubular structure shows better discharge capacity than the sheet structure

  9. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. ZnO nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. ZnO thin films have been coated at room temperature and at four different pH values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that ZnO nanocrystalline thin films are of hexagonal structure and the ...

  10. Production of SnO2 Powders by Sol-gel Method for Target Materials to be used in Magnetron Sputtering Technique

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞ, Seher; ÇELİK, Mustafa TOPARLI. Erdal; EROL, Mustafa; ÇELİK, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is semiconductor metal-oxide which is frequently used and able to finds search field in a wide range. SnO2 has been found applications in several fields like gas sensors and solar cells as thin films. The SnO2 thin films have excellent performance as a gas sensors. Although there are many methods for production of SnO2 thin film, magnetron sputtering device is usually used because of its simple, inexpensive and easy to be controlled for the desired film thickness. The stabili...

  11. Influence of CuO catalyst in the nanoscale range on SnO2 surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dispersal of CuO catalyst on the surface of the semiconducting SnO2 film is found to be of vital importance for improving the sensitivity and the response speed of a SnO2 gas sensor for H2S gas detection. Ultra-thin CuO islands (8 nm thin and 0.6 mm diameter) prepared by evaporating Cu through a mesh and ...

  12. Influence of CuO catalyst in the nanoscale range on SnO2 surface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The dispersal of CuO catalyst on the surface of the semiconducting SnO2 film is found to be of vital importance for improving the sensitivity and the response speed of a SnO2 gas sensor for H2S gas detection. Ultra-thin CuO islands (8 nm thin and. 0.6 mm diameter) prepared by evaporating Cu through a mesh and ...

  13. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukoje, Ivana D., E-mail: ivanav@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tomašević-Ilić, Tijana D., E-mail: tommashev@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Zarubica, Aleksandra R., E-mail: zarubica2000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University of Niš, Višegradska 33, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Dimitrijević, Suzana, E-mail: suzana@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Budimir, Milica D., E-mail: mickbudimir@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vranješ, Mila R., E-mail: mila@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Šaponjić, Zoran V., E-mail: saponjic@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nedeljković, Jovan M., E-mail: jovned@vinca.rs [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO{sub 2} support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO{sub 2} and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact.

  14. Low-voltage operation of ZrO2-gated n-type thin-film transistors based on a channel formed by hybrid phases of SnO and SnO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin-Chueh; Shen, Yung-Shao; Hsieh, Ching-Heng; Huang, Jia-Hong; Wu, Yung-Hsien

    2015-07-22

    With SnO typically regarded as a p-type oxide semiconductor, an oxide semiconductor formed by hybrid phases of mainly SnO and a small amount of SnO2 with an average [O]/[Sn] ratio of 1.1 was investigated as a channel material for n-type thin-film transistors (TFTs). Furthermore, an appropriate number of oxygen vacancies were introduced into the oxide during annealing at 400 °C in ambient N2, making both SnO and SnO2 favorable for current conduction. By using high-κ ZrO2 with a capacitance equivalent thickness of 13.5 nm as the gate dielectric, the TFTs processed at 400 °C demonstrated a steep subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.21 V/dec, and this can be ascribed to the large gate capacitance along with a low interface trap density (Dit) value of 5.16 × 10(11) cm(-2) eV(-1). In addition, the TFTs exhibit a relatively high electron mobility of 7.84 cm(2)/V·s, high ON/OFF current ratios of up to 2.5 × 10(5), and a low gate leakage current at a low operation voltage of 3 V. The TFTs also prove its high reliability performance by showing negligible degradation of SS and threshold voltage (VT) against high field stress (-10 MV/cm). When 3% oxygen annealing is combined with a thinner channel thickness, TFTs with even higher ION/IOFF ratios exceeding 10(7) can also be obtained. With these promising characteristics, the overall performance of the TFTs displays competitive advantages compared with other n-type TFTs formed on binary or even some multicomponent oxide semiconductors and paves a promising and economic avenue to implement an n-type oxide semiconductor without doping for production-worthy TFT technology. Most importantly, when combined with the typical SnO-based p-type oxide semiconductor, it would usher in a new era in achieving high-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuits by using the same SnO-based oxide semiconductor.

  15. Dislocation/hydrogen interaction mechanisms in hydrided nanocrystalline palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Connétable, Damien; Fivel, Marc; Tanguy, Döme; Delmelle, Renaud; Turner, Stuart; Malet, Loic; Godet, Stephane; Pardoen, Thomas; Proost, Joris; Schryvers, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale plasticity mechanisms activated during hydriding cycles in sputtered nanocrystalline Pd films have been investigated ex-situ using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. The internal stress developing within the films during hydriding has been monitored in-situ. Results showed that in Pd films hydrided to β-phase, local plasticity was mainly controlled by dislocation activity in spite of the small grain size. Changes of the grain size distribution and the crystallographic texture have not been observed. In contrast, significant microstructural changes were not observed in Pd films hydrided to α-phase. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen loading on the nature and density of dislocations has been investigated using aberration-corrected TEM. Surprisingly, a high density of shear type stacking faults has been observed after dehydriding, indicating a significant effect of hydrogen on the nucleation energy barriers of Shockley partial dislocations. Ab-initio calculations of the effect of hydrogen on the intrinsic stable and unstable stacking fault energies of palladium confirm the experimental observations.

  16. Infrared absorption study of hydrogen incorporation in thick nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.J.; Neves, A.J.; Carmo, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    We present an infrared (IR) optical absorbance study of hydrogen incorporation in nanocrystalline diamond films. The thick nanocrystalline diamond films were synthesized by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and a high growth rate about 3.0 μm/h was achieved. The morphology, phase quality, and hydrogen incorporation were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Large amount of hydrogen bonded to nanocrystalline diamond is clearly evidenced by the huge CH stretching band in the FTIR spectrum. The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation is discussed in light of the growth mechanism of nanocrystalline diamond. This suggests the potential of nanocrystalline diamond for IR electro-optical device applications

  17. Raman Studies of Nanocrystalline CdS:O Film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Wu, X.; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Yan, Y.; Mascarenhas, A.

    2005-01-01

    Oxygenated nanocrystalline CdS films show improved solar cell performance, but the physics and mechanism underlying this are not yet clearly understood. Raman study provides complementary information to the understanding obtained from other experimental investigations. A comprehensive analysis of the existing experimental data (including x-ray diffraction, transmission, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman) has led to the following conclusions: (1) The O-incorporation forms CdS1-xOx alloy nano-particles. (2) The observed evolution of the electronic structure is the result of the interplay between the alloy and quantum confinement effect. (3) The blue-shift of the LO phonon Raman peak is primarily due to the alloying effect. (4) Some oxygen atoms have taken the interstitial sites.

  18. Photoluminescence of nanocrystalline ZnS thin film grown by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, E I; Safeera, T A; Reshmi, R

    2015-03-01

    Nano and polycrystalline ZnS thin films play a crucial role in photovoltaic technology and optoelectronic devices. In this work, we report the photoluminescence (PL) characterization of nanocrystalline ZnS thin films synthesized by dip coating method. The PL spectra exhibit broad nature with multiple emission peaks which are due to the different defect levels in the prepared film.

  19. High oxygen nanocomposite barrier films based on xylan and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Jeffrey Kenvin; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce nanocomposite film with low oxygen permeability by casting an aqueous solution containing xylan, sorbitol and nanocrystalline cellulose. The morphology of the resulting nanocomposite films was examined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which showed that control films containing xylan and sorbitol had a more...

  20. Dense TiO2 films grown by sol–gel dip coating on glass, F-doped SnO2, and silicon substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Jan; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukalová, Markéta; Janda, Pavel; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Vlčková Živcová, Zuzana; Poruba, A.; Bedu, M.; Döbbelin, M.; Tena-Zaera, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 385-393 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814 Grant - others:OpenAIRE(XE) EC 7th FP project SANS, NMP-246124; Open AIRE(XE) EC 7th FP projekt ORION , NMP-229036 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanium dioxide * thin films * silicon Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2013

  1. Fabrication and characterization of Er+3 doped SiO2/SnO2 glass-ceramic thin films for planar waveguide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddala, S.; Chiappini, A.; Armellini, C.; Turell, S.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    Glass-ceramics are a kind of two-phase materials constituted by nanocrystals embedded in a glass matrix and the respective volume fractions of crystalline and amorphous phase determine the properties of the glass-ceramics. Among these properties transparency is crucial in particular when confined structures, such as, dielectric optical waveguides, are considered. Moreover, the segregation of dopant rare-earth ions, like erbium, in low phonon energy crystalline medium makes these structures more promising in the development of waveguide amplifiers. Here we are proposing a new class of low phonon energy tin oxide semiconductor medium doped silicate based planar waveguides. Er3+ doped (100-x) SiO2-xSnO2 (x= 10, 20, 25 and 30mol%), glass-ceramic planar waveguide thin films were fabricated by a simple sol-gel processing and dip coating technique. XRD and HRTEM studies indicates the glass-ceramic phase of the film and the dispersion of ~4nm diameter of tin oxide nanocrystals in the amorphous phase of silica. The spectroscopic assessment indicates the distribution of the dopant erbium ions in the crystalline medium of tin oxide. The observed low losses, 0.5±0.2 dB/cm, at 1.54 μm communication wavelength makes them a quite promising material for the development of high gain integrated optical amplifiers.

  2. Catalytic characterization of pure SnO2 and GeO2 in methanol steam reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qian; Lorenz, Harald; Turner, Stuart; Lebedev, Oleg I.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Rameshan, Christoph; Klötzer, Bernhard; Konzett, Jürgen; Penner, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Structural changes of a variety of different SnO, SnO2 and GeO2 catalysts upon reduction in hydrogen were correlated with associated catalytic changes in methanol steam reforming. Studied systems include SnO, SnO2 and GeO2 thin film model catalysts prepared by vapour phase deposition and growth on polycrystalline NaCl surfaces and, for comparison, the corresponding pure oxide powder catalysts. Reduction of both the SnO2 thin film and powder at around 673 K in 1 bar hydrogen leads to a sub...

  3. Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Mg-Al Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruska, Karen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Kovarik, Libor; Moser, Trevor H.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-10-05

    An improved understanding of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline materials, and in metals and alloys in general, is of continuing interest to the scientific community. In this study, Mg - Al thin films containing ~10 wt.% Al and with 14.5 nm average grain size were produced by magnetron-sputtering and subjected to heat-treatments. The grain growth evolution in the early stages of heat treatment at 423 K (150 °C), 473 K (200 °C) and 573K (300 °C) was observed with transmission electron microscopy and analyzed based upon the classical equation developed by Burke and Turnbull. The grain growth exponent was found to be 7±2 and the activation energy for grain growth was 31.1±13.4 kJ/mol, the latter being significantly lower than in bulk Mg-Al alloys. The observed grain growth kinetics are explained by the Al supersaturation in the matrix and the pinning effects of the rapidly forming beta precipitates and possibly shallow grain boundary grooves. The low activation energy is attributed to the rapid surface diffusion which is dominant in thin film systems.

  4. Optical Properties of ZnO-Alloyed Nanocrystalline Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Che

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO is emerging as one of the materials of choice for UV applications. It has a deep excitonic energy level and a direct bandgap of ~3.4 eV. Alloying ZnO with certain atomic constituents adds new optical and electronic functionalities to ZnO. This paper presents research on MgxZn1−xO and ZnS1−xOx nanocrystalline flexible films, which enable tunable optical properties in the deep-UV and in the visible range. The ZnO and Mg0.3Zn0.7O films were found to have bandgaps at 3.35 and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence of the Mg0.3Zn0.7O exhibited a bandedge emission at 3.95 eV, and at lower energy 3.38 eV due to the limited solubility inherent to these alloys. ZnS0.76O0.24 and ZnS0.16O0.84 were found to have bandgaps at 3.21 and 2.65 eV, respectively. The effect of nitrogen doping on ZnS0.16O0.84 is discussed in terms of the highly lattice mismatched nature of these alloys and the resulting valence-band modification.

  5. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed.

  6. Nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by dual ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Pilar, E-mail: pilar.prieto@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, Patricia [Departamento de Física Aplicada M-12, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Isabel J. [Departamento de Física de Materiales M-4, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Figuera, Juan de la; Marco, José F. [Instituto de Química Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • We have grown tensile and compressive strained nanocrystalline magnetite thin films by dual ion beam sputtering. • The magnetic and thermoelectric properties can be controlled by the deposition conditions. • The magnetic anisotropy depends on the crystalline grain size. • The thermoelectric properties depend on the type of strain induced in the films. • In plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy develops in magnetite thin films with grain sizes ⩽20 nm. - Abstract: We have explored the influence of an ion-assisted beam in the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering. The microstructure has been investigated by XRD. Tensile and compressive strained thin films have been obtained as a function of the parameters of the ion-assisted beam. The evolution of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy was attributed to crystalline grain size. In some films, magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements reveal the existence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the deposition process related with a small grain size (⩽20 nm). Isotropic magnetic properties have observed in nanocrystalline magnetite thin film having larger grain sizes. The largest power factor of all the films prepared (0.47 μW/K{sup 2} cm), obtained from a Seebeck coefficient of −80 μV/K and an electrical resistivity of 13 mΩ cm, is obtained in a nanocrystalline magnetite thin film with an expanded out-of-plane lattice and with a grain size ≈30 nm.

  7. Recent progress in p-type doping and optical properties of SnO2 nanostructures for optoelectronic device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shusheng; Li, Guanghai

    2011-06-01

    SnO(2) semiconductor is a host material for ultraviolet optoelectronic devices applications because of its wide band gap (3.6 eV), large exciton binding energy (130 meV) and exotic electrical properties and has attracted great interests. The renewed interest is fueled by the availability of exciton emission in nanostructures, high quality epitaxial films, p-type conductivity, and heterojunction light emitting devices. This review begins with a survey of the patents and reports on the recent developments on SnO2 films. We focus on the epitaxial growth, p-type doping and photoluminescence properties of SnO(2) films and nanostructures, including the achievements in our group. Finally, the applications of SnO(2) nanostructures to optoelectronic devices including heterojunction light emitting devices, photodetectors and photovoltaic cells will be discussed.

  8. Structure and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline Hafnium Oxide Thin Films (PostPrint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0214 STRUCTURE AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOCRYSTALLINE HAFNIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) Neil R. Murphy AFRL...OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NANOCRYSTALLINE HAFNIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...publication is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2014.08.005 14. ABSTRACT Hafnium oxide (HfO2) films were grown by sputter-deposition by

  9. Application of printed nanocrystalline diamond film for electron emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuxia; Wei Shuyi; Lei Chongmin; Wei Jie; Lu Bingheng; Ding Yucheng; Zhu Changchun

    2011-01-01

    The low-cost and large area screen-printed nano-diamond film (NDF) for electronic emission was fabricated. The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond are natural field-emitters. The nano-diamond paste for screen-printing was fabricated of mixing nano-graphite and other inorganic or organic vehicles. Through enough disperse in isopropyl alcohol by ultrasonic nano-diamond paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form NDF. SEM images showed that the surface morphology of NDF was improved, and the nano-diamond emitters were exposed from NDF through the special thermal-sintering technique and post-treatment process. The field emission characteristics of NDF were measured under all conditions with 10 -6 Pa pressure. The results indicated that the field emission stability and emission uniformity of NDF were improved through hydrogen plasma post-treatment process. The turn-on field decreased from 1.60 V/μm to 1.25 V/μm. The screen-printed NDF can be applied to the displays electronic emission cathode for low-cost outdoor in large area.

  10. Multiple electron injection dynamics in linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized nanocrystalline metal oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Ogomi, Yuhei; Park, Byung-wook; Inoue, Takafumi; Pandey, Shyam S; Miyamoto, Akari; Fujita, Shinsuke; Katayama, Kenji; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi

    2012-04-07

    Understanding the electron transfer dynamics at the interface between dye sensitizer and semiconductor nanoparticle is very important for both a fundamental study and development of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which are a potential candidate for next generation solar cells. In this study, we have characterized the ultrafast photoexcited electron dynamics in a newly produced linearly-linked two dye co-sensitized solar cell using both a transient absorption (TA) and an improved transient grating (TG) technique, in which tin(IV) 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (NcSn) and cis-diisothiocyanato-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato)ruthenium(II) bis(tetrabutylammonium) (N719) are molecularly and linearly linked and are bonded to the surface of a nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO(2)) electrode by a metal-O-metal linkage (i.e. SnO(2)-NcSn-N719). By comparing the TA and TG kinetics of NcSn, N719, and hybrid NcSn-N719 molecules adsorbed onto both of the SnO(2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO(2)) nanocrystalline films, the forward and backward electron transfer dynamics in SnO(2)-NcSn-N719 were clarified. We found that there are two pathways for electron injection from the linearly-linked two dye molecules (NcSn-N719) to SnO(2). The first is a stepwise electron injection, in which photoexcited electrons first transfer from N719 to NcSn with a transfer time of 0.95 ps and then transfer from NcSn to the conduction band (CB) of SnO(2) with two timescales of 1.6 ps and 4.2 ps. The second is direct photoexcited electron transfer from N719 to the CB of SnO(2) with a timescale of 20-30 ps. On the other hand, back electron transfer from SnO(2) to NcSn is on a timescale of about 2 ns, which is about three orders of magnitude slower compared to the forward electron transfer from NcSn to SnO(2). The back electron transfer from NcSn to N719 is on a timescale of about 40 ps, which is about one order slower compared to the forward electron transfer from N719 to Nc

  11. Binder Free SnO2-CNT Composite as Anode Material for Li-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionne Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide-carbon nanotube (SnO2-CNT composite films were synthesized on copper substrates by a one-step process using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD with methane gas (CH4 as the carbon source. The composite structural properties enhance the surface-to-volume ratio of SnO2 demonstrating a desirable electrochemical performance for a lithium-ion battery anode. The SnO2 and CNT interactions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Comprehensive analysis of the structural, chemical, and electrochemical properties reveals that the material consists of self-assembled and highly dispersed SnO2 nanoparticles in CNT matrix. The process employed to develop this SnO2-CNT composite film presents a cost effective and facile way to develop anode materials for Li-ion battery technology.

  12. Synthesis and surface control of colloidal Cr3+-doped SnO2 transparent magnetic semiconductor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, N; Pautler, B G; Farvid, S S; Radovanovic, P V

    2010-04-02

    The synthesis of colloidal Cr(3+)-doped SnO(2) nanocrystals prepared under mild conditions via a hydrolysis method is described. We show by means of nanocrystal surface ligand exchange that even under mild reaction conditions a significant fraction of the dopant ions reside on the nanocrystal surfaces. Two different approaches aimed at achieving internal dopant incorporation-surface-bound dopant complexation and isocrystalline shell growth-are described and compared. While free-standing nanocrystals are paramagnetic, the films prepared from the same nanocrystals exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. The measured magnetization is associated with structural defects formed at the interfaces of nanocrystals in their films, and discussed in terms of the defect-related itinerant-electron-mediated mechanism. The observed ferromagnetism is compared to ferromagnetism in Cr(3+)-doped In(2)O(3) nanocrystalline films. These results demonstrate the possibility of controlling surface structure and composition of doped oxide nanocrystals using different approaches. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the importance of surface structure and composition in tailoring properties of doped multifunctional transparent conducting oxide nanostructures.

  13. Photosensitization of SnO(2)/ZnO semiconductors with zinc-phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Raed

    2009-04-01

    Zinc-phthalocyanine with tyrosine substituent (ZnPcTyro) was attached to different nanocrystalline semiconductors (SnO(2) and ZnO) via carboxylic acid group, the interaction of zinc-phthalocyanine with colloidal ZnO and SnO(2) was studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The apparent association constant for the association between ZnPcTyro and SnO(2)/ZnO is ranged from (3.7+/-0.2)x10(5)M(-1) to (6.7+/-0.2)x10(4)M(-1) with a degree of association ranged from 85% to 95%. The presence of the tyrosine group in ZnPcTyro affects solubility of the dye and affects the aggregation behavior of the dye. Anchoring of the dye complex to the nanocrystalline semiconductors enables ultrafast injection of electrons from the excited state into the conduction band of semiconductors. Maximum incident photon-to-current conversion of 0.84-1% at 600 nm and photon-to-current conversion efficiency of around 37% and 43% was obtained for ZnPc-sensitized-SnO(2) and ZnPc-sensitized-ZnO.

  14. Screen printed In2O3-SnO2 nanocomposite: Structural and morphological properties and application for NO2 detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaïs B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on the sensing properties of screen-printed In2O3 (Indium Oxide while adding a moderate quantity of SnO2. It was found that the addition of SnO2 improves the response and decreases the operating temperature of the sensitive element for NO2 detection. However, a non-controlled amount of SnO2 leads to opposite result; for this reason in the present investigation we test films with different composition in order to optimize the quantity of SnO2 to be added. The crystallinity, roughness and morphology of the obtained In2O3-SnO2 anocomposite were analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The atomic composition of the In2O3-SnO2 films was determined with the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX analysis during TEM observations. The effect of the composition on the cristallinity and morphological properties of the films was analyzed. Finally, the In2O3-SnO2 films were tested like sensitive elements for NO2 detection, wherein the effect of the composition was correlated with the sensor response in NO2 ambient. It was found that the addition of a moderate quantity of SnO2 to In2O3 exhibited high sensitivity at rather lower operating temperatures.

  15. Ethanol and LPG sensing characteristics of SnO2 activated Cr2 O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The sensing response of pure and SnO2 activated Cr2O3 to ethanol vapours and liquefied petro- leum gas (LPG) has been investigated. Fine particles of commercial chromium oxide powder were selected and deposited as thick film to act as a gas sensor. The sensor surface has been activated by tin dioxide, on.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing performance of SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing performance of SnO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis. GANESH E PATIL, D D KAJALE, D N CHAVAN†, N K PAWAR††, P T AHIRE, S D SHINDE#,. V B GAIKWAD# and G H JAIN. ∗. Materials Research Laboratory, Arts, Commerce and Science College, Nandgaon 423 106, ...

  17. Properties of CdTe nanocrystalline thin films grown on different substrates by low temperature sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huimin; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Baohua

    2009-01-01

    CdTe nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass, Si and Al 2 O 3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at liquid nitrogen temperature. The crystal structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The XRD examinations revealed that CdTe films on glass and Si had a better crystal quality and higher preferential orientation along the (111) plane than the Al 2 O 3 . FESEM observations revealed a continuous and dense morphology of CdTe films on glass and Si substrates. Optical properties of nanocrystalline CdTe films deposited on glass substrates for different deposited times were studied.

  18. Structural and optical properties of vanadium doped SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Soltan, Wissem; Mbarki, Mourad; Ammar, Salah; Babot, Odile; Toupance, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline mesoporous pure and vanadium-doped (0-10 at%) SnO2 nanopowders were prepared by the polyol route. Compositional, textural and structural properties of pure and V-doped SnO2 nanopowders were thoroughly characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM, DTA/TGA/MS, N2 sorption porosimetry and UV-visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy. According to XRD patterns, undoped and V-doped SnO2 materials exhibited the typical rutile-type tetragonal structure of SnO2 with average crystallite sizes ranging from 8.8 to 5.4 nm when the vanadium content was increased up to 10 at%. As shown by UV-visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy, this decrease in particle size was accompanied by a decrease of the band gap energy value from 3.36 eV for pure SnO2 down to 2.2 eV for 10 at% V-doped SnO2. Moreover, both FTIR and EDX analyses assessed the presence of SnO2 and vanadium oxide species the amount of which increasing with the doping content. Finally, the nanopowders prepared were composed of a mesoporous network of aggregated nanoparticles with BET specific areas increasing from 46.6 ± 1.5 to 61.7 ± 2 m2 g-1 when the vanadium concentration was varied from 0 to 10 at%. The V-doped nanopowders prepared by the polyol method therefore showed all the required textural and structural features to be used as visible photocatalysts or active layer in gas sensors.

  19. Electrochemical properties and applications of nanocrystalline, microcrystalline, and epitaxial cubic silicon carbide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Zhang, Lei; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Xin

    2015-05-27

    Microstructures of the materials (e.g., crystallinitiy, defects, and composition, etc.) determine their properties, which eventually lead to their diverse applications. In this contribution, the properties, especially the electrochemical properties, of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films have been engineered by controlling their microstructures. By manipulating the deposition conditions, nanocrystalline, microcrystalline and epitaxial (001) 3C-SiC films are obtained with varied properties. The epitaxial 3C-SiC film presents the lowest double-layer capacitance and the highest reversibility of redox probes, because of its perfect (001) orientation and high phase purity. The highest double-layer capacitance and the lowest reversibility of redox probes have been realized on the nanocrystalline 3C-SiC film. Those are ascribed to its high amount of grain boundaries, amorphous phases and large diversity in its crystal size. Based on their diverse properties, the electrochemical performances of 3C-SiC films are evaluated in two kinds of potential applications, namely an electrochemical capacitor using a nanocrystalline film and an electrochemical dopamine sensor using the epitaxial 3C-SiC film. The nanocrystalline 3C-SiC film shows not only a high double layer capacitance (43-70 μF/cm(2)) but also a long-term stability of its capacitance. The epitaxial 3C-SiC film shows a low detection limit toward dopamine, which is one to 2 orders of magnitude lower than its normal concentration in tissue. Therefore, 3C-SiC film is a novel but designable material for different emerging electrochemical applications such as energy storage, biomedical/chemical sensors, environmental pollutant detectors, and so on.

  20. Growth and characterization of nanocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon composite films prepared by MWCVD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popov, C.; Kulisch, W.; Gibson, P. N.; Ceccone, G.; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2004), s. 1371-1376 ISSN 0925-9635 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : nanocrystalline * diamond films * plasma CVD * microstructure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2004

  1. Influence of grain boundaries on elasticity and thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Markus; Daccache, Layal; Horvat, Sebastian; Brühne, Kai; Jacob, Timo; Fecht, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Diamond combines several outstanding material properties such as the highest thermal conductivity and highest elastic moduli of all materials. This makes diamond an interesting candidate for a multitude of applications. Nonetheless, nanocrystalline diamond films, layers and coatings, usually show properties different to those of single crystalline diamond. This is usually attributed to the larger volume fraction of the grain boundaries with atomic structure different from the single crystal. In this work we measured Young's modulus and thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond films with average grain sizes ranging from 6 to 15 nm. The measured thermal conductivities are modeled considering the thermal boundary conductance between grains as well as a grain size effect on the phonon mean free path. We make a comparison between elastic modulus and thermal boundary conductance of the grain boundaries G k for different nanocrystalline diamond films. We conclude that the grain boundaries thermal boundary conductance G k is a measure of the cohesive energy of the grain boundaries and therefore also of the elastic modulus of the nanocrystalline diamond films.

  2. Nanocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon films for applications in tribology, optics and biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popov, C.; Kulisch, W.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bock, A.; Strnad, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 494, - (2006), s. 92-97 ISSN 0040-6090 Grant - others:NATO(XE) CBP.EAP.CLG 981519; Marie-Curie EIF(XE) MEIF-CT-2004-500038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * application properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  3. LPG sensing characteristics of electrospray deposited SnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Mevlüt; Günkaya, Göktuğ; Doğan, Aydın

    2014-11-01

    In this study, SnO2 films were fabricated on conductive substrate such as aluminum and platinum coated alumina using electro-spray deposition (ESD) method for gas sensor applications. Solution flow rate, coating time, substrate-nozzle distance and solid/alcohol ratio were studied to optimize SnO2 film structure. The morphology of the deposited films was characterized by stereo and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The gas sensing properties of tin oxide films were investigated using liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for various lower explosive limit (LEL). The results obtained from microscopic analyses show that optimum SnO2 films were evaluated at flow rate of 0.05 ml/min, at distance of 6 cm, for 10 min deposition time, for 20 gSnO2/Lethanol ratio and at 7 kV DC electric field. By the results obtained from the gas sensing behavior, the sensitivity of the films was increased with operating temperature. The films showed better sensitivity for 20 LEL LPG concentration at 450 °C operating temperature.

  4. Hydrogen content and density in nanocrystalline carbon films of a predominant diamond character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.; Heiman, A.; Akhvlediani, R.; Lakin, E.; Zolotoyabko, E.; Cyterman, C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon films possessing a prevailing diamond or graphite character, depending on substrate temperature, can be deposited from a methane hydrogen mixture by the direct current glow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition method. While at a temperature of ∼880 deg. C, following the formation of a thin precursor graphitic film, diamond nucleation occurs and a nanodiamond film grows, at higher and lower deposition temperatures the films maintain their graphitic character. In this study the hydrogen content, density and nanocrystalline phase composition of films deposited at various temperatures are investigated. We aim to elucidate the role of hydrogen in nanocrystalline films with a predominant diamond character. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a considerable increase of the hydrogen concentration in the films that accompanies the growth of nanodiamond. It correlates with near edge x-ray adsorption spectroscopy measurements, that showed an appearance of spectroscopic features associated with the diamond structure, and with a substantial increase of the film density detected by x-ray reflectivity. Electron energy loss spectroscopy showed that nanocrystalline diamond films can be deposited from a CH 4 /H 2 mixture with hydrogen concentration in the 80%-95% range. For a deposition temperature of 880 deg. C, the highest diamond character of the films was found for a hydrogen concentration of 91% of H 2 . The deposition temperature plays an important role in diamond formation, strongly influencing the content of adsorbed hydrogen with an optimum at 880 deg. C. It is suggested that diamond nucleation and growth of the nanodiamond phase is driven by densification of the deposited graphitic films which results in high local compressive stresses. Nanodiamond formation is accompanied by an increase of hydrogen concentration in the films. It is suggested that hydrogen retention is critical for stabilization of nanodiamond crystallites. At lower

  5. Photo-Induced conductivity of heterojunction GaAs/Rare-Earth doped SnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Freitas Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth doped (Eu3+ or Ce3+ thin layers of tin dioxide (SnO2 are deposited by the sol-gel-dip-coating technique, along with gallium arsenide (GaAs films, deposited by the resistive evaporation technique. The as-built heterojunction has potential application in optoelectronic devices, because it may combine the emission from the rare-earth-doped transparent oxide, with a high mobility semiconductor. Trivalent rare-earth-doped SnO2 presents very efficient emission in a wide wavelength range, including red (in the case of Eu3+ or blue (Ce3+. The advantage of this structure is the possibility of separation of the rare-earth emission centers, from the electron scattering, leading to an indicated combination for electroluminescence. Electrical characterization of the heterojunction SnO2:Eu/GaAs shows a significant conductivity increase when compared to the conductivity of the individual films. Monochromatic light excitation shows up the role of the most external layer, which may act as a shield (top GaAs, or an ultraviolet light absorber sink (top RE-doped SnO2. The observed improvement on the electrical transport properties is probably related to the formation of short conduction channels in the semiconductors junction with two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG behavior, which are evaluated by excitation with distinct monochromatic light sources, where the samples are deposited by varying the order of layer deposition.

  6. CVD of alternated microcrystalline (MCD) and nanocrystalline (NCD) diamond films on WC-TIC-CO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Raonei Alves; Contin, Andre; Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir J.; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Barquete, Danilo Maciel

    2010-01-01

    CVD Diamond coating of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools has been an alternative to increase tool lifetime. Experiments have shown that residual stresses produced during films growth on WC-TiC-Co substrates significantly increases with increasing film thickness up to 20 μm and usually leads to film delamination. In this work alternated micro- and nanocrystalline CVD diamond films have been used to relax interface stresses and to increase diamond coatings performance. WC-TiC-Co substrates have been submitted to a boronizing thermal diffusion treatment prior to CVD diamond films growth. After reactive heat treatment samples were submitted to chemical etching in acid and alkaline solution. The diamond films deposition was performed using HFCVD reactor with different gas concentrations for microcrystalline (MCD) and nano-crystalline (NCD) films growth. As a result, we present the improvement of diamond films adherence on WC-TiC-Co, evaluated by indentation and machining tests. Samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) for qualitative analysis of diamond films. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was used for phases identification after boronizing process. Diamond film compressive residual stresses were analyzed by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy (RSS). (author)

  7. Investigation of nanocrystalline thin cobalt films thermally evaporated on Si(100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, W., E-mail: wkozl@std2.phys.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Balcerski, J.; Szmaja, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Piwoński, I. [Department of Materials Technology and Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 163, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Batory, D. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Łódź University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Łódź (Poland); Miękoś, E. [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Łódź, Tamka 12, 91-403 Łódź (Poland); and others

    2017-03-15

    We have made a quantitative study of the morphological and magnetic domain structures of 100 nm thick nanocrystalline cobalt films thermally evaporated on naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates. The morphological structure is composed of densely packed grains with the average grain size (35.6±0.8) nm. The grains exhibit no geometric alignment and no preferred elongation on the film surface. In the direction perpendicular to the film surface, the grains are aligned in columns. The films crystallize mainly in the hexagonal close-packed phase of cobalt and possess a crystallographic texture with the hexagonal axis perpendicular to the film surface. The magnetic domain structure consists of domains forming a maze stripe pattern with the average domain size (102±6) nm. The domains have their magnetizations oriented almost perpendicularly to the film surface. The domain wall energy, the domain wall thickness and the critical diameter for single-domain particle were determined. - Highlights: • 100 nm thick nanocrystalline cobalt films on Si(100) were studied quantitatively. • The grains are densely packed and possess the average size (35.6±0.8) nm. • The films have a texture with the hexagonal axis perpendicular to the film surface. • The magnetic domains form a maze stripe pattern with the average size (102±6) nm. • The domains are magnetized almost perpendicularly to the film surface.

  8. Modeling and simulation of boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin film by a field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping; Lee, James D

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the application of a multiscale field theory in modeling and simulation of boron-doped nanocrystalline silicon carbide (B-SiC). The multiscale field theory was briefly introduced. Based on the field theory, numerical simulations show that intergranular glassy amorphous films (IGFs) and nano-sized pores exist in triple junctions of the grains for nanocrystalline B-SiC. Residual tensile stress in the SiC grains and compressive stress on the grain boundaries (GBs) were observed. Under tensile loading, it has been found that mechanical response of 5 wt% boron-SiC exhibits five characteristic regimes. Deformation mechanism at atomic scale has been revealed. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of nanocrystalline SiC were accurately reproduced.

  9. Atomic-Layer-Deposited SnO2 as Gate Electrode for Indium-Free Transparent Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Fwzah Hamud

    2017-08-04

    Atomic-layer-deposited SnO2 is used as a gate electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in thin-film transistors and circuits for the first time. The SnO2 films deposited at 200 °C show low electrical resistivity of ≈3.1 × 10−3 Ω cm with ≈93% transparency in most of the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thin-film transistors fabricated with SnO2 gates show excellent transistor properties including saturation mobility of 15.3 cm2 V−1 s−1, a low subthreshold swing of ≈130 mV dec−1, a high on/off ratio of ≈109, and an excellent electrical stability under constant-voltage stressing conditions to the gate terminal. Moreover, the SnO2-gated thin-film transistors show excellent electrical characteristics when used in electronic circuits such as negative channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) inverters and ring oscillators. The NMOS inverters exhibit a low propagation stage delay of ≈150 ns with high DC voltage gain of ≈382. A high oscillation frequency of ≈303 kHz is obtained from the output sinusoidal signal of the 11-stage NMOS inverter-based ring oscillators. These results show that SnO2 can effectively replace ITO in transparent electronics and sensor applications.

  10. Highly conducting p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films preparation without additional hydrogen dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chandralina; Das, Debajyoti

    2018-04-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline silicon thin film has been successfully prepared at a low substrate temperature (250 °C) in planar inductively coupled RF (13.56 MHz) plasma CVD, without any additional hydrogen dilution. The effect of B2H6 flow rate on structural and electrical properties of the films has been studied. The p-type nc-Si:H films prepared at 5 ≤ B2H6 (sccm) ≤ 20 retains considerable amount of nanocrystallites (˜80 %) with high conductivity ˜101 S cm-1 and dominant crystallographic orientation which has been correlated with the associated increased ultra- nanocrystalline component in the network. Such properties together make the material significantly effective for utilization as p-type emitter layer in heterojunction nc-Si solar cells.

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of homogeneous nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qijin; Xu, S.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide films are fabricated by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition from feedstock gases silane and methane heavily diluted with hydrogen at a low substrate temperature of 300 deg. C. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses show that homogeneous nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films can be synthesized at an appropriate silane fraction X[100%xsilane flow(SCCM)/silane+methane flow(SCCM)] in the gas mixture. The achievement of homogeneous nanocrystalline 3C-SiC films at a low substrate temperature of 300 deg. C is a synergy of a low deposition pressure (22 mTorr), high inductive rf power (2000 W), heavy dilution of feedstock gases silane and methane with hydrogen, and appropriate silane fractions X (X≤33%) in the gas mixture employed in our experiments

  12. Fabrication of Cu2O nanocrystalline thin films photosensor prepared by RF sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Abbas M.; Mahdi, M. A.; Hassan, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanocrystalline thin films were prepared on two types of substrates known as crystalline silicon and amorphous glass, by radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering method. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that Cu2O particles covered the entire surface of both substrates with smoothing distribution. The root mean square surface roughness for the prepared Cu2O thin films on glass and Si (111) substrates is 4.16, and 3.36 nm, respectively. Meanwhile, X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that the two phases of Cu2O and CuO were produced on Si (111) and glass substrates. The optical bandgap of Cu2O thin films synthesised on glass substrate is 2.42 eV. Furthermore, the prepared Cu2O nanocrystalline thin films have showed low reflectance value in the visible spectrum. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal photodetector based Cu2O nanocrystalline thin films deposited onto Si (111) was fabricated using aluminium and platinum, with the current-voltage and photoresponse characteristic investigated under various applied bias voltages. The fabricated Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (M-S-M) photodetector had shown 126% sensitivity in the presence of 10 mW/cm2 of 490 nm light with 1.0 V bias, displaying 90 and 100 ms response and recovery times, respectively. These findings have demonstrated the suitability of M-S-M Cu2O photodetector as an affordable photosensor in the future.

  13. Wavelength-tuned light emission via modifying the band edge symmetry: Doped SnO2 as an example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Hang

    2014-03-27

    We report the observation of ultraviolet photoluminescence and electroluminescence in indium-doped SnO2 thin films with modified "forbidden" bandgap. With increasing indium concentration in SnO 2, dominant visible light emission evolves into the ultraviolet regime in photoluminescence. Hybrid functional first-principles calculations demonstrate that the complex of indium dopant and oxygen vacancy breaks "forbidden" band gap to form allowed transition states. Furthermore, undoped and 10% indium-doped SnO2 layers are synthesized on p-type GaN substrates to obtain SnO2-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes. A dominant visible emission band is observed in the undoped SnO 2-based heterojunction, whereas strong near-ultraviolet emission peak at 398 nm is observed in the indium-doped SnO2-based heterojunction. Our results demonstrate an unprecedented doping-based approach toward tailoring the symmetry of band edge states and recovering ultraviolet light emission in wide-bandgap oxides. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Hydrogen Gas Sensing Based on SnO2 Nanostructure Prepared by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Imad H.; Abu Hassan, H.

    2017-03-01

    A novel H2 gas sensor based on a SnO2 nanostructure was operated at room temperature (RT) (25°C). The SnO2 nanostructure was grown on Al2O3 substrates by a sol-gel spin coating method. The structural characteristics, surface morphology, and gas sensing properties of the SnO2 nanostructure were investigated. Thin film annealing at 500°C produced a high-quality SnO2 nanostructure with a crystallite size of 33.98 nm. A metal-semiconductor-metal gas sensor was fabricated using the SnO2 nanostructure and palladium metal. The gas sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 2570% to 1000 ppm H2 gas at RT. The sensing measurements for H2 gas at different temperatures (RT to 125°C) were repeatable for 50 min. Sensor sensitivity was tested under different H2 concentrations (150 ppm, 250 ppm, 375 ppm, 500 ppm, and 1000 ppm) at different operating temperatures. Adding glycerin to the sol solution increased the porosity of the SnO2 nanostructure surface, which increased the adsorption/desorption of gas molecules which leads to the high sensitivity of the sensor. Therefore, this H2 gas sensor is a suitable portable RT gas sensor.

  15. Transport properties of hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.; Kozak, Halyna; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Krištofik, Jozef; Kindl, Dobroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, April (2012), 63-68 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902; GA ČR GAP204/10/0212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * hydrogen termination * grain boundaries * Hall effect * transport mechanism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.709, year: 2012

  16. Ferromagnetism appears in nitrogen implanted nanocrystalline diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Sun, S. J.; Varga, M.; Chou, H.; Hsu, H.S.; Kromka, A.; Horák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 394, Nov (2015), s. 477-480 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : diamond * nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials * fine-particle systems * nanocrystalline materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  17. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocrystalline oxygen-deficient ZnO thinfilm sensors were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using zinc acetate dissolved in propanol and water as precursor. Response of the sensor to target gases NO2 and H2S is studied. At optimum temperature of 200° C, the sensors have a response of 3.32 to 7 ppm NO2 and 1.4 ...

  18. Application of SnO2 nanoparticle as sulfide gas sensor using UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliasih, N.; Buchari; Noviandri, I.

    2017-04-01

    Sulfide gas monitoring is required to protect organisms from its toxicity. Nanoparticles of metal oxides have characteristics that applicable as sensors for controlling environmental pollution like sulfide gas. Thin film of SnO2 as one part of the sulfide gas sensor was synthesized with the chemical liquid deposition method, and characterized by UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer before and after gas application, also using FTIR, SEM and XRD. Characterization studies showed nanoparticle sizes from the diameters range of 38-71 nm. Application of SnO2 thin film to sulfide gas detected by UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer with diffuse reflectance showed chemical reaction by the shifting of maximum % R peak at wavelength of 1428 cm. The benefit of measurement of sulfide gas using this SnO2 nano thin film is that it could be done at the room temperature.

  19. SnO2 Highly Sensitive CO Gas Sensor Based on Quasi-Molecular-Imprinting Mechanism Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjia Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Response of highly sensitive SnO2 semiconductor carbon monoxide (CO gas sensors based on target gas CO quasi-molecular-imprinting mechanism design is investigated with gas concentrations varied from 50 to 3000 ppm. SnO2 nanoparticles prepared via hydrothermal method and gas sensor film devices SC (exposed to the target gas CO for 12 h after the suspension coating of SnO2 film to be fully dried, design of quasi-molecular-imprinting mechanism, the experiment group and SA (exposed to air after the suspension coating of SnO2 film to be fully dried, the comparison group made from SnO2 nanoparticles are all characterized by XRD, SEM and BET surface area techniques, respectively. The gas response experimental results reveal that the sensor SC demonstrates quicker response and higher sensitivity than the sensor SA does. The results suggest that in addition to the transformation of gas sensor materials, surface area, and porous membrane devices, the Molecular Imprinting Theory is proved to be another way to promote the performance of gas sensors.

  20. Highly sensitive SnO2 sensor via reactive laser-induced transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla Papavlu, Alexandra; Mattle, Thomas; Temmel, Sandra; Lehmann, Ulrike; Hintennach, Andreas; Grisel, Alain; Wokaun, Alexander; Lippert, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Gas sensors based on tin oxide (SnO2) and palladium doped SnO2 (Pd:SnO2) active materials are fabricated by a laser printing method, i.e. reactive laser-induced forward transfer (rLIFT). Thin films from tin based metal-complex precursors are prepared by spin coating and then laser transferred with high resolution onto sensor structures. The devices fabricated by rLIFT exhibit low ppm sensitivity towards ethanol and methane as well as good stability with respect to air, moisture, and time. Promising results are obtained by applying rLIFT to transfer metal-complex precursors onto uncoated commercial gas sensors. We could show that rLIFT onto commercial sensors is possible if the sensor structures are reinforced prior to printing. The rLIFT fabricated sensors show up to 4 times higher sensitivities then the commercial sensors (with inkjet printed SnO2). In addition, the selectivity towards CH4 of the Pd:SnO2 sensors is significantly enhanced compared to the pure SnO2 sensors. Our results indicate that the reactive laser transfer technique applied here represents an important technical step for the realization of improved gas detection systems with wide-ranging applications in environmental and health monitoring control.

  1. How nanocrystalline diamond films become charged in nanoscale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verveniotis, Elisseos; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2012), s. 39-43 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GAP204/10/0212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * local electrostatic charging * nanoparticle assembly * CS-AFM * KFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.709, year: 2012

  2. Photosensitivity of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by PLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayouchi, R.; Bentes, L.; Casteleiro, C.; Conde, O.; Marques, C.P.; Alves, E.; Moutinho, A.M.C.; Marques, H.P.; Teodoro, O.; Schwarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the properties of ZnO thin films grown by laser ablation of ZnO targets on (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ), under substrate temperatures around 400 deg. C. The films were characterized by different methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS analysis revealed that the films are oxygen deficient, and XRD analysis with θ-2θ scans and rocking curves indicate that the ZnO thin films are highly c-axis oriented. All the films are ultraviolet (UV) sensitive. Sensitivity is maximum for the films deposited at lower temperature. The films deposited at higher temperatures show crystallite sizes of typically 500 nm, a high dark current and minimum photoresponse. In all films we observe persistent photoconductivity decay. More densely packed crystallites and a faster decay in photocurrent is observed for films deposited at lower temperature

  3. Thermal conductivity of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon films prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jugdersuren, B.; Kearney, B. T.; Queen, D. R.; Metcalf, T. H.; Culbertson, J. C.; Chervin, C. N.; Stroud, R. M.; Nemeth, W.; Wang, Q.; Liu, Xiao

    2017-07-01

    We report 3..omega.. thermal conductivity measurements of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin films from 85 to 300 K prepared by hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition, where the crystallinity of the films is controlled by the hydrogen dilution during growth. The thermal conductivity of the amorphous silicon film is in agreement with several previous reports of amorphous silicon prepared by a variety of deposition techniques. The thermal conductivity of the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon film is 70% higher and increases 35% more after an anneal at 600 degrees C. They all have similarly weak temperature dependence. Structural analysis shows that the as-grown nanocrystalline silicon is approximately 60% crystalline, nanograins and grain boundaries included. The nanograins, averaging 9.1 nm in diameter in the as-grown film, are embedded in an amorphous matrix. The grain size increases to 9.7 nm upon annealing, accompanied by the disappearance of the amorphous phase. We extend the models of grain boundary scattering of phonons with two different non-Debye dispersion relations to explain our result of nanocrystalline silicon, confirming the strong grain size dependence of heat transport for nanocrystalline materials. However, the similarity in thermal conductivity between amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon suggests the heat transport mechanisms in both structures may not be as dissimilar as we currently understand.

  4. Alloy-dependent deformation behavior of highly ductile nanocrystalline AuCu thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmiller, Jochen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, Ralph [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 10, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gruber, Patric A., E-mail: patric.gruber@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    Nanocrystalline thin films on compliant substrates become increasingly important for the development of flexible electronic devices. In this study, nanocrystalline AuCu thin films on polyimide substrate were tested in tension while using a synchrotron-based in situ testing technique. Analysis of X-ray diffraction profiles allowed identifying the underlying deformation mechanisms. Initially, elastic and microplastic deformation is observed, followed by dislocation-mediated shear band formation, and eventually macroscopic crack formation. Particularly the influence of alloy composition, heat-treatment, and test temperature were investigated. Generally, a highly ductile behavior is observed. However, high Cu concentrations, annealing, and/or large plastic strains lead to localized deformation and hence reduced ductility. On the other hand, enhanced test temperature allows for a delocalized deformation and extended ductility.

  5. Structural and nanomechanical properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin films for photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawal, Ishpal [Department of Physics, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Panwar, Omvir Singh, E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in; Tripathi, Ravi Kant; Chockalingam, Sreekumar [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Optoelectronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reports the effect of helium gas pressure upon the structural, nanomechanical, and photoconductive properties of nanocrystalline carbon thin (NCT) films deposited by the filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the nanocrystalline nature of the deposited films with different crystallite sizes (3–7 nm). The chemical structure of the deposited films is further analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which suggest that the deposited films change from graphitelike to diamondlike, increasing in sp{sup 3} content, with a minor change in the dilution of the inert gas (helium). The graphitic character is regained upon higher dilution of the helium gas, whereupon the films exhibit an increase in sp{sup 2} content. The nanomechanical measurements show that the film deposited at a helium partial pressure of 2.2 × 10{sup −4} has the highest value of hardness (37.39 GPa) and elastic modulus (320.50 GPa). At a light intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, the NCT films deposited at 2.2 × 10{sup −4} and 0.1 mbar partial pressures of helium gas exhibit good photoresponses of 2.2% and 3.6%, respectively.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline vanadium oxide thin films: electrochemical behavior by annealing in different atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiabar, M. Amiri; Mohaghegh, Z.; Ghodsi, F. E.

    2018-01-01

    Nanocrystalline vanadium oxide thin films were prepared using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The effect of heat treatment in different environment including air, N2, Ar, and O2 gas on the structural, optical, electrical, and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline vanadium oxide thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the calculated average crystallite size was reduced by annealing in Ar environment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed layered morphology on the surface of the film annealed in air atmosphere, whereas the film annealed under Ar and N2 ambient revealed granular and wrinkle morphology, respectively. This morphology altered to rather smooth surface by annealing in O2 environment. The optical bandgap of the films were found to be 1.75, 1.84, 2.08, and 2.10 eV annealed in air, O2, N2, and Ar environment, respectively. It was observed that the films annealed under Ar and N2 ambient had low resistivity ( 0.2 Ω cm) and high carrier concentration, while the film annealed in nitrogen environment showed higher mobility of charge carrier. The electrochemical measurements showed that annealing under N2 ambient improved the intercalation of Li ions, leading a higher interfacial capacitance of 19.18 mF Cm-2, and decreased the charge transfer resistance due to surface defects created by heat treatment in nitrogen environment.

  7. Hardness and elastic modulus of amorphous and nanocrystalline SiC and Si films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulykovskyy, Valeriy; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Boháč, Petr; Stranyánek, Martin; Čtvrtlík, Radim; Kurdyumov, A.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 202, - (2008), s. 1738-1745 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 097; GA MŠk OC 095; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : sputtering * hardness * nanocrystalline SiC films * nanocomposites * amorphous Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2008

  8. Osteogenic cell differentiation on H-terminated and O-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lišková, Jana; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Hadraba, Daniel; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Burdíková, Zuzana; Bačáková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2015 (2015), s. 869-884 E-ISSN 1178-2013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond film * osteoblast * Saos-2 Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 4.320, year: 2015

  9. Distinguishibility of Oxygen Desorption From the Surface Region with Mobility Dominant Effects in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V; Shutthanandan, V; Zhang, Yanwen; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Chong M; El-Azab, Anter; Baer, Donald R

    2004-11-15

    We present an investigation of oxygen (18Ο) uptake measurements in 1 μm thick nanocrystalline ceria films grown on single crystal Al₂O₃ (0001) by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Oxygen uptake measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 200°C-600°C at a background 18O pressure of 4.0 x 10-6 Torr. Average grain-size in the as-grown films, synthesized by sol-gel process was ~ 3 nm confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. From the diffusion depth profiles, changes in intensity and slopes in surface and interface regions indicate dominating oxygen mobility effects. Oxygen desorption is clearly distinguishable in the film surface region as a result of shift in the oxygen peak intensity. It is argued that high defect density in nanocrystalline ceria which is associated with nano-grain surface combined with intermediate temperature reducing environment triggers multiple processes like diffusion, desorption and exchange interaction. The promising nature of NRA is realized as an effective tool to acquire the depth-dependent information regarding such complex reactions that exists in nanocrystalline environment.

  10. Effect of chromium underlayer on the properties of nano-crystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, E.; AlFaify, S.; Yoshitake, T.; Katamune, Y.; Bowden, M.; Nandasiri, M.; Ghantasala, M.; Mancini, D. C.; Thevuthasan, S.; Kayani, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of chromium underlayer on the structure, microstructure, and composition of the nano-crystalline diamond films. Nano-crystalline diamond thin films were deposited at high temperature in microwave-induced plasma diluted with nitrogen, on single crystal silicon substrate with a thin film of chromium as an underlayer. Characterization of the film was implemented using non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Nanoindentation studies showed that the films deposited on chromium underlayer have higher hardness values compared to those deposited on silicon without an underlayer. Diamond and graphitic phases of the films evaluated by x-ray and optical spectroscopic analyses determined consistency between the sp2 and sp3 phases of carbon in chromium sample to that of diamond grown on silicon. Diffusion of chromium was observed using ion beam analysis which was correlated with the formation of chromium complexes by x-ray diffraction.

  11. Electrochromic devices based on wide band-gap nanocrystalline semiconductors functionalized with mononuclear charge transfer compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    A series of ruthenium and iron mononuclear complexes were prepared and their spectroeletrochemical behavior characterized oil Optically Transparent Thin Layer Electrodes (OTTLE) and on Fluorine Doped SnO2 (FTO) conductive glasses coated with Sb-doped nanocrystalline SnO2. These systems display a ...

  12. Mesoporous nanocrystalline film architecture for capacitive storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce S.; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Wang, John; Brezesinski, Torsten; Gruner, George

    2017-05-16

    A mesoporous, nanocrystalline, metal oxide construct particularly suited for capacitive energy storage that has an architecture with short diffusion path lengths and large surface areas and a method for production are provided. Energy density is substantially increased without compromising the capacitive charge storage kinetics and electrode demonstrates long term cycling stability. Charge storage devices with electrodes using the construct can use three different charge storage mechanisms immersed in an electrolyte: (1) cations can be stored in a thin double layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface (non-faradaic mechanism); (2) cations can interact with the bulk of an electroactive material which then undergoes a redox reaction or phase change, as in conventional batteries (faradaic mechanism); or (3) cations can electrochemically adsorb onto the surface of a material through charge transfer processes (faradaic mechanism).

  13. Carbon induced magnetism of SnO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Ling, Z.C.; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Dai, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The magnetism induced by Carbon (C) in SnO 2 surfaces are investigated by first principle calculations. The results show that C substitution at the outmost surface oxygen sites can induce magnetism in (110), (001) and (101) surfaces of SnO 2 . (110) surface is the most stable surface and the magnetism in which is stronger than that in other two surfaces, indicating that it is (110), but not other surfaces provides the main contribution to the surface magnetism of C-doped SnO 2 (SnO 2 :C). The magnetic moments predominantly come from C-2p orbitals, which arise from the crystal field transformation induced by the loss of coordinated atoms and the destroy of the local symmetry, and is enhanced by the local lattice distortion due to the Jahn–Teller effect. In all three surface slabs, the magnetism decays when C dopants are deeper from the outmost surfaces and disappears eventually. This work provides more rational understanding to the observed magnetism in SnO 2 :C materials than ever. - Highlights: • We investigate surface magnetism in (110), (001) and (101) surfaces of SnO 2 :C. • (110) surface provides the main contribution to the surface magnetism of SnO 2 :C. • Magnetism predominantly come from C-2p orbitals and crystal field transformation

  14. Synthesis and characterization of electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline CdTe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ragini Raj; Painuly, Diksha; Pandey, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Electrodeposition is emerging as a method for the synthesis of semiconductor thin films and nanostructures. In this work we prepared the nanocrystalline CdTe thin films on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate from aqueous acidic bath at the deposition temperature 50 ± 1 deg. C. The films were grown potentiostatically from -0.60 V to -0.82 V with respect to saturated calomel reference electrode. The structural, compositional, morphological and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis by X-rays (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-vis spectroscopy respectively and cyclic voltammetery. The structural and optical studies revealed that films are nanocrystalline in nature and possess cubic phase, also the films are preferentially oriented along the cubic (1 1 1) plane. The effect of cadmium composition on the deposited morphology was also investigated. The size dependent blue shift in the experimentally determined absorption edge has been compared with the theoretical predictions based on the effective mass approximation and tight binding approximation. It is shown that the experimentally determined absorption edges depart from the theoretically calculated values.

  15. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  16. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ...

  17. Enhanced photogenerated carrier collection in hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and nanocrystalline CdSe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Elaine D; Joo, John H; Hodelin, Juan F; Hu, Evelyn L

    2009-10-14

    Hybrid films of bio-templated gold nanowires and chemical bath deposited nanocrystalline CdSe were fabricated. The conductivity of the gold nanowires within the hybrid material was controlled by gold electroless deposition. Photocurrent measurements were taken on gold nanowire films, CdSe chemical bath deposited films, and hybrid films. The incorporation of gold nanowires within the hybrid material clearly increased the extraction of photogenerated carriers within the CdSe. Photocurrent showed a direct correlation with gold nanowire conductivity.

  18. Boron Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Films for Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petrák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria there is an increased demand for monitoring the functionality of bacteria membranes, the disruption of which can be induced by peptide-lipid interactions. In this work we attempt to construct and disrupt supported lipid membranes (SLB on boron doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS was used to study in situ changes related to lipid membrane formation and disruption by peptide-induced interactions. The observed impedance changes were minimal for oxidized B-NCD samples, but were still detectable in the low frequency part of the spectra. The sensitivity for the detection of membrane formation and disruption was significantly higher for hydrogenated B-NCD surfaces. Data modeling indicates large changes in the electrical charge when an electrical double layer is formed at the B-NCD/SLB interface, governed by ion absorption. By contrast, for oxidized B-NCD surfaces, these changes are negligible indicating little or no change in the surface band bending profile.

  19. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup, E-mail: kssong10@kumoh.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) surface is functionalized with F or O. • The cell adhesion and growth are evaluated on the functionalized NCD surface. • The cell adhesion and growth depend on the wettability of the surface. • Cell patterning was achieved by using of hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. • Neuroblastoma cells were arrayed on the micro-patterned NCD surface. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O{sub 2} or C{sub 3}F{sub 8} gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  20. Thermoluminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films: Structural and morphological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Shashikant; Kumar, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) is a binary II-VI direct band gap semiconducting material with cubic structure and having potential applications in different opto-electronic devices. Here we investigated the effects of annealing on the thermoluminescence (TL) of ZnTe thin films. A nanocrystalline ZnTe thin film was successfully electrodeposited on nickel substrate and the effect of annealing on structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied. The TL emission spectrum of as deposited sample is weakly emissive in UV region at ∼328 nm. The variation in the annealing temperature results into sharp increase in emission intensity at ∼328 nm along with appearance of a new peak at ∼437 nm in visible region. Thus, the deposited nanocrystalline ZnTe thin films exhibited excellent thermoluminescent properties upon annealing. Furthermore, the influence of annealing (annealed at 400 °C) on the solid state of ZnTe were also studied by XRD, SEM, EDS, AFM. It is observed that ZnTe thin film annealed at 400 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  1. High performance electrocatalyst consisting of CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 film: its use as a counter electrode for Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Tae; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2015-01-14

    High energy conversion efficiencies of 6.6% and 7.5% are demonstrated in solid and liquid states, Pt-free, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), respectively, based on CoS nanoparticles on an organized mesoporous SnO2 (om-SnO2) counter electrode. These results correspond to improvements of 14% and 9%, respectively, compared to a conventional Pt counter electrode and are among the highest values reported for Pt-free DSSCs. The om-SnO2 layer plays a pivotal role as a platform to deposit a large amount of highly electrocatalytically active CoS nanoparticles via a facile solvothermal reaction. The om-SnO2 platform with a high porosity, larger pores, and good interconnectivity is derived from a poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) graft copolymer template, which provides not only improved interaction sites for the formation of CoS nanoparticles but also enhanced electron transport. The structural, morphological, chemical, and electrochemical properties of CoS on the om-SnO2 platform are investigated using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The performance enhancement results from the excellent electron transport at the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/counter electrode/electrolyte interface, reduced resistance at the FTO/CoS interface, and better catalytic reduction at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface.

  2. Novel p-Type Conductive Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Film as the Back Electrode for High-Performance Thin Film Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Lin, Qinxian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Mei, Zongwei; Liang, Jun; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-02-10

    Thin film solar cells, due to the low cost, high efficiency, long-term stability, and consumer applications, have been widely applied for harvesting green energy. All of these thin film solar cells generally adopt various metal thin films as the back electrode, like Mo, Au, Ni, Ag, Al, graphite, and so forth. When they contact with p-type layer, it always produces a Schottky contact with a high contact potential barrier, which greatly affects the cell performance. In this work, we report for the first time to find an appropriate p-type conductive semiconductor film, digenite Cu9S5 nanocrystalline film, as the back electrode for CdTe solar cells as the model device. Its low sheet resistance (16.6 Ω/sq) could compare to that of the commercial TCO films (6-30 Ω/sq), like FTO, ITO, and AZO. Different from the traditonal metal back electrode, it produces a successive gradient-doping region by the controllable Cu diffusion, which greatly reduces the contact potential barrier. Remarkably, it achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11.3%) with the traditional metal back electrode (Cu/Au thin films, 11.4%) in CdTe cells and a higher PCE (13.8%) with the help of the Au assistant film. We believe it could also act as the back electrode for other thin film solar cells (α-Si, CuInS2, CIGSe, CZTS, etc.), for their performance improvement.

  3. Enhanced gas sensing correlated with structural and optical properties of Cs-loaded SnO2 nanofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia Raine, P. J.; Arun George, P.; Balasundaram, O. N.; Varghese, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Cs-loaded SnO2 thin films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, impedance spectroscopy and conductometric method. Investigations based on the structural, optical and electrical properties confirm an enhanced gas sensing potential of cesium-loaded tin oxide films. It is found that the tin oxide thin film doped with 4% Cs with a mean grain size of 20 nm at a deposition temperature of 350 ° C show a maximum sensor response of 97.5% for LPG consistently. It is also observed that the sensor response of Cs-doped SnO2 thin films depends on the dopant concentration and the deposition temperature of the film.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc sulphide thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offor, P.O., E-mail: Peter.offor@unn.edu.ng [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Okorie, B.A. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Ezema, F.I. [Crystal Growth and Characterization Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Aigbodion, V.S., E-mail: victor.aigbodion@unn.edu.ng [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria); Daniel-Mkpume, C.C.; Omah, A.D. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    2015-11-25

    This work reports the structural, morphological and optical properties of zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films obtained by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique using zinc chloride as cationic and thiourea as anionic source with ethylene-diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) complex. The ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrate at 300 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. The influence of the substrate temperatures on the structural, morphological and optical properties was studied. The XRD spectra show that the film is nanocrystalline with peak intensity increasing with temperature. The morphology of the films was seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films dislocation density and micro strain increased with temperature. Optical properties show a high transmittance which increased with temperature. - Highlights: • The structural, morphological and optical properties of zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films. • The ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrate at 300 °C, 400 °C and 450 °C. • The influence of the substrate temperatures on the structural, morphological. • The films dislocation density and micro strain increased with temperature. • Optical properties show a high transmittance which increased with temperature.

  5. Microarray of neuroblastoma cells on the selectively functionalized nanocrystalline diamond thin film surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sang; Son, Hyeong-Guk; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Oh, Hong-Gi; Lee, Da-Som; Kim, Min-Hye; Lim, Ki-Moo; Song, Kwang-Soup

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film surfaces were modified with fluorine or oxygen by plasma treatment in an O2 or C3F8 gas environment in order to induce wettability. The oxygenated-NCD (O-NCD) film surface was hydrophilic and the fluorinated-NCD (F-NCD) surface was hydrophobic. The efficiency of early cell adhesion, which is dependent on the wettability of the cell culture plate and necessary for the growth and proliferation of cells, was 89.62 ± 3.92% on the O-NCD film and 7.78 ± 0.77% on the F-NCD film surface after 3 h of cell culture. The wettability of the NCD film surface was artificially modified using a metal mask and plasma treatment to fabricate a micro-pattern. Four types of micro-patterns were fabricated (line, circle, mesh, and word) on the NCD film surface. We precisely arrayed the neuroblastoma cells on the micro-patterned NCD film surfaces by controlling the surface wettability and cell seeding density. The neuroblastoma cells adhered and proliferated along the O-NCD film surface.

  6. Growth of mirror-like ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by a facile hybrid CVD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Man, Weidong; Lyu, Jilei; Xiao, Xiong; You, Zhiheng; Jiang, Nan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, growth of mirror-like ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by a facile hybrid CVD approach was presented. The nucleation and deposition of UNCD films were conducted in microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) and direct current glow discharge CVD (DC GD CVD) on silicon substrates, respectively. A very high nucleation density (about 1 × 1011 nuclei cm-2) was obtained after plasma pretreatment. Furthermore, large area mirror-like UNCD films of Φ 50 mm were synthesized by DC GD CVD. The thickness and grain size of the UNCD films are 24 μm and 7.1 nm, respectively. In addition, the deposition mechanism of the UNCD films was discussed. Development of CVD ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films and related high-precision machining products (International S&T Cooperation, No. S2015ZR1100).

  7. Guided assembly of nanoparticles on electrostatically charged nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verveniotis Elisseos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We apply atomic force microscope for local electrostatic charging of oxygen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD thin films deposited on silicon, to induce electrostatically driven self-assembly of colloidal alumina nanoparticles into micro-patterns. Considering possible capacitive, sp2 phase and spatial uniformity factors to charging, we employ films with sub-100 nm thickness and about 60% relative sp2 phase content, probe the spatial material uniformity by Raman and electron microscopy, and repeat experiments at various positions. We demonstrate that electrostatic potential contrast on the NCD films varies between 0.1 and 1.2 V and that the contrast of more than ±1 V (as detected by Kelvin force microscopy is able to induce self-assembly of the nanoparticles via coulombic and polarization forces. This opens prospects for applications of diamond and its unique set of properties in self-assembly of nano-devices and nano-systems.

  8. Formation of nanocrystalline diamond in polymer like carbon films deposited by plasma CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, A; Chaudhuri, P

    2009-09-01

    Conventional plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) method is generally not suitable for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films. However, our study shows that conditions favourable for powder formation help to grow large amount of nanocrystallites in conventional PECVD. With CH4 as the carbon source gas, dilution with Ar and moderate (50 W) rf power enhances formations of powders (nanoparticles) and C2 dimers within the plasma. On the other hand, with pure CH4 or with hydrogen diluted CH4, powder formation as also NCD growth is hindered. It is proposed that the nanoparticles formed in the plasma act as the "islands" while the C2 dimers are the "seeds" for the NCD growth. The structure of the films deposited on the grounded anode under different conditions of dilution has been studied. It is observed that with high Ar dilution the films contain NCD embedded in polymer like carbon (PLC) matrix.

  9. Polydopamine-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films as a platform for bio-sensing applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Neykova, Neda; Proks, Vladimír; Houdková, Jana; Ukraintsev, Egor; Zemek, Josef; Kromka, Alexander; Rypáček, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 543, 30 September (2013), s. 180-186 ISSN 0040-6090. [International Conference on NANO-structures self-assembly - NANOSEA 2012 /4./. S. Margherita di Pula - Sardinie, 25.06.2012-29.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Grant - others:ČVUT(CZ) SGS10/297/OHK4/3T/14 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond films * NCD * polydopamine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2013

  10. SnO2: CuO based hydrogen sulphide sensor on LTCC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manmeet; Ganapathi, S. Kailasa; Chaware, Varsha; Rane, Vivek; Ramgir, Niranjan; Datta, Niyanta; Giramkar, Vijaya; Phatak, Girish; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2012-06-01

    Dependence of the resistance of metal-oxides thin films on environment is generally used to detect toxic gases at ppm levels. In order to obtain a fast response and recovery, sensing films are heated to high temperatures (upto 300°C). The heater assembly used to raise the film temperature not only makes the sensor bulky but also consumes high power. In our efforts to reduce the size of sensors, we have deposited SnO2: CuO thin film directly onto low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates with integrated heater and temperature sensor. Sensor films were investigated for their compatibility with LTCC substrate and results show a stable response towards hydrogen sulphide gas for over a year. The stability of heater and thermistor embedded in LTCC substrate has also been monitored. The results of our study show films on LTCC substrate can be successfully applied in sensor technology.

  11. Dye sensitization of titanium dioxide crystals and nanocrystalline films with a ruthenium based dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillinger, Akiko

    The dye/semiconductor interface of a recently developed highly efficient (overall conversion efficiency >13%) dye sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cell was investigated. First, the adsorption and desorption rates of the dye (cis-di(thiocyanato)bis(2,2' -bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II):N3), and the relationship between the dye coverage and the photon-to-current conversion efficiencies were examined for nanocrystalline TiO2 films. A two-step dye adsorption mechanism was postulated where initial binding of N3 is through one carboxyl group, with subsequent binding of two or more carboxyl groups. The photon-to-current conversion efficiencies were found to increase abruptly at a coverage of about 0.3 monolayers. To explain the non-linear increases in the conversion efficiencies, a hole-hopping mechanism was proposed. At greater than 30% coverage, hole transfer between adjacent N3 molecules becomes possible and facilitates the regeneration of the oxidized N3 by the redox species (I-) in the matrix of the nanoporous structure. Natural anatase crystals were also investigated as substrates for dye sensitization by N3 to circumvent the complexity of the nanoporous structure of the nanocrystalline TiO2 films. A crystal face dependence of the sensitization yield was observed and explained with the variation in the distances between the Ti binding sites by different crystal faces. The dye sensitized photocurrents with the natural anatase crystals had millisecond rise times. The rise time decreased with greater light intensity and greater dye coverage, suggesting that trapping and detrapping of injected electrons at traps in the crystals is involved in the electron transport in the natural anatase crystals. The absorbed photon to current efficiency of the nanocrystalline films was calculated to be approximately three to seven times greater than that of the single crystals, indicating more recombination in the single crystals. Finally, the surface morphologies of

  12. Evidence for nitrogen-related deep acceptor states in SnO2 grown by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Ostheim, Lars; Kleine-Boymann, Matthias; Hofmann, Detlev M.; Klar, Peter J.; Eickhoff, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen-doped SnO2 thin films were deposited on r-plane sapphire by chemical vapor deposition with different NH3 flow rates. Hydrogen of the precursor led to a dominant unintentional n-type behavior in the as grown samples, i.e., SnO2:N,H. Thermal annealing increased the ratio of N concentration to H concentration in the samples. A significant increase in resistivity and a decrease in carrier concentration, both by almost four orders of magnitude, were observed in the annealed SnO2:N,H thin films. Unfortunately, the carrier type in the samples annealed at the highest temperatures, i.e., with low carrier concentrations of ˜1015 cm-3, could not be determined. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that the samples annealed at the highest temperatures above 500 °C were close to becoming p-type (scenario A) or are even p-type (scenario B). The analysis of temperature-dependent conductivity measurements yielded activation energies in the range of 280 to 350 meV, which must be either due to activation from a deep donor state to the conduction band (scenario A) or due to activation from a nitrogen acceptor state to the valence band (scenario B). Independent of the scenario, our results indicate that achieving stable p-type conductivity by nitrogen doping of SnO2 should be possible.

  13. Deformation-induced grain growth and twinning in nanocrystalline palladium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Kobler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline Pd films prepared by magnetron sputtering have been investigated as a function of strain. The films were deposited onto polyimide substrates and tested in tensile mode. In order to follow the deformation processes in the material, several samples were strained to defined straining states, up to a maximum engineering strain of 10%, and prepared for post-mortem analysis. The nanocrystalline structure was investigated by quantitative automated crystal orientation mapping (ACOM in a transmission electron microscope (TEM, identifying grain growth and twinning/detwinning resulting from dislocation activity as two of the mechanisms contributing to the macroscopic deformation. Depending on the initial twin density, the samples behaved differently. For low initial twin densities, an increasing twin density was found during straining. On the other hand, starting from a higher twin density, the twins were depleted with increasing strain. The findings from ACOM-TEM were confirmed by results from molecular dynamics (MD simulations and from conventional and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (CXRD, SXRD experiments.

  14. EPR Spectroscopy of Different Sol Concentration Synthesized Nanocrystalline-ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline zinc oxide (nc-ZnO thin films were grown on p-type silicon substrate through spin coating by sol-gel process using different sol concentrations (10 wt.%, 15 wt.%, and 25 wt.%. These films were characterized by high resolution nondestructive X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS attachment, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR techniques to understand variations in structural, morphological, and oxygen vacancy with respect to sol concentration. The film surface morphology changes from nanowall to nanorods on increasing sol concentration. EPR spectra revealed the systematic variation from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic nature in these nc-ZnO films. The broad EPR resonance signal arising from the strong dipolar-dipolar interactions among impurity defects present in nc-ZnO film deposited from 10 wt.% sol has been observed and a single strong narrow resonance signal pertaining to oxygen vacancies is obtained in 25 wt.% sol derived nc-ZnO film. The concentrations of impurity defects and oxygen vacancies are evaluated from EPR spectra, necessary for efficient optoelectronic devices development.

  15. Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films Prepared by Hot-Wire Method with Varied Process Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Waman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films were prepared by hot-wire method at low substrate temperature (200∘C without hydrogen dilution of silane (SiH4. A variety of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, were used to characterize these films for structural and optical properties. Films are grown at reasonably high deposition rates (>15 Å/s, which are very much appreciated for the fabrication of cost effective devices. Different crystalline fractions (from 2.5% to 63% and crystallite size (3.6–6.0 nm can be achieved by controlling the process pressure. It is observed that with increase in process pressure, the hydrogen bonding in the films shifts from Si–H to Si–H2 and (Si–H2n complexes. The band gaps of the films are found in the range 1.83–2.11 eV, whereas the hydrogen content remains <9 at.% over the entire range of process pressure studied. The ease of depositing films with tunable band gap is useful for fabrication of tandem solar cells. A correlation between structural and optical properties has been found and discussed in detail.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of nanocrystalline TiO2 films on Ti substrates for use in flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Weiwei; Yin Xiong; Zhou Xiaowen; Zhang Jingbo; Xiao Xurui; Lin Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 films were prepared on flexible Ti-metal sheets by electrophoretic deposition followed by chemical treatment with tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBT) and sintering at 450 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that TBT treatment led to the formation of additional anatase TiO 2 , which plays an important role in improving the interconnection between TiO 2 particles, as well as the adherence of the film to the substrate, and in modifying the surface properties of the nanocrystalline particles. The effect of TBT treatment on the electron transport in the nanocrystalline films was studied by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). An increase in the conversion efficiency was obtained for the dye-sensitized solar cells with TBT-treated nanocrystalline TiO 2 films. The cell performance was further optimized by designing nanocrystalline TiO 2 films with a double-layer structure composed of a light-scattering layer and a transparent layer. The light-scattering effect of the double-layer nanocrystalline films was evaluated by diffuse reflectance spectra. Employing the double-layer nanocrystalline films as the photoelectrodes resulted in a significant improvement in the incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of the corresponding cells due to enhanced solar absorption by light scattering. A high conversion efficiency of 6.33% was measured under illumination with 100 mW cm -2 (AM 1.5) simulated sunlight.

  17. Polarization dependent asymmetric magneto-resistance features in nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Churochkin, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Polar angle-dependence of magneto-resistance (AMR) in heavily nitrogen-incorporated ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films is recorded by applying high magnetic fields, which shows strong anisotropic features at low temperatures. The temperature-dependence of MR and AMR can reveal transport in the weak-localization regime, which is explained by using a superlattice model for arbitrary values of disorder and angles. While a propagative Fermi surface model explains the negative MR features for low degree of disorder the azimuthal angle-dependent MR shows field dependent anisotropy due to the aligned conducting channels on the layers normal to film growth direction. The analysis of MR and AMR can extract the temperature dependence of dephasing time with respect to the elastic scattering time which not only establishes quasi-two dimensional features in this system but also suggests a potential application in monitoring the performance of UNCD based quantum devices.

  18. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  19. Transient Photoinduced Absorption in Ultrathin As-grown Nanocrystalline Silicon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioutas Ch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe have studied ultrafast carrier dynamics in nanocrystalline silicon films with thickness of a few nanometers where boundary-related states and quantum confinement play an important role. Transient non-degenerated photoinduced absorption measurements have been employed to investigate the effects of grain boundaries and quantum confinement on the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers. An observed long initial rise of the photoinduced absorption for the thicker films agrees well with the existence of boundary-related states acting as fast traps. With decreasing the thickness of material, the relaxation dynamics become faster since the density of boundary-related states increases. Furthermore, probing with longer wavelengths we are able to time-resolve optical paths with faster relaxations. This fact is strongly correlated with probing in different points of the first Brillouin zone of the band structure of these materials.

  20. Flexible pressure sensor based on graphene aerogel microstructures functionalized with CdS nanocrystalline thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesco, Irina; Dragoman, Mircea; Strobel, Julian; Ghimpu, Lidia; Schütt, Fabian; Dinescu, Adrian; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Kienle, Lorenz; Adelung, Rainer; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report on functionalization of graphene aerogel with a CdS thin film deposited by magnetron sputtering and on the development of flexible pressure sensors based on ultra-lightweight CdS-aerogel nanocomposite. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclose the uniform deposition of nanocrystalline CdS films with quasi-stoichiometric composition. The piezoresistive response of the aforementioned nanocomposite in the pressure range from 1 to 5 atm is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than that inherent to suspended graphene membranes, leading to an average sensitivity as high as 3.2 × 10-4 kPa-1.

  1. Increased charge storage capacity of titanium nitride electrodes by deposition of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; McDonald, Matthew; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of depositing a thin layer of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) on titanium nitride (TiN) coated electrodes and the effect this has on charge injection properties. The charge storage capacity increased by applying the B-NCD film...

  2. X-ray absorption spectoscopy and magnetic circular dichroism of the Mn-ferrite nanocrystalline thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štichauer, Libor; Mirone, A.; Turchini, S.; Prosperi, T.; Zennaro, S.; Zema, N.; Lama, F.; Pontin, R.; Šimša, Zdeněk; Thailhades, Ph.; Bonnique, C.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2001), s. 2511-2516 ISSN 0021-8979 Grant - others:CZ-FR(XE) project Barrande 98057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : nanocrystalline thin films * x-ray absorption spectroscopy * magnetic circular dichroism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.128, year: 2001

  3. Localized Liquid-Phase Synthesis of Porous SnO2Nanotubes on MEMS Platform for Low-Power, High Performance Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Incheol; Kang, Kyungnam; Yang, Daejong; Yun, Jeonghoon; Park, Inkyu

    2017-08-16

    We have developed highly sensitive, low-power gas sensors through the novel integration method of porous SnO 2 nanotubes (NTs) on a micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) platform. As a template material, ZnO nanowires (NWs) were directly synthesized on beam-shaped, suspended microheaters through an in situ localized hydrothermal reaction induced by local thermal energy around the Joule-heated area. Also, the liquid-phase deposition process enabled the formation of a porous SnO 2 thin film on the surface of ZnO NWs and simultaneous etching of the ZnO core, eventually to generate porous SnO 2 NTs. Because of the localized synthesis of SnO 2 NTs on the suspended microheater, very low power for the gas sensor operation (<6 mW) has been realized. Moreover, the sensing performance (e.g., sensitivity and response time) of synthesized SnO 2 NTs was dramatically enhanced compared to that of ZnO NWs. In addition, the sensing performance was further improved by forming SnO 2 -ZnO hybrid nanostructures due to the heterojunction effect.

  4. Ultra-high wear resistance of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond film: Correlation with microstructure and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R.; Kumar, N.; Lin, I.-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured diamond films are having numerous unique properties including superior tribological behavior which is promising for enhancing energy efficiency and life time of the sliding devices. High wear resistance is the principal criterion for the smooth functioning of any sliding device. Such properties are achievable by tailoring the grain size and grain boundary volume fraction in nanodiamond film. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was attainable using optimized gas plasma condition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. Crystalline phase of ultra-nanodiamond grains with matrix phase of amorphous carbon and short range ordered graphite are encapsulated in nanowire shaped morphology. Film showed ultra-high wear resistance and frictional stability in micro-tribological contact conditions. The negligible wear of film at the beginning of the tribological contact was later transformed into the wearless regime for prolonged sliding cycles. Both surface roughness and high contact stress were the main reasons of wear at the beginning of sliding cycles. However, the interface gets smoothened due to continuous sliding, finally leaded to the wearless regime.

  5. Mechanosynthesis of Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, A.F.; Mudarra Navarro, A.M.; Rodriguez Torres, C.E.; Sanchez, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    Fe-doped nanosized SnO 2 powders were prepared by mechanosynthesis using rutile SnO 2 and hematite Fe 2 O 3 as starting materials. The estimated grain size of the obtained rutile structure was between 10 and 20 nm. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows the presence of two interactions corresponding to 3+ and 2+ iron oxidation states with similar relative fractions. The magnetic measurements exhibit ferromagnetic- (FML) and superparamagnetic-like (SML) behavior. Evidence of a system of strongly interacting particles was found

  6. Properties of n-type SnO2 semiconductor prepared by spray ultrasonic technique for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjedidi, H.; Attaf, A.; Saidi, H.; Aida, M. S.; Semmari, S.; Bouhdjar, A.; Benkhetta, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Transparent conducting n-type SnO2 semiconductor films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray ultrasonic technique using an ultrasonic generator at deferent substrate temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The structural studies reveal that the SnO2 films are polycrystalline at 350, 400, 450, 500 °C with preferential orientation along the (200) and (101) planes, and amorphous at 300 °C. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 20.9-72.2 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 80% and 3.9 eV respectively. The films thicknesses were varied between 466 and 1840 nm. The resistivity was found between 1.6 and 4 × 10-2 Ω·cm. This simplified ultrasonic spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to a conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO2 films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications.

  7. Nanoindentation and micro-mechanical fracture toughness of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–W alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.E.J.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Roberts, S.G.; Wilkinson, A.J.; Bade, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel–tungsten alloys have great potential in the fabrication of components for microelectromechanical systems. Here the fracture toughness of Ni–12.7 at.%W alloy micro-cantilever beams was investigated. Micro-cantilevers were fabricated by UV lithography and electrodeposition and notched by focused ion beam machining. Load was applied using a nanoindenter and fracture toughness was calculated from the fracture load. Fracture toughness of the Ni–12.7 at.%W was in the range of 1.49–5.14 MPa √m. This is higher than the fracture toughness of Si (another important microelectromechanical systems material), but considerably lower than that of electrodeposited nickel and other nickel based alloys. - Highlights: ► Micro-scale cantilevers manufactured by electro-deposition and focused ion beam machining. ► Nanoindenter used to perform micro-scale fracture test on Ni-13at%W micro-cantilevers. ► Calculation of fracture toughness of electrodeposited Ni-13at%W thin films. ► Fracture toughness values lower than that of nanocrystalline nickel.

  8. Nanoindentation and micro-mechanical fracture toughness of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.E.J., E-mail: david.armstrong@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Haseeb, A.S.M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Roberts, S.G.; Wilkinson, A.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Bade, K. [Institut fuer Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-04-30

    Nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys have great potential in the fabrication of components for microelectromechanical systems. Here the fracture toughness of Ni-12.7 at.%W alloy micro-cantilever beams was investigated. Micro-cantilevers were fabricated by UV lithography and electrodeposition and notched by focused ion beam machining. Load was applied using a nanoindenter and fracture toughness was calculated from the fracture load. Fracture toughness of the Ni-12.7 at.%W was in the range of 1.49-5.14 MPa {radical}m. This is higher than the fracture toughness of Si (another important microelectromechanical systems material), but considerably lower than that of electrodeposited nickel and other nickel based alloys. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro-scale cantilevers manufactured by electro-deposition and focused ion beam machining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoindenter used to perform micro-scale fracture test on Ni-13at%W micro-cantilevers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation of fracture toughness of electrodeposited Ni-13at%W thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fracture toughness values lower than that of nanocrystalline nickel.

  9. Improvement of physical properties of SnO2 By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elttayef, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the structural and optical of properties of (Sno 2 ) thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique have been studied before and after irradiation by gamma ray. The films were prepared from mixture of Tin chloride hydrate SnCl 2 .2H 2 O with molar concentration of (0.1 M)at substrate temperature (400)o C and thickness (175,300 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that all the prepared films have polycrystalline structure. The optical properties of the films were determined by studying the visible and near IR spectrum, which include transmittance, absorbance, reflectance, absorption coefficient and energy gap before and after irradiation by gamma ray. It was found that the irradiance caused increasing the value of transmittance and optical energy gap. (Author)

  10. Synthesis and optical characterization of nanocrystalline CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, A. A.; Khan, Shamshad A.; Nagat, A.; Abd El-Sadek, M. S.

    2010-11-01

    From several years the study of binary compounds has been intensified in order to find new materials for solar photocells. The development of thin film solar cells is an active area of research at this time. Much attention has been paid to the development of low cost, high efficiency thin film solar cells. CdTe is one of the suitable candidates for the production of thin film solar cells due to its ideal band gap, high absorption coefficient. The present work deals with thickness dependent study of CdTe thin films. Nanocrystalline CdTe bulk powder was synthesized by wet chemical route at pH≈11.2 using cadmium chloride and potassium telluride as starting materials. The product sample was characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffraction showed that the films are polycrystalline in nature. CdTe thin films with thickness 40, 60, 80 and 100 nm were prepared on glass substrates by using thermal evaporation onto glass substrate under a vacuum of 10 -6 Torr. The optical constants (absorption coefficient, optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, real and imaginary part of dielectric constant) of CdTe thin films was studied as a function of photon energy in the wavelength region 400-2000 nm. Analysis of the optical absorption data shows that the rule of direct transitions predominates. It has been found that the absorption coefficient, refractive index ( n) and extinction coefficient ( k) decreases while the values of optical band gap increase with an increase in thickness from 40 to 100 nm, which can be explained qualitatively by a thickness dependence of the grain size through decrease in grain boundary barrier height with grain size.

  11. Nanocrystalline nickel films with lotus leaf texture for superhydrophobic and low friction surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Mehdi; Alpas, Ahmet T.

    2009-11-01

    Nanostructured Ni films with high hardness, high hydrophobicity and low coefficient of friction (COF) were fabricated. The surface texture of lotus leaf was replicated using a cellulose acetate film, on which a nanocrystalline (NC) Ni coating with a grain size of 30 ± 4 nm was electrodeposited to obtain a self-sustaining film with a hardness of 4.42 GPa. The surface texture of the NC Ni obtained in this way featured a high density (4 × 10 3 mm -2) of conical protuberances with an average height of 10.0 ± 2.0 μm and a tip radius of 2.5 ± 0.5 μm. This structure increased the water repellency and reduced the COF, compared to smooth NC Ni surfaces. The application of a short-duration (120 s) electrodeposition process that deposited "Ni crowns" with a larger radius of 6.0 ± 0.5 μm on the protuberances, followed by a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) solution treatment succeeded in producing a surface texture consisting of nanotextured protuberances that resulted in a very high water contact angle of 156°, comparable to that of the superhydrophobic lotus leaf. Additionally, the microscale protuberances eliminated the initial high COF peaks observed when smooth NC Ni films were tested, and the PFPE treatment resulted in a 60% reduction in the steady-state COFs.

  12. The magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline cobalt-rare earth films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard Allen

    Magnetic materials are of great technological importance for their use in transformers, electric motors, computer disks and hard drives, etc. Understanding the intrinsic physical properties of magnetic materials is essential in order to develop new and better materials for these applications. Presented here is a study of the magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline cobalt-rare earth (Co-R, where R = Y, Pr, Gd, and Dy) films composed of very small crystalline grains, about 2--200 nm in size. The films are produced by co-sputtering two single element targets onto a single substrate. Many are then annealed briefly to produce magnetic films composed of nanoscale crystallites. The magnetic properties of these films depend largely on the relative strengths of the exchange interaction, which tends to align the spins within a group of crystallites, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which tends to align the spins within each crystallite to an easy direction defined by the crystal lattice. The ratio of these two competing interactions varies strongly with grain size as predicted by the random magnetic anisotropy model. The coercivity, remanent magnetization, initial magnetization, etc., are discussed in light of the predictions made by the models of Callen et al (1977), Chi and Alben (1977), Chudnovsky (1986), and Fukunaga and Inoue (1992).

  13. Evolution of structural and electrical properties of carbon films from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphene on quartz glass by HFCVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zihao; Shen, Honglie; Chen, Jieyi; Li, Xuemei; Jiang, Ye

    2018-04-25

    Direct growth of graphene films on glass is of great importance but has so far met with limited success. The non-catalytic property of glass results in the low decomposition ability of hydrocarbon precursors, especially at reduced temperatures (structural and electrical properties of carbon films deposited on quartz glass at 850 °C by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). The results revealed that the obtained a-C films were all graphite-like carbon films. Structural transition of the deposited films from a-C to nanocrystalline graphene was achieved by raising the hydrogen dilution ratios from 10 % to over 80 %. Based on systematically structural and chemical characterizations, a schematic process with three steps including sp2 chains aggregation, aromatic rings formation and sp3 bonds etch was proposed to interpret the structural evolution. The nanocrystalline graphene films grown on glass by HFCVD exhibited good electrical performance with a carrier mobility of 36.76 cm2/(V·s) and a resistivity of 5.24×10-3 Ω·cm over an area of 1 cm2. Temperature-dependent electrical characterizations revealed that the electronic transport in carbon films was dominated by defect, localised and extended states respectively when increasing the temperature from 75 K to 292 K. The nanocrystalline graphene films presented higher carrier mobility and lower carrier concentration than a-C films, which was mainly attributed to their smaller conductive activation energy. The present investigation provides an effective way for direct growth of graphene films on glass at reduced temperatures and also offers useful insights into the understanding of structural and electrical relationship between a-C and graphene.

  14. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  15. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  16. Highly flexible resistive switching memory based on amorphous-nanocrystalline hafnium oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jie; Xue, Wuhong; Ji, Zhenghui; Liu, Gang; Niu, Xuhong; Yi, Xiaohui; Pan, Liang; Zhan, Qingfeng; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Run-Wei

    2017-06-01

    Flexible and transparent resistive switching memories are highly desired for the construction of portable and even wearable electronics. Upon optimization of the microstructure wherein an amorphous-nanocrystalline hafnium oxide thin film is fabricated, an all-oxide based transparent RRAM device with stable resistive switching behavior that can withstand a mechanical tensile stress of up to 2.12% is obtained. It is demonstrated that the superior electrical, thermal and mechanical performance of the ITO/HfO x /ITO device can be ascribed to the formation of pseudo-straight metallic hafnium conductive filaments in the switching layer, and is only limited by the choice of electrode materials. When the ITO bottom electrode is replaced with platinum metal, the mechanical failure threshold of the device can be further extended.

  17. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Fenglin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 2601 (Australia); Ye, Jiandong, E-mail: yejd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 2601 (Australia); School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Shulin [School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 2601 (Australia)

    2016-07-11

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  18. Threshold ionization mass spectrometry study of singlet molecular oxygen in the deposition of SnO2 by PACVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulpytel, J.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.; Morscheidt, W.

    2005-05-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has been used to measure the excited molecular oxygen states O2 (1Δg) and O_{2 }(^{1}\\!\\Sigma _g^{+}) during plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition of tin oxide (SnO2) thin films. The latter, composed of nanosized features, was deposited by feeding in a mixture of Ar, O2 and tetramethyltin (Sn(CH3)4 or TMT) in a capacitively coupled RF discharge reactor. Langmuir probe measurements were performed along with TIMS to measure the electron temperature and density. The correlations between these two diagnostic methods have been investigated. The observed densities of O2 (1Δg) and O_{2 }(^{1}\\!\\Sigma _g^{+}) in the γ mode of the discharge are maximum at a low electron temperature and high density. Furthermore, these results have been shown to be correlated to the trend of the electronic conductivity of the deposited SnO2 thin films.

  19. Gasochromic response of nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide films deposited from ethanol dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, G., E-mail: rizzo@ingegneria.unime.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Arena, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita degli Studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Bonavita, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Donato, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita degli Studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Neri, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria dei Materiali, Universita degli Studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy); Saitta, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica della Materia e Ingegneria Elettronica, Universita degli Studi di Messina, 98122 Messina (Italy)

    2010-09-30

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanocrystals having few tens nanometers average size, are obtained from ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}) in the presence of oleic acid, and treating the reaction product at 400 {sup o}C. Nanocrystalline films, deposited from stable ethanol suspensions of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanopowder, adhere strongly to different kinds of substrates, without the need of any thermal post processing. At room temperature, the films are found to bleach when exposed to ammonia. Bleaching originates from the formation of ammonium metavandate, and is reversible, as after annealing in air at 350 {sup o}C, ammonium metavanadate converts back to V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Formation of ammonium metavanadate, clearly evidenced by remarkable changes in infrared spectrum of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films exposed to ammonia, is a valuable detection mechanism, promising in view of developing highly selective ammonia sensors operating at room temperature.

  20. High-performing visible-blind photodetectors based on SnO2/CuO nanoheterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Ting; Hasan, Md Rezaul; Qiu, Botong; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Motayed, Abhishek; Thon, Susanna M.; Debnath, Ratan

    2015-01-01

    We report on the significant performance enhancement of SnO2 thin film ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) through incorporation of CuO/SnO2 p-n nanoscale heterojunctions. The nanoheterojunctions are self-assembled by sputtering Cu clusters that oxidize in ambient to form CuO. We attribute the performance improvements to enhanced UV absorption, demonstrated both experimentally and using optical simulations, and electron transfer facilitated by the nanoheterojunctions. The peak responsivi...

  1. Adsorption study of Pb 2 ions on nanosized SnO2, synthesized by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adsorption of Pb2+ ions on combustion derived nanosized SnO2 is studied. The as synthesized SnO2 and lead ions adsorbed SnO2 are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrograph (SEM), and infrared spectroscopic (IR) techniques. The eluent is characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy ...

  2. Composition and properties of nanocrystalline Zn S thin films prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei, R.; Goudarzi, A.; Ahmadpoor, H.; Motedayen Aval, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route on soda lime glass and quartz substrates using a weak acidic bath, in which disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) acts as a complexing agent and thioacetamide acts as a source of sulfide ions. The thickness of the films varied from a few nm to 500 nm. The chemical composition of films was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films are very close to Zinc sulfide stoichiometry and we did not observed any organic compounds in the impurity form in them. X-ray diffraction indicates that the film and powder formed in the same reaction bath have cubic zinc blende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy (E g ) was determined to be 3.75 eV from the absorption spectrophotometry measurements.

  3. Processing of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for thermal management of wide-bandgap semiconductor power electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, N.; Singh, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Studied effect of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) deposition on device metallization. → Deposited NCD on to top of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) and Si devices. → Temperatures below 290 deg. C for Si devices and 320 deg. C for HEMTs prevent metal damage. → Development of novel NCD-based thermal management for power electronics feasible. - Abstract: High current densities in wide-bandgap semiconductor electronics operating at high power levels results in significant self-heating of devices, which necessitates the development thermal management technologies to effectively dissipate the generated heat. This paper lays the foundation for the development of such technology by ascertaining process conditions for depositing nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) on AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) with no visible damage to device metallization. NCD deposition is carried out on Si and GaN HEMTs with Au/Ni metallization. Raman spectroscopy, optical and scanning electron microscopy are used to evaluate the quality of the deposited NCD films. Si device metallization is used as a test bed for developing process conditions for NCD deposition on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Results indicate that no visible damage occurs to the device metallization for deposition conditions below 290 deg. C for Si devices and below 320 deg. C for the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Possible mechanisms for metallization damage above the deposition temperature are enumerated. Electrical testing of the AlGaN/GaN HEMTs indicates that it is indeed possible to deposit NCD on GaN-based devices with no significant degradation in device performance.

  4. SnO2Nanowire Arrays and Electrical Properties Synthesized by Fast Heating a Mixture of SnO2and CNTs Waste Soot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhi-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2nanowire arrays were synthesized by fast heating a mixture of SnO2and the carbon nanotubes waste soot by high-frequency induction heating. The resultant SnO2nanowires possess diameters from 50 to 100 nm and lengths up to tens of mircrometers. The field-effect transistors based on single SnO2nanowire exhibit that as-synthesized nanowires have better transistor performance in terms of transconductance and on/off ratio. This work demonstrates a simple technique to the growth of nanomaterials for application in future nanoelectronic devices.

  5. Preparation of SnO2 Nanoparticles by Two Different Wet Chemistry Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridha, N.J.; Akrajas Ali Umar; Muhammad Yahya; Muhammad Mat Salleh; Mohamad Hafizuddin Jumali

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to prepare SnO 2 nanoparticles by two different wet chemistry methods namely sol gel and direct growth methods. The XRD results indicated that both samples are single phase SnO 2 . The FE-SEM micrographs displayed that SnO 2 nanoparticles prepared in first method exhibited a round shape with particle size around 15 nm while the second method produced SnO 2 nano rod with length and width of 570 nm and 55 nm respectively. Energy gap values for SnO 2 nanospheres and nano rods were 4.38 and 4.34 eV respectively. (author)

  6. Electrochemical supercapacitor performance of SnO2 quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonu, Venkataramana; Gupta, Bhavana; Chandra, Sharat; Das, Arindam; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures are widely used in energy applications like super capacitors and Li-ion battery. Smaller size nanocrystals show better stability, low ion diffusion time, higher-ion flux and low pulverization than bigger size nanocrystals during electrochemical operation. Studying the distinct properties of smaller size nanocrystals such as quantum dots (QDs) can improve the understanding on reasons behind the better performance and it will also help in using QDs or smaller size nanoparticles (NPs) more efficiently in different applications. Aqua stable pure SnO 2 QDs with compositional stability and high surface to volume ratio are studied as an electrochemical super capacitor material and compared with bigger size NPs of size 25 nm. Electron energy-loss spectroscopic study of the QDs revealed dominant role of surface over the bulk. Temperature dependent study of low frequency Raman mode and defect Raman mode of QDs indicated no apparent volume change in the SnO 2 QDs within the temperature range of 80–300 K. The specific capacitance of these high surface area and stable SnO 2 QDs has showed only 9% loss while increasing the scan rate from 20 mV/S to 500 mV/S. Capacitance loss for the QDs is less than 2% after 1000 cycles of charging discharging, whereas for the 25 nm SnO 2 NPs, the capacitance loss is 8% after 1000 cycles. Availability of excess open volume in QDs leading to no change in volume during the electro-chemical operation and good aqua stability is attributed to the better performance of QDs over bigger sized NPs.

  7. Piper Ornatum and Piper Betle as Organic Dyes for TiO2 and SnO2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Azwar; Putra, A. Erwin E.; Amaliyah, Novriany; Hayase, Shuzi; Pandey, Shyam. S.

    2018-03-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) mimics the principle of natural photosynthesis are now currently investigated due to low manufacturing cost as compared to silicon based solar cells. In this report, we utilized Piper ornatum (PO) and Piper betle (PB) as sensitizer to fabricate low cost DSSCs. We compared the photovoltaic performance of both sensitizers with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Tin dioxide (SnO2) semiconductors. The results show that PO and PB dyes have higher Short circuit current (Jsc) when applied in SnO2 compared to standard TiO2 photo-anode film even though the Open circuit voltage (Voc) was hampered on SnO2 device. In conclusion, from the result, higher electron injections can be achieved by choosing appropriate semiconductors with band gap that match with dyes energy level as one of strategy for further low cost solar cell.

  8. Enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity over bistructural SnO2 nanobelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Wang, Yongli; Su, Dezhi; Zhao, Yongjie

    2018-02-01

    SnO2 nanobelts were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology were investigated by XRD, Raman spectra, SEM and TEM. The results revealed that the synthesized SnO2 nanobelts were covered with amorphous surface. For the photocatalytic efficiency of methylene blue, the none-fully crystallized SnO2 nanobelts were over four times higher than bulk SnO2. Moreover, the photo-degradation rate constant with SnO2 nanobelts as photocatalysts was over six times higher than bulk SnO2. It was considered that the subtle structure of SnO2 nanobelts not only lowered the band gap but also improved the transfer of charge carriers and trapping effect of solar light. Furthermore, this strategy of enhancing photocatalytic performance could be extended to the other kinds of metal oxide photocatalyst.

  9. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of vacuum-evaporated nanocrystalline CdSe thin films for photosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vipin; Sharma, D.K.; Sharma, Kapil [Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Ghaziabad (India); Dwivedi, D.K. [M.M.M University of Technology, Department of Physics, Gorakhpur (India)

    2016-11-15

    II-VI nanocrystalline semiconductors offer a wide range of applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Thin films of CdSe were deposited onto ultra-clean glass substrates by vacuum evaporation method. The as-deposited films were annealed in vacuum at 350 K. The structural, elemental, morphological, optical and electrical investigations of annealed films were carried out. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the films shows that films were polycrystalline in nature having hexagonal structure with preferential orientation of grains along (002) plane. SEM image indicates that the films were uniform and well covered to the glass substrate. EDAX analysis confirms the stoichiometric composition of the film. Raman spectra were used to observe the characteristic vibrational modes of CdSe. The energy band gap of these films was obtained by absorption spectra. The films were found to have a direct type of transition of band gap occurring at 1.75 eV. The dark electrical conductivity and photoconductivity reveals that the films were semiconducting in nature indicating the suitability of these films for photosensor applications. The Hall effect measurement reveals that the films have n-type electrical conductivity. (orig.)

  10. High temperature magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Sn0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    High temperature magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Sn0⋅95Co0⋅05O2. O MOUNKACHI1, E SALMANI2, ... exchange interaction between the magnetic ions and the band electrons. Tin dioxide (SnO2) is an n-type ... rate must be well controlled for the chemical homogene- ity. The reactants were constantly stirred using ...

  11. A study of structural and mechanical properties of nano-crystalline tungsten nitride film synthesis by plasma focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussnain, Ali; Singh Rawat, Rajdeep; Ahmad, Riaz; Hussain, Tousif; Umar, Z. A.; Ikhlaq, Uzma; Chen, Zhong; Shen, Lu

    2015-02-01

    Nano-crystalline tungsten nitride thin films are synthesized on AISI-304 steel at room temperature using Mather-type plasma focus system. The surface properties of the exposed substrate against different deposition shots are examined for crystal structure, surface morphology and mechanical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope and nano-indenter. The XRD results show the growth of WN and WN2 phases and the development of strain/stress in the deposited films by varying the number of deposition shots. Morphology of deposited films shows the significant change in the surface structure with different ion energy doses (number of deposition shots). Due to the effect of different ion energy doses, the strain/stress developed in the deposited film leads to an improvement of hardness of deposited films.

  12. SnO2 Nanoparticles Decorated 2D Wavy Hierarchical Carbon Nanowalls with Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hamizah Khanis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional carbon nanowall (2D-CNW structures were prepared by hot wire assisted plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (hw-PECVD system on silicon substrates. Controlled variations in the film structure were observed with increase in applied rf power during deposition which has been established to increase the rate of dissociation of precursor gases. The structural changes resulted in the formation of wavy-like features on the 2D-CNW, thus further enhancing the surface area of the nanostructures. The FESEM results confirmed the morphology transformation and conclusively showed the evolution of the 2D-CNW novel structures while Raman results revealed increase in ID/IG ratio indicating increase in the presence of disordered domains due to the presence of open edges on the 2D-CNW structures. Subsequently, the best 2D-CNW based on the morphology and structural properties was functionalized with tin oxide (SnO2 nanoparticles and used as a working electrode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC measurement system. Intriguingly, the SnO2 functionalized 2D-CNW showed enhancement in both Mott-Schottky profiles and LSV properties which suggested that these hierarchical networks showed promising potential application as effective charge-trapping medium in PEC systems.

  13. One-Pot Hybrid SnO2 /Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Formation through Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Gianvito; Scarpellini, Alice; Palazon, Francisco; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-06-20

    The localized in situ formation of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films is presented. This is achieved by the photoinduced conversion of the tin acetate precursor included in polymeric films, through controlled UV or visible pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm, respectively. The evolution of the formation of nanoparticles is followed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and shows that their growth is affected in different ways by the laser pulses at the two applied wavelengths. This, in combination with electron microscopy analysis, reveals that, depending on the irradiation wavelength, the size of the nanoparticles in the final nanocomposites differs. This difference is attributed to distinct mechanistic pathways that lead to the synthesis of small nanoparticles (from 1.5 to 4.5 nm) at λ=355 nm, whereas bigger ones (from 5 to 16 nm) are formed at λ=532 nm. At the same time, structural studies with both X-ray and electron diffraction measurements demonstrate the crystallinity of SnO 2 nanoparticles in both cases, whereas XPS analysis confirms the light-induced oxidation of tin acetate into SnO 2 . Taken all together, it is demonstrated that the pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm leads to the formation of SnO 2 nanoparticles with defined features highly dispersed in PMMA solid matrices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A Nanocrystalline Fe2O3Film Anode Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaoling; Qin, Youzhi; Wang, Xia; Li, Hongsen; Shang, Xiantao; Fan, Shuting; Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Derang; Li, Shandong

    2018-02-23

    Nanocrystalline Fe 2 O 3 thin films are deposited directly on the conduct substrates by pulsed laser deposition as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. We demonstrate the well-designed Fe 2 O 3 film electrodes are capable of excellent high-rate performance (510 mAh g - 1 at high current density of 15,000 mA g - 1 ) and superior cycling stability (905 mAh g - 1 at 100 mA g - 1 after 200 cycles), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art Fe 2 O 3 anode materials. The outstanding lithium storage performances of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline Fe 2 O 3 film are attributed to the advanced nanostructured architecture, which not only provides fast kinetics by the shortened lithium-ion diffusion lengths but also prolongs cycling life by preventing nanosized Fe 2 O 3 particle agglomeration. The electrochemical performance results suggest that this novel Fe 2 O 3 thin film is a promising anode material for all-solid-state thin film batteries.

  15. Parts per billion-level detection of benzene using SnO2/graphene nanocomposite composed of sub-6 nm SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Fanli; Li Huihua; Kong Lingtao; Liu Jinyun; Jin Zhen; Li Wei; Jia Yong; Liu Jinhuai; Huang Xingjiu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite composed of 4–5 nm SnO 2 nanoparticles was synthesized by one-step wet chemical method and the form mechanism of the nanocomposite is clearly interpreted. The detection limit of the nanocomposite was as low as 5 ppb to toxic benzene. Highlights: ► We synthesized SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite using a simple one-step wet chemical method. ► The nanocomposite composed of 4–5 nm SnO 2 nanoparticles. ► Toxic benzene was detected by such kind of nanocomposite. ► The detection limit to toxic benzene was as low as 5 ppb. - Abstract: In the present work, the SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite composed of 4–5 nm SnO 2 nanoparticles was synthesized using a simple wet chemical method for ppb-level detection of benzene. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite was investigated systematically by means of simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy cooperated with transmission electron microscopy observations. The SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite showed a very attractive improved sensitivity to toxic volatile organic compounds, especially to benzene, compared to a traditional SnO 2 . The responses of the nanocomposite to benzene were a little higher than those to ethanol and the detection limit reached 5 ppb to benzene which is, to our best knowledge, far lower than those reported previously.

  16. Effect of Structure and Surface State of Nanocrystalline Tin Dioxide on its Gas Sensing Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovodok, E.; Ivanovskaya, M.; Kotsikau, D.; Azarko, I.; Kormosh, V.; Alyaksev, I.

    2013-05-01

    An effect of particle size, concentration of structural defects and the presence of sulfite and sulfate groups on the response of thick-film SnO2 sensors to CH4 and CO was revealed. Particle size and the presence of SO-groups were found to be main parameters determining the sensitivity of SnO2-based sensors to CH4, while structural defects of SnO2 layers are essential for CO detection.

  17. Optical and Surface Characteristics of Mg-Doped GaAs Nanocrystalline Thin Film Deposited by Thermionic Vacuum Arc Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the most promising p-type dopant for gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor technology. Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline thin film has been deposited at room temperature by the thermionic vacuum arc technique, a rapid deposition method for production of doped GaAs material. The microstructure and surface and optical properties of the deposited sample were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, and interferometry. The crystalline direction of the deposited sample was determined to be (220) plane and (331) plane at 44.53° and 72.30°, respectively. The Mg-doped GaAs nanocrystalline sample showed high transmittance.

  18. Effect of p-layer properties on nanocrystalline absorber layer and thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Amartya; Adhikary, Koel; Mukhopadhyay, Sumita; Ray, Swati

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the p-layer on the crystallinity of the absorber layer and nanocrystalline silicon thin film solar cells has been studied. Boron doped Si : H p-layers of different crystallinities have been prepared under different power pressure conditions using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. The crystalline volume fraction of p-layers increases with the increase in deposition power. Optical absorption of the p-layer reduces as the crystalline volume fraction increases. Structural studies at the p/i interface have been done by Raman scattering studies. The crystalline volume fraction of the i-layer increases as that of the p-layer increases, the effect being more prominent near the p/i interface. Grain sizes of the absorber layer decrease from 9.2 to 7.2 nm and the density of crystallites increases as the crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer increases and its grain size decreases. With increasing crystalline volume fraction of the p-layer solar cell efficiency increases

  19. Efficient sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films with cyanine and merocyanine organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, Kazuhiro; Hara, Kohjiro; Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Photoreaction Control Research Center (PCRC), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Shingo; Mori, Tohru; Abe, Yoshimoto [Tokyo Science Univ., Faculty of Science and Technology, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpou, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Labs. Inc., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-10-15

    Various kinds of cyanine and merocyanine organic dyes having short anchoring groups as sensitizers on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} electrodes were investigated to promote the short-circuit photocurrent (J{sub sc}) and the solar light-to-power conversion efficiency ({eta}{sub sun}). The J{sub sc} and {eta}{sub sun} improved when the three different dyes (yellow and red cyanine dyes, and blue squarylium cyanine dye) were adsorbed simultaneously on a TiO2 electrode, as compared with the J{sub sc} and {eta}{sub sun} of the TiO2 electrodes adsorbed by each single dye. The maximum {eta}{sub sun} was 3.1 % (AM-l.5, 100 mW/cm{sup -2}). The J{sub sc} and {eta}{sub sun} were influenced by the solvents for the dye adsorption on the TiO{sub 2} electrode, and the efficiencies were improved by the addition of some cholic acids into the dye solution for adsorption. The electron transfer and/or the energy transfer from the red cyanine dye to the blue cyanine dye was observed on a SiO{sub 2} film using emission spectroscopy, suggesting a strong interaction between two dyes. The J-like aggregates of the blue cyanine dyes hardly showed sensitization efficiency. (Author)

  20. Hysteretic current-voltage characteristics in RF-sputtered nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, Manuel; Juarez, Gabriel; Heluani, Silvia P. de; Comedi, David

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature of a nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin film fabricated by reactive RF-sputtering deposition and sandwiched between ITO (indium-tin-oxide)-buffered glass substrate and an indium top electrode. The I-V characteristics are ohmic for low voltages and become non-linear, hysteretic and asymmetric as the voltage is increased. The system is shown to be well represented by two distinct resistance states in the non-ohmic region. Current transient evolutions were also measured for constant voltage excitations. The resistance is stable in time for voltages in the ohmic regime. In contrast, for voltages in the non-ohmic regime, the resistance has a small variation for a short period of time (order of tens seconds) and then increases with time. For those transients, long characteristic times (on the order of tens of minutes up to hours) were found. The behavior of the system is discussed on the basis of experimental results reported in the literature for similar systems and existing models for electric-field induced resistive switching

  1. Nanocrystalline CsPbBr3 thin films: a grain boundary opto-electronic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G.; Somma, F.; Nikl, M.

    2005-01-01

    CsPbBr3 thin films with nanocrystalline morphology were studied by using optoelectronic techniques to infer the grain boundary region in respect of the crystallite's interior performance. Co-evaporation of puri-fied powders or crushed Bridgman single crystals were used to deposit materials and compare recombina-tion mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes within them. Nanosecond photoconduction decay was observed on both materials as well as activated hopping transport. An asymmetric Debye-like peak was evaluated from impedance spectroscopy with a FWHM value, which remains constant for 1.25 +/- 0.02 deca-des, addressing the presence of a tight conductivity relaxation times distribution. The evaluated activation energy, equal to 0.72 +/- 0.05 eV, similar to that estimated by DC measurements, is well smaller then that expected for an intrinsic material with exciton absorption at 2.36 eV. A simple model based on Voigt's elements was used to model the electronic characteristics of these nanostructured materials, to discuss observed results and define the role played by grain boundaries.

  2. Magnetic properties of iron-based amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe-Zr-X-B (X: Cu, Al) alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goscianska, I.; Tolinski, T.; Ratajczak, H.; Sovak, P.; Dlugos, R.; Konc, M.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal stability and magnetic properties of thin films, of a few Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys, have been studied. The alloys belong to the class Fe-M-B, whose representatives are Fe 87 Zr 4 CuB 8 , Fe 87 Zr 7 B 6 , and Fe 87 Zr 7 AlB 5 and are of particular interest because of their wide variety of magnetic properties. The films were prepared by flash evaporation onto liquid nitrogen cooled substrates. Measurements of the Kerr effect, the Hall effect, and ferromagnetic resonance in the films were carried out as functions of the annealing temperature. It was found that the changes in the coercive field H c , resonance linewidth ΔH pp , effective magnetization M eff , Hall parameters, and resistance were correlated with the structural changes in the studied films. (author)

  3. Structural, nanomechanical and variable range hopping conduction behavior of nanocrystalline carbon thin films deposited by the ambient environment assisted filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panwar, O.S., E-mail: ospanwar@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Rawal, Ishpal; Tripathi, R.K. [Polymorphic Carbon Thin Films Group, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Srivastava, A.K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy, Sophisticated and Analytical Instruments, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Ultrafast Opto-Electronics and Tetrahertz Photonics Group, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi - 110 012 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Nanocrystalline carbon thin films are grown by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc process. • Effect of gaseous environment on the properties of carbon films has been studied. • The structural and nanomechanical properties of carbon thin films have been studied. • The VRH conduction behavior in nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been studied. - Abstract: This paper reports the deposition and characterization of nanocrystalline carbon thin films by filtered cathodic jet carbon arc technique assisted with three different gaseous environments of helium, nitrogen and hydrogen. All the films are nanocrystalline in nature as observed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) measurements, which suggests that the nanocrystallites of size ∼10–50 nm are embedded though out the amorphous matrix. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that the film deposited under the nitrogen gaseous environment has the highest sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratio accompanied with the highest hardness of ∼18.34 GPa observed from the nanoindentation technique. The film deposited under the helium gaseous environment has the highest ratio of the area under the Raman D peak to G peak (A{sub D}/A{sub G}) and the highest conductivity (∼2.23 S/cm) at room temperature, whereas, the film deposited under the hydrogen environment has the lowest conductivity value (2.27 × 10{sup −7} S/cm). The temperature dependent dc conduction behavior of all the nanocrystalline carbon thin films has been analyzed in the light of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism and observed that all the films obey three dimension VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport.

  4. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n + -type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force

  5. X-ray microstructural analysis of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films by diffraction pattern modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, D. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); PCM Computacional Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Ospina, R. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Gómez, A.G. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Seccional Cali, Facultad de Ingeniería, Departamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniería y la Producción (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); PCM Computacional Applications, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Arango, P.J. [Laboratorio de Física del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 Vía al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia)

    2014-02-15

    A detailed microstructural characterization of nanocrystalline TiZrN thin films grown at different substrate temperatures (T{sub S}) was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Total diffraction pattern modeling based on more meaningful microstructural parameters, such as crystallite size distribution and dislocation density, was performed to describe the microstructure of the thin films more precisely. This diffraction modeling has been implemented and used mostly to characterize powders, but the technique can be very useful to study hard thin films by taking certain considerations into account. Nanocrystalline films were grown by using the cathodic pulsed vacuum arc technique on stainless steel 316L substrates, varying the temperature from room temperature to 200 °C. Further surface morphology analysis was performed to study the dependence of grain size on substrate temperature using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystallite and surface grain sizes obtained and the high density of dislocations observed indicate that the films underwent nanostructured growth. Variations in these microstructural parameters as a function of T{sub S} during deposition revealed a competition between adatom mobility and desorption processes, resulting in a specific microstructure. These films also showed slight anisotropy in their microstructure, and this was incorporated into the diffraction pattern modeling. The resulting model allowed for the films' microstructure during synthesis to be better understood according to the experimental results obtained. - Highlights: • Mobility and desorption competition generates a critical temperature. • A microstructure anisotropy related to the local strain was observed in thin films. • Adatom mobility and desorption influence grain size and microstrain.

  6. Characterizing the phase purity of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films using Verwey transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohra, Murtaza, E-mail: murtazaphy@gmail.com [Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Survey No: 62/1A, Bahadurpally Jeedimetla, Hyderabad 500043, Telangana (India); Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Prasad, K. Eswar; Bollina, Ravi [Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Survey No: 62/1A, Bahadurpally Jeedimetla, Hyderabad 500043, Telangana (India); Sahoo, S.C. [Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Padnekkad P.O., Kasaragod 671314, Kerala (India); Kumar, Naresh [Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-11-15

    We have employed Verwey transition as a probe to check phase purity of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films grown at different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) by means of magnetization study. The drop in magnetization at temperatures other than Verwey transition temperature T{sub v} (120 K), in the low and high T{sub s} films indicates the presence of antiferromagnetic (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO) impurity phases. After wet H{sub 2} reduction treatment on these films, a vibrant appearance of Verwey transition is observed which confirms Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase at all T{sub s}. However, high T{sub s} films exhibit low T{sub v} value with distribution, T{sub v}±ΔT{sub v}=112+25 K emanating from residual magnetic phases, which were not traced by XRD studies. Interestingly, these nanocrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit anisotropic magnetic behaviors above T{sub v}, similar to the single crystal Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Below the saturation field, the easy (111) and relatively hard (110) axis of magnetizations align along their texture planes. - Highlights: • Verwey transition can be a potential probe for phase purity check of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films. • Wet H{sub 2} reduction can produce Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films with various textures. • Magnetic anisotropic behavior alike to the single crystal Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} has been observed.

  7. Microstructure and optical studies of electron beam evaporated ZnSe1−xTex nanocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam-Ismail, M.; El-Hagary, M.; Shaaban, E.R.; Al-Hedeib, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The structural and optical properties of ZnSeTe thin films were studied. ► The micro structural parameters of the films have been determined. ► The room temperature reflectance and transmittance data are analyzed. ► The refractive index and energy gap are determined. ► The single oscillator parameters were calculated. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline thin films of ZnSe 1−x Te x (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) were deposited on glass substrate using electron beam deposition technique. The structure of the prepared films was examined using X-ray diffraction technique and revealed that the deposited films have polycrystalline zinc blend structure with lattice constant, a, increasing linearly from 0.55816 to 0.59989 nm as x varies from 0 to 1. The optical studies of the nanocrystalline ZnSe 1−x Te x films showed that the refractive index increases and fundamental band gap E g decreases from 2.58 to 2.21 eV as the tellurium concentration increases from 0 to 1. Furthermore, it was also found that the variation of E g with composition shows quadratic behavior with bowing parameter equal to 0.105. In addition, the thickness and annealing effects on the structure and optical properties of the deposited films were also investigated. The refractive index dispersion and its dependence on composition were discussed in terms of single oscillator model proposed by Wemple–DiDomenico.

  8. Laser processing of SnO2 electrode materials for manufacturing of 3D micro-batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, R.; Proell, J.; Ulrich, S.; Przybylski, M.; Pfleging, W.

    2011-03-01

    The material development for advanced lithium-ion batteries plays an important role in future mobile applications and energy storage systems. It is assumed that electrode materials made of nano-composited materials will improve battery lifetime and will lead to an enhancement of lithium diffusion and thus improve battery capacity and cyclability. A major problem concerning thin film electrodes is, that increasing film thickness leads to an increase in lithium diffusion path lengths and thereby a decrease in power density. To overcome this problem, the investigation of a 3D-battery system with an increased surface area is necessary. UV-laser micromachining was applied to create defined line or grating structures via mask imaging. SnO2 is a highly investigated anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet, the enormous volume changes occurring during electrochemical cycling lead to immense loss of capacity. The formation of micropatterns via laser ablation to create structures which enable the compensation of the volume expansion was investigated in detail. Thin films of SnO2 were deposited in Ar:O2 atmosphere via r.f. magnetron sputtering on silicon and stainless steel substrates. The thin films were studied with X-ray diffraction to determine their crystallinity. The electrochemical properties of the manufactured films were investigated via electrochemical cycling against a lithium anode.

  9. Photosensitization of Colloidal SnO2 Semiconductor Nanoparticles with Xanthene Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, N.; Paramaguru, G.; Vanitha, G.; Renganathan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The photochemical behavior of xanthene dyes (fluorescein, erythrosine, and eosin) with colloidal SnO2 nanoparticles was probed by UV-visible, steady state, and time resolved fluorescence measurements. The prepared SnO2 nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible and powder XRD measurements. The xanthene dyes were adsorbed on the surface of colloidal SnO2 nanoparticles through electrostatic interaction. Apparent association constant (Kapp) was calculated from the relevant fluorescence...

  10. Optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolysis deposited nano-crystalline BiFeO3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapu Reddy Venkateswarlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The nano-crystalline BiFeO3 were prepared under controlled substrate temperature by spray pyrolysis method. Their structural, optical and electrical properties were studied and correlated. A blueshift (Δλ ∼ 8.17 nm in the absorbance peaks was observed in the films with decrease in grain size. The absorption coefficient spectra show defect transitions at 1.9 and 2.3 eV in large grain size films due to oxygen vacancies. The lowest leakage was observed in smaller grain size (< 20 nm films due to negligible oxygen vacancies, smooth surface roughness and large energy bang gap. The Poole-Frankel conduction mechanism has been found to be the predominant mechanism for the leakage current.

  11. Influence of microwave plasma parameters on light emission from SiV color centers in nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himics László

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Zero phonon line (ZPL shape, position and integral intensity of SiV defect center in diamond is presented for nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films grown at different conditions, NCD films of average grain sizes from ~50 nm up to ~180 nm have been deposited onto c-Si wafer at substrate temperature of 700 and 850oC from mixture with different CH4 and H2 ratios using MWCVD process. Light emission of SiV defect center and Raman scattering properties of NCD samples were measured on a Renishaw micro-Raman spectrometer with 488 nm excitation. Scanning electron microscopy images were used for monitoring surface morphology and for the analysis of the average grain sizes. Sample thickness was determined by in situ laser reflection interferometry. Characteristics of SiV ZPL are discussed in light of the morphology, bonding structure and average grain size of NCD films.

  12. Morphological and humidity sensing characteristics of SnO 2 –CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the synthesis of SnO2–CuO, SnO2–Fe2O3 and SnO2–SbO2 composites of nano oxides and comparative study of humidity sensing on their electrical resistances. CuO, Fe2O3 and SbO2 were added within base material SnO2 in the ratio 1 : 0.25, 1 : 0.50 and 1 : 1. Characterizations of materials were done ...

  13. Morphological and humidity sensing characteristics of SnO2–CuO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the synthesis of SnO2–CuO, SnO2–Fe2O3 and SnO2–SbO2 composites of nano oxides and comparative study of humidity sensing on their electrical resistances. CuO, Fe2O3 and SbO2 were added within base material SnO2 in the ratio 1 : 0.25, 1 : 0.50 and 1 : 1. Characterizations of materials were done ...

  14. SnO2-Based Nanomaterials: Synthesis and Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 is an important n-type wide-bandgap semiconductor, and SnO2-based nanostructures are presenting themselves as one of the most important classes due to their various tunable physicochemical properties. In this paper, we firstly outline the syntheses of phase-pure SnO2 hierarchical structures with different morphologies such as nanorods, nanosheets, and nanospheres, as well as their modifications by doping and compositing with other materials. Then, we reviewed the design of SnO2-based nanostructures with improved performance in the areas of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs and supercapacitors.

  15. Sintering mechanisms of SnO2 compacts doped with Nb2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, D.; Santilli, C.V.; Varela, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Grain and pore growth are observed during sintering of SnO 2 without any densification for temperature up to 1500 0 C. This behaviour is due to mass transport through vapor phase. In order to favor densifying mechanism several concentrations of Nb 2 O 5 were added to SnO 2 (1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mol%). Sintering of Nb 2 O 5 doped SnO 2 pellets in the range of 1000 to 1450 0 C indicate that Nb 2 O 5 inhibits SnO 2 evaporation allowing some densification at 1450 0 C. (author) [pt

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition of SnO2 on MXene for Li-Ion Battery Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2017-02-24

    In this report, we show that oxide battery anodes can be grown on two-dimensional titanium carbide sheets (MXenes) by atomic layer deposition. Using this approach, we have fabricated a composite SnO2/MXene anode for Li-ion battery applications. The SnO2/MXene anode exploits the high Li-ion capacity offered by SnO2, while maintaining the structural and mechanical integrity by the conductive MXene platform. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) conditions used to deposit SnO2 on MXene terminated with oxygen, fluorine, and hydroxyl-groups were found to be critical for preventing MXene degradation during ALD. We demonstrate that SnO2/MXene electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance as Li-ion battery anodes, where conductive MXene sheets act to buffer the volume changes associated with lithiation and delithiation of SnO2. The cyclic performance of the anodes is further improved by depositing a very thin passivation layer of HfO2, in the same ALD reactor, on the SnO2/MXene anode. This is shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to also improve the structural integrity of SnO2 anode during cycling. The HfO2 coated SnO2/MXene electrodes demonstrate a stable specific capacity of 843 mAh/g when used as Li-ion battery anodes.

  17. Porous SnO2-CuO nanotubes for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Chanhoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Yoon, Ki Ro; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-01-01

    Facile synthesis of rationally designed structures is critical to realize a high performance electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Among different candidates, tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) is one of the most actively researched electrode materials due to its high theoretical capacity (1493 mAh g-1), abundance, inexpensive costs, and environmental friendliness. However, severe capacity decay from the volume expansion and low conductivity of SnO2 have hampered its use as a feasible electrode for LIBs. Rationally designed SnO2-based nanostructures with conductive materials can be an ideal solution to resolve such limitations. In this work, we have successfully fabricated porous SnO2-CuO composite nanotubes (SnO2-CuO p-NTs) by electrospinning and subsequent calcination step. The porous nanotubular structure is expected to mitigate the volume expansion of SnO2, while the as-formed Cu from CuO upon lithiation allows faster electron transport by improving the low conductivity of SnO2. With a synergistic effect of both Sn and Cu-based oxides, SnO2-CuO p-NTs deliver stable cycling performance (91.3% of capacity retention, ∼538 mAh g-1) even after 350 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1, along with enhanced rate capabilities compared with SnO2.

  18. Structural and chemical characterization of nanocrystalline and amorphous hydrogenated Si films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garozzo, Cristina; Puglisi, Rosaria Anna; Lombardo, Salvatore [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, Ottava Strada 5, Zona Industriale, 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    We present a study on the morphological evolution of hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different H dilutions in the regime close to the formation of the nanocrystalline (nc-Si) phase. The role of hydrogen in the transition from the amorphous to the crystalline phase is investigated by accurate structural and chemical characterisation, from the early stages of nucleation, where the nuclei present a size slightly larger than the critical nucleus, i.e. about 0.8 nm in radius, up to the formation of crystalline grains larger than 30 nm in radius. Hydrogen is found to have a crucial role in the transition from a-Si:H to nc-Si:H, since it forms an intermediate bond-centred Si-H-Si configuration, and when the H moves away from the bond-centred location, the strained Si-Si bonds either break or relax, undergoing local structural rearrangements closer to those of c-Si. During this phase transition a part of H bonds at grain boundaries. A correlation between the structural characteristics of the crystalline phase and the bonding mechanism of Si with H through multiple hydrides, such as Si-H{sup 2} and Si-H{sup 3} is found. Particularly the SiH{sup 3} are found to be directly correlated to the shape and the size of the nanocrystallites present in the films (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Low-temperature activation and deactivation of high-Curie-temperature ferromagnetism in a new diluted magnetic semiconductor: Ni2+-Doped SnO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Paul I; Radovanovic, Pavle V; Heald, Steve M; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2005-10-19

    We report the synthesis of colloidal Ni(2+)-doped SnO(2) (Ni(2+):SnO(2)) nanocrystals and their characterization by electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, X-ray absorption, magnetic susceptibility, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The Ni(2+) dopants are found to occupy pseudooctahedral Sn(4+) cation sites of rutile SnO(2) without local charge compensation. The paramagnetic nanocrystals exhibit robust high-Curie-temperature (T(C)) ferromagnetism (M(s)(300 K) = 0.8 mu(B)/Ni(2+), T(C) > 300 K) when spin-coated into films, attributed to the formation of interfacial fusion defects. Facile reversibility of the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition is also observed. This magnetic phase transition is studied as a function of temperature, time, and atmospheric composition, from which the barrier to ferromagnetic activation (E(a)) is estimated to be 1200 cm(-1). This energy is associated with ligand mobility on the surfaces of the Ni(2+):SnO(2) nanocrystals. The phase transition is reversed under air but not under N(2), from which the microscopic identity of the activating defect is proposed to be interfacial oxygen vacancies.

  20. Structural changes in nanocrystalline Bi2Te3/Bi2Se3 multilayer thin films caused by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Jun; Takashiri, Masayuki

    2017-06-01

    To assess the performance of thermoelectric devices with nanostructured materials at high operating temperatures, we investigated the effects of structural changes on the thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)/bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) multilayer thin films caused by thermal annealing. Multilayer thin films with 12 and 48 layers were fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. These thin films were then thermally annealed at temperatures ranging from 250 to 350 °C. As the annealing temperature increased, flake-like nanocrystals were grown in the 12- and 48-layer thin films. X-ray diffraction peaks from three alloys, which were determined to be Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and (Bi2Te3)0.4(Bi2Se3)0.6, were observed in the thin films. This indicates that Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 layers were not completely diffused mutually in this range of annealing temperature. The 12- and 48-layer thin films exhibited increases in both the electrical conductivity and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient at the annealing temperature of 300 °C. One possible explanation for this improvement is that the band structure is tuned by inducing strain during the variation of atomic composition in the multilayer thin films. As a result, the power factor was significantly improved by the thermal annealing. In particular, the maximum power factor reached 13.7 μW/(cm K2) in the 12-layer thin film at the annealing temperature of 350 °C. Therefore, we may conclude that if the multilayer thin films undergo structural changes at higher operating temperature (≈350 °C), thermoelectric devices composed of multilayer thin films are expected to exhibit suitable thermoelectric performance.

  1. Effect of Silicon Doping in Cvd Diamond Films from Microcrystalline to Nanocrystalline on WC-Co Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Cui, Yuxiao; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2013-12-01

    Si-doped diamond films with various Si concentrations are deposited on WC-Co substrates using HFCVD method, with the mixture of acetone, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and hydrogen as the reactant source. A variety of characterizations, including FE-SEM, AFM, Raman, XRD, surface profilometer and Rockwell indentation, are conducted to systematically investigate the influence of Si incorporation on diamond films. As the Si/C ratio from 0% to 5%, the grain size of as-deposited films decreases from 4 μm to about 50 nm, and the surface roughness reduces from Ra 290 nm to Ra 180 nm. Besides, the intensity ratio of I(111)/I(220) varies from 0.57 to 0, indicating the preferred orientation of the nanocrystalline structure in the 5% doped diamond films. The silicon doping is beneficial for the formation of non-diamond carbide phases in the films, according to the Raman spectra. Moreover, the film adhesion is also improved with the increase of Si/C ratio.

  2. Multiform structures of SnO2 nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Gong Jiangfeng; Huang Hongbo; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yu Zhongzhen; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Multiform SnO 2 microstructures were synthesized by a facile thermal evaporation of tin grains. The product was characterized with a variety of techniques to obtain the structural and optical information. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed a large percentage of acute angle zigzag nanobelts with perfectly periodic morphology. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the zigzag nanobelts were single crystalline and their zone axis was along the [010] crystal direction. The growth mechanism of zigzag nanobelts was proposed based on TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. The zigzag nanobelts were deduced to be formed by changing the growth direction from [101-bar] to [101] or vice versa. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy of the nanobelts showed a broad and strong luminescence emission centred at 550 nm

  3. Microemulsion mediated synthesis of triangular shape SnO2 nanoparticles: Luminescence application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luwang, Meitram Niraj

    2014-01-01

    The triangular prism shapes of SnO 2 ·xH 2 O nanoparticles are prepared using microemulsion route. The effect of variation of water pool value on the formation of SnO 2 nanoparticles was studied. There is the quantum size effect in absorption study of SnO 2 nanoparticles. With the increase of the water pool value, there is a decrease in the band edge absorption energy suggesting the weak quantum confinement effect (QCE) in SnO 2 nanoparticles. Quenching effect increases with increase of water to surfactant ratio in luminescence. There is no significant effect in lifetime values for SnO 2 nanoparticles in both microemulsion and powder form. SnO 2 nanoparticles show green emission due to oxygen vacancy. SnO 2 nanoparticles when doped with Eu 3+ ions give the enhanced luminescence of Eu 3+ due to the surface mediated energy transfer from SnO 2 to Eu 3+ ion.

  4. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 6 ... This paper reports a simple, inexpensive and fast method to prepare SnO2 nanowires. ... These SnO2 nanowires do not grow in one direction as those synthesized by other methods do, and are perfect single crystals without any dislocation or point defects ...

  5. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a simple, inexpensive and fast method to prepare SnO2 nanowires. A large amount of ultra-long high purity single-crystalline SnO2 nanowires with rutile structure, that is over hundreds of micrometers in length and 20–100 nm in diameter, have been synthesized through a one-step typical thermite ...

  6. Detection of DNA hybridization based on SnO2 nanomaterial enhanced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cuiping; Huang Jiarui; Ni Ning; Li Minqiang; Liu Jinhuai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, enhanced fluorescence emissions were firstly investigated based on SnO 2 nanomaterial, and its application in the detection of DNA hybridization was also demonstrated. The microarray of SnO 2 nanomaterial was fabricated by the vapour phase transport method catalyzed by patterned Au nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. A probe DNA was immobilized on the substrate with patterned SnO 2 nanomaterial, respectively, by covalent and non-covalent linking schemes. When a fluorophore labelled target DNA was hybridized with a probe DNA on the substrate, fluorescence emissions were only observed on the surface of SnO 2 nanomaterial, which indicated the property of enhancing fluorescence signals from the SnO 2 nanomaterial. By comparing the different fluorescence images from covalent and non-covalent linking schemes, the covalent method was confirmed to be more effective for immobilizing a probe DNA. With the combined use of SnO 2 nanomaterial and the covalent linking scheme, the target DNA could be detected at a very low concentration of 10 fM. And the stability of SnO 2 nanomaterial under the experimental conditions was also compared with silicon nanowires. The findings strongly suggested that SnO 2 nanomaterial could be extensively applied in detections of biological samples with enhancing fluorescence property and high stability

  7. Conventional wet impregnation versus microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO 2/CNT composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD studies revealed the formation of tetragonal phase of SnO 2. The microwave method produced CNTs heavily decorated with SnO 2 nanoparticles with average size 5 nm in a total reaction time of 10 min because of the rapid...

  8. Application of nano SnO 2 as a green and recyclable catalyst for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Nano-catalyst; benzoxazole; morphological characterization; nano SnO2. Abstract. Application of nano SnO2 as an efficient and benign catalyst has been explored for the synthesis of 2-aryl or alkylbenzoxazole derivatives via condensation reaction of aldehyde with 2-aminophenol. The reactions proceed under ...

  9. The Research of Micro-structure and Gas Sensitivity of SnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Song

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts Sol-gel method and solid state reaction to make SnO2 matrix material and Sb2O3 is used as zuji to make SnO2 gas sensor under different sintering temperature. XRD analysis, SEM analysis and response time restoration test of working voltage sensitivity are choose to research SnO2 gas sensor constituents and influence factor on sensing properties by processing. Experiment results show that when the SnO2 make by sol-get method and Sb2O3 take up 2 %, Polyvinyl alcohol as an organic binder, platinum as catalyst, SnO2 gas sensor can get optimal integral sensing properties.

  10. SnO2/PPy Screen-Printed Multilayer CO2 Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. WAGHULEY

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 plays a dominant role in solid state gas sensors and exhibit sensitivity towards oxidizing and reducing gases by a variation of its electrical properties. The electrical conducting polymer-polypyrrole (PPy has high anisotropy of electrical conduction and used as a gas sensor. SnO2/PPy multilayer, pure SnO2, pure PPy sensors were prepared by screen-printing method on Al2O3 layer followed by glass substrate. The sensors were used for different concentration (ppm of CO2 gas investigation at room temperature (303 K. The sensitivity of SnO2/PPy multilayer sensor was found to be higher, compared with pure SnO2 and pure PPy sensors. The multilayer sensor exhibited improved stability. The response and recovery time of multilayer sensor were found to be ~2 min and ~10 min respectively.

  11. Nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by the hot cathode direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition method with different compositions of CH4/Ar/H2 gas mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, L.; Peng, H.; Wang, W.; Chen, Y.; Lei, D.; Qi, W.; Liang, J.; Zhao, J.; Kong, X.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films with different grain sizes were synthesized on Si substrate by the hot cathode direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition method with different compositions of CH4/Ar/H2 gas mixture. The morphology and microstructure of the obtained products were characterized by

  12. Characterization of Nanocrystalline SiGe Thin Film Solar Cell with Double Graded-Dead Absorption Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium (nc-SiGe thin films were deposited by high-frequency (27.12 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD. The films were used in a silicon-based thin film solar cell with graded-dead absorption layer. The characterization of the nc-SiGe films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. The band gap of SiGe alloy can be adjusted between 0.8 and 1.7 eV by varying the gas ratio. For thin film solar cell application, using double graded-dead i-SiGe layers mainly leads to an increase in short-circuit current and therefore cell conversion efficiency. An initial conversion efficiency of 5.06% and the stabilized efficiency of 4.63% for an nc-SiGe solar cell were achieved.

  13. Role of grain size in superconducting boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films grown by CVD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, G.; Janssens, S.D.; Vanacken, J.; Timmermans, M.; Vacík, Jiří; Ataklti, G.W.; Decelle, W.; Gillijns, W.; Goderis, B.; Haenen, K.; Wagner, P.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 21 (2011), 214517/1-214517/10 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Nanocrystalline diamond * Superconducting transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  14. Superconductive B-doped nanocrystalline diamond thin films: Electrical transport and Raman spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nesládek, M.; Tromson, D.; Mer, Ch.; Bergonzo, P.; Hubík, Pavel; Mareš, Jiří J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 23 (2006), 232111/1-232111/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * superconductivity * magnetoresistance * Raman spectroscopy * Fano resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.977, year: 2006

  15. High-performing visible-blind photodetectors based on SnO2/CuO nanoheterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting; Hasan, Md Rezaul; Qiu, Botong; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Motayed, Abhishek; Thon, Susanna M.; Debnath, Ratan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the significant performance enhancement of SnO2 thin film ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) through incorporation of CuO/SnO2 p-n nanoscale heterojunctions. The nanoheterojunctions are self-assembled by sputtering Cu clusters that oxidize in ambient to form CuO. We attribute the performance improvements to enhanced UV absorption, demonstrated both experimentally and using optical simulations, and electron transfer facilitated by the nanoheterojunctions. The peak responsivity of the PDs at a bias of 0.2 V improved from 1.9 A/W in a SnO2-only device to 10.3 A/W after CuO deposition. The wavelength-dependent photocurrent-to-dark current ratio was estimated to be ~ 592 for the CuO/SnO2 PD at 290 nm. The morphology, distribution of nanoparticles, and optical properties of the CuO/SnO2 heterostructured thin films are also investigated. PMID:28729741

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of Dy3+ -doped nano-crystalline SnO2.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillai, SK

    2010-04-15

    Full Text Available − ions. The precipitate obtained s oven dried at 383K for 12h, powdered and calcined at 773K for 6h. A typical chemical co-precipitation techniquewas used to prepare the rare earth , 0.5, 1 and 2wt% designated as Dy-1, Dy-2, Dy-3 and Dy-4 respectively... distilled water along with centrifugation several times to eliminate Cl− , O3− and NH4 + ions (until the supernatant solution showed no precipitation for e tests for Cl− , NO3− and NH4+ ions). The precipitate obtained was oven dried at 3K for 12h...

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline SnO 2 powder at 100 C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sanjay R Dhage1 S P Gaikwad1 Violet Samuel2 V Ravi1. Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India; Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India ...

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystalline SnO2 powder at 100°C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, †Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India. MS received 9 January 2004. Abstract. A simple gel to crystal conversion ... opto-electronic devices and in catalysis (Romppainen et al. 1990; Coles et al 1991; Maekawa et al 1992). Tin dioxide is a n-type ...

  19. Synthesis and lithium storage properties of Zn, Co and Mg doped SnO2 Nano materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Palaniyandy, Nithyadharseni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that magnesium and cobalt doped SnO2 (Mg-SnO2 and Co-SnO2) nanostructures have profound influence on the discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) employing pure SnO2 and zinc doped SnO2 (Zn...

  20. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO2:Sb nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika; Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sb doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel process. • Photocatalytic degradation of phenol were studies using SnO 2 :Sb nanoparticles. • Under solar light phenol was degraded within 2 h. • Phenol mineralization and intermediates were investigated by using HPLC. - Abstract: Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO 2 . In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol–gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO 2 :Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO 2 nanoparticles with 10 mg L −1 phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  1. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4/SnO2/Graphene Adsorbent for Waste Water Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramarta, V.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Our previous study conducted the SnO2 and SnO2/graphene adsorption efficiency in Methylene Blue removal from aqueous solution, however, the difficulty of adsorbent separation from the methylene blue solution limits its efficiency. Therefore, in this work, SnO2 and SnO2/graphene was combined with Fe3O4 to improve the separation process and adsorption performance for removing the organic dyes. Fe3O4/SnO2/grapheme were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method. The graphene content was varied from 1, 3, and 5 weight percent (wt%). The crystalline phase and thermal stability of the samples were characterized by using X- ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The adsorption ability of the samples was investigated by using significant adsorption degradation of MB observed when the graphene in Fe3O4/SnO2 nanocomposite was added. The other parameters such as pH and initial concentration have also been investigated. The reusability was also investigated to study the stability of the samples. The fitting of equilibrium adsorption capacity result indicates that the adsorption mechanism of Fe3O4/SnO2 nanocomposite with graphene tends to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  2. Low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 nanocrystalline film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, G.; Lee, K.E.; Charboneau, C.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Gauvin, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2008-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the potential to render solar energy widely accessible. The deposition of titania nano-crystalline powders on a substrate is an important step in the manufacture of the DSSC. The deposition forms a mesoporous thin film that is followed by thermal treatment and sensitization. Usually titania films are deposited on glass by screen printing and then annealed at temperatures as high as 530 degrees C to provide a good electrical contact between the semiconductor particles and crystallization of the anatase phase. Several research and development efforts have focused on the deposition of titania film on flexible plastic substrates that will simplify the whole manufacturing process in terms of flexibility, weight, application and cost. Lower temperature processing is needed for the preparation of plastic-based titania film electrodes, but this has proven to be counterproductive when it comes to the cell's conversion efficiency. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the different coating and annealing techniques at low temperature as well as important processing factors for improvement. To date, these techniques include pressing, hydrothermal process, electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition, microwave or UV irradiation, and lift-off technique.

  3. Nanocrystalline ZnO film deposited by ultrasonic spray on textured silicon substrate as an anti-reflection coating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kechouane, M.; Kermadi, S.; Aitamar, F.

    2012-01-01

    A ZnO thin film was successfully synthesized on glass, flat surface and textured silicon substrates by chemical spray deposition. The textured silicon substrate was carried out using two solutions (NaOH/IPA and Na 2 CO 3 ). Textured with Na 2 CO 3 solution, the sample surface exhibits uniform pyramids with an average height of 5 μm. The properties and morphology of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the ZnO nanocrystalline film along the c-axis where the low value of the tensile strain 0.26% was obtained. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology. The morphology of the ZnO layers depends dramatically on the substrate used and follows the contours of the pyramids on the substrate surface. The average reflectance of the textured surface was found to be around 13% and it decreases dramatically to 2.57% after deposition of a ZnO antireflection coating. FT-IR peaks arising from the bonding between Zn-O are clearly represented using a silicon textured surface. A very intense photoluminescence (PL) emission peak is observed for ZnO/textured Si, revealing the good quality of the layer. The PL peak at 380.5 nm (UV emission) and the high-intensity PL peak at 427.5 nm are observed and a high luminescence occurs when using a textured Si substrate.

  4. UV-laser treatment of nanodiamond seeds - a valuable tool for modification of nanocrystalline diamond films properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlček, J; Fitl, P; Vrňata, M; Fekete, L; Taylor, A; Fendrych, F

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to study the UV-laser treatment of precursor (i.e. nanodiamond (ND) seeds on silicon substrates) and its influence on the properties of grown nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at the fourth harmonic frequency (laser fluence E L = 250 mJ cm -2 , pulse duration 5 ns) was used as a source, equipped with an optical system for focusing laser beam onto the sample, allowing exposure of a local spot and horizontal patterning. The variable parameters were: number of pulses (from 5 to 400) and the working atmosphere (He, Ar and O 2 ). Ablation and/or graphitization of seeded nanodiamond particles were observed. Further the microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition was employed to grow NCD films on exposed and non-exposed areas of silicon substrates. The size, shape and density distribution of laser-treated nanodiamond seeds were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and their chemical composition by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The resulting NCD films (uniform thickness of 400 nm) were characterized by: Raman spectroscopy to analyse occurrence of graphitic phase, and AFM to observe morphology and surface roughness. The highest RMS roughness (∼85 nm) was achieved when treating the precursor in He atmosphere. Horizontal microstructures of diamond films were fabricated.

  5. Sn powder as reducing agents and SnO2 precursors for the synthesis of SnO2-reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxi; Zhang, Congcong; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Yu; Li, Xichuan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Xia, Fengling; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

    2013-12-26

    A facile approach to prepare SnO2/rGO (reduced graphene oxide) hybrid nanoparticles by a direct redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and tin powder was developed. Since no acid was used, it is an environmentally friendly green method. The SnO2/rGO hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The microstructure of the SnO2/rGO was observed with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The tin powder efficiently reduced GO to rGO, and the Sn was transformed to SnO2 nanoparticles (∼45 nm) that were evenly distributed on the rGO sheets. The SnO2/rGO hybrid nanoparticles were then coated on an interdigital electrode to fabricate a humidity sensor, which have an especially good linear impedance response from 11% to 85% relative humidity.

  6. Application of sol-gel process on the elaboration of SnO2 based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescatan, R.T.; Silva, D.V. da; Hiratsuka, R.S.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The electrical, optical and chemical peculiar properties of SnO 2 confers it-self some potential application. The densification difficulty during sintering of SnO 2 compromises its elaboration by ceramic conventional process. In this work the preparation of SnO 2 ceramics by sol-gel process was investigated. Some parameters envolved on the colloidal stability, sol-gel transition and drying process were analysed. The obtained materials were characterized by rheological, X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and pores size distribution measurements. The results show that a considerable densification during sintering at 400 and 600 0 C was obtained. (author) [pt

  7. Structural, optical and photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    formity, nontoxicity, good electrical, low resistivity, sta- bility to heat treatment, mechanical hardness, piezoelectric behaviour and its low cost. SnO2 thin films have vast applications as window layers, heat reflectors in solar cells, flat panel display, electro-chromic devices, LEDs, liquid crystal displays, invisible security circuits, ...

  8. Diamond-like carbon and nanocrystalline diamond film surfaces sputtered by argon cluster ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Houdková, Jana; Artemenko, Anna; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, Sep (2016), s. 37-41 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond-like carbon * nanocrystalline diamond * argon cluster ion beam * XPS * C sp2 * C sp3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2016

  9. Mask-free surface structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond films by reactive ion plasma etching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Hruška, Karel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 7 (2014), s. 780-784 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA MPO FR-TI2/736 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : micro- and nanocrystalline diamond * capacitively coupled plasma * reactive ion etching * nanostructuring * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Ion-implantation of erbium into the nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Babchenko, Oleg; Cajzl, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Prajzler, Václav; Remeš, Zdeněk; Varga, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, 7-8 (2016), s. 679-684 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * optical waveguides * erbium * luminescence * ion implantation * CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2016

  11. Ultrathin nanocrystalline diamond films with silicon vacancy color centers via seeding by 2 nm detonation nanodiamonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, Štěpán; Varga, Marián; Štenclová, Pavla; Ondič, Lukáš; Ledinský, Martin; Pangrác, Jiří; Vaňek, O.; Lipov, J.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 44 (2017), s. 38842-38853 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15003; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detonation nanodiamond * surface chemistry * hydrogenation * zeta potential * nucleation density * nanocrystalline diamond * SiV center Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  12. Co+ -ion implantation induced doping of nanocrystalline CdS thin films: structural, optical, and vibrational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, S.; Sarangi, S.N.; Majumder, S.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, A.; Sathyamoorthy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co and Ni) doped CdS nanostructures and nanocrystalline thin films have attracted much attention due to their anticipated applications in magneto-optical, non-volatile memory and future spintronics devices. Introduction of impurities in substitutional positions is highly desirable for such applications. Ion implantation is known to provide many advantages over conventional methods for efficient doping and possibility of its seamless integration with device processing steps. It is not governed by equilibrium thermodynamics and offers the advantages of high spatial selectivity and to overcome the solubility limits. In this communication, we report on modifications of structural morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of 90 keV Co + -ion implanted CdS thin films grown by thermal evaporation. Co + -ion implantation was performed in the fluence range of 0.1-3.6x10 16 ions cm -2 These fluences correspond to Co concentration in the range of 0.34-10.8 at % at the peak position of profile. Implantation was done at an elevated temperature of 573 K in order to avoid amorphization and to enhance the solubility of Co ions in the CdS lattice. Films were characterized by glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Implantation does not lead to any secondary phase formation either in the form of impurity or the metallic clusters. However, implantation improves the crystalline quality of the samples and leads to supersaturation of Co ions in the CdS lattice. Thus, nanocrystalline CdS thin films can be considered as a good radiation- resistant material, which can be employed for prolonged use in solar cells for space applications. The optical band gap is found to decrease systematically with increasing ion fluence from 2.39 to 2.28 eV. Implantation leads to agglomeration of grains and a systematic increase in the surface roughness. Both GAXRD and micro

  13. Nanoscaled tin dioxide films processed from organotin-based hybrid materials: an organometallic route toward metal oxide gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Laetitia; Babot, Odile; Saadaoui, Hassan; Fuess, Hartmut; Brötz, Joachim; Gurlo, Aleksander; Arveux, Emmanuel; Klein, Andreas; Toupance, Thierry

    2012-10-01

    Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO2) ultra-thin films were obtained employing a straightforward solution-based route that involves the calcination of bridged polystannoxane films processed by the sol-gel process from bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)alkylene and -arylene precursors. These films have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Annealing at a high temperature gave 30-35 nm thick cassiterite SnO2 films with a mean crystallite size ranging from 4 to 7 nm depending on the nature of the organic linker in the distannylated compound used as a precursor. In the presence of H2 and CO gases, these layers led to highly sensitive, reversible and reproducible responses. The sensing properties were discussed in regard to the crystallinity and porosity of the sensing body that can be tuned by the nature of the precursor employed. Organometallic chemistry combined with the sol-gel process therefore offers new possibilities toward metal oxide nanostructures for the reproducible and sensitive detection of combustible and toxic gases.Nanocrystalline tin dioxide (SnO2) ultra-thin films were obtained employing a straightforward solution-based route that involves the calcination of bridged polystannoxane films processed by the sol-gel process from bis(triprop-1-ynylstannyl)alkylene and -arylene precursors. These films have been thoroughly characterized by FTIR, contact angle measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force (AFM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopies. Annealing at a high temperature gave 30-35 nm thick cassiterite SnO2 films with a mean crystallite size ranging from 4 to 7 nm depending on the nature of the organic linker in the distannylated compound used as a precursor. In the presence of H2 and CO gases, these layers led to highly sensitive, reversible and reproducible

  14. Characteristic corrosion resistance of nanocrystalline TiN films prepared by high density plasma reactive magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Kang, C G; Kim, Y T; Cheong, W S; Song, P K

    2013-07-01

    Nanocytalline TiN films were deposited on non-alkali glass and Al substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS) with an electromagnetic field system (EMF). The microstructure and corrosion resistance of the TiN-coated Al substrates were estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. All the TiN films shows that they have a (111) preferred orientation at room temperature. TiN films deposited on Al substrate using only DCMS 400 W showed a sheet resistance of 3.22 x 10-1 omega/symbol see texts (resistivity, 3.22 x 10-5 omegacm). On the other hand, a relatively low sheet resistance of 1.91 x 10-1 omega/symbol see text (1.91 x 10-5 omegacm) was obtained for the dense nanocrystalline TiN film deposited on Al substrate using DCMS 375 W+ EMF 25 W, indicating that the introduction of an EMF system enhanced the electrical properties of the TiN film. TiN films deposited on Al substrate at 400 degreesC had a (200) preferred orientation with the lowest sheet resistance of 1.28x10-1 omega/symbol see texts (1.28 x 10-5 omegacm) which was attributed to reduced nano size defects and an improvement of the crystallinity. Potentiostatic and Potentiodynamic tests with a TiN-coated Al showed good corrosion resistance (l/corr, = 2.03 microA/cm2, Ecorr = -348 mV) compared to the uncoated Al substrate (/corr = 4.45 microA/cm2, Ecorr = -650 mV). Furthermore, EMF system showed that corrosion resistance of the TiN film also was enhanced compared to DCMS only. For the TiN film deposited on Al substrate at 400 degreesC, corrosion current and potential was 0.63 micro/cm2 and -1.5 mV, respectively. This improved corrosion resistance of the TiN film could be attributed to the densification of the film caused by enhancement of nitrification with increasing high reactive nitrogen radicals.

  15. Growth of boron doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films by Hot Wire-CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawbake, Amit [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Mayabadi, Azam; Waykar, Ravindra; Kulkarni, Rupali; Jadhavar, Ashok [School of Energy Studies, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411 007 (India); Waman, Vaishali [Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Shivajinagar, Pune 411 005 (India); Parmar, Jayesh [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Bhattacharyya, Somnath [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Ma, Yuan‐Ron [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Devan, Rupesh; Pathan, Habib [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Jadkar, Sandesh, E-mail: sandesh@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Boron doped nc-3C-SiC films prepared by HW-CVD using SiH{sub 4}/CH{sub 4}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6}. • 3C-Si-C films have preferred orientation in (1 1 1) direction. • Introduction of boron into SiC matrix retard the crystallanity in the film structure. • Film large number of SiC nanocrystallites embedded in the a-Si matrix. • Band gap values, E{sub Tauc} and E{sub 04} (E{sub 04} > E{sub Tauc}) decreases with increase in B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate. - Abstract: Boron doped nanocrystalline cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) films have been prepared by HW-CVD using silane (SiH{sub 4})/methane (CH{sub 4})/diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) gas mixture. The influence of boron doping on structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties have been investigated. The formation of 3C-SiC films have been confirmed by low angle XRD, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis whereas effective boron doping in nc-3C-SiC have been confirmed by conductivity, charge carrier activation energy, and Hall measurements. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM analysis revealed that introduction of boron into the SiC matrix retards the crystallanity in the film structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and non contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) results signify that 3C-SiC film contain well resolved, large number of silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystallites embedded in the a-Si matrix having rms surface roughness ∼1.64 nm. Hydrogen content in doped films are found smaller than that of un-doped films. Optical band gap values, E{sub Tauc} and E{sub 04} decreases with increase in B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate.

  16. High-Performance Gas Sensing of CO:  Comparative Tests for Semiconducting (SnO(2)-Based) and for Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsan, N; Stetter, J R; Findlay, M; Göpel, W

    1999-07-01

    A comparison of the stability and sensitivity for two different sensor types (semiconductor SnO(2) devices, amperometric electrochemical sensors) has been performed. Sensitivities and drifts in the signal and in the background for various concentrations of CO have been studied for thick-film SnO(2) sensors (Pt and Pd doped) for a period in excess of 8 months. Similar performance data have been recorded for commercial amperometric sensors for a period in excess of 4 years. The two different sensor types investigated here were also compared to the well-known commercial Figaro TGS 822 sensor at similar concentrations. An objective approach for comparing different types of sensors has been developed using the "analytical sensitivity".

  17. Propriedades de transporte em óxidos condutores transparentes (TCOs): In2O3, SnO2 e SnO2:F

    OpenAIRE

    Cleber Alexandre de Amorim

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram estudadas algumas das características estruturais e de transporte em oxidos metalicos nanoestruturados sintetizados pelo mecanismo vapor-sólido (VS) com vistas a aplicaçao em dispositivos de alto desempenho. As nanoestruturas usadas [In2Ü3, SnO2 and SnO2 dopado com flúor (FTO)] foram caracterizadas quanto às suas propriedades estruturais por difracao de raios-X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e espectroscopia de dispersao de energia de raios-X (EDX), comprovand...

  18. A novel snowflake-like SnO2 hierarchical architecture with superior gas sensing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqiong

    2018-02-01

    Snowflake-like SnO2 hierarchical architecture has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and followed by calcination. The SnO2 hierarchical structures are assembled with thin nanoflakes blocks, which look like snowflake shape. A possible mechanism for the formation of the SnO2 hierarchical structures is speculated. Moreover, gas sensing tests show that the sensor based on snowflake-like SnO2 architectures exhibited excellent gas sensing properties. The enhancement may be attributed to its unique structures, in which the porous feature on the snowflake surface could further increase the active surface area of the materials and provide facile pathways for the target gas.

  19. Gas-sensing enhancement methods for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2 based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yalei; Zhang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2017-08-16

    The gas sensing enhancement methods for hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensors could be performed from three areas: structural improvement, composition optimization and processing improvement, which were aimed to improve the performance of the gas sensors. There was 0-D, 1-D and 3-D structures reported in literatures. Controllable synthesis of different structures was deployed to increase specific surface area. Change of composition would intensively tailor the SnO2 structure, which affected the gas sensing performance. Besides, doping and compounding methods were adopted to promote gas-sensing performance by adjusting surface condition of SnO2 crystal and constructing heterojunction. As for processing area, it was very important to find the optimal reaction time and temperature. In this paper, gas-solid reaction rate constant was proposed to evaluate gas-sensing property and find the excellent hydrothermal synthesized SnO2-based gas sensor at present. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. An easy two-step microwave assisted synthesis of SnO2/CNT hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motshekga, SC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2) - decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) heterostructures were synthesized by microwave assisted wet impregnation method. CNTs of three different aspect ratios were compared. The hybrid samples were characterized by powder X...

  1. Enhanced removal of organic dyes from porous channel-like SnO2 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haitao; Guo, Anqi; Huang, Shuhui; Zhu, Jun; Cheng, Liwen

    2017-05-01

    Porous SnO2 nanostructures with nanochannels are synthesized through anodic oxidation of tin foils in oxalic acid solution. The effect of varying the applied potentials on the morphologies and photocatalytic activities of the porous channel-like SnO2 are investigated. The enhancement of photocatalytic efficiency is exhibited with increasing the pore diameter and the complete removal of MO molecules is possible in 120 min under the irradiation. Photocatalytic efficiency of the porous channel-like SnO2 nanostructure for the photo-reduction of MO pollutants is much faster than that of simple SnO2 nanoparticles, which mainly attribute to the efficient anti-recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs for the introducing of porous nanochannel-like nanostructures. The structure would significantly extend its application not only in waste water remediation but also in other fields, such as supercapacitors and gas sensors.

  2. SnO2 quantum dots with rapid butane detection at lower ppm-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pan; Dong, Chengjun; Jiang, Ming; Shen, Yuanyuan; Tao, You; Wang, Yude

    2018-04-01

    SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) were successfully synthesized by a facile approach employing benzyl alcohol and ammonium hydroxide at lower temperature of 130 °C. It is revealed that the SnO2 QDs is about 3 nm in size to form clusters. The gas sensor based on SnO2 QDs shows a high potential for detecting low-ppm-level butane at 400 °C, exhibiting a high sensitivity, short response and rapid recovery time, and effective selectivity. The sensing mechanism is understood in terms of adsorbed oxygen species. Significantly, the excellent sensing performance is attributed to the smaller size of SnO2 and larger surface area (204.85 m2/g).

  3. Silicon surface passivation by PEDOT: PSS functionalized by SnO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecedor, M.; Karazhanov, S. Zh; Vásquez, G. C.; Haug, H.; Maestre, D.; Cremades, A.; Taeño, M.; Ramírez-Castellanos, J.; González-Calbet, J. M.; Piqueras, J.; You, C. C.; Marstein, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of silicon surface passivation based on the use of spin-coated hybrid composite layers. We investigate both undoped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), as well as PEDOT:PSS functionalized with semiconducting oxide nanomaterials (TiO2 and SnO2). The hybrid compound was deposited at room temperature by spin coating—a potentially lower cost, lower processing time and higher throughput alternative compared with the commonly used vacuum-based techniques. Photoluminescence imaging was used to characterize the electronic properties of the Si/PEDOT:PSS interface. Good surface passivation was achieved by PEDOT:PSS functionalized by semiconducting oxides. We show that control of the concentration of semiconducting oxide nanoparticles in the polymer is crucial in determining the passivation performance. A charge carrier lifetime of about 275 μs has been achieved when using SnO2 nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.5 wt.% as a filler in the composite film. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive x-ray in an SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy have been used for the morphological, chemical and structural characterization. Finally, a simple model of a photovoltaic device based on PEDOT:PSS functionalized with semiconducting oxide nanoparticles has been fabricated and electrically characterized.

  4. Modified Graphene with SnO2 Nanocomposites Using Thermal Decomposition Method and Sensing Behavior Towards NO2 Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikram

    2017-11-01

    This is the first time the graphene sample has been functionalized with metal oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition process. In this paper, graphene has been synthesized from natural resources using flower petals as carbon feedstock by thermal exfoliation technique at temperatures 1300 °C and the synthesis of graphene-tin oxide (SnO2) nanocomposites has been done using chemical treatment followed by thermal decomposition method. The response versus time condition has been investigated for the fabricated sample. The electrical resistance w.r.t. temperature could be explained by the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs and carrier scattering by acoustic phonons. The structural, morphological and chemical composition studies of the nanocomposites were carried out by the Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The evidence of good-quality graphene is obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. The SEM and HRTEM images have shown that SnO2 nanoparticles are well distributed in the multilayer electron transparent graphene films. The sensor response was found to lie between 8.25 and 9.36% at 500 ppm of nitrogen dioxide, and also resistance recovered quickly without any application of heat. We believe such chemical treatment of graphene could potentially be used to manufacture a new generation of low-power nano-NO2 sensors.

  5. Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2-Core/ZnO-Shell Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharsika

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.

  6. Ab initio study of thermoelectric properties of doped SnO2 superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, P.D.; Silva, D.E.S.; Castro, N.S.; Ferreira, C.R.; Pinto, F.G.; Tronto, J.; Scolfaro, L.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxides, such as tin dioxide (SnO 2 ), have recently shown to be promising materials for thermoelectric applications. In this work we studied the thermoelectric properties of Fe-, Sb- and Zn-uniformly doping and co-doping SnO 2 , as well as of Sb and Zn planar (or delta)-doped layers in SnO 2 forming oxide superlattices (SLs). Based on the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations (BTE) in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) are obtained for these systems, and are compared with available experimental data. The delta doping approach introduces a remarkable modification in the electronic structure of tin dioxide, when compared with the uniform doping, and colossal values for ZT are predicted for the delta-doped oxide SLs. This result is a consequence of the two-dimensional electronic confinement and the strong anisotropy introduced by the doped planes. In comparison with the uniformly doped systems, our predictions reveal a promising use of delta-doped SnO 2 SLs for enhanced S and ZT, which emerge as potential candidates for thermoelectric applications. - Graphical abstract: Band structure and Figure of merit for SnO2:Sb superlattice along Z direction, P. D. Borges, D. E. S. Silva, N. S. Castro, C. R. Ferreira, F. G. Pinto, J. Tronto and L. Scolfaro, Ab initio study of thermoelectric properties of doped SnO2 superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of SnO 2 -based alloys and superlattices. • High figure of merit is predicted for planar-doped SnO 2 superlattices. • Nanotechnology has an important role for the development of thermoelectric devices.

  7. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of different SnO2 microspheres on graphene oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jia; Xue, Shaolin; Xie, Pei; Zou, Rujia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different SnO 2 microspheres were grown on GOs by hydrothermal method. • The morphology was influenced by volume ratio of ethanol and concentrations of precursor. • The shape of SnO 2 microspheres looks like dandelion. • The photocatalytic property is strongly influenced by the SnO 2 morphology on GOs. - Abstract: Different SnO 2 microspheres like dandelions, silkworm cocoons and urchins have been synthesized on graphene oxide sheets (GOs) by hydrothermal method at 190 °C for 24 h. The morphologies, structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of the as-grown SnO 2 microspheres on GOs (SMGs) were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectra and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) techniques. The results of XRD revealed that the as-grown SnO 2 microspheres have tetragonal rutile structure. The results of Raman spectra, EDS, XRD, XPS and SEM showed that the SnO 2 microspheres were grown on GOs and the average diameter of dandelion-like microsphere was about 1.5 μm. The formation mechanism of SnO 2 microspheres grown on GOs was discussed. The photocatalytic activity of the SMGs composites was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic results showed that the dandelion-like SMGs exhibited a much better photocatalytic activity than those of smooth and rough SMGs.

  8. Tunable SnO2 Nanoribbon by Electric Fields and Hydrogen Passivation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xin-Lian; Huang, Bao-Jun; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Under external transverse electronic fields and hydrogen passivation, the electronic structure and band gap of tin dioxide nanoribbons (SnO2NRs) with both zigzag and armchair shaped edges are studied by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential with the density function theory (DFT) framework. The results showed that the electronic structures of zigzag and armchair edge SnO2NRs exhibit an indirect semiconducting nature and the band gaps demonstrate a remarkable reduc...

  9. Atomic layer deposited nanocrystalline tungsten carbides thin films as a metal gate and diffusion barrier for Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Beom; Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Won Seok [UP Chemical 576, Chilgoedong, Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do 459-050 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Do-Joong [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Tungsten carbides (WC{sub x}) thin films were deposited on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a fluorine- and nitrogen-free W metallorganic precursor, tungsten tris(3-hexyne) carbonyl [W(CO)(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}C ≡ CCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}], and N{sub 2} + H{sub 2} plasma as the reactant at deposition temperatures between 150 and 350 °C. The present ALD-WC{sub x} system showed an ALD temperature window between 200 and 250 °C, where the growth rate was independent of the deposition temperature. Typical ALD characteristics, such as self-limited film growth and a linear dependency of the film grown on the number of ALD cycles, were observed, with a growth rate of 0.052 nm/cycle at a deposition temperature of 250 °C. The ALD-WC{sub x} films formed a nanocrystalline structure with grains, ∼2 nm in size, which consisted of hexagonal W{sub 2}C, WC, and nonstoichiometric cubic β-WC{sub 1−x} phase. Under typical deposition conditions at 250 °C, an ALD-WC{sub x} film with a resistivity of ∼510 μΩ cm was deposited and the resistivity of the ALD-WC{sub x} film could be reduced even further to ∼285 μΩ cm by further optimizing the reactant pulsing conditions, such as the plasma power. The step coverage of ALD-WC{sub x} film was ∼80% on very small sized and dual trenched structures (bottom width of 15 nm and aspect ratio of ∼6.3). From ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, the work function of the ALD-WC{sub x} film was determined to be 4.63 eV. Finally, the ultrathin (∼5 nm) ALD-WC{sub x} film blocked the diffusion of Cu, even up to 600 °C, which makes it a promising a diffusion barrier material for Cu interconnects.

  10. Structural and optical properties of Fe-doped SnO2 quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala Rao, G.; Babu, B.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Shim, Jaesool; Venkata Reddy, Ch

    2017-12-01

    Fe-doped SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a time-efficient solution combustion synthesis with various concentration of Fe ions. The structural and optical properties are keenly investigated through various characterization techniques like XRD, HR-TEM, XPS, UV–vis, EPR, and FT-IR spectroscopies. The structural description gives an information that the SnO2 QDs are having a particle size below 5 nm with the tetragonal crystal structure. The Fe doping increases the absorption capability of SnO2 QDs via tuning of the bandgap. The bandgap of SnO2 QDs is decreased with increasing the content of Fe. The XPS study clearly confirms the existence of Fe in 3+  state as octahedral sites in SnO2 QDs which was further strongly supported by EPR. The FT-IR analysis gives the information of Fe doping effect on vibrational modes of SnO2.

  11. Adjusting the Chemical Bonding of SnO2@CNT Composite for Enhanced Conversion Reaction Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yayi; Huang, Jianfeng; Qi, Hui; Cao, Liyun; Yang, Jun; Xi, Qiao; Luo, Xiaomin; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Li, Jiayin

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with excellent electron conductivity are widely used to improve the electrochemical performance of the SnO 2 anode. However, the chemical bonding between SnO 2 and CNTs is not clearly elucidated despite it may affect the lithiation/delithiation behavior greatly. In this work, an SnO 2 @CNT composite with SnC and SnOC bonds as a linkage bridge is reported and the influence of the SnC and SnOC bonds on the lithium storage properties is revealed. It is found that the SnC bond can act as an ultrafast electron transfer path, facilitating the reversible conversion reaction between Sn and Li 2 O to form SnO 2 . Therefore, the SnO 2 @CNT composite with more SnC bond shows high reversible capacity and nearly half capacity contributes from conversion reaction. It is opposite for the SnO 2 @CNT composite with more SnOC bond that the electrons cannot be transferred directly to CNTs, resulting in depressed conversion reaction kinetics. Consequently, this work can provide new insight for exploration and design of metal oxide/carbon composite anode materials in lithium-ion battery. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Tree-like SnO2 nanowires and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Tao; Chen Qiyuan; Hu Huiping; Chen Ying

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Tree-like SnO 2 nanowires can be grown as low as 1100 deg. C by a vapour-solid process using a milled SnO 2 powder as the evaporation source. → FT-IR and PL measurements have shown that the tree-like nanostructures lead to superb physical properties. → The PL spectrum of such tree-like nanowires exhibits a strong PL peak at 548 nm. - Abstract: Tree-like SnO 2 nanowires have been grown by a vapor-solid process using a milled SnO 2 powder as the evaporation source. Phase, structural evolution and chemical composition were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The process yields a large proportion of ultra-long rutile nanowires of 50-150 nm diameter and lengths up to several tens of micrometers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that the SnO 2 nanowires are single crystals in the (1 0 1) growth direction with scattered smaller crystals or nanowires as the tree branches. The SnO 2 nanostructures were also examined using Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. A strong emission band centered at 548 nm dominated the PL spectrum of the tree-like nanowires.

  13. Deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films on temperature sensitive substrates for infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babchenko, Oleg; Remeš, Zdeněk; Ižák, Tibor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 248, č. 11 (2011), s. 2736-2739 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : focused plasma * glass substrate * infrared spectroscopy * nanocrystalline diamond * surface wave plasma Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2011

  14. Grazing angle reflectance spectroscopy of organic monolayers on nanocrystalline diamond films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Kozak, Halyna; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocký, Štěpán; Ukraintsev, Egor; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 7 (2011), s. 882-885 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0794; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00100902; GA ČR GAP204/10/0212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * infrared spectroscopy * functionalization * grazing angle * brewster angle Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2011

  15. Guided assembly of nanoparticles on electrostatically charged nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verveniotis, Elisseos; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, Feb. (2011), 144/1-144/6 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * oxygen-terminated diamond * hydrogen-terminated diamond * electrostatic charging * self-assembly process Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2011

  16. Function of thin film nanocrystalline diamond-protein SGFET independent of grain size

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátká, Marie; Kromka, Alexander; Ukraintsev, Egor; Ledinský, Martin; Brož, A.; Kalbáčová, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav

    166-167, May (2012), s. 239-245 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA AV ČR KAN400100701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) * fetal bovine serum * osteoblastic cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  17. Grain size and lattice parameter's influence on band gap of SnS thin nano-crystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Yashika [Department of Electronics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi-South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India); Arun, P., E-mail: arunp92@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Electronics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Naudi, A.A.; Walz, M.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, 3101 Oro Verde (Argentina); Albanesi, E.A. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, 3101 Oro Verde (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Guemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2016-08-01

    Tin sulphide nano-crystalline thin films were fabricated on glass and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) substrates by thermal evaporation method. The crystal structure orientation of the films was found to be dependent on the substrate. Residual stress existed in the films due to these orientations. This stress led to variation in lattice parameter. The nano-crystalline grain size was also found to vary with film thickness. A plot of band-gap with grain size or with lattice parameter showed the existence of a family of curves. This implied that band-gap of SnS films in the preview of the present study depends on two parameters, lattice parameter and grain size. The band-gap relation with grain size is well known in the nano regime. Experimental data fitted well with this relation for the given lattice constants. The manuscript uses theoretical structure calculations for different lattice constants and shows that the experimental data follows the trend. Thus, confirming that the band gap has a two variable dependency. - Highlights: • Tin sulphide films are grown on glass and ITO substrates. • Both substrates give differently oriented films. • The band-gap is found to depend on grain size and lattice parameter. • Using data from literature, E{sub g} is shown to be two parameter function. • Theoretical structure calculations are used to verify results.

  18. Nano-crystalline Ag–PbTe thermoelectric thin films by a multi-target PLD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelli, E., E-mail: emilia.cappelli@ism.cnr.it [CNR-ISM, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Bellucci, A. [CNR-ISM, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Dip. Fisica, Un. Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Medici, L. [CNR-IMAA, Tito Scalo, 85050 Potenza (Italy); Mezzi, A.; Kaciulis, S. [CNR-ISMN, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy); Fumagalli, F.; Di Fonzo, F. [Center Nano Science Technology @Polimi, I.I.T., Via Pascoli 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Trucchi, D.M. [CNR-ISM, Montelibretti, Via Salaria Km 29.3, P.O.B. 10, 00016 Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric PbTe thin films, with increasing Ag percentage, were deposited by PLD. • Almost stoichiometric PbTe (Ag doped) films were grown, as verified by XPS analysis. • GI-XRD established the formation of cubic PbTe, with nano-metric structure (∼35 nm). • Surface resistivity shows an increase in conductivity, with increasing Ag doping. • From Seebeck values and XPS depth analysis, 10% Ag seems to be the solubility limit. - Abstract: It has been evaluated the ability of ArF pulsed laser ablation to grow nano-crystalline thin films of high temperature PbTe thermoelectric material, and to obtain a uniform and controlled Ag blending, through the entire thickness of the film, using a multi-target system in vacuum. The substrate used was a mirror polished technical alumina slab. The increasing atomic percentage of Ag effect on physical–chemical and electronic properties was evaluated in the range 300–575 K. The stoichiometry and the distribution of the Ag component, over the whole thickness of the samples deposited, have been studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and corresponding depth profiles. The crystallographic structure of the film was analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) system. Scherrer analysis for crystallite size shows the presence of nano-structures, of the order of 30–35 nm. Electrical resistivity of the samples, studied by the four point probe method, as a function of increasing Ag content, shows a typical semi-conductor behavior. From conductivity values, carrier concentration and Seebeck parameter determination, the power factor of deposited films was calculated. Both XPS, Hall mobility and Seebeck analysis seem to indicate a limit value to the Ag solubility of the order of 5%, for thin films of ∼200 nm thickness, deposited at 350 °C. These data resulted to be comparable to theoretical evaluation for thin films but order of magnitude lower than the corresponding bulk materials.

  19. Multifunctional alumina/titania hybrid blocking layer modified nanocrystalline titania films as efficient photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlei; Yu, Zhenhua; Bu, Chenghao; Liu, Pei; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Chang; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Sun, Weiwei; Zhan, Kan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2015-05-01

    A facile way of fabricating efficient blocking layer on mesoporous TiO2 film of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is demonstrated here for the first time. Al2O3 and TiO2 are combined together to form a blocking layer. A simple spin coating technique is employed which is a versatile and low-cost method over the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Multifunctional alumina/titania (Al2O3/TiO2) hybrid overlayer is prepared on traditional TiO2 nanocrystalline thin film surface, through sequential deposition of AlCl3·6H2O and TiCl4 precursor solutions followed by sintering at 500 °C for 30 min. Al2O3 effectively plays its role in retarding interfacial recombination of electrons and improving open circuit potential (Voc), while the tiny TiO2 clusters synthesized from TiCl4 treatment act as electron transporting channels to facilitate electron diffusion which leads to enhanced photocurrent (Jsc). Compared to the device without blocking layer, the DSSCs assembled with Al2O3/TiO2 hybrid blocking layer showed improvement in Jsc (from 13.09 mA/cm2 to 16.90 mA/cm2) as well as in Voc (from 0.72 V to 0.73 V) resulting a much better conversion efficiency of 8.60%.

  20. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Nanocomposites (SnO2x(In2O31-x (x = 0 – 1 for Gas Sensors and Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav REMBEZA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on synthesis of thin film (< 1 μm nanocomposites (SnO2x(In2O31-x in the whole range of x = (0 – 1 mass. % are presented. Film nanocomposites were prepared by high-frequency magnetron sputtering of metal oxide targets in the controlled ambient Ar+O2. Films were deposited on the hot substrate (400 0C and investigated by X-ray phase analysis, atomic-force microscopy, optical and electrical methods. Influence of synthesis regimes and film composition on the grain size of crystals, the band-gap width, the transparency in the visible range of light, concentration and mobility of free charge carriers were determined. It was shown that films with composition (SnO2x(In2O31-x x = 0.9 are perspective for using as gas sensors, films of the same composition but with x = 0.1 can be applied as transparent current conducting electrodes for solar cells.

  1. Nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O thin film based transparent Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayen, R.N. [Department of Physics, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073 (India); Paul, R., E-mail: rajiv2008juniv@gmail.com [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Highly transparent and nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.008, 0.017, 0.046) thin films have been synthesized by sol–gel spin coating technique on glass and SnO{sub 2} coated glass substrates. The microstructural and compositional analyses confirm the incorporation of Mn in hexagonal ZnO lattice without affecting its structure. Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O thin films are highly transparent in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. The optical band gap, estimated from the transmittance spectra, decreases from 3.32 to 3.21 eV with the increase in Mn content in ZnO films. Photoluminescence study reveals that Mn introduces more defects in ZnO suppressing the excitonic recombination by the defect center (oxygen vacancy) induced recombination. The non-linear current–voltage characteristics at room temperature reveal Schottky barrier junction formation of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O films with Ag. The diode parameters, extracted from the thermionic emission model, vary with Mn incorporation in ZnO. Both the ideality factor and potential barrier height decrease from 6.5 and 0.63 for pure ZnO to 4.7 and 0.54 respectively, for Zn{sub 0.954}Mn{sub 0.046}O film. The series resistance that arises from the defect distributions at the interface and effects the charge transport through the junction, also decreases for higher percentage of Mn in Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O thin films. - Highlights: • Mn doped transparent ZnO thin film synthesis using sol–gel spin coating • Particle size and optical band-gap decreases with increasing Mn doping. • Absence of any secondary phase upto 4.6 at.% of Mn which substitutes Zn sites in ZnO lattice • Interesting Schottky diode characteristics with Ag contact • Ideality factor and barrier height decreases with increasing Mn content.

  2. Surface Properties of Photocatalytic Nano-Crystalline Titania Films and Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this work two immobilizations techniques of TiO2 onto glass were investigated; deposition of previously made titania powder (PMTP) and a sol-gel method. The titania powder used in this work was Degussa P25, Hombikat UV100 and a powder prepared in our laboratory SC134. The prepared TiO2 films...... were characterized using XRD, XPS, AFM, UV-Vis spectroscopy and the photocatalytic activity was assessed using stearic acid as a model compound. Investigation of the prepared films showed that the films prepared from Degussa P25 was the most active, followed by the Hombikat UV100 film, Sol-gel film...

  3. Evaluation of SnO2 for sunlight photocatalytic decontamination of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M; Qamar, M Tariq; Ali, Shahid; Rehman, Ateeq Ur; Soomro, M T; Ahmed, Ikram; Ismail, I M I; Hameed, A

    2018-04-13

    The broad bandgap tin (IV) oxide (SnO 2 ) is the least investigated semiconductor material for photocatalytic water decontamination in sunlight exposure. A detailed study covering the synthesis, characterization and the evaluation of photocatalytic activity of SnO 2 , in the natural sunlight exposure, is presented. The structural characterization by XRD revealed the formation of phase pure tetragonal SnO 2 with the average crystallite size of ∼41.5 nm whereas minor Sn 2+ states in the material were identified by XPS analysis. As explored by diffuse reflectance (DR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, the material exhibited a distinct absorption edge at ∼3.4 eV. The morphological and microstructure analysis of the synthesized SnO 2 was carried out by FESEM and HRTEM. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronopotentiometry (CP) predicted the better charge transport and retention ability of the material under illumination whereas the Mott-Schottky extrapolation prophesied the n-type behavior with the flat-band potential of -0.60 V. The photocatalytic activity of SnO 2 was assessed in the exposure of complete spectrum natural sunlight for the removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The HPLC and TOC analysis monitored the progress of degradation and mineralization whereas the released chloride ions were evaluated by ion chromatography. The effect of the transition metal ions (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+, and Zn 2+ ) as electron capture agents and H 2 O 2 as ROS generator was explored during the degradation process. The utility of the material for the simultaneous removal of chlorophenols in the mixture was also investigated. The SnO 2 exhibited sustained activity in the repeated use. Based on experimental evidence congregated, the mechanism of the removal process and the efficacy of SnO 2 for sunlight photocatalytic decontamination of water was established. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase Competition Induced Bio-Electrochemical Resistance and Bio-Compatibility Effect in Nanocrystalline Zr x -Cu100-xThin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhirappan, Geetha Priyadarshini; Nallasivam, Vignesh; Varadarajan, Madhuri; Leobeemrao, Vasantha Priya; Bose, Sivakumar; Venugopal, Elakkiya; Rajendran, Selvakumar; Angleo, Peter Chrysologue

    2018-07-01

    Nano-crystalline Zrx-Cu100-x (x = 20-100 at.%) thin films with thickness ranging from 50 to 185 nm were deposited by magnetron co-sputtering with individual Zr and Cu targets. The as-sputtered thin films were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Glancing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD) for structural and morphological properties. The crystallite size was found to decrease from 57 nm to 37 nm upon increasing the Zr content from 20 to 30 at.% with slight increase in the lattice strain from 0.17 to 0.33%. Further, increase in Zr content to 40 at.% leads to increase in the crystallite size to 57 nm due to stabilization of C10Zr7 phase along with the presence of nanocrystalline Cu-Zr phase. A bimodal distribution of grain size was observed from FE-SEM micrograph was attributed to the highest surface roughness in Zr30Cu70 thin films comprised of Cu10Zr7, Cu9Zr2, Cu-Zr intermetallic phases. In-vitro electrochemical behaviors of nano-crystalline Zrx-Cu100-x thin films in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated using potentiodynamic polarization studies. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data fitting by equivalent electrical circuit fit model suggests that inner bulk layer contributes to high bio-corrosion resistance in Zrx-Cu100-x thin films with increase in Zr content. The results of cyto-compatibility assay suggested that Zr-Cu thin film did not introduce cytotoxicity to osteoblast cells, indicating its suitability as a bio-coating for minimally invasive medical devices.

  5. Highly sensitive and thermal stable CO gas sensor based on SnO2 modified by SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zili; Chen, Juling; Guan, Shaokang; Si, Lifen; Zhang, Pengshuai

    2013-02-01

    Effects of surface chemical modification with SiO2 on the thermal stability and CO gas-sensing properties of SnO2 were investigated. The SiO2 on the SnO2 surface effectively inhibits the nanocrystal growth of SnO2. The average size of modified SnO2 sintered at 600 degrees C is 5.8 nm. The gas sensitivity to CO was found to be markedly enhanced by the surface chemical modification. The CO gas as low as 5 ppm can be effectively detected by the modified SnO2-based sensors. At the same time, the modified SnO2-based sensor has excellent selectivity to CO, fast response and recovery properties.

  6. Characteristics of SnO2 doped ZnO-Bi2O3 ceramics: Značilnosti SnO2 dopirane ZnO-Bi2O3 keramike:

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Slavko; Daneu, Nina

    1999-01-01

    The influence of ?$SnO_2$? additions on the sintering, microstructure development and nonlinear characteristics of ZnO based ceramics in the ZnO-?$Bi_2O_3-SnO_2$? system was studied. Introduction of ?$SnO_2$? to the ZnO-?$Bi_2O_3$? system results in the formation of the ?$Bi_2Sn_2O_7$? type pyrochlore phase and the ?$Zn_2SnO_4$? type spinel phase. For Sn/Bi < ratio the pyrochlore phase forms and bounds all the ?$SnO_2$?, while excess ?$Bi_2O_3$? results in the formation of a liquid phase at 7...

  7. Structural Stability and Performance of Noble Metal-Free SnO2-Based Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tricoli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural stability of pure SnO2 nanoparticles and highly sensitive SnO2-SiO2 nanocomposites (0–15 SiO2 wt% has been investigated for conditions relevant to their utilization as chemoresistive gas sensors. Thermal stabilization by SiO2 co-synthesis has been investigated at up to 600 °C determining regimes of crystal size stability as a function of SiO2-content. For operation up to 400 °C, thermally stable crystal sizes of ca. 24 and 11 nm were identified for SnO2 nanoparticles and 1.4 wt% SnO2-SiO2 nanocomposites, respectively. The effect of crystal growth during operation (TO = 320 °C on the sensor response to ethanol has been reported, revealing possible long-term destabilization mechanisms. In particular, crystal growth and sintering-neck formation were discussed with respect to their potential to change the sensor response and calibration. Furthermore, the effect of SiO2 cosynthesis on the cross-sensitivity to humidity of these noble metal-free SnO2-based gas sensors was assessed.

  8. SnO2 Nanostructure as Pollutant Gas Sensors: Synthesis, Sensing Performances, and Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant amount of pollutants is produced from factories and motor vehicles in the form of gas. Their negative impact on the environment is well known; therefore detection with effective gas sensors is important as part of pollution prevention efforts. Gas sensors use a metal oxide semiconductor, specifically SnO2 nanostructures. This semiconductor is interesting and worthy of further investigation because of its many uses, for example, as lithium battery electrode, energy storage, catalyst, and transistor, and has potential as a gas sensor. In addition, there has to be a discussion of the use of SnO2 as a pollutant gas sensor especially for waste products such as CO, CO2, SO2, and NOx. In this paper, the development of the fabrication of SnO2 nanostructures synthesis will be described as it relates to the performances as pollutant gas sensors. In addition, the functionalization of SnO2 as a gas sensor is extensively discussed with respect to the theory of gas adsorption, the surface features of SnO2, the band gap theory, and electron transfer.

  9. Screen-printed SnO2/CNT quasi-solid-state gel-electrolyte supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Fei-Hong; Liao, Chen-Yu; Chen, Chieh-Wen; Hao, Yu-Chuan; Yu, Ing-Song; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates a quasi-solid-state gel-electrolyte supercapacitor fabricated with nanoporous SnO2/CNT nanocomposite electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/sulfuric acid (PVA/H2SO4) gel electrolyte. First, pastes containing SnO2 nanoparticles, CNTs, ethyl cellulose, and terpineol are screen-printed onto carbon cloth. A tube furnace is then used for calcining the SnO2/CNT electrodes on carbon cloth. After furnace-calcination, the wettability of SnO2/CNT significantly improved; furthermore, the XPS analysis shows that number of C–O bond and oxygen content significantly decrease after furnace-calcination owing to the burnout of the ethyl cellulose by the furnace calcination processes. The furnace-calcined SnO2/CNT electrodes sandwich the PVA/H2SO4 gel electrolyte to form a supercapacitor. The fabricated supercapacitor exhibits an areal capacitance of 5.61 mF cm‑2 when flat and 5.68 mF cm‑2 under bending with a bending radius (R) of 1.0 cm. After a 1000 cycle stability test, the capacitance retention rates of the supercapacitor are 96% and 97% when flat and under bending (R  =  1.0 cm), respectively.

  10. Incorporation of graphene into SnO2 photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Shearer, Cameron J.; Biggs, Mark J.; Shapter, Joseph G.

    2016-11-01

    In dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes, tin dioxide (SnO2) structures present a promising alternative semiconducting oxide to the conventional titania (TiO2), but they suffer from poor photovoltaic (PV) efficiency caused by insufficient dye adsorption and low energy value of the conduction band. A hybrid structure consisting of SnO2 and reduced graphene oxide (SnO2-RGO) was synthesized via a microwave-assisted method and has been employed as a photoanode in DSSCs. Incorporation of RGO into the SnO2 photoanode enhanced the power conversion efficiency of DSSC device by 91.5%, as compared to the device assembled without RGO. This efficiency improvement can be attributed to increased dye loading, enhanced electron transfer and addition of suitable energy levels in the photoanode. Finally, the use of RGO addresses the major shortcoming of SnO2 when employed as a DSSC photoanode, namely poor dye adsorption and slow electron transfer rate.

  11. Corrosion Behavior of SnO2-based Electrode Ceramics in Soda-lime Glass Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guoqiang; Shen Qiang; Li Qizhong; Zhang Dongming; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng

    2011-01-01

    Dense SnO 2 -based electrode ceramics have extensive application prospect in glass electric-melting industry due to the excellent electrically-conductive and chemical property in high temperatures and oxidation environment. In this paper, dense SnO 2 -based electrode ceramics doped with MnO 2 and Sb 2 O 3 were prepared by pressureless sintering method and the corrosion rate in soda-lime glass liquid as well as the microstructure evolution was mainly investigated. The results suggested that SnO 2 -based ceramics had good corrosion resistance, and the minimum value was only 2.54x10 -4 mm/h when MnO2 content is 1.0% and Sb 2 O 3 content is 0.1%. Composition Elements of Glass liquid were detected in the grain boundary and some intergranular pores. It was found that SnO 2 grains remained unchanged, whereas MnO 2 was easily dissolved into molten glass liquid. SnO 2 -based electrode ceramics with dense structure and few amounts of additives had excellent corrosion resistance to the molten glass.

  12. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of different SnO2 microspheres on graphene oxide sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jia; Xue, Shaolin; Xie, Pei; Zou, Rujia

    2016-07-01

    Different SnO2 microspheres like dandelions, silkworm cocoons and urchins have been synthesized on graphene oxide sheets (GOs) by hydrothermal method at 190 °C for 24 h. The morphologies, structures, chemical compositions and optical properties of the as-grown SnO2 microspheres on GOs (SMGs) were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Raman spectra and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) techniques. The results of XRD revealed that the as-grown SnO2 microspheres have tetragonal rutile structure. The results of Raman spectra, EDS, XRD, XPS and SEM showed that the SnO2 microspheres were grown on GOs and the average diameter of dandelion-like microsphere was about 1.5 μm. The formation mechanism of SnO2 microspheres grown on GOs was discussed. The photocatalytic activity of the SMGs composites was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic results showed that the dandelion-like SMGs exhibited a much better photocatalytic activity than those of smooth and rough SMGs.

  13. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the carbon incorporation in the film structure was strongly dependent on the gas flow ratio. A similar broad visible room-temperature PL with two peaks was observed for all SiC films. The main PL emission was correlated to the band to band transition in uniform a-SiC phase and the ...

  14. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    films can be used as a photocatalyst to clean up organohalides, a class of compound in pesticides that pollute the ground water. Photocatalytic degradation experiments show that indanthrene golden orange dye under- goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to ultraviolet ...

  15. Influence of γ-irradiation on optical parameters of electron beam evaporated ZnSe1-xTex nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam-Ismail, Mohamed; El-Hagary, Magdy; Ramadan, Essam; Matar, Ahmed; El-Taher, Atef

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we reported the effect of γ-irradiation with different doses (100-300 kGy) on the optical parameters of nanocrystalline ZnSe1-xTex (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) thin films. In the wavelength range 400-2500 nm, the optical parameters of the as-deposited and γ-irradiated were extracted from transmission spectra using the Swanepoel method. It was found that the refractive index of the investigated films increases with increasing the doses of γ-radiation. Such post-irradiation increase in the refractive index was attributed to the increase of the density of the investigated films with irradiation doses due to structure transformation induced by thermal effects during irradiation. In addition, the refractive index dispersions of both as-deposited and γ-irradiated of nanocrystalline ZnSe0.8Te0.2 films are found to follow the single oscillator model. The calculated single oscillator parameters; oscillator strength Ed, static refractive index no, increased after irradiation while the oscillator energy Eo, reduced after irradiation. The absorption coefficient was found to increase with the increase of the doses of γ-radiation. Furthermore, the obtained optical energy gap of nanocrystalline ZnSe1-xTex films was found to decrease with increasing the doses of the γ-radiation which is attributed to the increase of the telluride (Te) atoms or defects after irradiation. This is confirmed by the decrease in the Urbach energy Ee after radiation. The γ-irradiation stimulated increase in the absorption coefficient and change in the optical parameters, which can be utilized for industrial dosimetric and detector purposes.

  16. SnO2-Based Nano materials: Synthesis and Application in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Super capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Q.; Ma, L.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Ch.; Xu, X.

    2014-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) is an important n-type wide-bandgap semiconductor, and SnO 2 -based nano structures are presenting themselves as one of the most important classes due to their various tunable physicochemical properties. In this paper, we firstly outline the syntheses of phase-pure SnO 2 hierarchical structures with different morphologies such as nano rods, nano sheets, and nano spheres, as well as their modifications by doping and composting with other materials. Then, we reviewed the design of SnO 2 -based nano structures with improved performance in the areas of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and super capacitors.

  17. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanotubes: template-engaged synthesis and their application in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Du, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Jingxue; Qi, Yue; Yang, Deren

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of carbon-coated SnO2 (SnO2-C) nanotubes through a simple glucose hydrothermal and subsequent carbonization approach by using Sn nanorods as sacrificial templates. The as-synthesized SnO2-C nanotubes have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, which exhibit improved cyclic performance compared to pure SnO2 nanotubes. The hollow nanostructure, together with the carbon matrix which has good buffering effect and high electronic conductivity, can be responsible for the improved cyclic performance.

  18. Osteoblast adhesion, migration, and proliferation variations on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamond films evaluated by live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Antonin; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Hubalek Kalbacova, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Cell fate modulation by adapting the surface of a biocompatible material is nowadays a challenge in implantology, tissue engineering as well as in construction of biosensors. Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films are considered promising in these fields due to their extraordinary physical and chemical properties and diverse ways in which they can be modified structurally and chemically. The initial cell distribution, the rate of cell adhesion, distance of cell migration and also the cell proliferation are influenced by the NCD surface termination. Here, we use real-time live-cell imaging to investigate the above-mentioned processes on oxidized NCD (NCD-O) and hydrogenated NCD (NCD-H) to elucidate cell preference to the NCD-O especially on surfaces with microscopic surface termination patterns. Cells adhere more slowly and migrate farther on NCD-H than on NCD-O. Cells seeded with a fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplement in the medium move across the surface prior to adhesion. In the absence of FBS, the cells adhere immediately, but still exhibit different migration and proliferation on NCD-O/H regions. We discuss the impact of these effects on the formation of cell arrays on micropatterned NCD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1469-1478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Copper doped nickel ferrite nano-crystalline thin films: A potential gas sensor towards reducing gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com

    2016-03-01

    NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and (1 wt% and 3 wt%) Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films have been fabricated using spray pyrolysis deposition technique at 350 °C and then sintered at 650 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDAX, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SQUID VSM were carried out to investigate phase formation, microstructural and influence of Cu doping on magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films. The gas response towards various gases viz. ethanol, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), methanol and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is investigated. The results of XRD revealed that all samples had shown the principal phase of nickel ferrite and the lattice parameter was found to vary from 8.294 Å to 8.314 Å on an incorporation of Cu, and the crystalline sizes were about 40–45 nm. The effect of Cu concentration on saturation magnetization and coercive force were studied. The maximum value of saturation magnetization calculated from hysteresis loop was 89.16 emu/g at room temperature and 96.88 emu/g at 50 K. Cu content on the film surface was found to be maximum for 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film and this film showed an improved response towards all gases. Response of ethanol for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film was found to be higher as compared to all the other gases. The lowering of the optimum operating temperature is observed in 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film with higher selectivity towards ethanol than other gases. All results indicated that the Cu doping in nickel ferrite thin films has a significant influence on the properties. - Highlights: • Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films are synthesized by low cost spray pyrolysis technique. • Addition of Cu content improves magnetic properties. • Cu content on the surface of the film enhances the gas response. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit predominant selectivity towards ethanol. • 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film responses towards ethanol at lower optimum temperature.

  20. Synthesis of Monodisperse Walnut-Like SnO2 Spheres and Their Photocatalytic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel walnut-like SnO2 spheres have been synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal reaction with SnCl2·2H2O and KOH as raw materials. The morphology, microstructure, and optical properties of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The detailed studies revealed that these synthesized spheres are highly monodisperse and have a uniform size of approximately 250 nm. Photocatalytic activity of the prepared SnO2 spheres was evaluated by the degradation of methylene orange. The synthesized SnO2 spheres exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation. In addition, a possible formation mechanism of the walnut-like nanostructures was proposed based on reaction time-dependent experiments.

  1. Polar catastrophe at the MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2016-11-14

    First principles calculations, based on density functional theory, are used to investigate the structural and electronic properties of the epitaxial MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface of wide band gap insulators. Depending on the interface termination, nonmagnetic metallic and half-metallic interface states are observed. The formation of these states is explained by a polar catastrophe model for nonpolar-polar interfaces. Strong lattice distortions and buckling develop in SnO2, which influence the interface properties as the charge discontinuity is partially screened. Already a single unit cell of SnO2 is sufficient to drive the polar catastrophe scenario. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. SnO2 monolayer porous hollow spheres as a gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaoming; Li Cheng Chao; Zhang Ming; Hao Quanyi; Liu Shuang; Li Qiuhong; Chen Li Bao; Wang Taihong

    2009-01-01

    The authors report on gas sensing properties of SnO 2 hollow spheres with diverse microstructures, which are synthesized through controlled precipitation of Sn(OH) 4 layers on carbon sphere templates, followed by heat treatment at different temperatures. Hollow spheres derived at 973 K consist of monolayer SnO 2 grains, which lead to a huge activated surface area. The sensitivity of sensors based on SnO 2 monolayer hollow spheres is up to 51 at 100 ppm ethanol, which is much higher than that of two other samples. We attribute this enhancement mostly to the enhanced depletion effect arising from the increased exposed surface. Our results suggest a direction for improving the performance of gas sensors by using monolayer porous hollow spheres.

  3. Crystal phase analysis of SnO2-based varistor ceramic using the Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.L.; Pianaro, S.A.; Andrade, A.V.C.; Zara, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    A second addition of l mol% of CoO to a pre calcined SnO 2 -based ceramic doped with 1.0 mol% of CoO, 0.05 mol% of Nb 2 O 5 and 0.05 mol% of Cr 2 O 3 promotes the appearance of a secondary phase, Co 2 SnO 4 , besides the SnO 2 cassiterite phase, when the ceramic was sintered at 1350 deg. C/2 h. This was observed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray techniques. Rietveld refinement was carried out to quantify the phases present in the ceramic system. The results of the quantitative analysis were 97 wt.% SnO 2 and 3 wt.% Co 2 SnO 4 . The microstructural analysis showed that a certain amount of cobalt ion remains into cassiterite grains

  4. Atomic-scale observation of lithiation reaction front in nanoscale SnO2 materials

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2013-07-23

    In the present work, taking advantage of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that the dynamic lithiation process of anode materials can be revealed in an unprecedented resolution. Atomically resolved imaging of the lithiation process in SnO2 nanowires illustrated that the movement, reaction, and generation of b = [1Ì...1Ì...1] mixed dislocations leading the lithiated stripes effectively facilitated lithium-ion insertion into the crystalline interior. The geometric phase analysis and density functional theory simulations indicated that lithium ions initial preference to diffuse along the [001] direction in the {200} planes of SnO2 nanowires introduced the lattice expansion and such dislocation behaviors. At the later stages of lithiation, the Li-induced amorphization of rutile SnO2 and the formation of crystalline Sn and LixSn particles in the Li2O matrix were observed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Nonohmic behavior of SnO2.MnO2-based ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Orlandi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the nonohmic behavior of the SnO2.MnO-based system and analyzes the influence of the sintering time and the Nb2O5 concentration on this system's electrical properties. A nonlinear coefficient of ~7 was obtained for a 0.2 mol%-doped Nb2O5 composition, which is comparable to other values reported in the literature for the ternary SnO2-based systems. A recent barrier formation model proposed in the literature to explain the nonlinear electrical behavior of SnO2-based systems is used to clarify the role of the MnO constituent in the formation of the barrier, taking into account the influence of segregated atoms, precipitated phase and oxygen species in the grain boundary region.

  6. Influence of Fe ions on structural, optical and thermal properties of SnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ateeq; Tripathi, P.; Khan, Wasi; Dar, Abid Ahmed; Ali, Tinku

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, Fe doped SnO2 nanoparticles with the composition Sn1-xFexO2 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) have been successfully synthesized using sol-gel auto combustion technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Ultraviolet (UV-Visible) absorption spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD study shows that all the samples have been found in tetragonal rutile structure without any extra phase and average crystallite size which lies in the range of 6-17 nm. The EDAX spectrum confirmed the doping of Fe ion into tin oxide nanomaterial. The optical band gap of doped SnO2 is found to decrease with increasing Fe ion concentration, which is due to the formation of donor energy levels in the actual band gap of SnO2.

  7. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2008-10-28

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  8. Structure and magnetism of nanocrystalline and epitaxial (Mn,Zn,Fe)3O4 thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaan, U. S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wong, F. J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Grutter, A. J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iwata-Harms, J. M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mehta, V. V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arenholz, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Suzuki, Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-21

    We study nanocrystalline (NC) textured Mn0.5Zn0.6Fe1.9O4 (MZFO) films, grown at room temperature on both isostructural and non-isostructural substrates, that show magnetization values significantly suppressed from epitaxial MZFO films. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements indicate larger ratios of Fe3+ to Fe2+ ions on the tetrahedral sites in the NC films compared to the epitaxialfilms. The magnetization loops of the NC films are shifted by 200-400 Oe at low temperatures. No such effect is observed in the epitaxialfilms. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the presence of a more structurally disordered, possibly magnetically frustrated, matrix exchange biases the crystalline regions.

  9. Pulsed laser-deposited nanocrystalline GdB6 thin films on W and Re as field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Singh, Anil K.; Phase, Deodatta M.; Late, Dattatray J.; Sinha, Sucharita; More, Mahendra A.

    2016-10-01

    Gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) nanocrystalline thin films were grown on tungsten (W), rhenium (Re) tips and foil substrates using optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals formation of pure, crystalline cubic phase of GdB6 on W and Re substrates, under the prevailing PLD conditions. The field emission (FE) studies of GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters were performed in a planar diode configuration at the base pressure ~10-8 mbar. The GdB6/W and GdB6/Re tip emitters deliver high emission current densities of ~1.4 and 0.811 mA/cm2 at an applied field of ~6.0 and 7.0 V/µm, respectively. The Fowler-Nordheim ( F- N) plots were found to be nearly linear showing metallic nature of the emitters. The noticeably high values of field enhancement factor ( β) estimated using the slopes of the F- N plots indicate that the PLD GdB6 coating on W and Re substrates comprises of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures. Interestingly, the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re planar emitters exhibit excellent current stability at the preset values over a long-term operation, as compared to the tip emitters. Furthermore, the values of workfunction of the GdB6/W and GdB6/Re emitters, experimentally measured using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, are found to be same, ~1.6 ± 0.1 eV. Despite possessing same workfunction value, the FE characteristics of the GdB6/W emitter are markedly different from that of GdB6/Re emitter, which can be attributed to the growth of GdB6 films on W and Re substrates.

  10. Microfabricated gas sensor systems with sensitive nanocrystalline metal-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, M.; Gurlo, A.; Barsan, N.; Weimar, U.; Hierlemann, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article gives an overview on recent developments in metal-oxide-based gas sensor systems, in particular on nanocrystalline oxide materials deposited on modern, state-of-the-art sensor platforms fabricated in microtechnology. First, metal-oxide-based gas sensors are introduced, and the underlying principles and fundamentals of the gas sensing process are laid out. In the second part, the different deposition methods, such as evaporation, sputtering, sol-gel techniques, aerosol methods, and screen-printing, and their applicability to micro-scale substrates are discussed in terms of their deposition precision, the achievable layer thickness, as well as with regard to the possibility to use pre-processed materials. In the third part, microsensor platforms and, in particular, semiconductor- and microelectronics-based sensor platforms, which have been fabricated in, e.g., standard CMOS-technology (CMOS: complementary metal-oxide semiconductor), are briefly reviewed. The use of such microfabricated sensor platforms inevitably imposes constraints, such as temperature limits, on the applied nanomaterial processing and deposition methods. These limitations are discussed and work-arounds are described. Additionally, monolithic sensor systems are presented that combine microtransducers or microhotplates, which are coated with nanomaterials, with the necessary control and driving electronics on a single chip. The most advanced of such systems are standalone units that can be directly connected to a computer via a digital interface

  11. Fabrication and photoelectrocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline monoclinic BiVO4 thin-film electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Qu, Jiuhui; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    Monoclinic bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin film was fabricated on indium-tin oxide glass from an amorphous heteronuclear complex via dip-coating. After annealation at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C, the thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The BiVO4 particles on the ITO glass surface had a monoclinic structure. The UV-Visible diffuse reflection spectra showed the BiVO4 thin film had photoabsorption properties, with a band gap around 2.5 eV. In addition, the thin film showed high visible photocatalytic activities towards 2,4-dichlorophenol and Bisphenol A degradation under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). Over 90% of the two organic pollutants were removed in 5 hr. A possible degradation mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol were also studied.

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline α-Fe2O3 by using thermal oxidation of Fe Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortas, G.; Saidoun, I.; Abboud, H.; Gabouze, N.; Haine, N.; Manseri, A.; Zergoug, M.; Menari, H.; Sam, S.; Cheraga, H.; Bozetine, I.

    2018-03-01

    α-Fe2O3 hematite films were prepared by thermal oxidation from Fe films electroplated on silicon. Electrodeposition of Fe thin films was carried out from a sulfate bath containing an ammonium chloride complexing agent. The electrochemical study was performed by cyclic voltammetry. The SEM analysis of the films obtained at a -1.3 V constant polarization shows dendritic grains in the form of islet. The DRX spectra exhibit characteristic iron peaks according to the face centered cubic (Fcc) structure. These samples were annealed. At a temperature of 650 ° C, a single iron oxide phase was well formed, with the hematite structure. The SEM photos show a well-assembled columnar structure with formation of nanowires at the surface of the deposit. The absorbance spectra reveal an absorption features in the ultraviolet range

  13. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These thin films were fired for one hour at 550 °C. The sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases such as LPG, H2, CO2, ethanol, NH3 and Cl2 (1000 ppm). The Pt-doped TiO2 (1 : 99) was observed to be most sensitive (572) to H2 at 400 °C with high selectivity against other gases. Its response time ...

  14. Structural, mechanical and magnetic study on galvanostatic electroplated nanocrystalline NiFeP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, A.; Senguttuvan, G.; Kannan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel based alloys has a huge applications in microelectronics and micro electromechanical systems owing to its superior soft magnetic properties. With the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness and controllable patterning, electroplating processes has been chosen to fabricate thin films in our work. The soft magnetic NiFeP thin film was successfully deposited over the surface of copper plate through galvanostatic electroplating method by applying constant current density of 10 mA cm-2 for a deposition rate for half an hour. The properties of the deposited NiFeP thin films were analyzed by subjecting it into different physio-chemical characterization such as XRD, SEM, EDAX, AFM and VSM. XRD pattern confirms the formation of NiFeP particles and the structural analysis reveals that the NiFeP particles were uniformly deposited over the surface of copper substrate. The surface roughness analysis of the NiFeP films was done using AFM analysis. The magnetic studies and the hardness of the thin film were evaluated from the VSM and hardness test. The NiFeP thin films possess lower coercivity with higher magnetization value of 69. 36 × 10-3 and 431.92 Gauss.

  15. Individual SnO2 nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO 2 nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO 2 nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10 6 and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  16. Field emission characteristics of SnO2/CNT composite prepared by microwave assisted wet impregnation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available are attributed to the presence of spherical SnO2 nanoparticles which act as additional independent emission centers other than the CNT tips. Ho et al. recently reported similar observations on ZnO/CNT hybrids with different ZnO layer density [29]. The SnO2/CNT... emission properties of ZnO nanorods during arc discharge, Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, 10, 2010, 8239-8243. [23] D. Tasis, N.Tagmatarchis, A. Bianco and M. Prato, ?Chemistry of carbon nanotubes,? Chemical Review, vol. 106, no. 3, pp...

  17. Thermal treatment synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles and investigation of its light harvesting application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah, Mahnaz; Ansari, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    In this research, nanostructured SnO2 materials have been prepared via thermal treatment method with the aid of new Schiff base complex. N, N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-propylenediamine (H2salpn) has been used as Schiff base to prepare a new Schiff base complex. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and TEM. Then, as-prepared SnO2 nanoparticles have been applied as working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells sensitizing with two different natural dyes: madder and mignonette.

  18. Mechanical alloying of an immiscible α-Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Rong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    in the immiscible ceramic oxide system. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy investigations show that mechanical milling of alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 involves alloying on an atomic scale and that true solid solution formation occurs. We suggest that the high defect concentration and the chemical enthalpy of Fe3......+-O2--Sn4+ interfaces between nanostructured alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 regions may serve as a driving force for the formation of a solid solution in the immiscible ceramic system....

  19. Substrate dependent morphologies of self-assembled nanocrystalline manganite films: An atomic force microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.N.; Mona, J.; Ganesan, V.; Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.

    2009-06-01

    Thin films of La 0 .7Sr 0 .3MnO 3 (LSMO) have been deposited on different substrates: Si (001), Al 2 O 3 (AlO) (0001) and LaAlO 3 (LAO) (001), using a pulsed laser deposition system. 100 nm films have been deposited at substrate temperature of 700 deg C and oxygen partial pressure of 400 mTorr. X-Ray diffraction analysis shows a polycrystalline growth of both layers on Si and Al 2 O 3 substrates, while a c-axis oriented growth on LAO substrate. Atomic force microscopy images exhibit interesting island-like morphology of grain size ∼ 250 nm on Si substrate. Similar morphology with much smaller (∼ 150 nm), closely packed islands are seen to grow on AlO substrate. Films on LAO show comparatively a smooth morphology with the grains size less than 100 nm, decorated by characteristic depressions at the grain boundaries. The formation of self-assembled nanostructures can be understood on the basis of film-substrate lattice misfit, strains in the systems and eventual growth of the films to attain energy minimization (author)

  20. Hydrogen desorption in nanocrystalline MgH{sub 2} thin films at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ares, J.R., E-mail: joser.ares@uam.e [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Leardini, F.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Bodega, J. [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Koon, D.W. [Physics Department, St Lawrence University, Canton, NY, 13617 (United States); Ferrer, I.J.; Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Dpto. de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-16

    Hydrogen desorption process of Pd-capped magnesium hydride thin films of different thicknesses was investigated. Decomposition of magnesium hydride into magnesium under air exposure is observed in all investigated films. During decomposition no novel crystalline phases are detected. Desorption process was qualitatively analysed and it was concluded that is thermodynamically driven controlled by a nucleation and growth or by an interphase controlled mechanism. Moreover, H-kinetics investigation of desorption process was carried out by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Decomposition of MgH{sub 2} films occurs at T{sub d} {approx} 148 {sup o}C and the process seems to be controlled by a bidimensional interphase mechanism with an activation energy of 135 {+-} 20 kJ/mol H{sub 2}. No significant influence of thickness and crystallite size on desorption temperature is observed and obtained activation energy is similar to that of milled bulk magnesium.

  1. Investigation of the Physical Properties of Sprayed Nanocrystalline In2S3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguila, N.; Kraini, M.; Najeh, I.; Halidou, I.; Lacaze, E.; Bouchriha, H.; Bouzouita, H.; Alaya, S.

    2015-11-01

    In2S3 films have been grown on preheated glass substrate by spray pyrolysis. Indium chloride and thiourea in the molar ratio S:In = 2 were used as reagents. Substrate temperature was fixed at 613 K. These films adhered well to the substrate and were approximately 2 μm thick. Structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the as-grown In2S3 films were studied by use of x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption spectroscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. XRD revealed well crystallized films oriented in the (400) direction corresponding to the cubic β-In2S3 phase. The surface of the films was smooth; average roughness was 5 nm. The AFM image revealed that the films were nanopolycrystalline and contained grains in the range 20-30 nm. Optical transmission in the visible and near-infrared regions was 80%. The direct band-gap energy was 2.62 eV. The electrical data were analyzed on the basis of the impedance Cole-Cole plots in the frequency range 0.1 Hz to 100 kHz at room temperature. Constant-phase elements were used in equivalent electrical circuits for fitting of experimental impedance data. The experimental results were fitted to the equivalent electrical circuit by use of Z-view software. The conductivity of grains and grain boundaries was estimated. The gas-sensing properties of the sample were investigated on the basis of the change in conductance as a result of adsorption and desorption of atmospheric oxygen.

  2. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition method and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraei, Reza, E-mail: r.sahraei@ilam.ac.ir; Darafarin, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films were deposited on quartz, silicon, and glass substrates using chemical bath deposition method in a weak acidic solution containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid disodium salt (Na{sub 2}EDTA) as a complexing agent for zinc ions and thioacetamide (TAA) as a sulfide source at 80 °C. The films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV–vis transmission data showed that the films were transparent in the visible region. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a cubic zinc blend structure. FE-SEM revealed a homogeneous morphology and dense nanostructures. The PL spectra of the ZnS:Ni films showed two characteristic bands, one broad band centered at 430 and another narrow band at 523 nm. Furthermore, concentration quenching effect on the photoluminescence intensity has been observed. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZnS:Ni thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method. • The size of ZnS:Ni nanocrystals was less than 10 nm showing quantum size effect. • SEM images demonstrated a dense and uniform surface that was free of pinholes. • The deposited films were highly transparent (>70%) in the visible region. • The PL spectra of ZnS:Ni thin films showed two emission peaks at 430 and 523 nm.

  3. Distinction between SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized using co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    has been used for various applications, including solid- state gas sensor, photovoltaic devices, dye-based solar cells, transparent conductive films for display and solar cells, catalysis and anode materials of secondary lithium ion battery (Antonio et al 2003; Gu et al 2004; Kim and. Shim 2006; Legendre et al 2007; Shalan et ...

  4. In situ synthesized SnO2 nanorod/reduced graphene oxide low-dimensional structure for enhanced lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xuezhang; Zhang, Yiwen; Li, Junpeng; Zhong, Jiayi; Li, Meng; Fan, Xiulin; Wang, Chuntao; Chen, Lixin

    2018-03-01

    A unique SnO2 nanorod (NR)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite morphology has been synthesized using the in situ hydrothermal method, for use as an anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The SnO2 NR adhering to the RGO exhibits a length of 250-400 nm and a diameter of 60-80 nm without any obvious aggregation. The initial discharge/charge capacities of the SnO2 NR/RGO composite are 1761.3 mAh g-1 and 1233.1 mAh g-1, with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 70% under a current density of 200 mA g-1, and a final capacity of 1101 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles. The rate capability of the SnO2 NR/RGO is also improved compared to that of bare SnO2 NR. The superior electrochemical performance is ascribed to the special morphology of the SnO2 NRs—which plays a role in shorting the transmission path—and the sheet-like 2D graphene, which prevents the agglomeration of SnO2 and enhances conductivity during the electrochemical reaction of SnO2 NR/RGO.

  5. Hydrogen Production from Ethanol Steam Reforming over SnO2-K2O/Zeolite Y Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Sung; Kim, Ji Eun; Kang, Mi Sook

    2011-01-01

    The SnO 2 with a particle size of about 300 nm instead of Ni is used in this study to overcome rapid catalytic deactivation by the formation of a NiAl 2 O 4 spinal structure on the conventional Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst and simultaneously impregnated the catalyst with potassium (K). The SnO 2 -K 2 O impregnated Zeolite Y catalyst (SnO 2 -K 2 O/ZY) exhibited significantly higher ethanol reforming reactivity that that achieved with SnO 2 100 and SnO 2 30 wt %/ZY catalysts. The main products from ethanol steam reforming (ESR) over the SnO 2 -K 2 O/ ZY catalyst were H 2 , CO 2 , and CH 4 , with no evidence of any CO molecule formation. The H 2 production and ethanol conversion were maximized at 89% and 100%, respectively, over SnO 2 30 wt %-K 2 O 3.0 wt %/ZY at 600 .deg. C for 1 h at a CH 3 CH 2 OH:H 2 O ratio of 1:1 and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 12,700 h -1 . No catalytic deactivation occurred for up to 73 h. This result is attributable to the easier and weaker of reduction of Sn components and acidities over SnO 2 -K 2 O/ZY catalyst, respectively, than those of Ni/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts

  6. Electronic structure and optical property of p-type Zn-doped SnO2 with Sn vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guipeng, Sun; Jinliang, Yan; Peijiang, Niu; Delan, Meng

    2016-02-01

    The electronic structures and optical properties of intrinsic SnO2, Zn-doped SnO2, SnO2 with Sn vacancy (VSn) and Zn-doped SnO2 with Sn vacancy are explored by using first-principles calculations. Zn-doped SnO2 is a p-type semiconductor material, whose Fermi level shifts into the valence band when Zn atoms substitute Sn atoms, and the unoccupied states on the top of the valence band come from Zn 3d and O 2p states. Sn vacancies increase the relative hole number of Zn-doped SnO2, which results in a possible increase in the conductivity of Zn-doped SnO2. The Zn-doped SnO2 shows distinct visible light absorption, the increased absorption can be seen apparently with the presence of Sn vacancies in the crystal, and the blue-shift of optical spectra can be observed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10974077) and the Innovation Project of Shandong Graduate Education, China (No. SDYY13093).

  7. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on Si(111) by the hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) technique using silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) gases without hydrogen dilution. The effects of SiH4 to CH4 gas flow ratio (R) on the structural properties, chemical composition and photoluminescence (PL) ...

  8. Microstructure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Cu2O thin films prepared by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xishun; Zhang, Miao; Shi, Shiwei; He, Gang; Song, Xueping; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition technique at different applied potentials (-0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, and -0.9 V) and were annealed in vacuum at a temperature of 100°C for 1 h. Microstructure and optical properties of these films have been investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The morphology of these films varies obviously at different applied potentials. Analyses from these characterizations have confirmed that these films are composed of regular, well-faceted, polyhedral crystallites. UV-vis absorption spectra measurements have shown apparent shift in optical band gap from 1.69 to 2.03 eV as the applied potential becomes more cathodic. The emission of FL spectra at 603 nm may be assigned as the near band-edge emission.

  9. Preparation of Nanocrystalline Titania Thin Films by Using Pure and Water-modified Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Cerhová, Marie; Dřínek, Vladislav; Daniš, S.; Matějová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, NOV 2016 (2016), s. 289-296 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23274S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : titania thin films * supercritical carbon dioxide * crystallization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  10. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction ...

  11. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/boms/031/01/0043-0048 ... TiO2 thin films can be used as a photocatalyst to clean up organohalides, a class of compound in pesticides that pollute the ground water. Photocatalytic degradation experiments show that indanthrene ...

  12. Transformation from amorphous to nano-crystalline SiC thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Silicon carbide (SiC) thin films were deposited on Si(111) by the hot wire chemical vapour deposi- tion (HWCVD) technique using silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) gases without hydrogen dilution. The effects of SiH4 to CH4 gas flow ratio (R) on the structural properties, chemical composition and ...

  13. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bDepartment of Physics, Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 032, India. cDepartment of ... dDepartment of Physics, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Erode 638 057, India ... ZnO thin films have been coated at room temperature and at four different pH values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The.

  14. The Effects of the Location of Au Additives on Combustion-generated SnO2 Nanopowders for CO Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrania, Smitesh D.; Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    2010-01-01

    The current work presents the results of an experimental study of the effects of the location of gold additives on the performance of combustion-generated tin dioxide (SnO2) nanopowders in solid state gas sensors. The time response and sensor response to 500 ppm carbon monoxide is reported for a range of gold additive/SnO2 film architectures including the use of colloidal, sputtered, and combustion-generated Au additives. The opportunities afforded by combustion synthesis to affect the SnO2/additive morphology are demonstrated. The best sensor performance in terms of sensor response (S) and time response (τ) was observed when the Au additives were restricted to the outermost layer of the gas-sensing film. Further improvement was observed in the sensor response and time response when the Au additives were dispersed throughout the outermost layer of the film, where S = 11.3 and τ = 51 s, as opposed to Au localized at the surface, where S = 6.1 and τ = 60 s. PMID:22163586

  15. Detailed Study of BSA Adsorption on Micro- and Nanocrystalline Diamond/β-SiC Composite Gradient Films by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh-Wang, Stephan; Wang, Tao; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Wesner, Daniel; Jiang, Xin; Schönherr, Holger

    2017-01-24

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite films synthesized using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique has been investigated by confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. BSA labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was employed as a probe. The BSA FITC conjugate was found to preferentially adsorb on both O-/OH-terminated microcrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond compared to the OH-terminated β-SiC, resulting in an increasing amount of BSA adsorbed to the gradient surfaces with an increasing diamond/β-SiC ratio. The different strength of adsorption (>30 times for diamond with a grain size of 570 nm) coincides with different surface energy parameters and differing conformational changes upon adsorption. Fluorescence data of the adsorbed BSA FITC on the gradient film with different diamond coverage show a four-exponential decay with decay times of 3.71, 2.54, 0.66, and 0.13 ns for a grain size of 570 nm. The different decay times are attributed to the fluorescence of thiourea fluorescein residuals of linked FITC distributed in BSA with different dye-dye and dye-surface distances. The longest decay time was found to correlate linearly with the diamond grain size. The fluorescence of BSA FITC undergoes external dynamic fluorescence quenching on the diamond surface by H- and/or sp 2 -defects and/or by amorphous carbon or graphite phases. An acceleration of the internal fluorescence concentration quenching in BSA FITC because of structural changes of albumin due to adsorption, is concluded to be a secondary contributor. These results suggest that the micro- and nanocrystalline diamond/β-SiC composite gradient films can be utilized to spatially control protein adsorption and diamond crystallite size, which facilitates systematic studies at these interesting (bio)interfaces.

  16. Facile mass production of nanoporous SnO2nanosheets as anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenli; Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Facile one-step ultrasonic-assisted chemical precipitation strategy has been developed for the mass production of SnO 2 nanomaterials with different morphologies. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the nanoporous SnO 2 nanosheets exhibited an extremely high initial specific capacity of 2231mAh/g in comparison with 1242mAh/g of the SnO 2 microcrystals and 1244mAh/g of the nanoporous SnO 2 nanoflowers. Meanwhile the nanoporous SnO 2 nanosheet electrode displayed a specific capacity of 688mAh/g after 60 cycles at 0.2 A/g current density and an extraordinary capacity retention of 224mAh/g at a current density of 8A/g (approximately 10 C) owing to a huge increase of Li + diffusion coefficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, possible growth mechanism of the SnO2 nanowires has been described in detail by the studies of comparative experiments, which is quite different from ... transparent electrodes (Ito et al 2004), lithium-ion batteries. (Ying et al 2005) and dye-sensitized ... In addition, there is high feasibility for a massive production of the ...

  18. Temperature dependent growth and optical properties of SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. SnO2; nanostructures; growth mechanism; optical properties. 1. Introduction. One-dimensional (1D) oxide nanostructures such as wires, rods, belts, and tubes have become the focus of intensive research owing to their unique applications in mesoscopic physics and fabrication of nanoscaled devices. They not.

  19. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion, possible growth mechanism of the SnO2 nanowires has been described in detail by the studies of comparative ... other methods. And it is easy to control morphology of the resulting nanowires. In addition, there is high feasibility for a massive production of the nanowires via .... bility of supplying power less than 4 mW.

  20. Preparation of SnO2/C biomorphic materials by biotemplating from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new SnO2/C biomorphic material has been prepared by molding into a composite billet and carbothermal-reduction under vacuum from ... basis for application of the materials. Ramie is a perennial herbaceous plant, ..... The authors wish to express their thanks for the financial support received from the National Natural ...

  1. Synthesis and time-resolved photoluminescence of SnO2 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Muhammad Aurang Zeb Gul; Iqbal, Muzaffar; Siddique, Zumaira; Nadeem, Muhammad Arif; Ishaq, Muhammad; Iqbal, Azhar

    2017-09-01

    A solvo-thermal method is employed to synthesize SnO2 nanorods and the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic analysis confirms the formation of Snsbnd O bond. The X-ray diffraction analysis suggests that SnO2 nanorods exist in tetragonal rutile crystal structure phase. Transmission electron microscopy images show the formation of nanorods with an average diameter ∼10-15 nm and length 35-50 nm. The deconvoluted photoluminescence spectrum suggests the existence of three distinct origins of photoluminescence, which peaks at photon energies of ∼423 nm (2.93 eV), ∼470 nm (2.64 eV) and 480 nm (2.58 eV). The measured photoluminescence kinetics is best described by a tri-exponential decay model suggesting that the photoluminescence occurs from three distinct channels with time constants 1.31 ns, 4.89 ns and 13.24 ns. These studies suggest that SnO2 nanorods synthesized by solvo-thermal method at mild conditions can be used for luminescent device applications. The long lived emission of SnO2 nanorods in the visible region make them suitable candidate as an active materials for many opto-electronic devices such as light emitting diodes and solar cells.

  2. Application of nano SnO2 as a green and recyclable catalyst for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Application of nano SnO2 as an efficient and benign catalyst has been explored for the synthesis of 2-aryl or ... tions proceed under heterogeneous and mild conditions in ethanol at room temperature to provide 2-aryl or alkylbenzoxazoles in ... which are stabilized by ligands, polymers or den- drimers as protecting ...

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Hydrogen Sensing Properties of Nanostructured SnO2 with Different Morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanoscale SnO2 with various geometrical morphologies, including pine needle-like, sphere-like, sheet-like, grape-like nanostructures, was prepared via a facile hydrothermal process. Microstructures and morphologies of all the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. Meanwhile, the specific surface areas of the as-prepared SnO2 nanostructures were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET analysis. Gas sensors were fabricated and their gas sensing properties towards hydrogen were systematically investigated. The results indicate pine needle-like SnO2 structure exhibits exclusive better gas sensing performances to hydrogen than the other morphologies, which can be attributed to its novel shape with a large specific surface area. Such an unexpected morphology is a promising candidate for the use of SnO2 as a gas sensing material in future hydrogen sensor applications.

  4. Nonlinear I–V characteristics study of doped SnO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    )–voltage () characteristics. Addition of CoO leads to creation of oxygen vacancies and helps in sintering of SnO2. Antimony oxide acts as a donor and increases the conductivity. The results are nearly the same when ...

  5. One-Dimensional SnO2 Nano structures: Synthesis and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Shen, H.; Mathur, S.; Pan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nano scale semiconducting materials such as quantum dots (0-dimensional) and one-dimensional (1D) structures, like nano wires, nano belts, and nano tubes, have gained tremendous attention within the past decade. Among the variety of 1D nano structures, tin oxide (SnO 2 ) semiconducting nano structures are particularly interesting because of their promising applications in optoelectronic and electronic devices due to both good conductivity and transparence in the visible region. This article provides a comprehensive review of the recent research activities that focus on the rational synthesis and unique applications of 1D SnO 2 nano structures and their optical and electrical properties. We begin with the rational design and synthesis of 1D SnO 2 nano structures, such as nano tubes, nano wires, nano belts, and some heterogeneous nano structures, and then highlight a range of applications (e.g., gas sensor, lithium-ion batteries, and nano photonics) associated with them. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives with respect to future research on 1D SnO 2 nano structures

  6. Effect of atmosphere and dopants on sintering of SnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is an n type semiconductor material with a high covalent behavior. Mass transport in this oxide depends on the surface state promoted by atmosphere or by the solid solution of aliovalent oxide doping. The sintering and grain growth of this type of oxide powder is then controlled by atmosphere and by extrinsic oxygen vacancy formation. For pure SnO2 powder the surface state depends only on the interaction of atmosphere molecules with the SnO2 surface. Inert atmosphere like argon or helium promotes oxygen vacancy formation at the surface due to reduction of SnO2 to SnO at the surface and liberation of oxygen molecules forming oxygen vacancies. As a consequence surface diffusion is enhanced leading to grain coarsening but no densification. Oxygen atmosphere inhibits SnO2 reduction by decreasing the surface oxygen vacancy concentration. Addition of dopants with lower valence at the sintering temperature creates extrinsic charged oxygen vacancies that promote mass transport at the grain boundary leading to densification and grain growth of this polycrystalline oxide.

  7. Room temperature synthesis of crystalline Sb2S3 for SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photoluminescence analysis shows low green luminescence as well as Stoke's shift for as-prepared Sb2S3. The nanostructured solar cell is fabricated for energy harvesting purpose with Sb2S3-sensitized SnO2 photoanode and polysulphide electrolyte. The solar cell with. FTO/SnO2/Sb2S3 photoanode shows VOC ...

  8. Spectroellipsometric study of the sol-gel nanocrystalline ITO multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Teodorescu, V.; Blanchin, M.; Stoica, T.; Zaharescu, M

    2004-05-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by sol-gel process using 'sols' of indium and tin isopropoxides. The thickness of one deposited ITO layer is approximately 50 nm. The desired thickness was obtained by 1-5 successive depositions. The XTEM cross-sectional view of an ITO sample with five depositions showed a clear delimitation of the layers with an alternating structure dense/porous ITO layers. The void fraction in porous regions varies between 20 and 25%. Cubic bixbyite In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals with size of 10-20 nm and no phases separation of tin oxide were observed. The optical properties of the films have been investigated by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Reliable optical constants and porosity are obtained only with the model of internal structure based on XTEM results.

  9. Nanocrystalline CuInSSe thin films by chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrotriya, Vipin, E-mail: vipinshrotriya@gmail.com; Rajaram, P., E-mail: prajaram@ymail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.)-474011 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Crystalline CuInSSe thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. The CuCl{sub 2}, InCl{sub 3}, thiourea and SeO{sub 2} were used as source materials for the Cu{sup 2+}, In{sup 3+}, S{sup 2−} and Se{sup 2−} ions and the Cu/In ratio was kept at 1.0. EDC was used as a complexing agent. The XRD, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-Ray (EDAX) and Optical transmission studies were used for structural analysis, surface morphology, elemental analysis and optical band gap, of the grown thin films respectively. The deposition parameters such as pH, deposition temperature and deposition time were optimized.

  10. Structural, optical and photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Emission intensity randomly changed as SnO2 molar con- centration ... gas sensors, etc. For many of these applications, it is advantageous to use tin oxide in thin film form and this can be accomplished in different ways (Elam et al 2008;. Vadivel et al ... sis, 10 mL volume of the precursor solution of each sam- ple, one at a ...

  11. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  12. Highly uniform and vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Kang, Jin Soo; Shin, Junyoung; Kim, Jin; Han, Seung-Joo; Park, Jongwoo; Min, Yo-Sep; Ko, Min Jae; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-04-01

    Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process.Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00202h

  13. Vertically self-ordered orientation of nanocrystalline hexagonal boron nitride thin films for enhanced thermal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto, Olivier; Sun, Bo; Tsang, Siu Hon; Huang, Xi; Koh, Yee Kan; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2015-12-07

    Vertically self-ordered hexagonal boron nitride (ordered h-BN) is a highly ordered turbostratic BN (t-BN) material similar to hexagonal BN, with its planar structure perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The ordered h-BN thin films were grown using a High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) system with a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) target reactively sputtered in nitrogen gas. The best vertical alignment was obtained at room temperature, with a grounded bias and a HiPIMS peak power density of 60 W cm(-2). Even though the film contains up to 7.5 at% lanthanum, it retains its highly insulative properties and it was observed that an increase in compressive stress is correlated to an increase in film ordering quality. Importantly, the thermal conductivity of vertically ordered h-BN is considerably high at 5.1 W m(-1) K(-1). The favourable thermal conductivity coupled with the dielectric properties of this novel material and the low temperature growth could outperform SiO2 in high power density electronic applications.

  14. Thermo-electrical properties of composite semiconductor thin films composed of nanocrystalline graphene-vanadium oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Mi; Um, Sukkee

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental comparative study involving the characterization of the thermo-electrical and structural properties of graphene-based vanadium oxide (graphene-VOx) composite thin films on insulating and conducting surfaces (i.e., fused quartz and acrylic resin-impregnated graphite) produced by a sol-gel process via dipping-pyrolysis. A combination of FE-SEM and XPS analyses revealed that the graphene-VOx composite thin films (coated onto fused quartz) exhibiting the microstructure of 2-graded nanowire arrays with a diameter of 40-80 nm were composed of graphene, a few residual oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., C-O and C=O), and the VO2 Magnéli phase. The temperature-dependent electrical resistance measured on the as-deposited thin films clearly demonstrated that the graphene-VOx composite nanowire arrays thermally grown on fused quartz act as a semiconductor switch, with a transition temperature of 64.7 degrees C in the temperature range of -20 degrees C to 140 degrees C, resulting from the contributions of graphene and graphene oxides. In contrast, the graphene-VOx composite thin films deposited onto acrylic resin-impregnated graphite exhibit a superlinear semiconducting property of extremely low electrical resistance with negative temperature coefficients (i.e., approximately four orders of magnitude lower than that of the fused quartz), despite the similar microstructural and morphological characteristics. This difference is attributed to the synergistic effects of the paramagnetic metal feature of the tightly stacked nanowire arrays consisting of hexagonal V2O3 on the intrinsic electrical properties of the acrylic resin-impregnated graphite substrate, as revealed by FE-SEM, EDX, AFM, and XRD measurements. Although the thermo-sensitive electrical properties of the graphene-VOx composite thin films are very substrate specific, the applicability of graphene sheets can be considerably effective in the formation of highly planar arrays

  15. Electrical transport mechanisms and structure of hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated nanocrystalline Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}As films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelico, João C., E-mail: jcangelico@facol.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Bauru, SP 17033-360 (Brazil); Pereira, André L.J. [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica ITA, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Arruda, Larisa B. de; Dias da Silva, José H. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Bauru, SP 17033-360 (Brazil)

    2015-05-05

    Highlights: • Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}As films were produced by the RF magnetron sputtering technique. • The structures of the films were analyzed by Rietveld refinement. • Electrical conductivity was analyzed with basis on the structure and morphology. • Space charge limited current regime was identified in the films without manganese. • The electrical transport of the sample with manganese showed only “Ohmic regime”. - Abstract: The mechanisms of electrical conductivity in hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated nanocrystalline Ga{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}As (0.000 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.081) films were analyzed, first from a macroscopic perspective, followed by microscopic analysis to investigate the energy levels for trapping electric charges. The analysis of the current–voltage and resistivity–temperature characteristics allowed the development of a model based on the morphology and structure of the films. This model takes into account the main aspects of the transport above 300 K. Space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism was observed in Mn-free films and is associated with deep trap states located at 0.10 and 0.22 eV below the conduction band. In samples containing Mn, the dark conductivity is highly dependent on the presence of hydrogen. This effect was related to the grain boundaries and interstitial regions of the films, in which the density of gap states is expected to be reduced by the presence of hydrogen.

  16. Conductive Nature of Grain Boundaries in Nanocrystalline Stabilized Bi2O3Thin-Film Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Jin; Kwak, No Woo; Byeon, Pilgyu; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Jung, WooChul

    2018-02-21

    Stabilized Bi 2 O 3 has gained a considerable amount of attention as a solid electrolyte material for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells due to its superior oxygen-ion conductivity at the temperature of relevance (≤500 °C). Despite many research efforts to measure the transport properties of stabilized Bi 2 O 3 , the effects of grain boundaries on the electrical conductivity have rarely been reported and their results are even controversial. Here, we attempt quantitatively to assess the grain boundary contribution out of the total ionic conductivity at elevated temperatures (350-500 °C) by fabricating epitaxial and nano-polycrystalline thin films of yttrium-stabilized Bi 2 O 3 . Surprisingly, both epitaxial and polycrystalline films show nearly identical levels of ionic conductivity, as measured by alternating current impedance spectroscopy and this is the case despite the fact that the polyfilm possesses nanosized columnar grains and thus an extremely high density of the grain boundaries. The highly conductive nature of grain boundaries in stabilized Bi 2 O 3 is discussed in terms of the clean and chemically uniform grain boundary without segregates, and the implications for device application are suggested.

  17. Determinação de diagramas de bandas de energia e da borda de absorção em SnO2, depositado via sol-gel, sobre quartzo Determination of the band energy diagram and absorption fundamental edge in SnO2, deposited via sol-gel, on quartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Floriano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades ópticas e estruturais de filmes finos de SnO2, depositados sobre substratos de quartzo, são apresentadas. Os filmes são preparados pela técnica de molhamento via sol-gel. Uma avaliação das propriedades eletrônicas do cristal (bulk e das superfícies (110 e (101 do material é também efetuada, através de cálculos baseados em um método mecânico-quântico que utiliza a Teoria do Funcional da Densidade (DFT em conjunto com o funcional hibrido B3LYP. A borda fundamental de absorção, obtida experimentalmente, é então comparada com os diagramas de bandas de energia do bulk e superfícies (110 e (101, calculadas.Optical and structural properties of SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are presented. Films are prepared by the sol-gel-dip-coating technique. An evaluation of the electronic properties of bulk and surfaces (110 and (101 of the material is also carried out, through calculation based on a quantum-mechanical method using the Density Functional Theory (DFT in conjunction with the hybrid functional B3LYP. The absorption fundamental edge, experimentally obtained, is compared to the calculated band energy diagram of bulk and surfaces (110 and (101.

  18. Preparation of multilayered nanocrystalline thin films with composition-modulated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, D.; Barna, P.B.; Szekely, L.; Geszti, O.; Hattori, T.; Devenyi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The properties of multilayer thin film structures depend on the morphology and structure of interfaces. A broad interface, in which the composition is varying, can enhance, e.g., the hardness of multilayer thin films. In the present experiments multilayers of TiAlN and CrN as well as TiAlN, CrN and MoS 2 were studied by using unbalanced magnetron sputter sources. The sputter sources were arranged side by side on an arc. This arrangement permits development of a transition zone between the layers, where the composition changes continuously. The multilayer system was deposited by one-fold oscillating movement of substrates in front of sputter sources. Thicknesses of layers could be changed both by oscillation frequency and by the power applied to sputter sources. Ti/Al: 50/50 at%, pure chromium and MoS 2 targets were used in the sputter sources. The depositions were performed in an Ar-N 2 mixture at 0.22 Pa working pressure. The sputtering power of the TiAl source was feed-back adjusted in fuzzy-logic mode in order to avoid fluctuation of the TiAl target sputter rate due to poisoning of the target surface. Structure characterization of films deposited on Si wafers covered by thermally grown SiO 2 was performed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. At first a 100 nm thick Cr base layer was deposited on the substrate to improve adhesion, which was followed by a CrN transition layer. The CrN transition layer was followed by a 100 nm thick TiAlN/CrN multilayer system. The TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system was deposited on the surface of this underlayer system. The underlayer systems Cr, CrN and TiAlN/CrN were crystalline with columnar structure according to the morphology of zone T of the structure zone models. The column boundaries contained segregated phases showing up in the under-focused TEM images. The surface of the underlayer system was wavy due to dome-shaped columns. The nanometer-scaled TiAlN/CrN/MoS 2 multilayer system followed this waviness

  19. A study on the structural and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline CuS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Nillohit; Sinha, Arijit; Khan, Gobinda Gopal; Chandra, Debraj; Bhaumik, Asim; Mondal, Anup

    2011-01-01

    We report a chemical route for the deposition of nanocrystalline thin films of CuS, using aqueous solutions of Cu(CH 3 COO) 2 , SC(NH 2 ) 2 and N(CH 2 CH 2 OH) 3 [triethanolamine, i.e. TEA] in proper concentrations and ratios. The films were structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and optical analysis [both photo luminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis)]. Optical studies showed a large blue shift in the band gap energy of the films due to quantum confinement effect exerted by the nanocrystals. From both XRD and FESEM analyses, formation of CuS nanocrystals with sizes within 10-15 nm was evident. A study on the mechanical properties was carried out using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques, which showed good mechanical stability and high adherence of the films with the bottom substrate. Such study on the mechanical properties of the CuS thin films is being reported here for the first time. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out for the films, which showed p-type conductivity.

  20. Nanocrystalline transparent SnO{sub 2}-ZnO films fabricated at lower substrate temperature using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Philominathan, P. [P. G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613503 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Nanocrystalline and transparent conducting SnO{sub 2}- ZnO films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at relatively low substrate temperature (360{+-}5 C) compared with conventional spray method. The structural studies reveal that the SnO{sub 2}-ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (101) plane. The dislocation density is very low (1.48 x 10{sup 15}lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the good crystallinity of the films. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 26-34 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 85% and 3.6 eV respectively. The sheet resistance increases from 8.74 k{omega}/{open_square} to 32.4 k{omega}/{open_square} as the zinc concentration increases from 0 to 40 at.%. The films were found to have desirable figure of merit (1.63 x 10{sup -2} ({omega}/{open_square}){sup -1}), low temperature coefficient of resistance (-1.191/K) and good thermal stability. This simplified spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO{sub 2} - ZnO films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Morphologically controlled synthesis, structural and optical properties of CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Usharani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites with different dimensional nanostructures were synthesized by a wet chemical method, using various surfactants such as SDS, CTAB and Triton X-100. The prepared CeO2/SnO2 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-DRS, and Photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. The XRD patterns reveal the presence of a mixed phase of SnO2 and CeO2; The TEM analysis showed the mixed morphology of uniformly dispersed spherical with ellipsoidal shape in the SDS assisted CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites; whereas the nanostructure with spherical with hexagonal shapes was observed for the Triton X-100 assisted CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites. The one dimensional (1D nanorod like structure observed for the CTAB assisted CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites shows CTAB acting as a face-specific capping agent to form rod-shaped micelles. The room temperature photoluminescence emission studies of the CeO2/SnO2 nanocomposites showed strong peaks in the UV region, and several peaks in the visible region, which are likely to have originated from the oxygen vacancies and are potential materials for optoelectronic device applications. The UV results showed the absorption edges shifted to a high energy region and the blue shifts that occurred in all the samples.

  2. New properties of Fe3O4@SnO2 core shell nanoparticles following interface charge/spin transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leostean, C.; Pana, O.; Stefan, M.; Popa, A.; Toloman, D.; Senila, M.; Gutoiu, S.; Macavei, S.

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of Fe3O4@SnO2 core-shell nanoparticles are reported in the present paper. To form Fe3O4@SnO2 nanocomposites (FeSn-Ox), the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were covered with SnO2 semiconductor through the use of the seeding method followed by a thermal treatment. XRD studies reveal that the synthesized composite nanoparticles contain mainly Fe3O4 and SnO2 in different proportions depending on the preparation conditions. The composition of nanoparticles and their core-shell architecture were evidenced by XPS and confirmed by Fourier analysis of HRTEM images. Magnetic studies also indicated that FeSn-Ox samples exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. It was found that the SnO2 shell nanocrystals contain ordered magnetic moments formed through a charge/spin transfer process across the interface (carrier-mediated ferromagnetism). The analysis of UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of FeSn-Ox composites shows position modifications of SnO2 impurity band gap levels in accordance with the charge/spin transfer between Fe3O4 and SnO2 outer shell.

  3. The Role of Annealing Temperature in Photocatalytic Performance of Fe3O4/SnO2 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramarta, Valentinus; Taufik, Ardiansyah; Saleh, Rosari

    2017-05-01

    In this work, SnO2 nanoparticles with the variation of annealing temperature (400°C-800°C) were used as photocatalyst for remove organic dye from the aqueous solution. SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel method. For enhancing the stability and the photocatalytic activity of the samples, magnetite materials (Fe3O4) were combined with SnO2 nanoparticles. The prepared samples characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The X-ray diffraction shows tetragonal structure of SnO2 and cubic spinel of Fe3O4 as the components of the prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was studied using Methylene Blue (MB) as a model organic pollutant. The photocatalytic degradation of MB by SnO2 and Fe3O4 nanocomposites under UV light irradiation was examined by varying the operational parameters such as catalyst dosage and scavengers. Among the variation annealing temperature of SnO2 nanoparticles, the 700°C annealing temperature of SnO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The repeatability of photocatalytic activity was also tested.

  4. Facile fabrication of robust TiO2@SnO2@C hollow nanobelts for outstanding lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinghua; Li, Lingxiangyu; Chen, Jizhang; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2018-02-01

    Elaborate fabrication of state-of-the-art nanostructure SnO2@C-based composites greatly contributes to alleviate the huge volume expansion issue of the SnO2 anodes. But the preparation processes of most of them are complicated and tedious, which is generally adverse to the development of SnO2@C-based composite anodes. Herein, a unique nanostructure of TiO2@SnO2@C hollow nanobelts (TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs), including the characteristics of one-dimensional architecture, sandwich protection, hollow structure, carbon coating, and a mechanically robust TiO2 support, has been fabricated by a facile approach for the first time. As anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the as-fabricated TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs exhibit an outstanding lithium storage performance, delivering capacity of 804.6 and 384. 5 mAh g-1 at 200 and even 1000 mA g-1 after 500 cycles, respectively. It is demonstrated that thus outstanding performance is mainly attributed to the unique nanostructure of TiO2@SnO2@C HNBs.

  5. One-Pot Synthesis of Carbon-Coated SnO 2 Nanocolloids with Improved Reversible Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2009-07-14

    We report a simple glucose-mediated hydrothermal method for gram-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse hybrid SnO 2 nanoparticles. Glucose is found to play the dual role of facilitating rapid precipitation of polycrystalline SnO 2 nanocolloids and in creating a uniform, glucose-derived, carbon-rich polysaccharide (GCP) coating on the SnO 2 nanocores. The thickness of the GCP coating can be facilely manipulated by varying glucose concentration in the synthesis medium. Carbon-coated SnO 2 nanocolloids obtained after carbonization of the GCP coating exhibit significantly enhanced cycling performance for lithium storage. Specifically, we find that a capacity of ca. 440 mA h/g can be obtained after more than 100 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 300 mA/g in hybrid SnO 2-carbon electrodes containing as much as 1/3 of their mass in the low-activity carbon shell. By reducing the SnO 2-carbon particles with H 2, we demonstrate a simple route to carbon-coated Sn nanospheres. Lithium storage properties of the latter materials are also reported. Our results suggest that large initial irreversible losses in these materials are caused not only by the initial, presumably irreversible, reduction of SnO 2 as generally perceived in the field, but also by the formation of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. Enhanced photo-, sono- and sonophotocatalysis of methylene blue via SnO2 nanoparticle supported on nanographene platelets (NGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramarta, V.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2017-07-01

    In our previous study, we have reported the catalytic (photo- and sono-) performance of SnO2 nanoparticles in methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. In this study, SnO2/nanographene platelets (NGP) composites were fabricated by depositing SnO2 nanoparticle onto nanographene platelets surface to develop photo-, sono-, and sonophotocatalysts, SnO2 nanoparticle, and SnO2/NGP composites were successfully synthesized using the sol-gel and coprecipitation method, respectively. The nanographene platelets (NGP) content was varied from 5, 10, and 15 weight percentages (wt.%). The optical properties and thermal stability of the samples were characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The catalytic ability of the samples was investigated using photo-, sono-, and sonophoto degradation of MB which was observed when nanographene platelets (NGP) were added into SnO2 nanocomposite. The photo-, sono- and sonophotocatalytic activities of SnO2/NGP composites on dyes were analyzed by measuring the change in absorbance of dyes under UV-spectrophotometer. The degradation of the organic dyes has been calculated by monitoring the degradation in concentration of the dyes before and after irradiation of UV light, ultrasound, and both of them respectively. The influence of other parameters such as catalyst dosage, pH, and scavenger have also been investigated. The results showed that SnO2/NGP composite with 10 weight percent (wt.%) has better catalytic performance than pure SnO2 nanoparticle. The reusability tests have also been done to ensure the stability of the used catalysts.

  7. Phase transformation and particle growth in nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 films analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendorz, A.; Brodyanski, A.; Lösch, J.; Bai, L. H.; Chen, Z. H.; Le, Y. K.; Ziegler, C.; Gnaser, H.

    2007-09-01

    Nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 films were prepared from colloidal suspensions using particles with a nominal size of 12 nm. Their structure was examined by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as-prepared specimens exhibit exclusively features due to the anatase phase of TiO 2 (e.g., the Eg, B1g and A1g vibration modes in Raman spectroscopy and the characteristic diffraction peaks in XRD). Isochronal annealing of the films in air at temperatures of up to 1320 K effected clear structural changes, observed both in Raman and XRD: the crystallite size increases from ˜13 nm to ˜125 nm between 470 K and 1220 K, with the crystallites remaining in the anatase phase. A phase transition to the rutile phase of TiO 2 occurs gradually in the temperature range 1220-1320 K and the average crystallite size increases to ˜160 nm.

  8. Ferromagnetism in reactive sputtered Cu0.96Fe 0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films evidenced by anomalous Hall effect

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo

    2011-03-14

    Cu0.96Fe0.04O1-δ nanocrystalline films were fabricated using reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures (PO2). The electrical transport properties of the films were measured in a broad temperature range (10-300 K) under magnetic fields of up to 5T. Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) of up to 0.4μΩ cm was observed at 10 K and decreased to 0.2μΩ cm at 300 K. The characteristic AHE clearly indicated the existence of ferromagnetism in these materials. The AHE weakened as PO2 increased because the increasing PO2 reduced the fraction of Fe2+ ions, and consequently weakened the double exchange coupling between Fe2+-O2--Cu2+ in the materials. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  9. An impedance spectroscopy investigation of nanocrystalline CsPbBr{sub 3} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Conte, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: gconte@ele.uniroma3.it; Aloe, P. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Somma, F. [Department of Physics and INFM, University of Rome ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2005-12-15

    Thin films of CsPbBr{sub 3} were prepared by co-evaporation of CsBr and PbBr{sub 2} powders. Deposited materials are constituted by nanometer-sized crystals as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and X ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy measurements, aimed to study the dielectric relaxation processes and transport mechanisms at grain boundary and grain interior, reveal a complex response of the material both on the frequency and on the temperature variations. DC current voltage curves are ohmic for applied electric field strength up to 2 x 10{sup 6} V/cm. The DC conductivity Arrhenius plot gives a value of the activation energy equal to 0.85 eV, smaller then that expected for an intrinsic semiconductor. On the other hand, impedance measurements on a wide frequency range and at different temperatures can be reduced to a single master curve addressing hopping transport mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes being active. Finally, a simple model based on multiple Voigt's elements has been used to fit the impedance spectroscopy data and to evaluate relevant material parameters.

  10. Study of rapid grain boundary migration in a nanocrystalline Ni thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, Josh; Robertson, I.M.; Nowell, Matt; Knapp, J.; Hattar, Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Abnormal growth is distributed randomly in the foil and initiates at different times. → Growth occurs from seemingly uncorrelated regions of the grain boundary. → Growth twins are created during all stages of abnormal grain growth. → Grain growth patterns are qualitatively similar to a vacancy diffusion model. → Grain boundaries and orientations evolve during growth to minimize system energy. - Abstract: Grain boundary migration associated with abnormal grain growth in pulsed-laser deposited Ni was studied in real time by annealing electron transparent films in situ in the transmission electron microscope. The resulting texture evolution and grain boundary types produced were evaluated by ex situ electron backscatter diffraction of interrupted anneals. The combination of these two techniques allowed for the investigation of grain growth rates, grain morphologies, and the evolution of the orientation and grain boundary distributions. Grain boundaries were found to progress in a sporadic, start/stop fashion with no evidence of a characteristic grain growth rate. The orientations of the abnormally growing grains were found to be predominately //ND throughout the annealing process. A high fraction of twin boundaries developed during the annealing process. The intermittent growth from different locations of the grain boundary is discussed in terms of a vacancy diffusion model for grain growth.

  11. Photocatalytic decomposition of dyes using ZnO doped SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by solvothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Rashad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO doped SnO2 has been successfully synthesized by the solvothermal method using methanol as organic solvent. The effect of ZnO/SnO2 molar ratios on the crystal structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties has been investigated. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 physical adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy and UV–Vis spectroscopy. XRD results revealed that all diffraction peaks positions agree well with the reflection of a tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2 phase without extra peaks at 0.1ZnO:0.9SnO2 and 0.2ZnO:0.8SnO2 molar ratios. However, the secondary phase of ZnO at 0.3ZnO:0.7SnO2 molar ratio was investigated. TEM images revealed that the shape of SnO2 particles was spherical and the particle sizes of SnO2 and 0.3ZnO:0.7SnO2 molar ratio were 6.2 and 16.4 nm, respectively. The newly prepared samples have been tested by the determination of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. The results indicated that Zn2+ doping at 0.3ZnO:0.7 SnO2 molar ratio showed the highest photocatalytic activity for the MB photodegradation. The heightened photocatalytic activity of ZnO/SnO2 could be ascribed to the enhanced charge separation derived from the coupling of ZnO with SnO2 due to the potential energy differences between SnO2 and ZnO. The recycling tests demonstrated that 0.3ZnO:0.7 SnO2 photocatalysts were quite stable during that liquid–solid heterogeneous photocatalysis since no decrease in activity in the first four cycles was observed.

  12. Study of nanocrystalline diamond film growth in rf hybrid laser deposition systems in O.sub.2./sub., H.sub.2./sub. and H.sub.2./sub.+Ar ambients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Bulíř, Jiří; Lančok, Ján; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Bonarski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 79, - (2004), s. 1267-1270 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010110; GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : hybride laser * nanocrystalline diamond film * laser deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2004

  13. FP-LAPW Calculations of the EFG at Cd Impurities in Rutile SnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, L. A.; Fabricius, G.; Renteria, M.

    2001-01-01

    We report an ab initio study of the electric-field gradient (EFG) at Cd impurities located at the cation site in the semiconductor SnO 2 (rutile phase). The study was performed with the WIEN97 implementation of the FP-LAPW method. In order to simulate the diluted Cd-impurity in the SnO 2 host and to calculate the electronic structure of the system we used a 72-atoms super-cell, studying the relaxation introduced by the impurity in the lattice. The free-relaxation process performed shows that the relaxations of the oxygen nearest-neighbors of the impurity are not isotropic. Our prediction for the EFG tensor are compared with experimental results and point-charge model predictions

  14. Magnetic behavior of nanoclusters of Fe-doped SnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Claudia E. Rodriguez; Fabiana Cabrera, A.; Sanchez, Francisco H.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic and structural characterization of SnO 2 doped with 10 at% of Fe prepared by mechanical alloying is presented. X-ray diffraction indicates a good dissolution of Fe in the SnO 2 structure, while Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that the doped material (where Fe atoms are in the +2 and +3 oxidation states) does not display a magnetically ordered pattern at room temperature. AC-susceptibility measurements present a behavior consistent with a system of magnetically coupled single-domain units, at the frontier between the behaviors of a cluster spin glass and of an interacting superparamagnetic (SPM) particle system. RT magnetization results display the typical shape of the SPM regime, although a weak hysteresis has been observed

  15. Propriedades físicas do SnO2: defeitos, impurezas, ligas e superredes.

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Damasceno Borges

    2011-01-01

    O dioxido de estanho na estrutura rutila (SnO2) é um semicondutor de gap largo e faz parte da classe dos óxidos condutores transparentes (TCO). Possui gap direto de 3,6 eV e condutividade do tipo n, mesmo quando não dopado intencionalmente. Estudos teóricos e experimentais atribuem este comportamento à presença de defeitos intrínsecos. Por outro lado, impurezas de hidrogênio, em sítios intersticiais ou substituindo o átomo de oxigênio, poderiam ser responsáveis pelo caráter n do SnO2. Neste t...

  16. Micro structural and magnetic characterization of Gd doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, R.; Das, A.K.; Karmakar, D.; Chandrasekhar Rao, T.V.; Ghatak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Gd doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. The prepared samples were calcined at 600 deg C. The annealed samples were characterized using XRD, TEM and SQUID magnetometry. The structural characterizations showed formation of particles in the nanometer regime. The M(T) and M(H) studies indicated an antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction in 3 and 6% (at. wt.) Gd doped SnO 2 nanoparticles. The M(H) plot of both samples indicate a super paramagnetic (SPM) behavior at 7K as against the perfect AFM nature at 300K. The samples exhibit an insulating DMS nature, but we do not observe any ferromagnetism as was observed for other Gd doped systems like GaN and ZnO. (author)

  17. One-pot formation of SnO2 hollow nanospheres and α-Fe2O3@SnO2 nanorattles with large void space and their lithium storage properties

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun Song

    2009-01-01

    In this work, uniform SnO2 hollow nanospheres with large void space have been synthesized by a modified facile method. The void space can be easily controlled by varying the reaction time. The formation of interior void space is based on an inside-out Ostwald ripening mechanism. More importantly, this facile one-pot process can be extended to fabricate rattle-type hollow structures using α-Fe2O3@SnO2 as an example. Furthermore, the electrochemical lithium storage properties have been investigated. It is found that α-Fe2O3@SnO 2 nanorattles manifest a much lower initial irreversible loss and higher reversible capacity compared to SnO2 hollow spheres. This interesting finding supports a general hypothesis that a synergistic effect between functional core and shell materials can lead to improved lithium storage capabilities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2009.

  18. Novel development of nanocrystalline kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film with high photocatalytic activity under visible light illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Andigoni; Mahajan, Sandip; Sharma, Ramphal; Stathatos, Elias

    2018-01-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) represents a promising p-type direct band gap semiconductor with large absorption coefficient in the visible region of solar light. In the present study, a kesterite CZTS nanocrystalline film, with high purity, was successfully synthesized via the combination of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The morphology and structural properties of the CZTS films were characterized by FE-SEM microscopy, porosimetry in terms of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The as-prepared films under mild heat treatment at 250 °C in the presence of sulfur atmosphere exhibited fine nanostructure with 35 nm average particle size, high specific surface area of 53 m2/g and 9 nm pore diameter. The photocatalytic activity of the films was examined to the degradation of Basic Blue 41 (BB-41) and Acid Orange 8 (AO-8) organic azo dyes under visible light irradiation, demonstrating 97.5% and 70% discoloration for BB-41 and AO-8 respectively. Reusability of the CZTS films was also tested proving good stability over several repetitions. The reduction of photocatalyst's efficiency after three successive repetitions didn't exceed 5.6% and 8.5% for BB-41 and AO-8 respectively.

  19. High Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Synthesized SnO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. N. M. B. Wanninayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, SnO2 semiconductor nanoparticles were synthesized for DSC applications via acid route using tin(ii chloride as a starting material and hydrothermal method through the use of tin(iv chloride. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of the rutile phase of SnO2 with nanoranged particle sizes. A quasi-solid-state electrolyte was employed instead of a conventional liquid electrolyte in order to overcome the practical limitations such as electrolyte leakage, solvent evaporation, and sealing imperfections associated with liquid electrolytes. The gel electrolytes were prepared incorporating lithium iodide (LiI and tetrapropylammonium iodide (Pr4N+I− salts, separately, into the mixture which contains polyacrylonitrile as a polymer, propylene carbonate and ethylene carbonate as plasticizers, iodide/triiodide as the redox couple, acetonitrile as the solvent, and 4-tertiary butylpyridine as an electrolyte additive. In order to overcome the recombination problem associated with the SnO2 due to its higher electron mobility, ultrathin layer of CaCO3 coating was used to cover the surface recombination sites of SnO2 nanoparticles. Maximum energy conversion efficiency of 5.04% is obtained for the device containing gel electrolyte incorporating LiI as the salt. For the same gel electrolyte, the ionic conductivity and the diffusion coefficient of the triiodide ions are 4.70 × 10−3 S cm−1 and 4.31 × 10−7 cm2 s−1, respectively.

  20. First principles lattice dynamics study of SnO2 polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, I.; Kart, H.H.; Cagin, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mode frequencies at the zone center (Γ) after LO/TO splitting are calculated. • Softening of B 1g mode at the rutile-CaCl 2 phase transition is confirmed. • Dispersions of polymorphs of SnO 2 are calculated for the first time except for rutile. • They show entire dynamical stability except for α-PbO 2 phase. • Thermal properties are evaluated by applying quasi harmonic approximation. - Abstract: The structural properties of SnO 2 polymorphs in the sequential order of observed phases in experiments are determined by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on local density approximation (LDA) of ultra soft pseudo potentials (US-PPs). Phonon dispersion relations are calculated by the lattice dynamics calculations. Shifts in the infrared (IR) active optical modes due to polarization (LO/TO splitting) are also calculated. Moreover, softening of B 1g mode at the rutile-CaCl 2 second-order ferroelastic phase transition is confirmed. Thermal properties, such as temperature behavior of bulk modulus and thermal expansion in the rutile phase are obtained by employing quasiharmonic approximation (QHA). They are in good agreement with the available experimental results. Dynamic stabilities of SnO 2 polymorphs except for the rutile phase are checked for the first time by using phonon dispersions. The rutile, CaCl 2 , pyrite, ZrO 2 and cotunnite type structures have shown thermodynamical stability. The cause of α-PbO 2 phase showing nearly stability is discussed in the light of experimental studies. However, the fluorite type structure is definitely instable even at different pressures. It may not be one of SnO 2 polymorphs

  1. Label-free SnO2 nanowire FET biosensor for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Markus H.; Dong, Bo; Gutsch, Sebastian; Chatelle, Claire; Krishnaraja, Abinaya; Weber, Wilfried; Zacharias, Margit

    2017-06-01

    Novel tin oxide field-effect-transistors (SnO2 NW-FET) for pH and protein detection applicable in the healthcare sector are reported. With a SnO2 NW-FET the proof-of-concept of a bio-sensing device is demonstrated using the carrier transport control of the FET channel by a (bio-) liquid modulated gate. Ultra-thin Al2O3 fabricated by a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process represents a sensitive layer to H+ ions safeguarding the nanowire at the same time. Successful pH sensitivity is demonstrated for pH ranging from 3 to 10. For protein detection, the SnO2 NW-FET is functionalized with a receptor molecule which specifically interacts with the protein of interest to be detected. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated via the detection of a biotinylated protein using a NW-FET functionalized with streptavidin. An immediate label-free electronic read-out of the signal is shown. The well-established Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method is used to determine the optimal experimental procedure which would enable molecular binding events to occur while being compatible with a final label-free electronic read-out on a NW-FET. Integration of the bottom-up fabricated SnO2 NW-FET pH- and biosensor into a microfluidic system (lab-on-a-chip) allows the automated analysis of small volumes in the 400 μl range as would be desired in portable on-site point-of-care (POC) devices for medical diagnosis.

  2. Structural and optical studies of 100 MeV Au irradiated thin films of tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-11-01

    Thin films of tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) of 100 nm thickness were grown on silicon (1 0 0) matrices by electron beam evaporation deposition technique under high vacuum. The thicknesses of these films were monitored by piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. Nanocrystallinity is achieved in these thin films by 100 MeV Au8+ using 1 pnA current at normal incidence with ion fluences varying from 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. Swift Heavy Ion beam irradiation was carried out by using 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Optical studies of pristine and ion irradiated thin films were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prominent peak at 610 cm-1 in FTIR spectrum confirmed the O-Sn-O bonding of tin(IV) oxide. For Surface topographical studies and grain size calculations, these films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using Nanoscope III-A. Crystallinity and phase transformation due to irradiation of pristine and irradiated films were characterized by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) using Brucker-D8 advance model. GAXRD results show improvement in crystallinity and phase transformation due to swift heavy ion irradiation. Grain size distribution was verified by AFM and GAXRD results. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in thin films of SnO2 were confirmed by the presence of prominent peaks at 2θ values of 30.65°, 32.045°, 43.94°, 44.96° and 52.36° in GAXRD spectrum.

  3. Tunable SnO2 Nanoribbon by Electric Fields and Hydrogen Passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Lian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under external transverse electronic fields and hydrogen passivation, the electronic structure and band gap of tin dioxide nanoribbons (SnO2NRs with both zigzag and armchair shaped edges are studied by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW potential with the density function theory (DFT framework. The results showed that the electronic structures of zigzag and armchair edge SnO2NRs exhibit an indirect semiconducting nature and the band gaps demonstrate a remarkable reduction with the increase of external transverse electronic field intensity, which demonstrate a giant Stark effect. The value of the critical electric field for bare Z-SnO2NRs is smaller than A-SnO2NRs. In addition, the different hydrogen passivation nanoribbons (Z-SnO2NRs-2H and A-SnO2NRs-OH show different band gaps and a slightly weaker Stark effect. The band gap of A-SnO2NRs-OH obviously is enhanced while the Z-SnO2NRs-2H reduce. Interestingly, the Z-SnO2NRs-OH presented the convert of metal-semiconductor-metal under external transverse electronic fields. In the end, the electronic transport properties of the different edges SnO2NRs are studied. These findings provide useful ways in nanomaterial design and band engineering for spintronics.

  4. Comparison of electrocatalytic characterization of boron-doped diamond and SnO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Jiangwei; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Qu, Youpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2013-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and SnO 2 electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) and sol–gel method, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of the two electrodes were investigated by phenol electrochemical degradation, accelerated service life test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phenol solution, polarization curves in H 2 SO 4 . The surface morphology and crystal structure of two electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed a considerable difference between the two electrodes in their electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical stability and surface properties. Phenol was readily mineralized to CO 2 at BDD electrode, favoring electrochemical combustion, but its degradation was much slower at SnO 2 electrode. The service life of BDD electrode was 10 times longer than that of SnO 2 . Higher electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical stability of BDD electrode arise from its high oxygen evolution potential and the physically absorbed hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on electrode surface.

  5. Bidimensional versus tridimensional oxygen vacancy diffusion in SnO(2-x) under different gas environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, N; Prades, J Daniel; Hernández-Ramírez, F; Morante, J R; Pan, J; Mathur, S

    2010-03-14

    Metal oxides present oxygen defects that induce different chemical and physical properties. Experiments performed in SnO(2-x) sensors show that the dynamics of these vacancies are strongly affected by the presence of different gases in the environment. Experimentally, the electrical resistance of individual metal oxide SnO(2-x) nanowires shows modulation: when the environment is oxygen rich long term drifts (hours) are observed indicating extended vacancy dynamics. Instead, if CO is present, drifts disappear in minutes. Density functional theory indicates that changes in resistance follow the extension of reoxidation. For oxygen-poor environments, oxygen vacancy excorporation and healing are confined to the near-surface layer of SnO(2-x) (bidimensional or near-surface diffusion), and completed in short times. Under oxygen-rich conditions, tridimensional diffusion of oxygen vacancies towards the surface takes place at room temperature. In this case, a push-pull mechanism allows bulk-to-surface diffusion and as a consequence resistance drifts are longer and the vacancy quenching is more extensive.

  6. 'Pop-out' effect in ITO/Si and SnO2/Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabko, D.Z.; Kharya, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the 'pop-out' effect was studied in the ITO/Si and SnO 2 /Si composite structures, and in the silicon single crystals doped with phosphorus, used as a substrate for the above mentioned structures. The carried out research revealed a characteristic peculiarity: the value of the coefficient K = P pop-out /P max at the first stage (P max ≤ 100 mN) was less than at the second one for all studied materials. It confirms the existence of higher internal stresses at the second stage, which leads to a sharper increase of the indenter penetration depth in a material, activation of the relaxation processes at the earlier stage of unloading und, accordingly, to the change of the curve slope angle h pop-out (P max ). Thereby, for the investigated materials (ITO/Si and SnO 2 /Si structures, Si substrate), the following regularity was detected: the appearance of the 'pop-out' effect essentially depends on the P max value and, to a lesser extent, on the unloading velocity. There is a certain loading interval: (40-300) mN for Si substrate and (80-400) mN for the ITO/Si and SnO 2 /Si structures where the 'pop-out' effect appears with a stronger probability. (authors)

  7. The effect of low platinum loading on the efficiency of PEMFC’s electrocatalysts supported on TiO2–Nb, and SnO2–Nb: An experimental comparison between active and stable conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahgaldi, Samaneh; Hamelin, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SnO 2 –Nb, and TiO 2 –Nb thin films synthesized via sputtering. • SnO 2 –Nb, and TiO 2 –Nb thin films applied as a Pt support in PEMFC. • Low amount of Pt sputtered on supports as catalyst in cathode side. • Fabricate a single cell and plot I–V curves. - Abstract: Electrocatalyst supports have been demonstrated to strongly influence the cost, performance and durability of PEMFC systems, which have been among the heated research topics in the course of the past decades. However, the present support materials used in fuel cell stack are not adequately durable for commercialization. Development of active electrocatalyst with cost effectiveness and high durability is one of the main challenges. In this paper, titania and tin oxide nanoparticles doped nobidium were selected as thermo chemically stable and carbonless electrocatalyst supports. Low Pt loading (0.05 mg/cm 2 ) is deposited on supports through sputtering method, and the structure, the distribution of nanoparticles, and the electrical resistivity were systematically analyzed. To make the studies of oxygen reduction reaction activity, catalytic stability and performance of PEMFC more precise, rotation disk electrode (RDE), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and single cell test were utilized. The data analysis of this study highlighted that SnO 2 –Nb–Pt depicted higher stability and better fuel cell performance in comparison with TiO 2 –Nb–Pt

  8. Dependence of open-circuit voltage of SnO2-nSi solar cells; SnO2-nSi taiyo denchi no sanka ondo menhoi izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinoda, S.; Shimizu, A.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    Although metal(or semiconductor)-semiconductor solar cells, SnO2-nSi solar cell for example, are superior in cost and efficiency, its barrier height and open-circuit voltage V(oc) are lower than those of p-n junctions. To improve these defects, study was made on the dependence of V(oc) on oxidation temperature and surface orientation using various solar cells prepared from (100)Si and (111)Si under various oxidation conditions. As a result, the density of surface states increases with a decrease in oxidation temperature of Si substrates, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). In this case, since oxide films are extremely thin and contribution of non-terminated bonds is large in the initial oxidation stage, the quantity of dangling bonds is larger in (100) plane than (111) plane, resulting in an increase in diode factor and V(oc). Since the surface energy level (the degree of electrons dominated by acceptor-like surface state from this level to the top of a valence band) of (100) Si is lower than that of (111) Si, the effective barrier height and V(oc) increase. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Magnetic and optical properties of electrospun hollow nanofibers of SnO2 doped with Ce-ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, P.; Pradeepkumar, R.; Victor Jaya, N.; Natarajan, T. S.

    2014-07-01

    Cerium doped SnO2 hollow nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. High resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed hollow nanofibers with diameters around ˜200 nm. The optimized substitution of Ce ion into SnO2 lattices happened above 6 mol. % doping as confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Optical band gap was decreased by the doping confirming the direct energy transfer between f-electrons of rare earth ion and the SnO2 conduction or valence band. The compound also exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism with the saturation magnetization of 19 × 10-5 emu/g at 6 mol. %. This study demonstrates the Ce doped SnO2 hollow nanofibers for applications in magneto-optoelectronic devices.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  11. Influence of Cd-content on structural and optical dispersion characteristics of nanocrystalline Zn1−xCdxS (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.9) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, A.A.M.; Abdel Rafea, M.; Roushdy, N.; El-Shazly, O.; El-Wahidy, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly uniform and good adhesion of nanocrystalline Zn 1−x Cd x S films were synthesized. • Small magnitude of optical electronegativity was calculated. • Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility and molar polarizability were considered. - Abstract: Low cost dip coating technique was successfully used to deposit highly uniform and good adhesive nanocrystalline Zn 1−x Cd x S (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.9) thin films. The surface morphology and crystalline structural characteristics of Zn 1−x Cd x S were achieved by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Transmission spectra show red shifting of absorption edge as the Cd content increased. The optical constants were accurately determined by using reflectance and transmittance spectra. The effect of Cd-content on refractive index, extinction index and other optical dispersion parameters were also investigated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of single oscillator model. In addition, the ratio of free carrier concentration to its effective mass was estimated. The calculated value of oscillator energy E o obeys the empirical relation (E o ≈ 2 E g ), obtained from single oscillator model. Small magnitude of optical electronegativity (χ ∗ ) for Zn 1−x Cd x S (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.9) thin films and relatively high refractive index can be attributed to covalent nature, in agreement with β value, obtained from dispersion energy analysis. Moreover, molar polarizability and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility were also considered

  12. Magnetism in nanocrystalline gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Savin, Alexander; Pirojenko, Alexandre; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2013-08-27

    While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.

  13. Comparative investigation on cation-cation (Al-Sn) and cation-anion (Al-F) co-doping in RF sputtered ZnO thin films: Mechanistic insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Basak, Durga

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report a comparative mechanistic study on cation-cation (Al-Sn) and cation-anion (Al-F) co-doped nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on glass substrate by RF sputtering technique. Through detailed analyses of crystal structure, surface morphology, microstructure, UV-VIS-NIR transmission-reflection and electrical transport property, the inherent characteristics of the co-doped films were revealed and compared. All the nanocrystalline films retain the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and show transparency above 90% in the visible and NIR region. As opposed to expectation, Al-Sn (ATZO) co-doped film show no enhanced carrier concentration consistent with the probable formation of SnO2 clusters supported by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. Most interestingly, it has been found that Al-F (AFZO) co-doped film shows three times enhanced carrier concentration as compared to Al doped and Al-Sn co-doped films attaining a value of ∼9 × 1020 cm-3 due to the respective cation and anion substitution. The carrier relaxation time increases in AFZO while it decreases significantly for ATZO film consistent with the concurrence of the impurity scattering in the latter.

  14. Densificação rápida de cerâmicas de SnO2 Fast densification of SnO2 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Pereira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Os pós à base de óxido de estanho são conhecidos por apresentarem baixa densificação mesmo a temperaturas de sinterização acima de 1500 °C. A introdução de diferentes íons metálicos como Mn2+, Fe3+ e Cu2+ induzem a redução do volume de poros e crescimento de grãos durante a sinterização. Pós à base de SnO2 foram preparados pela rota química derivada da patente de Pechini, contendo diferentes concentrações de Mg2+ ou Fe3+. Todas as amostras apresentaram uma alta taxa de densificação nos momentos iniciais, quando sinterizadas por "fast firing". As amostras contendo 5% em mol de ferro sinterizadas durante 30 s a 1200 °C apresentaram densidades superiores às amostras sinterizadas por aquecimento em taxas normais (10 °C/min por 4 h a 1200 °C. O fenômeno de eliminação rápida de poros pode ser explicado, levando em conta o papel da superfície no fenômeno de sinterização. A saturação da superfície pelo aditivo foi confirmada por medidas de mobilidade eletroforética dinâmica com base na literatura e em dados experimentais.Tin oxide based powders without additives present low densification even at high sintering temperatures. Different metal cations such as Fe3+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ are introduced into such powders and induce pore volume reduction during sintering. In this work, SnO2 based powders were prepared with different amounts of Mg2+ and Fe3+ by a polymeric chemical process derived from Pechini's method. All samples presented high initial densification rate when sintered by fast firing. SnO2 samples containing 5 mol % of iron ions and sintered by fast firing at 1200 °C during 30 s were denser than samples with the same composition but sintered by conventional method, e.g., 1200 °C during 4 h at 10 °C/min. The fast densification could be understood considering the role of the surface on the sintering phenomenon. The surface saturation was verified by electrokinetic mobility measurements and reported results.

  15. Structure design and photocatalytic properties of one-dimensional SnO2-TiO2 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Liu, Bitao; Chen, Junfang; Tian, Liangliang; Huang, Lei; Tu, Mingjing; Tan, Shuai

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional SnO2-TiO2 composites were prepared via emulsion electrospinning process. The obtained samples were characterized by a series of devices. The results showed that the porous core-shell SnO2-TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity on the degradation of methyl orange (MO). It should be ascribed to the novel structure, which could separate the electrons and holes effectively.

  16. Nanoparticle cluster gas sensor: Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticles for NH3 detection with ultrahigh sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Chen, Nan; Han, Bingqian; Xiao, Xuechun; Chen, Gang; Djerdj, Igor; Wang, Yude

    2015-09-28

    Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were synthesized by a simple solvothermal method. The structure, morphology, chemical state and specific surface area were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2-sorption studies, respectively. The SnO2 nanoparticle cluster matrix consists of tens of thousands of SnO2 nanoparticles with an ultra-small grain size estimated to be 3.0 nm. And there are abundant random-packed wormhole-like pores, caused by the inter-connection of the SnO2 nanoparticles, throughout each cluster. The platinum element is present in two forms including metal (Pt) and tetravalent metal oxide (PtO2) in the Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters. The as-synthesized pure and Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters were used to fabricate gas sensor devices. It was found that the gas response toward 500 ppm of ammonia was improved from 6.48 to 203.44 through the activation by Pt. And the results indicate that the sensor based on Pt activated SnO2 not only has ultrahigh sensitivity but also possesses good response-recovery properties, linear dependence, repeatability, selectivity and long-term stability, demonstrating the potential to use Pt activated SnO2 nanoparticle clusters as ammonia gas sensors. At the same time, the formation mechanisms of the unique nanoparticle clusters and highly enhanced sensitivity are also discussed.

  17. Hierarchical MnO2/SnO2 heterostructures for a novel free-standing ternary thermite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Peng; Zhang, Jing-Chao; Nosheen, Farhat; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2013-08-19

    We report the synthesis of a novel hierarchical MnO2/SnO2 heterostructures via a hydrothermal method. Secondary SnO2 nanostructure grows epitaxially on the surface of MnO2 backbones without any surfactant, which relies on the minimization of surface energy and interfacial lattice mismatch. Detailed investigations reveal that the cover density and morphology of the SnO2 nanostructure can be tailored by changing the experimental parameter. Moreover, we demonstrate a bottom-up method to produce energetic nanocomposites by assembling nanoaluminum (n-Al) and MnO2/SnO2 hierarchical nanostructures into a free-standing MnO2/SnO2/n-Al ternary thermite membrane. This assembled approach can significantly reduce diffusion distances and increase their intimacy between the components. Different thermite mixtures were investigated to evaluate the corresponding activation energies using DSC techniques. The energy performance of the ternary thermite membrane can be manipulated through different components of the MnO2/SnO2 heterostructures. Overall, our work may open a new route for new energetic materials.

  18. Modification of SnO2 Anodes by Atomic Layer Deposition for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yesibolati, Nulati

    2013-05-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is considered one of the most promising anode materials for Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), due to its large theoretical capacity and natural abundance. However, its low electronic/ionic conductivities, large volume change during lithiation/delithiation and agglomeration prevent it from further commercial applications. In this thesis, we investigate modified SnO2 as a high energy density anode material for LIBs. Specifically two approaches are presented to improve battery performances. Firstly, SnO2 electrochemical performances were improved by surface modification using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Ultrathin Al2O3 or HfO2 were coated on SnO2 electrodes. It was found that electrochemical performances had been enhanced after ALD deposition. In a second approach, we implemented a layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled graphene/carbon-coated hollow SnO2 spheres as anode material for LIBs. Our results indicated that the LBL assembled electrodes had high reversible lithium storage capacities even at high current densities. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the enhanced electronic conductivity and effective lithium diffusion, because of the interconnected graphene/carbon networks among nanoparticles of the hollow SnO2 spheres.

  19. Self-assembled 3-D flower-shaped SnO2 nanostructures with improved electrochemical performance for lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rong; Gu Yingan; Li Yaoqi; Zheng Jie; Li Xingguo

    2010-01-01

    Flower-shaped SnO 2 nanoplates were successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal treatment of a mixture of tin(II) dichloride dihydrate (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O) and sodium citrate (Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 .2H 2 O) in alkali solution. The obtained SnO 2 nanoplates were less than 5 nm thick and self-assembled into flower-shaped nanostructures. The introduction of citrate was essential for the preparation of the SnO 2 nanoplates. The nanoscale shape and self-assembled architecture of SnO 2 nanoparticles were mainly controlled by the alkalinity of the solution. When the self-assembled SnO 2 nanostructures were used as anode materials in Li-ion batteries, they exhibit a reversible capacity of 670 mA h g -1 after 30 cycles and an average capacity fading of 0.95% per cycle after the second cycle. The good electrochemical performance of the SnO 2 sample prepared via the hydrothermal synthesis indicates the possibility of fabricating specific self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures for Li-ion batteries.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis, structural characteristics, and enhanced photocatalysis of SnO(2)/alpha-Fe(2)O(3) semiconductor nanoheterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mutong; Huang, Feng; Cui, Lifeng; Huang, Ping; Yu, Yunlong; Wang, Yuansheng

    2010-02-23

    Branched SnO(2)/alpha-Fe(2)O(3) semiconductor nanoheterostructures (SNHs) of high purity were synthesized by a low-cost and environmentally friendly hydrothermal strategy, through crystallographic-oriented epitaxial growth of the SnO(2) nanorods onto the alpha-Fe(2)O(3) nanospindles and nanocubes, respectively. It was demonstrated that the SnO(2) nanorods would change their preferential growth direction on the varied alpha-Fe(2)O(3) precursors with distinct crystallographic surface, driven by decrease in the distortion energy induced by lattice mismatch at the interfaces. All of the prepared SNHs were of high purity, ascribing to the successful preinhibition of the SnO(2) homonucleation in the reaction system. Significantly, some of the SnO(2)/alpha-Fe(2)O(3) SNHs exhibited excellent visible light or UV photocatalytic abilities, remarkably superior to their alpha-Fe(2)O(3) precursors, mainly owing to the effective electron-hole separation at the SnO(2)/alpha-Fe(2)O(3) interfaces.

  1. Fabrication and characterization dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2/SnO2 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyaro'ah, Huda, Ichsanul; Indayani, Wahyu; Gunawan, Bodi; Yudhoyono, G.; Endarko

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2/SnO2 composite electrode has been fabricated. In this research, modifications TiO2 electrode in the form of composite TiO2/SnO2 which aims to optimize the process of transfer and charge separation that reduces premature recombination in the cells, so as to increase the conversion efficiency and stability of dye-sensitized solar cell performance. In this study, DSSC is composed of several components, among others, a semiconductor oxide, a layer of dye, a counter electrode, and an electrolyte. This study used three types of semiconductors at the working electrode is pure TiO2, composite TiO2/SnO2 and pure SnO2, electrolyte gel based polymer PEG with BM 1000, plate carbon as the counter electrode (cathode), and the use of dye from synthetic materials N-749 as dye sensitizer. This study tested with xenon lamp light source intensity of 100mW/cm2. Results of research and calculations showed that the DSSC based composite electrode TiO2/SnO2 better than the DSSC based pure TiO2 electrodes and based pure SnO2 electrodes, this is indicated by the value efficient as follows: 0.041%, 0.019%, and 0.0114%.

  2. On the physics of dispersive electron transport characteristics in SnO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Vijayaraghavan, S. N.; Unni, Gautam E.; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Shanmugam, Mariyappan

    2018-04-01

    The present study elucidates dispersive electron transport mediated by surface states in tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Transmission electron microscopic studies on SnO2 show a distribution of ∼10 nm particles exhibiting (111) crystal planes with inter-planar spacing of 0.28 nm. The dispersive transport, experienced by photo-generated charge carriers in the bulk of SnO2, is observed to be imposed by trapping and de-trapping processes via SnO2 surface states present close to the band edge. The DSSC exhibits 50% difference in performance observed between the forward (4%) and reverse (6%) scans due to the dispersive transport characteristics of the charge carriers in the bulk of the SnO2. The photo-generated charge carriers are captured and released by the SnO2 surface states that are close to the conduction band-edge resulting in a very significant variation; this is confirmed by the hysteresis observed in the forward and reverse scan current–voltage measurements under AM1.5 illumination. The hysteresis behavior assures that the charge carriers are accumulated in the bulk of electron acceptor due to the trapping, and released by de-trapping mediated by surface states observed during the forward and reverse scan measurements.

  3. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 Thin Film Using a Chemical Bath Deposition Method with Improved Deposition Time, Temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnOx thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnOx nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnOx. Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  4. Synthesis of nanocrystalline SnO(x) (x = 1-2) thin film using a chemical bath deposition method with improved deposition time, temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimiasl, Saeideh; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Kassim, Anuar; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline SnO(x) (x = 1-2) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnO(x) thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnO(x) nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnO(x). Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  5. Anomalous behavior of B1g mode in highly transparent anatase nano-crystalline Nb-doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh K. Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO2 lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb+5 in the TiO2 lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm−1 for the Eg(1 mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B1g mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm−1 with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO2 crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb5+ doping induced reduction of Ti4+ ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.

  6. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  7. Characterization of the bonding structure of nanocrystalline diamond and amorphous carbon films prepared by plasma assisted techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popov, C.; Kulisch, W.; Bliznakov, S.; Mednikarov, B.; Spasov, G.; Pirov, J.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Zemek, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2007), s. 209-212 ISSN 0947-8396 Grant - others:NATO(XE) CBP.EAP.CLG 981519; Marie-Curie EIF(XE) MEIF-CT-2004-500038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * amorphous carbon * CVD * PLD * magnetron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2007

  8. Resistance to protein adsorption and adhesion of fibroblasts on nanocrystalline diamond films: the role of topography and boron doping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alcaide, M.; Papaioannou, S.; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Gurevich, L.; Zachar, V.; Pennisi, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2016), s. 90-1-12 ISSN 0957-4530 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : protein adsorption * fibroblasts adhesion * nanocrystalline diamond * boron doping * topography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.325, year: 2016

  9. Facile synthesis of SnO2-PbS nanocomposites with controlled structure for applications in photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Arik; Sain, Sumanta; Rossouw, David; Knappett, Benjamin R.; Pradhan, Swapan Kumar; Wheatley, Andrew E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that SnO2-based nanocomposites offer excellent electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties. In this article, we present the facile and cost-effective fabrication, characterization and testing of a new SnO2-PbS nanocomposite photocatalyst designed to overcome low photocatalytic efficiency brought about by electron-hole recombination and narrow photoresponse range. The structure is fully elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)/Reitveld refinement, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectrum imaging analysis demonstrates the intermixing of SnO2 and PbS to form nanocomposites. A charge separation mechanism is presented that explains how the two semiconductors in junction function synergistically. The efficacy of this new nanocomposite material in the photocatalytic degradation of the toxic dye Rhodamine B under simulated solar irradiation is demonstrated. An apparent quantum yield of 0.217 mol min-1 W-1 is calculated with data revealing good catalyst recyclability and that charge separation in SnO2-PbS leads to significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison to either SnO2 or PbS.Recent studies have shown that SnO2-based nanocomposites offer excellent electrical, optical, and electrochemical properties. In this article, we present the facile and cost-effective fabrication, characterization and testing of a new SnO2-PbS nanocomposite photocatalyst designed to overcome low photocatalytic efficiency brought about by electron-hole recombination and narrow photoresponse range. The structure is fully elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD)/Reitveld refinement, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectrum imaging analysis demonstrates the intermixing of SnO2 and PbS to form nanocomposites. A charge separation mechanism is presented that explains how the two semiconductors in junction function synergistically. The efficacy of this new nanocomposite material in the photocatalytic degradation of the toxic dye Rhodamine B under simulated solar irradiation is demonstrated. An apparent quantum yield of 0.217 mol min-1 W-1 is calculated with data revealing good catalyst recyclability and that charge separation in SnO2-PbS leads to significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison to either SnO2 or PbS. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07036h

  10. Terbium doped SnO2 nanoparticles as white emitters and SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 magnetic luminescent nanohybrids for hyperthermia application and biocompatibility with HeLa cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laishram Priyobarta; Singh, Ningthoujam Premananda; Srivastava, Sri Krishna

    2015-04-14

    SnO2:5Tb (SnO2 doped with 5 at% Tb(3+)) nanoparticles were synthesised by a polyol method and their luminescence properties at different annealing temperatures were studied. Characterization of nanomaterials was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD studies indicate that the prepared nanoparticles were of tetragonal structures. Upon Tb(3+) ion incorporation into SnO2, Sn(4+) changes to Sn(2+) and, on annealing again at higher temperature, Sn(2+) changes to Sn(4+). The prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape. Sn-O vibrations were found from the FTIR studies. In photoluminescence studies, the intensity of the emission peaks of Tb(3+) ions increases with the increase of annealing temperature, and emission spectra lie in the region of white emission in the CIE diagram. CCT calculations show that the SnO2:5Tb emission lies in cold white emission. Quantum yields up to 38% can be obtained for 900 °C annealed samples. SnO2:5Tb nanoparticles were well incorporated into the PVA polymer and such a material incorporated into the polymer can be used for display devices. The SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 nanohybrid was prepared and investigated for hyperthermia applications at different concentrations of the nanohybrid. This achieves a hyperthermia temperature (42 °C) under an AC magnetic field. The hybrid nanomaterial SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 was found to exhibit biocompatibility with HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cells) at concentrations up to 74% for 100 μg L(-1). Also, this nanohybrid shows green emission and thus it will be helpful in tracing magnetic nanoparticles through optical imaging in vivo and in vitro application.

  11. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C., E-mail: jconde@uvigo.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Stefanov, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H{sub 2} desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25

  12. A first-principles study of the SnO2 monolayer with hexagonal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2016-11-01

    We report the structural, electronic, magnetic, and elastic properties of a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb stannic oxide (SnO2) monolayer based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The free-standing and well-ordered 2D centered honeycomb SnO2 (T-SnO2) monolayer with D3d point-group symmetry has good dynamical stability, as well as thermal stability at 500 K. The T-SnO2 monolayer is a nonmagnetic wide-bandgap semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 2.55/4.13 eV obtained by the generalized gradient approximation with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof/Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional, but it acquires a net magnetic moment upon creation of a Sn vacancy defect. The elastic constants obtained from the relaxed ion model show that the T-SnO2 monolayer is much softer than MoS2. The bandgap monotonically decreases with increasing strain from -8% to 15%. An indirect-to-direct bandgap transition occurs upon applying biaxial strain below -8%. Synthesis of the T-SnO2 monolayer is proposed. We identify the Zr(0001) surface as being suitable to grow and stabilize the T-SnO2 monolayer. The unique structure and electronic properties mean that the T-SnO2 monolayer has promising applications in nanoelectronics. We hope that the present study on the stable free-standing SnO2 monolayer will inspire researchers to further explore its importance both experimentally and theoretically.

  13. Tunable Schottky diodes fabricated from crossed electrospun SnO2/PEDOT-PSSA nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquillo, Katherine V.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Crossed SnO 2 /PEDOT-PSSA nanoribbon Schottky diodes. Highlight: ► An inexpensive electrospinning technique is used to fabricate crossed nanoribbons of n-doped tin oxide and p-PEDOT. ► Each intersection is a localized Schottky diode that is completely exposed to the environment after electrodes deposition. ► This makes it useful as a gas and light sensor. ► In addition, the ability to tune the diode parameters via a back gate truly makes this device multifunctional. ► A half wave rectifier has been demonstrated with this device under UV illumination. - Abstract: Schottky diodes have been fabricated on doped Si/SiO 2 substrates in air, by simply crossing individual electrospun tin oxide (SnO 2 ) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSSA) nanoribbons. The conductivity of PEDOT-PSSA was ∼6 S/cm with no observable field effect, while SnO 2 exhibited n-doped field effect behavior with a charge mobility of ∼3.1 cm 2 /V-s. The diodes operate in air or in vacuum, under ambient illumination or in the dark, with low turn-on voltages and device parameters that are tunable via a back gate bias or a UV light source. Their unique design involves a highly localized active region that is completely exposed to the surrounding environment, making them potentially attractive for use as sensors. The standard thermionic emission model of a Schottky junction was applied to analyze the forward bias diode characteristics and was successfully tested as a half wave rectifier.

  14. Opto-electronic properties of SnO2 layers obtained by SPD and ECD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enesca, Alexandru; Bogatu, Cristina; Voinea, Mihaela; Duta, Anca

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a comparative approach concerning the properties of SnO 2 thin layers obtained via spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electro-chemical deposition (ECD). The influences of crystalline structure (X-ray diffraction), morphology (atomic force microscopy, contact angle) on the electric (electrical conductivity) properties of the layers were studied. The SPD samples present a porous morphology with high surface energy compared with ECD samples characterized by a dense morphology. The photocatalytic efficiency of the samples was tested in the photodegradation of methylene blue and the higher values (57%) correspond to SPD samples.

  15. Powder preparation technics for SnO2 with submycrometrics particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, R.S.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Santilli, C.V.; Masetto, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Preparation of SnO 2 fine powders is a pointer research because of this application as gas detecting sensors. This work shows basicaly two powder preparation methods: i) from metalic tin oxidation with nitric acid, ii) from SnCl 4 hydrolysis in aquous solution of amonia hydroxides. It was analysed the concentration of nitric acid and the pH of precipitation influency of the structural and morphologic characteristics of the obtained powders. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infra-red spectroscopy and specific surface area [pt

  16. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaoxu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs.

  17. Highly Sensitive and Selective Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using the Mesoporous SnO2 Modified Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Niuzi Xue; Qinyi Zhang; Shunping Zhang; Pan Zong; Feng Yang

    2017-01-01

    It is important to improve the sensitivities and selectivities of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors when they are used to monitor the state of hydrogen in aerospace industry and electronic field. In this paper, the ordered mesoporous SnO2 (m-SnO2) powders were prepared by sol-gel method, and the morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET). The gas sensors were fabricated usin...

  18. Investigation of the properties of Sb doping on tin oxide SNO2 materials for technological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachoun, Z.; Ouerdane, A.; Bouslama, M.; Ghaffour, M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Caudano, Y.; benamara, A. Ali

    2016-04-01

    The conductivities of the oxide SnO2 is dependent on the nature of the surrounding gas. This property stems from the adsorption or desorption on the surface of oxide grains. These phenomena are usually accompanied by electronic transfer between the adsorbed molecule and the semiconductor material, changing its conductivity. Tin oxidation and Sb doping were realized without and with heating process. The XPS technique and the TEM microscopy showed the synthesized nanocrystals. Simulated Monte Carlo program Casino is used for a scanning its profile. The surface characteristics are highlighted in the aim to be used as spatial gas sensors.

  19. Magnetically diluted semi-conductor of SnO2- Fe obtained by controlled precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajas, P.C.; Munoz, R.; Rodriguez-Paez, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Solid solutions were synthesized SnO 2 doped with 5% and 8 mol% Fe by the controlled precipitation method. The particles size was obtained of ∼12 nm with heath treatment 450 °C. The presence of iron in the structure is evidenced by Raman spectroscopy The crystallite size we obtained with the results of XRD, and particle size by MET, it was concluded that the nanoparticles obtained were monocrystalline. The particles were characterized magnetically, for the powders doped to 8% Fe was determined ferromagnetic behavior at 5K, with a tendency superparamagnetic and paramagnetic at a temperature of 300K. (author)

  20. Structural, chemical and optical properties of SnO2 NPs obtained by three different synthesis routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Depciuch, Joanna; Budziak, Andrzej; Kowal, Andrzej; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Polyol (P), chemical precipitation (C) and microwave-assisted (M) syntheses were chosen to produce SnO2 nanoparticles with uniform size and minimum agglomeration. Their structural, chemical and optical properties were investigated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) using the Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) technique and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. STEM observations showed that the SnO2(P) and SnO2(C) nanoparticles (NPs) are combined into larger agglomerates with heterogeneous thickness, while the microwave-assisted NPs form a uniform thin layer across the TEM grid. The strongest agglomeration of the SnO2(C) NPs, observed by DLS, STEM and UV-Vis is explained by the very moderate amount of water present on the surface of the NPs identified by FTIR spectroscopy. High resolution STEM combined with SAED and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the crystalline character of the NPs. In the nanoparticles from polyol synthesis, chlorine from the remains of metal precursors during reduction was detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), contrary to the NPs obtained by the chemical precipitation and microwave-assisted methods. All three syntheses routes lead to small, 2-10 nm SnO2 NPs, which were the result of the low concentration of Cl ions in the solutions.